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Sample records for superluminal x-ray transient

  1. Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients

    CERN Document Server

    Sidoli, Lara

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenology of a subclass of High Mass X-ray Binaries hosting a blue supergiant companion, the so-called Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs), is reviewed. Their number is growing, mainly thanks to the discoveries performed by the INTEGRAL satellite, then followed by soft X-rays observations (both aimed at refining the source position and at monitoring the source behavior) leading to the optical identification of the blue supergiant nature of the donor star. Their defining properties are a transient X-ray activity consisting of sporadic, fast and bright flares, (each with a variable duration between a few minutes and a few hours), reaching 1E36-1E37 erg/s. The quiescence is at a luminosity of 1E32 erg/s, while their more frequent state consists of an intermediate X-ray emission of 1E33-1E34 erg/s (1-10 keV). Only the brightest flares are detected by INTEGRAL (>17 keV) during short pointings, with no detected persistent emission. The physical mechanism driving the short outbursts is still debated, al...

  2. Rotating Radio Transients: X-ray observations

    CERN Document Server

    Rea, Nanda

    2007-01-01

    Rotating Radio Transients (RRATs) are a new class of neutron stars discovered through the emission of radio bursts. Eleven sources are known up to now, but population studies predict these objects to be more numerous than the normal radio pulsar population. Multiwavelength observations of these peculiar objects are in progress to disentangle their spectral energy distribution, and then study in detail their nature. In this review I report on the current state of the art on these objects, and in particular on the results of new X-ray observations.

  3. Transient and Capillary Collisional X-ray Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyaptsev, V N; Dunn, J; Fournier, K B; Moon, S; Osterheld, A L; Rocca, J J; Detering, F; Rozmus, W; Matte, J P; Fiedorowicz, H; Bartnik, A; Kanouff, M

    2001-12-17

    In this work we report our numerical modeling results of laser-generated transient inversion and capillary discharge X-ray lasers. In the search for more efficient X-ray lasers we look closely at other approaches in conjunction with experiments at LLNL. In the search for improved X-ray lasers we perform modeling and experimental investigations of low density targets including gas puff targets. We have found the importance of plasma kinetics in transient X-ray lasers by expanding the physical model beyond hydrodynamics approach with Particle In Cell (PIC) and Fokker-Planck codes. The evidence of the Langdon effect was inferred from the recent experimental data obtained with the Ni-like Pd X-ray laser. We continue modeling different kinds of capillary discharge plasma configurations directed toward shorter wavelength X-ray lasers, plasma diagnostics and other applications.

  4. Principles of femtosecond X-ray/optical cross-correlation with X-ray induced transient optical reflectivity in solids

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, S.; Beye, M.; Schlotter, W. F.; Dakovski, G. L.; Khalil, M.; Huse, N.; Föhlisch, A.; Pietzsch, A.; Quevedo, W.; Hantschmann, M.; Ochmann, M.; Ross, M.; Minitti, M. P.; Turner, J. J.; Moeller, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of ultrafast X-ray induced optical reflectivity changes enabled the development of X-ray/optical cross correlation techniques at X-ray free electron lasers worldwide. We have now linked through experiment and theory the fundamental excitation and relaxation steps with the transient optical properties in finite solid samples. Therefore, we gain a thorough interpretation and an optimized detection scheme of X-ray induced changes to the refractive index and the X-ray/optical cross ...

  5. Principles of femtosecond X-ray/optical cross-correlation with X-ray induced transient optical reflectivity in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, S., E-mail: sebastian.eckert@helmholtz-berlin.de, E-mail: martin.beye@helmholtz-berlin.de; Beye, M., E-mail: sebastian.eckert@helmholtz-berlin.de, E-mail: martin.beye@helmholtz-berlin.de; Pietzsch, A.; Quevedo, W.; Hantschmann, M. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation in Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ochmann, M.; Huse, N. [Institute for Nanostructure and Solid State Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstr. 11, 20355 Hamburg, Germany and Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ross, M.; Khalil, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Minitti, M. P.; Turner, J. J.; Moeller, S. P.; Schlotter, W. F.; Dakovski, G. L. [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Föhlisch, A. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation in Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-02-09

    The discovery of ultrafast X-ray induced optical reflectivity changes enabled the development of X-ray/optical cross correlation techniques at X-ray free electron lasers worldwide. We have now linked through experiment and theory the fundamental excitation and relaxation steps with the transient optical properties in finite solid samples. Therefore, we gain a thorough interpretation and an optimized detection scheme of X-ray induced changes to the refractive index and the X-ray/optical cross correlation response.

  6. X-ray variability with WFXT: AGNs, transients and more

    CERN Document Server

    Paolillo, Maurizio; Allevato, Viola; de Martino, Domitilla; della Valle, Massimo; Papadakis, Iossif; Gilli, Roberto; Tozzi, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The Wide Field X-ray Telescope (WFXT) is a proposed mission with a high survey speed, due to the combination of large field of view (FOV) and effective area, i.e. grasp, and sharp PSF across the whole FOV. These characteristics make it suitable to detect a large number of variable and transient X-ray sources during its operating lifetime. Here we present estimates of the WFXT capabilities in the time domain, allowing to study the variability of thousand of AGNs with significant detail, as well as to constrain the rates and properties of hundreds of distant, faint and/or rare objects such as X-ray Flashes/faint GRBs, Tidal Disruption Events, ULXs, Type-I bursts etc. The planned WFXT extragalactic surveys will thus allow to trace variable and transient X-ray populations over large cosmological volumes.

  7. The Swift/BAT Hard X-ray Transient Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Krimm, Hans A; Corbet, Robin H D; Perlman, Aaron B; Romano, Patrizia; Kennea, Jamie A; Bloom, Joshua S; Barthelmy, Scott D; Baumgartner, Wayne H; Cummings, James R; Gehrels, Neil; Lien, Amy Y; Markwardt, Craig B; Palmer, David M; Sakamoto, Taka; Stamatikos, Michael; Ukwatta, Tilan N

    2013-01-01

    The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as fine as 64 seconds. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the flux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public web page. Between 2005 February 12 and 2013 April 30, 245 sources have been detected in the monitor, 146 of them persistent and 99 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 17 were previously unknown and were discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and filtering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity ...

  8. Probing Transient Electron Dynamics Using Ultrafast X Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucksbaum, Philip

    2016-05-01

    Linear x-ray absorption in atoms or molecules creates highly excited multi-electron quantum systems, which relax rapidly by fluorescence or Auger emission. These relaxation rates are usually less than a few femtoseconds in duration, and so they can reveal transient elecronic states in molecules as they undergo photo-induced transformations. I will show recent results from femtosecond x-ray experiments that display this phenomenon. There are efforts underway to push the temporal resolving power of ultrafast x-ray pulses into the attosecond regime, using stronger fields to initiate nonlinear absorption processes such as transient stimulated electronic Raman scattering. I will discuss current progress and future prospects for research in this area. This research is supported through Stanford PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Lab by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Science Program.

  9. X-RAY TRANSIENTS: HYPER- OR HYPO-LUMINOUS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre; Dubus, Guillaume [CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); King, Andrew R., E-mail: Guillaume.Dubus@obs.ujf-grenoble.fr, E-mail: lasota@iap.fr, E-mail: ark@astro.le.ac.uk [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    The disk instability picture gives a plausible explanation for the behavior of soft X-ray transient systems if self-irradiation of the disk is included. We show that there is a simple relation between the peak luminosity (at the start of an outburst) and the decay timescale. We use this relation to place constraints on systems assumed to undergo disk instabilities. The observable X-ray populations of elliptical galaxies must largely consist of long-lived transients, as deduced on different grounds by Piro and Bildsten (2002). The strongly varying X-ray source HLX-1 in the galaxy ESO 243-49 can be modeled as disk instability of a highly super-Eddington stellar-mass binary similar to SS 433. A fit to the disk instability picture is not possible with an intermediate-mass black hole model for HLX-1. Other recently identified super-Eddington ULXs might be subject to disk instability.

  10. AN ANALYTIC MODEL FOR TRANSIENT COLLISIONAL X-RAY LASERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YING-JUN; ZHANG JIE; TENG Al-PING

    2001-01-01

    A set of similarity equations is derived to describe the hydrodynamics of transient X-ray lasers from slab plasmas generated by combined irradiation of nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses. By separating nanosecond and picosecond laser heating processes into different periods, analytical solutions are obtained for the similarity equations. The calculated results are in agreement with numerical simulations and experimental data.

  11. Searching for supergiant fast X-ray transients with Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, P; Esposito, P; Sbarufatti, B; Haberl, F; Ponti, G; D'Avanzo, P; Ducci, L; Segreto, A; Jin, C; Masetti, N; Del Santo, M; Campana, S; Mangano, V

    2016-01-01

    Supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) are high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) hosting a neutron star and an OB supergiant companion. We examine the available Swift data, as well as other new or archival/serendipitous data, on three sources: IGR J17407-2808, 2XMM J185114.3-000004, and IGR J18175-2419, whose X-ray characteristics qualify them as candidate SFXT, in order to explore their properties and test whether they are consistent with an SFXT nature. As IGR J17407-2808 and 2XMM J185114.3-000004 triggered the Burst Alert Telescope on board Swift, the Swift data allow us to provide their first arcsecond localisations, leading to an unequivocal identification of the source CXOU J174042.0-280724 as the soft X-ray counterpart of IGR J17407-2808, as well as their first broadband spectra, which can be fit with models generally describing accreting neutron stars in HMXBs. While still lacking optical spectroscopy to assess the spectral type of the companion, we propose 2XMM J185114.3-000004 as a very strong SFXT can...

  12. Wide-Field MAXI: soft X-ray transient monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Arimoto, Makoto; Yatsu, Yoichi; Tomida, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Kimura, Masashi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Serino, Motoko; Morii, Mikio; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Sakamoto, Takanori; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Negoro, Hitoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Tsuboi, Yohko; Ebisawa, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Wide-Field MAXI (WF-MAXI: Wide-Field Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image) is a proposed mission to detect and localize X-ray transients including electro-magnetic counterparts of gravitational-wave events such as gamma-ray bursts and supernovae etc., which are expected to be directly detected for the first time in late 2010's by the next generation gravitational telescopes such as Advanced LIGO and KAGRA. The most distinguishing characteristics of WF-MAXI are a wide energy range from 0.7 keV to 1 MeV and a large field of view (~25 % of the entire sky), which are realized by two main instruments: (i) Soft X-ray Large Solid Angle Camera (SLC) which consists of four pairs of crisscross coded aperture cameras using CCDs as one-dimensional fast-readout detectors covering 0.7 - 12 keV and (ii) Hard X-ray Monitor (HXM) which is a multi-channel array of crystal scintillators coupled with avalanche photo-diodes covering 20 keV - 1 MeV.

  13. Cumulative luminosity distributions of Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients in hard X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Paizis, A

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed in a systematic way about nine years of INTEGRAL data (17-100 keV) focusing on Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) and three classical High Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs). Our approach has been twofold: image based analysis, sampled over a ~ks time frame to investigate the long-term properties of the sources, and lightcurve based analysis, sampled over a 100s time frame to seize the fast variability of each source during its ~ks activity. We find that while the prototypical SFXTs (IGR J17544-2619, XTE J1739-302 and SAX J1818.6-1703) are among the sources with the lowest ~ks based duty cycle ($<$1% activity over nine years of data), when studied at the 100s level, they are the ones with the highest detection percentage, meaning that, when active, they tend to have many bright short-term flares with respect to the other SFXTs. To investigate in a coherent and self consistent way all the available results within a physical scenario, we have extracted cumulative luminosity distributions for ...

  14. Transient Phenomena in Anomalous X-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, GianLuca; Burgay, Marta; Rea, Nanda; Possenti, Andrea; Dall'Osso, Simone; Stella, and Luigi

    2007-01-01

    In 2003 a previously unpulsed Einstein and ROSAT source cataloged as soft and dim (Lx of few 10^33 ergs) thermal emitting object, namely XTE J1810-197, was identified as the first unambiguous transient Anomalous X-ray Pulsar. Two years later this source was also found to be a bright highly polarized transient radio pulsar, a unique property among both AXPs and radio pulsars. In September 2006 the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) detected an intense burst from the candidate AXP CXOU J164710.2-455216, which entered in an outburst state reaching a peak emission of at least a factor of 300 higher than quiescence. Here, we briefly outline the recent results concerning the outburst phenomena observed in these two AXPs. In particular, XTE J1810-197 has probed to be a unique laboratory to monitor the timing and spectral properties of a cooling/fading AXP, while new important information have been inferred from X-ray and radio band simultaneous observations. CXOU J164710.2-455216 has been monitored in X-rays and radi...

  15. Simulation of transient collisional x-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Akira; Utsumi, Takayuki; Moribayashi, Kengo; Zhidkov, A.; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kado, Masataka; Hasegawa, Noboru [Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We have developed a collisional radiative model of electron collisional excited x-ray lasers. We calculate the ion abundance and soft x-ray gain for the Ne-like 3s-3p transition and Ni-like 4d-4p transition, in short pulse laser irradiated plasmas. We combine a detailed model using the atomic data calculated by the HULLAC code and the averaged model based on the screened hydrogenic approximation to develop a compact model. Effects of dielectronic recombination channels and radiation trapping of the lower laser level are investigated. The calculation of the transient gain is carried out using the plasma temperature and density obtained from a 1D hydrodynamics code. (author)

  16. X-ray transient AGN and galaxies, and why we need new soft X-ray surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Grupe, D

    2002-01-01

    X-ray transience is the most extreme form of variability observed in AGN or normal non-active galaxies. While factors of 2-3 on timescales of days to years are quite common among AGN, X-ray transients appear only once and vanish from the X-ray sky years later. The ROSAT All-Sky Survey with its sensitivity to energies down to 0.1 keV was the an ideal tool to discover these sources. X-ray transience in AGN or galaxies can be caused by dramatic changes in the accretion rate of the central black hole or by changes of the properties of the accretion disk. So far only a handful of sources are known. In order to estimate how often such an event occurs in a galaxy, a new soft X-ray survey is needed. In these proceedings I describe the currently known X-ray transient AGN and galaxies and will argue for a new soft X-ray survey in order to discover more of these extreme X-ray sources.

  17. Analysis of the transient collisional x-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Akira; Utsumi, Takayuki; Moribayashi, Kengo; Zhidkov, Alexei; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kado, Masataka; Tanaka, Momoko; Hasegawa, Noboru; Daido, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kizu, Kyoto (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    2001-10-01

    The spatial and temporal evolution of the gain of a transient collisional x-ray lasers had been investigated using a plasma hydrodynamics code coupled with a detailed atomic kinetics code. The calculated gain of a Ni-like Ag laser pumped by two 100ps laser pulses agrees qualitatively with the experiment. Calculations for a thin foil target irradiated by two 2ps laser pulses shows that a high gain (>50/cm) can be obtained by adjusting the temporal interval between the two pump pulses. (author)

  18. Explorer for Transient Astrophysics: an X-ray transient mission for the 2020s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan

    2016-04-01

    Explorer for Transient Astrophysics (ETA) is a wide-field X-ray transient mission proposed for flight starting in 2023. Through its unique imaging X-ray optics that allow a 30 deg by 20 deg FoV in three separate modules, a 1 arc min position resolution and a 10-11 erg/(sec cm2) sensitivity in 2000 sec, ETA will observe numerous events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including: tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts, and perhaps most exciting, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave detections involving stellar mass and possibly supermassive black holes. The mission includes an IR Telescope that allows on-board redshift determination of gamma-ray bursts, and a small gamma-ray burst monitor to be contributed by the Technion (Israel Institute of Technology.)

  19. Transient X-ray Emission from Normal Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, A Y L; Cheng, K S

    2007-01-01

    X-ray transients appeared in optically non-active galactic nuclei have been observed in recent years. The most popular model explaining this kind of phenomena is the conventional tidal disruption model. In this model, when a star moves within the tidal radius of a black hole, part of the star materials will fall into the black hole through an accretion disk, which gives rise to the luminous flare. We propose that the X-ray emission may not necessarily come from radiation of the accretion disk. Instead, it may be related to a jet. As the jet travels in the interstellar medium, a shock is produced and synchrotron radiation is expected. We compared the model light curve and the synchrotron radiation spectrum with the observed data, and find that our model explains the observed light curve and late-time spectrum well. Our model predicts that these transient active galactic nuclei could be sources of the future gamma-ray satellites, e.g. GLAST and the emission region will be expanding with time.

  20. X-ray outbursts of low-mass X-ray binary transients observed in the RXTE era

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a statistical study of the outburst properties of 110 bright X-ray outbursts in 36 low-mass X-ray binary transients (LMXBTs) seen with the All-Sky Monitor (ASM; 2--12 keV) on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer ({\\it RXTE}) in 1996--2011. We have measured a number of outburst properties including peak X-ray luminosity, rate-of-change of luminosity on daily timescale, $e$-folding rise and decay timescales, outburst duration and total radiated energy. We found the average values of some properties such as peak X-ray luminosity, rise and decay timescales, outburst duration and total radiated energy of black hole LMXBTs are at least two times larger than those of neutron star LMXBTs, implying that these properties can be used to infer the nature of the central compact object of a newly discovered LMXBT. We also found the outburst peak X-ray luminosity is correlated with the rate-of-change of X-ray luminosity in both the rise and the decay phases, which is consistent with our previous studies. ...

  1. Ionization Break-Out from Millisecond Pulsar Wind Nebulae: an X-ray Probe of the Origin of Superluminous Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Metzger, Brian D; Hascoet, Romain; Beloborodov, Andrei M

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic spin-down of a millisecond neutron star has been proposed as the power source of hydrogen-poor "superluminous" supernovae (SLSNe-I). However, producing an unambiguous test that can distinguish this model from alternatives, such as circumstellar interaction, has proven challenging. After the supernova explosion, the pulsar wind inflates a hot cavity behind the expanding stellar ejecta: the nascent millisecond pulsar wind nebula. Electron/positron pairs injected by the wind cool through inverse Compton scattering and synchrotron emission, producing a pair cascade and hard X-ray spectrum inside the nebula. These X-rays ionize the inner exposed side of the ejecta, driving an ionization front that propagates outwards with time. Under some conditions this front can breach the ejecta surface within months after the optical supernova peak, allowing ~0.1-1 keV photons to escape the nebula unattenuated with a characteristic luminosity L_X ~ 1e43-1e45 erg/s. This "ionization break-out" may explain the luminous ...

  2. A new hard X-ray transient discovered by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibaud, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.

    2011-01-01

    INTEGRAL discovered a new hard X-ray transient, IGR J17498-2921, during the observations performed from 2011-08-11 22:45 to 2011-08-12 05:54 UTC. The source is detected in the IBIS/ISGRI mosaic at a preliminary significance level of 11 and 9 sigma in the 20-40 keV and 40-80 keV energy bands......-law with photon index 1.9+/-0.4 (90% c.l.). The estimated 20-100 keV flux from the spectral fit is ~3.4e-10 erg/s/cm2. Unfortunately, IGR J17498-2921 was located at the border of the JEM-X field of view (FOV) and thus we can not report yet on its detection at low energy (2-25 keV). Further INTEGRAL observations...

  3. Strongly absorbed quiescent X-ray emission from the X-ray transient XTE J0421+56

    CERN Document Server

    Boirin, L; Lumb, D H; Orlandini, M; Schartel, N

    2002-01-01

    We have observed the soft X-ray transient XTE J0421+56 in quiescence with XMM-Newton. The observed spectrum is highly unusual being dominated by a broad feature at 6.5 keV and can be modeled by a strongly absorbed continuum. The spectra of X-ray transients observed so far are normally modeled using Advection Dominated Accretion Flow models, black-bodies, power-laws, or by the thermal emission from a neutron star surface. The strongly absorbed X-ray emission of XTE J0421+56 could result from the compact object being embedded within the dense circumstellar wind emitted from the supergiant B[e] companion star.

  4. X-ray Dips Followed by Superluminal Ejections as Evidence for An Accretion Disc Feeding the Jet in A Radio Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Gomez, Jose-Luis; Aller, Margo F.; Terasranta, Harri; Lister, Matthew L.; Stirling, Alastair, M.

    2002-01-01

    Accretion onto black holes is thought to power the relativistic jets and other high-energy phenomena in both active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the "microquasar" binary systems located in our Galaxy. However, until now there has been insufficient multifrequency monitoring to establish a direct observational link between the black hole and the jet in an AGE. This contrasts with the case of microquasars, in which superluminal features appear and propagate down the radio jet shortly after sudden decreases in the X-ray flux. Such an X-ray dip is most likely caused by the disappearance of a section of the inner accretion disc, part of which falls past the event horizon and the remainder of which is injected into the jet. This infusion of energy generates a disturbance that propagates down the jet, creating the appearance of a superluminal bright spot. Here we report the results of three years of intensive monitoring of the X-ray and radio emission of the Seyfert-like radio galaxy 3C 120. As in the case of microquasars, dips in the X-ray emission are followed by ejections of bright superluminal knots in the radio jet. Comparison of the characteristic length and time scales allows us to infer that the rotational states of the black holes in these two objects are different.

  5. X-rays from the location of the Bactrian Transient ASASSN-15lh

    CERN Document Server

    Margutti, R; Chornock, R; Milisavljevic, D; Berger, E; Blanchard, P K; Guidorzi, C; Migliori, G; Kamble, A; Lunnan, R; Nicholl, M; Coppejans, D L; Dall'Osso, S; Drout, M R; Perna, R; Sbarufatti, B

    2016-01-01

    We present the detection of persistent soft X-ray radiation with L_x ~ 10^41-10^42 erg/s at the location of the extremely luminous, double-humped transient ASASSN-15lh as revealed by Chandra and Swift. We interpret this finding in the context of observations from our multiwavelength campaign, which revealed the presence of weak narrow nebular emission features from the host-galaxy nucleus and clear differences with respect to superluminous supernova optical spectra. Significant UV flux variability on short time-scales detected at the time of the re-brightening disfavors the shock interaction scenario as the source of energy powering the long-lived UV emission, while deep radio limits exclude the presence of relativistic jets propagating into a low-density environment. We propose a model where the extreme luminosity and double-peaked temporal structure of ASASSN-15lh is powered by a central source of ionizing radiation that produces a sudden change of the ejecta opacity at later times. As a result, UV radiatio...

  6. Short-Duration X-ray Transients Observed with WATCH on Granat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels

    1995-01-01

    During 1990–92, the WATCH all-sky X-ray monitor on GRANAT has discovered 6 short-duration X-ray transients. We discuss their possible relationship to peculiar stars. Only one source, GRS 1100-77 seems to be related to a T Tauri star....

  7. The neutron star soft X-ray transient 1H 1905+000 in quiescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, P.G.; Bassa, C.G.; Nelemans, G.; Juett, A.M.; Brown, E.F.; Chakrabarty, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report on our analysis of a ~25ks. Chandra X-ray observation of the neutron star soft X-ray transient (SXT) 1H 1905+000 in quiescence. Furthermore, we discuss our findings of the analysis of optical photometric observations which we obtained using the Magellan telescope and photome

  8. Short-Duration X-ray Transients Observed with WATCH on Granat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels

    1995-01-01

    During 1990–92, the WATCH all-sky X-ray monitor on GRANAT has discovered 6 short-duration X-ray transients. We discuss their possible relationship to peculiar stars. Only one source, GRS 1100-77 seems to be related to a T Tauri star....

  9. The correlation timescale of the X-ray flux during the outbursts of soft X-ray transients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of black hole and neutron star low mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs) show a positive correlation between the X-ray flux at which the low/hard(LH)-to-high/soft(HS) state transition occurs and the peak flux of the following HS state.By analyzing the data from the All Sky Monitor(ASM) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer(RXTE),we show that the HS state flux after the source reaches its HS flux peak still correlates with the transition flux during soft X-ray transient(SXT) outbursts.By studying large outbursts or flares of GX 339-4,Aql X-1 and 4U 1705-44,we have found that the correlation holds up to 250,40,and 50 d after the LH-to-HS state transition,respectively.These time scales correspond to the viscous time scale in a standard accretion disk around a stellar mass black hole or a neutron star at a radius of-104-5 Rg,indicating that the mass accretion rates in the accretion flow either correlate over a large range of radii at a given time or correlate over a long period of time at a given radius.If the accretion geometry is a two-flow geometry composed of a sub-Keplerian inflow or outflow and a disk flow in the LH state,the disk flow with a radius up to-105 Rg would have contributed to the nearly instantaneous non-thermal radiation directly or indirectly,and therefore affects the time when the state transition occurs.

  10. Extreme Supernova Models for the Superluminous Transient ASASSN-15lh

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzopoulos, E; Vinko, J; Nagy, A P; Wiggins, B K; Even, W P

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of the unprecedentedly superluminous transient ASASSN-15lh (or SN 2015L) challenges all the power-input models that have been proposed for superluminous supernovae. Here we examine some of the few viable interpretations of ASASSN-15lh in the context of a stellar explosion, involving combinations of one or more power inputs. We model the lightcurve of ASASSN-15lh with a hybrid model that includes contributions from magnetar spin-down energy and hydrogen-poor circumstellar interaction. We also investigate models of pure circumstellar interaction with a massive hydrogen-deficient shell and discuss about the lack of interaction features in the observed spectra. We find that ASASSN-15lh can be best modeled by the energetic core-collapse of a ~40 Msun supernova interacting with a hydrogen-poor shell of ~20 Msun. The circumstellar shell and progenitor mass are consistent with a rapidly rotating pulsational pair-instability supernova progenitor as required for strong interaction following the fin...

  11. RAPIDLY RISING TRANSIENTS IN THE SUPERNOVA—SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA GAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcavi, Iair; Howell, D. Andrew [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93111 (United States); Wolf, William M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bildsten, Lars; McCully, Curtis; Valenti, Stefano [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Katz, Boaz [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel); Hardin, Delphine; Astier, Pierre; Balland, Cristophe [LPNHE, CNRS-IN2P3 and University of Paris VI and VII, F-75005 Paris (France); Prajs, Szymon; Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Perley, Daniel A. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Svirski, Gilad [Racah Institute for Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lidman, Chris [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Carlberg, Ray G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Conley, Alex, E-mail: iarcavi@lcogt.net [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-389 (United States); and others

    2016-03-01

    We present observations of four rapidly rising (t{sub rise} ≈ 10 days) transients with peak luminosities between those of supernovae (SNe) and superluminous SNe (M{sub peak} ≈ −20)—one discovered and followed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and three by the Supernova Legacy Survey. The light curves resemble those of SN 2011kl, recently shown to be associated with an ultra-long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), though no GRB was seen to accompany our SNe. The rapid rise to a luminous peak places these events in a unique part of SN phase space, challenging standard SN emission mechanisms. Spectra of the PTF event formally classify it as an SN II due to broad Hα emission, but an unusual absorption feature, which can be interpreted as either high velocity Hα (though deeper than in previously known cases) or Si ii (as seen in SNe Ia), is also observed. We find that existing models of white dwarf detonations, CSM interaction, shock breakout in a wind (or steeper CSM), and magnetar spin down cannot readily explain the observations. We consider the possibility that a “Type 1.5 SN” scenario could be the origin of our events. More detailed models for these kinds of transients and more constraining observations of future such events should help to better determine their nature.

  12. INTEGRAL detection of a hard X-ray transient in NGC 6440

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Bozzo, E.; Bazzano, A.

    2015-01-01

    position is: RA, Dec (J2000) = 267.208, -20.314 degrees, with an error radius of 2.4 arcmin (90% c.l.). Formally, there is no known X-ray source within the error circle, so we label the source as IGR J17488-2018. The hard X-ray transient is detected at a significance of 11 (6.5) sigma on the IBIS...

  13. The Discovery of a Very Faint X-ray Transient in the Globular Cluster M15

    CERN Document Server

    Heinke, Craig O; Lugger, Phyllis M

    2008-01-01

    We have identified an X-ray transient (hereafter M15 X-3) in the globular cluster M15 from an archival Chandra grating observation. M15 X-3 appears at an X-ray luminosity of 6*10^{33} ergs/s with a spectrum consistent with an absorbed power law of photon index 1.51+-0.14. The object is identifiable in archival Chandra HRC-I observations with an X-ray luminosity of 2-6*10^{31} ergs/s and apparently soft colors, suggesting a neutron star low-mass X-ray binary in quiescence. We also observe it in outburst in a 2007 Chandra HRC-I observation, and in archival 1994-1995 ROSAT HRI observations. We identify a likely optical/UV counterpart with a (possibly transient) UV excess from archival HST data, which suggests a main sequence companion. We argue that M15 X-3's behavior is similar to that of the very faint X-ray transients which have been observed in the Galactic Center. We discuss several explanations for its very low X-ray luminosity, with the assumption that we have detected its companion. M15 X-3's uniquely lo...

  14. Bright X-Ray Transients in M31: 2004 July XMM-Newton Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudolyubov, Sergey; Priedhorsky, William; Cordova, France

    2006-07-01

    We present the results of X-ray observations of four bright transients sources detected in the 2004 July XMM-Newton observations of the central bulge of M31. Two X-ray sources, XMMU J004315.5+412440 and XMMU J004144.7+411110, were discovered for the first time. Two other sources, CXOM31 J004309.9+412332 and CXOM31 J004241.8+411635, were previously detected by Chandra. The properties of the sources suggest their identification with accreting binary systems in M31. The X-ray spectra and variability of two sources, XMMU J004144.7+411110 and CXOM31 J004241.8+411635, are similar to that of the Galactic black hole transients. The X-ray source XMMU J004315.5+412440 demonstrates a dramatic decline of the X-ray flux on a timescale of three days and a remarkable flaring behavior on a timescale of tens of minutes. The X-ray data on XMMU J004315.5+412440 and CXOM31 J004309.9+412332 suggest that they can be either black hole or neutron star systems. Combining the results of 2000-2004 XMM-Newton observations of M31, we estimate the total rate of the bright transient outbursts in the central region of M31 to be 6-12 yr-1, in agreement with previous studies.

  15. Rapidly Rising Transients in the Supernova - Superluminous Supernova Gap

    CERN Document Server

    Arcavi, Iair; Howell, D Andrew; Bildsten, Lars; Leloudas, Giorgos; Hardin, Delphine; Prajs, Szymon; Perley, Daniel A; Svirski, Gilad; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Katz, Boaz; McCully, Curtis; Cenko, S Bradley; Lidman, Chris; Sullivan, Mark; Valenti, Stefano; Astier, Pierre; Balland, Cristophe; Carlberg, Ray G; Conley, Alex; Fouchez, Dominique; Guy, Julien; Pain, Reynald; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris J; Regnault, Nicolas; Rich, James; Ruhlmann-Kleider, Vanina

    2015-01-01

    We present observations of four rapidly rising (t_{rise}~10d) transients with peak luminosities between those of supernovae (SNe) and superluminous SNe (M_{peak}~-20) - one discovered and followed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and three by the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). The light curves resemble those of SN 2011kl, recently shown to be associated with an ultra-long-duration gamma ray burst (GRB), though no GRB was seen to accompany our SNe. The rapid rise to a luminous peak places these events in a unique part of SN phase space, challenging standard SN emission mechanisms. Spectra of the PTF event formally classify it as a Type II SN due to broad Halpha emission, but an unusual absorption feature, which can be interpreted as either high velocity Halpha (though deeper than in previously known cases) or Si II (as seen in Type Ia SNe), is also observed. We find that existing models of white dwarf detonations, CSM interaction, shock breakout in a wind (or steeper CSM) and magnetar spindown can not r...

  16. LMXB X-ray Transients: Revealing Basic Accretion Parameters in Non-stationary Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenfei; Yan, Zhen; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Wenda

    2014-08-01

    X-ray observations of low mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs), especially those black hole transient systems, have been very important in shaping up our understanding of black hole accretion and testing accretion theory in a broad range of accretion regimes. We show strong evidence for non-stationary accretion regimes in the X-ray observations of spectral states and multi-wavelength observations of disk-jet coupling in more than 100 outbursts of 36 black hole and neutron star transients in the past decade or so. The occurrence of spectral state transitions and the peak episodic jet power during the rising phase of transient outbursts are found correlated with rate-of-increase of the X-ray luminosity, indicating the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate, in addition to the mass accretion rate, must be considered when interpreting observations of spectral state transitions and disk-jet coupling in these X-ray transients. This is supported by observations since the increase of the mass accretion rate due to its rate-of-change on the observational time scale of interest is significant during outbursts.

  17. A table-top femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, Stephen; Loh, Zhi-Heng; Khalil, Munira; Correa, Raoul E.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-05-21

    A laser-based, table-top instrument is constructed to perform femtosecond soft x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy. Ultrashort soft x-ray pulses produced via high-order harmonic generation of the amplified output of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system are used to probe atomic core-level transient absorptions in atoms and molecules. The results provide chemically specific, time-resolved dynamics with sub-50-fs time resolution. In this setup, high-order harmonics generated in a Ne-filled capillary waveguide are refocused by a gold-coated toroidal mirror into the sample gas cell, where the soft x-ray light intersects with an optical pump pulse. The transmitted high-order harmonics are spectrally dispersed with a home-built soft x-ray spectrometer, which consists of a gold-coated toroidal mirror, a uniform-line spaced plane grating, and a soft x-ray CCD camera. The optical layout of the instrument, design of the soft x-ray spectrometer, and spatial and temporal characterization of the high-order harmonics are described. Examples of static and time-resolved photoabsorption spectra collected on this apparatus are presented.

  18. Bright X-ray Transients in M31: 2004 July XMM-Newton Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Trudolyubov, S; Cordova, F; Trudolyubov, Sergey; Priedhorsky, William; Cordova, France

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of X-ray observations of four bright transients sources detected in the July 2004 XMM-Newton observations of the central bulge of M31. Two X-ray sources, XMMU J004315.5+412440 and XMMU J004144.7+411110, were discovered for the first time. Two other sources, CXOM31 J004309.9+412332 and CXOM31 J004241.8+411635, were previously detected by Chandra. The properties of the sources suggest their identification with accreting binary systems in M31. The X-ray spectra and variability of two sources, XMMU J004144.7+411110 and CXOM31 J004241.8+411635, are similar to that of the Galactic black hole transients, making them a good black hole candidates. The X-ray source XMMU J004315.5+412440 demonstrates a dramatic decline of the X-ray flux on a time scale of three days, and a remarkable flaring behavior on a short time scales. The X-ray data on XMMU J004315.5+412440 and CXOM31 J004309.9+412332 suggest that they can be either black hole or neutron star systems. Combining the results of 2000-2004 XMM o...

  19. Puzzling thermonuclear burst behaviour from the transient low-mass X-ray binary IGR J17473-2721

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Altamirano, Diego; Galloway, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the thermonuclear bursting behaviour of IGR J17473−2721, an X-ray transient that in 2008 underwent a 6-month long outburst, starting (unusually) with an X-ray burst. We detected a total of 57 thermonuclear bursts throughout the outburst with AGILE, Swift, Rossi X-ray Timing Explore...

