WorldWideScience

Sample records for supermarket chain electronic

  1. Supermarkets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benya, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this paper is efficient lighting for supermarkets. Such project types not only include supermarkets, but also discount groceries, discount drug and drug/general merchandise, and general merchandise stores. The primary problems of lighting are very common among these types of stores, even if specific differences exist. The focus here will be the more upscale Safeway supermarket chain and its lower-end counterpart supermarkets.

  2. Marketing Strategy of Rural Supermarket Chain in Ningxia Based on the Long Tail

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shu-Ping; Zhao, Zhi-hong

    2011-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the Long Tail , the political, economical, social and technological environment for the development of rural supermarket chain in Ningxia is analyzed. The problems in the marketing strategy of Ningxia rural supermarket chain are pointed out, including single products and uneven level of quality, the products, which can not satisfy farmers’ needs; low quality of the personnel and imperfect information system, thus the traditional way of marketing is challenged. I...

  3. Study on Inventory of Supply Chain of Supermarket-oriented Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong; HUO; Xin; SHEN; Zhipeng; Huang

    2013-01-01

    Using principle and method of the system dynamics,this paper takes a qualitative analysis on the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products,and compares with the supply chain of wholesale-oriented agricultural products. Two inventory models are established for these two different modes of supply chain. Through simulation of two models in the case of random demand and quantitative analysis of results,it is found that the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products has smaller fluctuation than that of wholesaler-oriented agricultural products. Besides,both the inventory level and bullwhip effect of above chain are lowered.

  4. Marketing Strategy of Rural Supermarket Chain in Ningxia Based on the Long Tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the Long Tail,the political,economical,social and technological environment for the development of rural supermarket chain in Ningxia is analyzed.The problems in the marketing strategy of Ningxia rural supermarket chain are pointed out,including single products and uneven level of quality,the products,which can not satisfy farmers’ needs;low quality of the personnel and imperfect information system,thus the traditional way of marketing is challenged.In the end,from the perspective of products,position,price,and personnel,the marketing strategies for the development of Ningxia rural supermarket chain based on the Long Tail Theory are put forward.

  5. Supermarket chains heading for one-stop shopping; Supermarktketens onderweg naar one-stopshopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorborg, L. [ed.

    1997-04-01

    Super market chains are large-scale energy consumers, but their connections are scattered. Nevertheless, they would like to have one single energy supplier as soon as possible. Not so much because of the advantages expected from the central purchase of natural gas, but mainly to have one single contact for energy saving projects. Meanwhile, energy contractors have also focused their attention on the supermarket chains. According to supermarket owners, liberalization should result in better services and lower energy prices. And that would be more than welcome in a branch which faces fierce competition and spends 110 million Dutch guilders on energy a year

  6. Learning, Knowing and Controlling the Stock: The Nature of Employee Discretion in a Supermarket Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Alison; Kakavelakis, Kostas; Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick; Unwin, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the relationship between Head Office and stores in a large British supermarket chain. It focuses on the role played by a range of technological tools available for managing the stock and connecting different parts of the productive system and the implications this has for employee learning in stores. The evidence…

  7. Learning, Knowing and Controlling the Stock: The Nature of Employee Discretion in a Supermarket Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Alison; Kakavelakis, Kostas; Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick; Unwin, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the relationship between Head Office and stores in a large British supermarket chain. It focuses on the role played by a range of technological tools available for managing the stock and connecting different parts of the productive system and the implications this has for employee learning in stores. The evidence…

  8. Retail private label’s strategies: A case study in a large brazilian Supermarket chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bulamah Spineli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study approaches the advantages and risks related to private labels under a retailers’ perspective, as well as the private label strategies and its growth in the Brazilian market. The paper analyses the strategies used by a large Brazilian supermarket chain with regards to its private labels’ management, using the case study method. The results showed the existence of two private label lines of products, with different strategies: one line of light products (proprietary brand and another line of products that carry the name of the supermarket under study (retail brand endorsement, both classified as using the fantasy positioning strategy.

  9. Research on Supply Chain Operation of Connecting Agriculture with Supermarkets Based on Agricultural Brokers System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the research results of using relevant knowledge about Game Theory for supply chain of agricultural products at home and abroad,we use principal-agent model in Game Theory to research the new function that the supermarkets entrust supervision and control over quality of agricultural products to agricultural brokers in the circulation model of connecting agriculture with supermarkets;then design the optimal incentive contract and influencing factors between agricultural broker and supermarket,and explain the fundamental role of agricultural brokers in the process of circulation;finally in light of the role of government in promoting development and application of agricultural brokers,put forward corresponding policy suggestions:establish government support policy;set relevant standard of industry;establish cooperative organizations of agricultural brokers.

  10. Vegetable Supply Chains of Supermarkets in Sichuan, China and the Implications for Supply Chain Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Fu, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of supermarkets in the inland province of Sichuan in China over the past decade, with special attention to vegetable products. Both foreign and domestic supermarkets are expanding in the region with different store formats. Five types of vegetable p

  11. Traceability in the food animal industry and supermarket chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, R G

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1950s, consumers in the United Kingdom (UK) have learned to expect cheap, but safe food. A number of incidents in the 1980s and 1990s caused public alarm and loss of confidence in the role of producers and the Government in the food supply. This review examines the impact of recent food scares in the UK, where scrutiny of the food industry has led to the introduction of new controls at all stages of production. Animal feed manufacture, livestock production, slaughter and the use or disposal of animal by-products are now controlled in ways unimagined prior to the identification of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the late 1980s. Traceability has become an important issue for consumers and, by proxy, for the multiple retailers that service consumer needs. Retailers have increasingly managed the food chain to ensure high standards that can be proven by audit. The retailers have also found that a commercial advantage can be gained from certain aspects of source verification. In order to maximise sales in a depressed market, producer groups have themselves developed a multiplicity of assurance schemes.

  12. 农村连锁超市物流策略研究%Research on Rural Supermarket Chain Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳娜; 唐义

    2014-01-01

    超市作为当今发展最迅速的连锁经营业态,代表着流通领域的先进生产力,已成为我国流通领域新的经济增长点。我国连锁超市在农村拓展才刚刚起步,连锁超市在拓展农村市场中不免存在很多问题。针对我国农村连锁超市发展的现状,关于物流方面问题是其发展初期的主要瓶颈。文中针对当前连锁超市在农村市场拓展,物流方面存在的问题进行了分析,从而为连锁超市在制定合理的物流策略方面提出了更多的选择余地。%As of today the fastest growing supermarket chain business conditions,represents the flow field of advanced productive forces,has become a new economic growth point in the field of circulation. Our supermarket chains in rural development has just started,there are many problems inevitably supermarket chain in expanding rural markets. The status quo of China's rural development supermarket chains,on the logistics aspects of the main bottleneck of its early development. In this paper,the current expansion of supermarket chains in the rural market,the existence of logistics problems were analyzed,so as supermarket chains made more reasonable choice in the development of the logistics strategy.

  13. [Social inequities and food: an ecological study of the food sales of a supermarket chain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Sigler, D; Márquez Calderón, S; Colomer Revuelta, C

    1994-01-01

    With the aim of finding out the pattern of food consumption in different socioeconomic areas of the city of Valencia and examining if the sales data from the supermarkets make up an information source which is capable of detecting inequalities and revealing trends, the sales figures of a chain of supermarkets, referring to 10 food products during 1989 and 1990 were studied. Foods were considered as "healthier" (fruit, vegetables, skimmed milk, fresh fish and chicken), "less healthy" (pork, butter and cakes) and foods indicative of a "new style of eating" (pre-cooked frozen foods and frozen food products). The ratio of between "healthier" food sales and sales of "less healthy" foods is directly related to the socio-economic level of the population. The higher the socioeconomic level, the higher, the ratio of proportions of "healthier" and less healthy" food. This pattern was similar for 1989 (2.78 in lower level districts and 3.32 in higher level districts, and in 1990 (2.92 and 4.09 respectively) (p < 0.01). From these results, we deduce the need for developing different activities for the promotion of healthy foods according to social groups.

  14. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.

  15. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; LingKang

    2001-01-01

    Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.  ……

  16. A multi-jurisdiction outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 135 associated with purchasing chicken meat from a supermarket chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Michelle E; Fielding, James E; Telfer, Barbara; Stephens, Nicola; Combs, Barry G; Rice, Belinda A; Fitzsimmons, Gerard J; Gregory, Joy E

    2006-01-01

    A multi-jurisdiction case control study was conducted after an increase of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 135 notifications (a local designated subgroup) was observed throughout Australia. Hypothesis generating interviews conducted in three jurisdictions identified consumption of chicken, eggs, beef and bagged carrots as common among cases and that a high proportion of cases (> 80%) reported purchasing their groceries from a particular supermarket chain (Supermarket A). We conducted a case control study to test whether S. Typhimurium 135 infections were associated with these food items and the purchasing of these products from Supermarket A. The study comprised 61 cases and 173 controls. Cases were younger than controls (p = 0.003) and their distribution by jurisdiction was also significantly different (p Supermarket A (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.2,9.0) or having eaten chicken from a fast food outlet (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.0,7.7) compared to controls. Two positive S. Typhimurium 135 results were obtained through a chicken sampling survey conducted at four Supermarket A stores in Victoria. The results of this study were presented to industry and retail representatives, which facilitated better communication between these groups.

  17. Supermarket Giants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISABEL DING

    2008-01-01

    @@ In the 15 months since Chen Yaochang (陈耀昌) became CEO of Wal-Mart China, the supermarket chain has gone into overdrive. Last year Wal-Mart opened 30 new stores on the Chinese mainland, almost double the rate of growth in 2006.

  18. Analysis:Development Strategy for Chain Supermarkets in Ningbo%宁波市本土连锁超市发展战略探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓燕; 冯革群

    2014-01-01

    With more and more foreign chain supermarkets entering Ningbo, the competition between the domestic and foreign chain supermarkets has been growing intense. How to overcome the disadvantage and get a share in market is worth discussing for local chain supermarkets. This article first analyzes the state in quo in the field and then discusses the development strategies of chain supermarkets in Ningbo.%在外资连锁超市纷纷入驻宁波的今天,宁波连锁超市业已形成了本土与外资对峙的局面。笔者从外部经济、竞争优势、环境趋势3个方面分析了宁波连锁超市发展现状,并探讨了本土连锁超市的发展战略。

  19. 农村连锁超市选址研究%Research on the Site Selection of Rural Chain Supermarket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向隅

    2012-01-01

    According to the actual situation of rural areas, a site selection evaluation model of rural chain supermarket consisting of the indices of natural environment, traffic environment, business environment and public environment was established, and the model was then solved by an improved TOPSIS method. The method provides references for the reasonable site selection of some chain supermarkets in rural areas.%根据农村的实际情况,建立了以自然环境、交通环境、经营环境、公共环境为评价指标的农村连锁超市选址评价模型,并运用改进的TOPSIS方法对模型进行了求解.该方法可为大型超市在农村扩张中合理选择超市地址提供依据.

  20. Different Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何峣杰

    2012-01-01

    There are three big supermarkets in our city. They are Better Life St, permarket, Wangli Supermarket and Jiahui Supermarket. We can buy all kinds of things in the supermarkets. We can buy skirts. T-shirts, fried chicken, bread, backpack and so on.

  1. Averaging over fast variables in the fluid limit for Markov chains: application to the supermarket model with memory

    CERN Document Server

    Luczak, M J

    2010-01-01

    We set out a general procedure which allows the approximation of certain Markov chains by the solutions of differential equations. The chains considered have some components which oscillate rapidly and randomly, while others are close to deterministic. The limiting dynamics are obtained by averaging the drift of the latter with respect to a local equilibrium distribution of the former. Some general estimates are proved under a uniform mixing condition on the fast variable which give explicit error probabilities for the fluid approximation. Mitzenmacher, Prabhakar and Shah \\cite{MPS} introduced a variant with memory of the `join the shortest queue' or `supermarket' model, and obtained a limit picture for the case of a stable system in which the number of queues and the total arrival rate are large. In this limit, the empirical distribution of queue sizes satisfies a differential equation, while the memory of the system oscillates rapidly and randomly. We illustrate our general fluid limit estimate in giving a ...

  2. On Problems and Countermeasures of the Chain Opera-tion of Renrenle Supermarket%人人乐超市连锁经营的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑少华; 夏彭娟

    2015-01-01

    超市连锁经营的业态在我国零售业中存在的历史并不长,却以独特的经营魅力赢得了消费者的喜爱。但是,在目前众多外资超市进入中国市场的前提下,本土超市现状不容乐观。本文主要就人人乐超市连锁经营存在的问题及发展对策展开了分析。%The chain operation of supermarkets has a short history in China' retail industry, but it has gained the favor of customers with its unique charming style of operation. However, under the situation that a large number of foreign supermarkets are swarm-ing into the Chinese supermarket, the current situation of local supermarkets is pessimistic. This paper mainly carries out an analysis on the problems and countermeasures of the chain oper-ation of Renrenle Supermarket.

  3. OLAP在连锁超市中的应用研究%Application of OLAP in chain supermarket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍行素; 熊艰

    2011-01-01

    Some basic conception of OLAP is introduced. Considering the feature and the need of present chain supermarket, a designing method of multi-dimensional analytical way of data warehouse is brought forward, and also a kind of MDX to query and to operate data is given, thus the necessary basis is prepared for the data analyzing of data warehouse.%在OLAP技术的基础上,针对我国大、中型连锁超市的特点,提出了数据仓库多维分析模型设计方法,并用多维立方体查询语言进行数据的查询与操作,为数据仓库的数据分析提供了必要的基础.

  4. Researches on the difficulties and countermeasues of the chained supermarket developing rural market in Fujian%福建省连锁超市开拓农村市场的困难与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹

    2012-01-01

    连锁超市作为最有活力的一种经营业态,在福建有良好的发展土壤,但其开拓农村市场的进程却并不顺利。文章分析了福建省连锁超市开拓农村市场的困难以及可行条件,提出福建省连锁超市开拓农村市场的具体对策。%Chained supermarket is one of the most dynamic mode of operations, there' s a good foundation for the development of chained supermarket in Fujian. This paper analyzed the difficulties and the feasibilities of the chained supermarket developing rural markets, putting fbrward some countermeasues about rural market development for the chained supermarket in Fujian.

  5. Evaluation on Service Quality of Retail Chain Supermarkets%连锁零售超市服务质量的评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭军; 向隅

    2012-01-01

    连锁零售超市的服务质量评价是目前研究的热点,建立科学、合理的服务质量评价体系,可全面客观地揭示用户对连锁零售超市服务质量的评价。结合连锁零售超市管理的实际情况,建立由5个评价要素和25个评价指标组成的连锁零售超市服务质量评价体系,并采用AHM确定各指标权重,运用改进的TOPSIS方法进行评价,从而可为超市管理者提高和改进服务质量提供参考借鉴。%Evaluation on the service quality of retail chain supermarkets is a hot topic at present. Establish- ing a scientific and rational evaluation system of service quality can reveal the comment of customers on the service quality of retail chain supermarkets in a whole and objective way. In terms of the actual situation of retail chain supermarkets, an evaluation system of retail chain supermarket consisting of 5 evaluation elements and 22 evaluation indexes is established with AHM determining the weight of each index and the improved TOPSIS method making assessment, which provides a scientific evaluation method for the management to improve the service quality.

  6. Development of supermarket chains RFID management system and inventory optimization%连锁超市RFID管理系统开发及库存优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗昊; 李仁旺; 朱泽飞; 吴新丽; 饶楚楚

    2011-01-01

    Forsimplifying the processes of supermarket chains about tedious commodity quotatons statistcs, sales statistics, inventory and so on, the convenience and effectiveness about using RFID wireless communication technology in supermarket chains is analyzed.In addition, some researches of the inventory optimization and a mathematical model are given. Then the development of supermarket chains management system and inventory research is achieved based on intemet of things concept. With the commodity procurement and sales situation showed in computer by network timely, all departments can grasp the latest product information to organize work realtime, so that supermarket chains enterprises can achieve a quick, efficient and reliable management.%为了简化连锁超市繁琐的商品报价统计、销售统计、出入库记录等过程,分析了RFID无线通信技术在连锁超市的应用及其方便有效性,并对库存优化技术进行了一定的研究并给出了数学模型,完成了连锁超市RFID管理系统实现.通过网络传输直接显示各商品的采购、销售数量,使各部门及时掌握商品信息,实时安排工作,让连锁超市企业实现更快捷、更高效和更可靠的管理.

  7. Logistics Distribution of Fujian Provincial Rural Area Supermarket Chains%福建省农村连锁超市物流配送研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭阔东; 刘丹

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there are a lot of problems in the logistics distribution of Fujian provincial rural area supermarket chains, which restricts the development of rural area supermarket chains. This paper analyzes the current situation and problems of the logistics distribution of Fujian provincial rural area supermarket chains, studies the basic factors to develop logistics distribution, and poses countermeasures to improve it%福建省是我国经济较为发达的地区之一,随着当地农村经济的发展,农民生活水平的提高,农村连锁超市成为农村零售形式的一种重要的渠道。然而,目前福建省农村连锁超市发展的物流配送存在诸多问题,成为制约农村连锁超市发展的一大瓶颈。本文分析了福建省农村连锁超市物流配送的现状和问题,分析了发展物流配送的基本条件,提出了改善福建农村连锁超市物流配送的对策。

  8. 我国中小型连锁超市物流配送的发展研究%Research on Development of Logistics of Small and Midium-sized Chain Supermarket in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙婷

    2014-01-01

    As the continous development of the chain-store operation, the scale of chain supermarket increasingly develops, which largely depends on the logistics, especially the development of logistics. The distribution model adopted by chain supermarket does not coincide with the actual development of chain supermarket, which is the main barrier in the development of supermarket. By the detailed analysis of advantages and disadvantages of chain supermarket logistics distribution model, this paper proposes the corresponding distribution models to different types of chain supermarket, and solves how to choose logistics distribution models of chain supermarket from the perspective of the management and development strategy of supermarket.%随着我国连锁经营的不断发展,连锁超市的发展规模也越来越大,而连锁超市的大力发展在很大程度上取决于物流特别是物流配送的发展。而目前我国连锁超市所采用的配送模式与连锁超市的实际发展情况不相匹配,成为了阻碍超市发展的主要瓶颈。本文通过对我国连锁超市物流配送模式优缺点进行详细分析,针对不同类型的连锁超市给出了相应的配送模式建议,从超市经营发展的战略高度出发,解决了连锁超市物流配送模式的选择问题。

  9. Research on Optimization of Spatial Layout for Rural Chain Supermarket%农村连锁超市空间布局优化方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦波; 孔慧珍

    2012-01-01

    The optimization model of spatial layout for rural chain supermarket was designed based on trading area theory and data envelopment analysis (DEA) ,which can be used evaluating the service conditions and the efficiency of stores. The model could provide scientific basis for layout adjusting of rural supermarket.%依据商圈理论和数据包络分析方法(DEA)评估区域内服务的需求状况和网点的运营效率,建立了农村连锁超市的空间布局优化模型,以期为区域网点的布局调整提供科学依据.

  10. Analysis of China's Rural Supermarket Chain Logistics Distribution%探析我国农村连锁超市的物流配送

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史纪

    2011-01-01

    连锁经营配送已成为一种现代的流通经营方式和组织形式,也是现代经济发展新的增长点。然而农村连锁经营配送是一个相对于城市物流的概念,它服务于农业生产和农村居民生活的需要。我国农村连锁超市的配送市场才刚刚起步,连锁超市的配送在拓展农村市场中还不完善,仍存在很多的问题。文章针对当前农村连锁超市配送市场中存在的几个主要问题进行了分析,并探讨几条解决问题的途径。%Distribution of chain retail business to become a modern circulation mode of operation and organizational forms,also is the modern new growth point of economic development.However the rural distribution of chain retail business is a relative to the concept of city logistics,it serves for agricultural production and rural residents needs.China's rural supermarket chain distribution market has just started,supermarket chain distribution in expanding the rural market is not perfect,there are still many problems.The article in view of the current rural supermarket chain distribution market in the presence of some problems are analyzed,and to explore the ways to solve the problem.

  11. Supermarket Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, William G.; Bullerwell, Lornie D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity on enzymes. Uses common items found in the supermarket that contain protease enzymes, such as contact lens cleaner and meat tenderizer. Demonstrates the digestion of gelatin proteins as part of enzymatic reactions. (Author/SOE)

  12. Analysis of Supply Chain of Chain Supermarkets in Jiangsu--Take Suguo as an example%江苏省连锁超市供应链分析——以苏果超市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜方桃; 俞丽雅

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, chain supermarkets, as one of the living tacihtles,are closely related to people's lives. There are many chain supermarkets in Jiangsu at present and all of them are in fierce competition. Therefore the study of the supply chain management of supermarkets has become increasingly important. Under this background, with Suguo as an example, this paper tries to discover the problems and analyze the status quo of its supply chain, and further advance solutions to these problems.%当今社会,连锁超市作为生活配套设施之一,和人们的生活息息相关。目前,江苏省内有许多家连锁超市,竞争非常激烈。研究连锁超市供应链,已成为一个非常重要的课题。以此为背景,以苏果超市为例,对超市供应链的现状进行了分析,发现其中问题,并尝试提出相应的解决方案。

  13. Research on Supermarket Chain Distribution Quality Problems%关于连锁超市配送质量问题的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦广明

    2014-01-01

    First this article expounds the supermarket chain distribution center ,logistics,quality management,service quality management ,and other related concepts and theories ,the second describes the supermarket chain distribution center of the present condition of the operation ,puts forward the common problem delivery service ,such as goods damage ,delay in delivery , customer complain ,etc.The third reason for the distribution service quality problems are summarized ,and simply summarized the outsourcing factors ,process and facilities equipped with factors .Article 4 in customer satisfaction as the evaluation main body , establish a supermarket chain distribution center distribution service quality index system .The fifth article put forward to strengthen information automation ,process improvement ,improve outsourcing management and so on to illustrate how to improve the quality management.%文中阐述了连锁超市配送中心、物流质量管理、服务质量管理等相关的概念与理论,描述了连锁超市配送中心目前运营的现状,提出了配送服务普遍存在的问题,如商品破损、交货延迟、顾客抱怨等。并总结了配送服务质量出现问题的原因,简单概括了外包因素、流程因素、设施配备因素等。以顾客满意度为评价主体,建立连锁超市配送中心配送服务质量指标体系。最后提出了流程改善、加强信息自动化、完善外包管理等建议来说明如何提高质量管理。

  14. 基于消费者决策的连锁超市品类管理研究%Research on the Chain Supermarket Category Management Based on Consumer Decision-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林冬辉

    2015-01-01

    连锁超市品类管理是连锁超市基础性和核心性的管理工作,科学的连锁超市品类管理有利于提升消费者满意度,做到对消费者决策的正确引导,实现对连锁超市经济利益和长远发展的保证。以消费者决策机制为中心,在分析消费者决策机制影响因素的基础上,阐述了连锁超市品类管理的概念和理论,提供了从管理意识、结构建设、反馈机制、数据分析等方面建设连锁超市品类管理新体系的建议,为连锁超市进行科学品类管理提供参考。%Category management in supermarket is a supermarket chain based key management,the science of category management in supermarket is conducive to enhancing customer satisfaction and do the correct guide to the consumer decision-making,guarantee to realize the chain supermarket economic interests and long-term development.On the consumer decision-making mechanism as the center,through the analysis of the influencing factors of consumer decision-making mechanism based on,this paper expounds the concept and theory of category management in supermarket,provides for the supermarket chains of science category management to provide the reference from the management consciousness, building structure,feedback mechanism,data analysis and other aspects of the construction of the chain supermarket category management new system is proposed.

  15. 农村连锁超市客户配送体系建设研究%Study on Construction of Rural Chain Supermarket Customer Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉杰

    2012-01-01

    在商务部“万村千乡市场工程”的推动下,我国农村连锁超市有了巨大的发展.农村地区由于受特殊的经济和社会条件限制,对连锁超市的客户配送有着与城市不同的要求.只有建设完善的客户配送体系,农村连锁超市才能不断向纵深发展,创造更多的经济和社会效益.%In this paper we argued that due to the unique economic and social conditions of the rural area, customer distribution of chain supermarkets there are under different requirements as that in the cities and only through building a complete customer distribution system could chain supermarkets in rural areas create more economic and social benefits.

  16. Development of Small Chain Supermarket Cashier System%小型连锁超市收银系统的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵泉

    2015-01-01

    Small chain supermarket cashier system located in small chain supermarket has the functions of system management, shift management, commodity sales, promotion management, payment management, query and so on. This paper determines the sys-tem requirements, studies on the system flow, and discusses on the modules functions and related problems in development process.%小型连锁超市收银系统定位于小型连锁超市,具有系统管理、交接班管理、商品销售、优惠促销管理、支付管理、查询等功能。本文确定了系统需求,研究了系统流程,并对系统各功能模块进行了探讨,同时,对系统开发过程中的相关问题进行了探讨。

  17. A national outbreak of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 associated with consumption of lemon-and-coriander chicken wraps from a supermarket chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, P J; Sopwith, W; Quigley, C; Gillespie, I; Willshaw, G A; Lycett, C; Surman-Lee, S; Baxter, D; Adak, G K; Syed, Q

    2009-03-01

    A national outbreak of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infection affected five English regions and Wales. Twelve cases were associated with lemon-and-coriander chicken wrap from a single supermarket chain consumed over a 5-day period. An outbreak investigation aimed to identify the source of infection. Descriptive epidemiology and phenotypic and genotypic tests on human isolates indicated a point-source outbreak; a case-control study showed a very strong association between consumption of lemon-and-coriander chicken wrap from the single supermarket chain and being a case (OR 46.40, 95% CI 5.39-infinity, P=0.0002). Testing of raw ingredients, products and faecal samples from staff in the food production unit did not yield any positive results. The outbreak was probably caused by one contaminated batch of an ingredient in the chicken wrap. Even when current best practice is in place, ready-to-eat foods can still be a risk for widespread infection.

  18. Supermarket Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2010-01-01

    As soon as they graduate from arm-length viewing in shopping-cart seats, children take off to adventure in aisles, touching just about everything. Kids will pocket fallen signs and lug unusual, empty shelves and packaging materials in hopes of taking them home. Kids recognize and compliment supermarket artists--stock clerks who create container…

  19. Supermarket Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Geoff E.; Harper, John D. I.

    2009-01-01

    Supermarket Botany is a frequently-used teaching resource or strategy. It draws on a student's existing familiarity with plant-based foods to explore plant structure and life cycles. One of its strongest points is that it is adaptable to many age levels--from lower primary school to university and general interest groups. We have designed a unique…

  20. 中小型城市本地连锁超市发展趋势与应对策略探讨%On development trend and countermeasures of small and medium city local supermarket chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶锐

    2012-01-01

      The small and medium city supermarket retail industry is facing a massive industry tycoon marchs, local supermarket chain urgently transition and change. First in the small city of local supermarket chain SWOT analysis, on the basis, analysis of small and medium city supermarket retail industry trends, and based on the development trend put forward to coping strategies the supermarket chain in all aspects.%  中小型城市的超市零售业正在面临大规模的行业巨头进军,本地连锁超市亟待转型与变革。首先对中小型城市本地连锁超市进行SWOT分析,在此基础上分析中小型城市超市零售业的行业发展趋势,并依据发展趋势提出本地连锁超市在各方面的应对策略。

  1. Electronic properties of aperiodic quantum dot chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotaev, P. Yu.; Vekilov, Yu. Kh.; Kaputkina, N. E.

    2012-04-01

    The electronic spectral and transport properties of aperiodic quantum dot chains are investigated. The systems with singular continuous energy spectrum are considered: Thue-Morse chain, double-periodic chain, Rudin-Shapiro chain. The influence of electronic energy in quantum dot on the spectral properties, band structure, density of states and spectral resistivity, is discussed. Low resistivity regions correspond to delocalized states and these states could be current states. Also we discuss the magnetic field application as the way to tune electronic energy in quantum dot and to obtain metallic or insulating conducting states of the systems.

  2. 基于连锁超市的包装废弃物回收模型%Recycling Model of Waste Packaging Materials for Chain Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇; 邱丽艳

    2013-01-01

    阐述了包装废弃物回收的意义,基于资源整合与共享的理论思想,提出连锁超市的回收模式,即基于连锁超市的配送体系,在连锁超市合理选址的基础上,依超市建立回收站点,集中回收可再利用的包装;充分利用配送中心的网络资源,建立以达到降低物流成本,实现资源再利用为目的的模型.最后用模糊综合评价法对其进行了评价.%In this paper, we introduced the significance of the recycling of waste packaging materials and on the basis of the ideas of resource integration and sharing, proposed the recycling model of the chain supermarkets, which, on the basis of the reasonable location of the supermarkets, recycled reusable packaging materials in a centralized way and made full use of the network resource of the distribution centers to reduce logistics cost and realize resource reclamation. At the end, we evaluated the model using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method.

  3. 小型连锁超市卖场管理系统的开发%The Development of the Management System of Small Chain Supermarket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵泉

    2015-01-01

    The management system of small supermarket chain supermarket is composed of system management,patrol management,store layout management,commodity management,commodity management,emergency management,statistical query and so on.The system focuses on the layout of the goods in the store and the daily management of the goods.In this paper,the function modules are discussed,and the related issues of the system development process are discussed.%小型连锁超市卖场管理系统主要由系统管理、巡视管理、卖场布局管理、商品排架管理、商品管理、应急处理、统计查询等模块构成.系统侧重于商品在卖场的布局以及对商品的日常管理.本文对各功能模块进行了探讨,并对系统开发过程中的相关问题进行了探讨.

  4. 基于供应链的新型煤炭超市运营模式研究%Research on operation pattern of new coal supermarket based upon supply chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树; 朱莲美

    2015-01-01

    Coal supermarkets with coal products play a vital strategic position in coal market-ing system,not only optimize configuration of resources and transportation capability,but also have value-added function. According to building procedure of coal supermarket supply chain,the authors systematic studied on business modes,products and services of new coal supermarkets base upon supply chain. From the angle of supply chain to learn coal supermarket which benefi-ted to learn the vital position of coal supermarkets in the whole supply chain from macro logistic level;from the angle of coal supermarkets'specific business modes which benefited to learn the business advantages of coal supermarkets and other business modes from micro logistic level. Combining the two methods together,the paper showed the correct layout and specific business modes of new coal supermarkets in current coal logistic market.%以煤为商品的煤炭超市在煤炭运销系统中有着重要的战略地位,不仅能优化资源、运力的配置,而且具有增值功能。通过构建煤炭超市供应链流程,对基于供应链的新型煤炭超市的商业模式、业务模式、产品和服务进行系统研究。从供应链角度对煤炭超市进行研究,有利于从宏观物流层面了解煤炭超市在整个供应链环节中所处的重要位置;从煤炭超市具体运营模式角度来研究,有利于从微观物流层面了解煤炭超市与其他煤炭经销方式的运营优势。两者的有机结合,更全面地展示了新型煤炭超市在当前煤炭物流市场的正确布局及具体运作模式。

  5. “农超对接”供应链运作模式研究%Study on Operational Mode of Farmland-supermarket Direct Docking Supply Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永钊

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we pointed out some of the bottlenecks of the operational modes of the farmland-supermarket direct docking practice in China, introduced some of the classis modes, and at the end, through analyzing the supply chain mode of the practice, proposed the measures for its optimization.%指出了我国发展“农超对接”运作模式面临的一些瓶颈,提出了几种典型的“农超对接”运作模式,最后通过对“农超对接”的供应链模式分析,提出了实施农产品供应链优化的措施。

  6. Electronic structure of heterocyclic ring chain polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocks, Geert; Tol, Arie

    1999-01-01

    The band gaps, ionization potentials and electron affinities of conjugated chain polymers comprising heterocyclic aromatic rings are studied systematically as a function of atomic substitutions with N, O and S using first principles density functional calculations.

  7. The electronic properties of a Fibonacci chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ketabi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available  Using a tight-binding model and transfer-matrix technique, as well as Lanczos algorithm, we numerically investigate the nature of the electronic states and electron transmission in site, bond and mixing Fibonacci model chains. We rely on the Landauer formalism as the basis for studying the conduction properties of these systems. Calculating the Lyapunov exponent, we also study the localization properties of electronic eigenstates in the Fibonacci chains. The focus is on the significance of the relationship between the transmission spectra and the nature of the electronic states. Our results show that, in contrast to Anderson’s localization theorem, in the Fibonacci chains the electronic states are non-localized and the transparent states occurr near the Fermi level.

  8. 互联网+时代中小型连锁超市营销策略探析%The Research of Marketing Strategies of Small-medium Sized Chain Supermarket in Internet+Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈声廉

    2016-01-01

    Small -medium sized chain supermarket has attempted touse Internet operators to change the marketing strategies to meet the needs of consumers in“internet +”era.This paper analyzes the existingmarketing strategy issues of small-medium sized chain supermarket,to explore the application of marketing strategiesof small-medium sized chain supermarketin the “internet+”era.%在“互联网+”时代,中小型连锁超市尝试借助互联网运营,转变营销策略,满足消费者的需求。文中分析中小型连锁超市营销策略存在的问题,探讨“互联网+”时代中小型连锁超市营销策略的运用。

  9. The Electron Transport Chain: An Interactive Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Chris; Choun, James

    2014-01-01

    This activity provides students an interactive demonstration of the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis during aerobic respiration. Students use simple, everyday objects as hydrogen ions and electrons and play the roles of the various proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane to show how this specific process in cellular…

  10. The Electron Transport Chain: An Interactive Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Chris; Choun, James

    2014-01-01

    This activity provides students an interactive demonstration of the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis during aerobic respiration. Students use simple, everyday objects as hydrogen ions and electrons and play the roles of the various proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane to show how this specific process in cellular…

  11. Doping Scheme in Atomic Chain Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshishige, Yamada

    1997-01-01

    Due to the dramatic reduction in MOS size, there appear many unwanted effects. In these small devices, the number of dopant atoms in the channel is not macroscopic and electrons may suffer significantly different scattering from device to device since the spatial distribution of dopant atoms is no longer regarded as continuous. This prohibits integration, while it is impossible to control such dopant positions within atomic scale. A fundamental solution is to create electronics with simple but atomically precise structures, which could be fabricated with recent atom manipulation technology. All the constituent atoms are placed as planned, and then the device characteristics are deviation-free, which is mandatory for integration. Atomic chain electronics belongs to this category. Foreign atom chains or arrays form devices, and they are placed on the atomically flat substrate surface. We can design the band structure and the resultant Fermi energy of these structures by manipulating the lattice constant. Using the tight-binding theory with universal parameters, it has been predicted that isolated Si chains and arrays are metallic, Mg chains are insulating, and Mg arrays have metallic and insulating phases [1]. The transport properties along a metallic chain have been studied, emphasizing the role of the contact to electrodes [2]. For electronic applications, it is essential to establish a method to dope a semiconducting chain, which is to control the Fermi energy position without altering the original band structure. If we replace some of the chain atoms with dopant atoms randomly, the electrons will see random potential along die chain and will be localized strongly in space (Anderson localization). However, if we replace periodically, although the electrons can spread over the chain, there will generally appear new bands and band gaps reflecting the new periodicity of dopant atoms. This will change the original band structure significantly. In order to overcome

  12. New End Markets, Supermarket Expansion, and Shifting Social Standards

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Northern supermarket chains have internationalized rapidly and Southern supermarket chains have expanded their footprint in emerging markets. As they have done so, questions have arisen about the impact of such supermarkets and the extent of consumer demand for social standards (labour standards and fair trade). While standards have been more (or less) codified in their Northern counterparts over recent decades, it remains an empirical question whether –and if so how—they...

  13. 我国连锁超市物流运作中的“三低”问题及解决方案%Solution to"Three Low"Problem in Logistics Operation of Chinese Chain Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗琪

    2014-01-01

    系统分析我国连锁超市物流运作中存在的统一配送率低、物流作业水平低和信息化水平低的“三低”问题以及其成因,在此基础上提出了提高我国连锁超市物流运作能力的相关策略,以推动连锁超市物流运作效率的提升。%In this paper, we analyzed systematically the low distribution efficiency, low operation level and low information level of the logistics process of the chain supermarkets in China, and on such basis proposed the relevant strategy to improve the logistics operation capacity of the Chinese chain supermarkets.

  14. 沃尔玛自有品牌开发对中国本土连锁超市的启示%Insight for Chinese Native Chain Supermarket from Development of Self-owned Brands by Wal-mart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉娟; 宋玉卿

    2012-01-01

    In view of the many problems in the development process of the self-owned brands of the Chinese native chain supermarkets, we borrowed the successful experience of the development of self—owned brands of Wal-mart and proposed the strategy for the development of self-owned brands by Chinese native chain supermarkets.%针对我国本土连锁超市自有品牌的发展过程中存在的诸多问题,借鉴了沃尔玛自有品牌的成功经验,并提出了适合我国本土连锁超市自有品牌开发的策略,具有较强的现实意义.

  15. 中小型连锁超市优化品类管理的途径研究%On the Way of Optimizing the Category Management in the Small and Medium-sized Supermarket Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童国良

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes and researches the problems of the category management in the small and medium-sized supermarket chains and puts forward the reasonable measures.%本文主要针对当前中小型连锁超市品类管理中存在的问题进行分析和研究,并提出了合理化对策。

  16. Research on the Application of Spatial Classification in Site Selection of Chain Supermarket%空间分类在连锁超市选址中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉; 周志富

    2011-01-01

    空间数据挖掘是一种知识决策支持技术,本文以大型综合连锁超市为例,研究了空间分类挖掘方法在连锁超市选址预测中的应用问题。结合连锁超市定位理论,对实验数据进行了选择和处理。同时进行了基于关联的分类实验,得到指导和预测选址的知识,并对预测知识的准确性和可信度进行了检验,结果显示预测准确率和可信度较高。本文制定的挖掘方案可为连锁超市选址预测提供可靠的智能支持。%Spatial data mining is a knowledge decision support technology.It takes large miscellaneous chain supermarket as example and studies the application of spatial data mining in site selection prediction of chain supermarket.With the guide of chain supermarket locating theory,experimental data is selected and processed.Then classification based on association is done and the knowledge used to guide and predict site selection is gotten.Then the nicety and reliability of the knowledge is verified and the result is satisfying.So the spatial data mining scheme set down in this paper can offer credible intelligent support for site selection prediction of chain supermarket.

  17. Averaging over fast variables in the fluid limit for Markov chains: Application to the supermarket model with memory

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We set out a general procedure which allows the approximation of certain Markov chains by the solutions of differential equations. The chains considered have some components which oscillate rapidly and randomly, while others are close to deterministic. The limiting dynamics are obtained by averaging the drift of the latter with respect to a local equilibrium distribution of the former. Some general estimates are proved under a uniform mixing condition on the fast variable which give explicit ...

  18. 基于RFID的物流管理理论在农村连锁超市发展中的应用研究%Development of Rural Supermarket Chains Based on the RFID Logistics Management Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董孙德

    2012-01-01

    Based on the successful experience of other supermarket chains, a rural supermarket chains logistics system was constructed with the RFID logistics distribution theory and method as well as modern information technology, the problems in the present logistics distribution of rural supermarket chains were summarized,and some suggestions were proposed,for example,to establish a stable and perfect supplier services network , actively improve the distributing efficiency, effectively reduce the costs, try to explore an innovative network distribution pattern, and improve the overall level of delivery persons through training.%通过借鉴其他连锁超市的成功经验,运用基于RFID的物流配送管理理论和方法以及现代信息技术构建农村连锁超市物流系统,总结当前农村连锁超市的物流配送中存在的问题,并提出对策建议:建立稳定完善的供应商服务网络;大力提高配送效率,有效降低成本;勇于创新,探索网络式配送模式;通过培训提升配送人员的整体水平.

  19. 基于B2 M模式的城镇连锁超市商业模式研究%Based on the Pattern of B2M Town Supermarket Chain Business Model Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立鑫; 刘丙午; 李俊韬

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,with the vigorous development of the economy,under the background of gradually improvement of urbanization level,to carry out the supermarket chain business model of urbanization conditions has matured.However,because of the special background of urbanization,the economic developed area supermarket chain business model cannot be applied to general town city development.So in this paper,a special background,combining existing business model and rural environment, put forward appropriate B2M supermarket chain mode of urbanization development,and the model systematic analysis and research.%近年来,随着经济的蓬勃发展,在城镇化水平逐渐提高的背景下,开展城镇化连锁超市的商业模式的条件日渐成熟。然而由于城镇化的特殊背景,经济发达地区的连锁超市商业模式无法应用于普通城镇城市发展。因此就这一特殊背景,将现有商业模式与乡镇环境相结合,提出适宜城镇化发展的连锁超市B2 M模式,并就这一模式进行系统性分析研究。

  20. Electron transport chains of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are generally considered facultative anaerobic obligate fermentative bacteria. They are unable to synthesize heme. Some lactic acid bacteria are unable to form menaquinone as well. Both these components are cofactors of respiratory (electron transport) chains of prokaryotic bact

  1. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  2. The development of contract management system for small supermarket chain%小型连锁超市合同管理系统的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵泉

    2014-01-01

    this system is suitable for small supermarket chain, mainly is the management of the contract as a whole. Its main functions include data management, contract contract contractauthority control, cost management, contract management, contract management, pricemanagement, contract follow-up contract, contract management and statistical analysis ofevaluation system of management. The system has friendly interface, intuitive, simple operation,system of multi-level permissions management can ensure the data security and reliability.%本系统适用于小型连锁超市,主要是从总体上对合同进行管理。其主要功能包括合同资料管理、合同权限控制、合同成本管理、合同价格管理、合同审批管理、合同跟进管理、合同统计分析、合同评价管理以及系统管理等。本系统界面友好、直观,操作简便,系统中的多级权限管理等也可以保证数据的安全可靠。

  3. 大城市内部连锁超市空间分布格局及其区位选择——以南京市苏果超市为例%Spatial pattern and location decision of chain supermarkets within large cities:A case study of Suguo supermarkets in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琛; 陈雯; 袁丰; 程绍铂

    2013-01-01

    连锁超市已成为中国大城市内部零售商业的主要业态.针对目前研究中对城市内部尺度连锁超市空间布局问题关注不足,本文以南京市苏果超市为例,从空间格局演化、集聚分布状况、不同类型超市的区位选择等方面进行分析.研究方法包括点模式分析、空间密度分析和空间自相关分析等.结果发现:南京市苏果超市的空间总体分布呈中心到外围递减的倒“U”型集聚特征;不同类型苏果超市的分布特征不同,华润卖场的空间分布相对分散,社区店、便利店的分布相对集聚;空间分布热点呈蔓延扩散与等级扩散混合模式.运用Binary Logistic二分逻辑回归对影响超市区位选择的因素进行计量分析,结果表明经济发展情况、消费者规模、交通通达性、居民购买力、城乡差别、公司战略等多种因素,通过综合作用机制,共同推动了南京市苏果超市的空间分布格局.%Chain supermarkets have been main formats of retail business within large cities of China. Current studies pay little attention to spatial distribution of chain supermarkets on the scale of internal city. Taking Suguo supermarkets in Nanjing as an example, this paper focuses on spatial pattern evolution, agglomeration, and location decisions of different types of supermarkets using research methods including point pattern analysis, space density analysis and spatial autocorrelation analysis. The results show that Suguo supermarkets present an inverted-U-shaped pattern with the mode of extending to the surrounding area around the core of the downtown area. Different types of supermarkets present different distribution characteristics. Resource stores are relatively disperse while community and convenience stores are relatively concentrated. The spatial distribution of hot spots shows a mixed mode of spreading diffusion within the main city and hierarchical diffusion from the main city to the suburbs

  4. 连锁超市行业商务软件功能问题及其涉税分析%On Functions and Tax Analysis of Business Software in Chain Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍冬凤

    2012-01-01

    Chain supermarkets have been developing rapidly due to their powerful and efficient sever(backstage)/POS(front end) of computer network marketing management system.However,almost all the business software of the supermarkets has installed tax-avoidance function or other supplementary designs to uncover the sales revenue to avoid tax.The thesis,by displaying the functions of the software,discusses the methods and measures to reform and improve the management of the business software in large chain supermarkets.%型连锁超市因其强大而高效的服务器(后台)/POS机(前端)计算机网络销售管理系统而得以飞速发展.然而超市行业电子商务管理系统几乎都是在软件中隐藏添加了避税模块或者加载一些辅助设计,以达到隐瞒销售收入逃避税款目的.本文通过演示软件的实际功能来探讨改革与完善大型连锁超市商务软件管理的对策.

  5. Optimization of Logistics Cost Control Strategies of Small-and-medium-sized Chain Supermarkets%中小连锁超市物流成本控制与优化策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘薇; 李靖; 王月华

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, through analyzing the current status and issues of the logistics cost of the Chinese small-and-medium-sized chain supermarkets and in view of the influence of logistics cost on these supermarkets, established the three-path optimization model of the logistics cost control of the chain supermarket. Then we introduced the three paths in detail and at the end compared their effectiveness.%通过分析我国当前中小连锁超市的物流成本现状与问题,根据物流成本对连锁超市的影响,构建了三条连锁超市的物流成本控制与优化路径,即建立大区域和小区域网络化的超市物流协作系统;建立针对超市的高速专业化的物流体系,以实现大区域和小区域中小连锁超市的物流外包;建立扁平的货物配送体系,简化超市物流层次。通过这三条路径,可以全面优化超市的物流线路,大幅度降低中小连锁超市的物流成本。

  6. 广西大型连锁超市物流配送模式研究%Study on Logistics Distribution Mode of Large-scale Chain Supermarkets in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梅

    2013-01-01

    首先分析了广西大型连锁超市的物流需求特点,接着阐述了广西大型连锁超市物流配送的主要模式和典型超市的物流配送现状,针对广西大型连锁超市的物流配送现状,分析了其在配送能力建设、集中采购与配送、配送管理方式等方面的问题与不足,提出了采取各大型连锁超市联合共同配送的模式,并指出采取这一模式中需要解决的关键问题.%In this paper, we first analyzed the characteristic of the logistics demand of large-scale chain supermarkets in Guangxi. then introduced the major logistics distribution modes in practice as well as the current situation in this respect of a typical supermarket, and accordingly studied the problems in construction of distribution capacity, centralized purchasing and distribution, and method of distribution management, etc. At the end, we proposed that the large-scale chain supermarkets should adopt joint distribution to address these problems and pointed out key issues worth attention in the mode.

  7. Electronic bistability in linear beryllium chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Wissam; Monari, Antonio; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry

    2009-04-30

    A theoretical investigation on the mixed-valence behavior (bistability) of a series of cationic linear chains composed of beryllium atoms, Be(N)(+) (with N = 6,..., 12), is presented. The calculations were performed at CAS-SCF and MR-CI levels by using an ANO basis set containing 6s4p3d2f orbitals for each atom. Our results show a consistent gradual shift between different classes of mixed-valence compounds as the number of beryllium atoms increases, from class III strong coupling toward class II valence trapped. Indeed, in the largest cases (N > 10), the cationic chains were found to be closer to class I, where the coupling vanishes. The intramolecular electron transfer parameters V(ab), E(a), and E(opt) were calculated for each atomic chain. It is shown that the decrease of V(ab) with increasing N follows an exponential pattern.

  8. 陕西农村连锁超市存在的问题及对策研究%Existing Problems in Rural Supermarket Chain in Shaanxi Province and Its Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷婧

    2014-01-01

    As a new mode, the chain store entered China for a short time, but it developed rapidly and has huge potential. As a new target for chain store, the rural market has huge potential. The article analyzed the developing status quo of rural supermarket chain in Shaanxi province at first. Then, according to the problems in purchasing power and consuming attitudes of customers and in management, service and scale of rural supermarket chain, the developing advantages of rural supermarket chain in Shaanxi province were pointed out, and some suggestions were put forward, such as developing and realizing information management, developing rural consuming group, accelerating construction of distribution center , fostering management talents, and realizing standardized management method in each store.%连锁经营模式作为一种新型的模式,进入我国的时间不长,但发展迅速且有较大发展潜力。农村市场作为连锁经营模式开辟的新领域,市场潜能巨大。分析了陕西农村连锁超市发展现状,针对消费者购买力和消费观念的问题,以及连锁超市自身存在的管理、服务和规模方面的问题,指出了陕西连锁超市在农村的发展优势,提出了连锁企业应实行信息化管理、大力发展农村消费群体、加快超市物流配送中心的建设、积极培养连锁经营管理人才和实现连锁门店规范化管理方式等建议。

  9. Dynamics of the supermarket model

    CERN Document Server

    MacPhee, I M; Vachkovskaia, M

    2010-01-01

    We consider the long term behaviour of a Markov chain \\xi(t) on \\Z^N based on the N station supermarket model. Different routing policies for the supermarket model give different Markov chains. We show that for a general class of local routing policies, "join the least weighted queue" (JLW), the N one-dimensional components \\xi_i(t) can be partitioned into disjoint clusters C_k. Within each cluster C_k the "speed" of each component \\xi_j converges to a constant V_k and under certain conditions \\xi is recurrent in shape on each cluster. To establish these results we have assembled methods from two distinct areas of mathematics, semi-martingale techniques used for showing stability of Markov chains together with the theory of optimal flows in networks. As corollaries to our main result we obtain the stability classification of the supermarket model under any JLW policy and can explicitly compute the C_k and V_k for any instance of the model and specific JLW policy.

  10. Otimizando a capacidade de crescimento numa cadeia produtiva supermercadista Optimizing growth capacity in a supermarket productive chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Romani de Campos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, investigam-se as vantagens econômicas (e as ações necessárias para obtê-las que surgem para as cadeias de suprimentos que adotam o Efficient Consumer Response (ECR. As diretrizes são obtidas a partir das condições de otimalidade de um modelo dinâmico. O instrumental é utilizado para modelar uma cadeia de suprimentos que adote o ECR. Com isto busca-se determinar os impactos da adoção do ECR sobre a adequação da gestão financeira das empresas e as conseqüências sobre a estrutura do setor supermercadista. Evidenciam-se também as inter-relações entre os diversos aspectos que devem ser levados em conta na implantação de uma parceria de suprimentos.This paper investigates the economic advantages, which appear to the supply chains that adopt the Efficient Consumer Response (ECR, and also the actions needed to obtain those advantages. The guidelines are found in a dynamic model and its optimality conditions. The instrumental is used to model a supply chain that adopts the ECR. The purpose is to determine the impacts on the financial management and on the structure of the retail market that arise with the ECR adoption. It's shown up the inter-relations among the several aspects that must be considered in the implementation of a supply partnership.

  11. 本土连锁超市企业自有品牌发展战略探析%The Research of Domestic Supermarket Chain's Private Brand Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕莲; 朱永伟

    2012-01-01

    开发自有品牌已成为国内外连锁超市的发展趋势,连锁超市的自有品牌商品在国外市场的发展已经日趋成熟,而中国本土连锁超市自有品牌还处于发展的较低阶段。中国本土连锁超市需重视自有品牌商品,制定适合自己的自有品牌发展战略。%Private brand has become the development trend of domestic and foreign supermarket chain.This paper studies the practice of foreign supermarkets in building their private brands in domestic and oversea market,discussing their merits and conditions.Finally,the paper suggests that domestic supermarkets should take the building of private brand seriously and work out a practical strategy for private brand development.

  12. 农超对接模式下农产品供应链风险因素分析%Analyzing Risk Factors of Produce-Supply Chain in the Farmer-Supermarket Direct Purchase Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽; 王成付

    2016-01-01

    The operation of supply chain in the farmer -supermarket direct purchase mode has developed rapid-ly.However, many risk factors threaten the efficient operation of the whole system .Firstly, we divided the sup-ply chain process of farmer -supermarket direct purchase into six stages .Secondly , contract risk , supervision and guidance risk , logistics risk and information sharing risk are extracted from these segmentation stages .Fi-nally, suggestions of standard setting, legal construction , farmers'upgrading ability , farm cooperation transfor-mation, cold chain logistics'systematic investment and the construction of information platform are presented .I-dentification and prevention of the risk indicates the direction for further improvement of farmer -supermarket direct purchase .%农超对接供应链业务发展迅速,但诸多风险因素严重威胁着系统整体的高效运作。文章首先将农超对接供应链流程细分为六大阶段;然后基于各细分阶段提取出合约风险、监督指导风险、物流风险和信息共享风险几大类风险因素;最后在标准设定、法律建设、农户能力提升、合作社改造、冷链物流体系投资、信息平台建设等方面提出相关建议。识别与预防相关风险为进一步提高农超对接精细化运作水平指明了方向。

  13. Research on the Marketing Strategy of Rural Supermarket Chain in Ningxia Based on the Long Tail Theory%基于长尾理论的宁夏农村连锁超市营销策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑萍; 赵智宏

    2011-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the Long Tail Theory, the political, economical, social and technological environmem for the development of rural supermarket chain in Ningxia is analyzed. The problems in the marketing strategy of Ningxia rural supermarket chain are pointed out, including single products and uneven level of quality, the products, which can not satisfy farmers' needs; low quality of the personnel and imperfect information system, thus the traditional way of marketing is challenged. In the end, from the perspective of products, position, price,and personnel, the marketing strategies for the development of Ningxia rural supermarket chain based on the Long Tail Theory are put forward.%在介绍长尾理论的基础上,分析了宁夏农村连锁超市发展过程中的政治、经济、社会、技术环境.指出了宁夏农村连锁超市营销现状中存在的问题,分别是:产品品种单一,质量参差不齐,不能真正满足农民的需求;人员素质不高,信息化系统不完善;传统的营销模式受到挑战.最后从产品、定位、价格、物流配送渠道、人员5个方面提出了基于长尾理论的宁夏农村连锁超市营销对策.

  14. Exploring on Optimizing Direct Procurement of Fresh Food in Yonghui Chain Supermarket%优化永辉连锁超市生鲜食品直接采购模式的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菡卿

    2015-01-01

    Direct procurement of fresh food reforms traditional supply chain of fresh food, and it shortens the time of circulation, reduces procurement costs and ensures food safety. Therefore, research on direct procurement of fresh food is important to supermarkets and else. In this paper, the author analyzes the composition of Yonghui Supermarket's direct procurement of fresh food, expounds the key factors of its success are direct procurement mode, professional buyer team, procurement facilities, background supply chain and logistics center. On this basis, the author puts forward suggestions on optimizing direct procurement of fresh food of supermarket from the aspects of standardization, branding and processing chain of origin.%生鲜食品直接采购模式改革了传统生鲜食品的供应链,缩短了流通时间,降低了采购成本,保证了食品安全,研究生鲜食品直接采购模式对超市业等有着重要的意义。该文通过分析永辉超市生鲜食品采购模式的构成,阐明其成功因素为直接采购模式组合、专业采购团队、采购设备、后台供应链以及物流中心,并以此为基础,从标准化、品牌化、原产地加工链等方面对优化超市业生鲜食品采购模式提出了建议。

  15. Developing GAP Training for Growers: Perspectives from Pennsylvania Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Daniel; Thomson, Joan; LaBorde, Luke; Bagdonis, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Major supermarket chains increasingly are requiring their produce suppliers to provide evidence of compliance with on-farm food safety standards, known as Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). To develop a relevant GAP training curriculum that meets the needs of Pennsylvania growers, supermarkets that operate in the state were surveyed to determine…

  16. 中小型连锁超市的物流系统及其优化对策研究%The Logistics System of Medium and Small Chain Supermarkets and its Optimizing Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭平宁; 张玉忠

    2014-01-01

    中小型连锁超市是一种新型的商业零售业态,规模正日益扩大,但其在采购、库存、配送模式、绩效评价等方面存在很多问题,而提高配送中心物流绩效是中小型连锁超市妥善运营的关键。首先,该文分析中小型连锁超市物流系统的现状、常见问题及其原因;然后,对中小型连锁超市适用的几种配送模式,及各种模式所需条件和优缺点进行了介绍;最后,探究如何提高配送中心物流绩效,针对采购管理、库存管理、信息系统等方面的问题,提出改进方案,并提出以 AHP和模糊综合评价结合的方法评价配送中心的物流绩效。%Medium and small chain supermarket is a new type of commercial retail formats,and the scale is widening,but there are still many problems in purchasing,storage,the distribution mode and per-formance evaluation.Improving logistics performance of the distribution center is the key factor which de-cides whether medium and small chain supermarket can run properly or not.First,in this paper we analyze the present situation,common problems about distribution center of medium and small chain supermarket. Then,we introduce several distribution modes which apply to the distribution center for medium and small chain supermarket,and the required conditions,advantages and disadvantages for various kinds of patterns. Finally,we explore how to improve the logistics performance of distribution center,and put forward the improved plan according to the problems existing in purchasing management,inventory management and information system.A method of combining the AHP and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation has been proposed to evaluate the logistics performance of distribution center.

  17. 连锁超市生鲜农产品物流配送模式选择分析%Selection Analysis of Logistics Distribution Mode of Fresh Agricultural Product of the Chain Supermarket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓琳; 王新利

    2012-01-01

    选择适合的生鲜农产品配送模式,是连锁超市降低物流成本,提高物流配送效率的关键。针对连锁超市生鲜农产品业务的快速发展与其盲目选择物流配送模式的矛盾现状,采用AHP和模糊综合评判法为研究方法,构建连锁超市生鲜农产品配送模式的评判决策指标体系,用AHP法确定指标权重,克服了模糊综合评判法的缺陷,建立评判矩阵并进行综合评判,选取有代表性的6家连锁超市进行实证研究,验证决策方法的实际应用性,对各项指标评判得分进行具体分析,得出每种配送模式的指标成因及适用性。%Selecting suitable fresh agricultural products distribution mode was the key reducing logistics cost of the chain supermarket and improving logistics efficiency. According to the contradictory situation of the rapid development and the blind choice of logistics distribution mode of the chain supermarket fresh agricultural products, using AHP and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation as the research method to build the evaluation index system chain of fresh agricultural product of supermarket distribution model. AHP method was used to determine index weight, the defects of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was overcome to set up the evaluation matrix and comprehensive evaluation. 6 typical chain supermarkets were selected for empirical research to verify practical application of decision method and the specific analysis of various indicators evaluation scores obtained indicator causes and applicability of each kind of distribution mode.

  18. Supermarket Choice, Shopping Behavior, Socioeconomic Status, and Food Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Both SES and supermarket choice have been associated with diet quality. This study aimed to assess the contributions of supermarket choice and shopping behaviors to the healthfulness of purchases and social patterning in purchases. Observational panel data on purchases of fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages from 2010 were obtained for 24,879 households, stratified by occupational social class (analyzed in 2014). Households' supermarket choice was determined by whether they ever visited market-defined high- or low-price supermarkets. Analyses also explored extent of use within supermarket choice groups. Shopping behaviors included trip frequency, trip size, and number of store chains visited. Households using low-price (and not high-price) supermarkets purchased significantly lower percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables and higher percentages of energy from less-healthy foods/beverages than households using high-price (and not low-price) supermarkets. When controlling for SES and shopping behaviors, the effect of supermarket choice was reduced but remained significant for both fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages. The extent of use of low- or high-price supermarkets had limited effects on outcomes. More-frequent trips and fewer small trips were associated with healthier purchasing for both outcomes; visiting more store chains was associated with higher percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables. Although both supermarket choice and shopping behaviors are associated with healthfulness of purchases, neither appears to contribute to socioeconomic differences. Moreover, differences between supermarket environments may not be primary drivers of the relationship between supermarket choice and healthfulness of purchases. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Connecting agriculture with supermarkets Research on Supply Chain Operation of Connecting Agriculture with Supermarkets Based on Agricultural Brokers System%基于农业经纪人制度的“农超对接”供应链运作研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡司阳; 方炫; 王翥; 浦徐进

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the research results of using relevant knowledge about Game Theory for supply chain of agricultural products at home and abroad, we use principal-agent model in Game Theory to research the new function that the supermarkets entrust supervision and control over quality of agricultural products to agricultural brokers in the circulation model of connecting agriculture with supermarkets; then design the optimal incentive contract and influencing factors between agricultural broker and supermarket, and explain the fundamental role of agricultural brokers in the process of circulation; finally in light of the role of government in promoting development and application of agricultural brokers, put forward corresponding policy suggestions: establish government support policy; set relevant standard of industry ; establish cooperative organizations of agricultural brokers.%在概述国内外将博弈论相关知识运用于农产品供应链研究的基础上,运用博弈论中的委托一代理模型,对在“农超对接”的流通模式中超市委托农业经纪人对农产品质量进行监督、控制的这一新职能进行了研究;然后设计了农业经纪人与超市之间的最优激励合同及影响因素,并说明了农业经纪人在流通过程中起到的巨大作用;最后对政府在推动农业经纪人的发展与应用中可发挥的作用提出了建立政府扶持政策、制定相关的行业标准和建立农业经纪人合作组织等相关政策建议.

  20. 基于农超对接模式下农产品供应链存在的问题及对策%Problems and Countermeasures of Agricultural Product Supply Chain Based on Mode of Connecting Agriculture with Supermarket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧娟; 赵婷婷; 张茂

    2013-01-01

    With the promotion of people's living level,the requirement of consumers for fresh produce is enlarging as well,and the traditional mode of agricultural products supply chain cannot completely meet consumers’ request for farm produce such as safety,timely,health etc,modern agricultural products supply chain with the center of supermarket arises at the historic moment.Comparison analysis between the traditional mode of supply chain and the modern agricultural supply chain with the supermarket as the center was made. Although the current agricultural supply chain has many advantages,it still has many problems.The main problems existing in the modern agricultural products supply chain were analyzed and corresponding countermeasures were put forward.%随着人民生活水平的提高,消费者对于生鲜农产品的要求也随之提高,传统模式下的农产品供应链已无法完全满足消费者对农产品安全、及时、健康等要求,以超市为中心的现代化农产品供应链应运而生。对传统模式下的农产品供应链与以超市为中心的现代农产品供应链进行了对比分析。虽然现行的农产品供应链具有优势,但仍然存在很多问题。分析了现代化农产品供应链中存在的主要问题,并提出了相应的对策。

  1. 基于农超对接模式下农产品供应链存在的问题及对策%of Agricultural Product Supply Chain Agriculture with Supermarket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧娟; 赵婷婷; 张茂

    2011-01-01

    随着人民生活水平的提高,消费者对于生鲜农产品的要求也随之提高。传统模式下的农产品供应链已无法完全满足消费者对农产品安全、及时、健康等要求,以超市为中心的现代化农产品供应链应运而生。对传统模式下的农产品供应链与以超市为中心的现代农产品供应链进行了对比分析。虽然现行的农产品供应链具有优势,但仍然存在很多问题。分析了现代化农产品供应链中存在的主要问题.并提出了相应的时策。%With the promotion of people's living level,the requirement of consumers for fresh produce is enlarging as well,and the traditional mode of agricultural products supply chain cannot completely meet consumers' request for farm produce such as safety,timely,health etc,modem agricultural products supply chain with the center of supermarket arises at the historic moment.Comparison analysis between the traditional mode of supply chain and the modem agricultural supply chain with the supermarket as the center was made. Although the current agricultural supply chain has many advantages,it still has many problems.The main problems existing in the modem agricultural products supply chain were analyzed and corresponding countermeasures were put forward.

  2. 连锁经营超市的物流服务能力及服务质量研究%Study on Logistics Service Capacity and Service Quality of Chain-operated Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    念延辉

    2013-01-01

    分析研究了连锁经营超市物流服务能力及其物流服务质量关系和作用机制的问题,对连锁经营超市物流服务能力和服务质量的组成因素进行了分析,最后从物流作业系统总体要素选择、过程要素选择和支持性要索选择三个方面进行了方案设计,旨在提升连锁经营超市的物流服务能力和物流服务质量.%In this paper,we analyzed the relationship and acting mechanism between the logistics service capacity and service quality of chain-operated supermarkets,analyzed the composing factors of the capacity and quality of logistics services,and finally,from the aspects of overall factors of logistics activity system,process factors and supportive factors,designed the plan to improve the service capacity and quality of the chain-operated supermarkets.

  3. Discussion on Optimization Strategy of Logistics Distribution Mode of Chain Supermarkets%连锁超市物流配送模式及配送优化策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 葛亮

    2014-01-01

    首先简述了连锁超市物流配送的基本特征,接着指出现阶段连锁超市常见的三种物流配送模式,包括超市自营配送模式、供应商配送模式与第三方物流配送模式。然后分析了连锁超市物流配送的短板与软肋,包括在管理理念、配送系统、专业人才上的不足等。最后对优化连锁超市物流配送效率与质量提出了策略建议。%In this paper, we introduced briefly the basic features of the logistics distribution processes of chain supermarkets, then pointed out the three common logistics distribution modes available for them at the current stage, then analyzed the shortcomings of the modes, and at the end proposed the strategy to optimize the efficiency and quality of the logistics distribution operations of the chain supermarkets.

  4. “农超对接”供应链稳定性评价%Evaluation on Stability of Supply Chain of the Butt Connection of Farming and Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫华

    2011-01-01

    "农超对接"是我国超市发展的第三次革命,它实现了产销对接,降低了渠道成本,是当今世界农产品销售的主导模式。通过建立数量、质量、价格、收益的供应链稳定性指标体系,利用模糊综合评价法测算出供应链稳定性的具体数值,并给出了提高其稳定性的政策建议。%The butt connection of farming and supermarkets is the third revolution of supermarket development in China.It achieves relation between producers and sellers,reduces channel costs,and is the world's dominant mode of agricultural marketing.This paper establishes indicators of the supply chain stability based on quantity,quality,price,and income.Through using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method estimates the specific values of the supply chain stability and gives policy recommendations to improve its stability.

  5. 农村连锁超市两阶段多配送中心的选址优化模型%Study on Two-stage Location Optimization Model for Multiple Distribution Centers of Chain Supermarkets in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涛; 苏春江; 滕兴乐; 付光成

    2014-01-01

    分两阶段对农村连锁超市多配送中心选址问题进行研究。第一阶段,根据连锁超市分布状况划分区域,并在各区域内运用模型优化法,分别确立各分配送中心;第二阶段,运用粗糙集理论和多目标规划理论,在多个分配送中心中,确定总配送中心。运用逆向分析法,在局部区域确定分配送中心的基础上,以整体最优化为目标确定总配送中心,具有较强的操作性。%In this paper, we divided the location problem of the multiple distribution centers of the chain supermarkets in rural areas into two parts and studied them successively. For the first part, we divided the market area in accordance with the situation of the chain supermarkets and determined the location of the distribution centers for each of the divisions;and for the second part, we used the rough set theory and the multi-objective programming theory to identify the headquarters of and from among the distribution centers.

  6. Study on Distribution Performance Evaluation System for Chain Supermarket Distribution Centers%连锁超市配送中心的配送绩效评价体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丹; 张旭凤

    2012-01-01

    以提高连锁超市配送中心的配送绩效为目标,在国内外配送绩效评价研究成果的基础上,结合连锁超市配送活动特点,以定性与定量相结合为原则,从作业流程层、支持层和结果层三个维度建立了相对完整的连锁超市配送绩效指标体系.在研究方法上,综合采用了问卷调查法、模糊综合评价法、层次分析法,并结合实证分析检验了此绩效评价指标体系和采用方法的可行性.%With improving the operational performance of chain supermarket distribution centers as the objective and on the basis of the previous studies on distribution performance evaluation both from China and other countries, the paper establishes a comparatively comprehensive chain supermarket distribution performance index system on the dimensions of process, support and outcome. Methodologically, this study employs questionnaire survey, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and AHP, whose feasibility as well as that of the index system is tested in an empirical analysis.

  7. Logistics and Distribution of Walmart and Its Enlightenment for Development of Chain Supermarkets in China%沃尔玛物流配送对我国连锁超市发展的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀丽

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, through introducing the current status of the logistics and distribution practice of Walmart and Chinese chain supermarkets, we analyzed the key to the success of Walmart and proposed some referenceable experience to deal with the high commodity cost faced by Chinese large—scale chain supermarkets.%连锁超市由于在降低成本、扩大规模、提高竞争能力等方面的独特优势,已成为超市的主流和方向,而大型连锁超市有别于一般的连锁超市,无论从规模还是经济条件,都更适合借鉴一些大型的国际化连锁超市;通过阐述沃尔玛超市与国内连锁超市的物流配送现状,分析了沃尔玛物流配送的成功关键,提出了一些可借鉴性的经验以解决国内大型连锁超市商品成本高的问题.

  8. Research on the Improved Application of ABC Classification Method in Small and Medium-sized Chain Supermarket Inventory Management%ABC分类法在中小型连锁超市库存管理中的改进应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓永

    2015-01-01

    ABC分类管理法是广泛应用于库存商品管理的一种方法,但其在零售业尤其是中小型超市应用中却存在一定的局限性。文章从传统的ABC分类管理法出发,分析了其在中小型连锁超市库存管理应用中的局限性,根据中小型连锁超市库存的特点对传统ABC分类管理法进行了改进,并结合S超市的应用实践,研究其在中小型连锁超市库存管理中的改进应用。%ABC classification management method is widely used in inventory management, but its application in retail, especially small and medium-sized supermarkets has certain limitation. This article embarks from the traditional ABC classification management, analyzes the limitation of its application in small and medium-sized supermarket chain inventory management, and improves the traditional ABC classification management according to the characteristics of the small and medium-sized supermarket chain inventory, and based on the practical application of S supermarket, its improved application in small and medium-sized chain supermarket inventory management is studied.

  9. Service preferences differences between community pharmacy and supermarket pharmacy patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominelli, Angela; Weck Marciniak, Macary; Jarvis, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Differences in service preferences between patrons of supermarket and chain pharmacies were determined. Subjects fell into two groups: patrons of a supermarket chain's pharmacies and patrons of the same supermarket chain who patronized other community chain pharmacies for prescription drug purchases. Subjects were asked to prioritize services in terms of convenience and impact on pharmacy selection. Differences in service preferences emerged. Community pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate easy navigation through a pharmacy and 24 X 7 hours of operation as key services. Supermarket pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate one-stop shopping and adequate hours of operation as priorities. Both groups rated basic services such as maintenance of prescription and insurance information as priorities. Pharmacies should stress the delivery of basic services when trying to attract customers.

  10. Study on ARIS-based Business Process Re-engineering of Chain Supermarkets%基于ARIS的连锁超市业务流程重组研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈诚; 王林帅; 袁哲

    2012-01-01

    利用先进的ARIS建模方法建立连锁超市业务流程重组的目标,针对连锁超市业务流程重组设计了增值链模型、组织模型、过程模型,实现了连锁超市电子商务与物流集成,并且提出了具体的优化措施.%In this paper, using the ARIS modeling method, we established the objective of the BPR of chain supermarkets, developed accordingly the VA chain model, organization model and process model, realized the integration of e-business and logistics of ihe supermarets and proposed the concrete optimization measures.

  11. Establishment of Chain Supermarket Smart Logistics Management System Using IOT Technologies%物联网技术下连锁超市智能物流管理系统的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文娟

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, in view of the gap between the Chinese supermarkets and those in advanced countries, we introduced the application of the three key IOT technologies, and then by combining the IOT technology with the smart logistics technology, built the smart management system of the large-scale chain supermarket which included inbound/outbound management, commodity sales information management and commodity distribution information management, etc.%针对国内超市在新商品采集、销售信息统计与分析、剩货情况统计、库存管理、货物配送等诸多方面都与国外超市有不小的差距的现状,介绍了物联网三大方面的关键技术,即物联网的感知层技术、物联网的网络层技术以及应用层技术;采用物联网技术与智能物流技术相结合,建立了大型连锁超市的智能化管理系统,主要包括货物的出入库管理、商品的销售信息管理、商品配送信息的管理等。

  12. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Stafford, Julia; Pierce, Hannah; Daube, Mike

    2017-07-01

    In Australia, most alcohol is sold as packaged liquor from off-premises retailers, a market increasingly dominated by supermarket chains. Competition between retailers may encourage marketing approaches, for example, discounting, that evidence indicates contribute to alcohol-related harms. This research documented the nature and variety of promotional methods used by two major supermarket retailers to promote alcohol products in their supermarket catalogues. Weekly catalogues from the two largest Australian supermarket chains were reviewed for alcohol-related content over 12 months. Alcohol promotions were assessed for promotion type, product type, number of standard drinks, purchase price and price/standard drink. Each store catalogue included, on average, 13 alcohol promotions/week, with price-based promotions most common. Forty-five percent of promotions required the purchase of multiple alcohol items. Wine was the most frequently promoted product (44%), followed by beer (24%) and spirits (18%). Most (99%) wine cask (2-5 L container) promotions required multiple (two to three) casks to be purchased. The average number of standard drinks required to be purchased to participate in catalogue promotions was 31.7 (SD = 24.9; median = 23.1). The median price per standard drink was $1.49 (range $0.19-$9.81). Cask wines had the lowest cost per standard drink across all product types. Supermarket catalogues' emphasis on low prices/high volumes of alcohol reflects that retailers are taking advantage of limited restrictions on off-premise sales and promotion, which allow them to approach market competition in ways that may increase alcohol-related harms in consumers. Regulation of alcohol marketing should address retailer catalogue promotions. [Johnston R, Stafford J, Pierce H, Daube M. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:456-463]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. Study on Operational Mode and Legal Dispute Prevention of Reverse Logistics of Chain Supermarkets%连锁超市中逆向物流的运行模式及法律纠纷防范研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常永青; 董敏

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, with the reverse logistics activities frequently occurring in the operation of the chain supermarkets as the subject, we introduced the four typical operational modes of reverse logistics, then analyzed the legal disputes and risks inherent in the modes respectively, and analyzed the diversified risk prevention measures.%以连锁超市中频发的逆向物流现象为研究对象,阐述总部集中退货模式、物流外包退货模式、门店分散退货模式以及损耗处理模式四种逆向物流运行模式,进而分析不同运行模式中潜在的法律纠纷和风险,探索多元化的风险防范措施。

  14. Practice Teaching Curriculum Development Based on Work Process of Supermarket Chain Operation Course%基于工作过程的连锁超市运营实务课程中实践教学课程体系开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢慧

    2012-01-01

    Take the course of Supermarket chain operation as an example,through to the supermarket chain operation process of exploration,based on the practice of work in the process of teaching,changing the traditional personnel training mode,through the simulation enterprise reality work environment,jobs and business process,as well as the complete chain supermarket business activities,will theory and practice as a whole.In the course of practice design,and implement the process oriented design idea,to the supermarket operation process for the carrier,design teaching,reflect the practice of course.%以连锁超市运营实务课程为例,通过对连锁超市运营工作过程进行探索,融入基于工作过程的实践教学,改变传统人才培养模式,通过模拟企业现实工作环境、工作岗位和业务流程,以及完整的连锁超市经营活动,将理论与实践融为一体。在课程实践设计方面,贯彻以过程为导向的设计思路,以超市运营过程为载体,设计教学,体现课程的实践性。

  15. Electronic effects in the length distribution of atom chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, J N; Stiles, M D; Stroscio, J A; Pierce, D T

    2006-04-21

    Gold deposited on Si(553) leads to self-assembly of atomic chains, which are broken into finite segments by defects. Scanning tunneling microscopy is used to investigate the distribution of chain lengths and the correlation between defects separating the chains. The length distribution reveals oscillations that indicate changes in the cohesive energy as a function of chain length. We present a possible interpretation in terms of the electronic scattering vectors at the Fermi surface of the surface states. The pairwise correlation function between defects shows long-range correlations that extend beyond nearest-neighbor defects, indicating coupling between chains.

  16. 中国连锁超市物流的现状及其模式分析%Present Situation and Mode of China Chain Supermarket Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿松涛

    2004-01-01

    超市(Supermarket)20世纪30年代诞生于美国。作为零售业的一种新型业态带来了商业的第二次革命,根本上改变了传统的销售方式,极大程度地促进了零售业连锁经营的快速发展。我国在20世纪80年代初引入“自选商场”,真正的连锁超市起步于90年代初,在走过了艰难的创业期后,现在已经成为全国商业领域各种零售业态中增长最快的业态之一。

  17. INVESTIGATION ON THE JOB BURNOUT OF EMPLOYEES FROM SUPERMARKET CHAINS AND ITS INFLUENCING FACTORS%连锁超市员工职业倦怠现状与影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾凤芹; 葛晓娜; 冯成志

    2011-01-01

    [目的] 了解连锁超市员工职业倦怠现状与影响因素.[方法] 采用Maslach职业倦怠量表通用版(MBI-GS)对连云港市360名连锁超市员工进行调查,通过Logistic回归分析筛选出职业倦怠的主要影响因素.[结果]①总体上连锁超市员工存在中等程度的职业倦怠.② 20岁以下、工作1年以内员工的情感耗竭、消极怠慢程度高于其他员工;离异或丧偶员工职业倦怠程度最高,其次为已婚员工;与超市其他工作岗位相比,促销员职业倦怠程度最高.③Logistic回归分析显示年龄、工龄、婚姻状况与工作岗位与超市员工职业倦怠有关.[结论]连锁超市员工存在中等程度的职业倦怠;职业与岗位特征、年龄、婚姻状况等人口学变量以及个体认知与组织因素对连锁超市员工职业倦怠程度有重要影响.应从组织和个人两个层面采用有效的干预策略来预防或缓解连锁超市员工的职业倦怠.%[Objective] To investigate the job burnout status of employees from supermarker chains.[Methods]360 supermarket staff in Lianyungang was assessde by MBI-GS.[Results]①Overall employees from supermarket chains had mediun serious degree of job vurnout.②Employess who were younger than 20 years old and worked for 0-1 rears experienced higher emorional exhaustion and depersonalization;Unmarried supermarker staff experienced the loest emorional exhaustion; The job burmout of salesman was significantly higher than other groups.③Logistic regtession analysis indicated that the major factors contributed to the job burnout were characterisitics of job,personal understanding of job,management style,age and marriage Status.[Conclusion]Emplyess from supermarker chains have medium serious degeree of job burnout.The characteristics of job,age,marriage Status,personal uderstanding of job and management style influenced the degree of job burnout.Therefore,supermarket chains and employees should use some measures to

  18. Mr. Wizard's Supermarket Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Don

    Activities which can be done with items purchased in supermarkets form the basis of this book. The activities are arranged into sections by type of item; breakfast foods; dried foods; soups; baking ingredients; gelatin; condiments; coffee; salad dressing; dairy products; meats; cleaning supplies; cookware; juices; picnic supplies; paper towels;…

  19. Mr. Wizard's Supermarket Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Don

    Activities which can be done with items purchased in supermarkets form the basis of this book. The activities are arranged into sections by type of item; breakfast foods; dried foods; soups; baking ingredients; gelatin; condiments; coffee; salad dressing; dairy products; meats; cleaning supplies; cookware; juices; picnic supplies; paper towels;…

  20. The Intellectual Supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demb, Ada

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how separating undergraduate education into its two primary components--general education and the major--and then applying the perspective of a supermarket analogy leads to startling conclusions about possible transformations of the production and distribution system for higher education at the undergraduate level and for implementing…

  1. Science in the Supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobden, John

    2000-01-01

    Outlines how a structured visit to the supermarket can support the scientific study of food and farming. Describes various ways that teachers can use an industry-produced curriculum package in conjunction with a field trip to the grocery store and classroom study. (WRM)

  2. Electron correlation and bond-length alternation in polyene chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuprievich, V.A.

    1986-11-01

    The PPP model is used to consider polyene chains in the ground state with allowance for the interaction of the electrons with core deformations. The stationary wave functions describing the electron correlations are derived as antisymmetrized products of two-electron functions optimized with respect to all variational parameters. The bond-length alternation can be related to the characteristics of the electron-electron potential; one can allow approximately for the effects of interaction between electrons at adjacent centers on the alternation by renormalizing the parameters in the Hubbard model.

  3. Analysis of Problems of the Fresh Food Cold Chain Logistics in Chain Supermarket%连锁超市生鲜食品冷链物流问题探析——基于食品质量安全的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫丽

    2012-01-01

    基于食品质量安全视角,对惠州市14家连锁超市和112名消费者进行问卷调查和访谈,发现惠州连锁超市生鲜食品冷链物流中存在着行业标准缺失、冷链物流设施设备不足、信息化水平低、管理混乱等问题。对此,提出加强行业标准制定及执行力度、加大投入低温设施设备、加强政府对冷链物流的支持力度、重视冷链物流人才建设以及加强冷链物流技术的研发与应用等发展连锁超市生鲜食品冷链物流的建议和措施。%From the perspective of food quality and safety,this article,based on the questionnaire and interviews of 14 chain supermarkets and 112 consumers,finds a series of problems in the fresh food cold chain logistics in chain supermarket,such as the lack of industry standard,the insufficiency of infrastructure of cold chain logistics,the low informationization and chaotic management.Some suggestions and countermeasures are put forwards,including strengthening the degree of making and executing industry standard,raising the investment in facilities and device of low temperature,enhancing government's support for cold chain logistics,emphasizing talents construction and the research and application of cold chain logistics technology.

  4. A padronização na gestão da cadeia de suprimentos da carne bovina por supermercados The standardization on the beef supply chain management by supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leonardo Ravaiani Brum

    2001-04-01

    relationship between the coordination of suppliers and the size of the firm, and between coordination and standardization on the beef buying and selling process, but not between the standardization and the size of the firm. Moreover, there was demonstrated the knowledge of the most common practices and the best practices of standardization on the beef buying and selling process, and of the most common practices and the best practices of coordination of suppliers. Finally, the results lead to the conclusion that the implementation of managerial tools like supply chain management is difficult to be performed on the short run, essentially because of the low diffusion of the standardization practices between all supermarket size categories and the difficulties imposed by the low knowledge of new retail managerial tools and technologies.

  5. Curriculum Reform Practice in the Course of Supermarket Chain Stores Development,Layout & Display%《连锁超市店铺拓展与布局陈列》课程改革实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓娟; 刘轶宏; 阎惠全

    2011-01-01

    Supermarket Chain Stores Development,Layout and Display,the core course of Chain management specialty,holds the very important position in the specialty curriculum system.The course can train students' professional competence,and promote students' vocational accomplishment.In this paper,the curriculum design reform is based on the reform practice of the course in Liuzhou Vocational Technical College,which is one of the national model colleges.%结合柳州职业技术学院经济管理系连锁经营管理专业核心课程《连锁超市店铺拓展与布局陈列》精品课程建设的改革实践,以工作过程导向、突出职业能力及素养的改革理念为依据,对本课程的改革实践进行了探讨。

  6. Evaluating the Role of Intermediaries in the Electronic Value Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Marijn; Sol, Henk G.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a business engineering methodology that supports the identification of electronic intermediary roles in the electronic value chain. The goal of this methodology is to give stakeholders insight into their current, and possible alternative, situations by means of visualization, to evaluate the added value of business models using…

  7. Evaluating the Role of Intermediaries in the Electronic Value Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Marijn; Sol, Henk G.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a business engineering methodology that supports the identification of electronic intermediary roles in the electronic value chain. The goal of this methodology is to give stakeholders insight into their current, and possible alternative, situations by means of visualization, to evaluate the added value of business models using…

  8. Bacterial Electron Transfer Chains Primed by Proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, H.; Almeida, N.M. de; Kartal, B.; Keltjens, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Electron transport phosphorylation is the central mechanism for most prokaryotic species to harvest energy released in the respiration of their substrates as ATP. Microorganisms have evolved incredible variations on this principle, most of these we perhaps do not know, considering that only a fracti

  9. The supermarket game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A supermarket game is considered with N FCFS queues with unit exponential service rate and global Poisson arrival rate N λ. Upon arrival each customer chooses a number of queues to be sampled uniformly at random and joins the least loaded sampled queue. Customers are assumed to have cost for both waiting and sampling, and they want to minimize their own expected total cost. We study the supermarket game in a mean field model that corresponds to the limit as N converges to infinity in the sense that (i for a fixed symmetric customer strategy, the joint equilibrium distribution of any fixed number of queues converges as N → ∞ to a product distribution determined by the mean field model and (ii a Nash equilibrium for the mean field model is an ε-Nash equilibrium for the finite N model with N sufficiently large. It is shown that there always exists a Nash equilibrium for λ N.

  10. Loyalty in the Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Damacena

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Loyalty has been a hot topic in marketing management, not only for academics, but also for managers. In that sense, the main goal of this paper is to identify the variables that discriminate loyalty groups. Therefore, seven hypotheses have been proposed which might have an impact on loyalty groups. Based on discriminant analysis, the paper analyzes and discusses the data, and presents a conclusion that the more important variables on loyalty in the supermarket are affective commitment, satisfaction with its environment and value provided by supermarket experiences. Moreover, the results also indicated that the theoretical model achieved a variance in the loyalty construct of canonical R-squared = 0.78. It could be considered a good value to the final model. Final considerations and study limitations conclude the paper.

  11. Atomic and Electronic Structures of Zr Atomic Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林益寿; 李爱玉; 朱梓忠

    2004-01-01

    The atomic, binding and electronic structures of very thin Zr chains are studied by the first-principles densityfunctional method. The present calculations reveal that zirconium can form planar chains in zigzag, dimer and ladder structures. The zigzag geometry has two minima. The most stable geometry is the zigzag one with a unit cell rather close to equilateral triangles with four nearest neighbours. The other stable zigzag structure has a wide bond angle and allows for two nearest neighbours. An intermediary structure has the ladder geometry and is formed by two strands. The dimer structure is also found to be more stable than the truly linear chain. All these planar geometries are more favourable energetically than the linear chain. We also show that by going from Zr bulk to a Zr chain, the characters of bonding do not change significantly.

  12. 带返程的农村连锁超市物流配送优化模型研究%Study on Optimized Logistics and Distribution Model for Rural Chain Supermarket with Backhaul Considered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涛; 徐建国; 牛晨; 王朝立

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,considering the duo-way circulating characteristics of the logistics and distribution operations of rural chain supermarkets and on the basis of an analysis of transportation cost,time cost and backhaul cost,we set the relevant parameters,established the optimized distribution model that considered backhaul for single distribution centers with single vehicle,and used MArTLAB to apply the model to a numerical analysis.%考虑到农村连锁超市物流配送具有的正向配送货物、反向收集农副产品的双向流通特点,在分析运输成本、时间成本和返程成本的基础上,设定相关参数,构建了考虑返程的单配送中心单车配送优化模型,并运用MATLAB进行了算例分析.

  13. Engineering electronic states of periodic and quasiperiodic chains by buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Amrita; Nandy, Atanu; Chakrabarti, Arunava

    2017-07-01

    The spectrum of spinless, non-interacting electrons on a linear chain that is buckled in a non-uniform, quasiperiodic manner is investigated within a tight binding formalism. We have addressed two specific cases, viz., a perfectly periodic chain wrinkled in a quasiperiodic Fibonacci pattern, and a quasiperiodic Fibonacci chain, where the buckling also takes place in a Fibonacci pattern. The buckling brings distant neighbors in the parent chain to close proximity, which is simulated by a tunnel hopping amplitude. It is seen that, in the perfectly ordered case, increasing the strength of the tunnel hopping (that is, bending the segments more) absolutely continuous density of states is retained towards the edges of the band, while the central portion becomes fragmented and host subbands of narrowing widths containing extended, current carrying states, and multiple isolated bound states formed as a result of the bending. A switching ;on; and ;off; of the electronic transmission can thus be engineered by buckling. On the other hand, in the second example of a quasiperiodic Fibonacci chain, imparting a quasiperiodic buckling is found to generate continuous subband(s) destroying the usual multifractality of the energy spectrum. We present exact results based on a real space renormalization group analysis, that is corroborated by explicit calculation of the two terminal electronic transport.

  14. Energy saving by optimized controls for supermarket stores; Energie sparen mit optimierter Regeltechnik im Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelborn, Horst [Danfoss GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Danfoss has been delivering for 20 years the optimizing ADAP-KOOL(R) control system. It enables the store to save 30% of the yearly energy bill, compared to a store with electronic standard controls. Over years the stores took the cheap standard solution, but now several German supermarket chains decide to take the best for the investment and lifecycle cost. This article describes the main control circuits and shows the measurements of the energy consumption of two stores with standard and optimized controls. This control system is available for chemical and for the natural refrigerant R744. (orig.)

  15. Interaction between SWCNTS and the mitochondriai electron transport chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanleiLiu; Yingge Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of single-wall carbon nanotubes on the mitochondrial electron transport chain (METC) of tumor cells. Methods: Human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 were cultured in DMEM medium (Hyclone) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (Gibco) in a atmosphere of 95% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide under 37C. Cells were exposed by adding SWCNTs in the medium in concentrations of 1.5 - 12btg/ml. HepG2 cells exposed to narmal saline were used as control. The cells were collected after at 24h. The mitochondrial of HepG2 cells were obtained by density gradient centrifugation and were examined under transmis- sion electron microscope (TEM) . Four enzyme activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (METC) were determined by enzyme mark instrument. Results:

  16. Coupled motions direct electrons along human microsomal P450 Chains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Pudney

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein domain motion is often implicated in biological electron transfer, but the general significance of motion is not clear. Motion has been implicated in the transfer of electrons from human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR to all microsomal cytochrome P450s (CYPs. Our hypothesis is that tight coupling of motion with enzyme chemistry can signal "ready and waiting" states for electron transfer from CPR to downstream CYPs and support vectorial electron transfer across complex redox chains. We developed a novel approach to study the time-dependence of dynamical change during catalysis that reports on the changing conformational states of CPR. FRET was linked to stopped-flow studies of electron transfer in CPR that contains donor-acceptor fluorophores on the enzyme surface. Open and closed states of CPR were correlated with key steps in the catalytic cycle which demonstrated how redox chemistry and NADPH binding drive successive opening and closing of the enzyme. Specifically, we provide evidence that reduction of the flavin moieties in CPR induces CPR opening, whereas ligand binding induces CPR closing. A dynamic reaction cycle was created in which CPR optimizes internal electron transfer between flavin cofactors by adopting closed states and signals "ready and waiting" conformations to partner CYP enzymes by adopting more open states. This complex, temporal control of enzyme motion is used to catalyze directional electron transfer from NADPH→FAD→FMN→heme, thereby facilitating all microsomal P450-catalysed reactions. Motions critical to the broader biological functions of CPR are tightly coupled to enzyme chemistry in the human NADPH-CPR-CYP redox chain. That redox chemistry alone is sufficient to drive functionally necessary, large-scale conformational change is remarkable. Rather than relying on stochastic conformational sampling, our study highlights a need for tight coupling of motion to enzyme chemistry to give vectorial electron

  17. Analysis of Dilemma of Small-and-medium-sized Chain Supermarkets in Cost Control:A Logistics Perspective%物流视角下中小连锁超市的成本控制困境与策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁志杰; 陈思宇

    2014-01-01

    深入分析中小连锁超市的采购模式,根据采购模式分析其配送模式,然后根据采购模式和配送模式研究中小连锁超市的物流过程和物流成本,并深入分析其物流成本控制的困境,提出了相应的控制策略。%In this paper, we analyzed in-depth the purchasing and distribution modes of the small-and-medium-sized chain supermarkets, and then studied their logistics process and cost. Next through analyzing the dilemma of the supermarkets in controlling logistics cost, we proposed the corresponding countermeasures.

  18. The Supermarket Game

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiaming

    2012-01-01

    A supermarket game is considered with $N$ FCFS queues with unit exponential service rate and global Poisson arrival rate $N \\lambda$. Upon arrival each customer chooses a number of queues to be sampled uniformly at random and joins the least loaded sampled queue. Customers are assumed to have cost for both waiting and sampling, and they want to minimize their own expected total cost. We study the supermarket game in a mean field model that corresponds to the limit as $N$ converges to infinity in the sense that (i) for a fixed symmetric customer strategy, the joint equilibrium distribution of any fixed number of queues converges as $N \\to \\infty$ to a product distribution determined by the mean field model and (ii) a Nash equilibrium for the mean field model is an $\\epsilon$-Nash equilibrium for the finite $N$ model with $N$ sufficiently large. It is shown that there always exists a Nash equilibrium for $\\lambda <1$ and the Nash equilibrium is unique with homogeneous waiting cost for $\\lambda^2 \\le 1/2$. Fu...

  19. Spatial Supermarket Redlining and Neighborhood Vulnerability: A Case Study of Hartford, Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengyao; Debarchana, Ghosh

    2016-02-01

    The disinclination of chain supermarkets to locate or pull out existing stores from impoverished neighborhoods is termed as "supermarket redlining". This paper attempts to map and understand the spatial effects of potential supermarket redlining on food vulnerability in urban disadvantaged neighborhoods of Hartford, Connecticut. Using a combination of statistical and spatial analysis functions, we first, built a Supermarket Redlining Index (SuRI) from five indicators such as sales volume, employee count, accepts food coupons from federally assisted programs, and size and population density of the service area to rank supermarkets in the order of their importance. Second, to understand the effect of redlining, a Supermarket Redlining Impact Model (SuRIM) was built with eleven indicators describing both the socioeconomic and food access vulnerabilities. The interaction of these vulnerabilities would identify the final outcome: neighborhoods where the impact of supermarket redlining would be critical. Results mapped critical areas in the inner-city of Hartford where if a nearby supermarket closes or relocates to a suburb with limited mitigation efforts to gill the grocery gap, a large number of minority, poor, and disadvantaged residents will experience difficulties to access healthy food leading to food insecurity or perhaps a food desert. We also suggest mitigation efforts to reduce the impact of large supermarket closures.

  20. Bias-dependent oscillatory electron transport of monatomic sulfur chains

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Jing-Xin

    2012-01-01

    The bias-dependent oscillatory electron transport of monatomic sulfur chains sandwiched between gold electrodes is investigated with density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green\\'s function method. At zero bias, in contrast to the typical odd-even oscillations observed in most metallic chains, we find that the conductance oscillates with a period of four atoms. However, as the bias voltage is increased the current displays a two-atom periodicity. This emerges gradually, first for the longer chains and then, at voltages larger than 0.7 V, for lengths. The oscillatory behaviors are analyzed by the density of states and the energy-dependent and bias-dependent transmission coefficients. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Um estudo exploratório sobre colaboração logística em um grande varejo supermercadista An exploratory study of collaborative logistics in a large supermarket chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Vidal Vieira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem por objetivo discutir os elementos de colaboração logística importantes para a construção de um melhor relacionamento entre o varejista e seus fornecedores. Esses elementos foram identificados a partir da literatura e observados em um estudo de caso em uma grande rede de varejo supermercadista. As teorias relacionadas à pesquisa são referentes à natureza da colaboração, ao desempenho logístico e à economia dos custos de transação. Dentre os elementos usualmente mais citados para o processo de colaboração, como confiança, reciprocidade, compartilhamento de informações, interação entre as áreas funcionais, objetivos e metas conjuntas, e integração interpessoal, os resultados sugerem que este último elemento é o mais importante no processo de colaboração logística.This research discusses the logistic cooperation elements important for building a better relationship between a retailer and its suppliers. These elements were identified in the literature and observed in a case study based on a large supermarket chain. The research refers to the theories concerning the nature of collaboration, the logistic performance and the economy of transaction costs. Among the factors commonly cited in the collaboration process, such as trust, reciprocity, information sharing, interaction between functional areas, joint objectives and targets, and interpersonal integration, the results suggest that the latter particularly is the most important in the collaborative process.

  2. Regulating Power from Supermarket Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the demand response capabilities of a supermarket refrigeration system, with a particular focus on the suitability for participation in the regulating power market. An ARMAX model of a supermarket refrigeration system is identified using experimental data from...... nature of demand response from refrigeration is identified as the key consideration when considering participation in the regulating power market. It is demonstrated that by restricting the operating regions of the supermarket refrigeration system, a simple relationship can be found between the available...

  3. Competition and product quality in the supermarket industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsa, David A

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of competition on a supermarket firm's incentive to provide product quality. In the supermarket industry, product availability is an important measure of quality. Using U.S. Consumer Price Index microdata to track inventory shortfalls, I find that stores facing more intense competition have fewer shortfalls. Competition from Walmart—the most significant shock to industry market structure in half a century—decreased shortfalls among large chains by about a third. The risk that customers will switch stores appears to provide competitors with a strong incentive to invest in product quality.

  4. Photoemission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum's magnetosome chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutner, Christoph; von Bohlen, Alex; Berges, Ulf; Espeter, Philipp; Schneider, Claus M; Westphal, Carsten

    2014-10-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are of great interdisciplinary interest, since a vast field of applications from magnetic recording media to medical nanorobots is conceivable. A key feature for a further understanding is the detailed knowledge about the magnetosome chain within the bacteria. We report on two preparation procedures suitable for UHV experiments in reflective geometry. Further, we present the results of scanning electron microscopy, as well as the first photoemission electron microscopy experiments, both accessing the magnetosomes within intact magnetotactic bacteria and compare these to scanning electron microscopy data from the literature. From the images, we can clearly identify individual magnetosomes within their chains.

  5. Electronic spectrum and localization of electronic states in aperiodic quantum dot chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotaev, P. Yu.; Vekilov, Yu. Kh.; Kaputkina, N. E.

    2014-02-01

    The electronic energy spectra of aperiodic Thue-Morse, Rudin-Shapiro, and double-periodic quantum dot chains are investigated in the tight-binding approximation. The dependence of the spectrum on all parameters of a "mixed" aperiodic chain model is studied: the electronic energy at quantum dots and the hopping integrals. The electronic degree of localization in the chains under consideration is determined by analyzing the inverse participation ratio. Its spectral distribution and the dependence of the band-averaged degree of localization on these model parameters have been calculated. It is shown that a transition of the system's sites to a resonant state in which the degree of electron localization decreases, while an overlap between the subbands occurs in the spectrum is possible when the parameters are varied.

  6. 连锁超市逆向物流中的法律问题研究%Study on Legal Issues in Reverse Logistics of Chain Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the form and operational mode of reverse logistics as practiced by chain enterprises and the common disputes in the process of reverse logistics and at the end presented ideas on the prevention and elimination of such disputes.%随着现代产业的发展,逆向物流成为零售业的重要物流活动,然而随着业务量的不断增加,在逆向物流环节中出现的法律纠纷也越来越多,基于此,采取递进式的模式,首先分析了连锁企业中逆向物流的存在形式和运行模式,然后分析了企业运营中的常见案例纠纷,最后提出了减少纠纷的构想.

  7. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...... the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models which are fitted with a computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer...

  8. MEPR versus EEPR valves in open supermarket refrigerated display cabinets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, A.; Bansal, P.K. [Auckland Univ, (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents the comparative experimental field performance of mechanical evaporator pressure regulating valves (MEPR) and electronic evaporator pressure regulating valves (EEPR) under the identical operating conditions of supermarket open multi-deck refrigerated display cabinets. The main goal of the supermarket refrigeration system design is to keep the displayed product at the required constant temperature, while minimising the cooling load to increase the overall energy efficiency of the system. Field tests have shown that the electronic evaporator pressure valve has a significant effect on improving the cabinet temperature and reducing the rate of frost formation on the evaporator coils with subsequent improvements in the air curtain strength. (author)

  9. The case of Montréal's missing food deserts: Evaluation of accessibility to food supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloutier Marie-Soleil

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to varied, healthy and inexpensive foods is an important public health concern that has been widely documented. Consequently, there is an increasing interest in identifying food deserts, that is, socially deprived areas within cities that have poor access to food retailers. In this paper we propose a methodology based on three measures of accessibility to supermarkets calculated using geographic information systems (GIS, and on exploratory multivariate statistical analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis, which we use to identify food deserts in Montréal. Results First, the use of three measures of accessibility to supermarkets is very helpful in identifying food deserts according to several dimensions: proximity (distance to the nearest supermarket, diversity (number of supermarkets within a distance of less than 1000 metres and variety in terms of food and prices (average distance to the three closest different chain-name supermarkets. Next, the cluster analysis applied to the three measures of accessibility to supermarkets and to a social deprivation index demonstrates that there are very few problematic food deserts in Montréal. In fact, census tracts classified as socially deprived and with low accessibility to supermarkets are, on average, 816 metres away from the nearest supermarket and within 1.34 kilometres of three different chain-name supermarkets. Conclusion We conclude that food deserts do not represent a major problem in Montréal. Since geographic accessibility to healthy food is not a major issue in Montréal, prevention efforts should be directed toward the understanding of other mechanisms leading to an unhealthy diet, rather than attempting to promote an even spatial distribution of supermarkets.

  10. Electronic properties of Fibonacci and random Si-Ge chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, M S [Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Azevedo, David L; Hadad, A [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Maranhao 65080-040, Sao LuIs-MA (Brazil); Galvao, D S, E-mail: mvasconcelos@ect.ufrn.br [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas CP 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-12

    In this paper we address a theoretical calculation of the electronic spectra of an Si-Ge atomic chain that is arranged in a Fibonacci quasi-periodic sequence, by using a semi-empirical quantum method based on the Hueckel extended model. We apply the Fibonacci substitutional sequences in the atomic building blocks A(Si) and B(Ge) through the inflation rule or a recursion relation. In our ab initio calculations we use only a single point, which is sufficient for considering all the orbitals and charge distribution across the entire system. Although the calculations presented here are more complete than the models adopted in the literature which take into account the electronic interaction only up to the second and third neighbors, an interesting property remains in their electronic spectra: the fractality (which is the main signature of this kind of system). We discuss this fractality of the spectra and we compare them with the random arrangement of the Si-Ge atomic chain, and with previous results based on the tight-binding approximation of the Schroedinger equation considering up to the nearest neighbor. (paper)

  11. Electronic properties of Fibonacci and random Si-Ge chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, M S; Azevedo, David L; Hadad, A; Galvão, D S

    2011-10-12

    In this paper we address a theoretical calculation of the electronic spectra of an Si-Ge atomic chain that is arranged in a Fibonacci quasi-periodic sequence, by using a semi-empirical quantum method based on the Hückel extended model. We apply the Fibonacci substitutional sequences in the atomic building blocks A(Si) and B(Ge) through the inflation rule or a recursion relation. In our ab initio calculations we use only a single point, which is sufficient for considering all the orbitals and charge distribution across the entire system. Although the calculations presented here are more complete than the models adopted in the literature which take into account the electronic interaction only up to the second and third neighbors, an interesting property remains in their electronic spectra: the fractality (which is the main signature of this kind of system). We discuss this fractality of the spectra and we compare them with the random arrangement of the Si-Ge atomic chain, and with previous results based on the tight-binding approximation of the Schrödinger equation considering up to the nearest neighbor.

  12. 河北省“农超对接”实施路径探讨之大力发展农产品冷链物流%Developing Agricultural Produce Cold Chain Logistics with Full Force: An Exploration of Path for Implementing Farm-supermarket Docking in Hebei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蕾

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we first analyzed the interaction between farm-supermarket docking and agricultural cold chain logistics and the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats for the development of farm-supermarket docking and agricultural cold-chain logistics in Hebei and argued that the province should take the WO strategy, that is, the tide—turning strategy, to accelerate, with government support, the construction of a— gricultural produce cold chain logistics infrastructure and cold chain logistics public information platform, encourage private capital into the third party cold chain logistics field, push forward the modernization of third party cold chain logistics enterprises and improve the agricultural cold chain logistics system of Hebei.%首先分析了“农超对接”与农产品冷链物流发展的相互作用,进而从优势、劣势、机会、威胁四个方面对河北省“农超对接”发展农产品冷链物流进行了SWOT分析.认为当前河北省应采取WO战略,即扭转型战略,在政府大力支持的机遇下,加快农产品冷链物流基础设施建设以及冷链物流公共信息平台建设,鼓励民营资本进入第三方冷链物流领域,推动第三方冷链物流企业加快向现代物流企业转变,完善河北省农产品冷链物流体系,为“农超对接”中发展农产品冷链物流创造良好的市场环境.

  13. The impact of a supermarket nutrition rating system on purchases of nutritious and less nutritious foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Sweeney, Matthew J; Sobal, Jeffery; Just, David R; Kaiser, Harry M; Schulze, William D; Wethington, Elaine; Wansink, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines the impact of a nutrition rating system on consumers' food purchases in supermarkets. Aggregate sales data for 102 categories of food (over 60 000 brands) on a weekly basis for 2005-2007 from a supermarket chain of over 150 stores are analysed. Change in weekly sales of nutritious and less nutritious foods, after the introduction of a nutrition rating system on store shelves, is calculated, controlling for seasonality and time trends in sales. One hundred and sixty-eight supermarket stores in the north-east USA, from January 2005 to December 2007. Consumers purchasing goods at the supermarket chain during the study period. After the introduction of the nutrition ratings, overall weekly food sales declined by an average of 3637 units per category (95 % CI -5961, -1313; Psystems, researchers should focus on the entire market basket, not just sales of nutritious foods.

  14. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel study of models for forecasting the electrical load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different...

  15. Musculoskeletal disorders self-reported by supermarket employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Almeida M. da Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported pains in employees of a supermarket chain. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study conducted in a supermarket chain in the city of São Paulo from January 2011 to February 2012, with a sample of 300 employees. Information on sociodemographics, physical activity and characterization of the labor process were collected. It was assumed as the outcome the reports of symptoms of musculoskeletal pain obtained through The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. For statistical analysis, frequencies and percentages were calculated. Results: The population was mostly composed of young, single women who attended up to the 2nd year of high school. Only 25 % of employees performed physical activities. All employees had presented sometype of musculoskeletal symptoms in the last 12 months, and half of them (50% had three or more symptoms. The pain predominantly occurred in the lower limbs, followed by the thoracic and lumbar spine. Age may be associated with the onset of neck pain. In addition, the job is associated with pain in elbows, lumbar spine and legs. Finally, the lumbar spine is the region with the highest association among the independent variables. Conclusion: It was verified that the employees investigated in the supermarket chain presented a prevalence of pains or some type of musculoskeletal symptom in the past 12 months in the lower limb, regions that make up the spine, wrists, fingers and hands. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p13

  16. Antiresonance Effect in Electronic Tunnelling through a One-Dimensional Quantum Dot Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Pu-Nan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Electronic tunnelling through a one-dimensional quantum dot chain is theoretically studied, when two leads couple to the individual component quantum dots of the chain arbitrarily. If there are some dangling quantum dots in the chain outside the leads, the electron tunnelling through the quantum dot chain is wholly forbidden while the energy of the incident electron is just equal to the molecular energy levels of the dangling quantum dots,which is known as the antiresonance effect. In addition, the influence of electron interaction on the antiresonance effect is discussed within the Hartree-Fock approximation.

  17. Plasma Modes of the Three-Chain Electron System Over Liquid Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, S. S.; Syvokon, V. E.

    2016-12-01

    We simulate the surface electron system over liquid helium subjected to a confinement potential in the electron layer plane. In the solid phase, the two-dimensional system is observed to transform first into a multi-chain system and, finally, into a three chain, a zigzag structure and a single chain. Both longitudinal and transversal plasma oscillations of the three-chain electron system are determined. One of the longitudinal oscillation modes is acoustic, whereas the other two are optical. On turn, all transversal oscillations branches are optical. The theoretical results obtained can be used to identify experimentally the configurations of the low-dimensional electron system over helium under confinement potential.

  18. Discounts on fruit and vegetables combined with a space management intervention increased sales in supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, U; Winkler, L L; Mikkelsen, B E; Bloch, P; Glümer, C

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effects of two interventions on consumer purchases of fruits and vegetables (F&V) on the Danish island of Bornholm: a 20% discount on F&V combined with improved shelf-space allocation, and improved shelf-space allocation alone. A space management intervention to promote F&V sales was performed in two large discount supermarkets on Bornholm in Denmark for 3 months (September-November 2012). In addition, a 20% discount on F&V was introduced for 3 months in one of the supermarkets ('space + price'). The effect was evaluated using sales data from the two intervention supermarkets and three control supermarkets from the same supermarket chain but in Odsherred, Denmark (control area). Both the effect on sales of fresh F&V and potential unhealthy substitution effects were evaluated using multi-level regression analyses. During the price intervention period, the index number for sales of fresh vegetables increased by 22.2% (P=0.001) in the 'space + price' intervention supermarket compared with the control supermarkets. Furthermore, the index number for the sale of organic fresh fruit and vegetables increased by 12.1% (P=0.04) and the sale of the total amount of fruit and vegetables (fresh, frozen, dried and canned) increased by 15.3% (P=0.01) compared with the control supermarkets. In the 'space only' intervention supermarket no significant increase in the sale of fruit and vegetables was found. No unhealthy substitution effects were found. In conclusion, a 20% price reduction on F&V significantly increased sales of F&V. The effect was most pronounced on vegetables and no negative/unhealthy substitution effects were found.

  19. Pengaruh Citra Supermarket Terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan Di Metro Supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna, Soneta

    2010-01-01

    Consumer Loyalty as a measure of consumers' attachment to particular supermarket, has become an important notion in consumer behavior. The producers understand that better retain existing customers than new customers. Therefore, in order to build consumer affinity with the product, then developed the concept of brand community. A community based on shared commitment to a particular product, brand and consumer activities. Store image expected to be able to contribute in building consumer attit...