  20. The soft quiescent spectrum of the transiently accreting 11-Hz X-ray pulsar in the globular cluster Terzan 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Degenaar; R. Wijnands

    2011-01-01

    We report on the quiescent X-ray properties of the recently discovered transiently accreting 11-Hz X-ray pulsar in the globular cluster Terzan 5. Using two archival Chandra observations, we demonstrate that the quiescent spectrum of this neutron star low-mass X-ray binary is soft and can be fit to a

  1. TRANSIENT X-RAY SOURCE POPULATION IN THE MAGELLANIC-TYPE GALAXY NGC 55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jithesh, V.; Wang, Zhongxiang, E-mail: jithesh@shao.ac.cn [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2016-04-10

    We present the spectral and temporal properties of 15 candidate transient X-ray sources detected in archival XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the nearby Magellanic-type, SB(s)m galaxy NGC 55. Based on an X-ray color classification scheme, the majority of the sources may be identified as X-ray binaries (XRBs), and six sources are soft, including a likely supernova remnant. We perform a detailed spectral and variability analysis of the data for two bright candidate XRBs. Both sources displayed strong short-term X-ray variability, and their X-ray spectra and hardness ratios are consistent with those of XRBs. These results, combined with their high X-ray luminosities (∼10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}), strongly suggest that they are black hole (BH) binaries. Seven less luminous sources have spectral properties consistent with those of neutron star or BH XRBs in both normal and high-rate accretion modes, but one of them is the likely counterpart to a background galaxy (because of positional coincidence). From our spectral analysis, we find that the six soft sources are candidate super soft sources (SSSs) with dominant emission in the soft (0.3–2 keV) X-ray band. Archival Hubble Space Telescope optical images for seven sources are available, and the data suggest that most of them are likely to be high-mass XRBs. Our analysis has revealed the heterogeneous nature of the transient population in NGC 55 (six high-mass XRBs, one low-mass XRBs, six SSSs, one active galactic nucleus), helping establish the similarity of the X-ray properties of this galaxy to those of other Magellanic-type galaxies.

  2. A 420 day X-ray/optical modulation and extended X-ray dips in the short-period transient Swift J1753.5-0127

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, A W; Bird, A J; Cornelisse, R; Casares, J; Lewis, F; Muñoz-Darias, T; Russell, D M; Zurita, C

    2013-01-01

    We have discovered a \\sim420d modulation, with associated X-ray dips, in RXTE-ASM/MAXI/Swift-BAT archival light-curves of the short-period (3.2h) black-hole X-ray transient, Swift J1753.5-0127. This modulation only appeared at the end of a gradual rebrightening, approximately 3 years after the initial X-ray outburst in mid-2005. The same periodicity is present in both the 2-20 keV and 15-50 keV bands, but with a \\sim0.1 phase offset (\\sim40d). Contemporaneous photometry in the optical and near-IR reveals a weaker modulation, but consistent with the X-ray period. There are two substantial X-ray dips (very strong in the 15-50 keV band, weaker at lower energies) that are separated by an interval equal to the X-ray period. This likely indicates two physically separated emitting regions for the hard X-ray and lower energy emission. We interpret this periodicity as a property of the accretion disc, most likely a long-term precession, where the disc edge structure and X-ray irradiation is responsible for the hard X-...

  3. Evidence of 1122 Hz X-ray burst oscillations from the neutron star X-ray transient XTE J1739-285

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaaret, P.; Prieskorn, Z.; in 't Zand, J.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We report on millisecond variability from the X-ray transient XTE J1739-285. We detected six X-ray type I bursts and found evidence for oscillations at 1122 +/- 0.3 Hz in the brightest X-ray burst. Taking into consideration the power in the oscillations and the number of trials in the search, the...... ranging from 757 to 862 Hz. Using the brightest burst, we derive an upper limit on the source distance of about 10.6 kpc....

  4. Direct X-Ray Imaging of Transient Spin Accumulation near a Ferromagnet/Nonmagnet Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Kukreja, Roopali; Bonetti, Stefano; Backes, Dirk; Kent, Andrew; Katine, Jordan; Durr, Hermann; Ohldag, Hendrik; Stohr, Joachim

    2015-03-01

    The physics of spin transport across a ferromagnet/nonmagnet interface is not well understood, even though such interfaces are common in spintronic devices. We use time-resolved x-ray spectro-microscopy to directly image transient spin accumulation in a Cu film caused by an injected spin current from an adjacent Co film. The measurement uses element-specific, circularly polarized x-rays detected via a scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) in conjunction with 1.28MHz temporal modulation for remarkably increased x-ray sensitivity to spin signals. The transient moments per atom within the spin diffusion length from the interface were measured to be 8 x 10-5μB per Cu atom and 1.5 x 10-4μB per Co atom. The transient spin signal in Cu is found to be confined to states at the Fermi level, as expected, but we also observe a second peak of the same spin polarization in the spin accumulation signal that is 0.7eV higher than Fermi. The transient moments in the 28nm thick Cu layer exhibit the same spin sign as both the hybridization-induced static spins in Cu at the Cu/Co interface and the spins in the Co film. In contrast, the transient moments in the Co layer have the opposite sign, consistent with magnetization depleting from the Co polarizing layer.

  5. Science with the EXTraS Project: Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky

    CERN Document Server

    De Luca, A; Tiengo, A; D'Agostino, D; Watson, M G; Haberl, F

    2015-01-01

    The EXTraS project (Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky) will characterise the temporal behaviour of the largest ever sample of objects in the soft X-ray range (0.1-12 keV) with a complex, systematic and consistent analysis of all data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument onboard the ESA XMM-Newton X-ray observatory since its launch. We will search for, and characterize variability (both periodic and aperiodic) in hundreds of thousands of sources spanning more than nine orders of magnitude in time scale and six orders of magnitude in flux. We will also search for fast transients, missed by standard image analysis. Our analysis will be completed by multiwavelength characterization of new discoveries and phenomenological classification of variable sources. All results and products will be made available to the community in a public archive, serving as a reference for a broad range of astrophysical investigations.

  6. Transient X-ray source population in the Magellanic-type galaxy NGC 55

    CERN Document Server

    Jithesh, V

    2016-01-01

    We present the spectral and temporal properties of 15 candidate transient X-ray sources detected in archival {\\it XMM-Newton} and {\\it Chandra} observations of the nearby Magellanic-type, SB(s)m galaxy NGC 55. On the basis of an X-ray color classification scheme, the majority of the sources may be identified as X-ray binaries (XRBs), and six sources are soft, including a likely supernova remnant. We perform a detailed spectral and variability analysis of the data for two bright candidate XRBs. Both sources displayed strong short-term X-ray variability, and their X-ray spectra and hardness ratios are consistent with those of XRBs. These results, combined with their high X-ray luminosities ($\\sim 10^{38}~\\rm erg~s^{-1}$), strongly suggest that they are black hole (BH) binaries. Seven less luminous sources have spectral properties consistent with those of neutron star or BH XRBs in both normal and high-rate accretion modes, but one of them is the likely counterpart to a background galaxy (because of positional c...

  7. SAS 3 observations of two X-ray transient events with precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J. A.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Doty, J.; Jernigan, J. G.; Haney, M.; Richardson, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    SAS 3 has observed two unusual fast transient X-ray events from different sources, one lasting about 150 s and one, approximately 1500 s. Both events were preceded by precursor pulses which lasted a few seconds and which rose and fell in less than 0.4 s. The precursors were separated from the 'main' events by several seconds, during which no X-rays were detected. There are similarities between the two main events and X-ray bursts in both their temporal and spectral evolution. The spectra of the main events started out much softer than the spectra of the precursors, became harder as they approached maximum intensity, and softened as they decayed. In the 1500-s event, X-rays with energies greater than 10 keV were delayed by about 80 s compared with 1.5-6-keV X-rays. A blackbody fit to the spectral data of the main event of approximately 1500-s duration gives a maximum temperature of 29 million K and a radius for the emitting region of at least about 9 km (at a distance of 10 kpc); this is similar to the temperature and sizes found for several X-ray burst sources.

  8. Three transient X-ray sources during the INTEGRAL revolution 1710

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Charles, Phil; Chenevez, J.; Ubertini, P.

    2016-08-01

    During recent INTEGRAL observations of the Musca and Norma regions (revolutions 1710) performed between 2016-08-05 16:00:36 UTC and 2016-08-07 21:02:14 UTC a renewed activity from the following transient X-ray sources has been detected.

  9. Picosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy of photochemical transient species in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenlein, Robert William; Khalil, Munira; Marcus, Matthew A.; Smeigh, Amanda L.; McCusker, James K.; Chong, Henry H.W.; Schoenlein, Robert W.

    2006-08-07

    A photoinduced Fe(II) spin crossover reaction in solution is studied with ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The iron-nitrogen bond lengthens by 0.21+-0.03 Angstrom in the high-spin transient excited state relative to the ground state.

  10. Location of the Norma transient with the HEAO 1 scanning modulation collimator. [X ray source in Norma Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiano, G.; Gursky, H.; Schwartz, D. A.; Schwarz, J.; Bradt, H. V.; Doxsey, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A precise position has been obtained for an X-ray transient source in Norma. The location uncertainty includes a variable star previously suggested to be the optical counterpart. This transient is associated with the steady X-ray source MX 1608-52 and probably with an X-ray burst source. A binary system containing a low-mass primary and a neutron-star or black-hole secondary of a few solar masses is consistent with the observations.

  11. Location of the Norma transient with the HEAO 1 scanning modulation collimator. [X ray source in Norma Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiano, G.; Gursky, H.; Schwartz, D. A.; Schwarz, J.; Bradt, H. V.; Doxsey, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A precise position has been obtained for an X-ray transient source in Norma. The location uncertainty includes a variable star previously suggested to be the optical counterpart. This transient is associated with the steady X-ray source MX 1608-52 and probably with an X-ray burst source. A binary system containing a low-mass primary and a neutron-star or black-hole secondary of a few solar masses is consistent with the observations.

  12. The X-ray Binary Population of the Nearby Dwarf Starburst Galaxy IC 10: Variable and Transient X-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Laycock, Silas G T; Williams, Benjamin F; Prestwich, Andrea; Binder, Breanna; Christodoulou, Dimitris M

    2016-01-01

    We have monitored the Cassiopeia dwarf galaxy (IC 10) in a series of 10 Chandra ACIS-S observations to capture its variable and transient X-ray source population, which is expected to be dominated by High Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs). We present a sample of 21 X-ray sources that are variable between observations at the 3 sigma level, from a catalog of 110 unique point sources. We find 4 transients (flux variability ratio greater than 10) and a further 8 objects with ratio > 5. The observations span years 2003 - 2010 and reach a limiting luminosity of >10$^{35}$ erg/s, providing sensitivity to X-ray binaries in IC 10 as well as flare stars in the foreground Milky Way. The nature of the variable sources is investigated from light-curves, X-ray spectra, energy quantiles, and optical counterparts. The purpose of this study is to discover the composition of the X-ray binary population in a young starburst environment. IC 10 provides a sharp contrast in stellar population age (<10 My) when compared to the Magella...

  13. X-ray softening in the new X-ray transient XTE J1719-291 during its 2008 outburst decay

    CERN Document Server

    Padilla, M Armas; Patruno, A; Russell, D M; Linares, M; Maccarone, T J; Homan, J; Wijnands, R

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray transient XTE J1719-291 was discovered with RXTE/PCA during its outburst in 2008 March, which lasted at least 46 days. Its 2-10 keV peak luminosity is 7E35 erg/s assuming a distance of 8 kpc, which classifies the system as a very faint X-ray transient. The outburst was monitored with Swift, RXTE, Chandra and XMM-Newton. We analysed the X-ray spectral evolution during the outburst. We fitted the overall data with a simple power-law model corrected for absorption and found that the spectral index increased with decreasing luminosity. However, the XMM-Newton spectrum can not be fitted with a simple one-component model, but it can be fitted with a thermal component (black body or disc black body) plus power-law model affected by absorption. Therefore, the softening of the X-ray spectrum with decreasing X-ray luminosity might be due to a change in photon index or alternatively it might be due to a change in the properties of the soft component. Assuming that the system is an X-ray binary, we estimated a ...

  14. Analyses of the short pulse laser pumped transient collisional excited X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.; Utsumi, T.; Moribayashi, K.; Zhidkov, A.; Kado, M.; Tanaka, M.; Hasegawa, N.; Kawachi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Osaka (Japan). Advanced Photon Research Center

    2001-07-01

    The soft X-ray gain of the transient collisional excited (TCE) Ni-like Ag laser is investigated using the plasma hydrodynamics and atomic kinetics codes. The gain is calculated for a plasma produced from two 100ps laser irradiated solid target to show qualitative agreement with the experiment. The calculation shows significant improvement of the gain using a thin foil target pumped by two short laser pulses, because of a better coupling of the pump laser energy into the gain region of the plasma. The codes will provide performance prediction as well as optimization of the experimental studies of the TCE X-ray lasers. (orig.)

  15. XTE J1739-302 An Unusual New X-ray Transient

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D M; Marshall, F; Swank, J H; Heindl, W A; Leventhal, M; in 't Zand, J J M; Heise, J

    1998-01-01

    A new x-ray transient, designated XTE J1739-302, was discovered with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in data from 12 August 1997. Although it was the brightest source in the Galactic Center region while active (about 3.0 x 10^-9 ergs/cm2/s from 2 to 25 keV), it was only observed on that one day; it was not detectable nine days earlier or two days later. There is no known counterpart at other wavelengths, and its proximity to the Galactic Center will make such an identification difficult due to source confusion and extinction. The x-ray spectrum and intensity suggest a giant outburst of a Be/neutron star binary, although no pulsations were observed and the outburst was shorter than is usual from these systems.

  16. SIGMA discovery of a transient hard X-ray source in the galactic center region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Paul, J.; Denis, M.; Borrel, V.; Bouchet, L.; Roques, J. P.; Jourdain, E.; Trudolyubov, S.; Gilfanov, M.; Churazov, E.; Sunyaev, R.; Khavenson, N.; Dyachkov, A.; Novikov, B.; Chulkov, I.

    1996-09-01

    A new X-ray transient source, GRS 1730-312 (=KS 1730-312), was discovered by the hard X-ray/soft γ-ray coded mask telescope SIGMA/GRANAT in the Galactic Center region during observations performed in September 1994. The flare started on September 22 and lasted approximately 3days, during which the source became the brightest object of the region at energies above 35keV. The average 35-200keV spectrum can be described by a power law with photon index of -2.5 or by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with kT_e_=~70keV. SIGMA data have been found consistent with the spectral shape and with the spectral evolution observed by the TTM/Mir-Kvant telescope at lower energies. This new source belongs to the population of hard X-ray sources already detected by SIGMA in the direction of the Galactic Bulge region.

  17. Chandra Smells a RRAT: X-ray Detection of a Rotating Radio Transient

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, B M; Reynolds, S; Borkowski, K; Rea, N; Possenti, A; Israel, G; Burgay, M; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Krämer, M; Lyne, A; Stairs, I

    2006-01-01

    "Rotating RAdio Transients" (RRATs) are a newly discovered astronomical phenomenon, characterised by occasional brief radio bursts, with average intervals between bursts ranging from minutes to hours. The burst spacings allow identification of periodicities, which fall in the range 0.4 to 7 seconds. The RRATs thus seem to be rotating neutron stars, albeit with properties very different from the rest of the population. We here present the serendipitous detection with the Chandra X-ray Observatory of a bright point-like X-ray source coincident with one of the RRATs. We discuss the temporal and spectral properties of this X-ray emission, consider counterparts in other wavebands, and interpret these results in the context of possible explanations for the RRAT population.

  18. The optical counterpart of the bright X-ray transient Swift J1745-26

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz-Darias, T; Russell, D M; Guziy, S; Gorosabel, J; Casares, J; Padilla, M Armas; Charles, P A; Fender, R P; Belloni, T M; Lewis, F; Motta, S; Castro-Tirado, A; Mundell, C G; Sánchez-Ramírez, R; Thöne, C C

    2013-01-01

    We present a 30-day monitoring campaign of the optical counterpart of the bright X-ray transient Swift J1745-26, starting only 19 minutes after the discovery of the source. We observe the system peaking at i' ~17.6 on day 6 (MJD 56192) to then decay at a rate of ~0.04 mag/day. We show that the optical peak occurs at least 3 days later than the hard X-ray (15-50 keV) flux peak. Our measurements result in an outburst amplitude greater than 4.3 magnitudes, which favours an orbital period 250 km/s. The breadth of the line and the observed optical and X-ray fluxes suggest that Swift J1745-26 is a new black hole candidate located closer than ~7 kpc.

  19. The 2003 radio outburst of a new X-ray transient: XTE J1720-318

    CERN Document Server

    Brocksopp, C; Fender, R P; Rupen, M; Sault, R; Tingay, S J; Hannikainen, D C; O'Brien, K

    2001-01-01

    We present radio observations of the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1720-318, which was discovered in 2003 January as it entered an outburst. We analyse the radio data in the context of the X-ray outburst and the broad-band spectrum. An unresolved radio source was detected during the rising phase, reaching a peak of nearly 5 mJy approximately coincident with the peak of the X-ray lightcurve. Study of the spectral indices suggests that at least two ejection events took place, the radio-emitting material expanding and becoming optically thin as it faded. The broad-band spectra suggested that the accretion disc dominated the emission, as expected for a source in the high/soft state. The radio emission decayed to below the sensitivity of the telescopes for ~6 weeks but switched on again during the transition of the X-ray source to the low/hard state. At least one ``glitch'' was superimposed on the otherwise exponential decay of the X-ray lightcurve, which was reminiscent of the multiple jet ejections of XTE J185...

  20. X-Ray Bursts from the Transient Magnetar Candidate XTE J1810-197

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Woods, Peter M.; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Roberts, Mallory S. E.; Ibrahim, Alaa; Markwardt, Craig B.; Swank, Jean H.; Finger, Mark H.

    2005-01-01

    We have discovered four X-ray bursts, recorded with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array between 2003 September and 2004 April, that we show to originate from the transient magnetar candidate XTE 51810-197. The burst morphologies consist of a short spike or multiple spikes lasting approx. 1 s each followed by extended tails of emission where the pulsed flux from XTE 51810-197 is significantly higher. The burst spikes are likely correlated with the pulse maxima, having a chance probability of a random phase distribution of 0.4%. The burst spectra are best fit to a blackbody with temperatures 4-8 keV, considerably harder than the persistent X-ray emission. During the X-ray tails following these bursts, the temperature rapidly cools as the flux declines, maintaining a constant emitting radius after the initial burst peak. The temporal and spectral characteristics of these bursts closely resemble the bursts seen from 1E 1048.1-5937 and a subset of the bursts detected from 1E 2259+586, thus establishing XTE J1810-197 as a magnetar candidate. The bursts detected from these three objects are sufficiently similar to one another, yet si,g&cantly differe2t from those seen from soft gamma repeaters, that they likely represent a new class of bursts from magnetar candidates exclusive (thus far) to the anomalous X-ray pulsar-like sources.

  1. A radio survey of supersoft, persistent and transient X-ray sources in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Fender, R P; Tzioumis, A K

    1998-01-01

    We present a radio survey of X-ray sources in the Large and Small Magellanic clouds with the Australia Telescope Compact Array at 6.3 and 3.5 cm. Specifically, we have observed the fields of five LMC and two SMC supersoft X-ray sources, the X-ray binaries LMC X-1, X-2, X-3 & X-4, the X-ray transient Nova SMC 1992, and the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 0525-66. None of the targets are detected as point sources at their catalogued positions. In particular, the proposed supersoft jet source RXJ 0513-69 is not detected, placing constraints on its radio luminosity compared to Galactic jet sources. Limits on emission from the black hole candidate systems LMC X-1 and X-3 are consistent with the radio behaviour of persistent Galactic black hole X-ray binaries, and a previous possible radio detection of LMC X-1 is found to almost certainly be due to nearby field sources. The SNR N49 in the field of SGR 0525-66 is mapped at higher resolution than previously, but there is still no evidence for any enhanced emission or...

  2. A Transient Black-Hole Low-Mass X-Ray Binary Candidate in Centaurus A

    CERN Document Server

    Sivakoff, Gregory R; Jordán, Andrés; Juett, Adrienne M; Evans, Daniel A; Forman, William R; Hardcastle, Martin J; Sarazin, Craig L; Birkinshaw, Mark; Brassington, Nicola J; Croston, Judith H; Harris, William E; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S; Raychaudhury, Somak; Woodley, Kristin A; Worrall, Diana M

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of a bright transient X-ray source, CXOU J132518.2-430304, towards Centaurus A (Cen A) using six new Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations in 2007 March--May. Between 2003 and 2007, its flux has increased by a factor of >770. The source is likely a low-mass X-ray binary in Cen A with unabsorbed 0.3-10 keV band luminosities of (2-3) x 10^{39} erg s^-1 and a transition from the steep-power law state to the thermal state during our observations. CXOU J132518.2-430304 is the most luminous X-ray source in an early-type galaxy with extensive timing information that reveals transience and a spectral state transition. Combined with its luminosity, these properties make this source one of the strongest candidates to date for containing a stellar-mass black hole in an early-type galaxy. Unless this outburst lasts many years, the rate of luminous transients in Cen A is anomalously high compared to other early-type galaxies.

  3. Origin of X-ray Emission from Transient Black Hole Candidates in Quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Pszota, Gabor; Yuan, Feng; Cui, Wei

    2008-01-01

    We report results from a systematic study of X-ray emission from black hole transients in quiescence. In this state mass accretion is thought to follow the geometry of an outer optically thick, geometrically thin disc and an inner optically thin, geometrically thick radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF). The inner flow is likely also coupled to the jets near the black hole that are often seen in such systems. The goal of the study is to see whether the X-ray emission in the quiescent state is mainly powered by the accretion flow or the jets. Using data from deep XMM-Newton observations of selected black hole transients, we have found that the quiescent X-ray spectra are, to a high precision, of power-law shape in the cases of GRO J1655-40 and V404 Cyg. Such spectra deviate significantly from the expected X-ray spectrum of the RIAF at very low accretion rates. On the other hand, they can naturally be explained by emission from the jets, if the emitting electrons follow a power-law spectral distribution...

  4. Measurements of transient electron density distributions by femtosecond X-ray diffraction; Messungen transienter Elektronendichteverteilungen durch Femtosekunden-Roentgenbeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyer, Benjamin

    2013-05-02

    This thesis concerns measurements of transient charge density maps by femtosecond X-ray diffraction. Different X-ray diffraction methods will be considered, particularly with regard to their application in femtosecond X-ray diffraction. The rotation method is commonly used in stationary X-ray diffraction. In the work in hand an X-ray diffraction experiment is demonstrated, which combines the method with ultrafast X-ray pulses. This experiment is the first implementation which makes use of the rotation method to map transient intensities of a multitude of Bragg reflections. As a prototype material Bismuth is used, which previously was studied frequently by femtosecond X-ray diffraction by measuring Bragg reflections successively. The experimental results of the present work are compared with the literature data. In the second part a powder-diffraction experiment will be presented, which is used to study the dynamics of the electron-density distribution on ultrafast time scales. The experiment investigates a transition metal complex after photoexcitation of the metal to ligand charge transfer state. Besides expected results, i. e. the change of the bond length between the metal and the ligand and the transfer of electronic charge from the metal to the ligand, a strong contribution of the anion to the charge transfer was found. Furthermore, the charge transfer has predominantly a cooperative character. That is, the excitation of a single complex causes an alteration of the charge density of several neighboring units. The results show that more than 30 transition-metal complexes and 60 anions contribute to the charge transfer. This collective response is a consequence of the strong coulomb interactions of the densely packed ions.

  5. The X-Ray Binary Population of the Nearby Dwarf Starburst Galaxy IC 10: Variable and Transient X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Silas; Cappallo, Rigel; Williams, Benjamin F.; Prestwich, Andrea; Binder, Breanna; Christodoulou, Dimitris M.

    2017-02-01

    We have monitored the Cassiopeia dwarf galaxy (IC 10) in a series of 10 Chandra ACIS-S observations to capture its variable and transient X-ray source population, which is expected to be dominated by High Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs). We present a sample of 21 X-ray sources that are variable between observations at the 3σ level, from a catalog of 110 unique point sources. We find four transients (flux variability ratio greater than 10) and a further eight objects with ratios >5. The observations span the years 2003–2010 and reach a limiting luminosity of >1035 erg s‑1, providing sensitivity to X-ray binaries in IC 10 as well as flare stars in the foreground Milky Way. The nature of the variable sources is investigated from light curves, X-ray spectra, energy quantiles, and optical counterparts. The purpose of this study is to discover the composition of the X-ray binary population in a young starburst environment. IC 10 provides a sharp contrast in stellar population age (<10 My) when compared to the Magellanic Clouds (40–200 My) where most of the known HMXBs reside. We find 10 strong HMXB candidates, 2 probable background Active Galactic Nuclei, 4 foreground flare-stars or active binaries, and 5 not yet classifiable sources. Complete classification of the sample requires optical spectroscopy for radial velocity analysis and deeper X-ray observations to obtain higher S/N spectra and search for pulsations. A catalog and supporting data set are provided.

  6. X-ray Detection of Transient Magnetic Moments Induced by a Spin Current in Cu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, R; Bonetti, S; Chen, Z; Backes, D; Acremann, Y; Katine, J A; Kent, A D; Dürr, H A; Ohldag, H; Stöhr, J

    2015-08-28

    We have used a MHz lock-in x-ray spectromicroscopy technique to directly detect changes in magnetic moment of Cu due to spin injection from an adjacent Co layer. The elemental and chemical specificity of x rays allows us to distinguish two spin current induced effects. We detect the creation of transient magnetic moments of 3×10^{-5}μ_{B} on Cu atoms within the bulk of the 28 nm thick Cu film due to spin accumulation. The moment value is compared to predictions by Mott's two current model. We also observe that the hybridization induced existing magnetic moments at the Cu interface atoms are transiently increased by about 10% or 4×10^{-3}μ_{B} per atom. This reveals the dominance of spin-torque alignment over Joule heat induced disorder of the interfacial Cu moments during current flow.

  7. X-ray detection of transient magnetic moments induced by a spin current in Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukreja, R. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Bonetti, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Chen, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Backes, D. [New York Univ. (NYU), New York, NY (United States); Acremann, Y. [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Katine, J. [HGST, a Western Digital Company, San Jose, CA (United States); Kent, A. D. [New York Univ. (NYU), New York, NY (United States); Durr, H. A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ohldag, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stohr, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-24

    We have used a MHz lock-in x-ray spectromicroscopy technique to directly detect changes in magnetic moment of Cu due to spin injection from an adjacent Co layer. The elemental and chemical specificity of x rays allows us to distinguish two spin current induced effects. We detect the creation of transient magnetic moments of 3×10–5μB on Cu atoms within the bulk of the 28 nm thick Cu film due to spin accumulation. The moment value is compared to predictions by Mott’s two current model. We also observe that the hybridization induced existing magnetic moments at the Cu interface atoms are transiently increased by about 10% or 4×10–3μB per atom. As a result, this reveals the dominance of spin-torque alignment over Joule heat induced disorder of the interfacial Cu moments during current flow.

  8. A new X-ray transient in the globular cluster Terzan 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.; Heinke, C. O.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Pooley, D.

    2012-07-01

    As part of our program (PI: Altamirano) using Swift/XRT to monitor several globular clusters to detect transient behavior of X-ray binaries in those clusters, we obtained a 1.2 ksec observation of Terzan 5 on 6 July 2012. During this observation, we detect a clear excess of photons which was not present during previous Swift observations (i.e., 26 June 2012, 30 June 2012).

  9. A new hard X-ray transient discovered by INTEGRAL: IGR J17559-2612

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Bozzo, E.;

    2012-01-01

    INTEGRAL discovered a new hard X-ray transient, IGR J17559-2612, during the Galactic center observations performed from 2012-08-14 00:02:14 to 2012-08-14 14:45:54 UTC. The source is detected in the IBIS/ISGRI mosaic at a significance level of 8 σ (observation good time: 50 ks) both in the 20-40 k...

  10. A transient supergiant X-ray binary in IC 10: An extragalactic SFXT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycock, Silas; Cappallo, Rigel; Oram, Kathleen; Balchunas, Andrew [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, Olney Science Center, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We report the discovery of a large amplitude (factor of ∼100) X-ray transient (IC 10 X-2, CXOU J002020.99+591758.6) in the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy IC 10 during our Chandra monitoring project. Based on the X-ray timing and spectral properties, and an optical counterpart observed with Gemini, the system is a high-mass X-ray binary consisting of a luminous blue supergiant and a neutron star. The highest measured luminosity of the source was 1.8 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}during an outburst in 2003. Observations before, during, and after a second outburst in 2010 constrain the outburst duration to be less than 3 months (with no lower limit). The X-ray spectrum is a hard power law (Γ = 0.3) with fitted column density (N{sub H} = 6.3 × 10{sup 21} atom cm{sup –2}), consistent with the established absorption to sources in IC 10. The optical spectrum shows hydrogen Balmer lines strongly in emission at the correct blueshift (-340 km s{sup –1}) for IC 10. The N III triplet emission feature is seen, accompanied by He II [4686] weakly in emission. Together these features classify the star as a luminous blue supergiant of the OBN subclass, characterized by enhanced nitrogen abundance. Emission lines of He I are seen, at similar strength to Hβ. A complex of Fe II permitted and forbidden emission lines are seen, as in B[e] stars. The system closely resembles galactic supergiant fast X-ray transients, in terms of its hard spectrum, variability amplitude, and blue supergiant primary.

  11. Mass transfer variation in the outburst model of dwarf novae and soft X-ray transients

    CERN Document Server

    Viallet, M

    2008-01-01

    We discuss two mechanisms that could result in an enhancement of the mass transfer rate during outbursts of dwarf novae and soft X-ray transients: the hot outer disc rim itself could heat the L1 point and scattered radiation by optically thin outflowing matter could also heat L1 significantly. We determine quantitatively the increase of the mass transfer rate resulting from an extra heating. During outbursts, the disc edge heats up the upper layer of the secondary with a flux of the order of the intrinsic stellar flux. This probably has no large effect on the mass transfer rate. In soft X-ray transients, the environing medium of the disc (corona+wind) could back-scatter a certain fraction of the accretion luminosity toward L1. Since soft X-ray transients reach high luminosities, even a low efficiency of this effect could yield a significant heating of L1, whereas we show that in dwarf novae this effect is negligible. Initially the incoming radiation does not penetrate below the photosphere of the secondary. D...

  12. Simulation of X-ray transient absorption for following vibrations in coherently ionized F2 molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutoi, Anthony D.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Femtosecond and attosecond X-ray transient absorption experiments are becoming increasingly sophisticated tools for probing nuclear dynamics. In this work, we explore and develop theoretical tools needed for interpretation of such spectra,in order to characterize the vibrational coherences that result from ionizing a molecule in a strong IR field. Ab initio data for F2 is combined with simulations of nuclear dynamics, in order to simulate time-resolved X-ray absorption spectra for vibrational wavepackets after coherent ionization at 0 K and at finite temperature. Dihalogens pose rather difficult electronic structure problems, and the issues encountered in this work will be reflective of those encountered with any core-valence excitation simulation when a bond is breaking. The simulations reveal a strong dependence of the X-ray absorption maximum on the locations of the vibrational wave packets. A Fourier transform of the simulated signal shows features at the overtone frequencies of both the neutral and the cation, which reflect spatial interferences of the vibrational eigenstates. This provides a direct path for implementing ultrafast X-ray spectroscopic methods to visualize coherent nuclear dynamics.

  13. Discovery of the Orbit of the Transient X ray Pulsar SAX J2103.5+4545

    CERN Document Server

    Baykal, A; Swank, J H

    2000-01-01

    Using X-ray data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we carried out pulse timing analysis of the transient X-ray pulsar SAX J2103.5+4545. An outburst was detected by All Sky Monitor (ASM) October 25 1999 and reached a peak X-ray brightness of 27 mCrab October 28. Between November 19 and December 27, the RXTE/PCA carried out pointed observations which provided us with pulse arrival times. These yield an eccentric orbit (e= 0.4 \\pm 0.2) with an orbital period of 12.68 \\pm 0.25 days and light travel time across the projected semimajor axis of 72 \\pm 6 sec. The pulse period was measured to be 358.62171 \\pm 0.00088 s and the spin-up rate (2.50 \\pm 0.15) \\times 10^{-13} Hz s^{-1}. The ASM data for the February to September 1997 outburst in which BeppoSAX discovered SAX J2103.5+4545 (Hulleman, in't Zand and Heise 1998) are modulated at time scales close to the orbital period. Folded light curves of the 1997 ASM data and the 1999 PCA data are similar and show that the intensity increases at periastron passag...

  14. A Transient Supergiant X-ray Binary in IC10. An Extragalactic SFXT?

    CERN Document Server

    Laycock, Silas; Oram, Kathleen; Balchunas, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a large amplitude (factor of $\\sim$100) X-ray transient (IC 10 X-2, CXOU J002020.99+591758.6) in the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy IC10 during our Chandra monitoring project. Based on the X-ray timing and spectral properties, and an optical counterpart observed with Gemini, the system is a high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) consisting of a luminous blue supergiant and a neutron star (NS). The highest measured luminosity of the source was 1.8$\\times$10$^{37}$ erg s$^{-1}$ during an outburst in 2003. Observations before, during and after a second outburst in 2010 constrain the outburst duration to be less than 3 months (with no lower limit). The X-ray spectrum is a hard powerlaw ($\\Gamma$=0.3) with fitted column density ($N_H$=6.3$\\times$10$^{21}$ atom cm$^{-2}$) consistent with the established absorption to sources in IC10. The optical spectrum shows hydrogen Balmer lines strongly in emission, at the correct blueshift (-340 km/s) for IC10. The NIII triplet emission feature is seen, accomp...

  15. Evolution of the X-ray Properties of the Transient Magnetar XTE J1810-197

    CERN Document Server

    Alford, Jason

    2016-01-01

    We report on X-ray observations of the 5.54 s transient magnetar XTE J1810-197 using the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories, analyzing new data from 2008 through 2014, and re-analyzing data from 2003 through 2007 with the benefit of these six years of new data. From the discovery of XTE J1810-197 during its 2003 outburst to the most recent 2014 observations, its 0.3-10 keV X-ray flux has declined by a factor of about 50 from 4.1E-11 to 8.1E-13 erg/cm^2/s. Its X-ray spectrum has now reached a steady state. Pulsations continue to be detected from a 0.3 keV thermal hot-spot that remains on the neutron star surface. The luminosity of this hot-spot exceeds XTE J1810-197's spin down luminosity, indicating continuing magnetar activity. We find that XTE J1810-197's X-ray spectrum is best described by a multiple component blackbody model in which the coldest 0.14 keV component likely originates from the entire neutron star surface, and the thermal hot-spot is, at different epochs, well described by an either one or ...

  16. Chandra observations of the peculiar X-ray transient IGR J16358-4726

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, S.K.; Kouveliotou, C.; Tennant, A.; Woods, P.M.; Finger, M.; King, A.; Ubertini, P.; Winkler, C.; Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Klis, M. van der; Wachter, S

    2004-06-01

    The new transient IGR J16358-4726 was discovered on 2003 March 19 with INTEGRAL. We detected the source serendipitously during our 2003 March 24 observation of SGR 1627 - 41 with the CHANDRA X-ray Observatory at the 1.7 x 10{sup -10} ergs s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} flux level (2-10 keV) with a very high absorption column (N{sub H}=3.3x10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}) and a hard power law spectrum of photon index 0.5(1). We discovered a very strong flux modulation with a period of 5880(50) s and peak-to-peak pulse fraction of 70(6) % (2-10 keV), clearly visible in the x-ray data. The nature, however, of IGR 16357-4726 remains unresolved. Most likely, we are looking at a galactic binary neutron star system as evidenced by the detection of rest frame fluorescence line emission from neutral Fe K (6.4 keV) in the Chandra spectrum. If the detected modulation is a spin period, this transient is a new kind of object, belonging to a class of very hard transients recently revealed with the unique INTEGRAL capabilities. The only neutron star systems known with similar spin periods are low luminosity persistent wind-fed pulsars, which exhibit very soft X-ray spectra. If this is an orbital period, then the system could be a compact Low Mass X-ray Binary.

  17. An X-ray view of the very faint black hole X-ray transient Swift J1357.2-0933 during its 2011 outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Padilla, M Armas; Altamirano, D; Mendez, M; Miller, J M; Degenaar, N

    2013-01-01

    We report on the X-ray spectral (using XMM-Newton data) and timing behavior (using XMM-Newton and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer [RXTE] data) of the very faint X-ray transient and black hole system Swift J1357.2-0933 during its 2011 outburst. The XMM-Newton X-ray spectrum of this source can be adequately fitted with a soft thermal component with a temperature of ~0.22 keV (using a disc model) and a hard, non-thermal component with a photon index of ~1.6 when using a simple power-law model. In addition, an edge at ~ 0.73 keV is needed likely due to interstellar absorption. During the first RXTE observation we find a 6 mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) which is not present during any of the later RXTE observations or during the XMM-Newton observation which was taken 3 days after the first RXTE observation. The nature of this QPO is not clear but it could be related to a similar QPO seen in the black hole system H 1743-322 and to the so-called 1 Hz QPO seen in the dipping neutron-star X-ray binaries (although th...

  18. Giant outburst from the supergiant fast X-ray transient IGR J17544-2619: accretion from a transient disc?

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, P; Mangano, V; Esposito, P; Israel, G; Tiengo, A; Campana, S; Ducci, L; Ferrigno, C; Kennea, J A

    2015-01-01

    Supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) are high mass X-ray binaries associated with OB supergiant companions and characterised by an X-ray flaring behaviour whose dynamical range reaches 5 orders of magnitude on timescales of a few hundred to thousands of seconds. Current investigations concentrate on finding possible mechanisms to inhibit accretion in SFXTs and explain their unusually low average X-ray luminosity. We present the Swift observations of an exceptionally bright outburst displayed by the SFXT IGR J17544-2619 on 2014 October 10 when the source achieved a peak luminosity of $3\\times10^{38}$ erg s$^{-1}$. This extends the total source dynamic range to $\\gtrsim$10$^6$, the largest (by a factor of 10) recorded so far from an SFXT. Tentative evidence for pulsations at a period of 11.6 s is also reported. We show that these observations challenge, for the first time, the maximum theoretical luminosity achievable by an SFXT and propose that this giant outburst was due to the formation of a transient ac...

  19. The origin of the rebrightening in soft X-ray transient outbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Truss, M R; Murray, J; King, A; Truss, Michael; Wynn, Graham; Murray, James; King, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    We present a model of an outburst of the soft X-ray transient A0620-003. A two-dimensional time-dependent smoothed particle hydrodynamics scheme is used to simulate the evolution of the accretion disc through a complete outburst. The scheme includes the full tidal potential of the binary and a simple treatment of the thermal-viscous disc instability. In the case where the mass accretion rate onto the primary determines the fraction of the disc that can be kept in a hot, high viscosity state by the resulting X-ray emission, we find that the shape of the X-ray light curve is ultimately determined by the relative sizes of the irradiated and unirradiated parts of the disc and the growth time-scale of the tidal instability. The model accounts for the rebrightening that has been observed in the light curves of A0620-003 and several other transients. The primary maximum and subsequent decline are due to the accretion of gas within the irradiated portion of the disc, while the secondary maximum is caused by the accre...

  20. X-ray outbursts from a new transient in NGC 55

    CERN Document Server

    Jithesh, V

    2014-01-01

    We report the outbursts from a newly discovered X-ray transient in the Magellanic-type, SB(s)m galaxy NGC 55. The transient source, XMMU J001446.81-391123.48, was undetectable in the 2001 XMM-Newton and 2004 Chandra observations, but detected in a 2010 XMM-Newton observation at a significance level of 8 sigma in the 0.3-8 keV energy band. The XMM-Newton spectrum is consistent with a power law with photon index of $\\Gamma=3.04^{+0.21}_{-0.19}$ or a disk blackbody with $kT_{in} = 0.73\\pm0.06$ keV. The luminosity was ~$10^{38}$ erg/s, and the source displayed strong short-term X-ray variability. These results, combined with the hardness ratios of its emission, strongly suggest an X-ray binary nature for the source. The follow-up studies with Swift XRT observations revealed that the source exhibited recurrent outbursts with period about a month. In the faint state, the XRT spectrum is described by a power law ($\\Gamma$ ~ 2.5), and during the outburst, the source reached its peak luminosity ~ 2x$10^{39}$ erg/s wit...

  1. Monitoring Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients with Swift. Results from the first year

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, P; Cusumano, G; La Parola, V; Vercellone, S; Pagani, C; Ducci, L; Mangano, V; Cummings, J; Krimm, H A; Guidorzi, C; Kennea, J A; Hoversten, E A; Burrows, D N; Gehrels, N

    2009-01-01

    Swift has allowed the possibility to give Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs), the new class of High Mass X-ray Binaries discovered by INTEGRAL, non serendipitous attention throughout all phases of their life. We present our results based on the first year of intense Swift monitoring of four SFXTs, IGR J16479-4514, XTE J1739-302, IGR J17544-2619 and AX J1841.0-0536. We obtain the first assessment of how long each source spends in each state using a systematic monitoring with a sensitive instrument. The duty-cycle of inactivity is 17, 28, 39, 55% (5% uncertainty), for IGR J16479-4514, AX J1841.0-0536, XTE J1739-302, and IGR J17544-2619, respectively, so that true quiescence is a rare state. This demonstrates that these transients accrete matter throughout their life at different rates. AX J1841.0-0536 is the only source which has not undergone a bright outburst during our campaign. Although individual sources behave somewhat differently, common X-ray characteristics of this class are emerging such as outb...

  2. Discovery of pulsations in the X-ray transient 4U 1901+03

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, D K; Morgan, E H; Galloway, Duncan K.; Wang, Zhongxiang; Morgan, Edward H.

    2005-01-01

    We describe observations of the 2003 outburst of the hard-spectrum X-ray transient 4U 1901+03 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. The outburst was first detected in 2003 February by the All-Sky Monitor, and reached a peak 2.5-25 keV flux of 8x10^-9 ergs/cm^2/s (around 240 mCrab). The only other known outburst occurred 32.2 yr earlier, likely the longest presently known recurrence time for any X-ray transient. Proportional Counter Array (PCA) observations over the 5-month duration of the 2003 outburst revealed a 2.763 s pulsar in a 22.58 d orbit. The detection of pulsations down to a flux of 3x10^-11 ergs/cm^2/s (2.5-25 keV), along with the inferred long-term accretion rate of 8.1x10^-11 M_sun/yr (assuming a distance of 10 kpc) suggests that the surface magnetic field strength is below ~5x10^11 G. The corresponding cyclotron energy is thus below 4 keV, consistent with the non-detection of resonance features at high energies. Although we could not unambiguously identify the optical counterpart, the lack of a ...

  3. Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients: A Case Study for LOFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Patrizia; Mangano, V.; Bozzo, E.; Esposito, P.; Ferrigno, C.

    2013-04-01

    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, is a new space mission concept selected by ESA in February 2011 and currently competing for a launch of opportunity in 2022. LOFT will carry a coded mask Wide Field Monitor (WFM) and a 10-m^2 class collimated X-ray Large Area Detector (LAD) operating in the energy range 2-80 keV. The instruments on-board LOFT will dramatically deepen our knowledge of Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients, a class of High-Mass X-ray Binaries whose optical counterparts are O or B supergiant stars, and whose X-ray outbursts are about 4 orders of magnitude brighter than the quiescent state. The LAD and the WFM will provide simultaneous high S/N broad-band and time-resolved spectroscopy in several intensity states, long term monitoring that will yield new determinations of orbital periods, as well as spin periods. We show the results of an extensive set of simulations based on the Swift broad-band and detailed XMM-Newton observations we collected up to now. Our simulations describe the outbursts at several intensities (F(2-10 keV)=5.9E-9 to 5.5E-10 erg cm-2 s-1), the intermediate and most common state (1E-11 erg cm-2 s-1), and the low state (1.2E-12 to 5E-13 erg cm-2 s-1). We also considered large variations of NH and the presence of emission lines, as observed by Swift and XMM-Newton. We acknowledge financial contribution from ASI-INAF I/004/11/0 and I/021/12/0.

  4. The Fading of Transient Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar XTE J1810-197

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, J. P.; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2005-01-01

    Three observations of the 5.54 s transient anomalous X-ray pulsar XTE J1810-197 obtained over 6 months with the Newton X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM-Newton) mission are used to study its spectrum and pulsed light curve as the source fades from outburst. The decay is consistent with an exponential of time constant ~300 days but not a power law as predicted in some models of sudden deep crustal heating events. All spectra are well fitted by a blackbody plus a steep power law, a problematic model that is commonly fitted to anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs). A two-temperature blackbody fit is also acceptable and better motivated physically in view of the faint optical/IR fluxes, the X-ray pulse shapes that weakly depend on energy in XTE J1810-197, and the inferred emitting areas that are less than or equal to the surface area of a neutron star. The fitted temperatures remained the same while the flux declined by 46%, which can be interpreted as a decrease in area of the emitting regions. The pulsar continues to spin down, albeit at a reduced rate of (5.1+/-1.6)×10-12 s s-1. The inferred characteristic age τc≡P/2P~17,000 yr, magnetic field strength Bs~1.7×1014 G, and outburst properties are consistent with both the outburst and quiescent X-ray luminosities being powered by magnetic field decay, i.e., XTE J1810-197 is a magnetar.

  5. Evolution of the X-ray Properties of the Transient Magnetar XTE J1810-197

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Jason

    2016-04-01

    We report on X-ray observations of the 5.54 s transient magnetar XTE J1810-197 using the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories, analyzing new data from 2008 through 2014, and re-analyzing data from 2003 through 2007 with the benefit of these six years of new data. From the discovery of XTE J1810-197 during its 2003 outburst to the most recent 2014 observations, its 0.3-10 keV X-ray flux has declined by a factor of about 50 from 4.1E-11 to 8.1E-13 erg/cm^2/s. Its X-ray spectrum has now reached a steady state. Pulsations continue to be detected from a 0.3 keV thermal hot-spot that remains on the neutron star surface. The luminosity of this hot-spot exceeds XTE J1810-197's spin down luminosity, indicating continuing magnetar activity. We find that XTE J1810-197's X-ray spectrum is best described by a multiple component blackbody model in which the coldest 0.14 keV component likely originates from the entire neutron star surface, and the thermal hot-spot is, at different epochs, well described by an either one or two-component blackbody model. A 1.2 keV absorption line, possibly due to resonant proton scattering, is detected at all epochs. The X-ray flux of the hot spot decreased by approximately 20% between 2008 March and 2009 March, the same period during which XTE J1810-197 became radio quiet.

  6. Propeller Effect in the Transient X-Ray Pulsar SMC X-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutovinov, Alexander A.; Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Krivonos, Roman A.; Molkov, Sergey V.; Poutanen, Juri

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of the monitoring campaign of the transient X-ray pulsar SMC X-2 performed with the Swift/XRT telescope over the period of 2015 September–2016 January during the Type II outburst. During this event, the bolometric luminosity of the source ranged from ≃1039 down to several ×1034 erg s‑1. Moreover, we discovered its dramatic drop by a factor of more than 100 below the limiting value of {L}{lim}≃ 4× {10}36 erg s‑1, which can be interpreted as a transition to the propeller regime. These measurements make SMC X-2 the sixth pulsating X-ray source where such a transition is observed and allow us to estimate the magnetic field of the neutron star in the system B ≃ 3 × 1012 G, which is in agreement with independent results of the spectral analysis.

  7. Optimal main pulse angle for different preplasma conditions in transient collisionally pumped x-ray lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursescu, Daniel; Zielbauer, Bernhard; Kuehl, Thomas; Neumayer, Paul; Pert, Geoff

    2007-04-01

    The effects of the incidence angle of the main pump (MP) pulse in non-normal pumping geometry and the influence of the MP duration are investigated experimentally and theoretically for a transient collisionally pumped (TCE) x-ray laser in Ni-like Zr at 45 degrees and 72 degrees incidence angle on the target. The way they transfer to the x-ray laser output depends on the preplasma conditions, most notably on the average ionization distribution at the arrival of the MP. Moreover, contrary to previous grazing incidence pumping results, it is found that the shortest attainable MP maximizes the output. Modeling of the experimental results is performed with EHYBRID code. The results are important for scaling high repetition-rate non-normal incidence pumped lasers to sub- 10nm wavelengths.

  8. Propeller effect in the transient X-ray pulsar SMC X-2

    CERN Document Server

    Lutovinov, A; Krivonos, R; Molkov, S; Poutanen, J

    2016-01-01

    We report results of the monitoring campaign of the transient X-ray pulsar SMC X-2 performed with the Swift/XRT telescope in the period of Sept 2015 -- Jan 2016 during the Type II outburst. During this event bolometric luminosity of the source ranged from $\\simeq10^{39}$ down to $<10^{35}$ erg/s. Moreover, we discovered its dramatic drop by a factor of more than 100 below the limiting value of $L_{\\rm lim}\\simeq4\\times10^{36}$ erg/s, that can be interpreted as a transition to the propeller regime. These measurements make SMC X-2 the sixth pulsating X-ray source where such a transition is observed and allow us to estimate the magnetic field of the neutron star in the system $B\\simeq3\\times10^{12}$ G.

  9. The SMC X-ray transient XTE J0111.2-7317 a Be/X-ray binary in a SNR?

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, M J; Reig, P

    1999-01-01

    We report observations which confirm the identity of the optical/IR counterpart to the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer transient source XTE J0111.2-7317. The counterpart is suggested to be a B0-B2 star (luminosity class III--V) showing an IR excess and strong Balmer emission lines. The distance derived from reddening and systemic velocity measurements puts the source in the SMC. Unusually, the source exhibits an extended asymetric H alpha structure.

  10. POSSIBLE DETECTION OF APPARENT SUPERLUMINAL INWARD MOTION IN MARKARIAN 421 AFTER THE GIANT X-RAY FLARE IN 2010 FEBRUARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinuma, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8511 (Japan); Kino, M.; Oyama, T. [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Nagai, H. [ALMA-J Project, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Isobe, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautics, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Gabanyi, K. E. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Research Group for Physical Geodesy and Geodynamics, FOMI Satellite Geodetic Observatory Budapest, 1592 Budapest (Hungary); Hada, K. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Koyama, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Asada, K. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Fujisawa, K., E-mail: niinuma@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Research Institute for Time Studies, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8511 (Japan)

    2012-11-10

    We report on the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) follow-up observations using the Japanese VLBI Network array at 22 GHz for the largest X-ray flare of TeV blazar Mrk 421 that occurred in 2010 mid-February. The total of five epochs of observations were performed at intervals of about 20 days between 2010 March 7 and May 31. No newborn component associated with the flare was seen directly in the total intensity images obtained by our multi-epoch VLBI observations. However, one jet component located at {approx}1 mas northwest from the core was able to be identified, and its proper motion can be measured as -1.66 {+-} 0.46 mas yr{sup -1}, which corresponds to an apparent velocity of -3.48 {+-} 0.97c. Here, this negative velocity indicates that the jet component was apparently moving toward the core. As the most plausible explanation, we discuss that the apparent negative velocity was possibly caused by the ejection of a new component, which could not be resolved with our observations. In this case, the obtained Doppler factor of the new component is around 10-20, which is consistent with the ones typically estimated by model fittings of spectral energy distribution for this source.

  11. Possible Detection of Apparent Superluminal inward motion in Markarian 421 after the Giant X-ray flare in February, 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Niinuma, K; Nagai, H; Isobe, N; Gabanyi, K E; Hada, K; Koyama, S; Asada, K; Oyama, T; Fujisawa, K

    2012-01-01

    We report on the VLBI follow-up observations using the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) array at 22 GHz for the largest X-ray flare of TeV blazar Mrk 421 that occurred in mid-February, 2010. The total of five epochs of observations were performed at intervals of about 20 days between March 7 and May 31, 2010. No new-born component associated with the flare was seen directly in the total intensity images obtained by our multi-epoch VLBI observations. However, one jet component located at ~1 mas north-west from the core was able to be identified, and its proper motion can be measured as -1.66+/-0.46 mas yr^-1, which corresponds to an apparent velocity of -3.48+/-0.97 c. Here, this negative velocity indicates that the jet component was apparently moving toward the core. As the most plausible explanation, we discuss that the apparent negative velocity was possibly caused by the ejection of a new component, which could not be resolved with our observations. In this case, the obtained Doppler factor of the new component...

  12. Identification of the optical and quiescent counterparts to the bright X-ray transient in NGC 6440

    CERN Document Server

    in 't Zand, J J M; Pooley, D; Verbunt, F; Wijnands, R; Lewin, W H G

    2001-01-01

    After 3 years of quiescence, the globular cluster NGC 6440 exhibited a bright transient X-ray source turning on in August 2001, as noted with the RXTE All-Sky Monitor. We carried out a short target of opportunity observation with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and are able to associate the transient with the brightest of 24 X-ray sources detected during quiescence in July 2000 with Chandra. Furthermore, we securely identify the optical counterpart and determine that the 1998 X-ray outburst in NGC 6440 was from the same object. This is the first time that an optical counterpart to a transient in a globular cluster is securely identified. Since the transient is a type I X-ray burster, it is established that the compact accretor is a neutron star. Thus, this transient provides an ideal case to study the quiescent emission in the optical and X-ray of a transiently accreting neutron star while knowing the distance and reddening accurately. One model that fits the quiescent spectrum is an absorbed power law plus neu...

  13. Transient pulsar dynamics in hard x-rays: Prognoz 9 and GRIF "Mir" space experiments data

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtsev, M I; Bogomolov, V V

    2006-01-01

    The long-term observations of the Galactic Centre as well as the Galactic anti-Centre regions in hard X-rays (10-300 keV) were made in experiments on board Prognoz-9 satellite and "Mir" orbital station (GRIF experiment). Some transient pulsars including A0535+262, GS1722-36, 4U1145-619, A1118-615, EXO2030+37, Sct X-1, SAX J2103.5+4545, IGR 16320-4751, IGR 16465-4507 were observed. The pulsation flux components of A0535+26 and GS1722-36 X-ray emission were revealed at significant level. For other observed pulsars the upper limits of pulsation intensity were obtained. The mean pulsation profiles of A0535+26 in different energy ranges as well as the energy spectra were obtained at different stages of outburst decreasing. The pulsation intensity-period behavior does not contradict the well-known correlation between spin-up rate and X-ray flux, while the stable character of the energy spectrum power index indicates on the absence of thermal component. The energy spectrum and mean pulsation profiles were also obtai...

  14. Renewed activity from the X-ray transient SAXJ 1810.8-2609 with INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Fiocchi, M; Chenevez, J; Bazzano, A; Tarana, A; Ubertini, P; Brandt, S; Beckmann, V; Federici, M; Galis, R; Hudec, R

    2008-01-01

    We report on the results of INTEGRAL observations of the neutron star low mass X-ray binary SAX J1810.8-2609 during its latest active phase in August 2007. The current outburst is the first one since 1998 and the derived luminosity is 1.1-2.6x10^36 erg s-1 in the 20-100 keV energy range. This low outburst luminosity and the long-term time-average accretion rate of ~5x10^-12Msolar/yr suggest that SAXJ 1810.8-2609 is a faint soft X-ray transient. During the flux increase, spectra are consistent with a thermal Comptonization model with a temperature plasma of ~23-30 keV and an optical depth of ~1.2-1.5, independent from luminosity of the system. This is a typical low hard spectral state for which the X-ray emission is attributed to the upscattering of soft seed photons by a hot, optically thin electron plasma. During the decay, spectra have a different shape, the high energy tail being compatible with a single power law. This confirm similar behavior observed by BeppoSAX during the previous outburst, with absenc...

  15. High-Frequency X-ray Variability Detection in A Black Hole Transient with USA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabad, Gayane

    2000-10-16

    Studies of high-frequency variability (above {approx}100 Hz) in X-ray binaries provide a unique opportunity to explore the fundamental physics of spacetime and matter, since the orbital timescale on the order of several milliseconds is a timescale of the motion of matter through the region located in close proximity to a compact stellar object. The detection of weak high-frequency signals in X-ray binaries depends on how well we understand the level of Poisson noise due to the photon counting statistics, i.e. how well we can understand and model the detector deadtime and other instrumental systematic effects. We describe the preflight timing calibration work performed on the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) X-ray detector to study deadtime and timing issues. We developed a Monte Carlo deadtime model and deadtime correction methods for the USA experiment. The instrumental noise power spectrum can be estimated within {approx}0.1% accuracy in the case when no energy-dependent instrumental effect is present. We also developed correction techniques to account for an energy-dependent instrumental effect. The developed methods were successfully tested on USA Cas A and Cygnus X-1 data. This work allowed us to make a detection of a weak signal in a black hole candidate (BHC) transient.

  16. RENEWED ACTIVITY FROM THE X-RAY TRANSIENT SAXJ 1810.8-2609 WITH INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocchi, M.; Natalucci, L.; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    We report on the results of International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary SAX J1810.8-2609 during its latest active phase in 2007 August. The current outburst is the first one since 1998 and the derived luminosity is 1.1-2.6 x 10......(36) erg s(-1) in the 20-100 keV energy range. This low outburst luminosity and the long-term time-average accretion rate of similar to 5 x 10(-12) M-circle dot yr(-1) suggest that SAX J1810.8-2609 is a faint soft X-ray transient. During the flux increase, spectra are consistent with a thermal...... Comptonization model with a temperature plasma of kT(e) similar to 23-30 keV and an optical depth of tau similar to 1.2-1.5, independent of the luminosity of the system. This is a typical low hard spectral state for which the X-ray emission is attributed to the upscattering of soft seed photons by a hot...

  17. RENEWED ACTIVITY FROM THE X-RAY TRANSIENT SAXJ 1810.8-2609 WITH INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocchi, M.; Natalucci, L.; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    We report on the results of International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary SAX J1810.8-2609 during its latest active phase in 2007 August. The current outburst is the first one since 1998 and the derived luminosity is 1.1-2.6 x 10......(36) erg s(-1) in the 20-100 keV energy range. This low outburst luminosity and the long-term time-average accretion rate of similar to 5 x 10(-12) M-circle dot yr(-1) suggest that SAX J1810.8-2609 is a faint soft X-ray transient. During the flux increase, spectra are consistent with a thermal...... Comptonization model with a temperature plasma of kT(e) similar to 23-30 keV and an optical depth of tau similar to 1.2-1.5, independent of the luminosity of the system. This is a typical low hard spectral state for which the X-ray emission is attributed to the upscattering of soft seed photons by a hot...

  18. Mass ratio determination from Halpha lines in Black-Hole X-ray transients

    CERN Document Server

    Casares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We find that the mass ratio q in quiescent black hole (BH) X-ray transients is tightly correlated with the ratio of the double peak separation (DP) to the full-width-half maximum (FWHM) of the Halpha emission line, log q = -6.88 -23.2 log (DP/FWHM). The correlation is explained through the efficient truncation of the outer disc radius by the 3:1 resonance with the companion star. This is the dominant tidal interaction for extreme mass ratios q=M2/M1<~0.25, the realm of BH (and some neutron star) X-ray transients. Mass ratios can thus be estimated with a typical uncertainty of ~32%, provided that the Halpha profile used to measure DP/FWHM is an orbital phase average. We apply the DP/FWHM-q relation to the three faint BH transients XTE J1650-500, XTE J1859+226 and Swift J1357-0933 and predict q=0.026 (+0.038-0.007), 0.049 (+0.023-0.012) and 0.040 (+0.003-0.005), respectively. This new relation, together with the FWHM-K2 correlation presented in Paper I (casares 2015) allows the extraction of fundamental para...

  19. Optical and X-ray Behavior of the High Mass X-ray Transient A0535+26/HDE245770 in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, F.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Bruni, I.; Corfini, G.; Martinelli, F.; Rossi, C.

    2015-03-01

    The optical behavior of the Be star in the high-mass X-ray transient A0535+26/HDE245770 shows that at periastron the luminosity is typically enhanced by 0.02 mag to a few tenths mag, and the X-ray outburst occurs eight days after the periastron. Indeed, at the periastron an increase of the mass flux occurs. This sort of flush reaches the external part of the temporary accretion disk around the neutron star and moves to the hot central parts of the accretion disk and the neutron star's surface. The time necessary for this process is dependent on the turbulent viscosity in the accretion disk. In this paper we will show the behavior of this system in optical band around the predicted periastron passages in 2014, by using the ephemeris - JDopt-outb = JD0(2 444 944)±n(111.0±0.4) days - that we used to schedule our spectroscopic and photometric optical observations. Spectroscopic unusual activity detected in the Balmer lines and the enhancement in the emission in B, V, and R bands around the 106th periastron passage, and in V-band around the 108th periastron passage after the "zero event" 811205-E at JD 2 444 944, and the subsequent X-ray events definitively demonstrate the existence of a ≍8-day delay between optical and X-ray flares.

  20. Characterization of few transient black hole candidates during their X-ray outbursts with TCAF Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Dipak; Chakrabarti, S K; Jana, A; Molla, A A; Chatterjee, D

    2016-01-01

    The theoretical concept of Chakrabarti-Titarchuk two Component Advective Flow (TCAF) model was introduced around two decade ago in mid-90s. Recently after the inclusion of TCAF model into XSPEC as an additive table model, we find that it is quite capable to fit spectra from different phases of few transient black hole candidates (TBHCs) during their outbursts. This quite agrees with our theoretical understanding. Here, a brief summary of our recent studies of spectral and temporal properties of few TBHCs during their X-ray outbursts with TCAF will be discussed.

  1. Polarimetric analysis of mass transfer in the X-ray transient A0538-66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Brown, John C.; Thompson, Ian B.; Fox, Geoffrey K.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of optical polarimetric variations of the recurrent X-ray transient A0538-66 during outbursts 99 and 75 are used to investigate the redistribution of gas in the system during periastron passage. The results are consistent with the polarization arising from light in the primary (Be-star) neighborhood which is scattered off a Be-star type disk and a large gas cloud created near periatron by the neutron star passage. It is suggested that the cloud persists near the periastron direction for longer than the Keplerian rotation time of the inner Be-star disk.

  2. BATSE Observations and Orbit Determination of the Be/X-Ray Transient EXO 2030+375

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollberg, Mark T.; Finger, Mark H.; Wilson, Robert B.; Scott, D. Matthew; Crary, David J.; Paciesas, William S.

    1998-01-01

    The Be/X-ray binary transient pulsar EXO 2030+375 (P(sub s) approx equal 42 s) has been observed with the large area detectors (LADs) of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). Beginning in May 1991, twenty-two outbursts were observed over four years. Thirteen outbursts between February 1992 and August 1993 occurred consecutively at intervals of approx equal 46 days, close to the orbital period determined by Parmar et al. (1989) using EXOSAT data. The pulse profiles from the BATSE data are double-peaked and show no significant energy or luminosity dependence, unlike the EXOSAT observations of May-August 1985. An exponential model was used to fit the observed hard X-ray energy spectra from the thirteen consecutive outbursts. When EXOSAT discovered this pulsar during a giant outburst in May 1985, the X-ray luminosity peaked at L(sub x) = 1.0 x 10(esp 38) erg/ s (1-20 keV), assuming a 5 kpc distance to the source. The BATSE outbursts are found to be weaker 0.3 x 10(exp 37) less than or equal to L(sub x)(I-20 keV) less than or equal to 3.0 x 10(exp 37) erg/ s after extrapolating the observed flux (20-50 keV) to the EXOSAT energy band. Pulse phases derived from the thirteen outbursts were fit to two different models to determine a binary orbit. The new orbit is used to estimate 95% confidence limits for the mean peak spin frequency change during the out- bursts observed with BATSE. This, and the mean peak flux, are compared to the spin-up rates and fluxes determined by EXOSAT from the 1985 giant outburst, where disk accretion was thought to have occurred. It is unclear if these normal outbursts were driven by wind or disk accretion.

  3. The cold neutron star in the soft X-ray transient 1H 1905+000

    CERN Document Server

    Jonker, Peter G; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Juett, Adrienne M

    2007-01-01

    We report on our analysis of 300 ks of Chandra observations of the neutron star soft X-ray transient 1H1905+000 in quiescence. We do not detect the source down to a 95% confidence unabsorbed flux upper limit of 2E-16 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5-10 keV energy range for an assumed Gamma=2 power law spectral model. A limit of 1.4E-16 erg cm-2 s-1 is derived if we assume that the spectrum of 1H1905+000 in quiescence is described well with a black body of temperature of 0.2 keV. For the upper limit to the source distance of 10 kpc this yields a 0.5-10 keV luminosity limit of 2.4E30 / 1.7E30 erg/s for the abovementioned power law or black body spectrum, respectively. This luminosity limit is lower than the luminosity of A0620-00, the weakest black hole soft X-ray transient in quiescence reported so far. Together with the uncertainties in relating the mass transfer and mass accretion rates we come to the conclusion that the claim that there is evidence for the presence of a black hole event horizon on the basis of a low...

  4. Discovery of the Third Transient X-ray Binary in the Galactic Globular Cluster Terzan 5

    CERN Document Server

    Bahramian, Arash; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Altamirano, Diego; Wijnands, Rudy; Homan, Jeroen; Linares, Manuel; Pooley, David; Degenaar, Nathalie; Gladstone, Jeanette C

    2013-01-01

    We report and study the outburst of a new transient X-ray binary (XRB) in Terzan 5, the third detected in this globular cluster, Swift J174805.3-244637 or Terzan 5 X-3. We find clear spectral hardening in Swift/XRT data during the outburst rise to the hard state, thanks to our early coverage (starting at L_X ~ 4x10^{34} ergs/s) of the outburst. This hardening appears to be due to the decline in relative strength of a soft thermal component from the surface of the neutron star (NS) during the rise. We identify a {Type I X-ray burst} in Swift/XRT data with a long (16 s) decay time, indicative of {hydrogen burning on the surface of the} NS. We use Swift/BAT, Maxi/GSC, Chandra/ACIS, and Swift/XRT data to study the spectral changes during the outburst, identifying a clear hard-to-soft state transition. We use a Chandra/ACIS observation during outburst to identify the transient's position. Seven archival Chandra/ACIS observations show evidence for variations in Terzan 5 X-3's non-thermal component, but not the ther...

  5. XMM-Newton observations of two transient millisecond X-ray pulsars in quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, S; Stella, L; Israel, G L

    2005-01-01

    We report on XMM-Newton observations of two X-ray transient millisecond pulsars (XRTMSPs). We detected XTE J0929-314 with an unabsorbed luminosity of \\~7x10^{31} erg/s. (0.5-10 keV) at a fiducial distance of 10 kpc. The quiescent spectrum is consistent with a simple power law spectrum. The upper limit on the flux from a cooling neutron star atmosphere is about 20% of the total flux. XTE J1807-294 instead was not detected. We can put an upper limit on the source quiescent 0.5-10 keV unabsorbed luminosity <4x10^{31} erg/s at 8 kpc. These observations strenghten the idea that XRTMSPs have quiescent luminosities significantly lower than classical neutron star transients.

  6. Discovery of a Transient Absorption Edge in the X-ray Spectrum of GRB 990705

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, L; Vietri, M; in 't Zand, J J M; Soffitta, P; Costa, E; Del Sordo, S; Pian, E; Piro, L; Antonelli, L A; Dal Fiume, D; Feroci, M; Gandolfi, G; Guidorzi, C; Heise, J; Kuulkers, E; Masetti, N; Montanari, E; Nicastro, L; Orlandini, M; Palazzi, E

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of a transient equivalent hydrogen column density with an absorption edge at ~3.8 kiloelectron volts in the spectrum of the prompt x-ray emission of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 990705. This feature can be satisfactorily modeled with a photoelectric absorption by a medium located at a redshift of ~0.86 and with an iron abundance of ~75 times the solar one. The transient behavior is attributed to the strong ionization produced in the circumburst medium by the GRB photons. The high iron abundance points to the existence of a burst environment enriched by a supernova along the line of sight. The supernova explosion is estimated to have occurred about 10 years before the burst. Our results agree with models in which GRBs originate from the collapse of very massive stars and are preceded by a supernova event

  7. Orbit Determination for the Be/X-Ray Transient EXO 2030+375

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollberg, Mark T.; Finger, Mark H.; Wilson, Robert B.; Scott, Matthew; Crary, David J.; Paciesas, William S.

    1999-01-01

    The Be/X-ray binary transient pulsar EXO 2030+375 has been observed during twenty-two outbursts over four years (1991-1994) using the large area detectors (LADs) of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). Thirteen outbursts between 1992 February and 1993 August occurred regularly at -46 day intervals, close to the orbital period determined using EXOSAT data. EXOSAT discovered this pulsar during, a "giant" outburst in 1985 May. All BATSE outbursts were "normal" type. Pulse phases derived from the thirteen consecutive outbursts were fit to two different models to determine a binary orbit. A summary of the results are presented here.

  8. Renewed Activity from the X-Ray Transient SAXJ 1810.8-2609 with Integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, M.; Natalucci, L.; Chenevez, J.; Bazzano, A.; Tarana, A.; Ubertini, P.; Brandt, S.; Beckmann, V.; Federici, M.; Galis, R.; Hudec, R.

    2009-03-01

    We report on the results of International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary SAX J1810.8-2609 during its latest active phase in 2007 August. The current outburst is the first one since 1998 and the derived luminosity is 1.1-2.6 ×1036 erg s-1 in the 20-100 keV energy range. This low outburst luminosity and the long-term time-average accretion rate of ~5 × 10-12 M sun yr-1 suggest that SAX J1810.8-2609 is a faint soft X-ray transient. During the flux increase, spectra are consistent with a thermal Comptonization model with a temperature plasma of kT e~ 23-30 keV and an optical depth of τ~ 1.2-1.5, independent of the luminosity of the system. This is a typical low hard spectral state for which the X-ray emission is attributed to the upscattering of soft seed photons by a hot, optically thin electron plasma. During the decay, spectra have a different shape, the high energy tail being compatible with a single power law. This confirm similar behavior observed by BeppoSAX during the previous outburst, with the absence of visible cutoff in the hard X-ray spectrum. INTEGRAL/JEM-X instrument observed four X-ray bursts in Fall 2007. The first one has the highest peak flux (≈3.5 crab in 3-25 keV) giving an upper limit to the distance of the source of about 5.7 kpc, for a L Edd ≈ 3.8 × 1038 erg s-1. The observed recurrence time of ~ 1.2 days and the ratio of the total energy emitted in the persistent flux to that emitted in the bursts (α~ 73) allow us to conclude that the burst fuel was composed by mixed hydrogen and helium with X >= 0.4. INTEGRAL is an ESA project with Instruments and Science Data Center funded by ESA member states, especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain; Czech Republic and Poland; and with the participation of Russia and USA.

  9. Results from Long-Term Optical Monitoring of the Soft X-Ray Transient SAX J1810.8-2609

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Ling; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the long-term optical observation of the faint soft X-ray transient SAX J1810.8-2609 from OGLE and MOA. We have focused on the 2007 outburst, and also did the cross-correlate between its optical light curves and the quasi-simultaneous X-ray observations from swift. Both the optical and X-ray light curves of 2007 outburst show multi-peak features. Quasi-simultaneous optical/X-ray luminosity shows that both the X-ray reprocessing and viscously thermal emission can explain the observed optical flux. There is a slightly X-ray delay of 0.6+-0.3 days during the first peak, while the X-ray emission lags the optical emission by ~2 days during the rebrightening stage, which suggests that X-ray reprocessing emission contributes significantly to the optical flux in the first peak, but the viscously-heated-disk origin dominates the optical flux during rebrightening. It implies variation of the physical environment of the outer disk, even the source stayed in low-hard state during the whole outburs...