  20. 中国零售市场品牌忠诚度现状与成因研究——我国大型连锁超市品牌忠诚度提升策略研究%The research on the current situation and causes of brand loyalty in Chinese retail market——The strategies of promoting brand loyalty in Chinese large-sized chain supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文千锤

    2009-01-01

    文章通过分析中国大型连锁超市品牌忠诚度现状得出结论:大型连锁超市在日益受到中国消费者青睐的同时,购物者对单个门店的忠诚度正在下降.并找出了影响我国大型连锁超市品牌忠诚度的主要因素:顾客的满意度、顾客的需求,顾客对商品与服务的使用经验、转换成本、消费经历.然后从这几个主要的影响因素着手,对如何提高中国大型连锁超市品牌忠诚度,提出了一些有针对性的对策与建议.%This research paper is on the analysis over brand loyalty in large-sized chain supermarkets in China. Cus-tomers' loyalty over a specific supermarket is decreasing in spite of the gaining popularity of large-sized super-markets. This paper is also focused on the major factors to this phenomenon: customer satisfaction, customer demands, customers' knowledge on certain products and service, transitional costs and purchasing experience. The research is targeted on some pointed strategies on how to promote brand loyalty towards large-sized chain supermarkets based on the previously mentioned factors.

  1. Biochemistry: from supermarket to laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    F. R. Freitas-Rego; Pereira, M. G.; S. O. Loureiro; M. T. de Santana; R. G. Garrido; F. de S.R.G Garrido

    2007-01-01

    After new campi as Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde (IMS/UFBA) startedworking, it was necessary to develop practical classes using domestic reagents atBiochemistry to Pharmacy (IMS078). Firstly, students visited a supermarket to readnutritional information at label and select possible products to be used in class. Moreover,chemical processes and fermentation were discussed as different foods and drinks wereanalysed. Some food were token to laboratories so that biomole cules qualitative ana...

  2. Traceability and Risk Analysis Strategies for Addressing Counterfeit Electronics in Supply Chains for Complex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMase, Daniel; Collier, Zachary A; Carlson, Jinae; Gray, Robin B; Linkov, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Within the microelectronics industry, there is a growing concern regarding the introduction of counterfeit electronic parts into the supply chain. Even though this problem is widespread, there have been limited attempts to implement risk-based approaches for testing and supply chain management. Supply chain risk management tends to focus on the highly visible disruptions of the supply chain instead of the covert entrance of counterfeits; thus counterfeit risk is difficult to mitigate. This article provides an overview of the complexities of the electronics supply chain, and highlights some gaps in risk assessment practices. In particular, this article calls for enhanced traceability capabilities to track and trace parts at risk through various stages of the supply chain. Placing the focus on risk-informed decision making through the following strategies is needed, including prioritization of high-risk parts, moving beyond certificates of conformance, incentivizing best supply chain management practices, adoption of industry standards, and design and management for supply chain resilience.

  3. The multiplicity of dehydrogenases in the electron transport chain of plant mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan G; Geisler, Daniela A; Møller, Ian Max

    2008-01-01

    The electron transport chain in mitochondria of different organisms contains a mixture of common and specialised components. The specialised enzymes form branches to the universal electron path, especially at the level of ubiquinone, and allow the chain to adjust to different cellular and metabolic...

  4. Methanol as an alternative electron donor in chain elongation for butyrate and caproate formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.S.; Ye, Y.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Chain elongation is an emerging mixed culture biotechnology converting acetate into valuable biochemicals by using ethanol as an external electron donor. In this study we proposed to test another potential electron donor, methanol, in chain elongation. Methanol can be produced through the thermoc

  5. Using Adobe Flash Animations of Electron Transport Chain to Teach and Learn Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash…

  6. Using Adobe Flash Animations of Electron Transport Chain to Teach and Learn Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash…

  7. IS CATEGORY MANAGEMENT IN SMALL SUPERMARKETS WORTH THE EFFORT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Angotti Guissoni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Category management (CM is an important tool to strengthen the relationship between manufacturers and retailers. This process has been associated with large corporate retailers; however, some recent researches show that CM is open to companies of any type or size. This possibility is important in emerging markets, where neighborhood supermarkets are still representative and are often considered an alternative for manufacturers to achieve higher margins compared to big chains. In this context, the aim of this research was to analyze the results of a CM initiative in small neighborhood supermarkets from a manufacturer perspective. Data for the study comes from a food manufacturer in Brazil that implemented a CM process with 180 small retailers. A quantitative analysis was conducted in order to analyze the effect of the program on the food manufacturer’s sales and market share. Our analysis suggests an overall positive effect of the program on both, sales and market share

  8. Obesity and Supermarket Access: Proximity or Price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. Methods. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Results. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk = 0.34; 95% confidence interval = 0.19, 0.63) Conclusions. Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another. PMID:22698052

  9. Electronic Markets Selection in Supply Chain with Uncertain Demand and Uncertain Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengmei Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more and more companies start online operation. Electronic market becomes a key component of some companies’ strategy. Supply chain management is another key component of the strategy as being adopted by an increasing number of companies. There are many interactions between electronic market and supply chain. One of the key questions is to select one type of electronic market from the view of supply chain. This paper develops some models to explore the issue of selection between public electronic market and private electronic market in three scenarios where electronic market is used for buying, for selling, and for both selling and buying, respectively. In a public electronic market, neither the supplier nor the retailer is the owner of the electronic market. However, in a private electronic market, there is an owner that is either the supplier or the retailer. Besides demand uncertainty, we take into account the price uncertainty in electronic market. We explore the conditions under which the agent of supply chain selects one certain type of electronic market by comparing expected profits of supply chain members in different scenarios. Some sensitivity analyses are conducted to explore the impact of the customer demand, electronic market retail price, and e-market use fee on the selection of electronic market. Finally, some interesting managerial and academic insights are obtained.

  10. Ab initio prediction of the electronic and optical excitations in polythiophene: Isolated chains versus bulk polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, J.-W.; Bobbert, P. A.; de Jong, P. H. L.; Michels, M. A. J.; Brocks, G.; Kelly, P. J.

    2000-06-01

    We calculate the electronic and optical excitations of polythiophene using the GW (G stands for one-electron Green function, W for the screened Coulomb interaction) approximation for the electronic self-energy, and include excitonic effects by solving the electron-hole Bethe-Salpeter equation. Two different situations are studied: excitations on isolated chains and excitations on chains in crystalline polythiophene. The dielectric tensor for the crystalline situation is obtained by modeling the polymer chains as polarizable line objects, with a long-wavelength polarizability tensor obtained from the ab initio polarizability function of the isolated chain. With this model dielectric tensor we construct a screened interaction for the crystalline case, including both intra- and interchain screening. In the crystalline situation both the quasiparticle band gap and the exciton binding energies are drastically reduced in comparison with the isolated chain. However, the optical gap is hardly affected. We expect this result to be relevant for conjugated polymers in general.

  11. Planning of Chain Supermarket Distribution Route Based on Dynamic Planning Algorithm%基于动态规划算法的连锁超市配送路线设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春兰; 徐莎莎

    2011-01-01

    运用运筹学中的动态规划方法为国内某大型连锁超市设计从其物流配送中心到各门店的路线,为该超市寻找一个最佳配送路线,达到从物流配送角度降低其成本的目的.%Using the dynamic planning method of the operations studies, the paper plans the routes between the distribution centers and the stores of a certain large-scale supermarket of China to strive for reduced distribution cost and in turn the total logistics and operatonal cost.

  12. Excitation of bond-alternating spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains by tunnelling electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauyacq, J-P; Lorente, N

    2014-10-01

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectra (IETS) are evaluated for spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains showing different phases of their spin ordering. The spin ordering is controlled by the value of the two different Heisenberg couplings on the two sides of each of the chain's atoms (bond-alternating chains). The perfect anti-ferromagnetic phase, i.e. a unique exchange coupling, marks a topological quantum phase transition (TQPT) of the bond-alternating chain. Our calculations show that the TQPT is recognizable in the excited states of the chain and hence that IETS is in principle capable of discriminating the phases. We show that perfectly symmetric chains, such as closed rings mimicking infinite chains, yield the same spectra on both sides of the TQPT and IETS cannot reveal the nature of the spin phase. However, for finite size open chains, both sides of the TQPT are associated with different IETS spectra, especially on the edge atoms, thus outlining the transition.

  13. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  14. ESO2 Optimization of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Madsen, Henrik; Heerup, Christian

    Supermarket refrigeration systems consists of a number of display cases, cooling cabinets and cold rooms connected to a central compressor pack. This configuration saves energy compared to placing a compressor at each cooling site. The classical control setup of a supermarket refrigeration system...

  15. The analysis of Hengkelong Supermarket Management Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓霜

    2010-01-01

    With the development of local retail industry,Hengkelong Supermarket win fat profit.Yet how can it maintain its business advantage in the fierce competition with foreign business giants? This paper analyzes the management behavior of Hengkelong Supermarket,intending to give relevant policy recommendations.

  16. Purchasing decision behaviour by Chinese supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a pilot study on the relative importance of supplier selection criteria as rated by seafood purchasers for Chinese supermarkets. A sample of 192 supermarkets in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu participated in the study. The purchasers rated product quality as the most...

  17. Electronic properties of amino acid side chains: quantum mechanics calculation of substituent effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Donard S

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic properties of amino acid side chains such as inductive and field effects have not been characterized in any detail. Quantum mechanics (QM calculations and fundamental equations that account for substituent effects may provide insight into these important properties. PM3 analysis of electron distribution and polarizability was used to derive quantitative scales that describe steric factors, inductive effects, resonance effects, and field effects of amino acid side chains. Results These studies revealed that: (1 different semiempirical QM methods yield similar results for the electronic effects of side chain groups, (2 polarizability, which reflects molecular deformability, represents steric factors in electronic terms, and (3 inductive effects contribute to the propensity of an amino acid for α-helices. Conclusion The data provide initial characterization of the substituent effects of amino acid side chains and suggest that these properties affect electron density along the peptide backbone.

  18. Eat for health: a nutrition and cancer control supermarket intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, L; Tenney, J; Portnoy, B; Kessler, L; Rodgers, A B; Patterson, B; Mathews, O; Katz, E; Blair, J E; Evans, S K

    1989-01-01

    The growing evidence linking dietary patterns to the incidence and prevention of chronic disease has prompted a number of prominent health and scientific agencies to publish dietary guidelines for the public. Some dietary guidelines address specific diseases, such as cancer or heart disease; others focus on overall health promotion. This situation has created a demand for nutrition education and information programs for the public. Increasingly, supermarkets are seen as potential sites for effective consumer education. Eat for Health is a joint research study by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and Giant Food Inc., a regional supermarket chain in the Washington-Baltimore area. The study's goal was to test the feasibility of supermarkets as a site for consumer nutrition education. Eat for Health's educational focus was diet and cancer control issues in the context of dietary patterns that promote health. Particular attention was paid to reduction of fat intake and increases in consumption of dietary fiber from grains, vegetables, and fruits. Analysis of program results is currently underway; data should be available in early 1990.

  19. Total Energy. Sustainable cooling and heating in supermarkets; Total Energy. Duurzame koeling en verwarming supermarkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    In 8 articles attention is paid to different aspects of cooling and heating in supermarkets: new coolants in the food retail sector, the climate plan of the Dutch Food Retail Association (CBL), he Round Table discussion with between CBL and supermarket chains about research results, approach and targets, the use of CO2 refrigeration in supermarkets, leakage of coolants from refrigerators and freezers in Dutch supermarkets, the energy efficient and environment-friendly refrigerator and freezer equipment of the distribution centre of supermarket chain C1000 in Raalte, Netherlands, changes for cooling techniques in the EIA energy list (Energy investment deduction scheme) and finally education options for the refrigeration industry in the Netherlands. [Dutch] In 8 artikelen wordt aandacht geschonken aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. koeling en verwarming in supermarkten: nieuwe koelmiddelen in de 'food retail sector, het klimaatplan van de brancheorganisatie Centraal Bureau Levensmiddelenhandel (CBL), het Rondetafel overleg met de CBL en supermarktketens over onderzoeksresultaten, aanpak en doelen, de toepassing van CO2 koeling in supermarkten, lekkage van koelmiddelen uit koel- en vriesinstallaties in Nederlandse supermarkten, de energiezuinige en milieuvriendelijke koel-vriesinstallatie van het distributiecentrum van de supermarktketen C1000 in Raalte, wijzigingen voor koeltechniek in de EIA energielijst (Energie Investeringsaftrek subsidieregeling), en tenslotte opleidingsmogelijkheden voor de koeltechnische sector in Nederland.

  20. Lighting designs for supermarket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, C.S.

    1996-05-01

    Designers of lighting systems for supermarket applications face a number of challenges when the goals are to present merchandise in an attractive environment, but to do so in an energy-efficient manner. The Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA) operates several hundred stores worldwide, and more than 150 within the United States. DeCA is a federal agency that was organized in 1991 to operate commissaries that had previously been operated by the various armed services. As a federal agency, DeCA is also under a federal executive order to reduce its total energy consumption per square foot of floor space by 20 percent by the year 2005, compared to energy use in the year 1990. On the average, lighting consumes more than 20 percent of a store`s total energy use. Lighting retrofit projects offer opportunities to save significant energy costs with reasonable cost payback. The variety of ages and architectural styles of the commissaries offer opportunities for analysis and design of a wide diversity of projects. These projects range from simple replacements of lamps and ballasts to luminaire replacements and complete redesign of systems, including circuits. The requirements of merchandising products (illumination) also affect system designs. Several types of lighting retrofit projects are discussed. Problems that were encountered and solutions that were developed are shown. Because commissaries are supermarkets, lighting system designs are applicable to commercial establishments.

  1. Photoemission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum’s magnetosome chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keutner, Christoph [Technische Univ. Dortmund, Dortmung (Germany); von Bohlen, Alex [Leibniz-Institut fur Analytische Wissenschaften, Dortmund (Germany); Berges, Ulf [Technische Univ. Dortmund, Dortmung (Germany); Espeter, Philipp [Technische Univ. Dortmund, Dortmung (Germany); Schneider, Claus M. [Peter Grunberg Institut, Julich (Germany); Westphal, Carsten [Technische Univ. Dortmund, Dortmung (Germany)

    2014-10-07

    Magnetotactic bacteria are of great interdisciplinary interest, since a vast field of applications from magnetic recording media to medical nanorobots is conceivable. A key feature for a further understanding is the detailed knowledge about the magnetosome chain within the bacteria. We report on two preparation procedures suitable for UHV experiments in reflective geometry. Further, we present the results of scanning electron microscopy, as well as the first photoemission electron microscopy experiments, both accessing the magnetosomes within intact magnetotactic bacteria and compare these to scanning electron microscopy data from the literature. From the images, we can clearly identify individual magnetosomes within their chains.

  2. Strategies to promote healthier food purchases: a pilot supermarket intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Blakely, Tony; Wall, Joanne; Rodgers, Anthony; Jiang, Yannan; Wilton, Jenny

    2007-06-01

    To pilot the design and methodology for a large randomised controlled trial (RCT) of two interventions to promote healthier food purchasing: culturally appropriate nutrition education and price discounts. A 12-week, single-blind, pilot RCT. Effects on food purchases were measured using individualised electronic shopping data ('Shop 'N Go' system). Partial data were also collected on food expenditure at other (non-supermarket) retail outlets. A supermarket in Wellington, New Zealand. Eligible customers were those who were the main household shoppers, shopped mainly at the participating store, and were registered to use the Shop 'N Go system. Ninety-seven supermarket customers (72% women; age 40 +/- 9.6 years, mean +/- standard deviation) were randomised to one of four intervention groups: price discounts, nutrition education, a combination of price discounts and nutrition education, or control (no intervention). There was a 98% follow-up rate of participants, with 85% of all reported supermarket purchases being captured via the electronic data collection system. The pilot did, however, demonstrate difficulty recruiting Maori, Pacific and low-income shoppers using the electronic register and mail-out. This pilot study showed that electronic sales data capture is a viable way to measure effects of study interventions on food purchases in supermarkets, and points to the feasibility of conducting a large-scale RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of price discounts and nutrition education. Recruitment strategies will, however, need to be modified for the main trial in order to ensure inclusion of all ethnic and socio-economic groups.

  3. Doping-dependent magnetization plateaus of a coupled spin-electron chain: exact results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strečka, Jozef; Čisárová, Jana

    2016-10-01

    A coupled spin-electron chain composed of localized Ising spins and mobile electrons is exactly solved in an external magnetic field within the transfer-matrix method. The ground-state phase diagram involves in total seven different ground states, which differ in the number of mobile electrons per unit cell and the respective spin arrangements. A rigorous analysis of the low-temperature magnetization process reveals doping-dependent magnetization plateaus, which may be tuned through the density of mobile electrons. It is demonstrated that the fractional value of the electron density is responsible for an enhanced magnetocaloric effect due to an annealed bond disorder of the mobile electrons.

  4. Eco-efficient Supply Chains for Electrical and Electronic Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Quariguasi Frota Neto (João)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHundreds of millions of electrical and electronic appliances are manufactured every year. Furthermore, it is expected that this number will not substantially decrease in the near future. These equipments have a significant impact on the environment, and ceteris paribus, such

  5. Eco-efficient Supply Chains for Electrical and Electronic Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Quariguasi Frota Neto (João)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHundreds of millions of electrical and electronic appliances are manufactured every year. Furthermore, it is expected that this number will not substantially decrease in the near future. These equipments have a significant impact on the environment, and ceteris paribus, such environmenta

  6. Meltsiveski Konsumist saab korteritega supermarket / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Meltsiveski Konsumi kõrvale ehitatakse uus hoone, kus saab olema 30 korterit ja supermarket ning viimase katusel mängu- ja puhkeala. Juurdeehituse projekteeris arhitektuuribüroo Pluss arhitekt Indrek Allmann

  7. Sustainability in the supermarket; Nachhaltigkeit im Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmannshofer, Robert

    2010-11-15

    The food retailing discovered the sustainable construction. The prototypes of energy-saving supermarkets already are established and partly certified or decorated with prices. However, it will take time until the concepts are recognized.

  8. REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large refrigeration systems are found in several applications including supermarkets, cold storage warehouses, and industrial processes. The sizes of these systems are a contributing factor to their problems of high refrigerant leak rates because of the thousands of connections, ...

  9. REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large refrigeration systems are found in several applications including supermarkets, cold storage warehouses, and industrial processes. The sizes of these systems are a contributing factor to their problems of high refrigerant leak rates because of the thousands of connections, ...

  10. Meltsiveski Konsumist saab korteritega supermarket / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Meltsiveski Konsumi kõrvale ehitatakse uus hoone, kus saab olema 30 korterit ja supermarket ning viimase katusel mängu- ja puhkeala. Juurdeehituse projekteeris arhitektuuribüroo Pluss arhitekt Indrek Allmann

  11. Correlation between morphology, electron band structure, and resistivity of Pb atomic chains on the Si(5 5 3)-Au surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałochowski, M; Kwapiński, T; Łukasik, P; Nita, P; Kopciuszyński, M

    2016-07-20

    Structural and electron transport properties of multiple Pb atomic chains fabricated on the Si(5 5 3)-Au surface are investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, reflection high electron energy diffraction, angular resolved photoemission electron spectroscopy and in situ electrical resistance. The study shows that Pb atomic chains growth modulates the electron band structure of pristine Si(5 5 3)-Au surface and hence changes its sheet resistivity. Strong correlation between chains morphology, electron band structure and electron transport properties is found. To explain experimental findings a theoretical tight-binding model of multiple atomic chains interacting on effective substrate is proposed.

  12. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C Peter; Minten, Bart

    2012-07-31

    A "supermarket revolution" has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the "newcomers"--India and Vietnam--have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been "precocious" penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a "hub" or "platform" or "park" the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including "bringing modern markets to farmers" by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets.

  13. The magnetism and spin-dependent electronic transport properties of boron nitride atomic chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yipeng; Zhang, Mengjun; Wu, Dapeng; Fu, Zhaoming; Wang, Tianxing; Jiao, Zhaoyong; Wang, Kun

    2016-07-28

    Very recently, boron nitride atomic chains were successively prepared and observed in experiments [O. Cretu et al., ACS Nano 8, 11950 (2015)]. Herein, using a first-principles technique, we study the magnetism and spin-dependent electronic transport properties of three types of BN atomic chains whose magnetic moment is 1 μB for BnNn-1, 2 μB for BnNn, and 3 μB for BnNn+1 type atomic chains, respectively. The spin-dependent electronic transport results demonstrate that the short BnNn+1 chain presents an obvious spin-filtering effect with high spin polarization ratio (>90%) under low bias voltages. Yet, this spin-filtering effect does not occur for long BnNn+1 chains under high bias voltages and other types of BN atomic chains (BnNn-1 and BnNn). The proposed short BnNn+1 chain is predicted to be an effective low-bias spin filters. Moreover, the length-conductance relationships of these BN atomic chains were also studied.

  14. The magnetism and spin-dependent electronic transport properties of boron nitride atomic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yipeng; Zhang, Mengjun; Wu, Dapeng; Fu, Zhaoming; Wang, Tianxing; Jiao, Zhaoyong; Wang, Kun

    2016-07-01

    Very recently, boron nitride atomic chains were successively prepared and observed in experiments [O. Cretu et al., ACS Nano 8, 11950 (2015)]. Herein, using a first-principles technique, we study the magnetism and spin-dependent electronic transport properties of three types of BN atomic chains whose magnetic moment is 1 μB for BnNn-1, 2 μB for BnNn, and 3 μB for BnNn+1 type atomic chains, respectively. The spin-dependent electronic transport results demonstrate that the short BnNn+1 chain presents an obvious spin-filtering effect with high spin polarization ratio (>90%) under low bias voltages. Yet, this spin-filtering effect does not occur for long BnNn+1 chains under high bias voltages and other types of BN atomic chains (BnNn-1 and BnNn). The proposed short BnNn+1 chain is predicted to be an effective low-bias spin filters. Moreover, the length-conductance relationships of these BN atomic chains were also studied.

  15. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Lukar E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Melbourne. Methods Within-store audits of 35 Melbourne supermarkets. Supermarkets were sampled from the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs within 30 km of the Melbourne CBD. We measured the availability of crisps, chocolate, confectionery, and soft drinks (diet and regular at the checkouts, in end-of-aisle displays, and in island bin displays. Results Snack food displays were most prominent at checkouts with only five stores not having snack foods at 100% of their checkouts. Snack foods were also present at a number of end-of-aisle displays (at both the front (median 38% and back (median 33% of store, and in island bin displays (median number of island displays: 7; median total circumference of island displays: 19.4 metres. Chocolate items were the most common snack food item on display. There was no difference in the availability of these snack food displays by neighbourhood disadvantage. Conclusions As a result of the high availability of snack food displays, exposure to snack foods is almost unavoidable in Melbourne supermarkets, regardless of levels of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Results of this study could promote awareness of the prominence of unhealthy food items in chain-brand supermarkets outlets.

  16. Electronic properties and STM images of vacancy clusters and chains in functionalized silicene and germanene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamdagni, Pooja; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Munish; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2017-01-01

    Electronic properties and STM topographical images of X (=F, H, O) functionalized silicene and germanene have been investigated by introducing various kind of vacancy clusters and chain patterns in monolayers within density functional theory (DFT) framework. The relative ease of formation of vacancy clusters and chain patterns is found to be energetically most favorable in hydrogenated silicene and germanene. F- and H-functionalized silicene and germanene are direct bandgap semiconducting with bandgap ranging between 0.1-1.9 eV, while O-functionalized monolayers are metallic in nature. By introducing various vacancy clusters and chain patterns in both silicene and germanene, the electronic and magnetic properties get modified in significant manner e.g. F- and H-functionalized silicene and germanene with hexagonal and rectangle vacancy clusters are non-magnetic semiconductors with modified bandgap values while pentagonal and triangle vacancy clusters induce metallicity and magnetic character in monolayers; hexagonal vacancy chain patterns induce direct-to-indirect gap transition while zigzag vacancy chain patterns retain direct bandgap nature of monolayers. Calculated STM topographical images show distinctly different characteristics for various type of vacancy clusters and chain patterns which may be used as electronic fingerprints to identify various vacancy patterns in silicene and germanene created during the process of functionalization.

  17. Modulation of the electron transport properties in graphene nanoribbons doped with BN chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using density-functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green's function method, the electron transport properties of zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs doped with BN chains are studied by systematically calculating the energy band structure, density of states and the transmission spectra for the systems. The BN chains destroyed the electronic transport properties of the ZGNRs, and an energy gap appeared for the ZGNRs, and displayed variations from a metal to a wide-gap semiconductor. With an increase in the number of BN chains, the band gap increased gradually in the band structure and the transmission coefficient decreased near the Fermi surface. Additionally, the doping position had a significant effect on the electronic properties of the ZGNRs.

  18. Local food in European supply chains: reconnection and electronic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Holt

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Après une présentation du marché des produits locaux/localisés en Grande Bretagne, ainsi qu’une définition du concept en fonction des circuits de distribution courts, de l’agriculture biologique et du commerce équitable, cet article se fonde sur des études de cas, issus de projets de recherche européens, pour identifier des différents types de réseaux concernés par les concept de produit locaux durables. Les habitudes historiques concernant l’achat des produits alimentaires jouent ici un rôle central et l’article observe l’équilibre entre les composants historiques, sociaux et environnementaux des produits locaux/localisés. A partir de ces terrains de recherche et de ces expériences il s’est avéré possible de déterminer différentes compréhensions de « produits locaux » en relation avec le concept de « distance alimentaire/ food miles ». En se référant à six cas donnés, cet article souligne l’importance des systèmes localisés en matière de durabilité alimentaire, et met en valeur le poids des qualités humaines et sociales dans la balance commerciale.After giving an overview of the market for local food in the UK, as well as a definition of the concept in relation to short supply chains, organic agriculture and fair trade, the article draws on cases encountered through EC-funded research and networking to identify different types of network concerned with the concept of sustaining local food. Historical uses of shopping habits play here a central role and the article observes the balance between historical, social and environmental components of local food. From these researches and experiences, it has been possible to demonstrate a range of understandings in relation to the concept of ‘food miles’. With reference to six cases, the article underlines the importance of local food systems within food sustainability, and highlights the weight of human and social qualities in the market balance.

  19. Biochemistry: from supermarket to laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Freitas-Rego

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available After new campi as Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde (IMS/UFBA startedworking, it was necessary to develop practical classes using domestic reagents atBiochemistry to Pharmacy (IMS078. Firstly, students visited a supermarket to readnutritional information at label and select possible products to be used in class. Moreover,chemical processes and fermentation were discussed as different foods and drinks wereanalysed. Some food were token to laboratories so that biomole cules qualitative analysiswere carried on. Domestic use reagents as pharmaceutical iodine solutions, commercialNaOH and vegetable pigments were used. The substances identified were reductant glycid,starch, fatty acid, triacylglycerol and protein. Reactions allowed to identify fungi andvegetable tissues. Moreover, invertase and alfa-amilase activities were determined. Afterdiscussions in class, students could improve biochemical knowledge as well as distinguishbetween milk or lactic drink, animal fat or vegetable hydrogenated fat, honey or glucose.After that, students produced kits and wrote laboratorial notes for use in classes with therest of the group.

  20. On the path length of an excess electron interacted with optical phonons in a molecular chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhno, V.D. [Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region 142290 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: lak@impb.psn.ru

    2008-08-25

    We show that in a molecular chain with dispersionless phonons at zero temperature, a 'quasistationary' moving soliton state of an excess electron is possible. As the soliton velocity vanishes, the path length of the excess electron exponentially tends to infinity. It is demonstrated that in the presence of dispersion, when the soliton initial velocity exceeds the maximum group velocity of the chain, the soliton slows down until it reaches the maximum group velocity and then moves stationarily at this maximum group velocity. A conclusion is made of the fallacy of some works were the existence of moving polarons in a dispersionless medium is considered infeasible.

  1. A Simplified and Accurate Front-End Electronics Chain for Timing RPCs

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, A; Fonte, Paulo J R; Ferreira-Marques, R; Gobbi, A; Policarpo, Armando

    2000-01-01

    Recent advances in electronics and construction techniques have pushed the timing resolution of Resistive Plate Chambers below 50 ps sigma with detection efficienciesclose to 99% for MIPs. In this paper we describe a new front-end electronics chain for accurate time and charge measurement in these devices, having in view a possibleapplication in ALICE's T0 counter.(Abstract only available, full text to follow).

  2. Exact many-electron ground states on diamond and triangle Hubbard chains

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We construct exact ground states of interacting electrons on triangle and diamond Hubbard chains. The construction requires (i) a rewriting of the Hamiltonian into positive semidefinite form, (ii) the construction of a many-electron ground state of this Hamiltonian, and (iii) the proof of the uniqueness of the ground state. This approach works in any dimension, requires no integrability of the model, and only demands sufficiently many microscopic parameters in the Hamiltonian which have to fu...

  3. Using Adobe Flash animations of electron transport chain to teach and learn biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the electron transport chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the electron transport chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching.

  4. ESO2 Optimization of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Madsen, Henrik; Heerup, Christian

    Supermarket refrigeration systems consists of a number of display cases, cooling cabinets and cold rooms connected to a central compressor pack. This configuration saves energy compared to placing a compressor at each cooling site. The classical control setup of a supermarket refrigeration system...... in the supermarket. The first approach to solve this problem is to design an overall control system which coordinates the compressor capacity and the current refrigeration load. The drawback of this approach is the complexity of the single controller. The solution is investigated in the first part of the report....... A second solution is investigated where only the compressor control is considered. This controller try to feed-forward the measured disturbances, i.e. opening and closing of the cooling site AKV’s. Last a performance analysis of the refrigeration system is performed....

  5. Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

  6. 2D Spin-Dependent Diffraction of Electrons From Periodical Chains of Nanomagnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teshome Senbeta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scattering of the unpolarized beams of electrons by nanomagnets in the vicinity of some scattering angles leads to complete spin polarized electrons. This result is obtained with the help of the perturbation theory. The dipole-dipole interaction between the magnetic moment of the nanomagnet and the magnetic moment of electron is treated as perturbation. This interaction is not spherically symmetric. Rather it depends on the electron spin variables. It in turn results in spinor character of the scattering amplitudes. Due to the smallness of the magnetic interactions, the scattering length of this process is very small to be proved experimentally. To enhance the relevant scattering lengths, we considered the diffraction of unpolarized beams of electrons by linear chains of nanomagnets. By tuning the distance between the scatterers it is possible to obtain the diffraction maximum of the scattered electrons at scattering angles which corresponds to complete spin polarization of electrons. It is shown that the total differential scattering length is proportional to N2 (N is a number of scatterers. Even small number of nanomagnets in the chain helps to obtain experimentally visible enhancement of spin polarization of the scattered electrons.

  7. Online load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are time adaptive linear time-series models. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer functions. The system operates in two regimes: one...

  8. Chlorophyll fluorescence in the evaluation of photosynthetic electron transport chain inhibitors in the pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Espinosa Farias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the behavior of the chair of photosynthetic electron transport in the presence of DCMU and atrazine in detached leaves of pea through simultaneous measurements of the kinetics of fluorescence transient, fluorescence delayed and modulated reflection at 820 nm. The petioles of the leaves were immersed for two hours in solution of inhibitors at concentrations of 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 250 and 500 µM. Measurements of the kinetics of fluorescence transient and fluorescence delayed and modulated reflection at 820 nm were recorded simultaneously by the M-PEA fluorometer. Simultaneous measurement of fluorescence transient, fluorescence delayed and modulated 820 nm reflection is important for assessments of the photosynthetic electron transport chain activity tool. The use of specific inhibitors of the electron transport chain allows you to collect and correlate a lot of information about the effect of different inhibitors at specific points in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. DCMU and atrazine are inhibitors of photosystem II and the concentration of 500 mM affects more strongly the flow of photosynthetic electrons.

  9. Associations of Supermarket Characteristics with Weight Status and Body Fat: A Multilevel Analysis of Individuals within Supermarkets (RECORD Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Basile; Bean, Kathy; Daniel, Mark; Zenk, Shannon N.; Kestens, Yan; Charreire, Hélène; Leal, Cinira; Thomas, Frédérique; Karusisi, Noëlla; Weber, Christiane; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Simon, Chantal; Merlo, Juan; Pannier, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics. Methods Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007–2008) were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location) where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC. Results Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education), and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC. Conclusion A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods. PMID:22496738

  10. Disruption management in a two-period three-tier electronics supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Danusantoso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We study strategies to manage demand disruptions in a three-tier electronics supply chain consisting of an Electronics Manufacturing Services provider, an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM, and a Retailer. We model price sensitivity of consumer demand with the two functions commonly used for this purpose, linear and exponential, and introduce disruptions in the demand function. We assume each supply chain member faces an increasing marginal unit cost function. Our decentralized supply chain setting is governed by a wholesale price contract. The OEM possesses greater bargaining power and therefore is the Stackelberg leader. A penalty cost incurred by the Retailer is introduced to capture the cost of deviation from the original plan. We find exact analytical solutions of the effectiveness of managing the disruption when the consumer demand function is linear, and we provide numerical examples as an illustration when the consumer demand function is either linear or exponential. We show that the original production quantity exhibits some robustness under disruptions in both centralized and decentralized supply chains, while the original optimal pricing does not. We show that supply chain managers should not automatically react to an individual disruption, in certain cases it is best to leave the production plan unchanged.

  11. Bipolar tetraether lipids: chain flexibility and membrane polarity gradients from spin-label electron spin resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartucci, R; Gambacorta, A; Gliozzi, A; Marsh, D; Sportelli, L

    2005-11-15

    Membranes of thermophilic Archaea are composed of unique tetraether lipids in which C40, saturated, methyl-branched biphytanyl chains are linked at both ends to polar groups. In this paper, membranes composed of bipolar lipids P2 extracted from the acidothermophile archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus are studied. The biophysical basis for the membrane formation and thermal stability is investigated by using electron spin resonance (ESR) of spin-labeled lipids. Spectral anisotropy and isotropic hyperfine couplings are used to determine the chain flexibility and polarity gradients, respectively. For comparison, similar measurements have been carried out on aqueous dispersions of diacyl reference lipid dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and also of diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine, which has methyl-branched chains. At a given temperature, the bolaform lipid chains are more ordered and less flexible than in normal bilayer membranes. Only at elevated temperatures (80 degrees C) does the flexibility of the chain environment in tetraether lipid assemblies approach that of fluid bilayer membranes. The height of the hydrophobic barrier formed by a monolayer of archaebacterial lipids is similar to that in conventional fluid bilayer membranes, and the permeability barrier width is comparable to that formed by a bilayer of C16 lipid chains. At a mole ratio of 1:2, the tetraether P2 lipids mix well with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine lipids and stabilize conventional bilayer membranes. The biological as well as the biotechnological relevance of the results is discussed.

  12. Comparative study on the microorganisms present in ground meat in supermarkets and local markets in Ecatepec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rosales-Garnica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat is one of the most perishable foods due to that are high in the water and nutrients that promotes the growth of microorganisms. Ground meat tends to have more contamination than fresh meat because of the milling process where the microorganisms that were polluting the inside surface. Five stores were sampled from a supermarket chain and five markets in the municipality of Ecatepec. Ground beef was used for analysis of aerobic plate counts, total coliforms, Staphylococcos, fungi and yeasts. The results show that aerobic mesophilic count is within the limits of the Standard (NOM-092-SSA1-1994, the amount of Staphylococcos exceeds the Standard in the markets but within the limits of the Standard in supermarkets, coliforms and molds and yeasts are present in markets and supermarkets but are not considered in the Standard. We conclude that ground beef is sold in markets and supermarkets in the municipality of Ecatepec has lots of coliforms and Staphylococcos, which are responsible for many toxic infections. It is necessary to update the regulations in force, to be given greater monitoring.

  13. Supermarket Defrost Cycles As Flexible Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses how supermarket defrost cycles can be used as flexible reserve in a smart grid context. The consumption flexibility originates from being able to shift defrost cycles in time, while adhering to the underlying refrigeration systems constraints. It is shown how this time...

  14. Supermercados, estrategias y pequeños productores hortícolas en el municipio de Acatzingo: el caso Walmart/Supermarkets, strategies and small horticultural farmers in the municipality of Acatzingo: the Walmart case

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diosey Ramón Lugo-Morin

    2013-01-01

      In order to learn the strategies of commercialization of Walmart store and the opportunities of development for the small horticultural farmers before this supermarket chain, a study was realized in...

  15. Tracking genes from seed to supermarket: techniques and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Carol A

    2003-12-01

    Analytical techniques to track plant genes in the environment and the food chain are essential for environmental risk assessment, government regulation and production and trade of genetically modified (GM) crops. Here, I review laboratory techniques to track plant genes during pre-commercialization research on gene flow and post-commercialization detection, identification and quantification of GM crops from seed to supermarket. At present, DNA- and protein-based assays support both activities but the demand for fast, inexpensive, sensitive methods is increasing. Part of the demand has been generated by stringent food labeling and traceability regulations for GM crops. The increase in GM crops, changes in GM crop design, evolution of government regulations and adoption of risk-assessment frameworks will continue to drive development of analytical techniques.

  16. Consumers' Response to an On-Shelf Nutrition Labelling System in Supermarkets: Evidence to Inform Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Bollinger, Bryan; Sacco, Jocelyn; Liebman, Eli; Vanderlee, Lana; Zuo, Fei; Rosella, Laura; L'abbe, Mary; Manson, Heather; Hammond, David

    2017-09-01

    Policy Points: On-shelf nutrition labelling systems in supermarkets, such as the Guiding Stars system, are intended to provide consumers with simple, standardized nutrition information to support more informed and healthier food choices. Policies that support the provision of simplified nutrition labelling systems may encourage consumers to make positive shifts in food-purchasing behaviors. The shifts in consumer food-purchasing patterns observed in our study after the introduction of the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets translated into measurable nutritional benefits, including more items purchased with slightly less trans fat and sugar and more fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. This study is one of the first to report the positive impact of an on-shelf nutrition labelling system on supermarket sales and revenues-key information that was specifically requested by the US National Academies, as such labelling interventions may be more sustainable if they lead to higher revenues. Providing a nutrition rating system on the front of food packages or on retail shelf tags has been proposed as a policy strategy for supporting healthier food choices. Guiding Stars is an on-shelf nutrition labelling system that scores foods in a supermarket based on nutritional quality; scores are then translated into ratings of 0 to 3 stars. It is consistent with evidence-informed recommendations for well-designed labels, except for not labelling 0-star products. The largest supermarket retailer in Canada rolled out the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets across Ontario, Canada. The aim of our study was to examine the extent to which consumers respond to an on-shelf nutrition labelling system in supermarkets to inform current and future nutrition labelling policies and practices. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we conducted a quasi-experimental study across 3 supermarket banners (or "chains") in Ontario, one of which implemented the Guiding Stars system in 2012. We used aggregated

  17. Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated cell death via impairing electron transport chain complex III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seokheon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Hwang, Joohyun [Department of Molecular Biology, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ki Soon [Department of Biology, Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Shin Jung, E-mail: sjkang@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Biology, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •Heptachlor inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. •Heptachlor promoted generation of reactive oxygen species. •Heptachlor induced Bax activation. •Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. -- Abstract: Environmental toxins like pesticides have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Epidemiological studies suggested that exposures to organochlorine pesticides have an association with an increased PD risk. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of toxicity induced by an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor. In a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, heptachlor induced both morphological and functional damages in mitochondria. Interestingly, the compound inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. Rapid generation of reactive oxygen species and the activation of Bax were then detected. Subsequently, mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis followed. Our results raise a possibility that an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor can act as a neurotoxicant associated with PD.

  18. Aqueous Processing for Printed Organic Electronics: Conjugated Polymers with Multistage Cleavable Side Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmatz, Brian; Yuan, Zhibo; Lang, Augustus W; Hernandez, Jeff L; Reichmanis, Elsa; Reynolds, John R

    2017-09-27

    The ability to process conjugated polymers via aqueous solution is highly advantageous for reducing the costs and environmental hazards of large scale roll-to-roll processing of organic electronics. However, maintaining competitive electronic properties while achieving aqueous solubility is difficult for several reasons: (1) Materials with polar functional groups that provide aqueous solubility can be difficult to purify and characterize, (2) many traditional coupling and polymerization reactions cannot be performed in aqueous solution, and (3) ionic groups, though useful for obtaining aqueous solubility, can lead to a loss of solid-state order, as well as a screening of any applied bias. As an alternative, we report a multistage cleavable side chain method that combines desirable aqueous processing attributes without sacrificing semiconducting capabilities. Through the attachment of cleavable side chains, conjugated polymers have for the first time been synthesized, characterized, and purified in organic solvents, converted to a water-soluble form for aqueous processing, and brought through a final treatment to cleave the polymer side chains and leave behind the desired electronic material as a solvent-resistant film. Specifically, we demonstrate an organic soluble polythiophene that is converted to an aqueous soluble polyelectrolyte via hydrolysis. After blade coating from an aqueous solution, UV irradiation is used to cleave the polymer's side chains, resulting in a solvent-resistant, electroactive polymer thin film. In application, this process results in aqueous printed materials with utility for solid-state charge transport in organic field effect transistors (OFETs), along with red to colorless electrochromism in ionic media for color changing displays, demonstrating its potential as a universal method for aqueous printing in organic electronics.

  19. Unraveling the interplay of backbone rigidity and electron rich side-chains on electron transfer in peptides: the realization of tunable molecular wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, John R; Yu, Jingxian; Moore, Katherine E; Shapter, Joe G; Abell, Andrew D

    2014-09-03

    Electrochemical studies are reported on a series of peptides constrained into either a 310-helix (1-6) or β-strand (7-9) conformation, with variable numbers of electron rich alkene containing side chains. Peptides (1 and 2) and (7 and 8) are further constrained into these geometries with a suitable side chain tether introduced by ring closing metathesis (RCM). Peptides 1, 4 and 5, each containing a single alkene side chain reveal a direct link between backbone rigidity and electron transfer, in isolation from any effects due to the electronic properties of the electron rich side-chains. Further studies on the linear peptides 3-6 confirm the ability of the alkene to facilitate electron transfer through the peptide. A comparison of the electrochemical data for the unsaturated tethered peptides (1 and 7) and saturated tethered peptides (2 and 8) reveals an interplay between backbone rigidity and effects arising from the electron rich alkene side-chains on electron transfer. Theoretical calculations on β-strand models analogous to 7, 8 and 9 provide further insights into the relative roles of backbone rigidity and electron rich side-chains on intramolecular electron transfer. Furthermore, electron population analysis confirms the role of the alkene as a "stepping stone" for electron transfer. These findings provide a new approach for fine-tuning the electronic properties of peptides by controlling backbone rigidity, and through the inclusion of electron rich side-chains. This allows for manipulation of energy barriers and hence conductance in peptides, a crucial step in the design and fabrication of molecular-based electronic devices.

  20. Environmental Strategies for Electrical and Electronic Equipment Supply Chains: Which to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patroklos Georgiadis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment is one of the major world-wide waste streams triggering the emergence of environmental strategies. Environmental regulations, closed-loop supply chain (CLSC activities and design-for-environment (DfE practices are environmental friendly strategies being implemented by governments and industry. In this paper, we apply a System Dynamics model to a CLSC of electrical and electronic equipment in Greece. Extensive numerical investigation provides insights regarding the impact of different legislative measures, CLSC activities and DfE practices on the environmental (availability of natural resources and landfills and economic sustainability.

  1. Electronic torsional sound in linear atomic chains: chemical energy transport at 1000 km/s

    CERN Document Server

    Kurnosov, Arkady A; Maksymov, Andrii A; Burin, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    We investigate entirely electronic torsional vibrational modes in linear cumulene chains. The carbon nuclei of a cumulene are positioned along the primary axis so they can participate only in transverse and longitudinal motions. However, the interatomic electronic clouds behave as a torsion spring with remarkable torsional stiffness. The collective dynamics of these clouds can be described in terms of electronic vibrational quanta, which we name torsitons. It is shown that the group velocity of the wavepacket of torsitons is much higher than the typical speed of sound, because of the small mass of participating electrons compared to the atomic mass. For the same reason the maximum energy of the torsitons in cumulenes is as high as a few electronvolts, while the minimum possible energy is evaluated as a few hundred wavenumbers and this minimum is associated with asymmetry of zero point atomic vibrations. Molecular systems for experimental evaluation of the predictions are proposed.

  2. Structural and electronic properties of linear carbon chains encapsulated by flattened nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A.; Azevedo, S.; Kaschny, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    In the present contribution it was investigated the structural and electronic properties of nanostructures formed by a linear carbon chain encapsulated by flattened carbon and boron nitride single-walled nanotubes, using first-principles calculations. The behavior of the atomic structure and the corresponding electronic properties of the nanostructures were systematically analyzed as a function of the tube flattening degree. For both types of nanotubes, it was detected the occurrence of a polyyne-cumulene transition, which depends on the flattening degree. Moreover, for carbon nanotubes, it was found, for strong flattening, that the carbon chain binds completely to the tube wall. However, for boron nitride nanotubes, the chain also binds to the tube wall, but it breaks into pieces. For each structure, the electronic behavior and the band structure was studied as a function of the tube deformation. For particular values of the flattening degree it was observed the occurrence of Dirac points. The calculated Fermi velocities are in good agreement with the values obtained for graphene.

  3. Mapa perceptual de marcas próprias: uma investigação das principais marcas de grandes redes supermercadistas no Brasil Private label perceptual maps: an investigation of important brands in large brazilian supermarket chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Luciano Toledo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available No atual ambiente competitivo, um dos principais desafios das grandes organizações varejistas e atacadistas é criar diferenciais competitivos por meio de marcas próprias que lhes permitam uma proposta de posicionamento ímpar, destacando-as dos concorrentes. Nesse contexto, o presente artigo tem por objetivo investigar como os consumidores percebem o posicionamento de marcas próprias. A pesquisa empírica que complementa o trabalho está voltada para a percepção de uma amostra de clientes sobre o posicionamento de marcas próprias, envolvendo importantes cadeias de lojas varejistas do Estado de São Paulo, algumas delas operando nacionalmente. Para a análise dos dados, foi aplicada a técnica MDS, visando a construção de um mapa perceptual. Verificou-se que as marcas objeto da pesquisa empírica ocupam espaços, ou representam conceitos próprios, nas mentes dos consumidores, os quais foram interpretados em um mapa com duas dimensões: qualidade e variedade em um eixo e preço em outro.A major challenge now faced by large wholesalers and retailers is to create competitive advantages. Private brand labels can be useful for a unique positioning proposition that distinguishes these enterprises from competitors. Empirical research investigated consumer perception of the positioning of private labels in important retail chains operating in Sao Paulo state and to some extent throughout Brazil. The MDS technique was used for data analysis to create a perceptual map. Brands were found to occupy positions or correspond to concepts in the mind of consumers. These were interpreted on a map with quality and variety on one axis and price on the other.

  4. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C. Peter; Minten, Bart

    2012-01-01

    A “supermarket revolution” has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the “newcomers”—India and Vietnam—have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been “precocious” penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a “hub” or “platform” or “park” the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including “bringing modern markets to farmers” by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets. PMID:21135250

  5. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak, E-mail: burak.demirel@boun.edu.tr; Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH{sub 4}) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  6. The nutritional content and cost of supermarket ready-meals. Cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnant, Jennifer; Adams, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on convenience foods, including ready-meals, has been suggested as one contributor to obesity. Little research has systematically explored the nutritional content of supermarket ready-meals. We described the nutritional content and cost of UK supermarket ready-meals. We conducted a survey of supermarket own-brand chilled and frozen ready-meals available in branches of ten national supermarket chains in one city in northern England. Data on price, weight and nutritional content of meals in four ranges ('healthier', luxury, economy and standard) and of six types (macaroni cheese, meat lasagne, cottage pie, chicken tikka masala, fish pie, and sweet and sour chicken) were collected. Nutritional content was compared to ranges used to identify low, medium and high fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt in nationally recommended front-of-pack labelling. 166 ready-meals were included from 41 stores. Overall, ready-meals were high in saturated fat and salt, and low in sugar. One-fifth of meals were low in fat, saturated fat, salt and sugar, including two-thirds of 'healthier' meals. Meals that were low for three out of the four front-of-pack nutrients were the cheapest. Supermarket ready-meals do not have a healthful nutritional profile overall. However, a number of healthier meals were available - particularly amongst meals specifically marked as 'healthier'. There was little evidence that healthier meals necessarily cost more. Further effort is required to encourage producers to improve the nutritional profile of the full range of ready-meals, and not just those specifically labelled as 'healthier'. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Deficiency of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in muscle does not cause insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that muscle insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes is due to a selective decrease in the components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and results from accumulation of toxic products of incomplete fat oxidation. The purpose of the present study was to test this hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were made severely iron deficient, by means of an iron-deficient diet. Iron deficiency results in decreases of the iron containing mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins without affecting the enzymes of the fatty acid oxidation pathway. Insulin resistance was induced by feeding iron-deficient and control rats a high fat diet. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance was evaluated by measuring glucose transport activity in soleus muscle strips. Mitochondrial proteins were measured by Western blot. Iron deficiency resulted in a decrease in expression of iron containing proteins of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in muscle. Citrate synthase, a non-iron containing citrate cycle enzyme, and long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD, used as a marker for the fatty acid oxidation pathway, were unaffected by the iron deficiency. Oleate oxidation by muscle homogenates was increased by high fat feeding and decreased by iron deficiency despite high fat feeding. The high fat diet caused severe insulin resistance of muscle glucose transport. Iron deficiency completely protected against the high fat diet-induced muscle insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the study argue against the hypothesis that a deficiency of the electron transport chain (ETC, and imbalance between the ETC and β-oxidation pathways, causes muscle insulin resistance.

  8. Isolating the segment of the mitochondrial electron transport chain responsible for mitochondrial damage during cardiac ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qun; Yin, Guotian; Stewart, Sarah; Hu, Ying [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Lesnefsky, Edward J., E-mail: edward.lesnefsky@va.gov [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Medical Service, Louis Stokes Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2010-07-09

    Ischemia damages the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), mediated in part by damage generated by the mitochondria themselves. Mitochondrial damage resulting from ischemia, in turn, leads to cardiac injury during reperfusion. The goal of the present study was to localize the segment of the ETC that produces the ischemic mitochondrial damage. We tested if blockade of the proximal ETC at complex I differed from blockade distal in the chain at cytochrome oxidase. Isolated rabbit hearts were perfused for 15 min followed by 30 min stop-flow ischemia at 37 {sup o}C. Amobarbital (2.5 mM) or azide (5 mM) was used to block proximal (complex I) or distal (cytochrome oxidase) sites in the ETC. Time control hearts were buffer-perfused for 45 min. Subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) were isolated. Ischemia decreased cytochrome c content in SSM but not in IFM compared to time control. Blockade of electron transport at complex I preserved the cytochrome c content in SSM. In contrast, blockade of electron transport at cytochrome oxidase with azide did not retain cytochrome c in SSM during ischemia. Since blockade of electron transport at complex III also prevented cytochrome c loss during ischemia, the specific site that elicits mitochondrial damage during ischemia is likely located in the segment between complex III and cytochrome oxidase.

  9. Exact many-electron ground states on the diamond Hubbard chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacsi, Zsolt; Kampf, Arno; Vollhardt, Dieter

    2008-03-01

    Exact ground states of interacting electrons on the diamond Hubbard chain in a magnetic field are constructed which exhibit a wide range of properties such as flat-band ferromagnetism, correlation induced metallic, half-metallic, or insulating behavior [1]. The properties of these ground states can be tuned by changing the magnetic flux, local potentials, or electron density.The results show that the studied simple one-dimensional structure displays remarkably complex physical properties. The virtue of tuning different ground states through external parameters points to new possibilities for the design of electronic devices which can switch between insulating or conducting and nonmagnetic or (fully or partially spin polarized) ferromagnetic states, open new routes for the design of spin-valve devices and gate induced ferromagnetism. [1] Z. Gulacsi, A. Kampf, D. Vollhardt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 026404(2007).

  10. High-Performance Electron Acceptor with Thienyl Side Chains for Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuze; Zhao, Fuwen; He, Qiao; Huo, Lijun; Wu, Yang; Parker, Timothy C; Ma, Wei; Sun, Yanming; Wang, Chunru; Zhu, Daoben; Heeger, Alan J; Marder, Seth R; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2016-04-13

    We develop an efficient fused-ring electron acceptor (ITIC-Th) based on indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene core and thienyl side-chains for organic solar cells (OSCs). Relative to its counterpart with phenyl side-chains (ITIC), ITIC-Th shows lower energy levels (ITIC-Th: HOMO = -5.66 eV, LUMO = -3.93 eV; ITIC: HOMO = -5.48 eV, LUMO = -3.83 eV) due to the σ-inductive effect of thienyl side-chains, which can match with high-performance narrow-band-gap polymer donors and wide-band-gap polymer donors. ITIC-Th has higher electron mobility (6.1 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) than ITIC (2.6 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) due to enhanced intermolecular interaction induced by sulfur-sulfur interaction. We fabricate OSCs by blending ITIC-Th acceptor with two different low-band-gap and wide-band-gap polymer donors. In one case, a power conversion efficiency of 9.6% was observed, which rivals some of the highest efficiencies for single junction OSCs based on fullerene acceptors.

  11. Energy analysis of a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Munch; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    From 1995 to 1998, an energy test method for supermarket refrigeration systems was developed in a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The purpose of the energy test method is to provide the means for evaluating the energy efficiency of these systems. The test method requires measurements...... systems and therefore the experience with its application is limited. In the future, the energy test method may be used for evaluation of the efficiency of a new system or the improvement in efficiency when optimising an existing system....... of air temperatures and energy consumption to be carried out on the selected supermarket refrigeration system. In addition to the measurements required by the method, more measurements of individual energy consumptions have been carried in the case described in this paper. The purpose of the additional...

  12. Analysing green supply chain management practices in Brazil's electrical/electronics industry using interpretive structural modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Kannan, Devika; Mathiyazhagan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Industries need to adopt the environmental management concepts in the traditional supply chain management. The green supply chain management (GSCM) is an established concept to ensure environment-friendly activities in industry. This paper identifies the relationship of driving and dependence...... that exists between GSCM practices with regard to their adoption within Brazilian electrical/electronic industry with the help of interpretive structural modelling (ISM). From the results, we infer that cooperation with customers for eco-design practice is driving other practices, and this practice acts...... as a vital role among other practices. Commitment to GSCM from senior managers and cooperation with customers for cleaner production occupy the highest level. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis....