  10. Swift/XRT orbital monitoring of the candidate supergiant fast X-ray transient IGR J17354-3255

    CERN Document Server

    Ducci, L; Esposito, P; Bozzo, E; Krimm, H A; Vercellone, S; Mangano, V; Kennea, J A

    2013-01-01

    We report on the Swift/X-ray Telescope (XRT) monitoring of the field of view around the candidate supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGR J17354-3255, which is positionally associated with the AGILE/GRID gamma-ray transient AGL J1734-3310. Our observations, which cover 11 days for a total on-source exposure of about 24 ks, span 1.2 orbital periods (P_orb=8.4474 d) and are the first sensitive monitoring of this source in the soft X-rays. These new data allow us to exploit the timing variability properties of the sources in the field to unambiguously identify the soft X-ray counterpart of IGR J17354-3255. The soft X-ray light curve shows a moderate orbital modulation and a dip. We investigated the nature of the dip by comparing the X-ray light curve with the prediction of the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion theory, assuming both spherical and nonspherical symmetry of the outflow from the donor star. We found that the dip cannot be explained with the X-ray orbital modulation. We propose that an eclipse or the...

  11. The Galactic center X-ray transients AX J1745.6-2901 and GRS 1741-2853

    CERN Document Server

    Degenaar, N; Reynolds, M T; Miller, J M; Kennea, J; Gehrels, N

    2014-01-01

    AX J1745.6-2901 and GRS 1741-2853 are two transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries that are located within ~10' from the Galactic center. Multi-year monitoring observations with the Swift/XRT has exposed several accretion outbursts from these objects. We report on their updated X-ray light curves and renewed activity that occurred in 2010-2013.

  12. The Transient Accereting X-Ray Pulsar XTE J1946+274: Stability of the X-Ray Properties at Low Flux and Updated Orbital Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Marcu-Cheatham, Diana M; Kühnel, Matthias; Müller, Sebastian; Falkner, Sebastian; Caballero, Isabel; Finger, Mark H; Jenke, Peter J; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Fürst, Felix; Grinberg, Victoria; Hemphill, Paul B; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Klochkov, Dmitry; Rothschild, Richard E; Terada, Yukikatsu; Enoto, Teruaki; Iwakiri, Wataru; Wolff, Michael T; Becker, Peter A; Wood, Kent S; Wilms, Jöern

    2015-01-01

    We present a timing and spectral analysis of the X-ray pulsar XTE J1946+274 observed with Suzaku during an outburst decline in 2010 October and compare with previous results. XTE J1946+274 is a transient X-ray binary consisting of a Be-type star and a neutron star with a 15.75 s pulse period in a 172 d orbit with 2-3 outbursts per orbit during phases of activity. We improve the orbital solution using data from multiple instruments. The X-ray spectrum can be described by an absorbed Fermi-Dirac cutoff power law model along with a narrow Fe K line at 6.4 keV and a weak Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Feature (CRSF) at ~35 keV. The Suzaku data are consistent with the previously observed continuum flux versus iron line flux correlation expected from fluorescence emission along the line of sight. However, the observed iron line flux is slightly higher, indicating the possibility of a higher iron abundance or the presence of non-uniform material. We argue that the source most likely has only been observed in the sub...

  13. X-ray outbursts of ESO 243-49 HLX-1: comparison with Galactic low-mass X-ray binary transients

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Zhen; Soria, Roberto; Altamirano, Diego; Yu, Wenfei

    2015-01-01

    We studied the outburst properties of the hyper-luminous X-ray source ESO 243-49 HLX-1, using the full set of Swift monitoring observations. We quantified the increase in the waiting time, recurrence time and e-folding rise timescale along the outburst sequence, and the corresponding decrease in outburst duration, total radiated energy, and e-folding decay timescale, which confirms previous findings. HLX-1 spends less and less time in outburst and more and more time in quiescence, but its peak luminosity remains approximately constant. We compared the HLX-1 outburst properties with those of bright Galactic low-mass X-ray binary transients (LMXBTs). Our spectral analysis strengthens the similarity between state transitions in HLX-1 and those in Galactic LMXBTs. We also found that HLX-1 follows the nearly linear correlations between the hard-to-soft state transition luminosity and the peak luminosity, and between the rate of change of X-ray luminosity during the rise phase and the peak luminosity, which indicat...

  14. Discovery of the transient X-ray pulsar SAX J2103.5+4545

    CERN Document Server

    Hulleman, F; Heise, J

    1998-01-01

    We report the discovery of the X-ray transient SAX J2103.5+4545 which was active from February to September 1997. The observed peak intensity of 20 mCrab (2 to 25 keV) occurred on April 11. An analysis of data obtained around the time of the peak revealed a pulsed signal with a period of 358.61 +/- 0.03 s on MJD 50569. The pulse profile has a pulsed fraction of ~40%. No change in the pulse period was detected, with an upper limit of 6 s/yr. The energy spectrum complies to a power law function with a photon index of 1.27 +/- 0.14 and low-energy absorption equivalent to a hydrogen column density of 3.1 +/- 1.4 10**22 atoms cm**-2 of cold gas of cosmic abundances. In analogy to other X-ray pulsars with similar characteristics we propose this object to be a neutron star in close orbit around a mass-losing star of early spectral type. The B star HD 200709 is a marginal candidate optical counterpart.

  15. Discovery of the X-ray Counterpart to the Rotating Radio Transient J1819--1458

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, S P; Gaensler, B M; Rea, N; McLaughlin, M; Possenti, A; Israel, G; Burgay, M; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Krämer, M; Lyne, A; Stairs, I

    2006-01-01

    We present the discovery of the first X-ray counterpart to a Rotating RAdio Transient (RRAT) source. RRAT J1819--1458 is a relatively highly magnetized (B $\\sim 5\\times10^{13}$ G) member of a new class of unusual pulsar-like objects discovered by their bursting activity at radio wavelengths. The position of RRAT J1819--1458 was serendipitously observed by the {\\sl Chandra} ACIS-I camera in 2005 May. At that position we have discovered a pointlike source, CXOU J181934.1--145804, with a soft spectrum well fit by an absorbed blackbody with $N_H = 7^{+7}_{-4} \\times 10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$ and temperature $kT=0.12 \\pm 0.04$ keV, having an unabsorbed flux of $\\sim2 \\times 10^{-12}$ ergs cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ between 0.5 and 8 keV. No optical or infrared (IR) counterparts are visible within $1''$ of our X-ray position. The positional coincidence, spectral properties, and lack of an optical/IR counterpart make it highly likely that CXOU J181934.1--145804 is a neutron star and is the same object as RRAT J1819--1458. The sour...

  16. Astrophysical parameters of the peculiar X-ray transient IGR J11215-5952

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzo, J; Castro, N; Norton, A J; Vilardell, F; Herrero, A

    2013-01-01

    The hard X-ray source IGR J11215-5952 is a peculiar transient, displaying very short X-ray outbursts every 165 days. We obtained high-resolution spectra of the optical counterpart, HD 306414, at different epochs, spanning a total of three months, before and around the 2007 February outburst with the combined aims of deriving its astrophysical parameters and searching for orbital modulation. We fit model atmospheres generated with the fastwind code to the spectrum. We also cross-correlated each individual spectrum to the best-fit model to derive radial velocities. From its spectral features, we classify HD 306414 as B0.5 Ia. From the model fit, we find Teff = 24 700 K and log g = 2.7, in good agreement with the morphological classification. Using the interstellar lines in its spectrum, we estimate a distance to HD 306414 d > 7 kpc. Assuming this distance, we derive R* = 40 Rsol and Mspect = 30 Msol (consistent, within errors, with Mevol = 38 Msol). Radial velocity changes are not dominated by the orbital motio...

  17. Modelling lightcurves and spectra of transient Anomalous X-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Zane, S; Turolla, R; Israel, G L; Nobili, L; Stella, L

    2011-01-01

    We present the first detailed joint modelling of both the timing and spectral properties during the outburst decay of transient anomalous X-ray pulsars. We consider the two sources XTE J1810-197 and CXOU J164710.2-455216, and describe the source decline in the framework of a twisted magnetosphere model, using Monte Carlo simulations of magnetospheric scattering and mimicking localized heat deposition at the NS surface following the activity. Our results support a picture in which a limited portion of the star surface close to one of the magnetic poles is heated at the outburst onset. The subsequent evolution is driven both by the cooling/varying size of the heated cap and by a progressive untwisting of the magnetosphere.

  18. Modelling lightcurves and spectra of transient Anomalous X-ray Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, S.; Albano, A.; Turolla, R.; Israel, G. L.; Nobili, L.; Stella, L.

    2011-09-01

    We present the first detailed joint modelling of both the timing and spectral properties during the outburst decay of transient anomalous X-ray pulsars. We consider the two sources XTE J1810-197 and CXOU J164710.2-455216, and describe the source decline in the framework of a twisted magnetosphere model, using Monte Carlo simulations of magnetospheric scattering and mimicking localized heat deposition at the NS surface following the activity. Our results support a picture in which a limited portion of the star surface close to one of the magnetic poles is heated at the outburst onset. The subsequent evolution is driven both by the cooling/varying size of the heated cap and by a progressive untwisting of the magnetosphere.

  19. The Swift Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transients Project:. [A Review, New Results and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P.; Mangano, V.; Ducci, L.; Esposito, P.; Vercellone, S.; Bocchino, F.; Burrows, D. N.; Kennea, J. A.; Krimm, H. A.; Gehrels, N.; Farinelli, R.; Ceccobello, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a review of the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT) Project, a systematic investigation of the properties of SFXTs with a strategy that combines Swift monitoring programs with outburst follow-up observations. This strategy has quickly tripled the available sets of broad-band data of SFXT outbursts, and gathered a wealth of out-of-outburst data, which have led us to a broad-band spectral characterization, an assessment of the fraction of the time these sources spend in each phase, and their duty cycle of inactivity. We present some new observational results obtained through our outburst follow-ups, as fitting examples of the exceptional capabilities of Swift in catching bright flares and monitor them panchromatically.

  20. BeppoSAX observation of the transient X-ray pulsar GS 1843+00

    CERN Document Server

    Piraino, S; Segreto, A; Giarrusso, S; Cusumano, G; Del Sordo, S; Robba, N R; Dal Fiume, D; Orldini, M; Oosterbroek, T; Parmar, A N; Palermo, DSFA

    2000-01-01

    We present the results from both the timing and spectroscopic analysis of the transient X-ray pulsar GS 1843+00 observed by the BeppoSAX satellite on 1997 April 4, when the source was at a luminosity of ~10^{37} erg s^{-1}. GS 1843+00 shows a very hard spectrum that is well fitted by an absorbed power law (N_H \\~2.3 10^{22} cm^{-2}) modified by a high energy cut-off above 6 keV. The source shows a small pulse amplitude in the whole energy band. The pulse profile evolves with energy from a double-peaked to single-peaked shape. The barycentric pulse period is 29.477+/-0.001 s.

  1. Discovery of the third transient X-ray binary in the galactic globular cluster Terzan 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahramian, Arash; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Gladstone, Jeanette C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Altamirano, Diego; Wijnands, Rudy [Astronomical Institute " Anton Pannekoek," University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Homan, Jeroen [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Linares, Manuel [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, c/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Pooley, David [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341 (United States); Degenaar, Nathalie, E-mail: bahramia@ualberta.ca [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We report and study the outburst of a new transient X-ray binary (XRB) in Terzan 5, the third detected in this globular cluster, Swift J174805.3-244637 or Terzan 5 X-3. We find clear spectral hardening in Swift/XRT data during the outburst rise to the hard state, thanks to our early coverage (starting at L{sub X} ∼ 4 × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1}) of the outburst. This hardening appears to be due to the decline in relative strength of a soft thermal component from the surface of the neutron star (NS) during the rise. We identify a Type I X-ray burst in Swift/XRT data with a long (16 s) decay time, indicative of hydrogen burning on the surface of the NS. We use Swift/BAT, MAXI/GSC, Chandra/ACIS, and Swift/XRT data to study the spectral changes during the outburst, identifying a clear hard-to-soft state transition. We use a Chandra/ACIS observation during outburst to identify the transient's position. Seven archival Chandra/ACIS observations show evidence for variations in Terzan 5 X-3's nonthermal component but not the thermal component during quiescence. The inferred long-term time-averaged mass accretion rate, from the quiescent thermal luminosity, suggests that if this outburst is typical and only slow cooling processes are active in the NS core, such outbursts should recur every ∼10 yr.

  2. Variable Quasi Periodic Oscillations during an Outburst of the Transient X-ray Pulsar XTE J1858 + 034

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U. Mukherjee; S. Bapna; H. Raichur; B. Paul; S. N. A. Jaaffrey

    2006-03-01

    We have investigated the Quasi Periodic Oscillation (QPO) properties of the transient accreting X-ray pulsar XTE J1858 + 034 during the second outburst of this source in April–May 2004. We have used observations made with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) during May 14–18, 2004, in the declining phase of the outburst. We detected the presence of low frequency QPOs in the frequency range of 140–185 mHz in all the RXTE-PCA observations. We report evolution of the QPO parameters with the time, X-ray flux, and X-ray photon energy. Though a correlation between the QPO centroid frequency and the instantaneous X-ray flux is not very clear from the data, we point out that the QPO frequency and the one day averaged X-ray flux decreased with time during these observations. We have obtained a clear energy dependence of the RMS variation in the QPOs, increasing from about 3% at 3 keV to 6% at 25 keV. The X-ray pulse profile is a single peaked sinusoidal, with pulse fraction increasing from 20% at 3 keV to 45% at 30 keV. We found that, similar to the previous outburst, the energy spectrum is well fitted with amodel consisting of a cut-off power law along with an iron emission line.

  3. Imaging transient melting of a nanocrystal using an X-ray laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse N; Beitra, Loren; Xiong, Gang; Fritz, David M; Lemke, Henrik T; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Matthieu; Williams, Garth J; Messerschmidt, Marc M; Abbey, Brian; Harder, Ross J; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Wark, Justin S; Reis, David A; Robinson, Ian K

    2015-06-16

    There is a fundamental interest in studying photoinduced dynamics in nanoparticles and nanostructures as it provides insight into their mechanical and thermal properties out of equilibrium and during phase transitions. Nanoparticles can display significantly different properties from the bulk, which is due to the interplay between their size, morphology, crystallinity, defect concentration, and surface properties. Particularly interesting scenarios arise when nanoparticles undergo phase transitions, such as melting induced by an optical laser. Current theoretical evidence suggests that nanoparticles can undergo reversible nonhomogenous melting with the formation of a core-shell structure consisting of a liquid outer layer. To date, studies from ensembles of nanoparticles have tentatively suggested that such mechanisms are present. Here we demonstrate imaging transient melting and softening of the acoustic phonon modes of an individual gold nanocrystal, using an X-ray free electron laser. The results demonstrate that the transient melting is reversible and nonhomogenous, consistent with a core-shell model of melting. The results have implications for understanding transient processes in nanoparticles and determining their elastic properties as they undergo phase transitions.

  4. Strongly absorbed quiescent X-ray emission from the X-ray transient XTE J0421+56 (CI Cam) observed with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Boirin, L; Oosterbroek, T; Lumb, D H; Orlandini, M; Schartel, N

    2002-01-01

    We have observed the X-ray transient XTE J0421+56 in quiescence with XMM-Newton. The observed spectrum is highly unusual being dominated by an emission feature at ~6.5 keV. The spectrum can be fit using a partially covered power-law and Gaussian line model, in which the emission is almost completely covered (covering fraction of 0.98_{-0.06}^{+0.02}) by neutral material and is strongly absorbed with an N_H of (5_{-2}^{+3}) x 10^{23} atom cm^{-2}. This absorption is local and not interstellar. The Gaussian has a centroid energy of 6.4 +/- 0.1 keV, a width < 0.28 keV and an equivalent width of 940 ^{+650}_{-460} eV. It can be interpreted as fluorescent emission line from iron. Using this model and assuming XTE J0421+56 is at a distance of 5 kpc, its 0.5-10 keV luminosity is 3.5 x 10^{33} erg s^{-1}. The Optical Monitor onboard XMM-Newton indicates a V magnitude of 11.86 +/- 0.03. The spectra of X-ray transients in quiescence are normally modeled using advection dominated accretion flows, power-laws, or by th...

  5. Improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R; Dunn, J; Filevich, J; Moon, S; Nilsen, J; Keenan, R; Shlyaptsev, V; Rocca, J; Hunter, J; Shepherd, R; Booth, R; Marconi, M

    2004-10-05

    We present within this paper a series of experiments, which yield new observations to further our understanding of the transient collisional x-ray laser medium. We use the recently developed technique of picosecond x-ray laser interferometry to probe the plasma conditions in which the x-ray laser is generated and propagates. This yields two dimensional electron density maps of the plasma taken at different times relative to the peak of the 600ps plasma-forming beam. In another experimental campaign, the output of the x-ray laser plasma column is imaged with a spherical multilayer mirror onto a CCD camera to give a two-dimensional intensity map of the x-ray laser output. Near-field imaging gives insights into refraction, output intensity and spatial mode structure. Combining these images with the density maps gives an indication of the electron density at which the x-ray laser is being emitted at (yielding insights into the effect of density gradients on beam propagation). Experimental observations coupled with simulations predict that most effective coupling of laser pump energy occurs when the duration of the main heating pulse is comparable to the gain lifetime ({approx}10ps for Ni-like schemes). This can increase the output intensity by more than an order of magnitude relative to the case were the same pumping energy is delivered within a shorter heating pulse duration (< 3ps). We have also conducted an experiment in which the output of the x-ray laser was imaged onto the entrance slit of a high temporal resolution streak camera. This effectively takes a one-dimensional slice of the x-ray laser spatial profile and sweeps it in time. Under some conditions we observe rapid movement of the x-ray laser ({approx} 3 {micro}m/ps) towards the target surface.

  6. X-ray Transient Sources (Multifrequency Laboratories The Case of the Prototype A0535+26/HDE 245770

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giovannelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to discuss the behaviour of the X-ray transient source A0535+26 which is considered for historical reasons and for the huge amount of multifrequency data, spread over a period of 35 years, as the prototype of this class of objects. Transient sources are formed by a Be star — the primary — and a neutron star X-ray pulsar — the secondary — and constitute a sub-class of X-ray binary systems. We will emphasize the discovery of low-energy indicators of high-energy processes. They are UBVRI magnitudes and Balmer lines of the optical companion. Particular unusual activity of the primary star — usually at the periastron passage of the neutron star – indicates that an X-ray flare is drawing near. The shape and intensity of X-ray outbursts are dependent on the strength of the activity of the primary. We derive the optical orbital period of the system as 110.856 ± 0.02 days. By using the optical flare of December 5, 1981 (here after 811205-E that triggered the subsequent X-ray outburst of December 13, 1981, we derive the ephemeris of the system as JD Popt−outb = JD0 (2, 444, 944 ± n(110.856 ± 0.02. Thus the passage of the neutron star at the periastron occurs with a periodicity of 110.856 ± 0.02 days and the different kinds of X-ray outbursts of A0535+26 — following the definitions reported in the review by Giovannelli & Sabau-Graziati (1992 — occur just after ∼ 8 days. The delay between optical and X-ray outbursts is just the transit time of the material coming out from the optical companion to reach the neutron star X-ray pulsar. The occurrence of X-ray “normal outbursts”, “anomalous outbursts” or “casual outbursts” is dependent on the activity of the Be star: “quiet state: steady stellar wind”, “excited state: stellar wind plus puffs of material”, and “expulsion of a shell”, respectively. In the latter case, the primary manifests a strong optical activity and the consequent strong

  7. THE TRANSIENT ACCRETING X-RAY PULSAR XTE J1946+274: STABILITY OF X-RAY PROPERTIES AT LOW FLUX AND UPDATED ORBITAL SOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcu-Cheatham, Diana M.; Pottschmidt, Katja [CRESST and Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Kühnel, Matthias; Müller, Sebastian; Falkner, Sebastian; Kreykenbohm, Ingo [Dr. Karl Remeis-Observatory and ECAP, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Sternwartstr. 7, Bamberg (Germany); Caballero, Isabel [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/IRFU, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, CEA DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Finger, Mark H. [Universities Space Research Association, National Space Science and Technology Center, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Jenke, Peter J. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A. [Astrophysics Office, ZP 12, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Fürst, Felix [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Grinberg, Victoria [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hemphill, Paul B.; Rothschild, Richard E. [University of California, San Diego, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Klochkov, Dmitry [Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universität Tübingen (IAAT), Sand 1, Tübingen (Germany); Terada, Yukikatsu [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Simo-Ohkubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama City, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); and others

    2015-12-10

    We present a timing and spectral analysis of the X-ray pulsar XTE J1946+274 observed with Suzaku during an outburst decline in 2010 October and compare with previous results. XTE J1946+274 is a transient X-ray binary consisting of a Be-type star and a neutron star with a 15.75 s pulse period in a 172 days orbit with 2–3 outbursts per orbit during phases of activity. We improve the orbital solution using data from multiple instruments. The X-ray spectrum can be described by an absorbed Fermi–Dirac cut-off power-law model along with a narrow Fe Kα line at 6.4 keV and a weak Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Feature (CRSF) at ∼35 keV. The Suzaku data are consistent with the previously observed continuum flux versus iron line flux correlation expected from fluorescence emission along the line of sight. However, the observed iron line flux is slightly higher, indicating the possibility of a higher iron abundance or the presence of non-uniform material. We argue that the source most likely has only been observed in the subcritical (non-radiation dominated) state since its pulse profile is stable over all observed luminosities and the energy of the CRSF is approximately the same at the highest (∼5 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1}) and lowest (∼5 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1}) observed 3–60 keV luminosities.

  8. EVOLUTION OF TRANSIENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES TO REDBACK MILLISECOND PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Kun; Li, Xiang-Dong, E-mail: lixd@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2015-11-20

    Redback millisecond pulsars (MSPs; hereafter redbacks) are a subpopulation of eclipsing MSPs in close binaries. The formation processes of these systems are not clear. The three pulsars showing transitions between rotation- and accretion-powered states belong to both redbacks and transient low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), suggesting a possible evolutionary link between them. Through binary evolution calculations, we show that the accretion disks in almost all LMXBs are subject to the thermal-viscous instability during certain evolutionary stages, and the parameter space for the disk instability covers the distribution of known redbacks in the orbital period—companion mass plane. We accordingly suggest that the abrupt reduction of the mass accretion rate during quiescence of transient LMXBs provides a plausible way to switch on the pulsar activity, leading to the formation of redbacks, if the neutron star has been spun up to be an energetic MSP. We investigate the evolution of redbacks, taking into account the evaporation feedback, and discuss its possible influence on the formation of black widow MSPs.

  9. The X-ray properties of the black hole transient MAXI J1659-152 in quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Homan, Jeroen; Jonker, Peter G; Russell, David M; Gallo, Elena; Kuulkers, Erik; Rea, Nanda; Altamirano, Diego

    2013-01-01

    We present new Chandra X-ray observations of the transient black hole X-ray binary MAXI J1659-152 in quiescence. These observations were made more than one year after the end of the source's 2010-2011 outburst. We detect the source at a 0.5-10 keV flux of 2.8(8)e-15 erg/cm^2/s, which corresponds to a luminosity of ~1.2e31 (d/ 6 kpc)^2 erg/s. This level, while being the lowest at which the source has been detected, is within factors of ~2 of the levels seen at the end of the initial decay of the outburst and soon after a major reflare of the source. The quiescent luminosity of MAXI J1659-152, which is the shortest-orbital-period black hole X-ray binary (~2.4 hr), is lower than that of neutron-star X-ray binaries with similar periods. However, it is higher than the quiescent luminosities found for black hole X-ray binaries with orbital periods ~2-4 times longer. This could imply that a minimum quiescent luminosity may exist for black hole X-ray binaries, around orbital periods of ~5-10 hr, as predicted by binar...

  10. The quasi-persistent neutron star soft X-ray transient 1M 1716-315 in quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Jonker, P G; Wachter, S

    2007-01-01

    We report on our analysis of a 20 ksec Chandra X-ray observation of the quasi-persistent neutron star soft X-ray transient (SXT) 1M1716-315 in quiescence. Only one source was detected in the HEAO-I error region. Its luminosity is 1.6E32-1.3E33 erg s-1. In this the range is dominated by the uncertainty in the source distance. The source spectrum is well described by an absorbed soft spectrum, e.g. a neutron star atmosphere or black body model. No optical or near-infrared counterpart is present at the location of the X-ray source, down to a magnitude limit of I> 23.5 and K_s> 19.5. The positional evidence, the soft X-ray spectrum together with the optical and near-infrared non-detections provide strong evidence that this source is the quiescent neutron star SXT. The source is 10-100 times too bright in X-rays in order to be explained by stellar coronal X-ray emission. Together with the interstellar extinction measured in outburst and estimates for the source distance, the reported optical and near-infrared limi...

  11. GRB060602B = Swift J1749.4-2807: an unusual transiently accreting neutron-star X-ray binary

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, Rudy; Cackett, Ed M; Starling, Rhaana L C; Remillard, Ron A

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Swift BAT and XRT data of GRB060602B, which is most likely an accreting neutron star in a binary system and not a gamma-ray burst. Our analysis shows that the BAT burst spectrum is consistent with a thermonuclear flash (type-I X-ray burst) from the surface of an accreting neutron star in a binary system. The X-ray binary nature is further confirmed by the report of a detection of a faint point source at the position of the XRT counterpart of the burst in archival XMM-Newton data approximately 6 years before the burst and in more recent XMM-Newton data obtained at the end of September 2006 (nearly 4 months after the burst). Since the source is very likely not a gamma-ray burst, we rename the source Swift J1749.4-2807, based on the Swift/BAT discovery coordinates. Using the BAT data of the type-I X-ray burst we determined that the source is at most at a distance of 6.7+-1.3 kpc. For a transiently accreting X-ray binary its soft X-ray behaviour is atypical: its 2-10 keV X-ray lumino...

  12. Optical and X-ray behaviour of the high mass X-ray transient A0535+26/HDE245770 in February-March 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannelli, F; Bruni, I; Corfini, G; Martinelli, F; Rossi, C

    2014-01-01

    The optical behaviour of the Be star in the high-mass X-ray transient A0535+26/HDE245770 shows that at periastron the luminosity is typically enhanced by 0.02 to a few tenths magnitude, and the X-ray outburst occurs eight days after the periastron. Indeed, at the periastron an increase of the mass flux occurs. This sort of flush reaches the external part of the temporary accretion disk around the neutron star and moves to the hot central parts of the accretion disk and the neutron star surface. The time necessary for this way is dependent on the turbulent viscosity in the accretion disk, as discussed by Giovannelli, Bisnovatyi-Kogan, and Klepnev (2013) (GBK13). In this paper we will show the behaviour of this system in optical band around the predicted periastron passage on 21st February 2014, by using the GBK13 ephemeris that we used to schedule our spectroscopic and photometric optical observations. Spectroscopic unusual activity detected in the Balmer lines and the enhancement in the emission in B, V, and ...

  13. NuSTAR J163433-4738.7: A Fast X-ray Transient in the Galactic Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomsick, John A.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Rahoui, Farid

    2014-01-01

    During hard X-ray observations of the Norma spiral arm region by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in 2013 February, a new transient source, NuSTAR J163433-4738.7, was detected at a significance level of 8-sigma in the 3-10 keV bandpass. The source is consistent with having a con...

  14. The Variable Quiescent X-Ray Emission of the Neutron Star Transient XTE J1701-462

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, J.; Wijnands, R.; Cackett, E. M.; Degenaar, N.; Mendez, M.; Altamirano, D.; Brown, E. F.; Belloni, T. M.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    2011-01-01

    We have monitored the cooling of the neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1701-462 with Chandra and XMM-Newton since the source entered quiescence in 2007 after an exceptionally luminous 19-month outburst. A recent Chandra observation made almost 1200 days into quiescence indicat

  15. Further brightening of the X-ray transient MAXI J1535-571, suggesting the presence of a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, H.; Kawase, T.; Sugizaki, M.; Ueno, S.; Tomida, H.; Sugawara, Y.; Isobe, N.; Ishikawa, M.; Shimomukai, R.; Mihara, T.; Serino, M.; Iwakiri, S. Nakahira W.; Shidatsu, M.; Matsuoka, M.; Kawai, N.; Sugita, S.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Harita, S.; Muraki, Y.; Morita, K.; Yoshida, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kawakubo, Y.; Kitaoka, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Tsunemi, H.; Yoneyama, T.; Nakajima, M.; Sakamaki, A.; Ueda, Y.; Hori, T.; Tanimoto, A.; Oda, S.; Tsuboi, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Sasaki, R.; Kawai, H.; Yamauchi, M.; Hanyu, C.; Hidaka, K.; Kawamuro, T.; Yamaoka, K.

    2017-09-01

    The new X-ray transient MAXI J1535-571 currently in outburst was independently discovered by Swift (GCN #21788, ATel #10700) and MAXI (ATel #10699) on 2017 September 2, and the optical followup observation successfully detected an uncatalogued counterpart of the source on September 3 (ATel #10702).

  16. The faint neutron star soft X-ray transient SAX J1810.8-2609 in quiescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, P.G.; Wijnands, R.A.D.; van der Klis, M.

    2004-01-01

    We present the analysis of a 35-ksec-long Chandra observation of the neutron star soft X-ray transient (SXT) SAX J1810.8-2609. We detect three sources in the field of view. The position of one of them is consistent with the location of the ROSAT error circle of SAX J1810.8-2609. The accurate Chandra

  17. Recovery of the X-Ray Transient QX Nor (=X1608-52) in Outburst and Quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, S

    1997-01-01

    We present optical and near-IR observations of QX Nor, the counterpart to the recurrent soft X-ray transient X1608-52, after its reappearance following the X-ray outburst in February 1996. The object has been seen only once before, during an X-ray outburst in 1977. Data from 3-5 months after the outburst show the counterpart at a mean magnitude of R=20.2 and variable on timescales of days. A comparison with identical observations in 1995 implies that the object has brightened by at least 1.8 mag in R following the X-ray outburst. We also detected QX Nor in the IR in both quiescence and outburst. A faint source is visible in the J but not the R band in May 1995. These first observations in the quiescent state yield magnitudes and colors consistent with optical emission from a low mass companion in the binary system, as is true in other soft X-ray transients.

  18. ISS-Lobster: a low-cost wide-field x-ray transient detector on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, Scott; Petre, Rob; Gehrels, Neil; Marshall, Francis; Ptak, Andy; Racusin, Judith

    2015-05-01

    ISS-Lobster is a wide-field X-ray transient detector proposed to be deployed on the International Space Station. Through its unique imaging X-ray optics that allow a 30 deg by 30 deg FoV, a 1 arc min position resolution and a 1.6x10-11 erg/(sec cm2) sensitivity in 2000 sec, ISS-Lobster will observe numerous events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including: tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts, and perhaps most exciting, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave detections involving stellar mass and possibly supermassive black holes. The mission includes a 3-axis gimbal system that allows fast Target of Opportunity pointing, and a small gamma-ray burst monitor. In this article we focus on ISS-Lobster measurements of X-ray counterparts of detections by the world-wide ground-based gravitational wave network.

  19. Imaging ultrafast excited state pathways in transition metal complexes by X-ray transient absorption and scattering using X-ray free electron laser source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lin X.; Shelby, Megan L.; Lestrange, Patrick J.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Mara, Michael W.; Stickrath, Andrew B.; Zhu, Diling; Lemke, Henrik; Chollet, Matthieu; Hoffman, Brian M.; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    This report will describe our recent studies of transition metal complex structural dynamics on the fs and ps time scales using an X-ray free electron laser source, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Ultrafast XANES spectra at the Ni K-edge of nickel(II) tetramesitylporphyrin (NiTMP) were successfully measured for optically excited state at a timescale from 100 fs to 50 ps, providing insight into its sub-ps electronic and structural relaxation processes. Importantly, a transient reduced state Ni(I) (π, 3dx2-y2) electronic state is captured through the interpretation of a short-lived excited state absorption on the low-energy shoulder of the edge, which is aided by the computation of X-ray transitions for postulated excited electronic states. The observed and computed inner shell to valence orbital transition energies demonstrate and quantify the influence of electronic configuration on specific metal orbital energies. A strong influence of the valence orbital occupation on the inner shell orbital energies indicates that one should not use the transition energy from 1s to other orbitals to draw conclusions about the d-orbital energies. For photocatalysis, a transient electronic configuration could influence d-orbital energies up to a few eV and any attempt to steer the reaction pathway should account for this to ensure that external energies can be used optimally in driving desirable processes. NiTMP structural evolution and the influence of the porphyrin macrocycle conformation on relaxation kinetics can be likewise inferred from this study.

  20. Observations of X-ray transient source GS2023+338 with the TTM coded mask telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H. C.; in 't Zand, J. J. M.; Skinner, G. K.; Borozdin, K. N.; Gil'Fanov, M. R.; Siuniaev, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    TTM observations in which the bright X-ray transient source GS2023+338 (=V404 Cyg) in the period June-August 1989 are reported. The observed spectral structure can be modeled using a model of a power-law source with a photon index of about 1.5, surrounded by partially ionized material. The observed X-rays consist of a component from the power-law source and those reflected (down-scattered) by the partially ionized material. Varying the clumpy structure or changing the ionization state of the circumstellar matter will cause the low-energy absorption to fluctuate.

  1. XMM-Newton observations of the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1650-500 in quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Homan, J; Kong, A; Miller, J M; Rossi, S; Belloni, T; Lewin, W H G; Homan, Jeroen; Wijnands, Rudy; Kong, Albert; Miller, Jon M.; Rossi, Sabrina; Belloni, Tomaso; Lewin, Walter H.G.

    2006-01-01

    We report the result of an XMM-Newton observation of the black-hole X-ray transient XTE J1650-500 in quiescence. The source was not detected and we set upper limits on the 0.5-10 keV luminosity of 0.9e31-1.0e31 erg/s (for a newly derived distance of 2.6 kpc). These limits are in line with the quiescent luminosities of black-hole X-ray binaries with similar orbital periods (~7-8 hr)

  2. Accretion and ejection in black-hole X-ray transients

    CERN Document Server

    Kylafis, N D

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We summarize the current observational picture of the outbursts of black-hole X-ray transients (BHTs), based on the evolution traced in a hardness-luminosity diagram (HLD), and we offer a physical interpretation. Methods: The basic ingredient in our interpretation is the Poynting-Robertson Cosmic Battery (PRCB, Contopoulos & Kazanas 1998), which provides locally the poloidal magnetic field needed for the ejection of the jet. In addition, we make two assumptions, easily justifiable. The first is that the mass-accretion rate to the black hole in a BHT outburst has a generic bell-shaped form. This is guaranteed by the observational fact that all BHTs start their outburst and end it at the quiescent state. The second assumption is that at low accretion rates the accretion flow is geometrically thick, ADAF-like, while at high accretion rates it is geometrically thin. Results: Both, at the beginning and the end of an outburst, the PRCB establishes a strong poloidal magnetic field in the ADAF-like part of ...

  3. Flares from Galactic Centre pulsars: a new class of X-ray transients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannios, Dimitrios; Lorimer, Duncan R.