  13. Electron ionization of open/closed chain isocarbonic molecules relevant in plasma processing: Theoretical cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Umang R., E-mail: umangpatel193@yahoo.ca [Gandhinagar Institute of Technology, Moti Bhoyan, Gandhinagar-382721, Gujarat (India); Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388120, Gujarat (India); Joshipura, K. N.; Pandya, Siddharth H. [Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388120, Gujarat (India); Kothari, Harshit N. [Universal College of Engineering and Technology, Moti Bhoyan, Gandhinagar-382721, Gujarat (India)

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, we report theoretical electron impact ionization cross sections from threshold to 2000 eV for isocarbonic open chain molecules C{sub 4}H{sub 6}, C{sub 4}H{sub 8}, C{sub 4}F{sub 6} including their isomers, and closed chain molecules c-C{sub 4}H{sub 8} and c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}. Theoretical formalism employed presently, viz., Complex Scattering Potential-ionization contribution method has been used successfully for a variety of polyatomic molecules. The present ionization calculations are very important since results available for the studied targets are either scarce or none. Our work affords comparison of C{sub 4} containing hydrocarbon versus fluorocarbon molecules. Comparisons of the present ionization cross sections are made wherever possible, and new ionization data are also presented.

  14. The electronic spectrum of a quasiperiodic potential: From the Hofstadter butterfly to the Fibonacci chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumis, Gerardo G. [Departamento de Fisica-Qumica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: naumis@fisica.unam.mx; Lopez-Rodriguez, F.J. [Departamento de Fisica-Qumica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-05-01

    We show that an electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian, defined in a quasiperiodic chain with an on-site potential given by a Fibonacci sequence, can be obtained using a superposition of Harper potentials. Since the spectrum of the Harper equation as a function of the magnetic flux is a fractal set, known as the Hofstadter butterfly, we follow the transformation of the butterfly to a new one that contains the Fibonacci potential and related approximants. As a result, the equation in reciprocal space for the Fibonacci case has the form of a chain with long range interaction between Fourier components. Then, the structure of the resulting spectrum is analyzed by calculating the components in reciprocal space of the related potentials. As an application, the correlator of each potential and some localization properties are obtained.

  15. PEMETAAN PREFERENSI KONSUMEN SUPERMARKET DENGAN METODE KANO BERDASARKAN DIMENSI SERVQUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriswanto Widiawan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of supermarket usually has some assumptions about the customers' expectation. Sometimes these assumtions do not reflect the nature of customers' expectations. Because of this miss perception, the supermarket looses its profit and becomes inefficient. This research was carried out in order to find out the customers' expectation on facilities and services of the supermarkets according to the servqual dimensions. The outcomes will be mapped into Kano categorizations. The researcher asked the customer dan manager of four supermarkets to fill the prepared questionnaires. Based on the result of customers' questionnaires, tangible, reliability and assurance dimensions were categorized as one dimensional. While responsiveness and emphaty dimensions were categorized as indifferent. Based on the result of managers' questionnaires, all servqual dimensions were categorized as one dimensional. After comparing the results of customers' and managers' questionnaires, there are three of four supermarkets which are match each other. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Manajemen supermarket pada umumnya memiliki asumsi-asumsi mengenai harapan konsumen yang belum tentu sama dengan harapan konsumen sesungguhnya. Akibat ketidaktahuan informasi penting tersebut, tidak sedikit supermarket yang mengalami kerugian atau kinerjanya tidak efisien. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui harapan konsumen tentang fasilitas dan layanan supermarket menurut dimensi servqual yang dipetakan ke dalam kategori Kano. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap konsumen dan manajer dengan cara memberikan kuesioner. Menurut responden konsumen supermarket, dimensi servqual yang tergolong kategori one dimensional adalah tangible, reliability dan assurance. Sedangkan dimensi responsiveness dan emphaty termasuk kategori indifferent. Sementara itu, responden manajer supermarket berpendapat semua dimensi servqual termasuk kategori one dimensional. Dari empat supermarket yang diteliti, diketahui

  16. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration / Heat Recovery Systems. Annex 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings (16 papers) of a workshop (held in Stockholm, Sweden, 2-3 October 2000) on Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/ Heat Recovery Systems. Sessions at the workshop discussed: The supermarket as a system, Analysis and modelling, Field experiences and Energy-efficient equipment. The 16 papers presented at the workshop provide a useful information source for all involved in supermarket refrigeration.

  17. Supercomplex assembly determines electron flux in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapuente-Brun, Esther; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Latorre-Pellicer, Ana; Colás, Carmen; Balsa, Eduardo; Perales-Clemente, Ester; Quirós, Pedro M; Calvo, Enrique; Rodríguez-Hernández, M A; Navas, Plácido; Cruz, Raquel; Carracedo, Ángel; López-Otín, Carlos; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Fernández-Vizarra, Erika; Enríquez, José Antonio

    2013-06-28

    The textbook description of mitochondrial respiratory complexes (RCs) views them as free-moving entities linked by the mobile carriers coenzyme Q (CoQ) and cytochrome c (cyt c). This model (known as the fluid model) is challenged by the proposal that all RCs except complex II can associate in supercomplexes (SCs). The proposed SCs are the respirasome (complexes I, III, and IV), complexes I and III, and complexes III and IV. The role of SCs is unclear, and their existence is debated. By genetic modulation of interactions between complexes I and III and III and IV, we show that these associations define dedicated CoQ and cyt c pools and that SC assembly is dynamic and organizes electron flux to optimize the use of available substrates.

  18. Electronic and magnetic properties of spiral spin-density-wave states in transition-metal chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, M.; Ruiz-Díaz, P.; Pastor, G. M.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of one-dimensional (1D) 3 d transition-metal nanowires are investigated in the framework of density functional theory. The relative stability of collinear and noncollinear (NC) ground-state magnetic orders in V, Mn, and Fe monoatomic chains is quantified by computing the frozen-magnon dispersion relation Δ E (q ⃗) as a function of the spin-density-wave vector q ⃗. The dependence on the local environment of the atoms is analyzed by varying systematically the lattice parameter a of the chains. Electron correlation effects are explored by comparing local spin-density and generalized-gradient approximations to the exchange and correlation functional. Results are given for Δ E (q ⃗) , the local magnetic moments μ⃗i at atom i , the magnetization-vector density m ⃗(r ⃗) , and the local electronic density of states ρi σ(ɛ ) . The frozen-magnon dispersion relations are analyzed from a local perspective. Effective exchange interactions Ji j between the local magnetic moments μ⃗i and μ⃗j are derived by fitting the ab initio Δ E (q ⃗) to a classical 1D Heisenberg model. The dominant competing interactions Ji j at the origin of the NC magnetic order are identified. The interplay between the various Ji j is revealed as a function of a in the framework of the corresponding magnetic phase diagrams.

  19. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/ Heat Recovery Systems - Workshop Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, P.

    2001-06-15

    This CD ROM brings together proceedings of the Annex 26 Workshop 'Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/ Heat Recovery Systems' held in Sweden, 2-3 October 2000. Sessions at the workshop were: Session 1: The supermarket as a system, Session 2: Analysis and modeling, Session 3: Field experiences, Session 4: Energy-efficient equipment. Annex 26 investigates candidate advanced system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption for both refrigeration and heating/ air conditioning in supermarkets. Advanced supermarket refrigeration system concepts to be considered include, but are not limited to secondary loop systems, distributed compressors systems, and self-contained display cases.

  20. Academics in the aisles: Establishing a university-supermarket partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy-Joe Milliron

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the US is a serious public health problem. Supermarkets in the US are responding to the obesity epidemic by providing the unique asset of food, pharmacy and registered dietitians in one location to help grocery shoppers manage diseases and improve nutrition. Recent studies report that supermarket point-of-purchase interventions focusing on improving healthy food purchasing behaviours are feasible and potentially efficacious. We describe our experiences and lessons learned while developing a university-supermarket partnership and pilot testing a supermarket POP intervention (Healthstyles-Eat Smart© prior to its dissemination throughout the region. Barriers to and facilitators of developing university-supermarket partnerships and strategies to increase the feasibility of supermarket POP research are discussed. We conclude that strong university-supermarket partnerships are essential to conducting supermarket intervention research and are worth the time and effort it takes to build them. Keywords: Fruit and vegetable purchases, point-of-purchase intervention, supermarket partnership, shopping behaviour

  1. Evaluation of functioning of mitochondrial electron transport chain with NADH and FAD autofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Danylovych

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We prove the feasibility of evaluation of mitochondrial electron transport chain function in isolated mitochondria of smooth muscle cells of rats from uterus using fluorescence of NADH and FAD coenzymes. We found the inversely directed changes in FAD and NADH fluorescence intensity under normal functioning of mitochondrial electron transport chain. The targeted effect of inhibitors of complex I, III and IV changed fluorescence of adenine nucleotides. Rotenone (5 μM induced rapid increase in NADH fluorescence due to inhibition of complex I, without changing in dynamics of FAD fluorescence increase. Antimycin A, a complex III inhibitor, in concentration of 1 μg/ml caused sharp increase in NADH fluorescence and moderate increase in FAD fluorescence in comparison to control. NaN3 (5 mM, a complex IV inhibitor, and CCCP (10 μM, a protonophore, caused decrease in NADH and FAD fluorescence. Moreover, all the inhibitors caused mitochondria swelling. NO donors, e.g. 0.1 mM sodium nitroprusside and sodium nitrite similarly to the effects of sodium azide. Energy-dependent Ca2+ accumulation in mitochondrial matrix (in presence of oxidation substrates and Mg-ATP2- complex is associated with pronounced drop in NADH and FAD fluorescence followed by increased fluorescence of adenine nucleotides, which may be primarily due to Ca2+-dependent activation of dehydrogenases of citric acid cycle. Therefore, the fluorescent signal of FAD and NADH indicates changes in oxidation state of these nucleotides in isolated mitochondria, which may be used to assay the potential of effectors of electron transport chain.

  2. Targeting the mitochondrial electron transport chain in autism, a systematic review and synthesis of a novel therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Berk, Michael; Farrashbandi, Hassan; Alavi Shoushtari, Ali; Villagonzalo, Kristi-Ann

    2013-09-01

    Autism is a complex developmental disorder with an unknown etiology and without any curative treatment. The mitochondrial electron transfer chains play a major role in the production of ATP, and the generation and management of reactive oxidative stress (ROS). This paper is a systematic review of the role of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in autism, and a consequent hypothesis for treating autism is synthesized. An electronic search with pre-specified inclusion criteria was conducted in order to retrieve all the published articles about the mitochondrial electron transport chain in autism. The two databases of PUBMED and Google Scholar were searched. From one hundred twenty five retrieved titles, 12 (three case control study and 9 case reports) articles met inclusion criteria. All of the included studies indicated dysfunction of electron transport chain in autism. The mitochondrial electron transfer chain seems impaired in some children with autism and ROS production is additionally enhanced. It is hypothesized that interventions involving alternative electron shuttling may improve autism through lowering the production of ROS. In addition, it is expected that this alternative electron shuttling to cytochrome c might enhance the production of ATP which is impaired in the disorder.

  3. Associations of supermarket characteristics with weight status and body fat: a multilevel analysis of individuals within supermarkets (RECORD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Chaix

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics. METHODS: Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007-2008 were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC. RESULTS: Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education, and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC. CONCLUSION: A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods.

  4. Electronic Structure of Pure Selenium and Tellurium Chains and Selenium Rings and with Impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, N. B.; Cho, Hwa-Suck; Scheicher, R. H.

    2005-03-01

    We have studied the electronic structures of pure chain-structured Selenium and Tellurium and with chalcogen impurities as well as ring-structured Selenium both pure and with Tellurium impurity atoms. The Hartree-Fock Cluster Theory procedure combined with many-body perturbation theory procedure has been used. The accuracy of the calculated electronic wave functions is tested by the investigation of ^77Se and ^125Te nuclear quadrupole interaction parameters. Good agreement is found with experiment for the pure systems. For the impurity systems, the agreement is reasonable but suggests the need for inclusion of more extensive relaxation around the impurity atoms. (*) Current Address: Dept. of Physics, Uppsala University, Sweden (**) Also: Dept. of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida

  5. Electronic structures of one-dimensional metal-molecule hybrid chains studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyung-Hoon; Koo, Bon-Gil; Kim, Howon; Yoon, Jong Keon; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Kahng, Se-Jong

    2012-05-28

    The electronic structures of self-assembled hybrid chains comprising Ag atoms and organic molecules were studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) in parallel with density functional theory (DFT). Hybrid chains were prepared by catalytic breaking of Br-C bonds in 4,4″-dibromo-p-terphenyl molecules, followed by spontaneous formation of Ag-C bonds on Ag(111). An atomic model was proposed for the observed hybrid chain structures. Four electronic states were resolved using STS measurements, and strong energy dependence was observed in STM images. These results were explained using first-principles calculations based on DFT.

  6. Impairment of Electron Transfer Chain Induced by Acute Carnosine Administration in Skeletal Muscle of Young Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Macarini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum carnosinase deficiency is an inherited disorder that leads to an accumulation of carnosine in the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, skeletal muscle, and other tissues of affected patients. Considering that high levels of carnosine are associated with neurological dysfunction and that the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in serum carnosinase deficiency remain poorly understood, we investigated the in vivo effects of carnosine on bioenergetics parameters, namely, respiratory chain complexes (I–III, II, and II-III, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase activities and the expression of mitochondrial-specific transcription factors (NRF-1, PGC-1α, and TFAM in skeletal muscle of young Wistar rats. We observed a significant decrease of complexes I–III and II activities in animals receiving carnosine acutely, as compared to control group. However, no significant alterations in respiratory chain complexes, citric acid cycle enzymes, and creatine kinase activities were found between rats receiving carnosine chronically and control group animals. As compared to control group, mRNA levels of NRF-1, PGC-1α, and TFAM were unchanged. The present findings indicate that electron transfer through the respiratory chain is impaired in skeletal muscle of rats receiving carnosine acutely. In case these findings are confirmed by further studies and ATP depletion is also observed, impairment of bioenergetics could be considered a putative mechanism responsible for the muscle damage observed in serum carnosinase-deficient patients.

  7. Direct observation of dipolar chains in ferrofluids in zero field using cryogenic electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, K; Frederik, P M; Vroege, G J; Philipse, A P

    2003-01-01

    The particle structure of ferrofluids is studied in situ, by cryogenic electron microscopy, on vitrified films of iron and magnetite dispersions. By means of synthesis of iron colloids with controlled particle size and different types of surfactant, dipolar particle interactions can be varied over a broad range, which significantly influences the ferrofluid particle structure. Our experiments on iron dispersions (in contrast to magnetite dispersions) for the first time demonstrate, in ferrofluids in zero field, a transition with increasing particle size from separate particles to linear chains of particles (Butter K, Bomans P H, Frederik P M, Vroege G J and Philipse A P 2003 Nature Mater. 2 88). These chains, already predicted theoretically by de Gennes and Pincus (de Gennes P G and Pincus P A 1970 Phys. Kondens. Mater. 11 189), very much resemble the fluctuating chains found in simulations of dipolar fluids (Weis J J 1998 Mol. Phys. 93 361, Chantrell R W, Bradbury A, Popplewell J and Charles S W 1982 J. Appl...

  8. Cannabinoid-Induced Changes in the Activity of Electron Transport Chain Complexes of Brain Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namrata; Hroudová, Jana; Fišar, Zdeněk

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the activity of individual mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (I, II/III, IV) and citrate synthase induced by pharmacologically different cannabinoids. In vitro effects of selected cannabinoids on mitochondrial enzymes were measured in crude mitochondrial fraction isolated from pig brain. Both cannabinoid receptor agonists, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, anandamide, and R-(+)-WIN55,212-2, and antagonist/inverse agonists of cannabinoid receptors, AM251, and cannabidiol were examined in pig brain mitochondria. Different effects of these cannabinoids on mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and citrate synthase were found. Citrate synthase activity was decreased only by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and AM251. Significant increase in the complex I activity was induced by anandamide. At micromolar concentration, all the tested cannabinoids inhibited the activity of electron transport chain complexes II/III and IV. Stimulatory effect of anandamide on activity of complex I may participate on distinct physiological effects of endocannabinoids compared to phytocannabinoids or synthetic cannabinoids. Common inhibitory effect of cannabinoids on activity of complex II/III and IV confirmed a non-receptor-mediated mechanism of cannabinoid action on individual components of system of oxidative phosphorylation.

  9. A taxonomy of green supply chain management capability among electronics-related manufacturing firms in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Kuo-Chung; Lu, Chin-Shan; Li, Shaorui

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated crucial green supply chain management (GSCM) capability dimensions and firm performance based on electronics-related manufacturing firms in Taiwan. On the basis of a factor analysis, six green supply chain management dimensions were identified: green manufacturing and packaging, environmental participation, green marketing, green suppliers, green stock, and green eco-design. According to their factor scores in the GSCM dimensions, a cluster analysis subsequently assigned responding firms into four groups, namely, the weak GSCM oriented group, the green marketing oriented group, the green supplier oriented group, and the green stock oriented group. Differences in firm performance and GSCM dimensions among groups were examined. Results indicated that the green marketing oriented group performed best. Based on the resource-based view (RBV), the capability of the green marketing oriented group was considered to be the deployment of a collection of resources that enables it to successfully compete against rivals. The importance of green marketing as a GSCM capability and strategic asset/critical resources for electronics-related manufacturing firms to obtain a competitive edge is therefore highlighted in this study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolic transistor strategy for controlling electron transfer chain activity in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Tuli, Leepika; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-03-01

    A novel strategy to finely control a large metabolic flux by using a "metabolic transistor" approach was established. In this approach a small change in the level or availability of an essential component for the process is controlled by adding a competitive reaction that affects a precursor or an intermediate in its biosynthetic pathway. The change of the basal level of the essential component, considered as a base current in a transistor, has a large effect on the flux through the major pathway. In this way, the fine-tuning of a large flux can be accomplished. The "metabolic transistor" strategy was applied to control electron transfer chain function by manipulation of the quinone synthesis pathway in Escherichia coli. The achievement of a theoretical yield of lactate production under aerobic conditions via this strategy upon manipulation of the biosynthetic pathway of the key participant, ubiquinone-8 (Q8), in an E. coli strain provides an in vivo, genetically tunable means to control the activity of the electron transfer chain and manipulate the production of reduced products while limiting consumption of oxygen to a defined amount.

  11. What foods are US supermarkets promoting? A content analysis of supermarket sales circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Yorkin, Meredith; Aljallad, Carena; Ciecierski, Caroline; Akhabue, Ivbaria; McKinley, Jessica; Hernandez, Katherine; Yablonsky, Courtney; Jackson, Rachel; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the types of foods advertised in supermarket newspaper circulars across geographic region (US Census regions: northeast [n=9], midwest [n=15], south [n=14], and west [n=13]), obesity-rate region (i.e., states with CDC adult obesity rates of advertisements on the first page of each circular were measured (±0.12-in.) to determine the proportion of space occupied and categorized according to food group. Overall, ≥ 50% of the front page of supermarket sales circulars was devoted to protein foods and grains; fruits, vegetables, and dairy, combined, were allocated only about 25% of the front page. The southern geographic region and the highest obesity-rate region both devoted significantly more advertising space to sweets, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages. The lowest obesity-rate region and western geographic region allocated the most space to fruits. Vegetables were allocated the least space in the western geographic region. Grains were the only food group represented in ads in proportions approximately equal to amounts depicted in the MyPlate icon. Protein foods exceeded and fruits, dairy, and vegetables fell below comparable MyPlate proportional areas. Findings suggest supermarket ads do not consistently emphasize foods that support healthy weight and MyPlate recommendations. More research is needed to determine how supermarket newspaper circulars can be used to promote healthy dietary patterns.

  12. Determinations of ionosphere and plasmasphere electron content for an African chain of GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzella, Andrew J., Jr.; Bosco Habarulema, John; Yizengaw, Endawoke

    2017-05-01

    The confluence of recent instrumentation deployments in Africa with developments for the determination of plasmasphere electron content using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers has provided new opportunities for investigations in that region. This investigation, using a selected chain of GPS stations, extends the method (SCORPION) previously applied to a chain of GPS stations in North America in order to separate the ionosphere and plasmasphere contributions to the total electron content (TEC) during a day (24 July) in 2011. The results span latitudes from the southern tip of Africa, across the Equator, to the southern Arabian Peninsula, providing a continuous latitudinal profile for both the ionosphere and plasmasphere during this day.The peak diurnal vertical ionosphere electron content (IEC) increases from about 14 TEC units (1 TEC unit = 1016 electrons m-2) at the southernmost station to about 32 TEC units near the geographic equator, then decreases to about 28 TEC units at the Arabian Peninsula. The peak diurnal slant plasmasphere electron content (PEC) varies between about 4 and 7 TEC units among the stations, with a local latitudinal profile that is significantly influenced by the viewing geometry at the station location, relative to the magnetic field configuration. In contrast, the peak vertical PEC varies between about 1 and 6 TEC units among the stations, with a more uniform latitudinal variation.Comparisons to other GPS data analyses are also presented for TEC, indicating the influence of the PEC on the determination of latitudinal TEC variations and also on the absolute TEC levels, by inducing an overestimate of the receiver bias. The derived TEC latitudinal profiles, in comparison to global map profiles, tend to differ from the map results only about as much as the map results differ among themselves. A combination of ionosonde IEC and alternative GPS TEC measurements, which in principle permits a PEC determination through their difference, was

  13. Effects of Information Technology on Reducing Perishable Waste in Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipkulei, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Leaders within retail supermarkets struggle to manage perishable waste that has been at least partly attributed to shoppers' desire to buy fresh food; however, supermarket managers do not always exhaust the stock of fresh food as scheduled. Based on disruptive innovation theory, the purpose of this case study was to explore employee use of an…

  14. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR MAINTAINING AND RECORDING ELECTRONIC CHAIN-OF-CUSTODY (SOP-4.11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The method for maintaining and recording electronic Chain-of-Custody (CoC) Records for CTEPP samples is summarized in this SOP. The CoC Records that will be logged electronically include the creation of a sample's identification code, bar code labels, and hard-copy CoC document...

  15. Guiding stars: the effect of a nutrition navigation program on consumer purchases at the supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Lisa A; Kaley, Lori A; Fischer, Leslie

    2010-04-01

    To improve diet quality and overall population health, the need to develop nutritional rating systems that are comprehensive in scope and easy for the consumer to understand and use at the point-of-purchase has emerged. Our aim was to examine the effect of a comprehensive storewide supermarket point-of-purchase nutrition navigation intervention by using a shelf-label 3-tiered star icon on consumer food and beverage choices and their associated nutritional quality. By using a natural experiment design, purchasing data from 2006 to 2008 were obtained from a Northeast supermarket chain with 168 stores located in northern New England and New York and examined at preimplementation and at 1- and 2-y follow-up periods. The nutrition navigation system studied showed significant changes in food purchasing immediately after implementation, and these changes continued to be significant 1 and 2 y later. When the same 8-mo period (January-August) each year was compared, in 2006, 24.50% of items purchased earned a star rating; this proportion increased to 24.98% (P supermarket point-of-purchase programs, such as the Guiding Stars nutrition navigation program, that provide clear, concise, and simplified nutrition information to guide consumer food and beverage choices.

  16. Reactive oxygen species production by forward and reverse electron fluxes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly A Selivanov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS produced in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC are primary signals that modulate cellular adaptation to environment, and are also destructive factors that damage cells under the conditions of hypoxia/reoxygenation relevant for various systemic diseases or transplantation. The important role of ROS in cell survival requires detailed investigation of mechanism and determinants of ROS production. To perform such an investigation we extended our rule-based model of complex III in order to account for electron transport in the whole RC coupled to proton translocation, transmembrane electrochemical potential generation, TCA cycle reactions, and substrate transport to mitochondria. It fits respiratory electron fluxes measured in rat brain mitochondria fueled by succinate or pyruvate and malate, and the dynamics of NAD(+ reduction by reverse electron transport from succinate through complex I. The fitting of measured characteristics gave an insight into the mechanism of underlying processes governing the formation of free radicals that can transfer an unpaired electron to oxygen-producing superoxide and thus can initiate the generation of ROS. Our analysis revealed an association of ROS production with levels of specific radicals of individual electron transporters and their combinations in species of complexes I and III. It was found that the phenomenon of bistability, revealed previously as a property of complex III, remains valid for the whole RC. The conditions for switching to a state with a high content of free radicals in complex III were predicted based on theoretical analysis and were confirmed experimentally. These findings provide a new insight into the mechanisms of ROS production in RC.

  17. A microbiological survey of fresh meat in the supermarket trade. Part 2: beef retail cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortjé, G L; Nel, L; Jordaan, E; Naudé, R T; Holzapfel, W H; Grimbeek, R J

    1989-01-01

    An assessment was made of the microbiological quality of the final product (different retail cuts), produced by two different retail supermarket groups (A & B). The influence of sanitary conditions on the microbiological quality of the final product was evaluated, and the possible influences on shelf life were determined. Supermarket group A (Sup group A) received carcasses with significantly lower surface counts of micro-organisms than supermarket group B (Sup group B), while the latter had a more efficient overall sanitation programme than supermarket group A. Five cuts were monitored for the presence of total aerobic counts, psychrotrophic counts, lactobacilli, Enterobacteriaceae and numbers of Pseudomonadaceae present. A shelf life study was also executed by repeating these enumerations on the same meat samples after refrigerated storage at 5°C for 2 and 4 days, respectively. It is generally accepted that a good refrigeration or chilling regime will preserve the inherent meat quality, but in this study it was found that neither served as a guarantee of quality. The more stringent hygiene at retail level of Sup group B yielded consistently lower mean counts of the different bacterial groups for all the meat cuts monitored and, thus meat with an extended shelf life. The total count (at 30°C) on meat cuts was the highest, followed by the psychrotrophs, the Pseudomonadaceae the Enterobacteriaeae and the lactobacilli. Minced meat generally had the highest mean aerobic total microbial counts. This count on minced meat might be a suitable indicator for monitoring the overall sanitary condition of a retail premises. The results re-emphasized the multi-factorial complexity of fresh meat quality and shelf life. The microbial quality of the raw material (carcasses), the maintenance of the cold chain, sanitary condition of premises, equipment and personnel surfaces and general management practices are factors that collectively determine the microbiological quality of the

  18. Electrochemical studies of a reconstituted photosynthetic electron-transfer chain or towards a biomimetic photoproduction of hydrogen; Etudes electrochimiques de chaines de transfert d'electrons photosynthetiques ou vers une photoproduction biomimetique d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourmond, V

    2007-04-15

    The aim of this work is to find an efficient process to convert solar energy into hydrogen. The electrons transfers in reconstituted photosynthetic chains have been particularly studied with the aims 1)in one hand, to better understand the interactions of the different molecules of the photosynthetic chain in order to optimize the changes of the entire organisms for hydrogen production 2)in another hand, to insert the hydrogenases in a photosynthetic chain and then to photo reduce them in order to obtain kinetic data to better understand how it works. (O.M.)

  19. Cooperative relationships and competitiveness in supermarket sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Centenaro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article aims to investigate the influence of cooperative relations in the performance of companies in the supermarket sector, comparing the companies associated networks with companies not associated. Design/methodology/approach – The research method employed was a survey research with 31 companies. Findings – The results indicate that the cooperative relationships with suppliers have a positive impact on companies of performance, while the cooperative relationships with competitors and local institutions do not influence the performance. Moreover, it appears that there is no relationship between participation in a network of cooperation and achieving superior performance. However, companies linked to the network present better cooperative relationships with suppliers, which positively impacts the performance and therefore have competitive advantages over companies not associated to networks. Originality/value – The cooperative relationships with suppliers can provide benefits such as reducing logistics costs, improved product portfolio, better negotiating prices and terms, partnership for conducting marketing strategies among others, thus increasing the competitiveness of companies in the supermarket sector.

  20. Characterization and Diagnostic Value of Amino Acid Side Chain Neutral Losses Following Electron-Transfer Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiangwei; Lee, M. Violet; Rose, Christopher M.; Marsh, Alyce J.; Hubler, Shane L.; Wenger, Craig D.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2011-02-01

    Using a large set of high mass accuracy and resolution ETD tandem mass spectra, we characterized ETD-induced neutral losses. From these data we deduced the chemical formula for 20 of these losses. Many of them have been previously observed in electron-capture dissociation (ECD) spectra, such as losses of the side chains of arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, asparagine, leucine, histidine, and carbamidomethylated cysteine residues. With this information, we examined the diagnostic value of these amino acid-specific losses. Among 1285 peptide-spectrum matches, 92.5% have agreement between neutral loss-derived peptide amino acid composition and the peptide sequences. Moreover, we show that peptides can be uniquely identified by using only the accurate precursor mass and amino acid composition based on neutral losses; the median number of sequence candidates from an accurate mass query is reduced from 21 to 8 by adding side chain loss information. Besides increasing confidence in peptide identification, our findings suggest the potential use of these diagnostic losses in ETD spectra to improve false discovery rate estimation and to enhance the performance of scoring functions in database search algorithms.

  1. Electron transport chain inhibitors induce microglia activation through enhancing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Junli; Jiang, Zhongxin; Chen, Xuehong; Liu, Mengyang; Li, Jing; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be mediators of excessive microglial activation, yet the resources and mechanism are not fully understood. Here we stimulated murine microglial BV-2 cells and primary microglial cells with different inhibitors of electron transport chain (ETC), rotenone, thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), antimycin A, and NaN3 to induce mitochondrial ROS production and we observed the role of mitochondrial ROS in microglial activation. Our results showed that ETC inhibitors resulted in significant changes in cell viability, microglial morphology, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in both primary cultural microglia and BV-2 cell lines. Moreover, ETC inhibitors, especially rotenone and antimycin A stimulated secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) by microglia with marked activation of mitogen-activated proteinkinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which could be blocked by specific inhibitors of MAPK and NF-κB and mitochondrial antioxidants, Mito-TEMPO. Taken together, our results demonstrated that inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain in microglia led to production of mitochondrial ROS and therefore may activate MAPK/NF-кB dependent inflammatory cytokines release in microglia, which indicated that mitochondrial-derived ROS were contributed to microglial activation.

  2. Sequence of b cytochromes relative to ubiquinone in the electron transport chain of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, J A; Cox, G B

    1978-01-01

    A ubiquinone-deficient mutant, carrying mutations in two genes affecting ubiquinone biosynthesis, has been used, in comparison with a normal strain, to determine the sequence of some of the components of the electron transport chain of Escherichia coli. The amounts of cytochromes reduced during aerobic steady-state conditions were estimated by comparing low-temperature difference spectra of normal or ubiquinone-deficient membranes with either D-lactate or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as substrate. From the amounts of cytochromes reduced it was concluded that ubiquinone functions at two sites, one site being between the dehydrogenases and cytochromes and the second site being after cytochromes b562 and b556 but before cytochromes b558, d, and o. The scheme proposed is discussed in relation to the Mitchell protonmotive ubiquinone cycle. PMID:203570

  3. Electromagnetic probes of molecular motors in the electron transport chains of mitochondria and chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. H., Jr.; Nawarathna, D.; Vajrala, V.; Gardner, J.; Widger, W. R.

    2005-12-01

    We report on measurements of harmonics generated by whole cells, mitochondria, and chloroplasts in response to applied sinusoidal electric fields. The frequency- and amplitude-dependence of the induced harmonics exhibit features that correlate with physiological processes. Budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) cells produce numerous harmonics, the amplitudes of which depend strongly on frequency. When the second or third harmonic amplitude is plotted vs. applied frequency, we observe two peaks, around 3 kHz and 12 kHz, which are suppressed by respiratory inhibitors. We observe similar peaks when measuring the harmonic response of B. indicas, a relative of the mitochondrial ancestor. In uncoupled mitochondria, in which most of the electron transport chain is active but the ATP-synthase molecular turbine is inactive, only one (lower frequency) of the two peaks is present. Finally, we find that harmonics generated by chloroplasts depend dramatically on incident light, and vanish in the absence of light.

  4. Selenium and zinc protect brain mitochondrial antioxidants and electron transport chain enzymes following postnatal protein malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Olusegun L; Adenuga, Gbenga A; Sandhir, Rajat

    2016-05-01

    Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are trace elements required for optimal brain functions. Thus, the role of Se and Zn against protein malnutrition induced oxidative stress on mitochondrial antioxidants and electron transport chain (ETC) enzymes from rats' brain were investigated. Normal protein (NP) and low protein (LP) rats were fed with diets containing 16% and 5% casein respectively for a period of 10weeks. Then the rats were supplemented with Se and Zn at a concentration of 0.15mgL(-1) and 227mgL(-1) in drinking water for 3weeks after which the rats were sacrificed. The results obtained from the study showed significant (pmalnutrition induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electronic densities of states of semi-infinite disordered chains: Comparisons of exact and analytic calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, M.; Podloucky, R.; Gonis, A.; Freeman, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Results of exact and analytic calculations of the electronic densities of states (DOS's) associated with semi-infinite substitutionally disordered chains are presented using the exact position-space renormalization-group (PSRG) method, the augmented-space (AS) formalism, and the embedded-cluster method (ECM). In addition to total DOS's, the PSRG method allows the calculation of exact partial DOS's associated with local atomic configurations in a disordered material. Comparisons with the exact results indicate that as in the case of infinite materials the ECM provides a reliable method for the calculation of single-particle properties, such as the DOS, of semi-infinite systems. Furthermore, the ECM is found to be much more accurate than the AS formalism, especially in the case of concentrated substitutionally disordered alloys.

  6. Magnetic Grüneisen parameter and magnetocaloric properties of a coupled spin–electron double-tetrahedral chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gálisová, Lucia, E-mail: galisova.lucia@gmail.com [Department of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University, Letná 9, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Strečka, Jozef, E-mail: jozef.strecka@upjs.sk [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia)

    2015-10-16

    Magnetocaloric effect in a double-tetrahedral chain, in which nodal lattice sites occupied by the localized Ising spins regularly alternate with three equivalent lattice sites available for mobile electrons, is exactly investigated by considering the one-third electron filling and the ferromagnetic Ising exchange interaction between the mobile electrons and their nearest Ising neighbours. The entropy and the magnetic Grüneisen parameter, which closely relate to the magnetocaloric effect, are exactly calculated in order to investigate the relation between the ground-state degeneracy and the cooling efficiency of the hybrid spin–electron system during the adiabatic demagnetization. - Highlights: • A double-tetrahedral chain of mobile electrons and localized Ising spins is studied. • Magnetic Grüneisen parameter for the system is exactly derived. • Macroscopically degenerate phases FRU and FM constitute the ground state. • MCE is three times higher nearby FRU–FM transition than in FRU phase at small fields.

  7. Correlation-Mediated Processes for Electron-Induced Switching between Néel States of Fe Antiferromagnetic Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauyacq, Jean-Pierre; Yaro, Simeón Moisés; Cartoixà, Xavier; Lorente, Nicolás

    2013-02-01

    The controlled switching between two quasistable Néel states in adsorbed antiferromagnetic Fe chains has recently been achieved by Loth et al. [Science 335, 196 (2012)SCIEAS0036-8075] using tunneling electrons from an STM tip. In order to rationalize their data, we evaluate the rate of tunneling electron-induced switching between the Néel states. Good agreement is found with the experiment, permitting us to identify three switching mechanisms: (i) low STM voltage direct electron-induced transitions, (ii) intermediate STM voltage switching via spin-wave-like excitation, and (iii) high STM voltage transitions mediated by domain-wall formation. Spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic chains are the switching driving force, leading to a marked chain-size dependence.

  8. Pricing of Staple Foods at Supermarkets versus Small Food Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa J; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-08-15

    Prices affect food purchase decisions, particularly in lower-income communities, where access to a range of food retailers (including supermarkets) is limited. The aim of this study was to examine differences in staple food pricing between small urban food stores and the closest supermarkets, as well as whether pricing differentials varied based on proximity between small stores and larger retailers. In 2014, prices were measured for 15 staple foods during store visits in 140 smaller stores (corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN and their closest supermarket. Mixed models controlling for store type were used to estimate the average price differential between: (a) smaller stores and supermarkets; (b) isolated smaller stores (>1 mile to closest supermarket) and non-isolated smaller stores; and (c) isolated smaller stores inside versus outside USDA-identified food deserts. On average, all items except white bread were 10-54% more expensive in smaller stores than in supermarkets (p stores compared with non-isolated stores for most items. Among isolated stores, there were no price differences inside versus outside food deserts. We conclude that smaller food stores have higher prices for most staple foods compared to their closest supermarket, regardless of proximity. More research is needed to examine staple food prices in different retail spaces.

  9. Recruitment and selection for the packer position in a supermarket network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Moraes Cardoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of personnel recruitment and selection is a common practice to hire people in organizations. The goal of this study is to report and to reflect about this process in a supermarket chain, which operates in food and non-food retail in the state of Sao Paulo. The purpose of the present intervention was to facilitate the recruitment and selection process for the packer position. After the intervention, we noticed an improvement on the hiring process, on the working conditions and a turnover reduction in this position.

  10. Composition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in acanthamoeba castellanii: structural and evolutionary insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawryluk, Ryan M R; Chisholm, Kenneth A; Pinto, Devanand M; Gray, Michael W

    2012-11-01

    The mitochondrion, derived in evolution from an α-proteobacterial progenitor, plays a key metabolic role in eukaryotes. Mitochondria house the electron transport chain (ETC) that couples oxidation of organic substrates and electron transfer to proton pumping and synthesis of ATP. The ETC comprises several multiprotein enzyme complexes, all of which have counterparts in bacteria. However, mitochondrial ETC assemblies from animals, plants and fungi are generally more complex than their bacterial counterparts, with a number of 'supernumerary' subunits appearing early in eukaryotic evolution. Little is known, however, about the ETC of unicellular eukaryotes (protists), which are key to understanding the evolution of mitochondria and the ETC. We present an analysis of the ETC proteome from Acanthamoeba castellanii, an ecologically, medically and evolutionarily important member of Amoebozoa (sister to Opisthokonta). Data obtained from tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analyses of purified mitochondria as well as ETC complexes isolated via blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are combined with the results of bioinformatic queries of sequence databases. Our bioinformatic analyses have identified most of the ETC subunits found in other eukaryotes, confirming and extending previous observations. The assignment of proteins as ETC subunits by MS/MS provides important insights into the primary structures of ETC proteins and makes possible, through the use of sensitive profile-based similarity searches, the identification of novel constituents of the ETC along with the annotation of highly divergent but phylogenetically conserved ETC subunits.

  11. Path-integral Monte Carlo simulations for electronic dynamics on molecular chains. II. Transport across impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Lothar; Ankerhold, Joachim

    2005-05-01

    Electron transfer (ET) across molecular chains including an impurity is studied based on a recently improved real-time path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) approach [L. Mühlbacher, J. Ankerhold, and C. Escher, J. Chem. Phys. 121 12696 (2004)]. The reduced electronic dynamics is studied for various bridge lengths and defect site energies. By determining intersite hopping rates from PIMC simulations up to moderate times, the relaxation process in the extreme long-time limit is captured within a sequential transfer model. The total transfer rate is extracted and shown to be enhanced for certain defect site energies. Superexchange turns out to be relevant for extreme gap energies only and then gives rise to different dynamical signatures for high- and low-lying defects. Further, it is revealed that the entire bridge compound approaches a steady state on a much shorter time scale than that related to the total transfer. This allows for a simplified description of ET along donor-bridge-acceptor systems in the long-time range.

  12. Biphasic modulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Ling; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Yeh, Steve T; Zweier, Jay L; Chen, Yeong-Renn

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is the major source of reactive oxygen species during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ischemic defect and reperfusion-induced injury to ETC are critical in the disease pathogenesis of postischemic heart. The properties of ETC were investigated in an isolated heart model of global I/R. Rat hearts were subjected to ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 1 h. Studies of mitochondrial function indicated a biphasic modulation of electron transfer activity (ETA) and ETC protein expression during I/R. Analysis of ETAs in the isolated mitochondria indicated that complexes I, II, III, and IV activities were diminished after 30 min of ischemia but increased upon restoration of flow. Immunoblotting analysis and ultrastructural analysis with transmission electron microscopy further revealed marked downregulation of ETC in the ischemic heart and then upregulation of ETC upon reperfusion. No significant difference in the mRNA expression level of ETC was detected between ischemic and postischemic hearts. However, reperfusion-induced ETC biosynthesis in myocardium can be inhibited by cycloheximide, indicating the involvement of translational control. Immunoblotting analysis of tissue homogenates revealed a similar profile in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α expression, suggesting its essential role as an upstream regulator in controlling ETC biosynthesis during I/R. Significant impairment caused by ischemic and postischemic injury was observed in the complexes I- III. Analysis of NADH ferricyanide reductase activity indicated that injury of flavoprotein subcomplex accounts for 50% decline of intact complex I activity from ischemic heart. Taken together, our findings provide a new insight into the molecular mechanism of I/R-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  13. Life-span distributions of supermarket products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Takayasu, Misako

    2010-04-01

    We have analyzed the lifetime distributions of more than 0.7 million products sold across approximately 400 Japanese supermarkets. The distributions are well approximated by an exponential function for products with lifetimes longer than 1000 days, implying that the manufacturers' decisions about whether to continue production are purely random. However, the distributions tend to deviate from an exponential distribution for products with lifetimes shorter than 1000 days. Specifically, the distributions for food products exhibit a quicker decay in a short time scale, suggesting the existence of competing products during the initial stages of the product lifecycle. On the other hand, the distributions for toiletry products exhibit a slower decay in a short time scale.

  14. Synchronization Analysis of the Supermarket Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Chen, Liang; Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth

    2009-01-01

    consumption. The paper focuses on synchronization dynamics of the refrigeration system modeled as a piecewiseaffine switched system. Stability analysis is performed bygluing the subsystems and polyhedra together to form a single dynamical system defined on a coherent state space. Then, system behavior......The supermarket refrigeration system typically has a distributed control structure, which neglects interactions between its subsystems. These interactions from time to time lead to a synchronization operation of the display-cases which causes an inferior control performance and increased energy...... is analyzed using the bifurcation and chaos theory. It is demonstrated that the system can have a complex chaotic behavior, which is far from the synchronization. This shows that making the system chaotic is a good choice for a de-synchronization strategy. The positive maximum Lyapunov exponent is usually...

  15. Multiple mobility edges in a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction in presence of electric field: Controlled electron transport

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Srilekha; Maiti, Santanu K.; Karmakar, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic behavior of a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction is critically analyzed in presence of electric field. Multiple energy bands are generated as a result of Hubbard correlation and Aubry potential, and, within these bands localized states are developed under the application of electric field. Within a tight-binding framework we compute electronic transmission probability and average density of states using Green's function approach where the interaction parameter is treated under...

  16. Pester power: snackfoods displayed at supermarket checkouts in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Parkinson, Kristiina

    2006-08-01

    To establish the amount and accessibility of snack food displayed at supermarket checkouts located in Melbourne, Australia. Observational survey of 24 randomly selected supermarkets situated within a 20-kilometre radius of Melbourne's General Post Office. Individual checkouts within each store (n=257) were observed to determine the types of items that were displayed, how they were promoted, and whether they were within the reach of children. All supermarkets surveyed displayed food products at their checkouts, with most checkouts displaying chocolate (87%), gum (81%) and sweets (80%). Only 7% of checkouts had their display of foods or drinks out of the reach of children. Foods displayed at supermarket checkouts in Melbourne are predominantly energy-dense confectionery items. They are often promoted in a way that targets children and encourages parents to impulse buy for their children.

  17. Super-Exponential Solution for a Retrial Supermarket Model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan-Lin; Wang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a new and effective approach for studying super-exponential solution of a retrial supermarket model with Poisson arrivals, exponential service times and exponential retrial times and with two different probing-server numbers. We describe the retrial supermarket model as a system of differential equations by means of density-dependent jump Markov processes, and obtain an iterative algorithm for computing the fixed point of the system of differential equations. Based on the fixed point, we analyze the expected sojourn time that a tagged arriving customer spends in this system, and use numerical examples to indicate different influence of the two probing-server numbers on system performance including the fixed point and the expected sojourn time. Furthermore, we analyze exponential convergence of the current location of the retrial supermarket model to the fixed point, and apply the Kurtz Theorem to study density-dependent jump Markov process given in the retrial supermarket model, whic...

  18. Supermarket refrigeration modeling and field demonstration: Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.H.; Deming, G.I.

    1989-03-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a project to investigate supermarket refrigeration. The objectives of this project are (1) to develop an energy use and demand model of supermarket refrigeration systems and (2) to carry out an extensive field test of such systems in an operating supermarket. To accomplish these goals, a supermarket owned by Safeway Stores, Inc., and located in Menlo Park, CA, with an existing conventional refrigeration system utilizing single compressor units, was equipped with a state-of-the-art system with multiplexed parallel compressors. The store and both refrigeration systems were thoroughly instrumented and a test schedule was prepared and executed. Presented in this report are the preliminary results of this field test along with the initial validation of the energy use and demand model. 62 figs., 47 tabs.

  19. Animated Powerpoint Presentations for Teaching Operations and Supply Chain Management: Perceived Value and Electronic Exchange of Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treleven, Mark D.; Penlesky, Richard J.; Callarman, Thomas E.; Watts, Charles A.; Bragg, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the innovation of sharing animated PowerPoint presentations used in teaching operations and supply chain management techniques and concepts through an international electronic exchange. The plan for the exchange is presented and discussed. The potential benefits to faculty and students of using PowerPoint animations in…

  20. Electron-correlation effects on the static longitudinal polarizability of polymeric chains. II. Bond-length-alternation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Benoît; Mosley, David H.; Vračko, Marjan; André, Jean-Marie

    1995-08-01

    Ab initio calculations of the static longitudinal polarizability of different molecular hydrogen model chains have been carried out at different levels of approximation to investigate the effects of including electron correlation as well as the variation of these effects as a function of the bond-length alternation of the systems. First, the coupled and uncoupled Hartree-Fock schemes have been employed. To assess the electron-correlation effects, the size-consistent Mo/ller-Plesset treatments limited to second (MP2), third (MP3), and fourth (MP4) order in electron-electron interactions, as well as the coupled-cluster techniques including all double substitutions (CCD), all single and double substitutions (CCSD), and all single and double substitutions with a perturbational estimate of the connected triple excitations [CCSD(T)] have been used. Within the MP4 treatment, a decomposition of the electron-correlation corrections according to the different classes of substitutions and different order highlights the relatively greater importance of the double substitutions at second and third orders. The main findings are that (i) the coupled Hartree-Fock (CHF) technique overestimates the asymptotic static longitudinal polarizability per unit cell for the three types of H2 chains under investigation; (ii) larger basis sets have to be employed when including electron correlation effects, otherwise, the correction is overestimated; (iii) these basis-set effects on the electron-correlation correction are enhanced in the case of the less alternating chains; (iv) using a sufficiently large atomic basis set, at the Mo/ller-Plesset or CCSD(T) levels, the more conjugated the chains, the less the relative magnitude of the electron-correlation correction to the CHF value, whereas using the CCD and CCSD techniques, these relative electron-correlation corrections slightly increase in the case of the less alternating molecular hydrogen chains; and (v) the more conjugated the systems

  1. Mitochondrial H2O2 generated from electron transport chain complex 1 stimulates muscle differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seonmin Lee; Eunyoung Tak; Jisun Lee; MA Rashid; Michael P Murphy; Joohun Ha; Sung Soo Kim

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species(mROS)have been considered detrimental to cells. However, their physiological roles as signaling mediators have not been thoroughly explored. Here, we investigated whether mROS generated from mitochondrial electron transport chain(mETC)complex I stimulated muscle differentiation. Our results showed that the quantity of mROS was increased and that manganese superoxide dismutase(MnSOD)was induced via NF-KB activation during muscle differentiation. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants(MitoQ and MitoTEMPOL)and mitochondria-targeted catalase decreased mROS quantity and suppressed muscle differentiation without affecting the amount of ATP Mitochondrial alterations, including the induction of mitochondrial transcription factor A and an increase in the number and size of mitochondria, and functional activations were observed during muscle differentiation. In particular, increased expression levels of mETC complex I subunits and a higher activity of complex I than other complexes were observed. Rotenone, an inhibitor of mETC complex I, decreased the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio and mROS levels during muscle differentiation. The inhibition of complex I using small interfering RNAs and rotenone reduced mROS levels, suppressed muscle differentiation, and depleted ATP levels with a concomitant increase in glycolysis. From these results, we conclude that complex I-derived O2, produced through reverse electron transport due to enhanced metabolism and a high activity of complex I, was dismutated into H2O2 by MnSOD induced via NF-KB activation and that the dismutated mH202 stimulated muscle differentiation as a signaling messenger.

  2. Multiple mobility edges in a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction in presence of electric field: Controlled electron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Srilekha; Maiti, Santanu K.; Karmakar, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic behavior of a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction is critically analyzed in presence of electric field. Multiple energy bands are generated as a result of Hubbard correlation and Aubry potential, and, within these bands localized states are developed under the application of electric field. Within a tight-binding framework we compute electronic transmission probability and average density of states using Green's function approach where the interaction parameter is treated under Hartree-Fock mean field scheme. From our analysis we find that selective transmission can be obtained by tuning injecting electron energy, and thus, the present model can be utilized as a controlled switching device.

  3. Diet And Perceptions Change With Supermarket Introduction In A Food Desert, But Not Because Of Supermarket Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Cohen, Deborah A; Beckman, Robin; Steiner, Elizabeth D; Hunter, Gerald P; Flórez, Karen R; Huang, Christina; Vaughan, Christine A; Sloan, Jennifer C; Zenk, Shannon N; Cummins, Steven; Collins, Rebecca L

    2015-11-01

    Placing full-service supermarkets in food deserts--areas with limited access to healthy food--has been promoted as a way to reduce inequalities in access to healthy food, improve diet, and reduce the risk of obesity. However, previous studies provide scant evidence of such impacts. We surveyed households in two Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, neighborhoods in 2011 and 2014, one of which received a new supermarket in 2013. Comparing trends in the two neighborhoods, we obtained evidence of multiple positive impacts from new supermarket placement. In the new supermarket neighborhood we found net positive changes in overall dietary quality; average daily intakes of kilocalories and added sugars; and percentage of kilocalories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcohol. However, the only positive outcome in the recipient neighborhood specifically associated with regular use of the new supermarket was improved perceived access to healthy food. We did not observe differential improvement between the neighborhoods in fruit and vegetable intake, whole grain consumption, or body mass index. Incentivizing supermarkets to locate in food deserts is appropriate. However, efforts should proceed with caution, until the mechanisms by which the stores affect diet and their ability to influence weight status are better understood.

  4. Evaluation of the influence of management fads in adoption of management tools in supermarket chains of Santa Catarina Evaluación de la influencia de los modismos gerenciales en la adopción de herramientas de gestión en las redes de supermercados de Santa Catarina Avaliação da influência dos modismos gerenciais na adoção de ferramentas de gestão nas redes de supermercados de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Filardi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The systematic challenge for the conquest and retention of customers has produced a literary market of management gurus and quacks who have won generous space in bookstores to sell magic formulas in an attempt to transform business management into an exact science. This study investigated the largest supermarket chains in Santa Catarina to determine criteria that led managers to choose the management tools adopted and whether fads influence this choice. Research was conducted using a multi-case study with data collected by semi-structured interviews and documentary analysis. The sample was based upon data provided by the"Associação Catarinense de Supermercados (ACATS", Santa Catarina Association of Supermarkets from which the ten largest supermarket chains of Santa Catarina were selected. Results show that their management models are tailored to immediate needs, without planning and that the chains are family-run, conservative and reactive. There is a strong coalition among them and tools of management adopted by most of them revealed a homogeneous origin as well as similar reasons for adopting them, indicating a strong influence of business fadsLa busca constante por la conquista y retención del cliente originó un mercado literario de curanderos y gurús de la gestión, que adquirieron generosos espacios en las librerías vendiendo fórmulas mágicas en la tentativa de transformar la gestión de negocios en ciencia exacta. Este estudio investigó la situación de las mayores redes de supermercados de Santa Catarina, teniendo como objetivo verificar qué criterios llevaron a sus gestores a elegir las herramientas de gestión adoptadas y si hay influencia del modismo en esa preferencia. La investigación fue conducida a través de un estudio múltiple y contó, como instrumentos de colecta de datos, con entrevistas semiestructuradas y análisis de documentos. La muestra fue delimitada basándose en los datos proporcionados por la Asociaci

  5. The importance of the on-site electron-electron interaction for the magnetic coupling in the zigzag spin-chain compound In2VO5

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2010-09-27

    We present first-principles electronic structure calculations for the zigzag spin-chain compound In2VO5 using the generalized gradient approximation both with and without inclusion of an on-site Coulomb interaction. It has been proposed that In2VO5 is characterized by itinerant V 3d electrons at high temperature and localized electrons at low temperature. Consequently, it is to be expected that electronic correlations play an important role for the magnetic transition from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic exchange around 120 K. In this context, we study the electronic and magnetic properties of a set of possible spin configurations. Our calculations show that inclusion of an on-site Coulomb interaction in fact changes the ground state from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Relationship between mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction, development, and life extension in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane L Rea

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC function in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can result in life extension. Counter to these findings, many mutations that disrupt ETC function in humans are known to be pathologically life-shortening. In this study, we have undertaken the first formal investigation of the role of partial mitochondrial ETC inhibition and its contribution to the life-extension phenotype of C. elegans. We have developed a novel RNA interference (RNAi dilution strategy to incrementally reduce the expression level of five genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in C. elegans: atp-3, nuo-2, isp-1, cco-1, and frataxin (frh-1. We observed that each RNAi treatment led to marked alterations in multiple ETC components. Using this dilution technique, we observed a consistent, three-phase lifespan response to increasingly greater inhibition by RNAi: at low levels of inhibition, there was no response, then as inhibition increased, lifespan responded by monotonically lengthening. Finally, at the highest levels of RNAi inhibition, lifespan began to shorten. Indirect measurements of whole-animal oxidative stress showed no correlation with life extension. Instead, larval development, fertility, and adult size all became coordinately affected at the same point at which lifespan began to increase. We show that a specific signal, initiated during the L3/L4 larval stage of development, is sufficient for initiating mitochondrial dysfunction-dependent life extension in C. elegans. This stage of development is characterized by the last somatic cell divisions normally undertaken by C. elegans and also by massive mitochondrial DNA expansion. The coordinate effects of mitochondrial dysfunction on several cell cycle-dependent phenotypes, coupled with recent findings directly linking cell cycle progression with mitochondrial activity in C. elegans, lead us to propose that cell cycle checkpoint control

  7. Ischemic postconditioning influences electron transport chain protein turnover in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Cao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia postconditioning (IPo is a promising strategy in reducing myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury (MIRI, but its specific molecular mechanism is incompletely understood. Langendorff-perfused isolated rat hearts were subjected to global I/R and received IPo in the absence or presence of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mitoKATP blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD. Myocardial mitochondria were extracted and mitochondrial comparative proteomics was analyzed. IPo significantly reduces post-ischemic myocardial infarction and improved cardiac function in I/R rat hearts, while 5-HD basically cancelled IPo’s myocardial protective effect. Joint application of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE and MALDI-TOF MS identified eight differentially expressed proteins between groups. Expression of cardiac succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone flavoprotein subunit (SDHA increased more than two-fold after I/R, while IPo led to overexpression of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone flavoprotein 1 and isoform CRA_b (NDUFV1. When the mitoKATP was blocked, MICOS complex subunit Mic60 (IMMT and Stress-70 protein (Grp75 were over expressed, while DLDH, ATPase subunit A (ATPA and rCG44606 were decreased. Seven of the differential proteins belong to electron transport chain (ETC or metabolism regulating proteins, and five of them were induced by closing mitoKATP in I/R hearts. We thus conclude that IPo’s myocardial protective effect relies on energy homeostasis regulation. DLD, SDHA, NDUFV1, Grp75, ATPA and rCG44606 may contribute to IPo’s cardial protective effect.