    2016-06-01

    Despite intensive searches, the only pulsar within 0.1 pc of the central black hole in our Galaxy, Sgr A*, is a radio-loud magnetar. Since magnetars are rare among the Galactic neutron star population, and a large number of massive stars are already known in this region, the Galactic Centre (GC) should harbour a large number of neutron stars. Population syntheses suggest several thousand neutron stars may be present in the GC. Many of these could be highly energetic millisecond pulsars which are also proposed to be responsible for the GC gamma-ray excess. We propose that the presence of a neutron star within 0.03 pc from Sgr A* can be revealed by the shock interactions with the disc around the central black hole. As we demonstrate, these interactions result in observable transient non-thermal X-ray and gamma-ray emission over time-scales of months, provided that the spin-down luminosity of the neutron star is Lsd ˜ 1035 erg s-1. Current limits on the population of normal and millisecond pulsars in the GC region suggest that a number of such pulsars are present with such luminosities.

  4. POLAR: A Space-borne X-Ray Polarimeter for Transient Sources

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2010-01-01

    POLAR is a novel compact Compton X-ray polarimeter designed to measure the linear polarization of the prompt emission of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) and other strong transient sources such as soft gamma repeaters and solar flares in the energy range 50-500 keV. A detailed measurement of the polarization from astrophysical sources will lead to a better understanding of the source geometry and emission mechanisms. POLAR is expected to observe every year several GRBs with a minimum detectable polarization smaller than 10%, thanks to its large modulation factor, effective area, and field of view. POLAR consists of 1600 low-Z plastic scintillator bars, divided in 25 independent modular units, each read out by one flat-panel multi-anode photomultiplier. The design of POLAR is reviewed, and results of tests of one modular unit of the engineering and qualification model (EQM) of POLAR with synchrotron radiation are presented. After construction and testing of the full EQM, we will start building the flight model in 2011, ...

  5. Flares from Galactic centre pulsars: a new class of X-ray transients?

    CERN Document Server

    Giannios, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Despite intensive searches, the only pulsar within 0.1 pc of the central black hole in our Galaxy, Sgr A*, is a radio-loud magnetar. Since magnetars are rare among the Galactic neutron star population, and a large number of massive stars are already known in this region, the Galactic centre (GC) should harbor a large number of neutron stars. Population syntheses suggest several thousand neutron stars may be present in the GC. Many of these could be highly energetic millisecond pulsars which are also proposed to be responsible for the GC gamma-ray excess. We propose that the presence of a neutron star within 0.03~pc from Sgr~A* can be revealed by the shock interactions with the disk around the central black hole. As we demonstrate, these interactions result in observable transient non-thermal X-ray and gamma-ray emission over timescales of months, provided that the spin down luminosity of the neutron star is L_{sd}~10^{35} erg/s. Current limits on the population of normal and millisecond pulsars in the GC regi...

  6. The Magnetar Nature and the Outburst Mechanism of a Transient Anomalous X-ray Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guver, Tolga; Ozel, Feryal; Gogus, Ersin; Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) belong to a class of neutron stars believed to harbor the strongest magnetic fields in the universe, as indicated by their energetic bursts and their rapid spindowns. However, a direct measurement of their surface field strengths has not been made to date. It is also not known whether AXP outbursts result from changes in the neutron star magnetic field or crust properties. Here we report the first, spectroscopic measurement of the surface magnetic field strength of an AXP, XTE J1810-197, and solidify its magnetar nature. The field strength obtained from detailed spectral analysis and modeling is remarkably close to the value inferred from the rate of spindown of this source and remains nearly constant during numerous observations spanning over two orders of magnitude in source flux. The surface temperature, on the other hand, declines steadily and dramatically following the 2003 outburst of this source. Our findings demonstrate that heating occurs in the upper neutron star crust during an outburst and sheds light on the transient behaviour of AXPs.

  7. Detailed Physical Modeling Reveals the Magnetar Nature of a Transient Anomalous X-ray Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guever, T.; Oezel, F.; Goegues, E.; Kouveliotou, C.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) belong to a class of neutron stars believed to harbor the strongest magnetic fields in the universe, as indicated by their energetic bursts and their rapid spindowns. However, a direct measurement of their surface field strengths has not been made to date. It is also not known whether AXP outbursts result from changes in the neutron star magnetic field or crust properties. Here we report the first, spectroscopic measurement of the surface magnetic field strength of an AXP, XTE J1810-197, and solidify its magnetar nature. The field strength obtained from detailed spectral analysis and modeling is remarkably close to the value inferred from the rate of spindown of this source and remains nearly constant during numerous observations spanning over two orders of magnitude in source flux. The surface temperature, on the other hand, declines steadily and dramatically following the 2003 outburst of this source. Our findings demonstrate that heating occurs in the upper neutron star crust during an outburst and sheds light on the transient behaviour of AXPs.

  8. The Historical X-ray Transient KY TrA in quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Zurita, C; Casares, J

    2015-01-01

    We present deep optical images of the historical X-ray Transient KY TrA in quiescence from which we confirm the identification of the counterpart reported by Murdin (1977) and derive an improved position of alpha=15:28:16.97 and delta=-61:52:57.8. In 2007 June we obtained I, R and V images, where the counterpart seems to be double indicating the presence of an interloper at ~1.4 arcsec NW. After separating the contribution of KY TrA we calculate I=21.47+-0.09, R=22.3+-0.1 and V=23.6+-0.1. Similar brightness in the I band was measured in May 2004 and June 2010. Variability was analyzed from series of images taken in 2004, spanning 0.6 h, and in two blocks of 6 h during 2007. We find that the target is not variable in any dataset above the error levels ~0.07 mags. The presence of the interloper might explain the non-detection of the classic ellipsoidal modulation; our data indicates that it contributes around half of the total flux, which would make a variation <0.15 mags not detectable. A single spectrum ob...

  9. Assessment of transient effects on the x-ray spectroscopy of implosion cores at OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florido, R.; Mancini, R. C.

    2015-11-01

    An assessment of transient effects on the atomic kinetics of argon tracers in inertial confinement fusion implosion cores is carried out. The focus is on typical electron temperature and density conditions achieved in high- and low-adiabat, and shock-ignition implosion experiments performed at the OMEGA laser facility (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, USA). The results show that no significant time-dependent effects are present through the deceleration and burning phases of the implosion, and thus justify the use of steady-state atomic kinetics models in the spectroscopic analysis of sets of time-resolved x-ray spectra recorded with streaked or gated spectrometers. Modeling calculations suggest an onset for time-dependent effects to become important at electron densities ≲1022 cm-3. A physical interpretation of these results is given based on the atomic kinetics timescales extracted from the eigenvalue spectrum of the collisional-radiative rate matrix. This study is also relevant for past implosion experiments performed at the GEKKO XII laser (Institute of Laser Engineering, Japan), as well as those currently being performed at the National Ignition Facility (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA).

  10. Optical and near-infrared photometric monitoring of the transient X-ray binary A0538-66 with REM

    CERN Document Server

    Ducci, L; Doroshenko, V; Mereghetti, S; Santangelo, A; Sasaki, M

    2016-01-01

    The transient Be/X-ray binary A0538-66 shows peculiar X-ray and optical variability. Despite numerous studies, the intrinsic properties underlying its anomalous behaviour remain poorly understood. Since 2014 September we are conducting the first quasi-simultaneous optical and near-infrared photometric monitoring of A0538-66 in seven filters with the Rapid Eye Mount (REM) telescope, aiming to understand the properties of this binary system. We found that the REM lightcurves show fast flares lasting one or two days that repeat almost regularly every ~16.6 days, the orbital period of the neutron star. If the optical flares are powered by X-ray outbursts through photon reprocessing, the REM lightcurves indicate that A0538-66 is still active in X-rays: bright X-ray flares (L_x > 1E37 erg/s) could be observable during the periastron passages. The REM lightcurves show a long-term variability that is especially pronounced in the g band and decreases with increasing wavelength, until it no longer appears in the near-i...

  11. The XMM Newton and INTEGRAL observations of the supergiant fast X-ray transient IGR J16328-4726

    CERN Document Server

    Fiocchi, M; Natalucci, L; Ubertini, P; Sguera, V; Bird, A J; Boon, C M; Persi, P; Piro, L

    2016-01-01

    The accretion mechanism producing the short flares observed from the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT) is still highly debated and forms a major part in our attempts to place these X-ray binaries in the wider context of the High Mass X-ray Binaries. We report on a 216 ks INTEGRAL observation of the SFXT IGR J16328-4726 (August 24-27, 2014) simultaneous with two fixed-time observations with XMM Newton (33ks and 20ks) performed around the putative periastron passage, in order to investigate the accretion regime and the wind properties during this orbital phase. During these observations, the source has shown luminosity variations, from 4x10^{34} erg/s to 10^{36} erg/s, linked to spectral properties changes. The soft X-ray continuum is well modeled by a power law with a photon index varying from 1.2 up to 1.7 and with high values of the column density in the range 2-4x10^{23}/cm^2. We report on the presence of iron lines at 6.8-7.1 keV suggesting that the X-ray flux is produced by accretion of matter from ...

  12. Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and BeppoSAX Observations of the Transient X-Ray Pulsar XTE J1859+083

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, R. H. D.; in't Zand, J. J. M.; Levine, A. M.; Marshall, F. E.

    2009-04-01

    We present observations of the 9.8 s X-ray pulsar XTE J1859+083 made with the All Sky Monitor (ASM) and Proportional Counter Array (PCA) on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, and the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on board BeppoSAX. The ASM data cover a 12 year time interval and show that an extended outburst occurred between approximately MJD 50,250 and 50,460 (1996 June 16 to 1997 January 12). The ASM data excluding this outburst interval suggest a possible modulation with a period of 60.65 ± 0.08 days. Eighteen sets of PCA observations were obtained over an approximately one month interval in 1999. The flux variability measured with the PCA appears consistent with the possible period found with the ASM. The PCA measurements of the pulse period showed it to decrease nonmonotonically and then to increase significantly. Doppler shifts due to orbital motion rather than accretion torques appear to be better able to explain the pulse period changes. Observations with the WFC during the extended outburst give a position that is consistent with a previously determined PCA error box, but which has a significantly smaller error. The transient nature of XTE J1859+083 and the length of its pulse period are consistent with it being a Be/neutron star binary. The possible 60.65 day orbital period would be of the expected length for a Be star system with a 9.8 s pulse period.

  13. Discovery of a 0.02 Hz QPO feature in the Transient X-ray Pulsar KS 1947+300

    CERN Document Server

    James, Marykutty; Devasia, Jincy; Indulekha, Kavila

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of Quasi Periodic Oscillations (QPO) at 0.02 Hz in a transient high mass X-ray binary pulsar KS 1947+300 using {\\em RXTE}-PCA. The QPOs were detected during May-June 2001, at the end of a long outburst. This is the 9th transient accretion powered high magnetic field X-ray pulsar in which QPOs have been detected and the QPO frequency of this source is lowest in this class of sources. The unusual feature of this source is that though the outburst lasted for more than 100 days, the QPOs were detected only during the last few days of the outburst when the X-ray intensity had decayed to 1.6% of the peak intensity. The rms value of the QPO is large, $\\sim15.4\\pm1.0%$ with a slight positive correlation with energy. The detection of QPOs and strong pulsations at a low luminosity level suggests that the magnetic field strength of the neutron star is not as high as was predicted earlier on the basis of a correlation between the spin-up torque and the X-ray luminosity.

  14. The Historical X-ray Transient KY TrA in quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, C.; Corral-Santana, J. M.; Casares, J.

    2015-12-01

    We present deep optical images of the historical X-ray Transient KY TrA in quiescence from which we confirm the identification of the counterpart reported by Murdin et al. and derive an improved position of α = 15:28:16.97 and δ = -61:52:57.8. In 2007 June we obtained I, R and V images, where the counterpart seems to be double indicating the presence of an interloper at ˜1.4 arcsec NW. After separating the contribution of KY TrA we calculate I = 21.47 ± 0.09, R = 22.3 ± 0.1 and V = 23.6 ± 0.1. Similar brightness in the I-band was measured in 2004 May and 2010 June. Variability was analysed from series of images taken in 2004, spanning 0.6 h, and in two blocks of 6 h during 2007. We find that the target is not variable in any data set above the error levels ˜0.07 mags. The presence of the interloper might explain the non-detection of the classic ellipsoidal modulation; our data indicates that it contributes around half of the total flux, which would make a variation donor star of K2 = 630 ± 74 km s-1. Based on the outburst amplitude and colours of the optical counterpart in quiescence we derive a crude estimate of the orbital period of 8 h and an upper limit of 15 h which would lead to mass function estimates of ≈9 M⊙ and <16 M⊙, respectively.

  15. Structural Basis of X-ray-Induced Transient Photo-bleaching in a Photoactivatable Green Fluorescent Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, V. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Carpentier, Ph.; Lelimousin, M.; Darnault, C.; Bourgeois, D. [IBS, Institut de Biologie Structurale Jean-Pierre Ebel, CEA, CNRS, UniVersite Joseph Fourier, 41 rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble (France); Violot, S. [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Vegetale, Institut de Recherches en Technologie et Sciences pour le ViVant, CEA, CNRS, INRA, UniVersite Joseph Fourier, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Nienhaus, U. [Institute of Applied Physics and Center for Functional nano-structures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Nienhaus, U. [Department of Physics, UniVersity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (US)

    2009-07-01

    We have observed the photoactivatable fluorescent protein IrisFP in a transient dark state with near-atomic resolution. This dark state is assigned to a radical species that either relaxes to the ground state or evolves into a permanently bleached chromophore. We took advantage of X-rays to populate the radical, which presumably forms under illumination with visible light by an electron-transfer reaction in the triplet state. The combined X-ray diffraction and in crystallo UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, and Raman data reveal that radical formation in IrisFP involves pronounced but reversible distortion of the chromophore, suggesting a transient loss of {pi} conjugation. These results reveal that the methylene bridge of the chromophore is the Achilles' heel of fluorescent proteins and help unravel the mechanisms of blinking and photo-bleaching in FPs, which are of importance in the rational design of photo-stable variants. and is also partly reversible. (authors)

  16. Can a variable alpha induce limit cycle behavior and exponential luminosity decay in transient soft x ray sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirellesfilho, C.; Liang, Edison P.

    1994-01-01

    There has been, recently, a revival of the stability problem of accretion disks. Much of this renewed interest is due to recent observational data on transient soft X-ray novae, which are low-mass X-ray binaries. It is widely believed that nonsteady mass transfer from the secondary onto the compact primary, through an accretion disk, is the reason for the observed spectacular events in the form of often repetitive outbursts, with recurrence times ranging from 1 to 60 yr and duration time on the scale of months. Though not having reached yet a consensus about the nature of the mechanism that regulates the mass transfer, the disk thermal instability model seems to be favored by the fact that the rise in the hard X-ray luminosity is prior to the rise in the soft X-ray luminosity, while the mass transfer instability model seems to be hindered by the fact that the luminosity during quiescence is unable to trigger the thermal instability. However, it should be stressed that, remarkably, the X-ray light curves of these X-ray novae all show overall exponential decays, a feature quite difficult to reproduce in the framework of the viscous disk model, which yields powerlike luminosity decay. Taking into account this observational constraint, we have studied the temporal evolution of perturbations in the accretion rate, under the assumption that alpha is radial and parameter dependent. The chosen dependence is such that the model can reproduce limit cycle behavior (the system is locally unstable but globally stable). However, the kind of dependence we are looking for in alpha does not allow us to use the usual Shakura and Sunyaev procedure in the sense that we no longer can obtain a linearized continuity equation without explicit dependence on the accretion rate. This is so because now we cannot eliminate the accretion rate by using the angular momentum conservation equation.

  17. Spectral Evolution of a New X-Ray Transient MAXI J0556-332 Observed by MAXI, Swift, and RXTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Matsuoka, Masaru; Kennea, Jamie A.; Mihara, Tatehiro; Hiroi, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Masaki; Isobe, Naoki; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Masashi; Kitayama, Hiroki; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Matsumura, Takanori; Morii, Mikio; Nakagawa, Yujin E.; Nakahira, Satoshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Negoro, Hitoshi; Serino, Motoko; Shidatsu, Megumi; Sootome, Tetsuya; Sugimori, Kousuke; Suwa, Fumitoshi; Toizumi, Takahiro; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yoko; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Shiro; Usui, Ryuichi; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamazaki, Kyohei; Yoshida, Atsumasa

    2013-06-01

    We report on the spectral evolution of a new X-ray transient, MAXI J0556- 332, observed by MAXI, Swift, and RXTE. The source was discovered on 2011 January 11 (MJD = 55572) by the MAXI Gas Slit Camera all-sky survey at (l, b) = (238.° 9, - 25.° 2), relatively away from the Galactic plane. Swift/XRT follow-up observations identified it with a previously uncatalogued bright X-ray source, which led to optical identification. For more than one year since its appearance, MAXI J0556-332 has been X-ray active, with a 2-10 keV intensity above 30 mCrab. The MAXI/GSC data revealed rapid X-ray brightening in the first five days, and a hard-to-soft transition in the meantime. For the following ˜70 days, the 0.5-30 keV spectra, obtained by the Swift/XRT and the RXTE/PCA on an almost daily basis, show a gradual hardening, with large flux variability. These spectra are approximated by a cutoff power-law with a photon index of 0.4-1 and a high-energy exponential cutoff at 1.5-5 keV, throughout the initial 10 months where the spectral evolution is mainly represented by a change of the cutoff energy. To be more physical, the spectra are consistently explained by thermal emission from an accretion disk plus Comptonized emission from a boundary layer around a neutron star. This supports the source identification as being a neutron-star X-ray binary. The obtained spectral parameters agree with those of neutron-star X-ray binaries in the soft state, whose luminosity is higher than 1.8 × 1037 erg s-1. This suggests a source distance of >17 kpc.

  18. Detection of X-ray spectral state transitions in mini-outbursts of black hole transient GRS 1739-278

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhen; Yu, Wenfei

    2017-10-01

    We report the detection of the state transitions and hysteresis effect in the two mini-outbursts of the black hole (BH) transient GRS 1739-278 following its 2014 major outburst. The X-ray spectral evolutions in these two mini-outbursts are similar to the major outburst in spite of their peak luminosities and the outburst durations are one order of magnitude lower. We found L_hard{-to-soft} and Lpeak,soft of the mini-outbursts also follow the correlation previously found in other X-ray binaries. L_hard{-to-soft} of the mini-outbursts is still higher than that of the persistent BH binary Cyg X-1, which supports that there is a link between the maximum luminosity a source can reach in the hard state and the corresponding non-stationary accretion represented by substantial rate of change in the mass accretion rate during flares/outbursts. The detected luminosity range of these two mini-outbursts is roughly in 3.5 × 10-5 to 0.015 (D/7.5 kpc)2(M/8M⊙) LEdd. The X-ray spectra of other BH transients at such low luminosities are usually dominated by a power-law component, and an anti-correlation is observed between the photon index and the X-ray luminosity below 1 per cent LEdd. So, the detection of X-ray spectral state transitions indicates that the accretion flow evolution in these two mini-outbursts of GRS 1739-278 are different from other BH systems at such low-luminosity regime.

  19. Transient Low-Mass X-Ray Binary Populations in Elliptical Galaxies NGC 3379 and NGC 4278

    CERN Document Server

    Fragos, T; Willems, B; Belczynski, K; Fabbiano, G; Brassington, N J; Kim, D -W; Angelini, L; Davies, R L; Gallagher, J S; King, A R; Pellegrini, S; Trinchieri, G; Zepf, S E; Zezas, A

    2009-01-01

    We propose a physically motivated and self-consistent prescription for the modeling of transient neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) properties, such as duty cycle (DC), outburst duration and recurrence time. We apply this prescription to the population synthesis (PS) models of field LMXBs presented by Fragos et al. (2008), and compare the transient LMXB population to the Chandra X-ray survey of the two elliptical galaxies NGC 3379 and NGC 4278, which revealed several transient sources (Brassington et al., 2008, 2009). We are able to exclude models with a constant DC for all transient systems, while models with a variable DC based on the properties of each system are consistent with the observed transient populations. We predict that the majority of the observed transient sources in these two galaxies are LMXBs with red giant donors. Our comparison suggests that LMXBs formed through evolution of primordial field binaries are dominant in globular cluster (GC) poor elliptical galaxies, while they sti...

  20. INTEGRAL Long-Term Monitoring of the Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transient XTE J1739-302

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, P.; Martinez-Nunez, S.; Negueruela, I.; Pottschmidt, K.; Smith, D. M.; Torrejon, J. M.; Reig, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Kreykenbohm, I.

    2008-01-01

    Context. In the past few years, a new class of High Mass X-Ray Binaries (HMXRB) has been claimed to exist, the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT). These are X-ray binary systems with a compact companion orbiting a supergiant star which show very short and bright outbursts in a series of activity periods overimposed on longer quiescent periods. Only very recently the first attempts to model the behaviour of these sources have been published, some of them within the framework of accretion from clumpy stellar winds. Aims. Our goal is to analyze the properties of XTE J1739-302/IGR J17391-3021 within the context of the clumpy structure of the supergiant wind. Methods. We have used INTEGRAL and RXTE/PCA observations in order to obtain broad band (1 - 200 keV) spectra and light curves of XTE J1739-302 and investigate its X-ray spectrum and temporal variability. Results. We have found that XTE J1739-302 follows a much more complex behaviour than expected. Far from presenting a regular variability pattern, XTE J1739-302 shows periods of high, intermediate, and low flaring activity.

  1. Spectral Evolution of a New X-ray Transient MAXI J0556-332 Observed by MAXI, Swift, and RXTE

    CERN Document Server

    Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Kennea, Jamie A; Mihara, Tatehiro; Hiroi, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Masaki; Isobe, Naoki; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Masashi; Kitayama, Hiroki; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Matsumura, Takanori; Morii, Mikio; Nakagawa, Yujin E; Nakahira, Satoshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Negoro, Hitoshi; Serino, Motoko; Shidatsu, Megumi; Sootome, Tetsuya; Sugimori, Kousuke; Suwa, Fumitoshi; Toizumi, Takahiro; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yoko; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Shiro; Usui, Ryuichi; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamazaki, Kyohei; Yoshida, Atsumasa

    2013-01-01

    We report on the spectral evolution of a new X-ray transient, MAXI J0556-332, observed by MAXI, Swift, and RXTE. The source was discovered on 2011 January 11 (MJD=55572) by MAXI Gas Slit Camera all-sky survey at (l,b)=(238.9deg, -25.2deg), relatively away from the Galactic plane. Swift/XRT follow-up observations identified it with a previously uncatalogued bright X-ray source and led to optical identification. For more than one year since its appearance, MAXI J0556-332 has been X-ray active, with a 2-10 keV intensity above 30 mCrab. The MAXI/GSC data revealed rapid X-ray brightening in the first five days, and a hard-to-soft transition in the meantime. For the following ~ 70 days, the 0.5-30 keV spectra, obtained by the Swift/XRT and the RXTE/PCA on an almost daily basis, show a gradual hardening, with large flux variability. These spectra are approximated by a cutoff power-law with a photon index of 0.4-1 and a high-energy exponential cutoff at 1.5-5 keV, throughout the initial 10 months where the spectral e...

  2. Modelling the effect of absorption from the interstellar medium on transient black hole X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckersall, A. J.; Vaughan, S.; Wynn, G. A.

    2017-10-01

    All observations of Galactic X-ray binaries are affected by absorption from gas and dust in the interstellar medium (ISM) which imprints narrow (line) and broad (photoelectric edges) features on the continuum emission spectrum of the binary. Any spectral model used to fit data from a Galactic X-ray binary must therefore take account of these features; when the absorption is strong (as for most Galactic sources) it becomes important to accurately model the ISM absorption in order to obtain unbiased estimates of the parameters of the (emission) spectrum of the binary system. In this paper, we present analysis of some of the best spectroscopic data from the XMM-Newton RGS instrument using the most up-to-date photoabsorption model of the gaseous ISM ISMabs. We calculate column densities for H, O, Ne and Fe for seven transient black hole X-ray binary systems. We find that the hydrogen column densities in particular can vary greatly from those presented elsewhere in the literature. We assess the impact of using inaccurate column densities and older X-ray absorption models on spectral analysis using simulated data. We find that poor treatment of absorption can lead to large biases in inferred disc properties and that an independent analysis of absorption parameters can be used to alleviate such issues.

  3. INTEGRAL Long-Term Monitoring of the Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transient XTE J1739-302

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, P.; Martinez-Nunez, S.; Negueruela, I.; Pottschmidt, K.; Smith, D. M.; Torrejon, J. M.; Reig, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Kreykenbohm, I.

    2008-01-01

    Context. In the past few years, a new class of High Mass X-Ray Binaries (HMXRB) has been claimed to exist, the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT). These are X-ray binary systems with a compact companion orbiting a supergiant star which show very short and bright outbursts in a series of activity periods overimposed on longer quiescent periods. Only very recently the first attempts to model the behaviour of these sources have been published, some of them within the framework of accretion from clumpy stellar winds. Aims. Our goal is to analyze the properties of XTE J1739-302/IGR J17391-3021 within the context of the clumpy structure of the supergiant wind. Methods. We have used INTEGRAL and RXTE/PCA observations in order to obtain broad band (1 - 200 keV) spectra and light curves of XTE J1739-302 and investigate its X-ray spectrum and temporal variability. Results. We have found that XTE J1739-302 follows a much more complex behaviour than expected. Far from presenting a regular variability pattern, XTE J1739-302 shows periods of high, intermediate, and low flaring activity.

  4. The XMM-Newton view of Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients: the case of IGRJ16418-4532

    CERN Document Server

    Sidoli, L; Sguera, V; Pizzolato, F

    2011-01-01

    We report on a 40 ks long, uninterrupted X-ray observation of the candidate supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGRJ16418-4532 performed with XMM-Newton on February 23, 2011. This high mass X-ray binary lies in the direction of the Norma arm, at an estimated distance of 13 kpc. During the observation, the source showed strong variability exceeding two orders of magnitudes, never observed before from this source. Its X-ray flux varied in the range from 0.1 counts/s to about 15 counts/s, with several bright flares of different durations (from a few hundreds to a few thousands seconds) and sometimes with a quasi-periodic behavior. This finding supports the previous suggestion that IGRJ16418-4532 is a member of the SFXTs class. In our new observation we measured a pulse period of 1212+/-6 s, thus confirming that this binary contains a slowly rotating neutron star. During the periods of low luminosity the source spectrum is softer and more absorbed than during the flares. A soft excess is present below 2 keV in...

  5. Accretion and ejection in black-hole X-ray transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylafis, N. D.; Belloni, T. M.

    2015-02-01

    Context. A rich phenomenology has been accumulated over the years regarding accretion and ejection in black-hole X-ray transients (BHTs) and it needs an interpretation. Aims: Here we summarize the current observational picture of the outbursts of BHTs, based on the evolution traced in a hardness-luminosity diagram (HLD), and we offer a physical interpretation. Methods: The basic ingredient in our interpretation is the Poynting-Robertson cosmic battery (PRCB), which provides locally the poloidal magnetic field needed for the ejection of the jet. In addition, we make two assumptions, easily justifiable. The first is that the mass-accretion rate to the black hole in a BHT outburst has a generic bell-shaped form, whose characteristic time scale is much longer than the dynamical or the cooling ones. This is guaranteed by the observational fact that all BHTs start their outburst and end it at the quiescent state, i.e., at very low accretion rate, and that state transitions take place over long time scales (hours to days). The second assumption is that at low accretion rates the accretion flow is geometrically thick, ADAF-like, while at high accretion rates it is geometrically thin. Last, but not least, we demonstrate that the previous history of the system is absolutely necessary for the interpretation of the HLD. Results: Both, at the beginning and the end of an outburst, the PRCB establishes a strong poloidal magnetic field in the ADAF-like part of the accretion flow, and this explains naturally why a jet is always present in the right part of the HLD. In the left part of the HLD, the accretion flow is in the form of a thin disk, and such a disk cannot sustain a strong poloidal magnetic filed. Thus, no jet is expected in this part of the HLD. Finally, the counterclockwise traversal of the HLD is explained as follows: all outbursts start from the quiescent state, in which the inner part of the accretion flow is ADAF-like, threaded by a poloidal magnetic field. As the

  6. A strong and broad Fe line in the XMM-Newton spectrum of the new X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTE J1652-453

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Beike; Méndez, Mariano; Done, Chris; Díaz Trigo, María; Altamirano, Diego; Casella, Piergiorgio

    2011-01-01

    We observed the new X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTE J1652-453 simultaneously with XMM-Newton and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The observation was done during the decay of the 2009 outburst, when XTE J1652-453 was in the hard-intermediate state. The spectrum shows a strong and

  7. A strong and broad Fe line in the XMM-Newton spectrum of the new X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTEJ1652-453

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Beike; Méndez, Mariano; Done, Chris; Díaz Trigo, María; Altamirano, Diego; Casella, Piergiorgio

    2011-01-01

    We observed the new X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTEJ1652-453 simultaneously with XMM-Newton and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The observation was done during the decay of the 2009 outburst, when XTEJ1652-453 was in the hard-intermediate state. The spectrum shows a strong and b

  8. ULTRACAM observations of the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1118+480 in quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Shahbaz, T; Marsh, T R; Casares, J; Zurita, C; Charles, P A; Haswell, C A; Hynes, R I

    2005-01-01

    We present high time-resolution multicolour observations of the quiescent soft X-ray transient XTE J1118+480 obtained with ULTRACAM. Superimposed on the double-humped continuum g' and i'-band lightcurves are rapid flare events which typically last a few minutes. The power density spectrum of the lightcurves can be described by a broken power-law model with a break frequency at ~2 mHz or a power-law model plus a broad quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) at ~2 mHz. In the context of the cellular-automaton we estimate the size of the quiescent advection-dominated flow (ADAF) region to be ~10^4 Schwarzschild radii, similar to that observed in other quiescent black hole X-ray transients, suggesting the same underlying physics. The similarites between the low/hard and quiescent state PDS suggest a similar origin for the optical and X-ray variability, most likely from regions at/near the ADAF.

  9. NuSTAR J163433-473841: A Fast X-ray Transient in the Galactic Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Tomsick, John A; Rahoui, Farid; Assef, Roberto J; Bauer, Franz E; Bodaghee, Arash; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Fornasini, Francesca M; Grindlay, Jonathan; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona A; Krivonos, Roman; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W

    2014-01-01

    During hard X-ray observations of the Norma spiral arm region by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in 2013 February, a new transient source, NuSTAR J163433-473841, was detected at a significance level of 8-sigma in the 3-10 keV bandpass. The source is consistent with having a constant NuSTAR count rate over a period of 40 ks and is also detected simultaneously by Swift at lower significance. The source is not significantly detected by NuSTAR, Swift, or Chandra in the days before or weeks after the discovery of the transient, indicating that the strong X-ray activity lasted for between ~0.5 and 1.5 days. Near-IR imaging observations were carried out before and after the X-ray activity, but we are not able to identify the counterpart. The combined NuSTAR and Swift energy spectrum is consistent with a power-law with a photon index of Gamma = 4.1(+1.5)(-1.0) (90% confidence errors), a blackbody with kT = 1.2+/-0.3 keV, or a bremsstrahlung model with kT = 3.0(+2.1)(-1.2) keV. The reduced-chi2 valu...

  10. Discovery of a Second Transient Low-Mass X-ray Binary in the Globular Cluster NGC 6440

    CERN Document Server

    Heinke, C O; Cohn, H N; Lugger, P M; Budac, S A; Servillat, M; Linares, M; Strohmayer, T E; Markwardt, C B; Wijnands, R; Swank, J H; Knigge, C; Bailyn, C; Grindlay, J E

    2009-01-01

    We have identified a new transient luminous low-mass X-ray binary, NGC 6440 X-2, with Chandra/ACIS, RXTE/PCA, and Swift/XRT observations of the globular cluster NGC 6440. The discovery outburst (July 28-31, 2009) peaked at L_X~1.5*10^36 ergs/s, and lasted for 21, B>22 in quiescence from archival HST imaging, g'>22 during the third outburst from Gemini-South GMOS imaging, and J>~18.5$ and K>~17 during the second outburst from CTIO 4-m ISPI imaging. Archival Chandra X-ray images of the core do not detect the quiescent counterpart, and place a bolometric luminosity limit of L_{NS}< 5.6*10^31 ergs/s (one of the lowest measured) for a hydrogen atmosphere neutron star. A followup Chandra observation finds marginal evidence of enhanced quiescent emission at L_X (0.5-10 keV)~6*10^31 ergs/s 10 days into quiescence. NGC 6440 X-2 currently shows the shortest recurrence time (32 days) of any known X-ray transient, although regular outbursts were not visible in the bulge scans before early 2009. Fast, low-luminosity tr...

  11. Chandra observation of the fast X-ray transient IGR J17544-2619: evidence for a neutron star?

    CERN Document Server

    in 't Zand, J J M

    2005-01-01

    IGR J17544-2619 belongs to a distinct group of at least seven fast X-ray transients that cannot readily be associated with nearby flare stars or pre-main sequence stars and most probably are X-ray binaries with wind accretion. Sofar, the nature of the accretor has been determined in only one case (SAX J1819.3-2525/V4641 Sgr). We carried out a 20 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of IGR J17544-2619 which shows the source in quiescence going into outburst. The Chandra position confirms the previous tentative identification of the optical counterpart, a blue O9Ib supergiant at 3 to 4 kpc (Pellizza, Chaty & Negueruela, in prep.). This is the first detection of a fast X-ray transient in quiescence. The quiescent spectrum is very soft. The photon index of 5.9+/-1.2 (90% confidence error margin) is much softer than 6 quiescent black hole candidates that were observed with Chandra ACIS-S (Kong et al. 2002; Tomsick et al. 2003). Assuming that a significant fraction of the quiescent photons comes from the accretor and ...

  12. A Chandra observation of the neutron star X-ray transient and eclipsing binary MXB 1659-29 in quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, R; Miller, J M; Homan, J; Wachter, S; Lewin, W H G; Wijnands, Rudy; Nowak, Mike; Miller, Jon M.; Homan, Jeroen; Wachter, Stefanie; Lewin, Walter H. G.

    2003-01-01

    After almost 2.5 years of actively accreting, the neutron star X-ray transient and eclipsing binary MXB 1659-29 returned to quiescence in 2001 September. We report on a Chandra observation of this source taken a little over a month after this transition. The source was detected at an unabsorbed 0.5-10 keV flux of only (2.7 - 3.6) x 10^{-13} erg cm^-2 s^-1, which implies a 0.5-10 keV X-ray luminosity of approximately (3.2 - 4.3) x 10^{33} (d/10 kpc)^2 erg s^-1, with d is the distance to the source in kpc. Its spectrum had a thermal shape and could be well fitted by either a blackbody with a temperature kT of ~0.3 keV or with a neutron star atmosphere model with a kT of ~0.1 keV. The luminosity and spectral shape of MXB 1659-29 are very similar to those observed of the other neutron star X-ray transients when they are in their quiescent state. The source was variable during our observation, exhibiting a complete eclipse of the inner part of the system by the companion star. Dipping behavior was observed before ...

  13. An overview of the EXTraS project: Exploring the X-ray Transient and Variable Sky

    CERN Document Server

    De Luca, A; Tiengo, A; D'Agostino, D; Watson, M G; Haberl, F; Wilms, J

    2015-01-01

    The EXTraS project (Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky) will harvest the hitherto unexplored temporal domain information buried in the serendipitous data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument onboard the ESA XMM-Newton X-ray observatory since its launch. This will include a search for fast transients, as well as a search and characterization of variability (both periodic and aperiodic) in hundreds of thousands of sources spanning more than nine orders of magnitude in time scale and six orders of magnitude in flux. X-ray results will be complemented by multiwavelength characterization of new discoveries. Phenomenological classification of variable sources will also be performed. All our results will be made available to the community. A didactic program in selected High Schools in Italy, Germany and the UK will also be implemented. The EXTraS project (2014-2016), funded within the EU/FP7 framework, is carried out by a collaboration including INAF (Italy), IUSS (Italy), C...