  8. Ischemic postconditioning influences electron transport chain protein turnover in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Song; Liu, Yun; Wang, Haiying; Mao, Xiaowen; Chen, Jincong; Liu, Jiming; Xia, Zhengyuan; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Xingkui; Yu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia postconditioning (IPo) is a promising strategy in reducing myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury (MIRI), but its specific molecular mechanism is incompletely understood. Langendorff-perfused isolated rat hearts were subjected to global I/R and received IPo in the absence or presence of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mitoKATP) blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD). Myocardial mitochondria were extracted and mitochondrial comparative proteomics was analyzed. IPo significantly reduces post-ischemic myocardial infarction and improved cardiac function in I/R rat hearts, while 5-HD basically cancelled IPo's myocardial protective effect. Joint application of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE) and MALDI-TOF MS identified eight differentially expressed proteins between groups. Expression of cardiac succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) flavoprotein subunit (SDHA) increased more than two-fold after I/R, while IPo led to overexpression of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) flavoprotein 1 and isoform CRA_b (NDUFV1). When the mitoKATP was blocked, MICOS complex subunit Mic60 (IMMT) and Stress-70 protein (Grp75) were over expressed, while DLDH, ATPase subunit A (ATPA) and rCG44606 were decreased. Seven of the differential proteins belong to electron transport chain (ETC) or metabolism regulating proteins, and five of them were induced by closing mitoKATP in I/R hearts. We thus conclude that IPo's myocardial protective effect relies on energy homeostasis regulation. DLD, SDHA, NDUFV1, Grp75, ATPA and rCG44606 may contribute to IPo's cardial protective effect.

  9. Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain in Heavy Metal-Induced Neurotoxicity: Effects of Cadmium, Mercury, and Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Belyaeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the role of mitochondrial electron transport chain (mtETC in heavy-metal-induced neurotoxicity, we studied action of Cd2+, Hg2+, and Cu2+ on cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species formation, respiratory function, and mitochondrial membrane potential of rat cell line PC12. As found, the metals produced, although in a different way, dose- and time-dependent changes of all these parameters. Importantly, Cd2+ beginning from 10 [mu]M and already at short incubation time (3 h significantly inhibited the FCCP-uncoupled cell respiration; besides, practically the complete inhibition of the respiration was reached after 3 h incubation with 50 [mu]M Hg2+ or 500 [mu]M Cd2+, whereas even after 48 h exposure with 500 [mu]M Cu2+, only a 50% inhibition of the respiration occurred. Against the Cd2+-induced cell injury, not only different antioxidants and mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitors were protective but also such mtETC effectors as FCCP and stigmatellin (complex III inhibitor. However, all mtETC effectors used did not protect against the Hg2+- or Cu2+-induced cell damage. Notably, stigmatellin was shown to be one of the strongest protectors against the Cd2+-induced cell damage, producing a 15–20% increase in the cell viability. The mechanisms of the mtETC involvement in the heavy-metal-induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and cell death are discussed.

  10. Correlational and thermodynamic properties of finite-temperature electron liquids in the hypernetted-chain approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shigenori

    2016-12-01

    Correlational and thermodynamic properties of homogeneous electron liquids at finite temperatures are theoretically analyzed in terms of dielectric response formalism with the hypernetted-chain (HNC) approximation and its modified version. The static structure factor and the local-field correction to describe the strong Coulomb-coupling effects beyond the random-phase approximation are self-consistently calculated through solution to integral equations in the paramagnetic (spin unpolarized) and ferromagnetic (spin polarized) states. In the ground state with the normalized temperature θ =0 , the present HNC scheme well reproduces the exchange-correlation energies obtained by quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations over the whole fluid phase (the coupling constant rs≤100 ), i.e., within 1% and 2% deviations from putative best QMC values in the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic states, respectively. As compared with earlier studies based on the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjölander and modified convolution approximations, some improvements on the correlation energies and the correlation functions including the compressibility sum rule are found in the intermediate to strong coupling regimes. When applied to the electron fluids at intermediate Fermi degeneracies (θ ≈1 ), the static structure factors calculated in the HNC scheme show good agreements with the results obtained by the path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulation, while a small negative region in the radial distribution function is observed near the origin, which may be associated with a slight overestimation for the exchange-correlation hole in the HNC approximation. The interaction energies are calculated for various combinations of density and temperature parameters ranging from strong to weak degeneracy and from weak to strong coupling, and the HNC values are then parametrized as functions of rs and θ. The HNC exchange-correlation free energies obtained through the coupling-constant integration show reasonable

  11. Control system for the whole supermarket; Regeltechnik fuer den kompletten Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelborn, H. [Danfoss GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    The electronic control system for refrigerated cabinets and refrigeration installations allows the operators of supermarkets to save energy. By integrating the controller for refrigeration, heating, ventilation and air conditioning into an overall communication concept, a monitoring and evaluation system is produced, which supplies the plant operator with data for the analysis of the operational data of their markets. (orig.) [German] Die elektronische Regeltechnik fuer Kuehlmoebel und Kaelteanlagen erlaubt den Betreibern von Supermaerkten einen Energie sparenden Anlagenbetrieb. Durch die Einbindung der Regelung fuer Kaelte, Heizung, Lueftung und Klimatisierung in ein gesamtes Kommunikationskonzept entsteht ein Ueberwachungs- und Bewertungssystem, das dem Anlagenbetreiber Daten zur betriebswirtschaftlichen Analyse seiner Maerkte liefert. (orig.)

  12. "El cliente siempre tiene la razón": procesos de construcción de subjetividad en trabajadores jóvenes de una cadena multinacional de supermercados en la ciudad de Rosario "Client´s always right": Subjectivity construction´s process in young workers of a multinational chain of supermarkets in Rosario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guiamet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo abordamos la problemática de la construcción de subjetividad de trabajadores jóvenes de supermercados desde la perspectiva de su relación con el cliente, ya que consideramos que en ésta se articulan una serie de dimensiones significativas del trabajo en supermercados. Las políticas empresariales en la actualidad tienden a incorporar a la subjetividad obrera en el proceso de valorización del capital y, en este sentido, la atención al cliente se constituye en un mecanismo clave para lograrlo. Además, nos preguntamos cómo se da la apropiación de estos mecanismos por parte de los trabajadores en los procesos de trabajo concretos de atención al cliente, destacando que, si bien estas políticas son eficaces, las prácticas de los trabajadores también conllevan implícitas resignificaciones, apropiaciones y límites frente a estas políticas.In this work we deal with the problem of the subjectivity construction of supermarket´s young workers from the perspective of their relationship with the client, since we consider that in this one a series of significant dimentions of the work in supermarkets are articulated. Nowadays, business politics tend to incorporate workers´ subjectivity in the capital´s appreciation process and, in this sense, attention to customer becomes a key mechanism to achieve it. Besides, we ask ourselves how workers aproppiate this mechanisms in concrete work process of attention to client, emphasizing that, beyond this politics´s effectiveness, workers´ practices also take implicit resignifications, appropiations and limits.

  13. Discussion on Business Model of Fresh Produce in Supermarket%刍议超市生鲜农产品经营模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊华

    2013-01-01

    The supermarket operation of fresh produce is the trend. Supermarket chains have a unique advantage in operating the fresh produce, at the same time face many challenges. By enhancing the brand management, category management, sourcing from base, distribution system, quality and safety, information platform six aspects, it can improve the business model of supermarket fresh produce, reduce costs, improve efficiency and quality, and ultimately increase consumer satisfaction and business performance of supermarket chains.%  生鲜农产品的超市化经营是大势所趋。连锁超市在生鲜农产品经营方面有着独特的优势,同时面临着诸多挑战。通过对品牌经营、品类管理、基地直采、配送体系、质量安全、信息平台六个方面进行提升,可以改善连锁超市生鲜农产品的经营模式,从而降低成本、提高效率及改善质量,最终提高消费者满意度和连锁超市的经营绩效。

  14. Logistics supermarket construction based on customer delivered value theory%基于顾客让渡价值理论物流型超市构建研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鸿飞; 高伟

    2012-01-01

    国内外关于超市这种零售业态方面的研究,大多集中在超市的零售经营与管理等方面,在借鉴已有的研究成果基础上,以顾客让渡价值的理论为依据,对传统超市经营现状进行分析,重构零售类超市的供应链,创新性的提出一种新型的零售业态——物流型超市,将物流型超市与网上超市进行分析比较,探讨这种新型零售模式的优势与发展前景。%The researches and practices largely focus on retail operation and management about supermarket in china and abroad.This article mostly analyzes the management situation of the traditional supermarket on the basis of existing research results,remodeling the supply chain of retail supermarket based on customer delivered value theory.This paper innovatively proposing the concept of a new retailing format——logistics supermarket,making a comparison between logistics supermarket and online supermarket.Furthermore,development prospect and advantages of the new retailing format are discussed.

  15. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  16. Implementation of Outstanding Electronic Transport in Polar Covalent Boron Nitride Atomic Chains: another Extraordinary Odd-Even Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Li, Weiqi; Liu, Linhua; Feng, Jikang; Jiang, Yongyuan; Tian, Wei Quan

    2016-05-23

    A theoretical investigation of the unique electronic transport properties of the junctions composed of boron nitride atomic chains bridging symmetric graphene electrodes with point-contacts is executed through non-equilibrium Green's function technique in combination with density functional theory. Compared with carbon atomic chains, the boron nitride atomic chains have an alternative arrangement of polar covalent B-N bonds and different contacts coupling electrodes, showing some unusual properties in functional atomic electronic devices. Remarkably, they have an extraordinary odd-even behavior of conductivity with the length increase. The rectification character and negative differential resistance of nonlinear current-voltage characteristics can be achieved by manipulating the type of contacts between boron nitride atomic chains bridges and electrodes. The junctions with asymmetric contacts have an intrinsic rectification, caused by stronger coupling in the C-N contact than the C-B contact. On the other hand, for symmetric contact junctions, it is confirmed that the transport properties of the junctions primarily depend on the nature of contacts. The junctions with symmetric C-N contacts have higher conductivity than their C-B contacts counterparts. Furthermore, the negative differential resistances of the junctions with only C-N contacts is very conspicuous and can be achieved at lower bias.

  17. A simple and versatile electronic control system for a picosecond Nd:YLF oscillator - Nd:glass amplifier laser chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navathe, C. P.; Ansari, M. S.; Upadhyay, J.; Sreedhar, N.; Chandra, R.; Bundel, H. R.; Moorti, A.; Gupta, P. D.

    1997-11-01

    An electronic control system, developed for power conditioning of a picosecond Nd:YLF - Nd:glass laser oscillator - amplifier chain is described. The system generates charging and firing signals required for a commercial picosecond oscillator operated in a repetitive mode, and also carries out a charging and firing sequence of external amplifiers for single-shot operation. The system also controls a mechanical shutter to selectively pass a laser pulse from the oscillator for subsequent amplification. The laser chain includes a Faraday isolator incorporated with a safety check. A control signal is generated by this unit when conditions suitable for a sufficient level of isolation are achieved, and the same is used for gating the oscillator pulse. Good synchronization is confirmed from the measurements of amplifier gain as a function of the relative time delay in firing of different stages. The electronics developed is simple and modular, with sufficient scope for expansion of the system, and resistant to electromagnetic interference.

  18. Impact of HVAC control improvements on supermarket humidity levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattar, M.; Henderson, H.I. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents field-monitored data from two supermarkets where the impact of implementing minor HVAC control improvements was evaluated. The control improvements were intended to increase the dehumidification capacity of the HVAC system and lower space humidity levels. Direct digital control (DDC) was installed at each store to monitor system performance and implement the control improvements. At the first test store, a 33,400 ft{sup 2} (3,104 m{sup 2}) supermarket near Minneapolis, a conventional 50 ton (176 kW) split system conditioned the sales area. At the second store, a 50,000 ft{sup 2} (4,647 m{sup 2}{minus}) supermarket near Indianapolis, three rooftop units (RTUs) with a total capacity of 98 tons (344 kW) conditioned the store. The results from both supermarkets confirm the impact that supply airflow and part-load control of evaporator coil temperatures can have on dehumidification performance. Seemingly minor control adjustments can often have a big impact on the performance of supermarket HVAC systems. Even enhanced dehumidification technologies, such as heat pipe-assisted evaporator coils, can benefit from minor system tuning.

  19. Using the Electronic Industry Code of Conduct to Evaluate Green Supply Chain Management: An Empirical Study of Taiwan’s Computer Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Ching Liu; Yue-Hwa Yu; Wernick, Iddo K.; Ching-Yuan Chang

    2015-01-01

    Electronics companies throughout Asia recognize the benefits of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) for gaining competitive advantage. A large majority of electronics companies in Taiwan have recently adopted the Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC) Code of Conduct for defining and managing their social and environmental responsibilities throughout their supply chains. We surveyed 106 Tier 1 suppliers to the Taiwanese computer industry to determine their environmental performance...

  20. Non-electron transfer chain mitochondrial defects differently regulate HIF-1α degradation and transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina N. Shvetsova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the main consumers of molecular O2 in a cell as well as an abundant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Both, molecular oxygen and ROS are powerful regulators of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-subunit (HIF-α. While a number of mechanisms in the oxygen-dependent HIF-α regulation are quite well known, the view with respect to mitochondria is less clear. Several approaches using pharmacological or genetic tools targeting the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC indicated that ROS, mainly formed at the Rieske cluster of complex III of the ETC, are drivers of HIF-1α activation. However, studies investigating non-ETC located mitochondrial defects and their effects on HIF-1α regulation are scarce, if at all existing. Thus, in the present study we examined three cell lines with non-ETC mitochondrial defects and focused on HIF-1α degradation and transcription, target gene expression, as well as ROS levels. We found that cells lacking the key enzyme 2-enoyl thioester reductase/mitochondrial enoyl-CoA reductase (MECR, and cells lacking manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD showed a reduced induction of HIF-1α under long-term (20 h hypoxia. By contrast, cells lacking the mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome channel protein Mpv17 displayed enhanced levels of HIF-1α already under normoxic conditions. Further, we show that ROS do not exert a uniform pattern when mediating their effects on HIF-1α, although all mitochondrial defects in the used cell types increased ROS formation. Moreover, all defects caused a different HIF-1α regulation via promoting HIF-1α degradation as well as via changes in HIF-1α transcription. Thereby, MECR- and MnSOD-deficient cells showed a reduction in HIF-1α mRNA levels whereas the Mpv17 lacking cells displayed enhanced HIF-1α mRNA levels under normoxia and hypoxia. Altogether, our study shows for the first time that mitochondrial defects which are not related to the ETC and Krebs cycle

  1. Visualizing changes in electron distribution in coupled chains of cytochrome bc1 by modifying barrier for electron transfer between the FeS cluster and heme c1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieluch, Ewelina; Pietryga, Krzysztof; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2010-01-01

    Cytochrome c1 of Rhodobacter (Rba.) species provides a series of mutants which change barriers for electron transfer through the cofactor chains of cytochrome bc1 by modifying heme c1 redox midpoint potential. Analysis of post-flash electron distribution in such systems can provide useful information about the contribution of individual reactions to the overall electron flow. In Rba. capsulatus, the non-functional low-potential forms of cytochrome c1 which are devoid of the disulfide bond naturally present in this protein revert spontaneously by introducing a second-site suppression (mutation A181T) that brings the potential of heme c1 back to the functionally high levels, yet maintains it some 100 mV lower from the native value. Here we report that the disulfide and the mutation A181T can coexist in one protein but the mutation exerts a dominant effect on the redox properties of heme c1 and the potential remains at the same lower value as in the disulfide-free form. This establishes effective means to modify a barrier for electron transfer between the FeS cluster and heme c1 without breaking disulfide. A comparison of the flash-induced electron transfers in native and mutated cytochrome bc1 revealed significant differences in the post-flash equilibrium distribution of electrons only when the connection of the chains with the quinone pool was interrupted at the level of either of the catalytic sites by the use of specific inhibitors, antimycin or myxothiazol. In the non-inhibited system no such differences were observed. We explain the results using a kinetic model in which a shift in the equilibrium of one reaction influences the equilibrium of all remaining reactions in the cofactor chains. It follows a rather simple description in which the direction of electron flow through the coupled chains of cytochrome bc1 exclusively depends on the rates of all reversible partial reactions, including the Q/QH2 exchange rate to/from the catalytic sites. PMID:19917265

  2. Reducing cancer risk in rural communities through supermarket interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified.

  3. INTELLIGENT APRIORI ALGORITHM FOR COMPLEX ACTIVITY MINING IN SUPERMARKET APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ganesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As shopping becomes a shared experience and joint process with friends or family members nowadays, the most important problems arise with variety of products and the product information available in the supermarkets. This study proposes a system that uses Intelligent Apriori algorithm to support consumers in getting the required items from various supermarkets. Also this work intelligently suggests the best movement and reducing unwanted movement of the customer and quickly finds out the next operation which includes the next supermarket which is visited by the customer for the next item he/she purchases. This approach can further be extended to the world of mobile communication where the next movement of the mobile user can be predicted and used intelligently to arrange necessary requirements at the destination before he actually reaches. The feasibility of this approach is tested under simple conditions and the results are presented in this study.

  4. Evaluasi Customer Relationship Management pada Supermarket Hero di Jakarta Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liawatimena

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing of many big retailer make Hero Supermarket must obtaining it’s existance in retail business. Therefore, Hero Supermarket must form CRM (Customer Relationship Management in order to increase a new customer, increase profit and maintaining customer, and pay attention to valuable customer. Data analysis done by searching procentage from many questions and cartesius diagram. The conclusion, the highest suitable level there are 98,27%  of quality product and the lowest is the price of merchandise, which is 45,35%. Some atribute are over the customers hope, that is good shopping place image, completeness, the comfortable and easyness in shopping, and safetyness. There are five most important atribut, that is the price, quality, completeness, the comfortable and easyness in shopping, and parking space. Those atribute will determine wether the customer of Hero Supermarket will be loyal or not.

  5. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida Mae; Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Glumer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Design: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets...... and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v......, such that neighbourhoods in the lowest income quartile had fewer fast-food outlets than higher-income neighbourhoods. These findings have similarities with studies conducted in the UK, but not in the USA. The results suggest there may be socio-economic factors other than income associated with food exposure in Europe....

  6. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak; Onay, Turgut T

    2014-01-01

    Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW+DPW+MW+SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added), respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  7. Microbiological quality of fresh produce from open air markets and supermarkets in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Pierangeli G; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B; Widmer, Kenneth W; Rivera, Windell L

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first in the Philippines to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and somatic phages in retailed fresh produce used in salad preparation, namely, bell pepper, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, and tomato, using culture and molecular methods. Out of 300 samples from open air and supermarkets, 16.7% tested positive for thermotolerant Escherichia coli, 24.7% for Salmonella spp., and 47% for somatic phages. Results show that counts range from 0.30 to 4.03 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, 0.66 to ≥ 2.34 log10 MPN/g for Salmonella spp., and 1.30 to ≥ 3.00 log 10 PFU/g for somatic phages. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference in the microbial counts between open air and supermarkets (α = 0.05). TaqMan and AccuPower Plus DualStar real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to confirm the presence of these organisms. The relatively high prevalence of microorganisms observed in produce surveyed signifies reduction in shelf-life and a potential hazard to food safety. This information may benefit farmers, consumers, merchants, and policy makers for foodborne disease detection and prevention.

  8. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Produce from Open Air Markets and Supermarkets in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Pierangeli G.; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B.; Widmer, Kenneth W.; Rivera, Windell L.

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first in the Philippines to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and somatic phages in retailed fresh produce used in salad preparation, namely, bell pepper, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, and tomato, using culture and molecular methods. Out of 300 samples from open air and supermarkets, 16.7% tested positive for thermotolerant Escherichia coli, 24.7% for Salmonella spp., and 47% for somatic phages. Results show that counts range from 0.30 to 4.03 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, 0.66 to ≥2.34 log10 MPN/g for Salmonella spp., and 1.30 to ≥3.00 log10 PFU/g for somatic phages. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference in the microbial counts between open air and supermarkets (α = 0.05). TaqMan and AccuPower Plus DualStar real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to confirm the presence of these organisms. The relatively high prevalence of microorganisms observed in produce surveyed signifies reduction in shelf-life and a potential hazard to food safety. This information may benefit farmers, consumers, merchants, and policy makers for foodborne disease detection and prevention. PMID:24963502

  9. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Produce from Open Air Markets and Supermarkets in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangeli G. Vital

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first in the Philippines to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and somatic phages in retailed fresh produce used in salad preparation, namely, bell pepper, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, and tomato, using culture and molecular methods. Out of 300 samples from open air and supermarkets, 16.7% tested positive for thermotolerant Escherichia coli, 24.7% for Salmonella spp., and 47% for somatic phages. Results show that counts range from 0.30 to 4.03 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, 0.66 to ≥2.34 log10 MPN/g for Salmonella spp., and 1.30 to ≥3.00 log10 PFU/g for somatic phages. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference in the microbial counts between open air and supermarkets (α=0.05. TaqMan and AccuPower Plus DualStar real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to confirm the presence of these organisms. The relatively high prevalence of microorganisms observed in produce surveyed signifies reduction in shelf-life and a potential hazard to food safety. This information may benefit farmers, consumers, merchants, and policy makers for foodborne disease detection and prevention.

  10. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems. Country Report, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard; Christensen, K. G.

    Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because the great...... conclusions as far energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusion justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system analyses...

  11. Engineered electron-transfer chain in photosystem 1 based photocathodes outperforms electron-transfer rates in natural photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, Tim; Pöller, Sascha; Zhao, Fangyuan; Fortgang, Philippe; Rögner, Matthias; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Plumeré, Nicolas

    2014-08-25

    Photosystem 1 (PS1) triggers the most energetic light-induced charge-separation step in nature and the in vivo electron-transfer rates approach 50 e(-)  s(-1)  PS1(-1). Photoelectrochemical devices based on this building block have to date underperformed with respect to their semiconductor counterparts or to natural photosynthesis in terms of electron-transfer rates. We present a rational design of a redox hydrogel film to contact PS1 to an electrode for photocurrent generation. We exploit the pH-dependent properties of a poly(vinyl)imidazole Os(bispyridine)2Cl polymer to tune the redox hydrogel film for maximum electron-transfer rates under optimal conditions for PS1 activity. The PS1-containing redox hydrogel film displays electron-transfer rates of up to 335±14 e(-)  s(-1)  PS1(-1), which considerably exceeds the rates observed in natural photosynthesis or in other semiartificial systems. Under O2 supersaturation, photocurrents of 322±19 μA cm(-2) were achieved. The photocurrents are only limited by mass transport of the terminal electron acceptor (O2). This implies that even higher electron-transfer rates may be achieved with PS1-based systems in general. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Tetrel Bonds in Infinite Molecular Chains by Electronic Structure Theory and Their Role for Crystal Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Janine; Dronskowski, Richard

    2017-02-16

    Intermolecular bonds play a crucial role in the rational design of crystal structures, dubbed crystal engineering. The relatively new term tetrel bonds (TBs) describes a long-known type of such interactions presently in the focus of quantum chemical cluster calculations. Here, we energetically explore the strengths and cooperativity of these interactions in infinite chains, a possible arrangement of such tetrel bonds in extended crystals, by periodic density functional theory. In the chains, the TBs are amplified due to cooperativity by up to 60%. Moreover, we computationally take apart crystals stabilized by infinite tetrel-bonded chains and assess the importance of the TBs for the crystal stabilization. Tetrel bonds can amount to 70% of the overall interaction energy within some crystals, and they can also be energetically decisive for the taken crystal structure; their individual strengths also compete with the collective packing within the crystal structures.

  13. Molecular dipole static polarisabilities and hyperpolarisabilities of conjugated oligomer chains calculated with the local π-electron coupled cluster theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Zakharov, Anton B.; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2013-12-01

    A new semi-empirical π-electron local coupled cluster theory has been developed to calculate static dipole polarisabilities and hyperpolarisabilities of extended π-conjugated systems. The key idea of the approach is the use of the ethylene molecular orbitals as the orbital basis set for π-conjugated compounds (the method is termed the Covalent Unbonded Molecules of Ethylene method, cue). Test calculations of some small model organic conjugated compounds demonstrate high accuracy of the version of the cue local coupled cluster theory developed in this work in comparison with the π-electron full configuration interaction (FCI) method. Calculations of different conjugated carbon-based oligomer chains (polyenes, polyynes, polyacenes, polybenzocyclobutadiene, etc.) demonstrate fast convergence (per π-electron) of the polarisability and hyperpolarisability values in the calculations when more classes of orbital excitations are included in the coupled cluster single and double (CCSD) excitation operator. The results show qualitatively correct dependence on the system size.

  14. Electronic and optical properties of functionalized carbon chains with the localized Hartree-Fock and conventional Kohn-Sham methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, Martin; Hieringer, Wolfgang; Sala, Fabio Della; Goerling, Andreas

    2005-02-21

    The electronic and optical properties of extended functionalized carbyne chains, polyynes and cumulenes, are investigated with the localized Hartree-Fock method, with conventional Kohn-Sham methods, and with the Hartree-Fock method. It is found that even for very long polyynes the carbon-carbon bond lengths within a polyyne alternate while for long cumulenes no carbon-carbon bond length alternation occurs. Polyynes exhibit a finite HOMO-LUMO gap even if they become very long while cumulenes are found to become metallic in the limit of long chain lengths. The geometry and the electro-optical properties of polyynes cannot be influenced significantly by simple sp-{sigma}-bonded end groups. The optically active {sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} <- X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} electronic transition in polyynes is investigated by time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). The known systematic underestimation of excitation energies in large chain-like systems by TDDFT methods is also found for the systems considered here. Deficiencies in the commonly used exchange-correlation kernels are identified as the main source of this shortcoming of TDDFT methods. Unphysical Coulomb self-interactions present in conventional Kohn-Sham potentials seem to not contribute significantly to the problem.

  15. First-Principles Analysis on π-bonded Chain Structure on Several Polytypes of SiC Surfaces: Importance of Stacking Sequence on Energetics and Electronic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tomoaki; Tajima, Nobuo; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Ohno, Takahisa

    2017-09-01

    Using first principles calculations based on a density functional theory, the energetics and electronic properties of a (2 × 1) π-bonded chain structure in several polytypes of SiC surfaces are discussed with special attention to the stacking sequence of SiC bilayers. We found that the stacking sequence of the topmost two SiC bilayers plays a decisive role for the stability and electronic structures of the π-bonded chain structure. We showed that the homo-elemental bonds in π-bonded chain structures cause alterations in the electronic structures of both the Si- and C-faces. The energetics of π-bonded chain structures on other group IV and IV-IV compound semiconductors were also investigated. We also showed that the buckling structure in the monolayer honeycomb lattice reflects the buckling of the topmost two atoms in the π-bonded chain structure observed in Si(111) and Ge(111).

  16. Chromophore-Assisted Light Inactivation of Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complex II in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtovich, Andrew P.; Wei, Alicia Y.; Sherman, Teresa A.; Foster, Thomas H.; Nehrke, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play critical roles in meeting cellular energy demand, in cell death, and in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and stress signaling. Most Caenorhabditis elegans loss-of-function (lf) mutants in nuclear-encoded components of the respiratory chain are non-viable, emphasizing the importance of respiratory function. Chromophore-Assisted Light Inactivation (CALI) using genetically-encoded photosensitizers provides an opportunity to determine how individual respiratory chain components contribute to physiology following acute lf. As proof-of-concept, we expressed the ‘singlet oxygen generator’ miniSOG as a fusion with the SDHC subunit of respiratory complex II, encoded by mev-1 in C. elegans, using Mos1-mediated Single Copy Insertion. The resulting mev-1::miniSOG transgene complemented mev-1 mutant phenotypes in kn1 missense and tm1081(lf) deletion mutants. Complex II activity was inactivated by blue light in mitochondria from strains expressing active miniSOG fusions, but not those from inactive fusions. Moreover, light-inducible phenotypes in vivo demonstrated that complex II activity is important under conditions of high energy demand, and that specific cell types are uniquely susceptible to loss of complex II. In conclusion, miniSOG-mediated CALI is a novel genetic platform for acute inactivation of respiratory chain components. Spatio-temporally controlled ROS generation will expand our understanding of how the respiratory chain and mitochondrial ROS influence whole organism physiology. PMID:27440050

  17. Nonclassical properties of electronic states of aperiodic chains in a homogeneous electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, B. J.; Wołoszyn, M.

    2009-07-01

    The electronic energy levels of one-dimensional aperiodic systems driven by a homogeneous electric field are studied by means of a phase-space description based on the Wigner distribution function. The formulation provides physical insight into the quantum nature of the electronic states for the aperiodic systems generated by the Fibonacci and Thue-Morse sequences. The nonclassical parameter for electronic states is studied as a function of the magnitude of homogeneous electric field to achieve the main result of this work, which is to prove that the nonclassical properties of the electronic states in the aperiodic systems determine the transition probability between electronic states in the region of anticrossings. The localization properties of electronic states and the uncertainty product of momentum and position variables are also calculated as functions of the electric field.

  18. A comparison of organic and conventionally-produced lamb purchased from three major UK supermarkets: Price, eating quality and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angood, K M; Wood, J D; Nute, G R; Whittington, F M; Hughes, S I; Sheard, P R

    2008-03-01

    Organic and conventional lamb loin chops, labelled as British lamb, were bought from three major UK supermarket chains (designated A, B and C) in the Bristol area on 10 occasions over a six week period. Samples (n=360) were from unknown production systems but representative of what is available to UK consumers. The nutritional quality of muscle was assessed in terms of its fatty acid composition and eating quality was assessed by a trained sensory panel. Lamb prices varied between £9 and £12.50 per kg, with a relatively modest price differential between organic and conventional lamb chops of £1.10, £1.88 and £1.16 £/kg for supermarkets A, B and C, respectively. On average, organic chops were 20g heavier than conventional chops. Chops were relatively lean, having just 14% of subcutaneous fat, approximately half that of a similar survey 10 years ago. Organic lamb had a better eating quality than conventional lamb in terms of juiciness (plower in chops from supermarket A, probably due to differences in their 'display until' dates. Chops from supermarket A were also the cheapest.

  19. Aggregation and Control of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems in a Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Schwensen, John; Biegel, Benjamin;

    2014-01-01

    In this work, control strategies for aggregation of a portfolio of supermarkets towards the electricity balancing market, is investigated. The supermarkets are able to shift the power consumption in time by pre-cooling the contained foodstuff. It is shown how the flexibility of an individual...... supermarket can be modeled and how this model can be used by an aggregator to manage the portfolio to deliver upward and downward regulation. Two control strategies for managing the portfolio to follow a power reference are presented and compared. The first strategy is a non-convex predictive control strategy...... of supermarkets. Two simulations are conducted based on high-fidelity supermarket models: a small-scale simulation with 20 supermarkets where the performance of the two strategies are compared and a large-scale simulation with 400 supermarkets which only the PI/dispatch controller is able to handle. The large...

  20. Determinants of asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Lopata, A.L.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Bateman, E.D.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Robins, T.G.; Jeebhay, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    While baker's asthma has been well described, various asthma phenotypes in bakery workers have yet to be characterised. Our study aims to describe the asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers in relation to host risk factors and self-reported exposure to flour dust. A cross-sectional study of

  1. Determinants of asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Lopata, A.L.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Batemane, E.D.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Robins, T.G.; Jeebhay, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    While baker's asthma has been well described, various asthma phenotypes in bakery workers have yet to be characterised. Our study aims to describe the asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers in relation to host risk factors and self-reported exposure to flour dust. A cross-sectional study of

  2. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a supermarket mist machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrabeig, I; Rovira, A; Garcia, M; Oliva, J M; Vilamala, A; Ferrer, M D; Sabrià, M; Domínguez, A

    2010-12-01

    An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease affected 12 customers of a supermarket in a town in Catalonia, Spain, between August and November 2006. An epidemiological and environmental investigation was undertaken. Preliminary investigation showed that all patients had visited the same supermarket in this town where a mist machine was found in the fish section. Water samples were collected from the machine and from the supermarket's water distribution system when high-risk samples were excluded. Environmental samples from the mist machine and clinical samples from two patients tested positive for L. pneumophila serogroup 1 and had the same molecular pattern. The PFGE pattern detected in the clinical and mist-machine isolates had never previously been identified in Catalonia prior to the outbreak and has not been identified since. Four days after turning off the machine, new cases ceased appearing. Molecular study supports the hypothesis that the mist machine from the fish section of the supermarket was the source of infection. We believe it is essential to include exposure to mist machines in any legionellosis epidemiological survey.

  3. Anti-synchronizing control for supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Thybo, Claus; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—A supermarket refrigeration system is a hybrid system with switched nonlinear dynamics and discrete-valued input variables such as opening/closing of valves and start/stop of compressors. Practical and simulation studies have shown that the use of distributed hysteresis controllers...

  4. Supermarket Refrigeration System - Benchmark for Hybrid System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Lars Finn; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a supermarket refrigeration system as a benchmark for development of new ideas and a comparison of methods for hybrid systems' modeling and control. The benchmark features switch dynamics and discrete valued input making it a hybrid system, furthermore the outputs are subjected...

  5. The correlation between supermarket size and national obesity prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Waterlander, Wilma E; Svastisalee, Chalida M

    2014-01-01

    Supermarkets provide healthy and affordable food options while simultaneously heavily promoting energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and drinks. Store size may impact body weight via multiple mechanisms. Large stores encourage purchasing of more food in a single visit, and in larger packages. In addition they provide greater product choice (usually at lower prices) and allow greater exposure to foods of all types. These characteristics may promote purchasing and consumption. Our objective was to assess the relationship between supermarket size and obesity, which has rarely been assessed. Data on supermarket size (measured as total aisle length in metres) was from 170 stores in eight developed countries with Western-style diets. Data for national obesity prevalence was obtained from the UK National Obesity Observatory. We found a strong correlation between average store size and national obesity prevalence (r = 0.96). Explanations for the association between store size and national obesity prevalence may include larger and less frequent shopping trips and greater choice and exposure to foods in countries with larger stores. Large supermarkets may represent a food system that focuses on quantity ahead of quality and therefore may be an important and novel environmental indicator of a pattern of behaviour that encourages obesity.

  6. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Demand-Side Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of supermarket refrigeration systems for supervisory control in the smart grid is presented in this paper. A modular modeling approach is proposed in which each module is modeled and identified separately. The focus of the work is on estimating the power consumption of the system while...

  7. Synchronization and Desynchronizing Control Schemes for Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Thybo, Claus Thybo; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2007-01-01

    A supermarket refrigeration system is a hybrid system with switched nonlinear dynamics and discrete-valued input variables such as opening/closing of valves and start/stop of compressors. Practical and simulation studies have shown that the use of distributed hysteresis controllers to operate...

  8. Influence of lattice vibrations on the field driven electronic transport in chains with correlated disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, L. D.; Sales, M. O.; Ranciaro Neto, A.; Lyra, M. L.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate electronic transport in a one-dimensional model with four different types of atoms and long-ranged correlated disorder. The latter was attained by choosing an adequate distribution of on-site energies. The wave-packet dynamics is followed by taking into account effects due to a static electric field and electron-phonon coupling. In the absence of electron-phonon coupling, the competition between correlated disorder and the static electric field promotes the occurrence of wave-packet oscillations in the regime of strong correlations. When the electron-lattice coupling is switched on, phonon scattering degrades the Bloch oscillations. For weak electron-phonon couplings, a coherent oscillatory-like dynamics of the wave-packet centroid persists for short periods of time. For strong couplings the wave-packet acquires a diffusive-like displacement and spreading. A slower sub-diffusive spreading takes place in the regime of weak correlations.

  9. Implementation of electronic chain-of-custody, analysis requests, and data verification at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, H.C.; Miglio, J.J.

    1994-09-01

    To improve the efficiency of the entire environmental data collection process from sample collection to reporting to the client, Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing an automated system to carry out as much of the process as possible. The system uses {open_quotes}off-the-shelf{close_quotes} software. Our program anticipates a drastic reduction of the amount of paper generated throughout the process. The electronic system includes spreadsheets used for field and laboratory chains-of-custody. In addition, the system is used to order analyses and to verify data for compliance.

  10. Factors affecting the adoption of supply chain management practices: Evidence from the Brazilian electro-electronic sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on the factors affecting the adoption of supply chain management (SCM practices develops four hypotheses based on a literature review, and tests them using survey data of Brazilian electro-electronic firms. The results reveal the big picture of the SCM practices in the sector and suggest that contextual factors such as size, position and bargaining power affect the adoption of SCM practices, which are also more customer oriented. Sector characteristics are very important in analysing SCM practices. Contrary to the findings of literature, the relationship between competitive priorities and SCM practices was not supported statistically.

  11. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan) versus rural (nonmetropolitan) areas. Results Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories. Conclusions Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical factors than a single

  12. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2010-10-08

    Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan) versus rural (nonmetropolitan) areas. Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories. Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical factors than a single measure of supermarket accessibility

  13. Sub-molecular electronic structure of self-assembled metal-organic nano-chains on a noble metal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Agustin; Capsoni, Martina; Shaw, Adam; Burke, Sarah

    2014-03-01

    Complexes composed of organic ligands coordinated with transition metal atoms exhibit broad absorption bands from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared. These are the result of the intrinsic molecular electronic properties, which include intra-ligand excitations and metal-to-ligand charge transfer. When adsorbed on a surface, these compounds are relevant for photovoltaic applications. In order to ensure a hierarchical transfer of function from the nano- to the macro-scale, electronic characterization at the single molecule level is essential. We present a low-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy study on the local electronic structure of one-dimensional self-assembled metal-organic nanostructures formed on a noble metal surface. The nano-chains consist of terpyridine-based ligands coordinated with iron (Fe) adatoms. We map the local density of electronic states of the system with sub-molecular spatial resolution. Energy-broadened highest-occupied molecular orbitals are dominated by metal states, whereas sharp resonances above Fermi are mainly related to the organic moiety. Coordination between the ligand and Fe induces energy shifts and a break of spatial symmetry of the unoccupied states, pointing to an electron transfer from the metal atom to the terpyridine groups.

  14. Accessibility and Affordability of Supermarkets: Associations With the DASH Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Burgoine, Thomas; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2017-07-01

    It is unknown whether there is an interplay of affordability (economic accessibility) and proximity (geographic accessibility) of supermarkets in relation to having a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-accordant diet. Data (collected: 2005-2015, analyzed: 2016) were from the cross-sectional, population-based Fenland Study cohort: 9,274 adults aged 29-64 years, living in Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Dietary quality was evaluated using an index of DASH dietary accordance, based on recorded consumption of foods and beverages in a validated 130-item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. DASH accordance was defined as a DASH score in the top quintile. Dietary costs (£/day) were estimated by attributing a food price variable to the foods consumed according to the questionnaire. Individuals were classified as having low-, medium-, or high-cost diets. Supermarket affordability was determined based on the cost of a 101-item market basket. Distances between home address to the nearest supermarket (geographic accessibility) and nearest economically-appropriate supermarket (economic accessibility) were divided into tertiles. Higher-cost diets were more likely to be DASH-accordant. After adjustment for key demographics and exposure to other food outlets, individuals with lowest economic accessibility to supermarkets had lower odds of being DASH-accordant (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.52, 0.68) than individuals with greatest economic accessibility. This association was stronger than with geographic accessibility alone (OR=0.85, 95% CI=0.74, 0.98). Results suggest that geographic and economic access to food should be taken into account when considering approaches to promote adherence to healthy diets for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and other chronic disease. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell signaling (mechanism and reproductive toxicity): redox chains, radicals, electrons, relays, conduit, electrochemistry, and other medical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Peter; Pozos, Robert S

    2006-12-01

    This article deals with a novel, simple, integrated approach to cell signaling involving basic biochemical principles, and their relationship to reproductive toxicity. Initially, an overview of the biological aspects is presented. According to the hypothetical approach, cell signaling entails interaction of redox chains, involving initiation, propagation, and termination. The messengers are mainly radicals and electrons that are generated during electron transfer (ET) and hydrogen atom abstraction reactions. Termination and initiation processes in the chain occur at relay sites occupied by redox functionalities, including quinones, metal complexes, and imines, as well as redox amino acids. Conduits for the messengers, comprising species with nonbonding electrons, are omnipresent. Details are provided for the various electron transfer processes. In relation to the varying rates of cell communication, rationale is based on electrons and size of radicals. Another fit is similarly seen in inspection of endogenous precursors of reactive oxygen species (ROS); namely, proteins bearing redox moieties, lipid oxidation products, and carbohydrate radicals. A hypothesis is advanced in which electromagnetic fields associated with mobile radicals and electrons play a role. Although radicals have previously been investigated as messengers, the area occupies a minor part of the research, and it has not attracted broad consensus as an important component. For the first time, an integrated framework is presented composed of radicals, electrons, relays, conduits, and electrical fields. The approach is in keeping with the vast majority of experimental observations. Cell signaling also plays an important role in reproductive toxicity. The main classes that cause birth defects, including ROS, radiation, metal compounds, medicinals, abused drugs, and miscellaneous substances, are known to participate in the signaling process. A unifying basis exists, in that both signaling and

  16. The Impact of a City-Level Minimum-Wage Policy on Supermarket Food Prices in Seattle-King County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Jennifer J; Buszkiewicz, James; Tang, Wesley; Aggarwal, Anju; Long, Mark; Vigdor, Jacob; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-09-09

    Background: Many states and localities throughout the U.S. have adopted higher minimum wages. Higher labor costs among low-wage food system workers could result in higher food prices. Methods: Using a market basket of 106 foods, food prices were collected at affected chain supermarket stores in Seattle and same-chain unaffected stores in King County (n = 12 total, six per location). Prices were collected at 1 month pre- (March 2015) and 1-month post-policy enactment (May 2015), then again 1-year post-policy enactment (May 2016). Unpaired t-tests were used to detect price differences by location at fixed time while paired t-tests were used to detect price difference across time with fixed store chain. A multi-level, linear differences-in-differences model, was used to detect the changes in the average market basket item food prices over time across regions, overall and by food group. Results: There were no significant differences in overall market basket or item-level costs at one-month (-$0.01, SE = 0.05, p = 0.884) or one-year post-policy enactment (-$0.02, SE = 0.08, p = 0.772). No significant increases were observed by food group. Conclusions: There is no evidence of change in supermarket food prices by market basket or increase in prices by food group in response to the implementation of Seattle's minimum wage ordinance.

  17. Path-integral Monte-Carlo simulations for electronic dynamics on molecular chains: I. Sequential hopping and super exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Mühlbacher, L; Escher, C M

    2004-01-01

    An improved real-time quantum Monte Carlo procedure is presented and applied to describe the electronic transfer dynamics along molecular chains. The model consists of discrete electronic sites coupled to a thermal environment which is integrated out exactly within the path integral formulation. The approach is numerically exact and its results reduce to known analytical findings (Marcus theory, golden rule) in proper limits. Special attention is paid to the role of superexchange and sequential hopping at lower temperatures in symmetric donor-bridge-acceptor systems. In contrast to previous approximate studies, superexchange turns out to play a significant role only for extremely high lying bridges where the transfer is basically frozen or for extremely low temperatures where for weaker dissipation a description in terms of rate constants is no longer feasible. For bridges with increasing length an algebraic decrease of the yield is found for short as well as for longer bridges. The approach can be extended t...

  18. Buying Food on Sale: A Mixed Methods Study With Shoppers at an Urban Supermarket, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Stites, Shana D.; Singletary, S. Brook; Cooblall, Clarissa; DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The obesity epidemic has drawn attention to food marketing practices that may increase the likelihood of caloric overconsumption and weight gain. We explored the associations of discounted prices on supermarket purchases of selected high-calorie foods (HCF) and more healthful, low-calorie foods (LCF) by a demographic group at high risk of obesity. Methods Our mixed methods design used electronic supermarket purchase data from 82 low-income (primarily African American female) shoppers for households with children and qualitative data from focus groups with demographically similar shoppers. Results In analyses of 6,493 food purchase transactions over 65 weeks, the odds of buying foods on sale versus at full price were higher for grain-based snacks, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages (odds ratios: 6.6, 5.9, and 2.6, respectively; all P < .001) but not for savory snacks. The odds of buying foods on sale versus full price were not higher for any of any of the LCF (P ≥ .07). Without controlling for quantities purchased, we found that spending increased as percentage saved from the full price increased for all HCF and for fruits and vegetables (P ≤ .002). Focus group participants emphasized the lure of sale items and took advantage of sales to stock up. Conclusion Strategies that shift supermarket sales promotions from price reductions for HCF to price reductions for LCF might help prevent obesity by decreasing purchases of HCF. PMID:25188276

  19. Ring-Mesh Model of Proteoglycan Glycosaminoglycan Chains in Tendon based on Three-dimensional Reconstruction by Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takafumi; Kametani, Kiyokazu; Koyama, Yoh-Ichi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Imamura, Yasutada; Takehana, Kazushige; Hiramatsu, Kohzy

    2016-11-04

    Tendons are composed of collagen fibrils and proteoglycan predominantly consisting of decorin. Decorin is located on the d-band of collagen fibrils, and its glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains have been observed between collagen fibrils with transmission electron microscopy. GAG chains have been proposed to interact with each other or with collagen fibrils, but its three-dimensional organization remains unclear. In this report, we used focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy to examine the three-dimensional organization of the GAG chain in the Achilles tendon of mature rats embedded in epoxy resin after staining with Cupromeronic blue, which specifically stains GAG chains. We used 250 serial back-scattered electron images of longitudinal sections with a 10-nm interval for reconstruction. Three-dimensional images revealed that GAG chains form a ring mesh-like structure with each ring surrounding a collagen fibril at the d-band and fusing with adjacent rings to form the planar network. This ring mesh model of GAG chains suggests that more than two GAG chains may interact with each other around collagen fibrils, which could provide new insights into the roles of GAG chains.

  20. Photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer in push-pull polyenes: effects of solvation, electron-donor group, and polyenic chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akemann, Walther; Laage, Damien; Plaza, Pascal; Martin, Monique M; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    2008-01-17

    Subpicosecond absorption spectroscopy is used to characterize the primary photoinduced processes in a class of push-pull polyenes bearing a julolidine end group as the electron donor and a diethylthiobarbituric acid end group as the electron acceptor. The excited-state decay time and relaxation pathway have been studied for four polyenes of increasing chain length (n = 2-5 double bonds) in aprotic solvents of different solvation time, polarity, and viscosity. Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) leading to a transient state of cyanine-like structure (fully conjugated with no bond length alternation) is observed in all polar solvents at a solvent dependent rate, but the reaction is not observed in cyclohexane, a nonpolar solvent. In polar solvents, the reaction time increases with the average solvation time but remains slightly larger, except in the viscous solvent triacetin. These facts are interpreted as an indication that both solvent reorganization and internal restructuring are involved in the ICT-state formation. The observed photodynamics resemble those we previously found for another class of polyenes bearing a dibutylaniline group as the donor, including a similar charge-transfer rate in spite of the larger electron donor character of the julolidine group. This observation brings further support to the proposal that an intramolecular coordinate is involved in the charge-transfer reaction, possibly a torsional motion of the donor end group. On the other hand, relaxation of the ICT state leads to cis-trans isomerization or crossing to the triplet state, depending on the length of the polyenic chain. In dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, and triacetin, the ICT state of the shorter chains (n = 2, 3) relaxes to the isomer with a viscosity-dependent rate, while that of the longer ones (n = 4, 5) leads to the triplet state with a viscosity-independent rate, as expected. In acetonitrile, the ICT-state lifetime is generally much shorter. A change from photoisomerization to

  1. Amyloid-beta leads to impaired cellular respiration, energy production and mitochondrial electron chain complex activities in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, V; Baysang, G; Rao, S; Meier, F; Bonert, A; Müller-Spahn, F; Eckert, A

    2009-09-01

    Evidence suggests that amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it has been recently proposed that mitochondria are involved in the biochemical pathway by which Abeta can lead to neuronal dysfunction. Here we investigated the specific effects of Abeta on mitochondrial function under physiological conditions. Mitochondrial respiratory functions and energy metabolism were analyzed in control and in human wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP) stably transfected human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). Mitochondrial respiratory capacity of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) in vital cells was measured with a high-resolution respirometry system (Oxygraph-2k). In addition, we determined the individual activities of mitochondrial complexes I-IV that compose ETC and ATP cellular levels. While the activities of complexes I and II did not change between cell types, complex IV activity was significantly reduced in APP cells. In contrast, activity of complex III was significantly enhanced in APP cells, as compensatory response in order to balance the defect of complex IV. However, this compensatory mechanism could not prevent the strong impairment of total respiration in vital APP cells. As a result, the respiratory control ratio (state3/state4) together with ATP production decreased in the APP cells in comparison with the control cells. Chronic exposure to soluble Abeta protein may result in an impairment of energy homeostasis due to a decreased respiratory capacity of mitochondrial electron transport chain which, in turn, may accelerate neurons demise.

  2. Evolution of Electron Transport Chains During the Anaerobic to Aerobic Transition on Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, R.; Ortiz, R.; Holmes, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Sepulveda, R., Ortiz R. and Holmes DS. Center for Bioinformatics and Genome Biology, Fundacion Ciencia y Vida, and Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile.According to several models, life emerged on earth in an anoxic environment where oxygen was not available as a terminal electron acceptor for energy generating reactions. After the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) about 2.4 billion years ago, or perhaps even before the GOE, oxygen became the most widespread and efficient terminal electron acceptor and was accompanied by the evolution of a number of redox proteins that could deliver electrons to reduce oxygen to water. Where did these proteins come from? One hypothesis is that they evolved by the neofunctionalization of previously existing redox proteins that had been used in anaerobic conditions as terminal electron donors to reduce compounds such as perchlorate, nitric oxide or iron. We have used a number of bioinformatic tools to explore a large number of genomes looking for discernable signals of such redeployment of function. A Perl pipeline was designed to detect sequence similarity, conserved gene context, remote homology detection, identification of domains and functional evolution of electron carrier proteins from extreme acidophiles, including the small blue copper protein rusticyanin (involved in FeII oxidation), cytochrome oxidase subunit II and quinol-dependent nitric oxide reductase (qNOR). The protein folds and copper binding sites of rusticyanin are conserved in cytochrome oxidase aa3 subunit II, a protein complex that is responsible for the final passage of electrons to reduce oxygen. Therefore, we hypothesize that rusticyanin, cytochrome oxidase II and qNOR are evolutionarily related. Acknowledgments: Fondecyt 1130683.

  3. 中小型超市发展模式的研究%Research on Development Mode of Small and Medium-sized Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓虹

    2011-01-01

    连锁超市已经逐步成为中国商业、零售业的主流,为扩大内需、拉动经济增长做出重大贡献。但其在迅速的发展经营过程中也暴露出很多问题,基于我国的国情和经济水平,今后我国超市发展的注意力不应只注重大型综合超市,更应注重中小型超市的发展。随着社区的涌现,人们生活水平的提高,中小型超市企业迎来新的发展契机。基于SWOT分析方法,对我国的中小型超市企业进行深入的分析,为中小型超市企业的发展提出建设性意见。%Supermarket chains have gradually become the mainstream of Chinese business and retail,which has made significant contributions in expanding domestic demand and promoting economic growth.But many problems are exposed in its rapid development.Based on China's national conditions and economic level,attention should not be only focused on the large-scale comprehensive supermarket,but also should be paid to the development of small and medium-sized supermarkets.With the emergence of community and the improved living standard of people,small and medium-sized supermarkets enterprise is facing with new development opportunity.This paper gave an in-depth analysis of the small and medium-sized supermarkets enterprise in China based on the method of SWOT analysis,and put forward a constructive suggestion for the development of these enterprises.

  4. On the location of the H+-extruding steps in site 2 of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, A; Galiazzo, F; Lehninger, A L

    1980-11-25

    The location of the H+-translocating reactions within energy-conserving Site 2 of the mitochondrial electron transport chain was evaluated from two sets of data. In the first, the H+/2e- ejection ratios and Ca2+/2e- uptake ratios were compared for electron flow from succinate dehydrogenase, whose active site is on the matrix side of the inner membrane and from glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, whose active site is on the cytosolic side. In intact rat liver mitochondria both substrates yielded H+/2e- ejection ratios close to 4.0 and Ca2+/2e- uptake ratios close to 1.0 during antimycin-sensitive reduction of ferricyanide. With rat liver mitoplasts and ferricytochrome c as electron acceptor, both substrates again gave the same stoichiometric ratios. The second approach involved determination of the sidedness of H+ formation during electron flow from succinate to ferricyanide via bypass of the antimycin block of the cytochrome b.c1 complex provided by N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), under conditions in which the TMPD-TMPD+ couple does not act as a membrane-penetrating protonophore. Electron flow in this system was inhibited by 2-then-oyltrifluoroacetone, indicating that TMPD probably accepts electrons from ubiquinol. The 2 H+ formed in this system were not delivered into the matrix but appeared directly in the medium in the absence of a protonophore. To accommodate the available evidence on Site 2 substrates, it is concluded that the substrate hydrogens are first transferred to ubiquinone, 2 H+ per 2e then appear in the medium by protolytic dehydrogenation of a species of ubiquinol or ubiquinol-protein having the appropriate sidedness (designated Site 2A), and the other 2 H+ are translocated from the matrix to the medium on passage of 2e- through the cytochrome b x c1 complex (designated Site 2B).