  14. Discovery of Pulsed X-ray Emission from the SMC Transient RX J0117.6-7330

    CERN Document Server

    Macomb, D J; Harmon, B A; Lamb, R C; Prince, T A

    1999-01-01

    We report on the detection of pulsed, broad-band, X-ray emission from the transient source RX J0117.6-7330. The pulse period of 22 seconds is detected by the ROSAT/PSPC instrument in a 1992 Sep 30 - Oct 2 observation and by the CGRO/BATSE instrument during the same epoch. Hard X-ray pulsations are detectable by BATSE for approximately 100 days surrounding the ROSAT observation (1992 Aug 28 - Dec 8). The total directly measured X-ray luminosity during the ROSAT observation is 1.0E38 (d/60 kpc)^2 ergs s-1. The pulse frequency increases rapidly during the outburst, with a peak spin-up rate of 1.2E-10 Hz s-1 and a total frequency change 1.8%. The pulsed percentage is 11.3% from 0.1-2.5 keV, increasing to at least 78% in the 20-70 keV band. These results establish RX J0117.6-7330 as a transient Be binary system.

  15. Optical and near-infrared photometric monitoring of the transient X-ray binary A0538-66 with REM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, L.; Covino, S.; Doroshenko, V.; Mereghetti, S.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.

    2016-11-01

    The transient Be/X-ray binary A0538-66 shows peculiar X-ray and optical variability. Despite numerous studies, the intrinsic properties underlying its anomalous behaviour remain poorly understood. Since September 2014 we have conducted the first quasi-simultaneous, optical and near-infrared photometric monitoring of A0538-66 in seven filters with the Rapid Eye Mount (REM) telescope to understand the properties of this binary system. We found that the REM light curves show fast flares lasting one or two days that repeat almost regularly every 16.6 d, which is the orbital period of the neutron star. If the optical flares are powered by X-ray outbursts through photon reprocessing, the REM light curves indicate that A0538-66 is still active in X-rays; bright X-ray flares (Lx ≳ 1037 erg s-1) could be observable during the periastron passages. The REM light curves show a long-term variability that is especially pronounced in the g-band and decreases with increasing wavelength until it no longer appears in the near-infrared light curves. In addition, A0538-66 is fainter with respect to previous optical observations, and this is likely because of the higher absorption of the stellar radiation of a denser circumstellar disc. On the basis of the current models, we interpret these observational results with a circumstellar disc around the Be star observed nearly edge-on during a partial depletion phase. The REM light curves also show short-term variability on timescales of 1 day, which is possibly indicative of perturbations in the density distribution of the circumstellar disc caused by the tidal interaction with the neutron star.

  16. X-Ray Transient in Musca (GRS 1121-68 = GS 1124-683)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels; Brandt, Søren; Makino, F.

    1991-01-01

    Research Institute, Lyngby; and Space Research Institute, Moscow), report: "A new x-ray source in Musca, GRS 1121-68, has been discovered in data obtained by the WATCH detectors on Jan. 9. The spectrum of the source was harder than that of the Crab nebula, and the flux was about twice that from...

  17. IGR J18284-0345: a new hard X-ray transient detected by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, T.; Beckmann, V.; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    in the X-rays at this position previous to this finding within the error circle of 4 arcmin. Analysis of 4.8 Msec of IBIS/ISGRI data on the source position gives a marginal detection of 3.9 sigma, indicating strong source variability. Swift has performed a follow-up observation of the source, starting...

  18. Time-Dependent Electron Acceleration in Blazar Transients: X-Ray Time Lags and Spectral Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Tiffany R; Finke, Justin D

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation from blazar jets often displays strong variability, extending from radio to $\\gamma$-ray frequencies. In a few cases, this variability has been characterized using Fourier time lags, such as those detected in the X-rays from Mrk~421 using BeppoSAX. The lack of a theoretical framework to interpret the data has motivated us to develop a new model for the formation of the X-ray spectrum and the time lags in blazar jets based on a transport equation including terms describing stochastic Fermi acceleration, synchrotron losses, shock acceleration, adiabatic expansion, and spatial diffusion. We derive the exact solution for the Fourier transform of the electron distribution, and use it to compute the Fourier transform of the synchrotron radiation spectrum and the associated X-ray time lags. The same theoretical framework is also used to compute the peak flare X-ray spectrum, assuming that a steady-state electron distribution is achieved during the peak of the flare. The model parameters are...

  19. Simultaneous X-ray and Radio Observations of Rotating Radio Transient J1819-1458

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Joshua; Rea, Nanda; Lazaridis, Kosmas; Keane, Evan; Kramer, Michael; Lyne, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of simultaneous radio and X-ray observations of PSR J1819-1458. Our 94-ks XMM-Newton observation of the high magnetic field 5*10^13 G pulsar reveals a blackbody spectrum (kT~130 eV) with a broad absorption feature, possibly composed of two lines at ~1.0 and ~1.3 keV. We performed a correlation analysis of the X-ray photons with radio pulses detected in 16.2 hours of simultaneous observations at 1-2 GHz with the Green Bank, Effelsberg, and Parkes telescopes, respectively. Both the detected X-ray photons and radio pulses appear to be randomly distributed in time. We find tentative evidence for a correlation between the detected radio pulses and X-ray photons on timescales of less than 10 pulsar spin periods, with the probability of this occurring by chance being 0.46%. This suggests that the physical process producing the radio pulses may also heat the polar-cap.

  20. Transient X-ray pulsar V0332+53: pulse phase-resolved spectroscopy and the reflection model

    CERN Document Server

    Lutovinov, A A; Suleimanov, V F; Mushtukov, A A; Doroshenko, V; Nagirner, D I; Poutanen, J

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the pulse phase- and luminosity-resolved spectroscopy of the transient X-ray pulsar V0332+53, performed for the first time in a wide luminosity range (1-40)x10^{37} erg/s during a giant outburst observed by the RXTE observatory in Dec 2004 - Feb 2005. We characterize the spectra quantitatively and built the detailed "three-dimensional" picture of spectral variations with pulse phase and throughout the outburst. We show that all spectral parameters are strongly variable with the pulse phase, and the pattern of this variability significantly changes with luminosity directly reflecting the associated changes in the structure of emission regions and their beam patterns. Obtained results are qualitatively discussed in terms of the recently developed reflection model for the formation of cyclotron lines in the spectra of X-ray pulsars.

  1. Extreme Supernova Models for the Super-luminous Transient ASASSN-15lh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulos, E.; Wheeler, J. C.; Vinko, J.; Nagy, A. P.; Wiggins, B. K.; Even, W. P.

    2016-09-01

    The recent discovery of the unprecedentedly super-luminous transient ASASSN-15lh (or SN 2015L) with its UV-bright secondary peak challenges all the power-input models that have been proposed for super-luminous supernovae. Here we examine some of the few viable interpretations of ASASSN-15lh in the context of a stellar explosion, involving combinations of one or more power inputs. We model the light curve of ASASSN-15lh with a hybrid model that includes contributions from magnetar spin-down energy and hydrogen-poor circumstellar interaction. We also investigate models of pure circumstellar interaction with a massive hydrogen-deficient shell and discuss the lack of interaction features in the observed spectra. We find that, as a supernova, ASASSN-15lh can be best modeled by the energetic core-collapse of an ˜40 M ⊙ star interacting with a hydrogen-poor shell of ˜20 M ⊙. The circumstellar shell and progenitor mass are consistent with a rapidly rotating pulsational pair-instability supernova progenitor as required for strong interaction following the final supernova explosion. Additional energy injection by a magnetar with an initial period of 1-2 ms and magnetic field of 0.1-1 × 1014 G may supply the excess luminosity required to overcome the deficit in single-component models, but this requires more fine-tuning and extreme parameters for the magnetar, as well as the assumption of efficient conversion of magnetar energy into radiation. We thus favor a single-input model where the reverse shock formed in a strong SN ejecta-circumstellar matter interaction following a very powerful core-collapse SN explosion can supply the luminosity needed to reproduce the late-time UV-bright plateau.

  2. Results of INTEGRAL TOO observation of the transient X-ray burster XTE J1810-189

    CERN Document Server

    Chelovekov, I

    2010-01-01

    We report results of the INTEGRAL Target of Opportunity observations of the transient X-ray burster XTE J1810-189. The observations were performed on April 3--6, 2008, soon after the discovery of the source and near the peak of its outburst. That time the source had a flux of about 50 mCrab and exhibited a hard Comptonized X-ray spectrum extending well above 100 keV. Being approximated by a power law with an exponetial cut-off in the broad 3--100 keV energy band it gave the average photon index $\\Gamma\\simeq 1.6$ and $kT_{cutoff}\\simeq 67$ keV. We found only slight indications for changes in the index during the observation ($\\Gamma$ first steady decreased from $\\sim 2.0$ to $\\sim1.3$ and then increased back to $\\sim 2.0$). However the $N_{\\rmn H}$ value measured by absorption in the low energy part of the spectrum changed drastically and very irregularly (from $\\sim 4\\times 10^{22}$ till $\\sim 100\\times 10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$). There were 10 type I X-ray bursts detected from the source during these TOO observati...

  3. A decelerating jet observed by the EVN and VLBA in the X-ray transient XTE J1752-223

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, J; Corbel, S; Paragi, Z; Tzioumis, T; Fender, R P

    2010-01-01

    The recently discovered Galactic X-ray transient XTE J1752-223 entered its first known outburst in 2010, emitting from the X-ray to the radio regimes. Its general X-ray properties were consistent with those of a black hole candidate in various spectral states, when ejection of jet components is expected. To verify this, we carried out very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. The measurements were carried out with the European VLBI Network (EVN) and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at four epochs in 2010 February. The images at the first three epochs show a moving jet component that is significantly decelerated by the last epoch, when a new jet component appears that is likely to be associated with the receding jet side. The overall picture is consistent with an initially mildly relativistic jet, interacting with the interstellar medium or with swept-up material along the jet. The brightening of the receding ejecta at the final epoch can be well explained by initial Doppler deboosting of the e...

  4. Constraining the properties of neutron star crusts with the transient low-mass X-ray binary Aql X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Waterhouse, A C; Wijnands, R; Brown, E F; Miller, J M; Altamirano, D; Linares, M

    2015-01-01

    Aql X-1 is a prolific transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary that exhibits an accretion outburst approximately once every year. Whether the thermal X-rays detected in intervening quiescent episodes are the result of cooling of the neutron star or due to continued low-level accretion remains unclear. In this work we use Swift data obtained after the long and bright 2011 and 2013 outbursts, as well as the short and faint 2015 outburst, to investigate the hypothesis that cooling of the accretion-heated neutron star crust dominates the quiescent thermal emission in Aql X-1. We demonstrate that the X-ray light curves and measured neutron star surface temperatures are consistent with the expectations of the crust cooling paradigm. By using a thermal evolution code, we find that ~1.2-3.2 MeV/nucleon of shallow heat release describes the observational data well, depending on the assumed mass-accretion rate and temperature of the stellar core. We find no evidence for varying strengths of this shallow heating aft...

  5. The Be/X-ray transient 4U 0115+63/V635 Cassiopeiae. III. Quasi-cyclic variability

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, P; Negueruela, I; Arkharov, A A; Kudryavtseva, N A

    2006-01-01

    4u 0115+63 is one of the most active and best studied Be/X-ray transients. Previous studies of 4u0115+63 have led to the suggestion that it undergoes relatively fast quasi-cyclic activity. However, due to the lack of good coverage of the observations, the variability time scales are uncertain. Our objective is to investigate the long-term behaviour of 4u 0115+63 to confirm its quasi-cyclic nature and to explain its correlated optical/IR and X-ray variability. We have performed optical/IR photometric observations and optical spectroscopic observations of 4u 0115+63 over the last decade with unprecedented coverage. We have focused on the Halpha line variability and the long-term changes of the photometric magnitudes and colours and investigated these changes in correlation with the X-ray activity of the source. results The optical and infrared emission is characterised by cyclic changes with a period of ~ 5 years. This long-term variability is attributed to the state of the circumstellar disc around the Be star...

  6. Double core-hole spectroscopy of transient plasmas produced in the interaction of ultraintense x-ray pulses with neon

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Cheng; Yuan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Double core-hole (DCH) spectroscopy is investigated systematically for neon atomic system in the interaction with ultraintense x-ray pulses with photon energy from 937 eV to 2000 eV. A time-dependent rate equation, implemented in the detailed level accounting approximation, is utilized to study the dynamical evolution of the level population and emission properties of the highly transient plasmas. For x-ray pulses with photon energy in the range of 937-1030 eV, where $1s\\rightarrow 2p$ resonance absorption from single core-hole (SCH) states of neon charge states exist, inner-shell resonant absorption (IRA) effects play important roles in the time evolution of population and DCH spectroscopy. Such IRA physical effects are illustrated in detail by investigating the interaction of x-ray pulses at a photon energy of 944 eV, which corresponds to the $1s\\rightarrow 2p$ resonant absorption from the SCH states ($1s2s^22p^4$, $1s2s2p^5$ and $1s2p^6$) of Ne$^{3+}$. After averaging over the space and time distribution o...

  7. THE X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE BLACK HOLE TRANSIENT MAXI J1659-152 IN QUIESCENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Jeroen [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fridriksson, Joel K.; Altamirano, Diego [Astronomical Institute ' ' Anton Pannekoek' ' , University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jonker, Peter G. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Russell, David M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gallo, Elena [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kuulkers, Erik [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESA/ESAC), Science Operations Department, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Madrid) (Spain); Rea, Nanda, E-mail: jeroen@space.mit.edu [Institute of Space Sciences (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Faculty of Science, Torre C5-parell, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-09-20

    We present new Chandra X-ray observations of the transient black hole X-ray binary MAXI J1659-152 in quiescence. These observations were made more than one year after the end of the source's 2010-2011 outburst. We detect the source at a 0.5-10 keV flux of 2.8(8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, which corresponds to a luminosity of {approx}1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} (d/6 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1}. This level, while being the lowest at which the source has been detected, is within factors of {approx}2 of the levels seen at the end of the initial decay of the outburst and soon after a major reflare of the source. The quiescent luminosity of MAXI J1659-152, which is the shortest-orbital-period black hole X-ray binary ({approx}2.4 hr), is lower than that of neutron-star X-ray binaries with similar periods. However, it is higher than the quiescent luminosities found for black hole X-ray binaries with orbital periods {approx}2-4 times longer. This could imply that a minimum quiescent luminosity may exist for black hole X-ray binaries, around orbital periods of {approx}5-10 hr, as predicted by binary-evolution models for the mass transfer rate. Compared to the hard state, we see a clear softening of the power-law spectrum in quiescence, from an index of 1.55(4) to an index of 2.5(4). We constrain the luminosity range in which this softening starts to (0.18-6.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} (d/6 kpc){sup 2} (M/8 M{sub Sun }) L{sub Edd}, which is consistent with the ranges inferred for other sources.

  8. Optimization of Drive Pulse Configuration for a High-Gain Transient X-Ray Laser at 19.6 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xin; LI Ying-Jun; ZHANG Jie

    2001-01-01

    An Ne-like transient collisional excitation x-ray laser at 19.6nm (J = 0 → 1, 3p - 3s) was investigated numerically using a sophisticated hydrodynamic code for a l00μm thick Ge planar target irradiated by a nanosecond pre pulse followed by a picosecond main optical laser pulse. The simulations indicate that for a given peak intensity, the main pulse has an optimal duration to generate the maximum effective gain. An effective gain as high as 200 cma-1 was obtained for the optimized drive pulse configuration.

  9. X-Ray Transient in Musca (GRS 1121-68 = GS 1124-683)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels; Brandt, Søren; Makino, F.

    1991-01-01

    Research Institute, Lyngby; and Space Research Institute, Moscow), report: "A new x-ray source in Musca, GRS 1121-68, has been discovered in data obtained by the WATCH detectors on Jan. 9. The spectrum of the source was harder than that of the Crab nebula, and the flux was about twice that from...... the Crab and increasing slowly during the observation. The source remained at a constant intensity level on Jan. 10. On Jan. 5 this source was not bright enough to be detectable by WATCH. The preliminary position is R.A. = 11h21m, Decl. = -68.1 deg (equinox 1950.0; uncertainty about 1 deg). We have...... not found any catalogued hard x-ray sources within our error circle; however, close to the given position, we have noted the existence of a radio pulsar (at R.A. = 11h10m, Decl. = -69 deg) with a period of 0.8 s, and a gamma-ray burst source, GRB 820829B, detected by Venera 13/14 in 1982. We have...

  10. Time-Resolved Soft X-ray Diffraction Reveals Transient Structural Distortions of Ternary Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Mann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Home-based soft X-ray time-resolved scattering experiments with nanosecond time resolution (10 ns and nanometer spatial resolution were carried out at a table top soft X-ray plasma source (2.2–5.2 nm. The investigated system was the lyotropic liquid crystal C16E7/paraffin/glycerol/formamide/IR 5. Usually, major changes in physical, chemical, and/or optical properties of the sample occur as a result of structural changes and shrinking morphology. Here, these effects occur as a consequence of the energy absorption in the sample upon optical laser excitation in the IR regime. The liquid crystal shows changes in the structural response within few hundred nanoseconds showing a time decay of 182 ns. A decrease of the Bragg peak diffracted intensity of 30% and a coherent macroscopic movement of the Bragg reflection are found as a response to the optical pump. The Bragg reflection movement is established to be isotropic and diffusion controlled (1 μs. Structural processes are analyzed in the Patterson analysis framework of the time-varying diffraction peaks revealing that the inter-lamellar distance increases by 2.7 Å resulting in an elongation of the coherently expanding lamella crystallite. The present studies emphasize the possibility of applying TR-SXRD techniques for studying the mechanical dynamics of nanosystems.

  11. Time-resolved soft X-ray diffraction reveals transient structural distortions of ternary liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Wilson; Peth, Christian; Busse, Gerhard; Scholz, Mirko; Mann, Klaus; Techert, Simone

    2009-11-04

    Home-based soft X-ray time-resolved scattering experiments with nanosecond time resolution (10 ns) and nanometer spatial resolution were carried out at a table top soft X-ray plasma source (2.2-5.2 nm). The investigated system was the lyotropic liquid crystal C(16)E(7)/paraffin/glycerol/formamide/IR 5. Usually, major changes in physical, chemical, and/or optical properties of the sample occur as a result of structural changes and shrinking morphology. Here, these effects occur as a consequence of the energy absorption in the sample upon optical laser excitation in the IR regime. The liquid crystal shows changes in the structural response within few hundred nanoseconds showing a time decay of 182 ns. A decrease of the Bragg peak diffracted intensity of 30% and a coherent macroscopic movement of the Bragg reflection are found as a response to the optical pump. The Bragg reflection movement is established to be isotropic and diffusion controlled (1 micros). Structural processes are analyzed in the Patterson analysis framework of the time-varying diffraction peaks revealing that the inter-lamellar distance increases by 2.7 A resulting in an elongation of the coherently expanding lamella crystallite. The present studies emphasize the possibility of applying TR-SXRD techniques for studying the mechanical dynamics of nanosystems.

  12. Evidence for quiescent synchrotron emission in the black hole X-ray transient Swift J1357.2–0933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present high time-resolution optical and infrared observations of the edge-on black hole X-ray transient Swift J1357.2-0933. Our data taken in 2012 shows the system to be at its pre-outburst magnitude and so the system is in quiescence. In contrast to other X-ray transients, the quiescent light curves of Swift J1357.2-0933 do not show the secondary star’s ellipsoidal modulation. The optical and infrared light curves is dominated by variability with an optical fractional rms of about 20 per cent, much larger than what is observed in other systems. The quiescent ultraviolet to mid-IR spectral energy distribution in quiescence is dominated by a nonthermal component with a power–law index of −1.4, (the broad-band rms SED has a similar index which arises from optically thin synchrotron emission from a jet; the lack of a peak in the spectral energy distribution rules out advection-dominated models (based on [19].

  13. Neutron star crust cooling in the Terzan 5 X-ray transient Swift J174805.3-244637

    CERN Document Server

    Degenaar, N; Bahramian, A; Sivakoff, G R; Heinke, C O; Brown, E F; Fridriksson, J K; Homan, J; Cackett, E M; Cumming, A; Miller, J M; Altamirano, D; Pooley, D

    2015-01-01

    When neutron stars reside in transient X-ray binaries, their crustal layers become heated during accretion outbursts and subsequently cool in quiescence. Observing and modeling this thermal response has yielded valuable insight into the physics of neutron star crusts. However, one unresolved problem is the evidence in several neutron stars for an extra energy source, located at shallow depth in the crust, that is not accounted for by standard heating models. Its origin remains puzzling, and it is currently unclear whether this additional heating occurs in all neutron stars, and if the magnitude is always the same. Here, we report on Chandra observations that cover two years after the 2012 outburst of the transient neutron star X-ray binary Swift J174805.3-244637 in the globular cluster Terzan 5. The temperature of the neutron star was elevated during the first two months following its ~8 week accretion episode, but had decayed to the pre-outburst level within ~100 days. Interpreting this as rapid cooling of t...

  14. NuSTAR J163433-4738.7: A fast X-ray transient in the galactic plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Krivonos, Roman [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Rahoui, Farid [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontifica Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Grindlay, Jonathan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Natalucci, Lorenzo [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, INAF-IAPS, via del Fosso del Cavaliere, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William W., E-mail: jtomsick@ssl.berkeley.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    During hard X-ray observations of the Norma spiral arm region by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in 2013 February, a new transient source, NuSTAR J163433-4738.7, was detected at a significance level of 8σ in the 3-10 keV bandpass. The source is consistent with having a constant NuSTAR count rate over a period of 40 ks and is also detected simultaneously by Swift at lower significance. The source is not significantly detected by NuSTAR, Swift, or Chandra in the days before or weeks after the discovery of the transient, indicating that the strong X-ray activity lasted between ∼0.5 and 1.5 days. Near-infrared imaging observations were carried out before and after the X-ray activity, but we are not able to identify the counterpart. The combined NuSTAR and Swift energy spectrum is consistent with a power law with a photon index of Γ=4.1{sub −1.0}{sup +1.5} (90% confidence errors), a blackbody with kT = 1.2 ± 0.3 keV, or a Bremsstrahlung model with kT=3.0{sub −1.2}{sup +2.1} keV. The reduced-χ{sup 2} values for the three models are not significantly different, ranging from 1.23 to 1.44 for 8 degrees of freedom. The spectrum is strongly absorbed with N{sub H}=(2.8{sub −1.4}{sup +2.3})×10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, (9{sub −7}{sup +15})×10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}, and (1.7{sub −0.9}{sup +1.7})×10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, for the power-law, blackbody, and Bremsstrahlung models, respectively. Although the high column density could be due to material local to the source, it is consistent with absorption from interstellar material along the line of sight at a distance of 11 kpc, which would indicate an X-ray luminosity >10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1}. Although we do not reach a definitive determination of the nature of NuSTAR J163433-4738.7, we suggest that it may be an unusually bright active binary or a magnetar.

  15. NuSTAR J163433-4738.7: A Fast X-Ray Transient in the Galactic Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsick, John A.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Rahoui, Farid; Assef, Roberto J.; Bauer, Franz E.; Bodaghee, Arash; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Grindlay, Jonathan; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Krivonos, Roman; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    During hard X-ray observations of the Norma spiral arm region by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in 2013 February, a new transient source, NuSTAR J163433-4738.7, was detected at a significance level of 8sigma in the 3-10 keV bandpass. The source is consistent with having a constant NuSTAR count rate over a period of 40 ks and is also detected simultaneously by Swift at lower significance. The source is not significantly detected by NuSTAR, Swift, or Chandra in the days before or weeks after the discovery of the transient, indicating that the strong X-ray activity lasted between approx. 0.5 and 1.5 days. Near-infrared imaging observations were carried out before and after the X-ray activity, but we are not able to identify the counterpart. The combined NuSTAR and Swift energy spectrum is consistent with a power law with a photon index of Gamma = 4.1(+1.5/-1.0) (90% confidence errors), a blackbody with kT = 1.2+/-0.3 keV, or a Bremsstrahlung model with kT = 3.0(+2.1/-1.2) keV. The reduced-?2 values for the three models are not significantly different, ranging from 1.23 to 1.44 for 8 degrees of freedom. The spectrum is strongly absorbed with NH = (2.8(+2.3/-1.4) × 10(exp23) cm(exp-2), (9(+15 /-7) ) × 10(exp22) cm(exp-2), and (1.7(+1.7/-0.9)) × 10(exp23) cm(exp-2), for the power-law, blackbody, and Bremsstrahlung models, respectively. Although the high column density could be due to material local to the source, it is consistent with absorption from interstellar material along the line of sight at a distance of 11 kpc, which would indicate an X-ray luminosity greater than 10(exp34) erg s(exp-1). Although we do not reach a definitive determination of the nature of NuSTAR J163433-4738.7, we suggest that it may be an unusually bright active binary or a magnetar.

  16. The Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient with the shortest orbital period: Suzaku observes one orbit in IGRJ16479-4514

    CERN Document Server

    Sidoli, L; Sguera, V; Bodaghee, A; Tomsick, J A; Pottschmidt, K; Rodriguez, J; Romano, P; Wilms, J

    2013-01-01

    The eclipsing hard X-ray source IGR J16479-4514 is the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT) with the shortest orbital period (3.32 days). This allowed us to perform a 250 ks long X-ray observation with Suzaku in 2012 February, covering most of its orbit, including the eclipse egress. Outside the eclipse, the source luminosity is around a few 1E34erg/s. The X-ray spectrum can be fit with an absorbed power law together with a neutral iron emission line at 6.4 keV. The column density is constant at 1E23 cm-2 outside the X-ray eclipse. During the eclipse it is lower, consistent with a scattering origin for the low X-ray emission during the eclipse by the supergiant companion wind. The scattered X-ray emission during the X-ray eclipse is used to directly probe the density of the companion wind at the orbital separation, resulting in 7E-14 g/cm3, which translates into a ratio Mdot_w/v_terminal = 7E-17 solar masses/km of the wind mass loss rate to the wind terminal velocity. This ratio, assuming reasonable termina...

  17. Observations of short-duration X-ray transients by WATCH on Granat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Brandt, Søren Kristian; Lund, Niels;

    1999-01-01

    from a young stellar object in the Chamaeleon I star-forming cloud. At the distance of similar to 150 pc, L-x = 1.35 x 10(34) erg s(-1). (8-15 keV), or 2.6 x 10(34) erg s(-1) (0.1-2.4 keV) assuming a thermal spectrum with kT similar to 10 keV, a temperature higher than those previously seen in T Tauri...... stars (Tsuboi et al. 1998). The peak X-ray luminosity is at least 2 times higher than that derived for the protostar IRS 43 (Grosso et al. 1997) which would make - to our knowledge- the strongest flare ever seen in a YSO. However, the possibility of GRS 1100-771 being an isolated neutron star unrelated...

  18. Host-Galaxy Properties of 32 Low-Redshift Superluminous Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Perley, Daniel A; Yan, Lin; Vreeswijk, Paul; De Cia, Annalisa; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Filippenko, Alexei V; Graham, Melissa L; Nugent, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    We present ultraviolet through near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of the host galaxies of all superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory prior to 2013, and derive measurements of their luminosities, star-formation rates, stellar masses, and gas-phase metallicities. We find that Type I (hydrogen-poor) SLSNe are found almost exclusively in low-mass (M 0.5 Z_sun. Extremely low metallicities are not required, and indeed provide no further increase in the relative SLSN rate. Several SLSN-I hosts are undergoing vigorous starbursts, but this may simply be a side effect of metallicity dependence: dwarf galaxies tend to have bursty star-formation histories. Type-II (hydrogen-rich) SLSNe are found over the entire range of galaxy masses and metallicities, and their integrated properties do not suggest a strong preference for (or against) low-mass/low-metallicity galaxies. Two hosts exhibit unusual properties: PTF 10uhf is a Type I SLSN in a massive, luminous infrared galaxy at re...

  19. SN 2012aa - a transient between Type Ibc core-collapse and superluminous supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, R; Silverman, J M; Pastorello, A; Fransson, C; Drake, A; Taddia, F; Fremling, C; Kankare, E; Kumar, B; Cappellaro, E; Bose, S; Benetti, S; Filippenko, A V; Valenti, S; Nyholm, A; Ergon, M; Sutaria, F; Kumar, B; Pandey, S B; Nicholl, M; Garcia-Alvarez, D; Tomasella, L; Karamehmetoglu, E; Migotto, K

    2016-01-01

    Context: Research on supernovae (SNe) over the past decade has confirmed that there is a distinct class of events which are much more luminous (by $\\sim2$ mag) than canonical core-collapse SNe (CCSNe). These events with visual peak magnitudes $\\lesssim-21$ are called superluminous SNe (SLSNe). Aims: There are a few intermediate events which have luminosities between these two classes. Here we study one such object, SN 2012aa. Methods: The optical photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations of the event were conducted over a time span of about 120 days. Results: With V_abs at peak ~-20 mag, the SN is an intermediate-luminosity transient between regular SNe Ibc and SLSNe. It also exhibits an unusual secondary bump after the maximum in its light curve. We interpret this as a manifestation of SN-shock interaction with the CSM. If we would assume a $^{56}$Ni-powered ejecta, the bolometric light curve requires roughly 1.3 M_sun of $^{56}$Ni and an ejected mass of ~14 M_sun. This would also imply a high kin...

  20. NuSTAR detection of a cyclotron line in the supergiant fast X-ray transient IGR J17544-2619

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhalerao, Varun; Romano, Patrizia; Tomsick, John

    2015-01-01

    We present NuSTAR spectral and timing studies of the supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGR J17544-2619. The spectrum is well described by an  ∼ 1 keV blackbody and a hard continuum component, as expected from an accreting X-ray pulsar. We detect a cyclotron line at 17 keV, confirming...... do not find any significant pulsations in the source on time-scales of 1-2000 s....

  1. Position-Sensitive Silicon Detector for X-ray Difractometry of Fast Transient Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugatch, V.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the development and application of position sensitive microdetectors to study dynamics of fast transient processes in metals and alloys under heating/cooling by means of high-speed radiography are presented.

  2. Catching Conical Intersections in the Act; Monitoring Transient Electronic Coherences by Attosecond Stimulated X-Ray Raman Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kochise; Kowalewski, Markus; Dorfman, Konstantin; Mukamel, Shaul

    Conical intersections (CIs) dominate the pathways and outcomes of virtually all photochemical molecular processes. Despite extensive experimental and theoretical effort, CIs have not been directly observed yet and the experimental evidence is inferred from fast reaction rates and vibrational signatures. We show that short X-ray pulses can directly detect the passage through a CI with the adequate temporal and spectral sensitivity. The non-adiabatic coupling that exists in the region of a CI redistributes electronic population but also generates electronic coherence. This coherent oscillation can then be detected via a coherent Raman process that employs a composite femtosecond/attosecond X-ray pulse. This technique, dubbed Transient Redistribution of Ultrafast Electronic Coherences (TRUECARS) is reminiscent of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) in that a coherent oscillation is set in motion and then monitored, but differs in that the dynamics is electronic (CARS generally observes nuclear dynamics) and the coherence is generated internally by passage through a region of non-adiabatic coupling rather than by an externally applied laser. Support provided by U.S. Department of Energy through Award No. DE-FG02-04ER15571, the National Science Foundation (Grant No CHE-1361516), and the Alexander von Humboldt foundation through the Feodor Lynen program.

  3. The optical counterpart of XTE J0929-314, the third transient millisecond X-ray pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, A B; Hill, K M; Sanders, E

    2005-01-01

    A blue and variable optical counterpart of the X-ray transient XTE J0929-314 was identified on 2002 May 1. We conducted frequent BVRI broadband photometry on this object using the Mt Canopus 1-m telescope during May and June until it had faded to below 21'st magnitude. Nearly continuous I band CCD photometry on 2002 May 2, 3 and 4 revealed a ~ 10 % sinusoidal modulation at the binary period lasting ~ 6 cycles during the latter half of May 2. The phase indicates that the modulation may be due to a combination of emission by a hot spot on the disc and X-ray heating of the secondary. The emission generally trended bluer with B-I decreasing by 0.6 magnitudes during the observations but there were anomalous changes in colour during the first few days after optical identification when the I band flux decreased slightly while fluxes in other bands increased. Spectral analysis of the BVRI broadband photometry show evidence of a variable excess in the R and I bands. We suggest that this may be due to synchrotron emiss...

  4. Spectral and temporal properties of the supergiant fast X-ray transient IGR J18483-0311 observed by INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Ducci, L; Sasaki, M; Santangelo, A; Esposito, P; Romano, P; Vercellone, S

    2013-01-01

    IGR J18483-0311 is a supergiant fast X-ray transient whose compact object is located in a wide (18.5 d) and eccentric (e~0.4) orbit, which shows sporadic outbursts that reach X-ray luminosities of ~1e36 erg/s. We investigated the timing properties of IGR J18483-0311 and studied the spectra during bright outbursts by fitting physical models based on thermal and bulk Comptonization processes for accreting compact objects. We analysed archival INTEGRAL data collected in the period 2003-2010, focusing on the observations with IGR J18483-0311 in outburst. We searched for pulsations in the INTEGRAL light curves of each outburst. We took advantage of the broadband observing capability of INTEGRAL for the spectral analysis. We observed 15 outbursts, seven of which we report here for the first time. This data analysis almost doubles the statistics of flares of this binary system detected by INTEGRAL. A refined timing analysis did not reveal a significant periodicity in the INTEGRAL observation where a ~21s pulsation w...

  5. Puzzling thermonuclear burst behaviour from the transient low-mass X-ray binary IGR J17473-2721

    CERN Document Server

    Chenevez, J; Galloway, D K; Zand, J J M in 't; Kuulkers, E; Degenaar, N; Falanga, M; Del Monte, E; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Costa, E

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the thermonuclear bursting behaviour of IGR J17473-2721, an X-ray transient that in 2008 underwent a six month long outburst, starting (unusually) with an X-ray burst. We detected a total of 57 thermonuclear bursts throughout the outburst with AGILE, Swift, RXTE, and INTEGRAL. The wide range of inferred accretion rates (between <1% and about 20% of the Eddington accretion rate m-dot_Edd) spanned during the outburst allows us to study changes in the nuclear burning processes and to identify up to seven different phases. The burst rate increased gradually with the accretion rate until it dropped (at a persistent flux corresponding to about 15% of m-dot_Edd) a few days before the outburst peak, after which bursts were not detected for a month. As the persistent emission subsequently decreased, the bursting activity resumed with a much lower rate than during the outburst rise. This hysteresis may arise from the thermal effect of the accretion on the surface nuclear burning processes, and the tim...