  5. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case

  6. Analysing green supply chain management practices in Brazil's electrical/electronics industry using interpretive structural modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Kannan, Devika; Mathiyazhagan, K.

    2013-01-01

    that exists between GSCM practices with regard to their adoption within Brazilian electrical/electronic industry with the help of interpretive structural modelling (ISM). From the results, we infer that cooperation with customers for eco-design practice is driving other practices, and this practice acts...

  7. Phosphorylation of Cytochrome c Threonine 28 Regulates Electron Transport Chain Activity in Kidney: IMPLICATIONS FOR AMP KINASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Gargi; Varughese, Ashwathy; Ji, Qinqin; Lee, Icksoo; Liu, Jenney; Vaishnav, Asmita; Sinkler, Christopher; Kapralov, Alexandr A.; Moraes, Carlos T.; Sanderson, Thomas H.; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Salomon, Arthur R.; Edwards, Brian F. P.; Hüttemann, Maik

    2016-10-07

    Mammalian cytochrome c (Cytc) plays a key role in cellular life and death decisions, functioning as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain and as a trigger of apoptosis when released from the mitochondria. However, its regulation is not well understood. We show that the major fraction of Cytc isolated from kidneys is phosphorylated on Thr28, leading to a partial inhibition of respiration in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase. To further study the effect of Cytc phosphorylation in vitro, we generated T28E phosphomimetic Cytc, revealing superior behavior regarding protein stability and its ability to degrade reactive oxygen species compared with wild-type unphosphorylated Cytc. Introduction of T28E phosphomimetic Cytc into Cytc knock-out cells shows that intact cell respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and ROS levels are reduced compared with wild type. As we show by high resolution crystallography of wild-type and T28E Cytc in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, Thr28 is located at a central position near the heme crevice, the most flexible epitope of the protein apart from the N and C termini. Finally, in silico prediction and our experimental data suggest that AMP kinase, which phosphorylates Cytc on Thr28 in vitro and colocalizes with Cytc to the mitochondrial intermembrane space in the kidney, is the most likely candidate to phosphorylate Thr28 in vivo. We conclude that Cytc phosphorylation is mediated in a tissue-specific manner and leads to regulation of electron transport chain flux via “controlled respiration,” preventing ΔΨm hyperpolarization, a known cause of ROS and trigger of apoptosis.

  8. High Power Amplifiers Chain nonlinearity influence on the accelerating beam stability in free electron laser (FLASH)

    CERN Document Server

    Cichalewski, w

    2010-01-01

    The high power amplifiers transfer characteristics nonlinearities can have a negative influence on the overall system performance. This is also true for the TESLA superconducting cavities accelerating field parameters control systems. This Low Level Radio Frequency control systems uses microwave high power amplifiers (like 10 MW klystrons) as actuators in the mentioned feedback loops. The amplitude compression and phase deviations phenomena introduced to the control signals can reduce the feedback performance and cause electron beam energy instabilities. The transfer characteristics deviations in the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg experiment have been investigated. The outcome of this study together with the description of the developed linearization method based on the digital predistortion approach have been described in this paper. Additionally, the results from the linearization tool performance tests in the FLASH's RF systems have been placed.

  9. The supermarket model with arrival rate tending to one

    CERN Document Server

    Brightwell, Graham

    2012-01-01

    In the supermarket model, there are $n$ queues, each with a single server. Customers arrive in a Poisson process with arrival rate $\\lambda n$, where $\\lambda = \\lambda (n) \\in (0,1)$. Upon arrival, a customer selects $d=d(n)$ servers uniformly at random, and joins the queue of a least-loaded server amongst those chosen. Service times are independent exponentially distributed random variables with mean~1. In this paper, we analyse the behaviour of the supermarket model in a regime where $\\lambda(n)$ tends to~1, and $d(n)$ tends to infinity, as $n \\to \\infty$. For suitable triples $(n,d,\\lambda)$, we identify a subset ${\\cal N}$ of the state space where the process remains for a long time in equilibrium. We further show that the process is rapidly mixing when started in ${\\cal N}$, and give bounds on the speed of mixing for more general initial conditions.

  10. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Demand-Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Stoustrup

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of supermarket refrigeration systems for supervisory control in the smart grid is presented in this paper. A modular modeling approach is proposed in which each module is modeled and identified separately. The focus of the work is on estimating the power consumption of the system while estimating the cold reservoir temperatures as well. The models developed for each module as well as for the overall integrated system are validated by real data collected from a supermarket in Denmark. The results show that the model is able to estimate the actual electrical power consumption with a high fidelity. Moreover a simulation benchmark is introduced based on the produced model for demand-side management in smart grid. Finally, a potential application of the proposed benchmark in direct control of the power/energy consumption is presented by a simple simulation example.

  11. A new heat pump desiccant dehumidifier for supermarket application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R. M.; Castellotti, F. [Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Vicenza (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    Recently a new equipment for dehumidification was put onto the market. It is a self-regenerating liquid desiccant cooling system able to dehumidify, heating or cooling the ambient air by an electric heat pump that is a part of the equipment. Its operation is here studied in a supermarket application where air temperature and relative humidity play a very important role and the air-conditioning becomes necessary not only to assure a suitable thermal comfort, but also to make the refrigerated display cabinets operate properly. In this paper possible energy savings, compared to a traditional mechanical dehumidification, are evaluated by means of a numerical model that simulates a typical Italian supermarket. (author)

  12. Analysis of synchronization in a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Leth, John-Josef; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2014-01-01

    In a supermarket refrigeration, the temperature in a display case, surprisingly, influences the temperature in other display cases. This leads to a synchronous operation of all display cases, in which the expansion valves in the display cases turn on and off at exactly the same time. This behavior...... increases both the energy consumption and the wear of components. Besides this practical importance, from the theoretical point of view, synchronization, likewise stability, Zeno phenomenon, and chaos, is an interesting dynamical phenomenon. The study of synchronization in the supermarket refrigeration...... systems is the subject matter of this work. For this purpose, we model it as a hybrid system, for which synchronization corresponds to a periodic trajectory. To examine whether it is stable, we transform the hybrid system to a single dynamical system defined on a torus. Consequently, we apply a Poincaré...

  13. Stochastic Analysis of Synchronization in a Supermarket Refrigeration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Leth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Display cases in supermarket systems often exhibit synchronization, in which the expansion valves in the display cases turn on and off at exactly the same time. The study of the influence of switching noise on synchronization in supermarket refrigeration systems is the subject matter of this work. For this purpose, we model it as a hybrid system, for which synchronization corresponds to a periodic trajectory. Subsequently, we investigate the influence of switching noise. We develop a statistical method for computing an intensity function, which measures how often the refrigeration system stays synchronized. By analyzing the intensity, we conclude that the increase in measurement uncertainty yields the decrease at the prevalence of synchronization.

  14. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Supervisory Control in Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    A modular modeling approach of supermarket refrigeration systems (SRS) which is appropriate for smart grid control purposes is presented in this paper. Modeling and identification are performed by just knowing the system configuration and measured data disregarding the physical details. So......, this approach is extendable to different configurations with different modules. The focus of the work is on estimating the power consumption of the system while estimating the display case temperatures as well. This model can however be employed as a simulation benchmark to develop control methods for SRS...... regarding their power/energy consumptions in the future smart grids. Moreover, the developed model is validated by real data collected from a supermarket in Denmark. The utilization of the produced model is also illustrated by a simple simulation example....

  15. A fault tolerant superheat control strategy for supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a fault tolerant control (FTC) strategy is proposed for evaporator superheat control in supermarket refrigeration systems. Conventional control uses a pressure and temperature sensor for this purpose, however, the pressure sensor can fail to function. A contingency control strategy......, based on a maximum slope-seeking control method and only a single temperature sensor, is developed to drive the evaporator outlet temperature to a level that gives a suitable superheat of the refrigerant. The FTC strategy requires no a priori system knowledge or additional hardware and functions...... in a plug & play fashion. The strategy is outlined by means of procedural steps as well as a flow chart that also illustrates the process of automatic tuning of the maximum slope-seeking controller. Test results are furthermore presented for a display case in a full scale CO2 supermarket refrigeration...

  16. Path-integral Monte Carlo simulations for electronic dynamics on molecular chains. I. Sequential hopping and super exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Lothar; Ankerhold, Joachim; Escher, Charlotte

    2004-12-01

    An improved real-time quantum Monte Carlo procedure is presented and applied to describe the electronic transfer dynamics along molecular chains. The model consists of discrete electronic sites coupled to a thermal environment which is integrated out exactly within the path integral formulation. The approach is numerically exact and its results reduce to known analytical findings (Marcus theory, golden rule) in proper limits. Special attention is paid to the role of superexchange and sequential hopping at lower temperatures in symmetric donor-bridge-acceptor systems. In contrast to previous approximate studies, superexchange turns out to play a significant role only for extremely high-lying bridges where the transfer is basically frozen or for extremely low temperatures where for weaker dissipation a description in terms of rate constants is no longer feasible. For bridges with increasing length an algebraic decrease of the yield is found for short as well as for long bridges. The approach can be extended to electronic systems with more complicated topologies including impurities and in presence of external time-dependent forces.

  17. Ion-Mediated Polymerase Chain Reactions Performed with an Electronically Driven Microfluidic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Qian; Guo, Linjie; Huang, Qing; Shi, Jiye; Yang, Yang; Liu, Dongsheng; Fan, Chunhai

    2016-09-26

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a powerful method for exponentially amplifying very low amounts of target DNA from genetic, clinical, and forensic samples. However, the heating and cooling steps in PCR largely hamper the miniaturization of thermocyclers for on-site detection of pathogens and point-of-care tests. Herein, we devise an ion-mediated PCR (IM-PCR) strategy by exploiting ion-induced DNA denaturation/renaturation cycles. DNA duplexes are effectively denatured in alkaline solutions; whereas, the denatured single-stranded DNA strands readily reform duplexes at neutral pH. By using an integrated microchip that can programmably control the solution pH simply switching the potential in a range of several hundred millivolts, we can trigger IM-PCR at a constant temperature. Analogously to thermal cycling, 30 cycles of pH-induced denaturation/renaturation were used to amplify protein DNA fragments as confirmed by DNA sequencing. We anticipate that this portable, low-cost, and scalable IM-PCR holds great promise for widespread biological, clinical, and environmental applications.

  18. Mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction during development does not extend lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rera, Michael; Monnier, Véronique; Tricoire, Hervé

    2010-02-01

    Since the initial identification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as the major factor in aging, many studies have provided evidence for the central role of mitochondria in longevity. A few years ago, an unexpected finding showed that the inactivation of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) in Caenorhabditis elegans, during the developmental stages only, extended lifespan. Activation of this mitochondrial pathway affecting aging (MIT) is associated with several phenotypic features: increased longevity, increased time of development, decreased fertility/fecundity and reduced adult size. Here, we investigated this pathway in another model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. To assess the role of mitochondrial activity in the Drosophila aging process, we partially inactivated the MRC using RNA interference (RNAi) during larval stages. Developmental perturbation of the respiratory process prolonged development, increased lethality during developmental stage, reduced both fecundity and fertility and slightly reduced individual weight. However, in contrast to the nematode, this genetic intervention either shortened or had no effect on lifespan, depending on the level of gene inactivation. Thus, the effects of MRC disruption during development on aging differ between species. We discuss the possible origins of such differences.

  19. Design and Implementation of Smart Supermarket System for Vision Impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kavitha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The visually impaired people face a lot of challenges in their routine life. One such challenge is that they have to depend completely on others for purchasing. In this paper a solution hasbeen given to identify and purchase products in the supermarket. This system uses PIC microcontroller and RFID technology. The blind people are provided with low power RFID reader when they step into the supermarket. In the supermarket, products are segregated and placed in the shelves. Each shelf is integrated with a passive RFID tag along with unique ID which describes the category of the product andits specification. The passive tag information is read by the RFID reader and sent to microcontroller. The read tag ID is matched with recorded audio file in the APR9600 IC and played through the speaker which is embedded with the RFID reader. As the recorded audio file is unique to each product and clearly specifies about the product, they can decide about acquiring the item by listening to the audio. Onimplementing this method, blind people can satisfy their purchasing needs without others support.

  20. Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Analyses of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Zha, Shitong [Hillphoenix

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents energy and life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analyses of a variety of supermarket refrigeration systems to identify designs that exhibit low environmental impact and high energy efficiency. EnergyPlus was used to model refrigeration systems in a variety of climate zones across the United States. The refrigeration systems that were modeled include the traditional multiplex DX system, cascade systems with secondary loops and the transcritical CO2 system. Furthermore, a variety of refrigerants were investigated, including R-32, R-134a, R-404A, R-1234yf, R-717, and R-744. LCCP analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operation of the various refrigeration systems over their lifetimes. Our analysis revealed that high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems may result in up to 44% less energy consumption and 78% reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to the baseline multiplex DX system. This is an encouraging result for legislators, policy makers and supermarket owners to select low emission, high-efficiency commercial refrigeration system designs for future retrofit and new projects.

  1. Field testing of high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D. (Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a field test to quantify the performance of high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration. The initial work on this project was presented in EPRI report CU-6268 Supermarket Refrigeration Modeling and Field Demonstration.'' The information given here was generated through continued testing at the field test site. The field test was conducted at a supermarket owned by Safeway Stores, Inc., that was located in Menlo Park, CA. Testing was performed with the existing conventional refrigeration system and a high-efficiency multiplex refrigeration system that was installed for these tests. The results of the testing showed that the high-efficiency multiplex system reduced refrigeration energy consumption by 23.9% and peak electric demand for refrigeration by 30.0%. Analyses of these savings showed that the largest portion was due to the use of high-efficiency compressors (29.5% of total saving). Floating head pressure control, ambient and mechanical subcooling, compressor multiplexing and hot gas defrost accounted for 50% of total savings. The remainder of the savings (20.5%) were attributed to the use of an evaporative condenser. Tests were also conducted with several retrofit technologies. The most promising results were obtained with external liquid-suction heat exchangers installed at the outlets of the display cases. Favorable paybacks were calculated for these exchangers when they were used with very low and low temperature refrigeration.

  2. Healthy Checkout Lines: A Study in Urban Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjoian, Tamar; Dannefer, Rachel; Willingham, Craig; Brathwaite, Chantelle; Franklin, Sharraine

    2017-09-01

    To understand the impact of healthy checkouts in Bronx, New York City supermarkets. Consumer purchasing behavior was observed for 2 weeks in 2015. Three supermarkets in the South Bronx. A total of 2,131 adult shoppers (aged ≥18 years) who paid for their groceries at 1 of the selected study checkout lines. Two checkout lines were selected per store; 1 was converted to a healthy checkout and the other remained as it was (standard checkout). Data collectors observed consumer behavior at each line and recorded items purchased from checkout areas. Percentage of customers who purchase items from the checkout area; quantity and price of healthy and unhealthy items purchased from the healthy and standard checkout lines. Measures were analyzed by study condition using chi-square and t tests; significance was determined at α = .05. Only 4.0% of customers bought anything from the checkout area. A higher proportion of customers using the healthy vs standard checkout line bought healthy items (56.5% vs 20.5%; P purchases increased. Findings contribute to limited research on effectiveness of healthy checkouts in supermarkets. Similar interventions should expect an increase in healthy purchases from the checkout area, but limited overall impact. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Excited Electronic States of Atoms described by the Model of Oscillations in a Chain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ries A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the numerical values of half-lifes of excited electronic states of the H, He and Li atom, as well as the Li + ion. By means of a fractal scaling model originally published by Müller in this journal, we interprete these half-lifes as proton resonance periods. On the logarithmic scale, the half-lifes were expressed by short continued fractions, where all numerators are Euler’s number. From this representation it was concluded that the half-lifes are heavily located in nodes or sub-nodes of the spectrum of proton resonance periods.

  4. Supermarkets in Portugal: corporate social responsibility image, attitude towards the brand and purchase intention

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Inês Veiga

    2010-01-01

    Recently, companies developed strategies which may influence their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) image. This paper discusses the image of four different supermarkets with stores in Portugal. The research compares CSR image and brand attitude of the four supermarkets. Empirical evidence shows that different supermarkets belonging to the same company have different CSR image and brand attitude. The research also confirms that there is positive correlation between CSR imag...

  5. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity an...

  6. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food f...

  7. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States

    OpenAIRE

    Wimberly Michael C; Michimi Akihiko

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity an...

  8. The rise of supermarkets in developing countries: Implications for credit markets

    OpenAIRE

    Luc, Veyssiere

    2007-01-01

    The rise of supermarket in developing countries has important implications for the agricultural system in these countries. To lessen the intense price competition in retail markets, supermarkets have introduced private food standards. While the literature has pointed out the additional financial burden for producers, associated with the introduction of supermarket standards, it has ignored its positive demand effect. This paper examines the relationship between downstream product competition ...

  9. Role of electron transport chain of chloroplasts in oxidative burst of interaction between Erwinia amylovora and host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Hamid; Ghahremani, Zahra; Erfaninia, Kobra; Mehrabi, Rahim

    2015-05-01

    Erwinia amylovora is a necrogenic bacterium, causing the fire blight disease on many rosaceous plants. Triggering oxidative burst by E. amylovora is a key response by which host plants try to restrain pathogen spread. Electron transport chain (ETC) of chloroplasts is known as an inducible source of reactive oxygen species generation in various stresses. This research was performed to assess the role of this ETC in E. amylovora-host interaction using several inhibitors of this chain in susceptible and resistant apple and pear genotypes. All ETC inhibitors delayed appearance of disease necrosis, but the effects of methyl viologen, glutaraldehyde, and DCMU were more significant. In the absence of inhibitors, resistant genotypes showed an earlier and severe H2O2 generation and early suppression of redox dependent, psbA gene. The effects of inhibitors were corresponding to the redox potential of ETC inhibitory sites. In addition, delayed necrosis appearance was associated with the decreased disease severity and delayed H2O2 generation. These results provide evidences for the involvement of this ETC in host oxidative burst and suggest that chloroplast ETC has significant role in E. amylovora-host interaction.

  10. Structure-property optimizations in donor polymers via electronics, substituents, and side chains toward high efficiency solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Rycel L; Price, Samuel C; You, Wei

    2012-07-26

    Many advances in organic photovoltaic efficiency are not yet fully understood and new insight into structure-property relationships is required to push this technology into broad commercial use. The aim of this article is not to comprehensively review recent work, but to provide commentary on recent successes and forecast where researchers should look to enhance the efficiency of photovoltaics. By lowering the LUMO level, utilizing electron-withdrawing substituents advantageously, and employing appropriate side chains on donor polymers, researchers can elucidate further aspects of polymer-PCBM interactions while ultimately developing materials that will push past 10% efficiency. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A silica-immobilized pt2+catalyst for the selective, aerobic oxidation of methane via an electron-transfer chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengjian An; Xiulian Pan; Xiumei Liu; Xiuwen Han; Xinhe Bao

    2008-01-01

    The combination of Pt2+, benzoquinone and NaNO2 forms an electron-transfer chain, which leads to the oxidation of methane by O2 in CF3COOH aqueous solution. The overall turnover number per hour (TOF) of methane at 120 ℃ is 0.5 h-1, however, only about one fourth (23%) of methane is converted to the desired product of methanol in the formation of CF3COOCH3. The over-oxidation of methane to CO2, over the catalyst with the Pt2+ species immobilized via 2,2'-bipyridyl as a ligand on the silica substrate, is depressed distinctly. Under the same conditions, the conversion to methanol dominates, and no CO2 is observed, on account of the over-oxidation of methane, as confirmed by the isotope experiment.

  12. Total energy requirements of shopping for food. [Supermarkets, Grocery Stores, Dairies, Butcheries, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, M.G.; Earle, M.D.

    1982-12-01

    This survey investigated the total energy requirements of shopping for food in New Zealand. It is part of the Food Technology Research Centre's ongoing research into total energy use in the New Zealand food system. A sample survey of over 700 customers of 7 selected shops in Palmerston North was undertaken. An examination of the sample parameters and other factors indicate that the Palmerston North sample is probably representative of the national situation. However, there may be some need to verify this with other surveys particularly of large supermarkets. The primary objective of this survey was to determine representative energy intensities (MJ of energy per kilogram of food purchased) for the shopping step of the food chain. However, in the process much data were generated which may be of use and interest to a wider audience. These data include analysis of round trip distance, trip purpose, energy use per trip, characteristics of the shopping population, total transport cost of shopping, and purchase details. The mean energy intensity was found to be 13.21 MJ/kg (+- 7.7%). This energy intensity varied according to the shop type: Supermarkets (12.79 MJ/kg), Groceries (12.87 MJ/kg), Dairies (16.36 MJ/kg), Butcheries (16.35 MJ/kg) and Green groceries (7.17 MJ/kg). These energy intensities were found to very significantly according to the customer's sex and the shopping day. The total energy requirements of shopping for food in New Zealand were estimated to be 11.58 PJ/yr. Indirect energy requirements (energy embodied in the vehicles and transport infrastructures) were found to account for 63% of this total. The direct energy requirements (fuel) were estimated to be 4.3 PJ/yr ($70 million on 15 November 1981 costings).

  13. [Symptoms and upper limb work-related musculo-skeletal disorders among 173 supermarket cashiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, P G; Pizzoni, Tiziana; Scolari, Luisa; Lucchini, R

    2013-01-01

    Cashiers in supermarket chains have long been considered at risk for the development of work related musculo-skeletal disorders of the upper limbs (UL-WMSDs). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of UL-WMSDs among workers operating supermarket cash tills and, after clinical tests, their frequency. A standardized questionnaire was given to a random group of 173 workers in order to collect information regarding symptoms in the upper limbs (pain and parasthesia). Among the 111 workers who reached a "positive clinical history threshold" we selected a random sample of subjects to undergo clinical tests (professional medical care, ultrasound examination, electro-neurographic examination). 64% of the workers had a positive clinical history for UL-WMSDs. The most frequently reported disorder was pain, especially in the shoulder, while 37% of workers suffered from one or more disorders of the upper limbs. Clinical tests were performed on 51 workers (47 women) whose average length of service was 20 years and 2/3 were part-time workers; a total of 43 UL-WMSDs (59%) were diagnosed in 30 workers, including 13 (30.2%) cases of compressive neuropathies, 13 cases of hand/elbow tendinitis (30.2%) and 17 cases of shoulder tendinitis (39.5%). The average age of these 30 subjects was 47 years, with a length of service of 23 years, mostly part-time workers. We found a high prevalence of general disorders and cases of UL-WMSDs among the workers investigated, including part-time workers and workers who were not working exclusively as cashiers. The study also revealed a poor health surveillance programme to identify/ UL-WMSDs that should be the responsibility of the occupational physician and a consequent underestimation of risk and lack of the information needed to adopt preventive measures.

  14. Nitrogen isotopes as a screening tool to determine the growing regimen of some organic and nonorganic supermarket produce from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M

    2008-06-11

    An isotopic study was performed on nine varieties of organically and conventionally grown vegetables from an organic food market and a chain supermarket in New Zealand. The main aim of the study was to assess the applicability of stable nitrogen isotopes as a screening tool to differentiate between organic and conventional growing conditions of various vegetable types sampled directly off supermarket shelves. This could be further used as the basis of a simple authentication tool to detect noncompliant organic farming practices and false labeling of organic produce. In this study, nitrogen isotopes are found to be an excellent way of identifying faster growing organic vegetables (maturity time to harvest of 80 days), more information would be required to understand isotopic variations and fractionation effects between vegetables and soil over time as the technique does not discriminate organic from conventional regimens for these vegetables with as much certainty.

  15. An impaired respiratory electron chain triggers down-regulation of the energy metabolism and de-ubiquitination of solute carrier amino acid transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Aretz, I.; Hardt, C.; Wittig, I.; Meierhofer, D.

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of genes have been associated with respiratory chain disease (RCD), the most common inborn error of metabolism so far. Elimination of the respiratory electron chain by depleting the entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, rho0 cells) has therefore one of the most severe impacts on the energy metabolism in eukaryotic cells. In this study, proteomic data sets including the post transcriptional modifications (PTMs) phosphorylation and ubiquitination were integrated with metabolomic data sets a...

  16. Climate-friendly refrigerators for supermarkets. Comparative assessment of supermarket refrigeration systems; Klimafreundlich Kuehlen im Supermarkt. Vergleichende Bewertung von Supermarktkaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-10-15

    On 5 September 2008, a meeting was held at the Federal Environmental Office (Umweltbundesamt, UBA) at Dessau where the results of the research project ''Comparative evaluation of the climate relevance of refrigeration plants and systems for supermarkets'' were presented and discussed among more than 50 experts. Towards the end of the meeting, the discussions became more heated as the underlying data base became the subject of attention. (orig.)

  17. Novel non-conjugated main-chain hole-transporting polymers for organic electronics application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelter, Jürgen; Mielke, Georg Felix; Köhnen, Anne; Wies, Jenna; Köber, Sebastian; Nuyken, Oskar; Meerholz, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    A new class of hole-transporting polymers for use in organic electronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) or photorefractive holographic storage devices has been synthesized. The polymers contain tetraarylbenzidines or tetraarylphenylenediamines as charge-transporting units in the polymer backbone and are connected by non-conjugating fluorene bridges. For use in OLEDs the novel polymers were functionalized with oxetane groups that can be cross-linked via a cationic ring opening polymerization to yield insoluble networks. Such insoluble films are necessary for the fabrication of multilayer devices by wet deposition techniques. The novel materials feature improved film-formation properties as demonstrated in green-emitting double-layer OLEDs.

  18. Modular electron-transport chains from eukaryotic organelles function to support nitrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianguo; Xie, Xiaqing; Yang, Mingxuan; Dixon, Ray; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2017-03-21

    A large number of genes are necessary for the biosynthesis and activity of the enzyme nitrogenase to carry out the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), which requires large amounts of ATP and reducing power. The multiplicity of the genes involved, the oxygen sensitivity of nitrogenase, plus the demand for energy and reducing power, are thought to be major obstacles to engineering BNF into cereal crops. Genes required for nitrogen fixation can be considered as three functional modules encoding electron-transport components (ETCs), proteins required for metal cluster biosynthesis, and the "core" nitrogenase apoenzyme, respectively. Among these modules, the ETC is important for the supply of reducing power. In this work, we have used Escherichia coli as a chassis to study the compatibility between molybdenum and the iron-only nitrogenases with ETC modules from target plant organelles, including chloroplasts, root plastids, and mitochondria. We have replaced an ETC module present in diazotrophic bacteria with genes encoding ferredoxin-NADPH oxidoreductases (FNRs) and their cognate ferredoxin counterparts from plant organelles. We observe that the FNR-ferredoxin module from chloroplasts and root plastids can support the activities of both types of nitrogenase. In contrast, an analogous ETC module from mitochondria could not function in electron transfer to nitrogenase. However, this incompatibility could be overcome with hybrid modules comprising mitochondrial NADPH-dependent adrenodoxin oxidoreductase and the Anabaena ferredoxins FdxH or FdxB. We pinpoint endogenous ETCs from plant organelles as power supplies to support nitrogenase for future engineering of diazotrophy in cereal crops.

  19. Synthesis, magnetic properties and electronic structure of the S  =  ½ uniform spin chain system InCuPO5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteswararao, B.; Hazra, Binoy K.; Rout, Dibyata; Srinivasarao, P. V.; Srinath, S.; Panda, S. K.

    2017-07-01

    We have studied the structural and magnetic properties and electronic structure of the compound InCuPO5 synthesized by a solid state reaction method. The structure of InCuPO5 comprises S  =  ½ uniform spin chains formed by corner-shared CuO4 units. Magnetic susceptibility (χ(T)) data show a broad maximum at about 65 K, a characteristic feature of one-dimensional (1D) magnetism. The χ(T) data are fitted to the coupled S  =  ½ Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (HAFM) uniform chain model that gives the intra-chain coupling (J/k B) between nearest-neighbor Cu2+ ions as  -100 K and the ratio of inter-chain to intra-chain coupling (J‧/J) as about 0.07. The exchange couplings estimated from the magnetic data analysis are in good agreement with the values computed from the electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory  +  Hubbard U (DFT  +  U) approach. The combination of theoretical and experimental analysis confirms that InCuPO5 is a candidate material for weakly coupled S  = ½ uniform chains. A detailed theoretical analysis of the electronic structure further reveals that the system is insulating with a gap of 2.4 eV and a local moment of 0.70 µ B/Cu.

  20. Toward CL-20 crystalline covalent solids: On the dependence of energy and electronic properties on the effective size of CL-20 chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katin, Konstantin P.; Maslov, Mikhail M.

    2017-09-01

    One-dimensional CL-20 chains have been constructed using CH2 molecular bridges for the covalent bonding between isolated CL-20 fragments. The energy and electronic properties of the obtained nanostructures have been analyzed by means of density functional theory and nonorthogonal tight-binding model considering Landauer-Büttiker formalism. It has been found that such systems become more thermodynamically stable as the efficient length of the chain increases. Thus, the formation of bulk covalent CL-20 solids may be energetically favorable, and such structures may possess high kinetic stability comparing to the CL-20 molecular crystals. As for electronic properties of pure CL-20 chains, they are wide-bandgap semiconductors with energy gaps equal to several electron volts that makes their use in nanoelectronic applications problematic without any additional modification.

  1. Toward CL-20 crystalline covalent solids: On the dependence of energy and electronic properties on the effective size of CL-20 chains

    CERN Document Server

    Katin, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional CL-20 chains have been constructed using CH$_2$ molecular bridges for the covalent bonding between isolated CL-20 fragments. The energy and electronic properties of the nanostructures obtained have been analyzed by means of density functional theory and nonorthogonal tight-binding model considering Landauer-B\\"uttiker formalism. It has been found that such systems become more thermodynamically stable as the efficient length of the chain increases. Thus, the formation of bulk covalent CL-20 solids may be energetically favorable, and such structures may possess high kinetic stability comparing to the CL-20 molecular crystals. As for electronic properties of pure CL-20 chains, they are wide-bandgap semiconductors with energy gaps equal to several electron volts that makes their use in nanoelectronic applications problematic without any additional modification.

  2. [F-18]Fluorodihydrorotenone: Synthesis and evaluation of a mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complex I probe for PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanBrocklin, H.F.; Enas, J.D.; Hanrahan, S.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) consists of five enzyme complexes (I-V) which participate in the transfer of electrons to oxygen and phosphorylation of ADP (oxidative phosphorylation). ETC dysfunction has been linked to several genetic neurological diseases as well as implicated in Parkinson`s (complex I) and Huntington`s (complex I) disease and normal aging processes. Dihydrorotenone (DHR) is a specific high affinity inhibitor of complex I. In order to develop a PET tracer for complex I, we have labeled DHR with fluorine-18. The tosylate precursor was produced in three steps from commercially available rotenone. Fluorine-18 was introduced by nucleophilic displacement of the tosylate using tetrabutyl-ammonium fluoride. Subsequent oxidation with MnO{sub 2} and HPLC purification gave the desired [{sup 18}F]fluoro-DHR. Initial biodistribution studies were carried out in {approximately}200 g male Sprague-Dawley rats. The tracer was taken up rapidly in the heart, an organ highly enriched with mitochondria, (5.5-6% injected dose (ID)/g at 30 minutes) and in the brain ({approximately}1.5% ID/g at 1 hour).

  3. [Photosynthetic activity and components of the electron transport chain in the aerobic bacteriochlorophyll A-containing bacterium Roseinatronobacter thiooxidans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnichuk, I N; Ianiushin, M F; Boĭchenko, V A; Lukashev, E P; Boldareva, E N; Solov'ev, A A; Gorlenko, V M

    2009-01-01

    Bioenergetics of the aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-containing (BCl a) bacterium (ABC bacterium) Roseinatronobacter thiooxidans is a combination of photosynthesis, oxygen respiration, and oxidation of sulfur compounds under alkaliphilic conditions. The photosynthetic activity of Rna. thiooxidans cells was established by the photoinhibition of cell respiration and reversible photobleaching discoloration of the BCl a of reaction centers (RC), connected by the chain of electron transfer with cytochrome c551 oxidation. The species under study, like many purple bacteria and some of the known ABC bacteria, possesses a light-harvesting pigment-protein (LHI) complex with the average number of 30 molecules of antenna BCl a per one photosynthetic RC. Under microaerobic growth conditions, the cells contained bc1 complex and two terminal oxidases: cbb3-cytochrome oxidase and the alternative cytochrome oxidase of the a3 type. Besides, Rna. thiooxidans was shown to have several different soluble low- and high-potential cytochromes c, probably associated with the ability of utilizing sulfur compounds as additional electron donors.

  4. Exchange Perturbation Theory for Multiatomic Electron System and Its Application to Spin Arrangement in Manganite Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Orlenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology of binding energy calculation with respect to different spin arrangements for a multiatomic electron system is developed from the first principle in the frame of the exchange perturbation theory (EPT. We developed EPT formalism in the general form of the Rayleigh-Srchödinger expansion with a symmetric Hamiltonian, taking into account an exchange and nonadditive contributions of a superexchange interaction. The expressions of all corrections to the energy and wave function were reduced to the nonsymmetric Hamiltonian form. The EPT method is extended for the case of degeneracy in the total spin of a system. As an example of the application of the developed EPT formalism for the degeneracy case, spin arrangements were considered for the key ⟨Mn⟩–O–⟨Mn⟩ (⟨Mn⟩: Mn3+ or Mn4+ fragments in manganites. In ⟨Mn⟩–O–⟨Mn⟩ for La1/3Ca2/3MnO3 are in good agreement the obtained estimations of Heisenberg parameter and binding energy with the available experimental data.

  5. Dynamic changes in the mitochondrial electron transport chain underpinning cold acclimation of leaf respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Anna F; Badger, Murray R; Day, David A; Barthet, Michelle M; Smith, Penelope M C; Millar, A Harvey; Whelan, Jim; Atkin, Owen K

    2008-08-01

    We examined the effect of short- and long-term changes in temperature on gene expression, protein abundance, and the activity of the alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase pathways (AOP and COP, respectively) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The AOP was more sensitive to short-term changes in temperature than the COP, with partitioning to the AOP decreasing significantly below a threshold temperature of 20 degrees C. AOP activity was increased in leaves, which had been shifted to the cold for several days, but this response was transient, with AOP activity subsiding (and COP activity increasing) following the development of leaves in the cold. The transient increase in AOP activity in 10-d cold-shifted leaves was not associated with an increase in alternative oxidase (AOX) protein or AOX1a transcript abundance. By contrast, the amount of uncoupling protein was significantly increased in cold-developed leaves. In conjunction with this, transcript levels of the uncoupling protein-encoding gene UCP1 and the external NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-encoding gene NDB2 exhibited sustained increases following growth in the cold. The data suggest a role for each of these alternative non-phosphorylating bypasses of mitochondrial electron transport at different points in time following exposure to cold, with increased AOP activity being important only in the early stages of cold treatment.

  6. Detection of Mycobacteria by Culture and DNA-Based Methods in Animal-Derived Food Products Purchased at Spanish Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, Iker A; Molina, Elena; Tello, Maitane; Elguezabal, Natalia; Juste, Ramón A; Garrido, Joseba M

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacteria include obligate and opportunistic pathogens that cause significant human and animal disease. The burden of tuberculosis has been largely reduced in developed territories but remains a huge problem worldwide. The significance of nontuberculous mycobacteria is growing considerably, especially in developed regions with higher life expectancy and more therapy-related immunosuppressed individuals. Due to their robustness mycobacteria can contaminate animal products by direct transmission from infected individuals or by environmental contamination during processing. The situation at market level is poorly known. Most studies analyzing commercially available foods are limited to a small or local scale and mainly focused on a particular mycobacterial species. There is a need to investigate if animal products that have passed the established controls to be for sale at main supermarkets could represent a route of contact with any mycobacteria. Thus, our goal was to study the prevalence of mycobacteria in these foods to assess if this could represent a source of human exposure. Five stores from the main supermarket chains in Spain were selected. 138 dairy and 119 meat products were purchased. All were processed using culture and multiplex real-time PCR methods. Additional molecular methods were used to specifically identify any positive result. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (2), M. avium subsp. avium (1), and M. fortuitum (1) were isolated from powdered infant formula and ground beef, chicken sausage, and mortadella cold cut, respectively. Mycobacterial DNA (M. avium, M. tuberculosis complex and other nontuberculous mycobacteria) was detected in 15% of dairy products and 2% of meat products. These results show that the prevalence of viable mycobacteria in foods of animal origin obtained at the supermarket was not substantial although a considerable proportion of them contained mycobacterial DNA. Contact with mycobacteria through this route could be

  7. Detection of Mycobacteria by Culture and DNA-Based Methods in Animal-Derived Food Products Purchased at Spanish Supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker A. Sevilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria include obligate and opportunistic pathogens that cause significant human and animal disease. The burden of tuberculosis has been largely reduced in developed territories but remains a huge problem worldwide. The significance of nontuberculous mycobacteria is growing considerably, especially in developed regions with higher life expectancy and more therapy-related immunosuppressed individuals. Due to their robustness mycobacteria can contaminate animal products by direct transmission from infected individuals or by environmental contamination during processing. The situation at market level is poorly known. Most studies analyzing commercially available foods are limited to a small or local scale and mainly focused on a particular mycobacterial species. There is a need to investigate if animal products that have passed the established controls to be for sale at main supermarkets could represent a route of contact with any mycobacteria. Thus, our goal was to study the prevalence of mycobacteria in these foods to assess if this could represent a source of human exposure. Five stores from the main supermarket chains in Spain were selected. 138 dairy and 119 meat products were purchased. All were processed using culture and multiplex real-time PCR methods. Additional molecular methods were used to specifically identify any positive result. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (2, M. avium subsp. avium (1, and M. fortuitum (1 were isolated from powdered infant formula and ground beef, chicken sausage, and mortadella cold cut, respectively. Mycobacterial DNA (M. avium, M. tuberculosis complex and other nontuberculous mycobacteria was detected in 15% of dairy products and 2% of meat products. These results show that the prevalence of viable mycobacteria in foods of animal origin obtained at the supermarket was not substantial although a considerable proportion of them contained mycobacterial DNA. Contact with mycobacteria through this

  8. Research on Development of Vegetable and Fruit Cold-Chain Logistics in China --Illustrated by Region and Mediun Sized Supermarket in Changzhou%探析我国果蔬食品冷链物流的发展——以常州地区大中型超市为典型个案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斐; 周云霞

    2012-01-01

    With the level of economic development, the requirement of fruit and vegetable quality increasing rapidly. From analysis of China's vegetable and fruit cold-chain logistics development situation, point out the issues in the cold chain logistics development of fruit and vegetable products. It has been far from meet the demand of fruit and vegetable industry. To solve these issues, improve the level of fruit and vegetable food cold-chain logistics, to ensure food safety, protect consumers" interests better. In this paper, through research of market, analysis the development situation of our country, and put forward the countermeasures fi~r the development of vegetables and fnlit cold-chain logistics.%随着经济水平的快速发展,人们对于果蔬的质量要求日益提高。从我国果蔬食品的冷链物流发展现状分析可知.果蔬冷链发展过程中存在一些问题,已远不能满足果蔬行业的需求。为解决相关问题,提高我国果蔬食品冷链物流的水平.保证食品安全,更好地维护消费者的利益,通过市场调研,对目前我国果蔬冷链的发展现状进行分析,并提出完善果蔬冷链发展的对策。

  9. Structural characterization of saturated branched chain fatty acid methyl esters by collisional dissociation of molecular ions generated by electron ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat R; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Saturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are present as complex mixtures in numerous biological samples. The traditional method for structure elucidation, electron ionization (EI) mass spectrometry, sometimes does not unambiguously enable assignment of branching in isomeric BCFA. Zirrolli and Murphy (Zirrolli , J. A. , and R. A. Murphy. 1993. Low-energy tandem mass spectrometry of the molecular ion derived from fatty acid methyl esters: a novel method for analysis of branched-chain fatty acids. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 4: 223-229.) showed that the molecular ions of four BCFA methyl ester (BCFAME) yield highly characteristic fragments upon collisional dissociation using a triple quadrupole instrument. Here, we confirm and extend these results by analysis using a tabletop 3-D ion trap for activated molecular ion EI-MS/MS to 30 BCFAME. iso-BCFAME produces a prominent ion (30-100% of base peak) for [M-43] (M-C₃H₇), corresponding to the terminal isopropyl moiety in the original iso-BCFAME. Anteiso-FAME yield prominent ions (20-100% of base peak) corresponding to losses on both side of the methyl branch, [M-29] and [M-57], and tend to produce more prominent m/z 115 peaks corresponding to a cyclization product around the ester. Dimethyl and tetramethyl FAME, with branches separated by at least one methylene group, yield fragment on both sides of the sites of methyl branches that are more than 6 C away from the carboxyl carbon. EI-MS/MS yields uniquely specific ions that enable highly confident structural identification and quantification of BCFAME.

  10. Business strategy: Obstacles to the consolidation of Digital TV in Brazil and its impact on electronics supply chain from the stakeholder theory view

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Bazanini; Hewdy Lobo Ribeiro; Homero Leoni Bazanini

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of digital TV in Brazil on December 2, 2007, the managers of the electronics industry, of course, waiting for impacts in the supply chain due to the promise of strong eating of the market. According with exploratory research, qualitative and in-depth interview with the executives of the electronics industry, the research objectivist diagnose the obstacles to consolidation of digital TV in Brazil and its possible strategic changes with the emergence of a new scenario resu...

  11. Dissection of the triple tryptophan electron transfer chain in Escherichia coli DNA photolyase: Trp382 is the primary donor in photoactivation

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    In Escherichia coli photolyase, excitation of the FAD cofactor in its semireduced radical state (FADH•) induces an electron transfer over ≈15 Å from tryptophan W306 to the flavin. It has been suggested that two additional tryptophans are involved in an electron transfer chain FADH• ← W382 ← W359 ← W306. To test this hypothesis, we have mutated W382 into redox inert phenylalanine. Ultrafast transient absorption studies showed that, in WT photolyase, excited FADH• de...

  12. A Comparison of the Sodium Content of Supermarket Private-Label and Branded Foods in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Trevena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Supermarket private-label products are perceived to be lower quality than their branded counterparts. Excess dietary sodium in foods contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Sodium concentrations in products are an important indicator of quality. We compared the sodium content of 15,680 supermarket private-label and branded products, available in four Australian supermarkets between 2011–2013, overall and for 15 food categories. Mean sodium values were compared for: (1 all products in 2013; (2 products in both 2011 and 2013; and (3 products only in 2013. Comparisons were made using paired and unpaired t tests. In each year the proportion of supermarket private-label products was 31%–32%, with overall mean sodium content 17% (12%–23% lower than branded products in 2013 (p ≤ 0.001. For products available in both 2011 and 2013 there was a ≤2% (1%–3% mean sodium reduction overall with no difference in reformulation between supermarket private-label and branded products (p = 0.73. New supermarket private-label products in 2013 were 11% lower in sodium than their branded counterparts (p = 0.02. Supermarket private-label products performed generally better than branded in terms of their sodium content. Lower sodium intake translates into lower blood pressure; some supermarket private-label products may be a good option for Australians needing to limit their sodium intake.

  13. A Comparison of the Sodium Content of Supermarket Private-Label and Branded Foods in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Haskelberg, Hila; Wu, Jason H Y

    2015-08-21

    Supermarket private-label products are perceived to be lower quality than their branded counterparts. Excess dietary sodium in foods contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Sodium concentrations in products are an important indicator of quality. We compared the sodium content of 15,680 supermarket private-label and branded products, available in four Australian supermarkets between 2011-2013, overall and for 15 food categories. Mean sodium values were compared for: (1) all products in 2013; (2) products in both 2011 and 2013; and (3) products only in 2013. Comparisons were made using paired and unpaired t tests. In each year the proportion of supermarket private-label products was 31%-32%, with overall mean sodium content 17% (12%-23%) lower than branded products in 2013 (p ≤ 0.001). For products available in both 2011 and 2013 there was a ≤2% (1%-3%) mean sodium reduction overall with no difference in reformulation between supermarket private-label and branded products (p = 0.73). New supermarket private-label products in 2013 were 11% lower in sodium than their branded counterparts (p = 0.02). Supermarket private-label products performed generally better than branded in terms of their sodium content. Lower sodium intake translates into lower blood pressure; some supermarket private-label products may be a good option for Australians needing to limit their sodium intake.

  14. Determinants of Food Label Use among Supermarket Shoppers: A Singaporean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Santosh; Lwin, May O.; Chao, Jiang; Au, Cyndy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Examining factors influencing food label use among Singapore's supermarket shoppers using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A point-of-purchase survey among general shoppers in 2 supermarkets. Setting: Singapore, a country whose population is exposed to a wide range of food labeling formats because of the import-dependent nature…

  15. How to identify food deserts: measuring physical and economic access to supermarkets in King County, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Junfeng; Moudon, Anne V; Ulmer, Jared; Hurvitz, Philip M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2012-10-01

    We explored new ways to identify food deserts. We estimated physical and economic access to supermarkets for 5 low-income groups in Seattle-King County, Washington. We used geographic information system data to measure physical access: service areas around each supermarket were delineated by ability to walk, bicycle, ride transit, or drive within 10 minutes. We assessed economic access by stratifying supermarkets into low, medium, and high cost. Combining income and access criteria generated multiple ways to estimate food deserts. The 5 low-income group definitions yielded total vulnerable populations ranging from 4% to 33% of the county's population. Almost all of the vulnerable populations lived within a 10-minute drive or bus ride of a low- or medium-cost supermarket. Yet at most 34% of the vulnerable populations could walk to any supermarket, and as few as 3% could walk to a low-cost supermarket. The criteria used to define low-income status and access to supermarkets greatly affect estimates of populations living in food deserts. Measures of access to food must include travel duration and mode and supermarket food costs.

  16. A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Featuring In-Person Supermarket Education Affects Healthful Food Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…

  17. Breakeven Prices for Photovoltaics on Supermarkets in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Clark, N.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-03-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) breakeven price is the PV system price at which the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. This point is also called 'grid parity' and can be expressed as dollars per watt ($/W) of installed PV system capacity. Achieving the PV breakeven price depends on many factors, including the solar resource, local electricity prices, customer load profile, PV incentives, and financing. In the United States, where these factors vary substantially across regions, breakeven prices vary substantially across regions as well. In this study, we estimate current and future breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets in the United States. We also evaluate key drivers of current and future commercial PV breakeven prices by region. The results suggest that breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets vary significantly across the United States. Non-technical factors -- including electricity rates, rate structures, incentives, and the availability of system financing -- drive break-even prices more than technical factors like solar resource or system orientation. In 2020 (where we assume higher electricity prices and lower PV incentives), under base-case assumptions, we estimate that about 17% of supermarkets will be in utility territories where breakeven conditions exist at a PV system price of $3/W; this increases to 79% at $1.25/W (the DOE SunShot Initiative's commercial PV price target for 2020). These percentages increase to 26% and 91%, respectively, when rate structures favorable to PV are used.

  18. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of vegetable pricing in supermarket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Suci

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the variables affecting the determination of the sale price of vegetable which is constant over time in a supermarket qualitatively and quantitavely. It focuses on the non-organic vegetable with a fixed selling price over time such as spinach, beet, and parsley. In qualitative analysis, the sale price determination is influenced by the vegetable characteristics: (1) vegetable segmentation (low to high daily consumed); (2) vegetable age (how long it can last related to freshness); which both characteristic relates to the inventory management and ultimately to the sale price in supermarket. While quantitatively, the vegetables are divided into two categories: the leaf vegetable group that the leaves are eaten as a vegetable with the aging product (a) = 0 and the shelf life (t) = 0, and the non-leafy vegetable group with the aging group (a) = a+1 and the shelf life (t) = t+1. The vegetable age (a) = 0 means they only last for one day when they are ordered then they have to terminate. Whereas a+1 is that they have a longer life for more than a day such as beet, white radish, and string beans. The shelf life refers to how long it will be placed in a shelf in supermarket in line with the vegetable age. According to the cost plus pricing method using full price costing approach, production costs, non-production costs, and markup are adjusted differently for each category. There is a holding cost added to the sale price of the non-leafy vegetable, yet it is assumed a 0 holding cost for the leafy vegetable category. The amount of expected margin of each category is correlated to the vegetable characteristics.

  19. "But Pasta Is Pasta, It Is All the Same": The Language, Literacy and Numeracy Challenges of Supermarket Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastwell, Kim; Strauss, Pat; Kell, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographically based study of entry level supermarket work. The study, carried out in a large suburban supermarket in Auckland, New Zealand, focused on the literacy and numeracy practices of supermarket assistants, all who had English as an additional language. It found that skills such as oral communication, personal…

  20. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimberly Michael C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan versus rural (nonmetropolitan areas. Results Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories. Conclusions Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical

  1. When Supermarket Consumers get Stocked in the Middle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Møller Jensen, Jan; Stubbe Solgaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    /or preferences are met. Design/methodology/approach – Survey data were collected from 130 consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to test the authors' proposed hypotheses. Findings – According to consumers, not many supermarkets offer high quality at low prices...... be determined by matching preferences with retail offerings, but may also be based on considerations of possibilities for mental justification within a certain preference structure. It is therefore important that managers seek to understand the process of mental justification that may be associated...

  2. Optimising performance in steady state for a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Kinnaert, Michel; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh

    2012-01-01

    Using a supermarket refrigeration system as an illustrative example, the paper postulates that by appropriately utilising knowledge of plant operation, the plant wide performance can be optimised based on a small set of variables. Focusing on steady state operations, the total system performance...... is shown to predominantly be influenced by the suction pressure. Employing appropriate performance function leads to conclusions on the choice of set-point for the suction pressure that are contrary to the existing practice. Analysis of the resulting data leads to a simple method for finding optimal...

  3. Examining the effect of retail service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction and loyalty: The case of the supermarket shopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beneke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Post Apartheid, the South African supermarket industry has rapidly increased in size and stature, yet customer satisfaction and fostering goodwill don't appear to have kept pace with growth. This research considers which aspects of retail service quality impact upon customer satisfaction and, ultimately, pay dividends in terms of generating store loyalty amongst urban shoppers in the middle to upper market segments. Design/methodology/approach: A survey approach was used to collect data from 307 respondents within a major metro pole area, as well as through an online interface. This was used to test our path model using Partial Least Squares (PLS analysis. Findings: The results from the analysis concluded that two constructs, namely Physical Aspects and Personal Interaction, had a direct relationship with Customer Satisfaction. Customer satisfaction was also confirmed to be positively linked to customer loyalty. Originality/Value: This research uncovers which aspects of service are most coveted by consumers in an emerging market context, as well as their effect on generating repeat business. If supermarket chains are to move beyond mere profit generation and build meaningful relationships with customers, they would best be advised to focus on the attributes of service that have a direct bearing on customer satisfaction and, in turn, long-term repeat patronage.

  4. Fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents: SES and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    backgrounds. Methods Data from the Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6,034) were supplemented with geocoded information regarding supermarkets and fast food outlets, 300 meters from each school (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine the relationship between infrequent...... fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratifying by levels of family social class. Results Examining supermarket exposure alone, children from low social class backgrounds had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.50; CI: 1.03-2.20) and fruit (OR = 1.......43;CI: 1.06-1.93) intake, attending schools with low concentration of supermarkets. Children from low social class families attending schools with high fast food outlet and low supermarket concentration had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.79;CI: 0.99-3.21) and fruit (OR = 1.59; CI: 1...

  5. Health marketing in the supermarket: using prompting, product sampling, and price reduction to increase customer purchases of lower-fat items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine-Andrews, A; Francisco, V T; Fawcett, S B; Johnston, J; Coen, S

    1996-01-01

    Reducing purchase and consumption of higher-fat foods is an important health objective for the nation since these behaviors are associated with cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Public health agents attempt to promote health-related behaviors, such as purchases of lower-fat foods, by changing key features of relevant environments. This study examined the effects of a marketing intervention in a supermarket on customer purchases of lower-fat products. Customers of one store of a major supermarket chain participated in this study. Direct observations of customer purchases of lower-fat milk, salad dressings, and frozen desserts were conducted. The supermarket intervention consisted of prompting, product sampling, and price reduction (store coupons). Using an interrupted time series design with switching replications, we found low to moderate increases for the lower-fat counterparts of milk, frozen desserts, and salad dressing. The greatest increase in purchases was found with frozen desserts. Findings from this study suggest that prompting, product sampling, and price reduction can increase customer purchases of some lower-fat products. Implications of these findings for the development and evaluation of health marketing interventions are discussed.

  6. The homeobox protein CEH-23 mediates prolonged longevity in response to impaired mitochondrial electron transport chain in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludivine Walter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings indicate that perturbations of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (METC can cause extended longevity in evolutionarily diverse organisms. To uncover the molecular basis of how altered METC increases lifespan in C. elegans, we performed an RNAi screen and revealed that three predicted transcription factors are specifically required for the extended longevity of mitochondrial mutants. In particular, we demonstrated that the nuclear homeobox protein CEH-23 uniquely mediates the longevity but not the slow development, reduced brood size, or resistance to oxidative stress associated with mitochondrial mutations. Furthermore, we showed that ceh-23 expression levels are responsive to altered METC, and enforced overexpression of ceh-23 is sufficient to extend lifespan in wild-type background. Our data point to mitochondria-to-nucleus communications to be key for longevity determination and highlight CEH-23 as a novel longevity factor capable of responding to mitochondrial perturbations. These findings provide a new paradigm for how mitochondria impact aging and age-dependent diseases.

  7. Xanthohumol induces generation of reactive oxygen species and triggers apoptosis through inhibition of mitochondrial electron transfer chain complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Chu, Wei; Wei, Peng; Liu, Ying; Wei, Taotao

    2015-12-01

    Xanthohumol is a prenylflavonoid extracted from hops (Humulus lupulus). It possesses anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo, and offers therapeutic benefits for treatment of metabolic syndromes. However, the precise mechanisms underlying its pharmacological effects remain to be elucidated, together with its cellular target. Here, we provide evidence that xanthohumol directly interacts with the mitochondrial electron transfer chain complex I (NADH dehydrogenase), inhibits the oxidative phosphorylation, triggers the production of reactive oxygen species, and induces apoptosis. In addition, we show that as a result of the inhibition of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, xanthohumol exposure causes a rapid decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, we showed that xanthohumol up-regulates the glycolytic capacity in cells, and thus compensates cellular ATP generation. Dissection of the multiple steps of aerobic respiration by extracellular flux assays revealed that xanthohumol specifically inhibits the activity of mitochondrial complex I, but had little effect on that of complex II, III and IV. Inhibition of complex I by xanthohumol caused the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which are responsible for the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. We also found that isoxanthohumol, the structural isomer of xanthohumol, is inactive to cells, suggesting that the reactive 2-hydroxyl group of xanthohumol is crucial for its targeting to the mitochondrial complex I. Together, the remodeling of cell metabolism revealed here has therapeutic potential for the use of xanthohumol.

  8. A Manufacturing Cost and Supply Chain Analysis of SiC Power Electronics Applicable to Medium-Voltage Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Remo, Timothy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reese, Samantha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor devices are increasingly being considered for use in certain power electronics applications, where they can improve efficiency, performance, footprint, and, potentially, total system cost compared to systems using traditional silicon (Si) devices. Silicon carbide (SiC) devices in particular -- which are currently more mature than other WBG devices -- are poised for growth in the coming years. Today, the manufacturing of SiC wafers is concentrated in the United States, and chip production is split roughly equally between the United States, Japan, and Europe. Established contract manufacturers located throughout Asia typically carry out manufacturing of WBG power modules. We seek to understand how global manufacturing of SiC components may evolve over time by illustrating the regional cost drivers along the supply chain and providing an overview of other factors that influence where manufacturing is sited. We conduct this analysis for a particular case study where SiC devices are used in a medium-voltage motor drive.

  9. Towards a Traceability System Based on RFID Technology to Check the Content of Pallets within Electronic Devices Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Angulo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years there has been a growing interest in smart solutions capable of dealing with the traceability of products and materials to improve logistical processes. Most of the existing solutions have been designed without considering the difficulties of deploying traceability systems in the storehouses currently working, not dealing with specific needs, such as environment characteristics or time required to be handled by workers. In this paper, in order to test the viability of its application, a first prototype of a traceability system capable of checking the content of pallets loaded with electronic devices is presented. It is based on ultra-high frequency (UHF radio frequency identification (RFID technology using passive tags. A holistic approach has been adopted to design the system: it begins with a radioelectrical characterization of the environment where the check points will be implemented, continues with the integration of a set of data acquisition and wireless communication devices, and ends with a logistics information system able to provide final user services. The combination of physical layer analysis with a top layer system view can aid the planning as well as operational phase of this type of RFID system within a logistic chain.

  10. Reduced coupling of oxidative phosphorylation in vivo precedes electron transport chain defects due to mild oxidative stress in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Siegel

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and mitochondrial function are at the core of many degenerative conditions. However, the interaction between oxidative stress and in vivo mitochondrial function is unclear. We used both pharmacological (2 week paraquat (PQ treatment of wild type mice and transgenic (mice lacking Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1(-/- models to test the effect of oxidative stress on in vivo mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy were used to measure mitochondrial ATP and oxygen fluxes and cell energetic state. In both models of oxidative stress, coupling of oxidative phosphorylation was significantly lower (lower P/O at rest in vivo in skeletal muscle and was dose-dependent in the PQ model. Despite this reduction in efficiency, in vivo mitochondrial phosphorylation capacity (ATPmax was maintained in both models, and ex vivo mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized muscle fibers was unchanged following PQ treatment. In association with the reduced P/O, PQ treatment led to a dose-dependent reduction in PCr/ATP ratio and increased phosphorylation of AMPK. These results indicate that oxidative stress uncouples oxidative phosphorylation in vivo and results in energetic stress in the absence of defects in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

  11. Learning how the electron transport chain works: independent and interactive effects of instructional strategies and learners' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Arrastia-Lloyd, Meagan C; Nelson, David W; Liang, Xinya; Farrell, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop an expert-like mental model of complex systems, causal reasoning is essential. This study examines the differences between forward and backward instructional strategies' in terms of efficiency, students' learning and progression of their mental models of the electronic transport chain in an undergraduate metabolism course (n = 151). Additionally, the participants' cognitive flexibility, prior knowledge, and mental effort in the learning process are also investigated. The data were analyzed using a series of general linear models to compare the strategies. Although the two strategies did not differ significantly in terms of mental model progression and learning outcomes, both groups' mental models progressed significantly. Mental effort and prior knowledge were identified as significant predictors of mental model progression. An interaction between instructional strategy and cognitive flexibility revealed that the backward instruction was more efficient than the conventional (forward) strategy for students with lower cognitive flexibility, whereas the conventional instruction was more efficient for students with higher cognitive flexibility. The results are discussed and suggestions for future research on the possible moderating role of cognitive flexibility in the area of health education are presented.

  12. The fungal phytotoxin alternariol 9-methyl ether and some of its synthetic analogues inhibit the photosynthetic electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuner, Antonio Jacinto; Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio Almeida; Miranda, Ana Cristina Mendes; Geraldo, Guilherme Carvalho; da Silva, Cleiton Moreira; Giberti, Samuele; Bertazzini, Michele; Forlani, Giuseppe

    2013-12-27

    Alternariol and monomethylalternariol are natural phytotoxins produced by some fungal strains, such as Nimbya and Alternaria. These substances confer virulence to phytopathogens, yet no information is available concerning their mode of action. Here we show that in the micromolar range alternariol 9-methyl ether is able to inhibit the electron transport chain (IC50 = 29.1 ± 6.5 μM) in isolated spinach chloroplasts. Since its effectiveness is limited by poor solubility in water, several alternariol analogues were synthesized using different aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized 6H-benzo[c]cromen-6-ones, 5H-chromene[4,3-b]pyridin-5-one, and 5H-chromene[4,3-c]pyridin-5-one also showed inhibitory properties, and three 6H-benzo[c]cromen-6-ones were more effective (IC50 = 12.8-22.8 μM) than the lead compound. Their addition to the culture medium of a cyanobacterial model strain was found to inhibit algal growth, with a relative effectiveness that was consistent with their activity in vitro. In contrast, the growth of a nonphotosynthetic plant cell culture was poorly affected. These compounds may represent a novel lead for the development of new active principles targeting photosynthesis.

  13. A mixed-method examination of food marketing directed towards children in Australian supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah; James, Erica L; Stacey, Fiona G; Bowman, Jennifer; Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of children's food requests, and parents' experiences of food marketing directed towards children, in the supermarket environment. A mixed-method design was used. Firstly, intercept interviews were conducted with parents accompanied by a child/children on exiting supermarkets (sampled from a large regional centre in Australia). Parents were asked about the prevalence and types of food requests by child/children during their supermarket visit and whether they purchased these foods. Secondly, focus groups (n = 13) and telephone interviews (n = 3) were conducted exploring parents' experiences of supermarket shopping with children and the impact of child-directed marketing. Of the 158 intercept survey participants (30% response rate), 73% reported a food request during the supermarket visit. Most requested food items (88%) were unhealthy foods, with chocolate/confectionery being the most common food category requested (40%). Most parents (70%) purchased at least one food item requested during the shopping trip. Qualitative interviews identified four themes associated with food requests and prompts in the supermarket: parents' experience of pester power in the supermarket; prompts for food requests in the supermarket; parental responses to pestering in the supermarket environment, and; strategies to manage pestering and minimize requests for food items. Food requests from children are common during supermarket shopping. Despite the majority of the requests being unhealthy, parents often purchase these foods. Parents reported difficulties dealing with constant requests and expressed desire for environmental changes including confectionery-free checkouts, minimization of child friendly product placement and reducing children's exposure to food marketing.

  14. Open refrigerating display case 'MAX series' for supermarkets; Supermarket muke denki reizo open showcase (MAX series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, E.; Sudo, H.; Aoyama, Y. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-10

    Fuji Electric has developed the open refrigerating display case 'MAX Series' for supermarkets which has further pursued 'articles easy to see, select, and take out' on the concept of 'friendliness' as well as friendliness to customers and installation workers. Its main advantages are (1) The dimensions were determined based on human engineering and improved the display effect of articles. This enables the exhibits to strongly appeal to customers. (2) The air curtain optimized through simulation realizes uniform temperature in the case, reduction in energy consumption, and high freshness control. (author)

  15. Using the Electronic Industry Code of Conduct to Evaluate Green Supply Chain Management: An Empirical Study of Taiwan’s Computer Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ching Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronics companies throughout Asia recognize the benefits of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM for gaining competitive advantage. A large majority of electronics companies in Taiwan have recently adopted the Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC Code of Conduct for defining and managing their social and environmental responsibilities throughout their supply chains. We surveyed 106 Tier 1 suppliers to the Taiwanese computer industry to determine their environmental performance using the EICC Code of Conduct (EICC Code and performed Analysis of Variance (ANOVA on the 63/106 questionnaire responses collected. We test the results to determine whether differences in product type, geographic area, and supplier size correlate with different levels of environmental performance. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze questionnaire data on supplier adoption to optimize the implementation of GSCM. The results suggest that characteristic classification of suppliers could be employed to enhance the efficiency of GSCM.

  16. Analysis of synchronization in a supermarket refrigeration system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael WISNIEWSKI; John LETH; Jakob G. RASMUSSEN

    2014-01-01

    In a supermarket refrigeration, the temperature in a display case, surprisingly, influences the temperature in other display cases. This leads to a synchronous operation of all display cases, in which the expansion valves in the display cases turn on and off at exactly the same time. This behavior increases both the energy consumption and the wear of components. Besides this practical importance, from the theoretical point of view, synchronization, likewise stability, Zeno phenomenon, and chaos, is an interesting dynamical phenomenon. The study of synchronization in the supermarket refrigeration systems is the subject matter of this work. For this purpose, we model it as a hybrid system, for which synchronization corresponds to a periodic trajectory. To examine whether it is stable, we transform the hybrid system to a single dynamical system defined on a torus. Consequently, we apply a Poincar ´e map to determine whether this periodic trajectory is asymptotically stable. To illustrate, this procedure is applied for a refrigeration system with two display-cases.

  17. Closed supermarket refrigerator and freezer cabinets. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligthart, F.A.T.M. [ECN Energy in the Built Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The City of Amsterdam's Environmental and Building Department commissioned the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) to calculate the time needed to recoup the cost of closing the existing refrigerator and freezer display cabinets used in supermarkets. We were asked to give particular consideration to the following aspects: (1) The cabinet's energy consumption; (2) The energy price; and (3) The cost of closing the cabinet. The payback period has been calculated by dividing the investment required to close the cabinet by the amount saved on energy each year, less any additional costs incurred as a result of the scheme. For existing upright refrigerator cabinets, that period works out at 2.9 years with a margin error of {+-}0.9 years. In the case of chest freezers, it is approximately 2.4 years, with a maximum of 2.5 and a minimum of 1.3 years. For chest refrigerators, the payback period is 9.4 years. If units are closed overnight only, the time needed to payback the cost of that measure ranges between 1.8 and 4.1 years. Moreover, research shows that closing refrigerator and freezer display units will not reduce turnover. In addition, it will significantly improve the ambient climate in supermarkets.

  18. Hybrid HVAC systems with chemical dehumidification for supermarket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozzoli, Alfonso; Mazzei, Pietro; Minichiello, Francesco; Palma, Daniele [DETEC, University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    HVAC systems in supermarkets must assure both thermal comfort for occupants and suitable climatic conditions for refrigerated cases, which operate better with low ambient relative humidity (40-45%). Since open display cases substantially reduce sensible load and moderately reduce latent load, ambient sensible/total heat load ratio is less than usual. Thus, if dehumidification is carried out with a traditional cooling coil, over-sizing of the coil and re-heating of the treated air are necessary, with energy and economic waste. To offset these disadvantages, hybrid HVAC systems with chemical dehumidification may be employed. In this paper a case study is presented in which a traditional HVAC system is compared to hybrid systems with chemical dehumidification. Dynamic simulation codes (DOE and DesiCalc{sup (}TM)) and test reference year data (TRY), opportunely elaborated, have been used. Annual operating costs have been estimated and large savings have been obtained with hybrid systems. Considerable reduction of electric energy demand as well as better control of thermal-hygrometric conditions were noted. A simple payback of about 1 year has been obtained. Finally, a virtual retrofitting operation on 30% of the existing HVAC systems in Italian supermarkets has shown significant operating cost savings. [Author].

  19. Energy-efficient lighting applications in a supermarket environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the application of energy-efficient lighting in a retail environment, specifically a supermarket. It will reveal the general theory behind Big V`s chosen lighting design, and then discuss two examples of the application: one, a retrofit to an existing supermarket; the other, the adaption of the design to a new store. The factors that influence Big V`s lighting design are: (1) the best presentation of product for merchandising purposes, and (2) the lowest operating cost. These two factors can often be mutually exclusive. For merchandising purposes, the best design would make the product `jump off the shelf` at a customer, preferably into his/her shopping cart. Such an arrangement would include high footcandle levels along with a very high color rendering index (CRI). To design only to these requirements would result in very high original and operating costs for the lighting system. However, to base the design on cost considerations alone would result in low light levels at a very low CRI. Since neither option is acceptable, Big V`s design is a compromise, combining the best light quality at a reasonable cost.

  20. Investigation of Energy-Efficient Supermarket Display Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.H.

    2005-01-21

    Supermarkets represent one of the largest energy-intensive building groups in the commercial sector, consuming 2 to 3 million kWh/yr per store (ES-1). Over half of this energy use is for the refrigeration of food display cases and storage coolers. Display cases are used throughout a supermarket for the merchandising of perishable food products. The cases are maintained at air temperatures ranging from -10 to 35 F, depending upon the type of product stored. The operating characteristics and energy requirements of the refrigeration system are directly related to the refrigeration load. The sources of the display case refrigeration load consist of: (1) Moist and warm air infiltration through the open front of the case--air curtains are employed to inhibit this infiltration, but some ambient air is entrained, which adds a substantial portion to the refrigeration load. (2) Heat conduction through case panels and walls. (3) Thermal radiation from the ambient to the product and display case interior. (4) Internal thermal loads--the use of lights, evaporator fans, periodic defrosts, and antisweat heaters adds to the refrigeration load of the display case as well as directly consuming electric energy. The impact of each of these elements on the refrigeration load is very dependent upon case type (Figure ES-1). For example, air infiltration is the most significant portion of the refrigeration load for open, multi-deck cases, while radiation is the largest part of the load for tub-type cases. The door anti-sweat heaters represent a major share of the refrigeration load for frozen food door reach-in cases. Figure ES-2 shows the distribution of display cases in a typical supermarket (ES-2). Open, multi-deck, medium temperature display cases typically comprise about half of the refrigerated fixtures in a store (ES-3). In addition, medium temperature fixtures and storage coolers account for roughly 70 to 75 percent of the total store refrigeration load with open, multi-deck cases

  1. The relationship between diet and perceived and objective access to supermarkets among low-income housing residents

    OpenAIRE

    Caspi, Caitlin E.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S.V.; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Sorensen, Glorian

    2012-01-01

    In the U.S., supermarkets serve as an important source of year-round produce (Chung & Myers, 1999), and yet access to supermarkets may be scarce in “food deserts,” or poor, urban areas that lack sources of healthy, affordable food (Cummins & Macintyre, 2002). This study examined objective distance to the nearest supermarket and participant-report of supermarket access in relation to fruit and vegetable intake. Street-network distance to the closest supermarket was calculated using GIS mapping...

  2. Is a reduction in distance to nearest supermarket associated with BMI change among type 2 diabetes patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Tara; Laraia, Barbara A; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Blanchard, Samuel D; Warton, E Margaret; Moffet, Howard H; Karter, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether residing within 2 miles of a new supermarket opening was longitudinally associated with a change in body mass index (BMI). We identified 12 new supermarkets that opened between 2009 and 2010 in 8 neighborhoods. Using the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry, we identified members with type 2 diabetes residing continuously in any of these neighborhoods 12 months prior to the first supermarket opening until 10 months following the opening of the last supermarket. Exposure was defined as a reduction (yes/no) in travel distance to the nearest supermarket as a result of a new supermarket opening. First difference regression models were used to estimate the impact of reduced supermarket distance on BMI, adjusting for longitudinal changes in patient and neighborhood characteristics. Among patients in the exposed group, new supermarket openings reduced travel distance to the nearest supermarket by 0.7 miles on average. However, reduced distance to nearest supermarket was not associated with BMI changes. Overall, we found no evidence that reduced supermarket distance was associated with reduced levels of obesity for residents with type 2 diabetes.

  3. Unbalanced fermentation of glycerol in Escherichia coli via heterologous production of an electron transport chain and electrode interaction in microbial electrochemical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm-Richter, Katrin; Golitsch, Frederik; Sturm, Gunnar; Kipf, Elena; Dittrich, André; Beblawy, Sebastian; Kerzenmacher, Sven; Gescher, Johannes

    2015-06-01

    Microbial electrochemical cells are an emerging technology for achieving unbalanced fermentations. However, organisms that can serve as potential biocatalysts for this application are limited by their narrow substrate spectrum. This study describes the reprogramming of Escherichia coli for the efficient use of anodes as electron acceptors. Electron transfer into the periplasm was accelerated by 183% via heterologous expression of the c-type cytochromes CymA, MtrA and STC from Shewanella oneidensis. STC was identified as a target for heterologous expression via a two-stage screening approach. First, mass spectroscopic analysis revealed natively expressed cytochromes in S. oneidensis. Thereafter, the corresponding genes were cloned and expressed in E. coli to quantify periplasmic electron transfer activity using methylene blue. This redox dye was further used to expand electron transfer to carbon electrode surfaces. The results demonstrate that E. coli can be reprogrammed from glycerol fermentation to respiration upon production of the new electron transport chain.

  4. AGENT AND RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION BASED ARCHITECTURE FOR SUPERMARKET INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Al-Sakran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the acceptance of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology in business environments has been increasing rapidly due to its competitive business value. Adopting a suitable RFID-based information system has become increasingly important for supermarkets. However, most supermarkets still use conventional barcode-based systems to manage their information processes, which are consistently reported as one of the most unenthusiastic aspects of supermarket shopping for both customers and management. We propose an RFID agent-based architecture that adopts intelligent agent technology with an RFID based applications. RFID provides capability to uniquely identify an object within a supermarket area, while agents are able to establish a channel of communication which can be used to facilitate communications between a RFID device and supermarket back-end system. The proposed framework includes a design of intelligent mobile shopping cart equipped with both RFID and agent technologies. As a result of using the proposed RFID agent based architecture, the customer shopping experience will be improved due to ease of retrieving of the detailed information on items and quick checkout by scanning all items at once, thus eliminating queues. From supermarket management point of view the proposed architecture will reduce the cost of operation e.g., decreasing cost of goods sold which comes in the form of labor efficiency in areas of checkout operation, inventory management and alerting the supermarket management when a certain product is running out of stock and needs to be restocked.

  5. CEP-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans p53 homolog, mediates opposing longevity outcomes in mitochondrial electron transport chain mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswarya Baruah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans CEP-1 and its mammalian homolog p53 are critical for responding to diverse stress signals. In this study, we found that cep-1 inactivation suppressed the prolonged lifespan of electron transport chain (ETC mutants, such as isp-1 and nuo-6, but rescued the shortened lifespan of other ETC mutants, such as mev-1 and gas-1. We compared the CEP-1-regulated transcriptional profiles of the long-lived isp-1 and the short-lived mev-1 mutants and, to our surprise, found that CEP-1 regulated largely similar sets of target genes in the two mutants despite exerting opposing effects on their longevity. Further analyses identified a small subset of CEP-1-regulated genes that displayed distinct expression changes between the isp-1 and mev-1 mutants. Interestingly, this small group of differentially regulated genes are enriched for the "aging" Gene Ontology term, consistent with the hypothesis that they might be particularly important for mediating the distinct longevity effects of CEP-1 in isp-1 and mev-1 mutants. We further focused on one of these differentially regulated genes, ftn-1, which encodes ferritin in C. elegans, and demonstrated that it specifically contributed to the extended lifespan of isp-1 mutant worms but did not affect the mev-1 mutant lifespan. We propose that CEP-1 responds to different mitochondrial ETC stress by mounting distinct compensatory responses accordingly to modulate animal physiology and longevity. Our findings provide insights into how mammalian p53 might respond to distinct mitochondrial stressors to influence cellular and organismal responses.

  6. Incidence of Larval Anisakiosis in Ocean Fish Sold Through Network of Supermarket Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations conducted on a sample of 33 ocean fish of consumption, mackerel and herring uneviscerated and frosen, packed in plastic bags, different weights and purchased from supermarket chain stores, concerning the incidence and intensity of parasitism by larvae of Anisakis sp. to gut and visceral level, lesion picture caused and also some morphological measurements, reveals an incidence of anisakiasis of 60.0% to 72.2% in mackerel and respectively in herring. Regarding the infestation intensity of Anisakis larvae sp., infestations dominate weakly the mackerel (44.4%, followed by medium (33.3% and massive (22.0%. In contrast to the herring are dominant the medium infestations (46.1%, followed by massive (30.7% and low infestations (23.1%.Table of lesion caused by larval stages in gut and visceral level is characterized by intestinal congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and hemoragico – necrotic and the presence of larval cystic foci on serous of gut, kidneys, liver and gonads. Morphological investigations carried out on a sample of 20 larvae, collected from herring and mackerel, regarding biometric aspects, cuticular and of color, body size variables highlights from 13.0 mm / 0.6 mm minimum to 27.0 / 0.6 mm maximum, with an average of 20.0 mm / 0.5 mm, comparable to those presented in the speciality literature.

  7. Foods advertised in US weekly supermarket sales circulars over one year: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahns, Lisa; Payne, Collin R; Whigham, Leah D; Johnson, LuAnn K; Scheett, Angela J; Hoverson, Bonita S; Kranz, Sibylle

    2014-09-23

    The nutritional content of Americans' shopping carts is suboptimal despite federal dietary guidance, in this case, the MyPlate consumer icon which displays desired proportions of vegetables, fruits, dairy, grains and protein foods for consumption. Consumers mention print advertising-such as weekly sales circulars-frequently as influencing their grocery shopping decisions. To examine and describe the relative proportions of advertised foods aggregated into the MyPlate food grouping system, a content analysis of 9 209 foods advertised in 52 weekly supermarket newspaper sales inserts in 2009 from a local grocery chain was conducted in a Midwestern community. Overall, the protein foods group was most often represented in sales circulars (25% of total items), followed by grains (18%); dairy (10%); vegetables (8%) and fruits (7%). Less than 3% of sales advertisements were for dark green and red & orange vegetables. Over twice as much whole fruit versus 100% fruit juice was advertised (70% vs. 30%, respectively; P < 0.001). Significantly fewer protein foods and more grains than expected were advertised in the fall, and slightly more dark green vegetables were advertised in winter and spring than in summer and fall (P = 0.05). The average American diet, including underconsumption of fruits and vegetables but overconsumption of protein foods, was reflected in the relative frequency of food groups advertised in weekly sales circulars. Modifying sales circulars to represent healthier food groups may preserve retail profits (considering these groups' higher profit margin) while promoting adherence to federal dietary guidance.

  8. Introduction to the RFID Technology in the Application of the Smart Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Binbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RFID technology is no stranger to more or less have contacted various of industries in nowadays. Premier wen Jiabao put forward the “experience China” in 2009, after the application of IOT (Internet of things is rocketed development and RFID technology is absolutely necessary as the core of IOT. On the experiment background of campus supermarket, this paper briefly introduces the application of RFID technology in the intelligent supermarket that mainly included four parts. Through analysis of system, it detailed interpretation that IOT bring changes to campus supermarket.

  9. Improving demand response potential of a supermarket refrigeration system: A food temperature estimation approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Schwensen, John; Biegel, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    a method for estimating food temperature based on measurements of evaporator expansion valve opening degree. This method requires no additional hardware or system modeling. We demonstrate the estimation method on a real supermarket display case and the applicability of knowing food temperature is shown...... through tests on a full scale supermarket refrigeration system made available by Danfoss A/S. The conducted application test shows that feedback based on food temperature can increase the demand flexibility during a step by approx. 60 % the first 70 minutes and up to 100%over the first 150 minutes...... - thereby strengthening the demand response potential of supermarket refrigeration systems....

  10. Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of the polymers base on thiophene derivatives with electron-deficient 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole side chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Bin, E-mail: xtuzb@163.com [College of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymeric Materials of College of Hunan Province, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Li, Xinwei; Tang, Peng; Cao, Zhencai; Huang, Hongyan; Shen, Ping [College of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Tan, Songting [College of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymeric Materials of College of Hunan Province, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)

    2013-07-31

    Three soluble alternating conjugated copolymers PT-TZN, PF-TZN, and PBDT-TZN, composed of thiophene, fluorene, benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene and thiophene derivatives with 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole side chains, were synthesized via the palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction and Stille coupling reaction. The effects of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole on the thermal, photophysical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties were investigated. The introduction of the 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole side chains is beneficial for lowering the bandgaps of the polymers. The bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells were fabricated based on the blend of the as-synthesized polymers and the fullerene acceptor [6, 6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester. The maximum power conversion efficiency (1.13%) was obtained with PBDT-TZN as the electron donor under the illumination of Air Mass 1.5, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • Three conjugated polymers with 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole side chains were synthesized. • The introduction of the side chains favors lowering the bandgaps of the polymers. • The strong electron-withdrawing nitro group likely promotes excimer quenching.

  11. Effects of Side-Chain and Electron Exchange Correlation on the Band Structure of Perylene Diimide Liquid Crystals: A Density Functional Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arantes, J. T.; Lima, M. P.; Fazzio, A.; Xiang, H.; Wei, S. H.; Dalpian, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    The structural and electronic properties of perylene diimide liquid crystal PPEEB are studied using ab initio methods based on the density functional theory (DFT). Using available experimental crystallographic data as a guide, we propose a detailed structural model for the packing of solid PPEEB. We find that due to the localized nature of the band edge wave function, theoretical approaches beyond the standard method, such as hybrid functional (PBE0), are required to correctly characterize the band structure of this material. Moreover, unlike previous assumptions, we observe the formation of hydrogen bonds between the side chains of different molecules, which leads to a dispersion of the energy levels. This result indicates that the side chains of the molecular crystal not only are responsible for its structural conformation but also can be used for tuning the electronic and optical properties of these materials.

  12. Metal Induced Inhibition of Photosynthesis,Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain and ATP Content of Anabaena doliolum and Chlorella vulgaris:Interaction with Exogenous ATP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIRUPAMAMALLICK; L.C.RAI

    1992-01-01

    This study demonstrates a concentration dependent inhibition of carbon fixation,O2 evolution,photosynthetic electron transport chain and ATP content of A.doliolum and C.vulgaris by Cu,Ni and Fe.Although the mode of inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport chain of both the algae was similar.PS Ⅱdepicted greater sensitivity to the test metals used.The toxicity in both organisms was Cu>Ni>Fe.A.doliolum was,however,more sensitive to Cu and Ni,and C.vulgaris to Fe.Toxicity was generally dependent on metal uptake,which in turn was dependent on their concentrations in the external medium.A partial restoration of nutrient uptake,carbon fixation,and enzyme activities following supplementation of exogenous ATP suggests that ATP regulates toxicity through chelation.

  13. Analysis of seven stages supply chain management in electronic component inventory optimization for warehouse with economic load dispatch using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Singh Yadav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the proposed study is to give a new dimension on warehouse with Economic Load Dispatch using genetic algorithm processes in Seven Stages - 10 Member Supply Chain in Electronic component inventory optimization to describe the certain and uncertain market demand which is based on supply reliability and to develop more realistic and more flexible models. we hope that the proposed study has a great potential to solve various practical tribulations related to the warehouse using genetic algorithm processes in Seven Stages - 10 Member Supply Chain in Electronic component inventory optimization and also provide a general review for the application of soft computing techniques like genetic algorithms to use for improve the effectiveness and efficiency for various aspect of warehouse with Economic Load Dispatch using genetic algorithm.

  14. Supermarket refrigerators with natural refrigerants; Supermarktkaelteanlagen mit natuerlichen Kaeltemitteln. Erfahrungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaf, S.; Heinbokel, B. [Linde AG, Koeln (Germany). Gechaeftsbereich Linde Kaeltetechnik

    2002-09-01

    In view of the high contribution to global warming of H-CFC refrigerants, substitution has been a key concern for several years now. Leakage protection measures were enhanced, and Linde also installed many supermarket refrigerators with natural refrigerants, i.e. ammonia, propene and carbon dioxide. The environmental and economic aspects are assessed on the basis of the experience gained, and the systems are compared with H-CFC refrigeration systems. [German] Wegen des betraechtlichen Treibhauspotentials von HFKW-Kaeltemitteln werden seit Jahren Anstrengungen unternommen, um den von diesen Stoffen ausgehenden Treibhauseffekt zu reduzieren. Neben Massnahmen zur Verminderung von Leckagen sowie zur Verringerung von Kaeltemittel-Fuellmengen wurden im Laufe der letzten 10 Jahre von Linde auch zahlreiche Kaelteanlagen mit den natuerlichen Kaeltemitteln Ammoniak, Propen und Kohlendioxid in Supermaerkten installiert. Auf Basis der gesammelten Erfahrungen wird eine Einschaetzung der umweltspezifischen und wirtschaftlichen Aspekte im Vergleich zu Anlagen mit HFKW-Kaeltemitteln vorgenommen. (orig.)

  15. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems with EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Supermarket refrigeration capabilities were first added to EnergyPlus in 2004. At that time, it was possible to model a direct expansion (DX) rack system with multiple refrigerated cases. The basic simulation software handles all the building energy uses, typically on a 5 to 10 minute time step throughout the period of interest. The original refrigeration module included the ability to model the sensible and latent interactions between the refrigerated cases and the building HVAC system, along with some basic heat recovery capabilities. Over the last few years, the refrigeration module has been expanded to handle more complex systems, such as secondary loops, shared condensers, cascade condensers, subcoolers, and walk-in coolers exchanging energy with multiple conditioned zones.

  16. First-principles study of the stability, magnetic and electronic properties of Fe and Co monoatomic chains encapsulated into copper nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liang-Cai; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2017-07-01

    By using first-principles calculations based on density-functional theory, the stability, magnetic and electronic properties of Fe and Co monoatomic chains encapsulated into copper nanotube are systematically investigated. The binding energies of the hybrid structures are remarkably higher than those of corresponding freestanding TM chains, indicating the TM chains are significantly stabilized after encapsulating into copper nanotube. The formed bonds between outer Cu and inner TM atoms show some degree of covalent bonding character. The magnetic ground states of Fe@CuNW and Co@CuNW hybrid structures are ferromagnetic, and both spin and orbital magnetic moments of inner TM atoms have been calculated. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies (MAE) of the hybrid structures are enhanced by nearly fourfold compared to those of corresponding freestanding TM chains, indicating that the hybrid structures can be used in ultrahigh density magnetic storage. Furthermore, the easy magnetization axis switches from that along the axis in freestanding Fe chain to that perpendicular to the axis in Fe@CuNT hybrid structure. The large spin polarization at the Fermi level also makes the hybrid systems interesting as good potential materials for spintronic devices.

  17. Integrated compound profiling screens identify the mitochondrial electron transport chain as the molecular target of the natural products manassantin, sesquicillin, and arctigenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kevin; Selinger, Douglas W; Solomon, Jonathan M; Wu, Hua; Schmitt, Esther; Serluca, Fabrizio C; Curtis, Daniel; Benson, John D

    2013-01-18

    Phenotypic compound screens can be used to identify novel targets in signaling pathways and disease processes, but the usefulness of these screens depends on the ability to quickly determine the target and mechanism of action of the molecules identified as hits. One fast route to discovering the mechanism of action of a compound is to profile its properties and to match this profile with those of compounds of known mechanism of action. In this work, the Novartis collection of over 12,000 pure natural products was screened for effects on early zebrafish development. The largest phenotypic class of hits, which caused developmental arrest without necrosis, contained known electron transport chain inhibitors and many compounds of unknown mechanism of action. High-throughput transcriptional profiling revealed that these compounds are mechanistically related to one another. Metabolic and biochemical assays confirmed that all of the molecules that induced developmental arrest without necrosis inhibited the electron transport chain. These experiments demonstrate that the electron transport chain is the target of the natural products manassantin, sesquicillin, and arctigenin. The overlap between the zebrafish and transcriptional profiling screens was not perfect, indicating that multiple profiling screens are necessary to fully characterize molecules of unknown function. Together, zebrafish screening and transcriptional profiling represent sensitive and scalable approaches for identifying bioactive compounds and elucidating their mechanism of action.

  18. Time-Resolved EPR Study of Electron-Hole Dissociations Influenced by Alkyl Side Chains at the Photovoltaic Polyalkylthiophene:PCBM Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Taku; Aikawa, Motoko; Kobori, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-02

    Nanosecond time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) spectroscopy has been utilized at T = 77 K to characterize alkyl side-chain effects on geometries and on the electronic couplings (VCR) of transient charge-separated (CS) states in the photoactive layers fabricated by the spin-coating of mixed solutions of regioregular polyalkylthiophenes (RR-P3AT) and [6,6]-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). By increasing the alkyl side-chain number from 6 to 12 in P3AT, a highly distant and long-lived CS state has been obtained. This result is explained by a coupling of the hole dissociation to the polymer librations by the side-chains. From an exponential decay of VCR with respect to the CS distance, the attenuation factor (βe) has been determined to be βe = 0.2 Å(-1). Such a long-range tunneling feature is explained by the generations of the shallowly trapped, delocalized electron-hole pairs by the dissociation of the hole toward π-stacking directions at the organic photovoltaic interface.

  19. A practical approach to implementing CSR in the electronics industry: global supply chain management focusing on corporate social responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, S.; Rice, G. [Panasonic Mobile Communication Development of Europe (PMCDE) (United Kingdom); Hilbron, R. [Vodafone Group Plc (United Kingdom); Clift, R.; Wehrmeyer, W. [Centre for Environmental Strategy, Univ. of Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This paper covers a co-operative investigation undertaken by Vodafone Plc and Panasonic Mobile Communications (PMC); applying Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) principles in an actual assessment of the supply chain. Together, we carried out an informal CSR assessment on a Panasonic mobile phone handset manufacturing facility in the Philippines. CSR issues vary with geographical and cultural region. By researching CSR concerns typically encountered in the region, focal points of business performance for the Philippines investigation were identified. These are detailed in the paper. A key benefit from this assessment was the increased understanding of the management of the indirect CSR issues within the supply chain. This understanding is essential when developing a system for CSR supply-chain management. This paper will describe this exercise and its findings and will suggest future steps necessary to successfully integrate CSR principles though the global supply chain. (orig.)

  20. Iron deficiency induces changes in riboflavin secretion and the mitochondrial electron transport chain in hairy roots of Hyoscyamus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Ataru; Mori, Yuko; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2010-07-15

    Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots secrete riboflavin under Fe-deficient conditions. To determine whether this secretion was linked to an enhancement of respiration, both riboflavin secretion and the reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), as a measure of respiration activity, were determined in hairy roots cultured under Fe-deficient and Fe-replete conditions, with or without aeration. Appreciable TTC-reducing activity was detected at the root tips, at the bases of lateral roots and in internal tissues, notably the vascular system. TTC-reducing activity increased under Fe deficiency and this increase occurred in concert with riboflavin secretion and was more apparent under aeration. Riboflavin secretion was not apparent under Fe-replete conditions. In order to examine which elements of the mitochondrial electron transport chain might be involved, the effects of the respiratory inhibitors, barbiturate, dicoumarol, malonic acid, antimycin, KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) were investigated. Under Fe-deficient conditions, malonic acid affected neither root growth, TTC-reducing activity nor riboflavin secretion, whereas barbiturate and SHAM inhibited only root growth and TTC-reducing activity, respectively, and the other compounds variously inhibited growth and TTC-reducing activity. Riboflavin secretion was decreased, in concert with TTC-reducing activity, by dicoumarol, antimycin and KCN, but not by SHAM. In Fe-replete roots, all inhibitors which reduced riboflavin secretion in Fe-deficient roots showed somewhat different effects: notably, antimycin and KCN did not significantly inhibit TTC-reducing activity and the inhibition by dicoumarol was much weaker in Fe-replete roots. Combined treatment with KCN and SHAM also revealed that Fe-deficient and Fe-replete roots reduced TTC in different ways. A decrease in the Fe content of mitochondria in Fe-deficient roots was confirmed. Overall, the results suggest that, under conditions of Fe deficiency in H

  1. Impact of repeated stress on traumatic brain injury-induced mitochondrial electron transport chain expression and behavioral responses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang eXing

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of the military personnel returning from Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts have suffered from both mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The mechanisms are unknown. We used a rat model of repeated stress and mTBI to examine brain activity and behavioral function. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: Naïve; 3 days repeated tail-shock stress; lateral fluid percussion mTBI; and repeated stress followed by mTBI (S-mTBI. Open field activity, sensorimotor responses, and acoustic startle responses were measured after mTBI. The protein expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC complex subunits (CI-V and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHE1α1 were determined in 4 brain regions at day 7 post mTBI. Compared to Naïves, repeated stress decreased horizontal activity; repeated stress and mTBI both decreased vertical activity; and the mTBI and S-mTBI groups were impaired in sensorimotor and acoustic startle responses. Repeated stress significantly increased CI, CII, and CIII protein levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, but decreased PDHE1α1 protein in the PFC and cerebellum, and decreased CIV protein in the hippocampus. The mTBI treatment decreased CV protein levels in the ipsilateral hippocampus. The S-mTBI treatment resulted in increased CII, CIII, CIV, and CV protein levels in the PFC, increased CI level in the cerebellum, and increased CIII and CV levels in the cerebral cortex, but decreased CI, CII, CIV, and PDHE1α1 protein levels in the hippocampus. Thus, repeated stress or mTBI alone differentially altered ETC expression in heterogeneous brain regions. Repeated stress followed by mTBI had synergistic effects on brain ETC expression, and resulted in more severe behavioral deficits. These results suggest that repeated stress could have contributed to the high incidence of long-term neurologic and neuropsychiatric morbidity in military personnel with or without

  2. The importance of the on-site electron-electron interaction for the magnetic coupling in the zigzag spin-chain compound In{sub 2}VO{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H; Schwingenschloegl, U [KAUST, PSE Division, 23955-6900 Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-10-20

    We present first-principles electronic structure calculations for the zigzag spin-chain compound In{sub 2}VO{sub 5} using the generalized gradient approximation both with and without inclusion of an on-site Coulomb interaction. It has been proposed that In{sub 2}VO{sub 5} is characterized by itinerant V 3d electrons at high temperature and localized electrons at low temperature. Consequently, it is to be expected that electronic correlations play an important role for the magnetic transition from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic exchange around 120 K. In this context, we study the electronic and magnetic properties of a set of possible spin configurations. Our calculations show that inclusion of an on-site Coulomb interaction in fact changes the ground state from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic.

  3. The importance of the on-site electron-electron interaction for the magnetic coupling in the zigzag spin-chain compound In{sub 2}VO{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwingenschloegl, Udo; Wang, Hao [PSE Division, KAUST, 23955-6900 Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-01

    We present first-principles electronic structure calculations for the zigzag spin-chain compound In{sub 2}VO{sub 5} using the generalized gradient approximation both with and without inclusion of an on-site Coulomb interaction. It has been proposed that In{sub 2}VO{sub 5} is characterized by itinerant V 3d electrons at high temperature and localized electrons at low temperature. Consequently, it is to be expected that electronic correlations play an important role for the magnetic transition from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic exchange around 120 K. In this context, we study the electronic and magnetic properties of a set of possible spin configurations. Our calculations show that inclusion of an on-site Coulomb interaction in fact changes the ground state from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic.

  4. Research on the Benefit Distribution of Farmer-Supermarket Direct-Purchase Based on Cooperative Game%基于合作博弈的农超对接参与主体利益分配研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱军伟

    2013-01-01

    As the new direction of agriculture products circulation, "farmer-supermarket direct-purchase" is beneficial for reducing circulation links and costs, optimizing agricultural products supply chain, realizing a win-win result among supermarket, farmer and customer. But in actual operation, the benefit distribution among participation subjects is unfair, so it is difficult to form a long-term, stable cooperative relationship between farmer and supermarket. Taking the benefit distribution problem as the research emphasis, the price decision model was established to find out and analyze the benefit balanced interval between farmer and supermarket by using cooperative game theory. Finally, some suggestions for how to further promote the development of "farmer-supermarket direct-purchase" were put forward. .%“农超对接”模式代表农产品流通的新方向,有利于减少流通环节,降低流通成本,优化农产品供应链,最终实现超市、农户、消费者3方共赢.但在实际运作中,因参与主体利益分配不均,农户和连锁超市之间难以形成长期的、稳定的合作关系.该研究以农超之间的利益分配为研究重点,运用合作博弈的相关理论建立价格决策模型,找出农超之间利益均衡的区间并进行分析,最后提出如何进一步推动“农超对接”发展的建议.

  5. Discounts on fruit and vegetables combined with a space management intervention increased sales in supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, U; Winkler, L L; Mikkelsen, B E

    2017-01-01

    management intervention to promote F&V sales was performed in two large discount supermarkets on Bornholm in Denmark for 3 months (September-November 2012). In addition, a 20% discount on F&V was introduced for 3 months in one of the supermarkets ('space + price'). The effect was evaluated using sales data...... the price intervention period, the index number for sales of fresh vegetables increased by 22.2% (P=0.001) in the 'space + price' intervention supermarket compared with the control supermarkets. Furthermore, the index number for the sale of organic fresh fruit and vegetables increased by 12.1% (P=0...... were found. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, a 20% price reduction on F&V significantly increased sales of F&V. The effect was most pronounced on vegetables and no negative/unhealthy substitution effects were found.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 February 2017; doi:10...

  6. Plant-wide dynamic and static optimisation of supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh;

    2013-01-01

    Optimising the operation of a supermarket refrigeration system under dynamic as well as steadystate conditions is addressedin thispaper. For thispurpose anappropriateperformance function that encompasses food quality, system efficiency, and also component reliability is established. The choice...

  7. Trends and perspectives for supermarket refrigeration systems; Trends und Perspektiven fuer Supermarkt-Kaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffeld, M. [Hochschule Karlsruhe - Technik und Wirtschaft (Germany). Inst. fuer Kaelte-, Klima- und Umwelttechnik

    2008-04-15

    This paper describes the latest trends and perspectives in supermarket refrigeration. Focus is on improving energy efficiency, reducing refrigerant charge and using natural refrigerants. Several alternative systems such as indirect, distributed, cascade and two-stage are described. (orig.)

  8. Link-up between Farmers and Supermarket based on China’s Fresh Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-ying; TANG Bu-long

    2012-01-01

    Link-up between farmers and supermarket is a new move adopted actively by the current government, conducive to consumers, farmers and circulation enterprises. At present, link-up between farmers and supermarket is launched in China’s 15 provinces and cities, which will set off the revolution in the field of agricultural circulation. Based on the current situation of link-up between farmers and supermarket and the existing problems, we put forth the following recommendations: promoting the quality of farmers’ cooperative organizations; establishing the logistics center of fresh agricultural products; using economies of scale to reduce the fresh logistics costs; improving the operation and management level of fresh agricultural products in supermarket.

  9. Children's exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets: An objective analysis using GPS technology and wearable cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T; Pearson, A L; Stanley, J; Smith, M; Barr, M; Ni Mhurchu, C; Signal, L

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to alcohol marketing within alcohol retailers has been associated with higher rates of childhood drinking, brand recognition, and marketing recall. This study aimed to objectively measure children's everyday exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets. Children aged 11-13 (n = 167) each wore a wearable camera and GPS device for four consecutive days. Micro-spatial analyses were used to examine exposures within supermarkets. In alcohol retailing supermarkets (n = 30), children encountered alcohol marketing on 85% of their visits (n = 78). Alcohol marketing was frequently near everyday goods (bread and milk) or entrance/exit. Alcohol sales in supermarkets should be banned in order to protect children from alcohol marketing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantum yield measurements of short-lived photoactivation intermediates in DNA photolyase: toward a detailed understanding of the triple tryptophan electron transfer chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrdin, Martin; Lukacs, Andras; Thiagarajan, Viruthachalam; Eker, André P M; Brettel, Klaus; Vos, Marten H

    2010-03-11

    The light-dependent DNA repair enzyme photolyase contains a unique evolutionary conserved triple tryptophan electron transfer chain (W382-W359-W306 in photolyase from E. coli) that bridges the approximately 15 A distance between the buried flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor and the surface of the protein. Upon excitation of the semireduced flavin (FADH(o)), electron transfer through the chain leads to formation of fully reduced flavin (FADH(-); required for DNA repair) and oxidation of the most remote tryptophan residue W306, followed by its deprotonation. The thus-formed tryptophanyl radical W306(o)(+) is reduced either by an extrinsic reductant or by reverse electron transfer from FADH(-). Altogether the kinetics of these charge transfer reactions span 10 orders of magnitude, from a few picoseconds to tens of milliseconds. We investigated electron transfer processes in the picosecond-nanosecond time window bridging the time domains covered by ultrafast pump-probe and "classical" continuous probe techniques. Using a recent dedicated setup, we directly show that virtually no absorption change between 300 ps and 10 ns occurs in wild-type photolyase, implying that no charge recombination takes place in this time window. In contrast, W306F mutant photolyase showed a partial absorption recovery with a time constant of 0.85 ns. In wild-type photolyase, the quantum yield of FADH(-) W306(o)(+) was found at 19 +/- 4%, in reference to the established quantum yield of the long-lived excited state of [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+). With this yield, the optical spectrum of the excited state of FADH(o) can be constructed from ultrafast spectroscopic data; this spectrum is dominated by excited state absorption extending from below 450 to 850 nm. The new experimental results, taken together with previous data, allow us to propose a detailed kinetic and energetic scheme of the electron transfer chain.

  11. Isolated Sub-Dehumidification Strategies in Large Supermarkets and Grocery Stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with reducing the relative humidity in the vicinity of refrigerated display cases in supermarkets, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of maintaining a relatively higher and uniform humidity level throughout the entire supermarket. Existing and new strategies for maintaining lower relative humidity levels near the vicinity of refrigerated display cases were analyzed to determine their effectiveness and limits of application.

  12. Antitrust analysis of supermarkets: global concerns playing out in local markets

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic components of antitrust analysis for the supermarket industry, including definition of product and geographic markets and the measurement of market power. The analysis of prices and profits in a market structure context remains important, especially in countries such as Australia with very high supermarket concentration. Firm and brand level New Empirical Industrial Organisation models of demand and oligopoly pricing also provide insights for evaluating antitrust ...

  13. Association Between Neighborhood Supermarket Presence and Glycated Hemoglobin Levels Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Tara; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Laraia, Barbara A; Warton, E Margaret; Blanchard, Samuel D; Moffet, Howard H; Downing, Janelle; Karter, Andrew J

    2017-05-16

    We estimated associations between neighborhood supermarket gain or loss and glycemic control (assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values) in patients from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry (n = 434,806 person-years; 2007-2010). Annual clinical measures were linked to metrics from a geographic information system for each patient's address of longest residence. We estimated the association between change in supermarket presence (gain, loss, or no change) and change in HbA1c value, adjusting for individual- and area-level attributes and according to baseline glycemic control (near normal, Supermarket loss was associated with worse HbA1c trajectories for those with good, moderate, and poor glycemic control at baseline, while supermarket gain was associated with marginally better HbA1c outcomes only among patients with near normal HbA1c values at baseline. Patients with the poorest baseline HbA1c values (≥9.0%) had the worst associated changes in glycemic control following either supermarket loss or gain. Differences were not clinically meaningful relative to no change in supermarket presence. For patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, gaining neighborhood supermarket presence did not benefit glycemic control in a substantive way. The significance of supermarket changes on health depends on a complex interaction of resident, neighborhood, and store characteristics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Marketing Strategies: own brands as a competitive differential in the supermarket market

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Tereza de; Queiroz, Tatiana Silva de; Campos,Domingos Fernandes; Vieira, Ricardo Sergio Gomes

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study marketing strategies and customer’s perception in relation to the own-brand offered by the supermarket sector. The research had an exploratory and descriptive feature. In the exploratory phase the managers of three great networks of supermarkets were interviewed; in the descriptive phase 240 customers were interviewed by using a structured gathering tool, originally compounded by closed questions, directed to the apprehension of data about their behavior...

  15. Market Basket Analysis for a Supermarket based on Frequent Itemset Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loraine Charlet Annie M.C.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Market basket analysis is an important component of analytical system in retail organizations to determine the placement of goods, designing sales promotions for different segments of customers to improve customer satisfaction and hence the profit of the supermarket. These issues for a leading supermarket are addressed here using frequent itemset mining. The frequent itemsets are mined from the market basket database using the efficient K-Apriori algorithm and then the association rules are generated.

  16. Electronic and magnetic properties of infinite 1D chains of paddlewheel carboxylates M2(COOR)4 (M = Mo, W, Ru, Rh, Ir, Cu)

    KAUST Repository

    Peskov, Maxim

    2013-03-14

    Dinuclear complexes of transition metals bridged by four carboxylate-groups are examples of stable atomic configurations serving as fundamental building blocks of catalysts and prototypical molecular electronic devices. The electronic structure and magnetic properties of many molecular tetracarboxylate complexes were meticulously studied; however, the properties of the one-dimensional (1D) polymeric chain of associated tetracarboxylates have so far evaded much attention. Using periodic density-functional theory calculations, we analyze the electronic structure of condensed tetracarboxylates Mo(II), W(II), Ru(II), Rh(II), Ir(II), and Cu(II). The relationship between crystal structure of the polymerized tetracarboxylates and the electronic properties of the metal-metal bond in the M24+ core is studied. The electronic effects emanating from the association of dinuclear transition metal tetracarboxylates are important for designing molecular electronic devices. In this study, its influence on both direct and indirect metal-metal interactions, and the electronic structure, in particular transport properties, is discussed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. The Government’s Environment Policy Index Impact on Recycler Behavior in Electronic Products Closed-Loop Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchao He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish the model of multilevel closed-loop supply chain (CLSC which included raw material supplier, manufacturer, distributor, retailer, and third-party recycler based on system dynamics (SD. Considering factors which influence recycler behavior-environmental policy index and recovery delay, we apply SD software—Vensim—to simulate CLSC model and study recycler behavior’s influence on the entire CLSC through calculating the bullwhip effect of all levels members order rate. Research shows that (1 the larger the environmental policy index, the greater the recycle proportion and the better the effect of weakening retailer’s order rate in forward supply chain, which however, increasingly, strengthen the reverse supply chain bullwhip effect, (2 the shorter the recovery delay, the better the effect of weakening the forward supply chain bullwhip effect and the longer the recovery delay, which increasingly weakens the reverse supply chain bullwhip effect, and (3 the effect of environmental policy index on the bullwhip effect of all levels members order rate is more significant than recovery delay.

  18. Research Advancement of Supply Chain Electronic Business Collaboration Management%供应链电子商务协同管理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令夷

    2013-01-01

    网络经济时代,协同电子商务成为企业发展助推器,传统供应链将转变为协同商务供应链,以提高企业长期绩效.梳理2000年以来发表的116篇国内外供应链电子商务协同管理研究论文,将其整理归纳为供应链协同管理研究、供应链与电子商务协同的融合研究、协同技术研究三个维度,并进一步将其细分为12个要素的研究,从而构建了该领域内较为系统的研究框架.以文献计量为基础,分别评述了各维度各要素的研究,发现研究系统性不强,缺乏方法论指导;研究空白点较多;理论研究滞后影响了应用研究的进展;前沿性协同技术研究尚显不足;国内协同产品劣势明显.最后,提出应用系统工程理论及方法开展相关研究的建议,为未来研究提供借鉴.%Since the arrival of network economy,collaborative electronic business becomes roll booster for enterprise development.Meanwhile traditional supply chain has been transformed into collaborative supply chain based on collaborative electronic business for improving members' long-term performance.Based on a literature review of 116 articles published since 2000,the paper depicts supply chain collaboration management research,integration research of supply chain electronic business collaboration,supply chain collaboration technology research,both domestic and abroad.In addition,it implements a structural model including three dimensions and twelve factors to analyze how the passed articles studied supply chain EB collaboration management,finds that nowaday research is incomplete,lacks methodology guidance and keeps many blanks.Meanwhile,theoretical research lag affects the application research progress.And the advanced collaborative technology research is obviously insufficient.Domestic collaborative products have obvious disadvantages.So,the paper recommends applying systems engineering theory and methodology to make relevant research and provides reference

  19. DESIGNING TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR SUPERMARKET FREEZERS%超市冷柜温度监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚仲敏; 李强

    2014-01-01

    针对大中型超市冷柜中的食品温度需要进行实时监测,进而保证食品质量的问题,提出基于 Lab VIEW 的超市冷柜温度监测系统。采用 ZigBee 无线通信技术,通过星形网络实现主从节点之间数据采集与传输。子节点温度传感器将所采集到的信息传送给协调器,协调器负责接收子节点传来的温度信息。在监控机房,协调器与 PC 机利用串口连接,通过监测界面实时监测各冷柜的温度,同时完成对采集数据的保存。既实现了采集监测和超值报警的功能,又可以实现本机历史查询和远程登录数据库查询,节省人力和资源的同时,方便上级对各连锁超市的考核工作。%We propose a Lab VIEW-based supermarket freezer temperature monitoring system in light of the problem that the food temperatures in freezers at the large and medium-sized supermarkets need to be monitored and thus to ensure the qualities of the foods.ZigBee wireless communication technology is used,and the data collection and transmission between the master and slave nodes are realised through the star networks.The temperature sensor of the child node transmits the collected information to coordinator,and the coordinator is responsible for receiving the temperature information from the child node.In monitor room,the coordinator and the PC monitor the temperatures of each freezer timely using the serial port connection and through the monitoring interface,and complete the preservation of the collected data at the same time.This system realises the functions of collection and monitoring as well as over-temperature alarming,besides,it also realises the local machine history query and the telnet logon database query.While saving the manpower and resources,the system is also convenient for the higher-ups to examine the works of every chained supermarket.