  6. The Low Quiescent X-Ray Luminosity of the Neutron Star Transient XTE J2123-058

    CERN Document Server

    Tomsick, J A; Halpern, J P; Kaaret, Philip

    2004-01-01

    We report on the first X-ray observations of the neutron star soft X-ray transient (SXT) XTE J2123-058 in quiescence, made by Chandra and BeppoSAX, as well as contemporaneous optical observations. In 2002, the Chandra spectrum of XTE J2123-058 is consistent with a power-law model, or the combination of a blackbody plus a power-law, but it is not well-described by a pure blackbody. Using the interstellar column density, the power-law fit gives photon index of 3.1 (+0.7,-0.6) and indicates a 0.3-8 keV unabsorbed luminosity of 9(+4,-3)E31 (d/8.5 kpc)^2 ergs/s (90% confidence errors). Fits with models consisting of thermal plus power-law components indicate that the upper limit on the temperature of a 1.4 solar mass, 10 km radius neutron star with a hydrogen atmosphere is kT_eff ~ 70 years.

  7. Timing and spectral studies of the transient X-ray pulsar GX 304-1 during an outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Devasia, Jincy; Paul, Biswajit; Indulekha, Kavila

    2011-01-01

    We present the timing and spectral properties of the transient X-ray pulsar GX 304-1 during its recent outburst in 2010 August, using observations carried out with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) instrument on-board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite. We detected strong intensity and energy dependent variations in the pulse profiles during the outburst. The pulse profile showed significant evolution over the outburst. It showed complex structures consisting of a main peak with steps on both sides during the start of the outburst. On some days, a sharp dip like feature was seen which disappeared at the end of the outburst; when the profile evolved into a sinusoidal shape. At low energies, the pulse profiles appeared complex, consisting of multiple peaks and a narrow minimum. The amplitude of the second brightest peak in low energies decreased with energy, and above 12 keV, the shape of the pulse profile changed to a single broad peak with a dip like feature. The dip had energy dependence, bo...

  8. Polarized synchrotron emission in quiescent black hole X-ray transients

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David M; Lewis, Fraser; Gallo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We present near-infrared polarimetric observations of the black hole X-ray binaries Swift J1357.2-0933 and A0620-00. In both sources, recent studies have demonstrated the presence of variable infrared synchrotron emission in quiescence, most likely from weak compact jets. For Swift J1357.2-0933 we find that the synchrotron emission is polarized at a level of 8.0 +- 2.5 per cent (a 3.2 sigma detection of intrinsic polarization). The mean magnitude and rms variability of the flux (fractional rms of 19-24 per cent in K_s-band) agree with previous observations. These properties imply a continuously launched (stable on long timescales), highly variable (on short timescales) jet in the Swift J1357.2-0933 system in quiescence, which has a moderately tangled magnetic field close to the base of the jet. We find that for A0620-00, there are likely to be three components to the optical-infrared polarization; interstellar dust along the line of sight, scattering within the system, and an additional source that changes th...

  9. The eccentric short-period orbit of the supergiant fast X-ray transient HD 74194 (=LM Vel)

    CERN Document Server

    Gamen, R; Walborn, N R; Morrell, N I; Arias, J I; Apellániz, J Maíz; Sota, A; Alfaro, E J

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We present the first orbital solution for the O-type supergiant star HD 74194, which is the optical counterpart of the supergiant fast X-ray transient IGR J08408-4503. Methods. We measured the radial velocities in the optical spectrum of HD 74194, and we determined the orbital solution for the first time. We also analysed the complex H{\\alpha} profile. Results. HD 74194 is a binary system composed of an O-type supergiant and a compact object in a short-period ($P=9.5436\\pm0.0002$ d) and high-eccentricity ($e=0.63\\pm0.03$) orbit. The equivalent width of the H{\\alpha} line is not modulated entirely with the orbital period, but seems to vary in a superorbital period ($P=285\\pm10$ d) nearly 30 times longer than the orbital one.

  10. High frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1650-500

    CERN Document Server

    Homan, J; Rossi, S; Miller, J M; Wijnands, R; Belloni, T; Van der Klis, M; Lewin, W H G; Homan, Jeroen; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Rossi, Sabrina; Miller, Jon M.; Wijnands, Rudy; Belloni, Tomaso; Klis, Michiel van der; Lewin, Walter H. G.

    2003-01-01

    We report the detection of high frequency variability in the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1650-500. A quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) was found at 250 Hz during a transition from the hard to the soft state. We also detected less coherent variability around 50 Hz, that disappeared when the 250 Hz QPO showed up. There are indications that when the energy spectrum hardened the QPO frequency increased from ~110 Hz to ~270 Hz, although the observed frequencies are also consistent with being 1:2:3 harmonics of each other. Interpreting the 250 Hz as the orbital frequency at the innermost stable orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole leads to a mass estimate of 8.2 Msun. The spectral results by Miller et al.(2002, ApJ, 570, L69), which suggest considerable black hole spin, would imply a higher mass.

  11. Exploring the Dynamic X-ray Universe (Summarising report of the ISSI-BJ Forum on monitoring the transient X-ray Universe in the multi-messenger era, Beijing, May 6-7, 2014)

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    This white paper is a summarising report of the Forum on monitoring the transient X-ray Universe in the multi-messenger era organized by the International Space Science Institute in Beijing (ISSI-BJ) on May 6-7, 2014. Time-domain astronomy will enter a golden era towards the end of this decade with the advent of major facilities across the electromagnetic spectrum and in the multi-messenger realms of gravitational wave and neutrino. In the soft X-ray regime, the novel micro-pore lobster-eye optics provides a promising technology to realise, for the first time, focusing X-ray optics for wide-angle monitors to achieve a good combination of sensitivity and wide field of view. In this context, Einstein Probe - a soft X-ray all-sky monitor - has been proposed and selected as a candidate mission of priority in the space science programme of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This report summarises the most important science developments in this field towards 2020 and beyond and how to achieve them technologically, wh...

  12. Measuring the stellar wind parameters in IGR J17544-2619 and Vela X-1 constrains the accretion physics in Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient and classical Supergiant X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Gimenez-Garcia, A; Torrejon, J M; Oskinova, L; Martinez-Nunez, S; Hamann, W -R; Rodes-Roca, J J; Gonzalez-Galan, A; Alonso-Santiago, J; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C; Bernabeu, G; Sander, A

    2016-01-01

    Classical Supergiant X-ray Binaries (SGXBs) and Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are two types of High-mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs) that present similar donors but, at the same time, show very different behavior in the X-rays. The reason for this dichotomy of wind-fed HMXBs is still a matter of debate. Among the several explanations that have been proposed, some of them invoke specific stellar wind properties of the donor stars. Only dedicated empiric analysis of the donors' stellar wind can provide the required information to accomplish an adequate test of these theories. However, such analyses are scarce. To close this gap, we perform a comparative analysis of the optical companion in two important systems: IGR J17544-2619 (SFXT) and Vela X-1 (SGXB). We analyse the spectra of each star in detail and derive their stellar and wind properties. We compare the wind parameters, giving us an excellent chance of recognizing key differences between donor winds in SFXTs and SGXBs. We find that the stellar para...

  13. INTEGRAL finds renewed X-ray activity of the Neutron star X-ray transient SAX J1750.8-2900

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, Celia; Chenevez, Jérôme; Kuulkers, Erik;

    2015-01-01

    seconds. The source is not detected with IBIS/ISGRI on September 13 with 3-sigma upper limits of about 5 and 8 mCrab in the 18-40 keV and 40-100 keV bands, respectively (12.6 ksec exposure). Similar observations about 5 days earlier (on UT 8 September 2015 13:52-17:34; 12.6 ksec exposure) did not reveal......, 3181). The JEM-X 3-10 keV and 10-25 keV fluxes during our observations are 32+/-3 mCrab and 16+/-6 mCrab respectively. A Type I X-ray burst from SAX J1750.8-2900 was detected during these observations, on UT 13 September 2015 20:51, with a peak flux of 2.3+/-0.2 Crab (3-25 keV) and a duration of 17...... the source with 3-sigma upper limits of 7 (3-10 keV) and 15 mCrab (10-25 keV). We encourage further observations of SAX J1750.8-2900 at X-rays and other wavelengths....

  14. Imaging X-ray, Optical, and Infrared Observations of the Transient Anomalous X-ray Pulsar XTE J1810-197

    CERN Document Server

    Gotthelf, E V; Buxton, M; Bailyn, C D

    2004-01-01

    We report an X-ray study of XTE J1810-197, a 5.54s pulsar discovered by Ibrahim (2003) in recent RXTE observations. In a short exposure with the Chandra HRC camera we detect one source at (J2000) 18:09:51.13, -19:43:51.7 with a 1-sigma uncertainty radius of 2.5 arcsec. Its flux is strongly modulated (58% pulsed fraction) at the expected period. Spectra obtained with XMM-Newton are well fitted by a two-component model that typically describes anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), an absorbed blackbody plus power law with kT = 0.67+/-0.01 keV, Gamma=3.7+/-0.2, N_H=(1.05+/-0.05)E22 cm^-2, and Fx(0.5-10 keV) = 3.98E-11 ergs/cm2/s. Alternatively, a 2-Temp blackbody fit is just as acceptable. The location of CXOU J180951.1-194351 is consistent with an Einstein, Rosat, and ASCA source, when its flux was 75 times fainter, and from which no pulsations are found. The spectrum changed dramatically between the "quiescent" and "active" states, the former can be modeled as a softer blackbody. Using XMM timing data, we place an u...

  15. Probing the Electronic Structure of a Photoexcited Solar Cell Dye with Transient X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kuiken, Benjamin E.; Huse, Nils; Cho, Hana; Strader, Matthew L.; Lynch, Michael S.; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Khalil, Munira

    2012-06-21

    This study uses transient X-ray absorption (XA) spectroscopy and timedependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) to directly visualize the charge density around the metal atom and the surrounding ligands following an ultrafast metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) process in the widely used RuII solar cell dye, Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2 (termed N3). We measure the Ru L-edge XA spectra of the singlet ground (1A1) and the transient triplet (3MLCT) excited state of N34 and perform TD-DFT calculations of 2p core-level excitations, which identify a unique spectral signature of the electron density on the NCS ligands. We find that the Ru 2p, Ru eg, and NCS orbitals are stabilized by 2.0, 1.0, and 0.6 eV, respectively, in the transient 3MLCT state of the dye. These results highlight the role of the NCS ligands in governing the oxidation state of the Ru center.

  16. Early Phase Detection and Coverage of Extragalactic and Galactic Black Hole X-ray Transients with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenfei; Yan, Zhen; Zhang, Wenda

    2015-01-01

    SKA's large field of view and high sensitivity at low frequencies will provide almost a complete coverage of the very early rising phase of extragalactic and Galactic transients which undergo a flare or outburst due to an abrupt accretion onto either supermassive (such as tidal disruption events, TDEs) or stellar mass black hole transients (such as black hole LMXB) , when their broadband emission is supposed to be jet-dominated at low luminosities, allowing SKA to be the first facility to make source discoveries and to send out alerts for follow-up ground or space observations as compared with the sensitivity of future X-ray wide-field-view monitoring. On the other hand, due to extremely large rate-of-change in the mass accretion rate during the rising phase of TDE flares or transient outbursts, SKA will be able to cover an extremely large range of the mass accretion rate as well as its rate-of-change not accessible with observations in persistent black hole systems, which will shape our understanding of disk...

  17. Kilohertz QPOs, spectral state transitions and the distance to the neutron star X-ray transient IGR J17473-2721

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altamirano, D.; Galloway, D.; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    We report on RXTE monitoring observations of the transient X-ray binary IGR J17473-2721 since the beginning of its latest outburst on March 26th, 2008 (see ATEL #1445, #1459, #1460, #1461 and #1468). IGR J17473-2721 reached a maximum unabsorbed flux of ~1.30E-8 ergs cm-2 s-1 (2-10 keV, assuming n......H=3.8e22cm-2, ATEL #1459) on June 22nd, and has been steadily decreasing since. The X-ray spectral state (based on the X-ray colors in the 2-16 keV band) has switched from hard to soft and back to hard. These state changes are also evident from the Swift/BAT Hard X-ray monitoring light curves. During...

  18. Discovery of two new fast X-ray transients with INTEGRAL: IGR J03346+4414 and IGR J20344+3913

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sguera, V.; Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.; Bird, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the discovery of two fast X-ray transients (FXTs) from analysis of archival INTEGRAL data. Both are characterized by a remarkable hard X-ray activity above 20 keV, in terms of duration (˜15 and 30 min, respectively), peak flux (˜10-9 erg cm-2 s-1) and dynamic range (˜2400 and 1360, respectively). Swift/X-ray telescope follow-up observations failed to detect any quiescent or low-level soft X-ray emission from either of the two FXTs, providing an upper limit of the order of a few times 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. The main spectral and temporal Imager on Board INTEGRAL Satellite (IBIS)/INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (ISGRI) characteristics are presented and discussed with the aim of inferring possible hints on their nature.

  19. Host-galaxy Properties of 32 Low-redshift Superluminous Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, D. A.; Quimby, R. M.; Yan, L.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; De Cia, A.; Lunnan, R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Yaron, O.; Filippenko, A. V.; Graham, M. L.; Laher, R.; Nugent, P. E.

    2016-10-01

    We present ultraviolet through near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of the host galaxies of all superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory prior to 2013 and derive measurements of their luminosities, star formation rates, stellar masses, and gas-phase metallicities. We find that Type I (hydrogen-poor) SLSNe (SLSNe I) are found almost exclusively in low-mass ({M}* \\lt 2× {10}9 {M}ȯ ) and metal-poor (12 + log10[O/H] \\lt 8.4) galaxies. We compare the mass and metallicity distributions of our sample to nearby galaxy catalogs in detail and conclude that the rate of SLSNe I as a fraction of all SNe is heavily suppressed in galaxies with metallicities ≳ 0.5 {Z}ȯ . Extremely low metallicities are not required and indeed provide no further increase in the relative SLSN rate. Several SLSN I hosts are undergoing vigorous starbursts, but this may simply be a side effect of metallicity dependence: dwarf galaxies tend to have bursty star formation histories. Type II (hydrogen-rich) SLSNe (SLSNe II) are found over the entire range of galaxy masses and metallicities, and their integrated properties do not suggest a strong preference for (or against) low-mass/low-metallicity galaxies. Two hosts exhibit unusual properties: PTF 10uhf is an SLSN I in a massive, luminous infrared galaxy at redshift z = 0.29, while PTF 10tpz is an SLSN II located in the nucleus of an early-type host at z = 0.04.

  20. Single and double core-hole ion emission spectroscopy of transient neon plasmas produced by ultraintense x-ray laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2016-05-01

    Single core-hole (SCH) and double core-hole (DCH) spectroscopy is investigated systematically for neon gas in the interaction with ultraintense x-ray pulses with photon energy from 937 eV to 2000 eV. A time-dependent rate equation, implemented in the detailed level accounting approximation, is utilized to study the dynamical evolution of the level population and emission properties of the laser-produced highly transient plasmas. The plasma density effects on level populations are demonstrated with an x-ray photon energy of 2000 eV. For laser photon energy in the range of 937 - 1360 eV, resonant absorptions (RA) of 1s-np (n> = 2) transitions play important roles in time evolution of the population and DCH emission spectroscopy. For x-ray photon energy larger than 1360 eV, no RA exist and transient plasmas show different features in the DCH spectroscopy.

  1. SN 2012aa: A transient between Type Ibc core-collapse and superluminous supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R.; Sollerman, J.; Silverman, J. M.; Pastorello, A.; Fransson, C.; Drake, A.; Taddia, F.; Fremling, C.; Kankare, E.; Kumar, B.; Cappellaro, E.; Bose, S.; Benetti, S.; Filippenko, A. V.; Valenti, S.; Nyholm, A.; Ergon, M.; Sutaria, F.; Kumar, B.; Pandey, S. B.; Nicholl, M.; Garcia-Álvarez, D.; Tomasella, L.; Karamehmetoglu, E.; Migotto, K.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Research on supernovae (SNe) over the past decade has confirmed that there is a distinct class of events which are much more luminous (by 2 mag) than canonical core-collapse SNe (CCSNe). These events with visual peak magnitudes ≲-21 are called superluminous SNe (SLSNe). The mechanism that powers the light curves of SLSNe is still not well understood. The proposed scenarios are circumstellar interaction, the emergence of a magnetar after core collapse, or disruption of a massive star through pair production. Aims: There are a few intermediate events which have luminosities between these two classes. They are important for constraining the nature of the progenitors of these two different populations and their environments and powering mechanisms. Here we study one such object, SN 2012aa. Methods: We observed and analysed the evolution of the luminous Type Ic SN 2012aa. The event was discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search in an anonymous galaxy (z ≈ 0.08). The optical photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations were conducted over a time span of about 120 days. Results: With an absolute V-band peak of - 20 mag, the SN is an intermediate-luminosity transient between regular SNe Ibc and SLSNe. SN 2012aa also exhibits an unusual secondary bump after the maximum in its light curve. For SN 2012aa, we interpret this as a manifestation of SN-shock interaction with the circumstellar medium (CSM). If we assume a 56Ni-powered ejecta, the quasi-bolometric light curve requires roughly 1.3 M⊙ of 56Ni and an ejected mass of 14M⊙. This also implies a high kinetic energy of the explosion, 5.4 × 1051 erg. On the other hand, the unusually broad light curve along with the secondary peak indicate the possibility of interaction with CSM. The third alternative is the presence of a central engine releasing spin energy that eventually powers the light curve over a long time. The host of SN 2012aa is a star-forming Sa/Sb/Sbc galaxy. Conclusions

  2. Optical studies of the X-ray transient XTE J2123-058 - II. Phase-resolved spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, R. I.; Charles, P. A.; Haswell, C. A.; Casares, J.; Zurita, C.; Serra-Ricart, M.

    2001-06-01

    We present time-resolved spectroscopy of the soft X-ray transient XTEJ2123-058 in outburst. A useful spectral coverage of 3700-6700Å was achieved spanning two orbits of the binary, with single-epoch coverage extending to ~9000Å. The optical spectrum approximates a steep blue power law, consistent with emission on the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of a hot blackbody spectrum. The strongest spectral lines are Heii 4686Å and Ciii/Niii 4640Å (Bowen blend) in emission. Their relative strengths suggest that XTEJ2123-058 was formed in the Galactic plane, not in the halo. Other weak emission lines of Heii and Civ are present, and Balmer lines show a complex structure, blended with Heii. Heii 4686-Å profiles show a complex multiple S-wave structure, with the strongest component appearing at low velocities in the lower-left quadrant of a Doppler tomogram. Hα shows transient absorption between phases 0.35 and 0.55. Both of these effects appear to be analogous to similar behaviour in SW Sex type cataclysmic variables. We therefore consider whether the spectral line behaviour of XTEJ2123-058 can be explained by the same models invoked for those systems.

  3. Multiwavelength spectral evolution during the 2011 outburst of the very faint X-ray transient Swift J1357.2-0933

    CERN Document Server

    Padilla, M Armas; Russell, D M; Wijnands, R

    2012-01-01

    We report our multiwavelength study of the 2011 outburst evolution of the newly discovered black hole candidate X-ray binary Swift J1357.2-0933. We analysed the Swift X-ray telescope and Ultraviolet/Optical telescope (UVOT) data taken during the ~7 months duration of the outburst. It displayed a 2-10 keV X-ray peak luminosity of ~1E35(D/1.5 kpc)^2 erg s-1 which classifies the source as a very faint X-ray transient. We found that the X-ray spectrum at the peak was consistent with the source being in the hard state, but it softened with decreasing luminosity, a common behaviour of black holes at low luminosities or returning to quiescence from the hard state. The correlations between the simultaneous X-ray and ultraviolet/optical data suggest a system with a black hole accreting from a viscous disc that is not irradiated. The UVOT filters provide the opportunity to study these correlations up to ultraviolet wavelengths a regime so far unexplored. If the black hole nature is confirmed, Swift J1357.2-0933 would b...

  4. The accretion-heated crust of the transiently accreting 11-Hz X-ray pulsar in the globular cluster Terzan 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Degenaar; R. Wijnands

    2011-01-01

    We report on a Chandra Director’s Discretionary Time observation of the globular cluster Terzan 5, carried out ∼7 weeks after the cessation of the 2010 outburst of the newly discovered transiently accreting 11-Hz X-ray pulsar. We detect a thermal spectrum that can be fitted with a neutron star atmos

  5. INTEGRAL discovery of a new hard X-ray transient: IGR J17177-3656

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankowski, A.; Ferrigo, C.; Bozzo, E.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a new transient source, IGR J17177-3656, detected during the INTEGRAL observation performed from 2011-03-15 09:23 to 2011-03-15 22:42 UT. The source was detected by IBIS/ISGRI at a significance level of 13 and 9 standard deviations, in the 20-40 keV and 40-80 ke...... significant variability during the observation. A subsequent INTEGRAL observation from the Galactic bulge monitoring program was performed on 2011-03-16 from 12:33 to 14:51 UT (exposure of 5.4 ks): the source flux in the 20-40 keV (40-80 keV) band was 23+/-4 mCrab (30+/-6 mCrab), suggesting an increasing...... luminosity trend. Previous INTEGRAL observations of the region were performed between 2011-03-13 03:21 and 2011-03-13 16:39. We derived a 5 sigma upper limit on the source flux in the 20-40 keV band of 7 mCrab, exploiting an IBIS/ISGRI effective exposure time of 8 ks. A Swift/XRT pointed observation...

  6. XMM-Newton and NuSTAR joint observation of the periodic Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient IGR J11215-5952

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.; Sguera, V.

    2016-06-01

    IGRJ11215-5952 is the only Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient showing periodic outbursts (every 165 days, the orbital period of the system). The driving mechanism causing the transient X-ray emission in this sub-class of High Mass X-ray Binaries is still a matter of debate, after 10 years from the discovery of the class. To disentangle between magnetar-like neutron stars from models requiring more usual neutron star magnetic fields (1E12G), we observed the SFXT pulsar IGRJ11215-5952 with XMM-Newton coordinated with NuSTAR on 2016, February 14, during the expected peak of the outburst, for a net exposure time of 20 ks. The source was indeed caught in outburst (1E36 erg/s), with several bright flares repeating quasi-periodically with timescales of a few thousand seconds, spanning a dynamic range of two orders of magnitude. The overlapping observation with both XMM-Newton and NuSTAR enabled the study of the simultaneous broad band spectrum from 0.3 to 78 keV. The work is still in progress, given the extreme variability of the X-ray emission. X-ray pulsations were detected at 187.14 s, consistent with the last XMM-Newton observation, performed in 2007. We will discuss XMM+NuSTAR results in light of the different models proposed to explain the SFXTs behavior.

  7. The Variable Quiescent X-Ray Emission of the Neutron Star Transient XTE J1701-462

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, J.; Wijnands, R.; Cackett, E. M.; Degenaar, N.; Mendez, M.; Altamirano, D.; Brown, E. F.; Belloni, T. M.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    2011-01-01

    We have monitored the cooling of the neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1701-462 with Chandra and XMM-Newton since the source entered quiescence in 2007 after an exceptionally luminous 19-month outburst. A recent Chandra observation made almost 1200 days into quiescence indicates that the neutron star crust is likely still slowly cooling toward thermal equilibrium with the core. The current surface temperature is high compared to other quiescent neutron star transients, with an implied bolometric thermal flux of 5×1033 erg/s. The overall cooling curve seems to have followed a broken power-law shape as predicted by theoretical models, although the observed break is considerably earlier than what is expected from theory. After rapid cooling during the first 200 days of quiescence---strongly indicating a highly conductive neutron star crust---the source unexpectedly showed a large temporary increase in both thermal and non-thermal flux. Prompted by this we conducted a Swift monitoring program of the source during April-October 2010, with short observations taking place once every two weeks. During the program we detected short-term flares up to at least 1×1035 erg/s, a factor of 20 higher than the normal quiescent level. We compare this flaring---presumably arising from episodic low-level accretion---with the behavior observed from faint Galactic transients, and discuss whether flaring in XTE J1701-462 can significantly affect the cooling of the source and whether it can to some extent explain the high temperature of the neutron star core implied by our Chandra observations.

  8. Timing and spectral analysis of the unusual X-ray transient XTE J0421+560/CI Camelopardalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartlett, E.S.; Clark, J.S.; Coe, M.J.; Garcia, M.G.; Uttley, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed X-ray study of the 2003 XMM-Newton observation of the high-mass X-ray binary XTE J0421+560/CI Camelopardalis. The continuum of the X-ray spectrum is well described by a flat power law (Γ = 1.0 ± 0.2) with a large intrinsic absorbing column (NH = (4.4 ± 0.5) × 1023 cm−2). We hav

  9. Imaging ultrafast excited state pathways in transition metal complexes by X-ray transient absorption and scattering using X-ray free electron laser source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lin X; Shelby, Megan L; Lestrange, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    orbital energies. A strong influence of the valence orbital occupation on the inner shell orbital energies indicates that one should not use the transition energy from 1s to other orbitals to draw conclusions about the d-orbital energies. For photocatalysis, a transient electronic configuration could...

  10. High-Energy pulse profile of the Transient X-ray Pulsar SAX J2103.5+4545

    CERN Document Server

    Falanga, M; Burderi, L; Bonnet-Bidaud, J M; Goldoni, P; Goldwurm, A; Lavagetto, G; Iaria, R; Robba, N R

    2005-01-01

    In two recent INTEGRAL papers, Lutovinov et al. (2003) and Blay et al. (2004) report a timing and spectral analysis of the transient Be/X-ray pulsar SAX J2103.5+4545 at high energies (5--200 keV). In this work we present for the first time a study of the pulse profile at energies above 20 keV using INTEGRAL data. The spin-pulse profile shows a prominent (with a duty cycle of 14%) and broad (with a FWHM of ~ 51 s) peak and a secondary peak which becomes more evident above 20 keV. The pulsed fraction increases with energy from ~ 45% at 5--40 keV to ~ 80% at 40--80 keV. The morphology of the pulse profile also changes as a function of energy, consistent with variations in the spectral components that are visible in the pulse phase resolved spectra. A study of the double peaked profile shows that the difference in the two peaks can be modeled by a different scattering fraction between the radiation from the two magnetic poles.

  11. Orbital Parameters for the Soft X-ray Transient 4U 1543-47 Evidence for a Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Orosz, J A; Bailyn, C D; McClintock, J E; Remillard, R A; Orosz, Jerome A.; Jain, Raj K.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Clintock, Jeffrey E. Mc; Remillard, Ronald A.

    1997-01-01

    (shortened) Spectroscopic observations of the soft X-ray transient 4U 1543-47 reveal a radial velocity curve with a period of P=1.123 +/- 0.008 days and a semi-amplitude of K_2 = 124 +/- 4 km/sec. The mass function is f(M) = 0.22 +/- 0.02 solar masses. We derive a distance of d = 9.1 +/-1.1 kpc if the secondary is on the main sequence. The V and I light curves exhibit two waves per orbital cycle with amplitudes of about 0.08 mag. We modeled the light curves as ellipsoidal variations in the secondary star and derive extreme inclination limits of 20 1. However, there are systematic effects in the data that the model does not account for, so the above constraints should be treated with caution. We argue that the secondary star is still on the main sequence and if the secondary star has a mass near the main sequence values for early A-stars (2.3 <= M_2 <= 2.6 solar masses), then the best fits for the 3 sigma inclination range (24 <= i <= 36 deg) and the 3 sigma mass function range (0.16 <= f(M) &l...

  12. The Inclination of the Soft X-ray Transient A0620--00 and the Mass of its Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Cantrell, Andrew G; Orosz, Jerome A; McClintock, Jeffrey E; Remillard, Ronald A; Froning, Cynthia S; Neilsen, Joseph; Gelino, Dawn M; Gou, Lijun

    2010-01-01

    We analyze photometry of the Soft X-ray Transient A0620-00 spanning nearly 30 years, including previously published and previously unpublished data. Previous attempts to determine the inclination of A0620 using subsets of these data have yielded a wide range of measured values of i. Differences in the measured value of i have been due to changes in the shape of the light curve and uncertainty regarding the contamination from the disk. We give a new technique for estimating the disk fraction and find that disk light is significant in all light curves, even in the infrared. We also find that all changes in the shape and normalization of the light curve originate in a variable disk component. After accounting for this disk component, we find that all the data, including light curves of significantly different shapes, point to a consistent value of i. Combining results from many separate data sets, we find i=51 plus or minus 0.9 degrees, implying M=6.6 plus or minus 0.25 solar masses. Using our dynamical model an...

  13. 1RXS J180408.9-342058: an ultra compact X-ray binary candidate with a transient jet

    CERN Document Server

    Baglio, M C; Campana, S; Goldoni, P; Masetti, N; Munoz-Darias, T; Patino-Alvarez, V; Chavushyan, V

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed NIR/optical/UV study of the transient low mass X-ray binary 1RXS J180408.9-342058 performed during its 2015 outburst, aimed at determining the nature of its companion star. We obtained three optical spectra at the 2.1 m San Pedro Martir Observatory telescope (Mexico). We performed optical and NIR photometric observations with both the REM telescope and the New Technology Telescope (NTT) in La Silla. We obtained optical and UV observations from the Swift archive. Finally, we performed optical polarimetry of the source by using the EFOSC2 instrument mounted on the NTT. The optical spectrum of the source is almost featureless since the hydrogen and He I emissions lines, typically observed in LMXBs, are not detected. Similarly, carbon and oxygen lines are neither observed. We marginally detect the He II 4686 AA emission line, suggesting the presence of helium in the accretion disc. No significant optical polarisation level was observed. The lack of hydrogen and He I emission lines in the spe...

  14. Lithium production on a low-mass secondary in a black hole soft X-ray transient

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro; Arai, Kenzo

    2007-01-01

    We examine production of Li on the surface of a low-mass secondary in a black hole soft X-ray transient (BHSXT) through the spallation of CNO nuclei by neutrons which are ejected from a hot (> 10 MeV) advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) around the black hole. Using updated binary parameters, cross sections of neutron-induced spallation reactions, and mass accretion rates in ADAF derived from the spectrum fitting of multi-wavelength observations of quiescent BHSXTs, we obtain the equilibrium abundances of Li by equating the production rate of Li and the mass transfer rate through accretion to the black hole. The resulting abundances are found to be in good agreement with the observed values in seven BHSXTs. We note that the abundances vary in a timescale longer than a few months in our model. Moreover, the isotopic ratio Li6/Li7 is calculated to be about 0.7--0.8 on the secondaries, which is much higher than the ratio measured in meteorites. Detection of such a high value is favorable to the production o...

  15. Origin of Ne Emission Line of Very Luminous Soft X-ray Transient MAXI J0158$-$744

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtani, Yukari; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the mechanism to reproduce notable spectral features at the ignition phase of nova explosion observed for a super-Eddington X-ray transient source MAXI J0158$-$744 in the Small Magellanic Cloud. These are a strong Ne IX emission line at 0.92 keV with a large equivalent width of $0.32^{+0.21}_{-0.11}$ keV and the absence of Ne X line at 1.02 keV. In this paper, we calculate the radiative transfer using a Monte Carlo code, taking into account the line blanketing effect due to transitions of N, O, Ne, Mg and Al ions in an accelerating wind emanating from a white dwarf with a structure based on a spherically symmetric stationary model. We found that the strong Ne IX line can be reproduced if the mass fraction of Ne is enhanced to $10^{-3}$ or more and that of O is reduced to $\\sim5\\times10^{-9}$ or less and that the absence of other lines including Ne X ions at higher energies can be also reproduced by the line blanketing effect. This enhancement of the Ne mass fraction indicates that the ejecta ar...

  16. The Inclination of the Soft X-Ray Transient A0620-00 and the Mass of its Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Andrew G.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Orosz, Jerome A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Neilsen, Joseph; Gelino, Dawn M.; Gou, Lijun

    2010-02-01

    We analyze photometry of the soft X-ray transient A0620 - 00 spanning nearly 30 years, including previously published and previously unpublished data. Previous attempts to determine the inclination of A0620 using subsets of these data have yielded a wide range of measured values of i. Differences in the measured value of i have been due to changes in the shape of the light curve and uncertainty regarding the contamination from the disk. We give a new technique for estimating the disk fraction and find that disk light is significant in all light curves, even in the infrared. We also find that all changes in the shape and normalization of the light curve originate in a variable disk component. After accounting for this disk component, we find that all the data, including light curves of significantly different shapes, point to a consistent value of i. Combining results from many separate data sets, we find i = 51fdg0 ± 0fdg9, implying M = 6.6 ± 0.25 M sun. Using our dynamical model and zero-disk stellar VIH magnitudes, we find d = 1.06 ± 0.12 kpc. Understanding the disk origin of nonellipsoidal variability may assist with making reliable determinations of i in other systems, and the fluctuations in disk light may provide a new observational tool for understanding the three-dimensional structure of the accretion disk.

  17. Discovery of the correlation between peak episodic jet power and X-ray peak luminosity of the soft state in black hole transients

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Episodic jets are usually observed in the intermediate state of black hole transients during their X-ray outbursts. Here we report the discovery of a strong positive correlation between the peak radio power of the episodic jet $P_{\\rm jet}$ and the corresponding peak X-ray luminosity $L_{\\rm x}$ of the soft state (in Eddington units) in a complete sample of the outbursts of black hole transients observed during the RXTE era of which data are available, which follows the relation $\\log P_{\\rm jet}=(2.17\\pm{0.32})+(1.63\\pm0.24)\\times \\log {L_{\\rm x}}$. The transient ultra-luminous X-ray source in M31 and HLX-1 in EXO 243-49 fall on the relation if they contain stellar mass black hole and either stellar mass black hole or intermediate mass black hole, respectively. Besides, a significant correlation between the peak power of the episodic jet and the rate-of-increase of the X-ray luminosity $\\rm dL_{x}/dt$ during the rising phase of those outbursts is also found, following $\\log P_{\\rm jet}=(1.97\\pm{0.42})+(0.69\\...

  18. NuSTAR Detection Of A Cyclotron Line In The Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient IGR J17544-2619

    CERN Document Server

    Bhalerao, Varun; Tomsick, John; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Smith, David M; Bellm, Eric; Boggs, Steven E; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Fuerst, Felix; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona A; Krivonos, Roman A; Lu, Ting-Ni; Madsen, Kristin; Stern, Daniel; Younes, George; Zhang, William

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR spectral and timing studies of the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT) IGR J17544-2619. The spectrum is well-described by a ~1 keV blackbody and a hard continuum component, as expected from an accreting X-ray pulsar. We detect a cyclotron line at 17 keV, confirming that the compact object in IGR J17544-2619 is indeed a neutron star. This is the first measurement of the magnetic field in a SFXT. The inferred magnetic field strength, B = (1.45 +/- 0.03) * 10^12 G * (1+z) is typical of neutron stars in X-ray binaries, and rules out a magnetar nature for the compact object. We do not find any significant pulsations in the source on time scales of 1-2000 s.

  19. Discovery of two new Fast X-ray Transients with INTEGRAL: IGR J03346+4414 and IGR J20344+3913

    CERN Document Server

    Sguera, V; Paizis, A; Bird, A J

    2016-01-01

    We report on the discovery of two Fast X-ray Transients (FXTs) from analysis of archival INTEGRAL data. Both are characterized by a remarkable hard X-ray activity above 20 keV, in term of duration (about 15 and 30 minutes, respectively), peak-flux (about 10^-9 erg cm^-2 s^-1) and dynamic range (about 2400 and 1360, respectively). Swift/XRT follow-up observations failed to detect any quiescent or low level soft X-ray emission from either of the two FXTs, providing an upper limit of the order of a few times 10^-12 erg cm^-2 s^-1. The main spectral and temporal IBIS/ISGRI characteristics are presented and discussed with the aim of infering possible hints on their nature.

  20. The XMM-Newton1 and INTEGRAL2 Observations of the Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transient IGR J16328-4726

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P.; Sguera, V.; Bird, A. J.; Boon, C. M.; Persi, P.; Piro, L.