  20. 浅议电子商务环境下的供应链管理%Supply chain management under electronic commerce environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家圳

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the thought of experts and scholars at home and abroad, the theory of supply chain gradually perfecting and increasing the complete process, in studying the condition of electronic commerce, in the new network platform for the management, to the change of our country should chain management, realistic and innovative Suggestions, emphasis was on the supply chain of enterprise supply chain management has carried on the detailed the profound analysis, and put forward the constructive Suggestions.%本文首先通过梳理国内外专家学者的思想方法,了解供应链理论的逐步完善和日趋完整的过程,在深入研究电子商务的条件中,结合在新的网络平台下供管理,对我国应链管理的变化,提出具有现实意义和创新意义的建议,重点研究企业的供应链供应链管理进行了细致深刻的剖析,并提出了具有建设性的建议。

  1. Cooperation and competence in global food chains : perspectives on food quality and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.; Boselie, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Supermarket chains, retailers and wholesalers have made food safety and food quality an integral element of their business strategies. What does this mean for producers in the South, who have to comply with international standards for good agricultural practices as well as with strict food safety re

  2. Mixed Culture Chain Elongation (MCCE) - A Novel Biotechnology for Renewable Biochemical Production from Organic Residual Streams.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.S.; Roghair, M.; Triana Mecerreyes, D.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Kroeze, C.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2017-01-01

    MCCE is a novel biotechnology that has potential to produce biochemicals from organic residual streams in a clean, renewable and economically viable way. A pilot plant has been established by ChainCraft in Amsterdam, Netherlands to process supermarket waste into value added biochemicals. Ongoing and

  3. Strategy alliance of supermarkets' chain%连锁超市的战略联盟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白保安

    2001-01-01

    @@ 零售业的竞争加剧,无疑使倒闭与联盟成为近几年来国内外超市行业的两大主题.随着经济全球化浪潮的不断发展,中国加入WTO的临近,国外大型连锁超市集团纷纷抢滩中国市场,国内超市企业感到危机和实力的悬殊.同时,超市行业也开始分化,一些效益不好的超市倒闭、资产重组、加盟连锁超市,效益好的超市扩大规模、增加门店数量、寻求战略联盟.

  4. Be Careful of the " Foam" of the Chain Supermarket%当心连锁"泡沫"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兆铭

    2003-01-01

    大型连锁超市在我国方兴未艾,但是在其快速扩张的背后却潜藏着巨大的危机.这主要表现为连锁企业扩张过程中的简单复制和对供货商的诚信危机.如果任其盲目发展下去,会危及我国整个连锁事业.

  5. Local basic food producer facing the challenge of working with multinational supermarket chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lóránt BUCS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article wants to outline the challenges faced by a local basic food producer in his battle to stay on the market. We will reveal the challenges he’s facing in his own production lines and also the way he has to adapt to the changing world of the multinational companies. We will present a short history of the founding and evolution of the company on the Romanian pastry food market pointing out the relevant events which have marked the company life during the years. We will also make a short review of the competition on the market of the pastry food products and we will present the marketing strategy and policies the company is using to be able to face the new challenges.

  6. The Evolving Food Chain: Competitive Effects of Wal-Mart's Entry Into The Supermarket Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Michael; Basker, Emek

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the effect of Wal-Mart's entry into the grocery market using a unique stor-level price panel data set. We use OLS and two IV specifications to estimate the effect of Wal-Mart's entry on competitors' prices of 24 grocery items across several categories. Wal-Mart's price advantage over competitors for these products averages approximately 10%. On average, competitors' response to Wal-Mart's entry is a price reduction of 1-1.2%, mostly due to smaller-scale competitors: the response...

  7. Using a 3D Virtual Supermarket to Measure Food Purchase Behavior: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yannan; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hendrika Margaretha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition that supermarkets are an important environment for health-promoting interventions such as fiscal food policies or front-of-pack nutrition labeling. However, due to the complexities of undertaking such research in the real world, well-designed randomized controlled trials on these kinds of interventions are lacking. The Virtual Supermarket is a 3-dimensional computerized research environment designed to enable experimental studies in a supermarket setting without the complexity or costs normally associated with undertaking such research. Objective The primary objective was to validate the Virtual Supermarket by comparing virtual and real-life food purchasing behavior. A secondary objective was to obtain participant feedback on perceived sense of “presence” (the subjective experience of being in one place or environment even if physically located in another) in the Virtual Supermarket. Methods Eligible main household shoppers (New Zealand adults aged ≥18 years) were asked to conduct 3 shopping occasions in the Virtual Supermarket over 3 consecutive weeks, complete the validated Presence Questionnaire Items Stems, and collect their real supermarket grocery till receipts for that same period. Proportional expenditure (NZ$) and the proportion of products purchased over 18 major food groups were compared between the virtual and real supermarkets. Data were analyzed using repeated measures mixed models. Results A total of 123 participants consented to take part in the study. In total, 69.9% (86/123) completed 1 shop in the Virtual Supermarket, 64.2% (79/123) completed 2 shops, 60.2% (74/123) completed 3 shops, and 48.8% (60/123) returned their real supermarket till receipts. The 4 food groups with the highest relative expenditures were the same for the virtual and real supermarkets: fresh fruit and vegetables (virtual estimate: 14.3%; real: 17.4%), bread and bakery (virtual: 10.0%; real: 8.2%), dairy (virtual: 19.1%; real

  8. Price and Service Competition in the Supply Chain with both Pure Play Internet and Strong Bricks-and-Mortar Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional retail industry, some supermarket chains and department stores have been maintaining strong positions as the market comes to maturity. They can make use of the strong positions to squeeze their suppliers and obtain extra earnings. This situation may be challenged by the rapid development of e-commerce. Consumers’ purchase habits have been changing and many manufacturers are starting to sell goods through electronic retailers, in addition to their traditional distribution channels. This paper analyzes price and service competition in the dual-channel supply chain with both pure play Internet and strong bricks-and mortar retailers, investigates the influence of retailer power and proposes some competitive strategies for traditional retailer under e-commerce environment. The demand model is proposed based on consumer utility theory, and Stackelberg theory is used to analyze the game process in which the manufacturer is the leader and the two retailers, acting simultaneously, are the followers. The equilibrium price and service decisions of the supply chain members are reached. The analysis of the competitive strategy is divided into two parts. Firstly, the influence of the retailer power on members of the supply chain is examined. We find that although the traditional retailer can use its power to depress the wholesale price, this strategy cannot help the traditional retailer increase its profit. Secondly, other competitive strategies of the traditional retailer are analyzed and the traditional retailer is found to be able to improve its operating status through adjusting prices and services via specific actions.

  9. Business strategy: Obstacles to the consolidation of Digital TV in Brazil and its impact on electronics supply chain from the stakeholder theory view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bazanini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of digital TV in Brazil on December 2, 2007, the managers of the electronics industry, of course, waiting for impacts in the supply chain due to the promise of strong eating of the market. According with exploratory research, qualitative and in-depth interview with the executives of the electronics industry, the research objectivist diagnose the obstacles to consolidation of digital TV in Brazil and its possible strategic changes with the emergence of a new scenario resulting from the expectations that were in the Brazilian market and its implications in terms of a new configuration of complex electronics in the stakeholder theory view. The survey results indicate that, in the perception of respondents, while sales of digital TV have grown sharply in the past two years, from the perspective of industry executives from electronics, the process is not yet consolidated, provided the expectations did not materialize and hence the impact on the supply chain regarding the impact that digital TV would cause this industry sat a level below that expected by technical factors and associated mainly to the lack of integration with stakeholders definitive represented by broadcasters and the federal government. The contribution of the research is to discuss the applicability of the theory stakeholder’s theory in the telecommunications sector in it’s economic, technical and political. The limitations of the work lies in the small number of subjects studied and emphasis on only one of the agents involved and analyzes the process of consolidation of Digital TV in Brazil from the perspective of the consumer electronics industry executives, so it is suggested for future research studies with other agents developers.

  10. Epiphanies at the Supermarket: An Interview with Brigitte Kronauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Ittner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Brigitte Kronauer has been called "the greatest German [female] fiction writer of our time" (Marcel Reich-Ranicki. Her stories, novels, and criticism have established her as a uniquely sophisticated literary voice and won her many literary prizes. Kronauer's trademarks are her laser-sharp vision, her luminous prose, and the intricate structures of her uncannily realistic literary universes. Finding the mystical in the mundane and exposing human foibles with subtle irony, Kronauer creates, in the words of one critic, epiphanies at the supermarket. Beneath its everyday surface her fiction deals with the eternal human questions of life, death, and love. At a still deeper level it circles around philosophical issues such as our futile attempts to find truth in our own constructs of reality. In her interview with Jutta Ittner the author reflects on her individual path to writing. She describes the role of literature in creating a semblance of order in a multifaceted reality, and she discusses the structure of her literary universes, her characters and their aspirations, and the importance of animals for man's quest for a meaningful life. Finally, Kronauer explains how she sees herself in terms of women's literature and indicates where her writing is headed.

  11. Doxorubicin in vivo rapidly alters expression and translation of myocardial electron transport chain genes, leads to ATP loss and caspase 3 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy V Pointon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin is one of the most effective anti-cancer drugs but its use is limited by cumulative cardiotoxicity that restricts lifetime dose. Redox damage is one of the most accepted mechanisms of toxicity, but not fully substantiated. Moreover doxorubicin is not an efficient redox cycling compound due to its low redox potential. Here we used genomic and chemical systems approaches in vivo to investigate the mechanisms of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity, and specifically test the hypothesis of redox cycling mediated cardiotoxicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were treated with an acute dose of either doxorubicin (DOX (15 mg/kg or 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ (25 mg/kg. DMNQ is a more efficient redox cycling agent than DOX but unlike DOX has limited ability to inhibit gene transcription and DNA replication. This allowed specific testing of the redox hypothesis for cardiotoxicity. An acute dose was used to avoid pathophysiological effects in the genomic analysis. However similar data were obtained with a chronic model, but are not specifically presented. All data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO. Pathway and biochemical analysis of cardiac global gene transcription and mRNA translation data derived at time points from 5 min after an acute exposure in vivo showed a pronounced effect on electron transport chain activity. This led to loss of ATP, increased AMPK expression, mitochondrial genome amplification and activation of caspase 3. No data gathered with either compound indicated general redox damage, though site specific redox damage in mitochondria cannot be entirely discounted. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate the major mechanism of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity is via damage or inhibition of the electron transport chain and not general redox stress. There is a rapid response at transcriptional and translational level of many of the genes coding for proteins of the electron transport chain

  12. Kinetic performance and energy profile in a roller coaster electron transfer chain: a study of modified tetraheme-reaction center constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alric, Jean; Lavergne, Jérôme; Rappaport, Fabrice; Verméglio, André; Matsuura, Katsumi; Shimada, Keizo; Nagashima, Kenji V P

    2006-03-29

    In many electron-transfer proteins, the arrangement of cofactors implies a succession of uphill and downhill steps. The kinetic implications of such arrangements are examined in the present work, based on a study of chimeric photosynthetic reaction centers obtained by expressing the tetraheme subunit from Blastochloris viridis in another purple bacterium, Rubrivivax gelatinosus. Site-directed mutations of the environment of heme c559, which is the immediate electron donor to the primary donor P, induced modifications of this heme's midpoint potential over a range of 400 mV. This resulted in shifts of the apparent midpoint potentials of the neighboring carriers, yielding estimates of the interactions between redox centers. At both extremities of the explored range, the energy profile of the electron-transfer chain presented an additional uphill step, either downstream or upstream from c559. These modifications caused conspicuous changes of the electron-transfer rate across the tetraheme subunit, which became approximately 100-fold slower in the mutants where the midpoint potential of c559 was lowest. A theoretical analysis of the kinetics is presented, predicting a displacement of the rate-limiting step when lowering the potential of c559. A reasonable agreement with the data was obtained when combining this treatment with the rates predicted by electron transfer theory for the individual rate constants.

  13. Role of the middle residue in the triple tryptophan electron transfer chain of DNA photolyase: ultrafast spectroscopy of a Trp-->Phe mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, Andras; Eker, André P M; Byrdin, Martin; Villette, Sandrine; Pan, Jie; Brettel, Klaus; Vos, Marten H

    2006-08-17

    Photoreduction of the semi-reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor FADH* in DNA photolyase from Escherichia coli into FADH- involves three tryptophan (W) residues that form a closely spaced electron-transfer chain FADH*-W382-W359-W306. To investigate this process, we have constructed a mutant photolyase in which W359 is replaced by phenylalanine (F). Monitoring its photoproducts by femtosecond spectroscopy, the excited-state FADH* was found to decay in approximately 30 ps, similar as in wild type (WT) photolyase. In contrast to WT, however, in W359F mutant photolyase the ground-state FADH* fully recovered virtually concomitantly with the decay of its excited state and, despite the presence of the primary electron donor W382, no measurable flavin reduction was observed at any time. Thus, W359F photolyase appears to behave like many other flavoproteins, where flavin excited states are quenched by very short-lived oxidation of aromatic residues. Our analysis indicates that both charge recombination of the primary charge separation state FADH-W382*+ and (in WT) electron transfer from W359 to W382*+ occur with time constants FADH* electron-transfer step. Our results provide a first experimental indication that electron transfer between aromatic residues can take place on the time scale of approximately 10(-12) s.

  14. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration - Heat Recovery Systems. Annex 26. Final report. Volume 2. Country reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    Annex 26 has produced three deliverables: (1) Workshop (October 2000) proceedings Stockholm, Sweden, on CD-ROM (HPP-AN26-1); (2) Final report, Volume 1, Executive Summary, as report (HPP-AN26-2); and (3) Final report, Volume 2, Country reports (described in this record). Each of these reports, available from the HPC, provide valuable information for practitioners (designers, installers) and manufacturers of supermarket refrigeration systems. Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating purposes seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because there are world-wide a great number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food and further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase substantially in the near future. Annex 26 analysed several advanced supermarket refrigeration systems and came to remarkable conclusions as far as energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusions justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system cost analyses and proposals for cost reductions are given.

  15. Stocking the genetic supermarket: reproductive genetic technologies and collective action problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyngell, Chris; Douglas, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) allow parents to decide whether their future children will have or lack certain genetic predispositions. A popular model that has been proposed for regulating access to RGTs is the 'genetic supermarket'. In the genetic supermarket, parents are free to make decisions about which genes to select for their children with little state interference. One possible consequence of the genetic supermarket is that collective action problems will arise: if rational individuals use the genetic supermarket in isolation from one another, this may have a negative effect on society as a whole, including future generations. In this article we argue that RGTs targeting height, innate immunity, and certain cognitive traits could lead to collective action problems. We then discuss whether this risk could in principle justify state intervention in the genetic supermarket. We argue that there is a plausible prima facie case for the view that such state intervention would be justified and respond to a number of arguments that might be adduced against that view.

  16. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration - Heat Recovery Systems. Annex 26. Final report. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. (ed.) [Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Annex 26 has produced three deliverables: (1) Workshop (October 2000) proceedings Stockholm, Sweden, on CD-ROM (HPP-AN26-1); (2) Final report, described in this record; and (3) Final report, Volume 2, Country reports, on CD-ROM (HPP-AN26-3). Each of these reports, available from the HPC, provide valuable information for practitioners (designers, installers) and manufacturers of supermarket refrigeration systems. Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating purposes seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because there are world-wide a great number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food and further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase substantially in the near future. Annex 26 analysed several advanced supermarket refrigeration systems and came to remarkable conclusions as far as energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusions justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system cost analyses and proposals for cost reductions are given.

  17. A NEW PARADIGM FOR INDIAN SUPERMARKET RETAILERS BASED ON CUSTOMER-CENTRIC STRATEGIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema S. Shenoy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Supermarket retailers in India admist fierce competition and the only way out is through the attainment of competitive advantage. Strategy is the route to attain competitive advantage that could facilitate firms attain superior performance. The objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework on customer-centric retail strategy, to facilitate supermarket retailers in India attain competitive advantage. The paper draws heavily from existing literature on retail strategies and competitive advantage in order to ascertain the most effective customer-centric strategies. Adding strength to the research is the result derived from interviews of supermarket managers and customers; and also the results of pilot study .The work involves identification of constructs and research hypothesis for the proposed framework. The framework contributes to literature by emphasizing on not just effective customer-centric strategies but also, on specific performance outcomes that supermarket retailers could be enjoying riding on these strategies. A new dimension to attainment of competitive advantage and superior performance has definitely been recognized by this research effort. Supermarket retailers in India can be certain of attaining competitive advantage by riding on the proposed strategies.

  18. Socioeconomic Status, Energy Cost, and Nutrient Content of Supermarket Food Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Johnson, Tricia J.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Whited, Matthew C.; Ventrelle, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relative affordability of energy-dense versus nutrient-rich foods may promote socioeconomic disparities in dietary quality and obesity. Although supermarkets are the largest food source in the American diet, the associations between SES and the cost and nutrient content of freely chosen food purchases have not been described. Purpose To investigate relationships of SES with the energy cost ($/1000 kcal) and nutrient content of freely chosen supermarket purchases. Methods Supermarket shoppers (n=69) were recruited at a Phoenix AZ supermarket in 2009. The energy cost and nutrient content of participants’ purchases were calculated from photographs of food packaging and nutrition labels using dietary analysis software. Data were analyzed in 2010–2011. Results Two SES indicators, education and household income as a percentage of the federal poverty guideline (FPG), were associated with the energy cost of purchased foods. Adjusting for covariates, the amount spent on 1000 kcal of food was $0.26 greater for every multiple of the FPG, and those with a baccalaureate or postbaccalaureate degree spent an additional $1.05 for every 1000 kcal of food compared to those with no college education. Lower energy cost was associated with higher total fat and less protein, dietary fiber, and vegetables per 1000 kcal purchased. Conclusions Low-SES supermarket shoppers purchase calories in inexpensive forms that are higher in fat and less nutrient-rich. PMID:22424253

  19. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E.; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Liese, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

  20. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liese, Angela D

    2013-09-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy).

  1. The Introduction of a Supermarket via Tax-Credits in a Low-Income Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Cantor, Jonathan; Dixon, L Beth

    2017-01-01

    Interest and funding continue to grow for bringing supermarkets to underserved areas, yet little is known about their impact. A quasi-experimental study was used to determine the impact of a new supermarket opening as a result of tax and zoning incentives. The study took place in the South Bronx, New York City, New York. Studied were residents of two South Bronx neighborhoods deemed high need. Food purchasing and consumption were examined via surveys and 24-hour dietary recalls before and at two points after the supermarket opened (1-5, 13-17 months). Data were analyzed using difference-in-difference models controlling for gender, race and ethnicity, age, education, marital status, and self-reported income. Ordinary least squares and logistic regression models were estimated for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. At baseline, 94% to 97% of consumers shopped at a supermarket. There was a 2% increase in this behavior in the intervention community ( p < .05) not seen in the comparison community. One year later there was a 7% net increase in eating at home ( p < .1) and a 20% decrease in drinking sugary beverages ( p < .05), but no appreciable change in fruit/vegetable consumption or overall dietary quality. The new supermarket did not result in substantial or broad changes in purchasing patterns or nutritional quality of food consumed, though smaller, positive changes were observed over a 1-year period. Future work should examine different contexts and a broader set of outcomes, including economic development.

  2. In vitro evidence that phytanic acid compromises Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and the electron flow through the respiratory chain in brain cortex from young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Moura, Alana Pimentel; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Grings, Mateus; Vargas, Carmen R; Wajner, Moacir

    2010-09-17

    Phytanic acid (Phyt) tissue concentrations are increased in Refsum disease and other peroxisomal disorders characterized by neurologic damage and brain abnormalities. The present work investigated the in vitro effects of Phyt, at concentrations found in these peroxisomal disorders, on important parameters of energy metabolism in brain cortex of young rats. The parameters analyzed were CO(2) production from labeled acetate and glucose, the activities of the citric acid cycle enzymes citrate synthase, aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarase and malate dehydrogenase, as well as of the respiratory chain complexes I-IV, creatine kinase and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Our results show that Phyt did not alter citric acid cycle enzyme activities, or CO(2) production from acetate, reflecting no impairment of the functionality of the citric acid cycle. In contrast, respiratory chain activities were reduced at complexes I, II, I-III, II-III and IV. Membrane synaptical Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was also reduced by Phyt, with no alteration of creatine kinase activity. Considering the importance of the electron flow through the respiratory chain for brain energy metabolism (oxidative phosphorylation) and of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity for maintaining membrane potential necessary for neurotransmission, the data indicate that Phyt impairs brain bioenergetics at the level of energy formation, as well as neurotransmission. It is presumed that Phyt-induced impairment of these important systems may be involved at least in part in the neurological damage found in patients affected by disorders in which brain Phyt concentrations are increased.

  3. Establishing the Recycled Supply Chain Network of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment%废旧电器回收再循环体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马辉; 郭汉丁

    2012-01-01

    Based on the study of successful experiment of some countries of Europe, this paper analyzes the status of recycled supply chain network of waste electrical and electronic equipment of China. Combining the situation of our county, it establishes the recycled supply chain network of waste electrical and electronic equipment according the situation, and advances the countermeasure to guarantee the network working effectively.%在研究发达国家废旧电器回收再生利用成功经验的基础上,分析了中国废旧电器回收处理的现状与问题,结合中国生产企业的具体情况,建立了符合中国国情的废旧电器回收再循环体系,并制定了保障回收体系健康运转的对策,旨在对中国废旧电器回收再循环工作起到一定的指导作用,促进该领域的不断健全与发展.

  4. Sensitivity of stellar electron-capture rates to parent neutron number: A case study on a continuous chain of twenty Vanadium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Hitt, G W; Zegers, R G T; Titus, R; Sullivan, C; Brown, B A; Cole, A L; Shams, S

    2016-01-01

    Gamow-Teller (GT) strength distributions (B(GT)) in electron-capture (EC) daughters stemming from the parent ground state are computed with the shell-model in the full pf-shell space, with quasi-particle random-phase approximation (QRPA) in the formalism of Krumlinde and M\\"oller and with an Approximate Method (AM) for assigning an effective B(GT). These are compared to data available from decay and charge-exchange (CE) experiments across titanium isotopes in the pf-shell from A=43 to A=62, the largest set available for any chain of isotopes in the pf-shell. The present study is the first to examine B(GT) and the associated EC rates across a particular chain of isotopes with the purpose of examining rate sensitivities as neutron number increases. EC rates are also computed for a wide variety of stellar electron densities and temperatures providing concise estimates of the relative size of rate sensitivities for particular astrophysical scenarios. This work underscores the astrophysical motivation for CE exper...

  5. Supermarket baker's asthma: how accurate is routine health surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, A; Nightingale, S; Berriman, J; Sharp, C; Welch, J; Newman, T; Cullinan, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Regular health surveillance is commonly recommended for workers exposed to occupational antigens but little is known about how effective it is in identifying cases. Aims: To report one large company's surveillance and compare its findings with those of a standard cross-sectional survey in the same workforce. Methods: A supermarket company with 324 in-store bakeries producing bread from raw ingredients conducted a three-stage health surveillance programme in around 3000 bakery employees. The first stage involved the administration of a simple respiratory questionnaire. If chest symptoms were present a second questionnaire focusing on their work relationship was administered. If positive a blood sample was requested for the measurement of specific IgE to flour and fungal α-amylase. The results were compared to an independent cross-sectional survey of employees in 20 of the company's stores. Results: Two hundred and ninety nine (92%) of the company's bakeries took part in surveillance. The overall employee response for the first stage was 77%; a quarter of those with respiratory symptoms reported that they were work related. Seventy four (61%) of those with work related chest symptoms had a measurement of specific IgE to either flour or fungal α-amylase, of whom 30 (41%) had a positive result. Surveillance estimated that 1% of bakery employees (1% bakers, 2% managers, 0.6% confectioners) had work related symptoms with specific IgE. This compared with 4% (7.5% bakers, 3.3% managers, 0% confectioners) in the cross-sectional survey (n = 166, 93% response). Conclusion: Comparison with a standard cross-sectional survey suggests that routine surveillance can underestimate the workplace burden of disease. The reasons may include technical or resource issues and uncertainties over confidentiality or the perceived consequences of participation. More research needs to be done looking into the design and efficacy of surveillance in occupational asthma. PMID

  6. Theoretical studies on interactions between low energy electrons and protein-DNA fragments: valence anions of AT-amino acids side chain complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyperska, Anna; Gajewicz, Agnieszka; Mazurkiewicz, Kamil; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Rak, Janusz

    2011-11-21

    Electron attachment to trimeric complexes that mimic most frequent hydrogen bonding interactions between an amino acid side chain (AASC) and the Watson-Crick (WC) 9-methyladenine-1-methylthymine (MAMT) base pair has been studied at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level of theory. Although the neutral trimers will not occur in the gas phase due to unfavorable free energy of stabilization (G(stab)) they should form a protein-DNA complex where entropy changes related to formation of such a complex will more than balance its disadvantageous G(stab). The most stable neutrals possess an identical pattern of hydrogen bonds (HBs). In addition, the proton-acceptor (N7) and proton-donor (N10) atoms of adenine involved in those HBs are located in the main groove of DNA. All neutral structures support the adiabatically stable valence anions in which the excess electron is localized on a π* orbital of thymine. The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of anions corresponding to the most stable neutrals are substantially smaller than that of the isolated WC MAMT base pair. Hence, electron transfer from the anionic thymine to the phosphate group and as a consequence formation of a single strand break (SSB) should proceed more efficiently in a protein-dsDNA complex than in the naked dsDNA as far as electron attachment to thymine is concerned. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  7. Dissection of the triple tryptophan electron transfer chain in Escherichia coli DNA photolyase: Trp382 is the primary donor in photoactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrdin, Martin; Eker, André P M; Vos, Marten H; Brettel, Klaus

    2003-07-22

    In Escherichia coli photolyase, excitation of the FAD cofactor in its semireduced radical state (FADH*) induces an electron transfer over approximately 15 A from tryptophan W306 to the flavin. It has been suggested that two additional tryptophans are involved in an electron transfer chain FADH* FADH* decayed with a time constant tau approximately 26 ps to fully reduced flavin and a tryptophan cation radical. In W382F mutant photolyase, the excited flavin was much longer lived (tau approximately 80 ps), and no significant amount of product was detected. We conclude that, in WT photolyase, excited FADH* is quenched by electron transfer from W382. On a millisecond scale, a product state with extremely low yield ( approximately 0.5% of WT) was detected in W382F mutant photolyase. Its spectral and kinetic features were similar to the fully reduced flavin/neutral tryptophan radical state in WT photolyase. We suggest that, in W382F mutant photolyase, excited FADH* is reduced by W359 at a rate that competes only poorly with the intrinsic decay of excited FADH* (tau approximately 80 ps), explaining the low product yield. Subsequently, the W359 cation radical is reduced by W306. The rate constants of electron transfer from W382 to excited FADH* in WT and from W359 to excited FADH* in W382F mutant photolyase were estimated and related to the donor-acceptor distances.

  8. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY OF A FINANCIAL SUPERMARKET, AS A MODEL OF INNOVATIVE FINANCIAL BEHAVIOR OF BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latynin D. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formation of an innovative financial behavior of banks by applying the strategy of financial supermarket. The author developed a corresponding algorithm of assessing the effectiveness of the credit and financial institutions financial supermarket strategy in practice, and an assessment of the effectiveness of its implementation in banks

  9. The rise of supermarkets and changing expenditure patterns of poor rural households case study in the Transkei area, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haese, D' M.F.C.; Huylenbroeck, Van G.

    2005-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, the number of supermarkets in South Africa has been steadily growing. Due to a more effective and efficient management and procurement system, the supermarkets can benefit from economics of scale and sell food at a relative low price. In this paper, we present a case study of

  10. Energy efficient refrigeration. CO{sub 2} in Supermarket Refrigeration. Project 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawalha, Samer; Suleymani, Arash [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology; Rogstam, Joergen [IUC, Sveriges energi- och kylcentrum, Katrineholm (Sweden)

    2006-06-15

    The objective of this project is to develop, test, and evaluate an energy efficient supermarket system working with CO{sub 2} as the refrigerant. Based on the experience in designing the system, running and evaluating it, modifications should be applied in order to conclude an efficient optimized CO{sub 2} system for a medium size supermarket in Sweden. Emphasize is on using environmentally friendly refrigerants and the choice was to use natural fluids. A refrigeration system solution for a medium size Swedish supermarket has been built in IUC laboratory in Katrineholm. The system is equipped with extensive instrumentations to collect data and perform online diagnosis. Several variations of the system solution are applied for validation and possible modifications. In this report we present the system under investigation and some of the experimental results that have been obtained under the project period. Overall system validation and evaluations of the main components are described.

  11. Buying behavior in Chinese supermarkets: A comparison across four major cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    of imported food products in four major Chinese cities (i.e., Bejing, Shanghai, Gaungzhou, and Chengdu). Knowledge about potential differences in supermarket structure and buying behaviour between regions will be a prerequisite to foreign food suppliers trying to capitalise on increased consumer demands......The purpose of this paper is to report a study of buying behaviour of imported food products in Chinese supermarkets. Imports of food products to China have increased substantially in the past decade. The present study offers the results from an investigation of retailers' buying behaviour...... for their products. In this study we examined retailers' structure and seafood buying behaviour, using data collected from personal interviews in 192 supermarkets in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Chengdu. The comparison across the four cities revealed significant differences with regard to the importance...

  12. Store Image Attributes and Customer Satisfaction in Supermarkets in Campo Grande-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eluiza Alberto de Morais Watanabe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between image attributes and consumer satisfaction in supermarkets. Specifically, we sought to: a identify the variables which make up the image attributes of supermarkets and group them into factors, and b assess the impact of image attributes on consumer satisfaction. We conducted a quantitative study, which met quotas by region and city income class, among 400 individuals from Campo Grande, MS, southwest Brazil, who were responsible for purchasing supermarket products for their families. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Structural Equation Modeling were used for the data analysis. The results revealed that the attributes are grouped into five factors. The constructs “environment” and “promotions” were not considered significant in determining satisfaction, while the attributes “ personell”, “product” and “price” had a positive effect on satisfaction, with the latter having the greatest impact.  

  13. Supermarket and fast food accessibility in Copenhagen: associations with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Nordahl Jensen, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte

    -economic indicators in 2006. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators for all neighborhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n = 400). We applied area-level socio-economic and demographic information from Statistics Denmark. Counts of fast food outlets and supermarkets were......Purpose: To investigate whether fast food outlets and supermarkets are socially patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Methods: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast food outlets, supermarkets, and neighborhood level socio...... regressed on SES indicators (percentage of: recent immigrants, lack of high school diploma, population under 35 yr, and average household income in Euros) using negative binomial analysis. Findings: In the fully adjusted models, income was significantly associated with fast food exposure...

  14. Computational modeling analysis of mitochondrial superoxide production under varying substrate conditions and upon inhibition of different segments of the electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markevich, Nikolai I; Hoek, Jan B

    2015-01-01

    A computational mechanistic model of superoxide (O2•-) formation in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) was developed to facilitate the quantitative analysis of factors controlling mitochondrial O2•- production and assist in the interpretation of experimental studies. The model takes into account all individual electron transfer reactions in Complexes I and III. The model accounts for multiple, often seemingly contradictory observations on the effects of ΔΨ and ΔpH, and for the effects of multiple substrate and inhibitor conditions, including differential effects of Complex III inhibitors antimycin A, myxothiazol and stigmatellin. Simulation results confirm that, in addition to O2•- formation in Complex III and at the flavin site of Complex I, the quinone binding site of Complex I is an additional superoxide generating site that accounts for experimental observations on O2•- production during reverse electron transfer. However, our simulation results predict that, when cytochrome c oxidase is inhibited during oxidation of succinate, ROS production at this site is eliminated and almost all superoxide in Complex I is generated by reduced FMN, even when the redox pressure for reverse electron transfer from succinate is strong. In addition, the model indicates that conflicting literature data on the kinetics of electron transfer in Complex III involving the iron-sulfur protein-cytochrome bL complex can be resolved in favor of a dissociation of the protein only after electron transfer to cytochrome bH. The model predictions can be helpful in understanding factors driving mitochondrial superoxide formation in intact cells and tissues.

  15. Study on Supermarket-styled Operation of Agricultural Produce Logistics in Chongqing%重庆农产品物流超市化经营新模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查克玲

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, in view of the current status and existing problems of the agricultural produce logistics in Chongqing and in connection with the national supportive policies for this field such as the“vegetable basket”project, we proposed a mode for the supermarket-styled operation of the agricultural produce logistics operations, that is, the direct docking of large-scale chain supermarkets and professional farmers’cooperatives.%根据重庆农产品物流现状以及存在的一系列问题,结合国家的“菜篮子”工程及对现代物流的扶持政策,提出农产品物流超市化经营新模式—大型连锁超市与农民专业合作社直接对接模式,以减少农产品流通环节,稳定农产品价格,同时保证消费者食品安全。

  16. Field Testing and Modeling of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems as a Demand Response Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, Michael; Hirsch, Adam; Clark, Jordan; Anthony, Jamie

    2016-08-26

    Supermarkets offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns; however, refrigeration as the largest load has been challenging to access. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; lighting; and anti-sweat heaters. This project evaluated and quantified the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems in the Bonneville Power Administration service territory. DR events were carried out and results measured in an operational 45,590-ft2 supermarket located in Hillsboro, Oregon. Key results from the project include the rate of temperature increase in freezer reach-in cases and walk-ins when refrigeration is suspended, the load shed amount for DR tests, and the development of calibrated models to quantify available DR resources. Simulations showed that demand savings of 15 to 20 kilowatts (kW) are available for 1.5 hours for a typical store without precooling and for about 2.5 hours with precooling using only the low-temperature, non-ice cream cases. This represents an aggregated potential of 20 megawatts within BPA's service territory. Inability to shed loads for medium-temperature (MT) products because of the tighter temperature requirements is a significant barrier to realizing larger DR for supermarkets. Store owners are reluctant to allow MT case set point changes, and laboratory tests of MT case DR strategies are needed so that owners become comfortable testing, and implementing, MT case DR. The next-largest barrier is the lack of proper controls in most supermarket displays over ancillary equipment, such as anti-sweat heaters, lights, and fans.

  17. Bisphenol A in supermarket receipts and its exposure to human in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-You; Chang, Wen-Jing; Sojinu, Samuel O; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2013-08-01

    Paper receipt has been documented as one major source of bisphenol A (BPA) for human exposure but little has been done by researchers to elaborate the potential health risk caused by handling paper receipt up to date. In the present study, BPA was analyzed in 42 supermarket receipts collected from Shenzhen, China. BPA was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from 2.58 to 14.7mgg(-1). In most cases, the total amount of BPA on the receipt was at least one thousand times the amount found in the epoxy lining of a food can, another controversial use of the chemical. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of BPA via handling of supermarket receipt ranged from 2 to 347μgday(-1) (mean, 40.4μgday(-1)) for a supermarket cashier and from 0.24 to 3.98μgday(-1) (mean, 0.69μgday(-1)) for general population. Based on the cumulative probability distribution of the calculated daily exposure to BPA via handling supermarket receipt, the EDI at the 0.1th and 1th percentile for supermarket cashier and general population, were already larger than 100ng (kgbw)(-1)day(-1), while at the 0.2th and 71th percentile, the EDI for both populations reached 1000ng (kgbw)(-1)day(-1). Considering the adverse endocrine disruptive effects of BPA and the dosage exposure level (from tens to hundreds ng (kgbw)(-1)day(-1)), human exposure to BPA in Shenzhen deserves more attention. Sensitivity analysis result showed that the handling time and frequency of supermarket receipts are the most important variables that contributed to most of the total variance of exposure.

  18. Relationship between mode choice and the location of supermarkets – empirical analysis in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman KLEMENTSCHITZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Main goal of the study work is to gain data about shopping and mobility behaviour at small local supermarkets with sales floor space less than 1.000 m2. Four location types have been defined and discussed; rural  peripheral location, rural  central location, urban – central location and urban – peripheral location. 200 shoppers each location were interviewed at the exit of the supermarket, which means a total of 800 interviews were carried out during all day times and working days of the supermarket. As expected, the mode choice is strongly dependent on the location of the supermarket. In car oriented settlements, which can be found at rural peripheral locations, nearly all shoppers accessed the supermarket with their cars. If weighting the expenditure per visit with the frequency of visits, the average expenditure per month and mode can be derived. The average purchase per month between the modes is more or less balanced. A difference in behaviour lies in the fact that cyclists and pedestrians go shopping more frequently but are spending less per visit. Additionally, the results of this study are indicating the existence of a potential mode shift, especially if there is better land use planning for supermarket locations. Furthermore, considering the given situation and a given threshold of less than 5 kilograms of weight of the goods purchased, more than fifty percent of all shoppers could use non motorised modes with insignificant loss of travel quality. Combined with short travel distances to the next shop (the average distance is 4.9 km, a change to alternative means of transport would be relatively easy for a significant number of shoppers.

  19. Altered expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins and improved myocardial energetic state during late ischemic preconditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Cabrera (Jesús); E.A. Ziemba (Elizabeth); L.H. Colbert (Lisa); L.B. Anderson (Lorraine); W.J. Sluiter (Wim); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); T.A. Butterick (Tammy); J. Sikora (Joseph); H.B. Ward (Herbert B.); R.F. Kelly (Rosemary); E.O. McFalls (Edward)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAltered expression of mitochondrial electron transport proteins has been shown in early preconditioned myocardial tissue. We wished to determine whether these alterations persist in the Second Window of Protection (SWOP) and if so, whether a favorable energetic state is facilitated durin

  20. The role of trust in the transition from traditional to electronic B2B relationships in agri-food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canavari, M.; Fritz, M.; Hofstede, G.J.; Matopoulos, A.; Vlachopoulou, M.

    2010-01-01

    E-business adoption rates in the agri-food sector are rather low, despite the fact that technical barriers have been mostly overcome during the last years and a large number of sophisticated offers are available. However, concerns about trust seem to impede the development of electronic relationship

  1. The involvement of the fixABCX genes and the respiratory chain in electron transport to nitrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjens, M.J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Introduction.The work in this thesis is mainly focused on the electron transport route to nitrogenase in the free-living, obligate aerobic, nitrogen fixing organism Azotobacter vinelandii. For many years now, this topic has been the subject of research. Several hypotheses, which would explain the me

  2. 福建省网上生鲜超市物流配送信息系统构建的研究%Construction of logistics delivery information system of Fujian online fresh food supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林贤福

    2012-01-01

    网络技术的不断进步,形成了一个庞大的虚拟性网络社会,深刻改变着消费的购买习惯,社会大部分人群开始使用并逐渐依赖网络购物.本文通过构建福建省网上生鲜超市物流配送信息系统,探索网上生鲜超市经营模式,有利于进一步提升我省传统生鲜超市的竞争力,推动福建电子商务产业链延伸和扩展.%With the development of network technology, a huge fictional network society has been formed. It has profoundly changed the consumers" purchasing habits. Most people begin to use and gradually rely on online shopping. By constructing a fresh supermarket logistics delivery information sys- tem in Fujian Province, this research explores the online supermarket business model. It is not only conducive to further enhance the competitiveness of the traditional fresh food supermarket in the province, but also promotes the Fujian industrial chain extension and expansion of e-commerce.

  3. Analysis on the Application of ERP System in the Operations Management of RH Supermarket in Lianshui%基于ERP系统在涟水RH超市运营管理中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶晶; 汪磊

    2015-01-01

    ERP system is one of the most advanced means of the informatization management of the company. It realizes the management the whole supply chain and information system of the company. The implementation of ERP system is a very difficult and pressing task. Through the research of Lianshui RH supermarket, this paper analyzes the construction situation and existing problems of ERP system and puts forward the measures of solving the application problems of ERP to further improve the efficiency of ERP in RH supermarket, and then accelerate the development of RH supermarket.%ERP系统是企业信息化管理最先进的手段之一,它实现了对企业整个供应链和整个信息系统的管理。实施ERP系统是一项非常艰巨而棘手的任务。本文通过对涟水RH超市调研,分析ERP系统建设现状及存在问题,并提出解决ERP应用问题的措施,以此进一步提高RH超市的ERP运行效率,进而促进RH超市快速发展。

  4. On subcooler design for integrated two-temperature supermarket refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, No. 4800, Cao An Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The energy saving opportunity of supermarket refrigeration systems using subcooler between the medium-temperature (MT) refrigeration system and the low-temperature (LT) refrigeration system has been identified in the previous work. This paper presents a model-based comprehensive analysis on the subcooler design. The optimal subcooling control is discussed as well. With optimal subcooler size and subcooling control, the maximum energy savings of integrated two-temperature supermarket refrigeration system using R404A or R134a as working fluid can achieve 27% or 20%, respectively. The load ratio of MT to LT system and the operating conditions have considerable impact on the energy savings. (author)

  5. Development of supermarket refrigerators with reduced energy consumption; Entwicklung von Supermarkt - Kaelteanlagen mit reduziertem Energiebedarf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, C.; Wobst, E. [Inst. fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik gGmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Supermarket refrigeration is a considerable energy consumption factor. In this research project, dynamic simulations and experimental verifications were carried out of supermarket refrigeration systems. Experiments on systems in operation are difficult, so that appropriate computer models are required. The project was carried out as a cooperative project of two research institutes and two industrial organisations. The findings of the project were to be used for system optimisation. The findings suggest that savings of more than 10 percent are possible with comparatively little effort. The paper outlines the goals of the project, the procedure, and preliminary results. (orig.)

  6. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems Vol 1 - Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-15

    Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating purposes seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because there are world-wide a great number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food under further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase substantially in the near future. This volume of the IEA Annex 26 final report contains a detailed summary of the Annex activities including principal conclusions from each participant.

  7. The Welfare Effects of Price Advertising with Basket Shopping: Structural Estimates from Supermarket Promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically examines welfare effects of the informative price advertising in the supermarket retail industry, using structural estimation approaches and individual scanner data. Supermarket retailers use promotions (advertised price cuts) to announce sales as a competing instrument. Us...... as a means of business stealing. Finally, a counterfactual experiment of online shopping, in which transportation costs are removed, is found welfare-improving........ Using a spatial model that accounts for consumer shopping behavior and retailer pricing behavior, I structurally estimate consumer demand and the marginal costs of promotion, following the discrete choice literature and moment inequality approach. The simulation results numerically show that the private...

  8. Evaluating the Impact of Communication Network Performance on Supervisory Supermarket Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Theilgaard; Minko, Tomasz; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the evaluation of the impact of non-ideal communication networks on system performance of hierarchical control systems. It develops a stepwise evaluation approach that is applied to the example scenario of a supervisory controller for supermarket temperature control, addressing...... of communication network performance on the supermarket refrigeration control and resulting energy costs using simulation models. The results show that the controller is resilient to downstream information delays, however upstream delays or up- and downstream information loss can cause significant performance...

  9. The Welfare Effects of Price Advertising with Basket Shopping: Structural Estimates from Supermarket Promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically examines welfare effects of the informative price advertising in the supermarket retail industry, using structural estimation approaches and individual scanner data. Supermarket retailers use promotions (advertised price cuts) to announce sales as a competing instrument. Us...... as a means of business stealing. Finally, a counterfactual experiment of online shopping, in which transportation costs are removed, is found welfare-improving........ Using a spatial model that accounts for consumer shopping behavior and retailer pricing behavior, I structurally estimate consumer demand and the marginal costs of promotion, following the discrete choice literature and moment inequality approach. The simulation results numerically show that the private...

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE EVOLUTION OF INDUSTRIAL CONCENTRATION IN RETAIL BRAZILIAN SUPERMARKET BETWEEN 1998 AND 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César de Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to measure and to analyze the evolution of the Brazilian supermarket sector market concentration in the period between 1998 and 2013. This was made possible by the analysis of the main indicators of concentration calculated namely: concentration ratio (CR, Herfindahl-Hirschman index (H and the Theil entropy index (ET. It was found that there was increased concentration in the supermarket sector, driven by the entry of foreign networks and the expressive movement of mergers and acquisitions recorded from the 1990s.

  11. Interactive Effects of Dietary Lipid and Phenotypic Feed Efficiency on the Expression of Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genes Involved in the Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain in Rainbow Trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Eya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 2 × 3 factorial study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid level on the expression of mitochondrial and nuclear genes involved in electron transport chain in all-female rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Three practical diets with a fixed crude protein content of 40%, formulated to contain 10% (40/10, 20% (40/20 and 30% (40/30 dietary lipid, were fed to apparent satiety to triplicate groups of either low-feed efficient (F120; 217.66 ± 2.24 g initial average mass or high-feed efficient (F136; 205.47 ± 1.27 g full-sib families of fish, twice per day, for 90 days. At the end of the experiment, the results showed that there is an interactive effect of the dietary lipid levels and the phenotypic feed efficiency (growth rate and feed efficiency on the expression of the mitochondrial genes nd1 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, cytb (Cytochrome b, cox1 (Cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1, cox2 (Cytochrome c oxidase subunits 2 and atp6 (ATP synthase subunit 6 and nuclear genes ucp2α (uncoupling proteins 2 alpha, ucp2β (uncoupling proteins 2 beta, pparα (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, pparβ (peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor beta and ppargc1α (proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha in fish liver, intestine and muscle, except on ppargc1α in the muscle which was affected by the diet and the family separately. Also, the results revealed that the expression of mitochondrial genes is associated with that of nuclear genes involved in electron transport chain in fish liver, intestine and muscle. Furthermore, this work showed that the expression of mitochondrial genes parallels with the expression of genes encoding uncoupling proteins (UCP in the liver and the intestine of rainbow trout. This study for the first time presents the molecular basis of the effects of dietary lipid level on mitochondrial and nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial electron transport chain in fish.

  12. Ground-state and magnetocaloric properties of a coupled spin-electron double-tetrahedral chain (exact study at the half filling)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálisová, Lucia; Jakubczyk, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Ground-state and magnetocaloric properties of a double-tetrahedral chain, in which nodal lattice sites occupied by the localized Ising spins regularly alternate with triangular clusters half filled with mobile electrons, are exactly investigated by using the transfer-matrix method in combination with the construction of the Nth tensor power of the discrete Fourier transformation. It is shown that the ground state of the model is formed by two non-chiral phases with the zero residual entropy and two chiral phases with the finite residual entropy S = NkB ln 2. Depending on the character of the exchange interaction between the localized Ising spins and mobile electrons, one or three magnetization plateaus can be observed in the magnetization process. Their heights basically depend on the values of Landé g-factors of the Ising spins and mobile electrons. It is also evidenced that the system exhibits both the conventional and inverse magnetocaloric effect depending on values of the applied magnetic field and temperature.

  13. Factors Influencing Consumers’ Intention to Return the End of Life Electronic Products through Reverse Supply Chain Management for Reuse, Repair and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Kianpour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource depletion, population growth and environmental problems force companies to collect their end of life (EOL products for reuse, recycle and refurbishment through reverse supply chain management (RSCM. Success in collecting the EOL products through RSCM depends on the customers’ participation intention. The objectives of this study are: (1 To examine the important factors influencing customers’ attitude to participate in RSCM; (2 To examine the important factors influencing customers’ subjective norm to participate in RSCM; (3 To examine the main factors influencing customers’ perceived behavioral control to participate in RSCM; (4 To examine the influence of attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on customers’ participation intention in RSCM. The Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB has been chosen as the underpinning theory for this research. The research conducted employed the quantitative approach. Non-probability (convenience sampling method was used to determine the sample and data was collected using questionnaires. Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM technique was employed. A total of 800 questionnaires were distributed among customers of electronic products in Malaysia. Finally, the questionnaire was distributed among the customers in electronic retailer companies based on convenience sampling method. The empirical results confirm that consumers perception about the risk associated with EOL electronic products, consumers’ ecological knowledge and relative advantages associated with reuse, repair and recycling can influence the attitude of consumers to return the EOL products for reuse, repair and recycling to producer.

  14. 农超对接模式中的合作博弈问题研究%A Cooperative Game in the Model of Connecting Agriculture with Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 乔忠; 刘畅

    2012-01-01

    本文在需求函数中引入“合作社为提高每单位农产品质量而付出的努力成本”这一变量,利用非合作博弈中的Buyer-Stackelberg模型、Seller-Stackelberg模型和合作博弈模型对比研究了农超对接模式下超市与合作社在竞争、合作时农产品质量安全水平、零售价格和市场需求量的差异,得出了合作博弈模式能够提高农产品质量安全水平,降低农产品零售价格,并扩大农产品市场需求量三个结论.最后,本文的算例结果显示,农超对接的合作博弈不仅能实现以上结论,还能够提高整个供应链的利润.对关键参数进行灵敏度分析发现,当消费者对农产品零售价格越不敏感而越关注农产品质量安全时,合作博弈的解就越优于非合作博弈.%With the constant change in the circulation of agricultural products in China, more and more supermarkets begin to connect with farms directly in order to stay competitive. This mode can reduce the number of circulation stages of fresh agricultural products, and mitigate the difficulty in selling agricultural products. In addition, the mode can provide the market with high-quality agricultural products. Future study may want to investigate how competitive and cooperative behaviors between supermarkets and co-ops will affect the overall profit of the supply chain, retail price, market demand and the quality of agricultural products. This paper assumes that one supermarket and one co-op form in a two-level supply chain. Vegetables are used as an example and profit function is used as the basic model. The variable "effort" is provided by co-op in order to improve the quality of agricultural products. We compare the optimal decisions of both sides using Stackelberg and Cooperative games. In the first part of this paper, we assume that the consumption of vegetables is indefinite and is a multiplication function of retail price and effort provided by co-op in order to improve the

  15. Separation and screening of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in environmental samples using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Zhu, Shuai; Zheng, Minghui

    2014-11-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are highly complex technical mixtures with thousands of isomers and numerous homologs. They are classified as priority candidate persistent organic pollutants under the Stockholm Convention for their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. Analyzing SCCPs is challenging because of the complexity of the mixtures. Chromatograms of SCCPs acquired using one-dimensional (1D) gas chromatography (GC) contain a large characteristic "peak" with a broad and unresolved profile. Comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC) shows excellent potential for separating complex mixtures. In this study, GC×GC coupled with micro electron capture detection (μECD) was used to separate and screen SCCPs. The chromatographic parameters, including the GC column types, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. The SCCP congeners were separated into groups using a DM-1 column connected to a BPX-50 column. The SCCP congeners in technical mixtures were separated according to the number of chlorine substituents for a given carbon chain length and according to the number of carbon atoms plus chlorine atoms for different carbon chain lengths. A fish tissue sample was analyzed to illustrate the feasibility of the GC×GC-μECD method in analyzing biological samples. Over 1,500 compounds were identified in the fish extract, significantly more than were identified using 1D GC. The detection limits for five selected SCCP congeners were between 1 and 5 pg/L using the GC×GC method, and these were significantly lower than those achieved using 1D GC. This method is a good choice for analysis of SCCPs in environmental samples, exhibiting good separation and good sensitivity.

  16. Electron microscopic observations and DNA chain fragmentation studies on apoptosis in bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm—EDTMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuShou-Peng; XiaoDong; 等

    1997-01-01

    The morphological changes observed by electron microscopy indicate that after internal irradiation with 153Sm-ESTMP bone tumor cells displayed feature of apoptosis,such as margination of condensed chromatin,chromatin fragmentation.as well as the membranebouded apoptotic bodies formation.THe quantification analysis of fragmentation DNA for bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm-EDTMP shows that the DNA fragmentation is enhanced with the prolongation of internally irradiated time.These characteristics suggest that 153Sm-EDTMP internal irradiation could induce bone tumor cells to go9 to apoptosis.

  17. Profit Distribution of Agricultural Supply Chain Based on Shapley Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yang Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper builds an agricultural supply chain and profit model between single farmer and single supermarket by following the game theory. On the basis of the economic purchasing quantity, it compares the profit difference between the cooperation and non-cooperation of the two parties. Study results demonstrate the profits for the whole supply chain are much bigger than that under non-cooperative circumstances when the two parties cooperate with the condition of negotiated purchasing quantity. An investment example using Shapley Value method is given to distribute the profit of each party under cooperation and prove the effectiveness of this method.

  18. The Role of Morphology and Electronic Chain Aggregation on the Optical Gain Properties of Semiconducting Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Zachary Evan

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) are a novel class of materials that exhibit the optical and electrical properties of semiconductors while still retaining the durability and processability of plastics. CPs are also intrinsically 4-level systems with high luminescence quantum efficiencies making them particularly attractive as organic gain media for solid-state laser applications. However, before CPs can emerge as a commercially available laser technology, a more comprehensive understanding of the morphological dependence of the photophysics is required. In this thesis, the morphology and chain conformation dependence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and optical gain in thin films of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) was investigated. By changing the chemical nature of the solvent from which films were cast, as well as the temperature at which films were annealed, CP films with different morphologies, and hence different degrees of interchain interactions were achieved. Contrary to the common perception that polymer morphology plays a decisive role in determining the ASE behavior of thin CP films, we found that chromophore aggregation and degree of conformational order have minimal impact on optical gain. In fact, experimental results indicated that an extremely large fraction of interchain aggregate species and/or exciton dissociating defects are required to significantly alter the optical properties and suppress stimulated emission. These results are pertinent to the fabrication and optimization of an electrically pumped laser device, as improvements in charge carrier mobility through controlled increases in chain aggregation may provide a viable means of optimizing injection efficiency without significantly degrading optical gain. To offset charge-induced absorption losses under electrical pumping, and to enable the use of more compact and economical sources under optical pumping, conjugated polymers exhibiting low lasing

  19. The battle for health and beauty : What drives supermarket and drugstore category-promotion lifts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lin, A.I.J.G.; Gijsbrechts, Els

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies promotion-induced competition between supermarkets and drugstores, resulting from increased channel blurring and category overlap. It documents the relative impact of price cuts and feature ads at the two channels, and establishes substantive factors underlying their differences i

  20. Combined cooling and heating using a gas engine in a supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidment, G.G. [South Bank Univ., London (United Kingdom). School of Engineering Systems and Design; Zhao, X.; Riffat, S.B. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of the Built Environment

    2001-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation into the practical and economic viability of an integrated combined heating and cooling system in a supermarket. This system consists of a direct-drive screw compressor, which is powered by a throttle controlled gas engine. The waste heat from the engine is used to provide hot water for space heating and for general usage within the catering and toilet facilities in the supermarket. In this paper, the working principle of the novel system is first described. This details how the gas engine system may be integrated into the typical supermarket. The paper then describes a model, which is used to simulate the energy consumption of the supermarket. This is used to calculate the energy consumed by the conventional system and that used by a number of alternative combined heating and cooling system configurations, which are also described. The additional capital cost of each configuration is estimated and this is used to calculate the payback period. The results show that a payback period of 4.2 years may be achieved with a system that uses approximately 500,000 kWh per annum less primary energy than a conventional system. Finally, comparison between this system and a traditional Combined Heat and Power (CHP) installation is given. (author)