    2016-10-01

    The accretion mechanism producing the short flares observed from the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT) is still highly debated and forms a major part in our attempts to place these X-ray binaries in the wider context of the High Mass X-ray Binaries. We report on a 216 ks INTEGRAL observation of the SFXT IGR J16328-4726 (2014 August 24–27) simultaneous with two fixed-time observations with XMM-Newton (33 and 20 ks) performed around the putative periastron passage, in order to investigate the accretion regime and the wind properties during this orbital phase. During these observations, the source has shown luminosity variations, from ∼ 4× {10}34 to ∼ {10}36 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, linked to spectral properties changes. The soft X-ray continuum is well modeled by a power law with a photon index varying from ∼1.2 up to ∼1.7 and with high values of the column density in the range of ∼ 2{--}4× {10}23 {{cm}}-2. We report on the presence of iron lines at ∼6.8–7.1 keV, suggesting that the X-ray flux is produced by the accretion of matter from the companion wind characterized by density and temperature inhomogeneities.

  1. A flow cell for transient voltammetry and in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction characterization of electrocrystallized cadmium(II) tetracyanoquinodimethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veder, Jean-Pierre [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Nafady, Ayman [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Clarke, Graeme [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Williams, Ross P. [Centre for Materials Research, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); De Marco, Roland, E-mail: r.demarco@curtin.edu.a [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Bond, Alan M. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2011-01-01

    An easy to fabricate and versatile cell that can be used with a variety of electrochemical techniques, also meeting the stringent requirement for undertaking cyclic voltammetry under transient conditions in in situ electrocrystallization studies and total external reflection X-ray analysis, has been developed. Application is demonstrated through an in situ synchrotron radiation-grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (SR-GIXRD) characterization of electrocrystallized cadmium (II)-tetracyanoquinodimethane material, Cd(TCNQ){sub 2}, from acetonitrile (0.1 mol dm{sup -3} [NBu{sub 4}][PF{sub 6}]). Importantly, this versatile cell design makes SR-GIXRD suitable for almost any combination of total external reflection X-ray analysis (e.g., GIXRF and GIXRD) and electrochemical perturbation, also allowing its application in acidic, basic, aqueous, non-aqueous, low and high flow pressure conditions. Nevertheless, the cell design separates the functions of transient voltammetry and SR-GIXRD measurements, viz., voltammetry is performed at high flow rates with a substantially distended window to minimize the IR (Ohmic) drop of the electrolyte, while SR-GIXRD is undertaken using stop-flow conditions with a very thin layer of electrolyte to minimize X-ray absorption and scattering by the solution.

  2. The hard quiescent spectrum of the neutron-star X-ray transient EXO 1745-248 in the globular cluster Terzan 5

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, R; Pooley, D; Edmonds, P D; Lewin, W H G; Grindlay, J E; Jonker, P G; Miller, J M; Wijnands, Rudy; Heinke, Craig O.; Pooley, David; Edmonds, Peter D.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Jonker, Peter G.; Miller, Jon M.

    2003-01-01

    We present a Chandra observation of the globular cluster Terzan 5 during times when the neutron-star X-ray transient EXO 1745-248 located in this cluster was in its quiescent state. We detected the quiescent system with a (0.5-10 keV) luminosity of ~2 x 10^{33} ergs/s. This is similar to several other neutron-star transients observed in their quiescent states. However, the quiescent X-ray spectrum of EXO 1745--48 was dominated by a hard power-law component instead of the soft component that usually dominates the quiescent emission of other neutron-star X-ray transients. This soft component could not conclusively be detected in EXO 1745-248 and we conclude that it contributed at most 10% of the quiescent flux in the energy range 0.5-10 keV. EXO 1745-248 is only the second neutron-star transient whose quiescent spectrum is dominated by the hard component (SAX J1808.4-3658 is the other one). We discuss possible explanations for this unusual behavior of EXO 1745-248, its relationship to other quiescent neutron-st...

  3. IGR J17454-2919: a new X-ray transient found by INTEGRAL/JEM-X close to the Galactic Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Brandt, Søren; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    % error confidence of 5 arcsec. The XRT 0.3-10 keV PC-mode count-rate is 0.64 ±0.03 cnt/s. Further analysis of the Swift data is on-going. We thank the Swift team for having performed this observation of the new transient source. Multi-wavelength follow-up observations are encouraged to unveil the nature......The JEM-X twin X-ray monitors on board the INTEGRAL satellite have again detected a new X-ray transient during the latest observation of the Galactic Center region. The new source named IGR J17454-2919 is found less than 24 arcmin from the Galactic Center. The source appears in both JEM-X 3-10 ke...

  4. A new X-ray transient, IGR J17451-3022, discovered by INTEGRAL/JEM-X near the Galactic Centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Vandbaek Kroer, L.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl;

    2014-01-01

    The JEM-X twin X-ray monitors on board the INTEGRAL satellite has detected a new X-ray transient during recent observations of the Galactic Centre and Bulge regions. The new source named IGR J17451-3022 has the following coordinates: R.A. = 266.27 Dec. = -30.38 with a 2arcmin 90% confidence radius...... instrument, only 26 arcsec from the JEM-X position, at the enhanced position : R.A. = 266.27824 Dec. = -30.37876 with a 90% error confidence of 2.1 arcsec. Further analysis of the Swift data is on-going. We thank the Swift team for having performed this observation of the new transient source. Multi...

  5. XMM-Newton and Swift spectroscopy of the newly discovered very-faint X-ray transient IGR J17494-3030

    CERN Document Server

    Padilla, M Armas; Degenaar, N

    2013-01-01

    A growing group of low-mass X-ray binaries are found to be accreting at very-faint X-ray luminosities of <1E36 erg/s (2-10 keV). Once such system is the new X-ray transient IGR J17494-3030. We present Swift and XMM-Newton observations obtained during its 2012 discovery outburst. The Swift observations trace the peak of the outburst, which reached a luminosity of ~7 E35 (D/8 kpc)^2 erg/s (2-10 keV). The XMM-Newton data were obtained when the outburst had decayed to an intensity of ~ 8 E34 (D/8 kpc)^2 erg/s. The spectrum can be described by a power-law with an index of ~1.7 and requires an additional soft component with a black-body temperature of ~0.37 keV (contributing ~20% to the total unabsorbed flux in the 0.5-10 keV band). Given the similarities with high-quality spectra of very-faint neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries, we suggest that the compact primary in IGR J17494-3030 is a neutron star. Interestingly, the source intensity decreased rapidly during the ~12 hr XMM-Newton observation, which was acc...

  6. GRB060602B = Swift J1749.4-2807: an unusual transiently accreting neutron-star X-ray binary

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnands, R.; Rol, E.; Cackett, E.; Starling, R. L. C.; Remillard, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Swift BAT and XRT data of GRB060602B, which is most likely an accreting neutron star in a binary system and not a gamma-ray burst. Our analysis shows that the BAT burst spectrum is consistent with a thermonuclear flash (type-I X-ray burst) from the surface of an accreting neutron star in a binary system. The X-ray binary nature is further confirmed by the report of a detection of a faint point source at the position of the XRT counterpart of the burst in archival...

  7. A strong and broad iron line in the XMM-Newton spectrum of the new X-ray transient and black-hole candidate XTE J1652-453

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Beike; Mendez, Mariano; Done, Chris; Trigo, Maria Diaz; Altamirano, Diego; Casella, Piergiorgio

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT We observed the new X-ray transient and black-hole candidate XTE J1652−453 si- multaneously with XMM-Newton and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The observation was done during the decay of the 2009 outburst, when XTE J1652−453 was in the hard-intermediate state. The spectrum shows a

  8. A Chandra observation of the long-duration X-ray transient KS 1731-260 in quiescence too cold a neutron star?

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, R; Markwardt, C B; Lewin, W H G; Van der Klis, M; Wijnands, Rudy; Miller, Jon M.; Markwardt, Craig; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Klis, Michiel van der

    2001-01-01

    After more than a decade of actively accreting at about a tenth of the Eddington critical mass accretion rate, the neutron-star X-ray transient KS 1731-260 returned to quiescence in early 2001. We present a Chandra/ACIS-S observation taken several months after this transition. We detected the source at an unabsorbed flux of ~2 x 10^{-13} erg/s/cm^2 (0.5-10 keV). For a distance of 7 kpc, this results in a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of ~1 x 10^{33} erg/s and a bolometric luminosity approximately twice that. The quiescent luminosity of KS 1731-260 is very similar to that of the other quiescent neutron star systems. However, if this quiescent X-ray luminosity is due to the cooling of the neutron star, this low luminosity may indicate that the source spends several hundreds of years in quiescence in between outbursts for the neutron star to cool. If true, then it might be the first such X-ray transient to be identified and a class of several hundred similar systems might be present in the Galaxy. Alternatively, enhance...

  9. CXOM31 J004253.1+411422: The first ultra-luminous X-ray transient in M 31

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, A; Haberl, F; Pietsch, W; Greiner, J; Rau, A; Hartmann, D H; Sala, G; Hernanz, M

    2011-01-01

    We seek clarification of the nature of X-ray sources detected in M 31. Here we focus on CXOM31 J004253.1+411422, the brightness of which suggests that it belongs to the class of ultraluminous X-ray sources. We determine the X-ray properties of sources detected in the XMM-Newton Chandra monitoring program. We investigate spectral properties and search for periodic or quasi-periodic oscillations. A multi-component model is applied to the spectra obtained from XMM-Newton data to evaluate the relative contributions from thermal and non-thermal emission. The time dependence of this ratio is evaluated over a period of forty days. We simultaneously fit data from XMM-Newton EPIC-pn, MOS1 and MOS2 detectors with (non-thermal) powerlaw and (thermal) multicolored blackbody. The X-ray spectrum is best fit by the combination of a thermal component with kT ~ 1 keV and a powerlaw component with photon index approximately 2.6. From combined analysis of Chandra, Swift and XMM-Newton data, the unabsorbed total luminosity of th...

  10. Broad Fe-emission line in the new X-ray transient XTE J1652-453

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Beike

    2010-01-01

    Broad iron-emission lines, as detected in X-ray spectra of black-hole binaries, are thought to be reflection signatures of the inner part of the accretion disk and could be used to explore the physical properties of the emitting region close to the black hole. Here we present the recent results of t

  11. NuSTAR J163433-4738.7: A Fast X-ray Transient in the Galactic Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomsick, John A.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Rahoui, Farid

    2014-01-01

    , respectively. Although the high column density could be due to material local to the source, it is consistent with absorption from interstellar material along the line of sight at a distance of 11 kpc, which would indicate an X-ray luminosity >1034 erg s-1. Although we do not reach a definitive determination...

  12. Multiwavelength observations revealing the outbursts of the soft X-ray transients XTE J1859+226 and XTE J1118+480

    CERN Document Server

    Chaty, S; Hynes, R I; Shrader, C R; Cui, W

    2000-01-01

    We report multiwavelength observations of the two soft X-ray transients (SXTs) XTE J1859+226 and XTE J1118+480, which we observed with HST, RXTE and UKIRT. The two sources exhibited very different behaviour. XTE J1859+226 showed a thermal-viscous disc instability outburst modified by irradiation. XTE J1118+480, which we also observed with EUVE since it is located at a very high galactic latitude and suffers from very low extinction, is much more unusual. It exhibits i) a low X-ray to optical flux ratio and ii) a strong non-thermal contribution throughout the spectrum, which is likely to be due to synchrotron emission. We concentrate here on their evolution in the course of their outbursts.

  13. Multiwavelength observations revealing the outbursts of the two soft X-ray transients XTE J1859+226 and XTE J1118+480

    CERN Document Server

    Chaty, S; Hynes, R I; Shrader, C R; Cui, W; Mauche, C W; Norton, A J; Solheim, J E; Ostensen, R; Geballe, T R; Ioannou, Z; King, A R

    2001-01-01

    We report here on multiwavelength observations of the two new soft X-ray transients (SXTs) XTE J1859+226 and XTE J1118+480, which we observed with HST/RXTE/UKIRT. For XTE J1118+480 we also used EUVE since it is located at a very high galactic latitude and suffers from very low extinction. The two sources exhibited very different behaviour. XTE J1859+226 seems quite normal and therefore a good object for testing the accretion mechanisms in place during the outbursts, XTE J1118+480 is much more unusual because it exhibits i) a low X-ray to optical ratio and ii) a strong non-thermal contribution in the radio to optical domain, which is likely to be due to synchrotron emission. We concentrate here on the near-infrared (NIR) and optical observations of these two systems.

  14. Timing and spectral studies of the transient X-ray pulsar EXO 053109-6609.2 with ASCA and Beppo-SAX

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, B; Naik, S; Agrawal, P C

    2004-01-01

    We report timing and spectral properties of the transient Be X-ray pulsar EXO 053109--6609.2 studied using observations made with the ASCA and BeppoSAX observatories. Though there must have been at least one spin-down episode of the pulsar since its discovery, the new pulse period measurements show a monotonic spin-up trend since 1996. The pulse profile is found to have marginal energy dependence. There is also evidence for strong luminosity dependence of the pulse profile, a single peaked profile at low luminosity that changes to a double peaked profile at high luminosity. This suggests a change in the accretion pattern at certain luminosity level. The X-ray spectrum is found to consist of a simple power-law with photon index in the range of 0.4--0.8. At high intensity level the spectrum also shows presence of weak iron emission line.

  15. Catching Conical Intersections in the Act; Monitoring Transient Electronic Coherences by Attosecond Stimulated X-Ray Raman Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalewski, Markus; Dorfman, Konstantin E; Mukamel, Shaul

    2015-01-01

    Conical intersections (CoIn) dominate the pathways and outcomes of virtually all photophysical and photochemical molecular processes. Despite extensive experimental and theoretical effort, CoIns have not been directly observed yet and the experimental evidence is being inferred from fast reaction rates and some vibrational signatures. We show that short X-ray (rather than optical) pulses can directly detect the passage through a CoIn with the adequate temporal and spectral sensitivity. The technique is based on a coherent Raman process that employs a composite femtosecond/attosecond X-ray pulse to detect the electronic coherences (rather than populations) that are generated as the system passes through the CoIn.

  16. Astrophysical parameters and orbital solution of the peculiar X-ray transient IGR J00370+6122

    CERN Document Server

    González-Galán, A; Castro, N; Simón-Díaz, S; Lorenzo, J; Vilardell, F

    2014-01-01

    BD+6073 is the optical counterpart of the X-ray source IGR J00370+6122, a probable accretion-powered X-ray pulsar. The X-ray light curve of this binary system shows clear periodicity at 15.7 d, which has been interpreted as repeated outbursts around the periastron of an eccentric orbit. We obtained high-resolution spectra of BD+6073 at different epochs. We used the FASTWind code to generate a stellar atmosphere model to fit the observed spectrum and obtain physical magnitudes. The synthetic spectrum was used as a template for cross-correlation with the observed spectra to measure radial velocities. The radial velocity curve provided an orbital solution for the system. We have also analysed the RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT light curves to confirm the stability of the periodicity. BD +6073 is a BN0.7 Ib low-luminosity supergiant located at an approximate distance of 3.1 kpc, in the CasOB4 association. We derive Teff=24000 K and log gc=3.0, and chemical abundances consistent with a moderately high level of evolution. ...

  17. Interactions between X-ray induced transient defects and pre-existing damage precursors in DKDP crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negres, R A; Saw, C K; Demos, S G

    2008-10-24

    Large-aperture laser systems, currently designed to achieve high energy densities at the target location (exceeding {approx} 10{sup 11} J/m{sup 3}), will enable studies of the physics of matter and radiation under extreme conditions. As a result, their optical components, such as the frequency conversion crystals (KDP/DKDP), may be exposed to X-rays and other ionizing radiation. This in turn may lead to a change in the damage performance of these materials as they may be affected by radiation-induced effects by either forming new damage initiation centers or interacting with the pre-existing damage initiating defects (so-called damage precursors). We present an experimental study on the laser-induced bulk damage performance at 355-nm of DKDP crystals following X-ray irradiation at room temperature. Results indicate that the damage performance of the material is affected by exposure to X-rays. We attribute this behavior to a change in the physical properties of the precursors which, in turn, affect their individual damage threshold.

  18. Ligand-field symmetry effects in Fe(ii) polypyridyl compounds probed by transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hana; Strader, Matthew L.; Hong, Kiryong; Jamula, Lindsey; Gullikson, Eric M.; Kim, Tae Kyu; de Groot, Frank M. F.; McCusker, James K.; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Huse, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Ultrafast excited-state evolution in polypyridyl FeII complexes are of fundamental interest for understanding the origins of the sub-ps spin-state changes that occur upon photoexcitation of this class of compounds as well as for the potential impact such ultrafast dynamics have on incorporation of these compounds in solar energy conversion schemes or switchable optical storage technologies. We have demonstrated that ground-state and, more importantly, ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption methods can offer unique insights into the interplay between electronic and geometric structure that underpin the photo-induced dynamics of this class of compounds. The present contribution examines in greater detail how the symmetry of the ligand field surrounding the metal ion can be probed using these x-ray techniques. In particular, we show that steady-state K-edge spectroscopy of the nearest-neighbour nitrogen atoms reveals the characteristic chemical environment of the respective ligands and suggests an interesting target for future charge-transfer femtosecond and attosecond spectroscopy in the x-ray water window.

  19. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  20. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  1. The Intermediate Luminosity Optical Transient SN 2010da: The Progenitor, Eruption, and Aftermath of a Peculiar Supergiant High-mass X-Ray Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, V. A.; Berger, E.; Chornock, R.; Margutti, R.; Laskar, T.; Brown, P. J.; Blanchard, P. K.; Czekala, I.; Lunnan, R.; Reynolds, M. T.

    2016-10-01

    We present optical spectroscopy, ultraviolet-to-infrared imaging, and X-ray observations of the intermediate luminosity optical transient (ILOT) SN 2010da in NGC 300 (d = 1.86 Mpc) spanning from ‑6 to +6 years relative to the time of outburst in 2010. Based on the light-curve and multi-epoch spectral energy distributions of SN 2010da, we conclude that the progenitor of SN 2010da is a ≈10–12 M ⊙ yellow supergiant possibly transitioning into a blue-loop phase. During outburst, SN 2010da had a peak absolute magnitude of M bol ≲ ‑10.4 mag, dimmer than other ILOTs and supernova impostors. We detect multi-component hydrogen Balmer, Paschen, and Ca ii emission lines in our high-resolution spectra, which indicate a dusty and complex circumstellar environment. Since the 2010 eruption, the star has brightened by a factor of ≈5 and remains highly variable in the optical. Furthermore, we detect SN 2010da in archival Swift and Chandra observations as an ultraluminous X-ray source (L X ≈ 6 × 1039 erg s‑1). We additionally attribute He ii 4686 Å and coronal Fe emission lines in addition to a steady X-ray luminosity of ≈1037 erg s‑1 to the presence of a compact companion.

  2. The luminosity dependence of the phase-averaged X-ray spectrum of the transient 42 second pulsar EXO 2030+375

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, A. N.; Reynolds, A. P.; White, N. E.

    1993-01-01

    We report on the evolution in the X-ray spectrum of the transient X-ray pulsar EXO 2030+375 during part of an outburst in 1985 May-August. The overall continuum spectral shape is similar to that of other accreting pulsars and can be represented by a power-law spectrum modified at low energies by significant absorption and at high-energies either by an exponential cut-off or by the effects of cyclotron scattering. As the luminosity decreased by a factor of approximately 100, the X-ray spectrum became harder with the photon index decreasing from 1.83 +/- 0.01 to 1.29 +/- 0.01. In addition, the high-energy cutoff decreased from 20 to 10 keV during the same interval. If the cutoff is interpreted in terms of cyclotron resonance scattering, then this implies a magnetic field strength that decreased from 2.6 x 10(exp 12) G to 1.3 x 10(exp 12) G. This variation implies that the cutoff energy does not provide a reliable measure of the surface magnetic field strength in this system.

  3. Transient electronic structure of the photoinduced phase of Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 probed with soft x-ray pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rini, M.; Zhu, Y.; Wall, S.; Tobey, R. I.; Ehrke, H.; Garl, T.; Freeland, J. W.; Tomioka, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Cavalleri, A.; Schoenlein, R. W.

    2009-04-01

    We use time-resolved x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy to investigate the electronic dynamics associated with the photoinduced insulator-to-metal phase transition in the colossal magnetoresistive manganite Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}. Absorption changes at the O K and Mn L edges directly monitor the evolution of the density of unoccupied states in the transient photoinduced phase. We show that the electronic structure of the photoinduced phase is remarkably similar to that of the ferromagnetic metallic phase reached in related manganites upon cooling below the Curie temperature.

  4. Characterizing the Solvated Structure of Photoexcited [Os(terpy)2]2+ with X-ray Transient Absorption Spectroscopy and DFT Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaoyi; Pápai, Mátyás Imre; Møller, Klaus Braagaard

    2016-01-01

    undergoes small photo-induced structural changes which are challenging to characterize. In this work, X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy with picosecond temporal resolution is employed to determine the geometric and electronic structures of the photoexcited triplet state of [Os(terpy)2]2+ (terpy: 2......,2':6',2″-terpyridine) solvated in methanol. From the EXAFS analysis, the structural changes can be characterized by a slight overall expansion of the first coordination shell [OsN6]. DFT calculations supports the XTA results. They also provide additional information about the nature of the molecular orbitals...

  5. Element-specific characterization of transient electronic structure of solvated Fe(II) complexes with time-resolved soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kiryong; Cho, Hana; Schoenlein, Robert W; Kim, Tae Kyu; Huse, Nils

    2015-11-17

    Polypyridyl transition-metal complexes are an intriguing class of compounds due to the relatively facile chemical designs and variations in ligand-field strengths that allow for spin-state changes and hence electronic configurations in response to external perturbations such as pressure and light. Light-activated spin-conversion complexes have possible applications in a variety of molecular-based devices, and ultrafast excited-state evolution in these complexes is of fundamental interest for understanding of the origins of spin-state conversion in metal complexes. Knowledge of the interplay of structure and valence charge distributions is important to understand which degrees of freedom drive spin-conversion and which respond in a favorable (or unfavorable) manner. To track the response of the constituent components, various types of time-resolved X-ray probe methods have been utilized for a broad range of chemical and biological systems relevant to catalysis, solar energy conversions, and functional molecular devices. In particular, transient soft X-ray spectroscopy of solvated molecules can offer complementary information on the detailed electronic structures and valence charge distributions of photoinduced intermediate species: First-row transition-metal L-edges consist of 2p-3d transitions, which directly probe the unoccupied valence density of states and feature lifetime broadening in the range of 100 meV, making them sensitive spectral probes of metal-ligand interactions. In this Account, we present some of our recent progress in employing picosecond and femtosecond soft X-ray pulses from synchrotron sources to investigate element specific valence charge distributions and spin-state evolutions in Fe(II) polypyridyl complexes via core-level transitions. Our results on transient L-edge spectroscopy of Fe(II) complexes clearly show that the reduction in σ-donation is compensated by significant attenuation of π-backbonding upon spin-crossover. This underscores

  6. Transient thermal finite element analysis of CFC–Cu ITER monoblock using X-ray tomography data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Ll.M., E-mail: llion.evans@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Margetts, L. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Williamson Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Casalegno, V. [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Lever, L.M. [IT Services for Research, University of Manchester, Devonshire House, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bushell, J.; Lowe, T.; Wallwork, A. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Young, P. [Simpleware Ltd., Bradninch Hall, Castle Street, Exeter EX4 3PL (United Kingdom); Lindemann, A. [NETZSCH-Gerätebau GmbH, Wittelsbacherstraße 42, D-95100 Selb, Bayern (Germany); Schmidt, M.; Mummery, P.M. [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering (MACE), University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Thermal performance of a fusion power heat exchange component was investigated. • Microstructures effecting performance were determined using X-ray tomography. • This data was used to perform a microstructurally faithful finite element analysis. • FEA demonstrated that manufacturing defects had an appreciable effect on performance. • This image-based modelling showed which regions could be targeted for improvements. - Abstract: The thermal performance of a carbon fibre composite-copper monoblock, a sub-component of a fusion reactor divertor, was investigated by finite element analysis. High-accuracy simulations were created using an emerging technique, image-based finite element modelling, which converts X-ray tomography data into micro-structurally faithful models, capturing details such as manufacturing defects. For validation, a case study was performed where the thermal analysis by laser flash of a carbon fibre composite-copper disc was simulated such that computational and experimental results could be compared directly. Results showed that a high resolution image-based simulation (102 million elements of 32 μm width) provided increased accuracy over a low resolution image-based simulation (0.6 million elements of 194 μm width) and idealised computer aided design simulations. Using this technique to analyse a monoblock mock-up, it was possible to detect and quantify the effects of debonding regions at the carbon fibre composite-copper interface likely to impact both component performance and expected lifetime. These features would not have been accounted for in idealised computer aided design simulations.

  7. The outburst detected by MAXI/GSC (ATel. 10803) was not from LS I +61 303 but from the new X-ray transient Swift J0243.6+6124

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, S.; Negoro, H.; Nakahira, S.; Iwakiri, W.; Ueno, S.; Tomida, H.; Ishikawa, M.; Sugawara, Y.; Isobe, N.; Shimomukai, R.; Mihara, T.; Sugizaki, M.; Shidatsu, M.; Yatabe, F.; Takao, Y.; Matsuoka, M.; Kawai, N.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Harita, S.; Morita, K.; Yoshida, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kawakubo, M. Serino Y.; Kitaoka, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Tsunemi, H.; Yoneyama, T.; Nakajima, M.; Kawase, T.; Sakamaki, A.; Ueda, Y.; Hori, T.; Tanimoto, A.; Oda, S.; Tsuboi, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Sasaki, R.; Kawai, H.; Yamauchi, M.; Hanyu, C.; Hidaka, K.; Kawamuro, T.; Yamaoka, K.; MAXI Team

    2017-10-01

    As reported by Kennea et al. (GCN #21963, also Kennea et al. ATel #10809), the new transient X-ray pulsar Swift J0243.6+6124 (Cenko et al. GCN #21960, ATel #10809) is positionally consistent with the transient source that MAXI/GSC detected on September 29 (Sugita et al. ATel #10803).

  8. From Shock Breakout to Peak and Beyond: Extensive Panchromatic Observations of the Aspherical Type Ib Supernova 2008D associated with Swift X-ray Transient 080109

    CERN Document Server

    Modjaz, Maryam; Butler, N; Chornock, R; Perley, D; Blondin, S; Bloom, J S; Filippenko, A V; Kirshner, R P; Kocevski, D; Poznanski, D; Hicken, M; Foley, R J; Stringfellow, G S; Berlind, P; Navascues, D Barrado y; Blake, C H; Bouy, H; Brown, W; Challis, P; Chen, H; De Vries, W H; Dufour, P; Falco, E; Friedman, A; Ganeshalingam, M; Garnavich, P; Holden, B; Illingworth, G; Liebert, J; Marion, G H; Lee, N; Olivier, S S; Olszewski, E; Prochaska, J X; Silverman, J M; Smith, N; Starr, D; Steele, T N; Stockton, A; Williams, G G; Wood-Vasey, W M

    2008-01-01

    (ABRIDGED) We present extensive early photometric (UBVRr'Ii'JHKs) and spectroscopic (optical and near-infrared) data on supernova (SN) 2008D as well as X-ray data on the associated X-ray transient (XRT) 080109. Our data span a time range of 2 hours to 109 days after the detection of the XRT and detailed analysis allowed us to derive constraints on the nature of the supernova and its progenitor; throughout we draw comparisons with results presented in the literature and find several key aspects that differ. Our data clearly establish that SN2008D is a spectroscopically normal SN Ib (i.e., showing conspicuous He lines). The SN light curves show the characteristic shape of shock breakout followed by Ni-56 decay. Careful comparison with other stripped-envelope SN caught shortly after shock breakout reveals real differences among them. Our unique upper limits obtained 2.8 and 4.5 hours before the onset of XRT 080109 and our early-time optical and near-infrared detections, which at 0.84 and 0.71 d after onset, are ...

  9. Recent changes in a flickering variability of the black hole X-ray transient V616 Mon = A0620-00

    CERN Document Server

    Shugarov, S; Chochol, D; Gladilina, N; Kalinicheva, E; Dodin, A

    2016-01-01

    V616 Mon = A0620-00 is a prototype of black hole transient X-ray binaries. Our 2003-16 optical photometry of the object during X-ray quiescence, obtained by 50-250 cm telescopes in Crimea, Caucasus Mountains and Slovakia, consists of ~ 7660 CCD frames in Johnson-Cousins $V,R,R_C,I$ bands and the integral light. During 2003, 2008-9 and 2015-16 passive states, the phase light curve of the binary exhibited mainly variations caused by an ellipsoidal shape of the red dwarf component. During 2004-6 and 2009-14 active states a significant aperiodic broad-band variability (flickering) was present, arising in a black hole accretion disk and a bright spot, where the mass transfer stream hits the outer edge of the disk. Long term photometry of our minima times, together with available positions of superior conjunctions of the red dwarf found from spectroscopy, allowed us to refine the orbital period of V616 Mon to 0.32301407(5) days.

  10. The discovery of the optical/IR counterpart of the 12s transient X-ray pulsar GS 0834-43

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, G L; Campana, S; Polcaro, V F; Roche, P; Stella, L; Di Paola, A; Lazzati, D; Mereghetti, S; Giallongo, E; Fontana, A; Verrecchia, P

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of the optical/infra-red counterpart of the 12.3s transient X-ray pulsar GS0834-43. We re-analysed archival ROSAT PSPC observations of GS0834-43, obtaining two new refined positions, about 14" and 18" away from the previously published one, and a new spin period measurement. Within the new error circles we found a relatively faint (V=20.1) early type reddened star (V-R=2.24). The optical spectrum shows a strong Halpha emission line. The IR observations of the field confirm the presence of an IR excess for the Halpha-emitting star (K'=11.4, J-K'=1.94) which is likely surrounded by a conspicuous circumstellar envelope. Spectroscopic and photometric data indicate a B0-2 V-IIIe spectral-type star located at a distance of 3-5kpc and confirm the Be-star/X-ray binary nature of GS0834-43.

  11. Recent changes in a flickering variability of the black hole X-ray transient V616 Mon=A0620-00

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugarov, S.; Katysheva, N.; Chochol, D.; Gladilina, N.; Kalinicheva, E.; Dodin, A.

    2016-11-01

    V616 Mon = A0620-00 is a prototype of black hole transient X-ray binaries. Our 2003-16 optical photometry of the object during X-ray quiescence, obtained by 50-250 cm telescopes in Crimea, Caucasus Mountains and Slovakia, consists of ˜ 7660 CCD frames in Johnson-Cousins V, R, RC, I bands and the integral light. During 2003, 2008-9 and 2015-16 passive states, the phase light curve of the binary exhibited mainly variations caused by an ellipsoidal shape of the red dwarf component. During 2004-6 and 2009-14 active states a significant aperiodic broad-band variability (flickering) was present, arising in a black hole accretion disk and a bright spot, where the mass transfer stream hits the outer edge of the disk. Long term photometry of our minima times, together with available positions of superior conjunctions of the red dwarf found from spectroscopy, allowed us to refine the orbital period of V616 Mon to 0.32301407(5) days.

  12. The Intermediate Luminosity Optical Transient SN 2010da: The Progenitor, Eruption and Aftermath of an Unusual Supergiant High-mass X-ray Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Victoria; Berger, Edo; Chornock, Ryan; Laskar, Tanmoy; Margutti, Raffaella; Brown, Peter J.

    2016-06-01

    We present high- and medium-resolution optical spectroscopy, optical/UV imaging and archival Chandra, Hubble and Spitzer observations of the intermediate luminosity optical transient (ILOT) SN 2010da, discovered in the nearby galaxy NGC 300 (d=1.86 Mpc). SN 2010da had a peak absolute magnitude of M ~ -10.4 mag, dimmer than other recent ILOTs and supernova impostors. We detect hydrogen Balmer, Paschen and Ca II emission lines in our high-resolution spectra, which indicate a dusty and complex circumstellar environment. Based on SN 2010da's light curve and multi-epoch SEDs, we conclude that the progenitor of SN 2010da is a ~10-12 Msol yellow supergiant possibly transitioning into a blue loop phase. Since the 2010 eruption, the star has brightened by a factor of ~5 and remains highly variable in the optical. SN 2010da is a unique ILOT which seems to stem from a different physical origin than red SN 2008S-like events and luminous blue variable outbursts. Furthermore, we detect SN 2010da in archival Swift observations as an ultraluminous X-ray source. We additionally attribute He II 4686 and coronal Fe emission in addition to a steady X-ray luminosity of ~10^{37} erg/s to the presence of a compact companion.

  13. Plasma conditions for improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R F; Dunn, J; Filevich, J; Moon, S; Nilsen, J; Keenan, R; Shlyaptsev, V N; Rocca, J J; Hunter, J R; Marconi, M C

    2004-10-04

    We have directly probed the plasma conditions in which the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser is generated and propagates by measuring the near-field image and by utilizing picosecond resolution soft x-ray laser interferometry of the preformed Pd plasma gain medium. The electron density and gain region of the plasma have been determined experimentally and are found to be in good agreement with simulations. We observe a strong dependence of the laser pump-gain medium coupling on the laser pump parameters. The most efficient coupling of laser pump energy into the gain region occurs with the formation of lower density gradients in the pre-formed plasma and when the duration of the main heating pulse is comparable to the gain lifetime ({approx}10ps for mid-Z Ni-like schemes). This increases the output intensity by more than an order of magnitude relative to the commonly utilized case where the same pumping energy is delivered within a shorter heating pulse duration (< 3ps). In contrast, the higher intensity heating pulses are observed to be absorbed at higher electron densities and in regions where steep density gradients limit the effective length of the gain medium.

  14. Spectral variation in the supergiant fast X-ray transient SAX J1818.6-1703 observed by XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Boon, C M; Hill, A B; Sidoli, L; Sguera, V; Goossens, M E; Fiocchi, M; McBride, V A; Drave, S P

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a 30ks XMM-Newton observation of the supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) SAX J1818.6-1703 - the first in-depth soft X-ray study of this source around periastron. INTEGRAL observations shortly before and after the XMM-Newton observation show the source to be in an atypically active state. Over the course of the XMM-Newton observation, the source shows a dynamic range of ~100 with a luminosity greater than 1$\\times$10$^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$ for the majority of the observation. After an ~6 ks period of low luminosity (~10$^{34}$ erg s$^{-1}$) emission, SAX J1818.6-1703 enters a phase of fast flaring activity, with flares 250 s long, separated by ~2ks. The source then enters a larger flare event of higher luminosity and ~8 ks duration. Spectral analysis revealed evidence for a significant change in spectral shape during the observation with a photon index varying from {\\Gamma} ~ 2.5 during the initial low luminosity emission phase, to {\\Gamma} ~ 1.9 through the fast flaring activity, and...

  15. The Intermediate Luminosity Optical Transient SN 2010da: The Progenitor, Eruption and Aftermath of a Peculiar Supergiant High-mass X-ray Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Villar, V Ashley; Chornock, Ryan; Margutti, Raffaella; Laskar, Tanmoy; Brown, Peter J; Blanchard, Peter K; Czekala, Ian; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Reynolds, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy, ultraviolet to infrared imaging and X-ray observations of the intermediate luminosity optical transient (ILOT) SN 2010da in NGC 300 (d=1.86 Mpc) spanning from -6 to +6 years relative to the time of outburst in 2010. Based on the light curve and multi-epoch SEDs of SN 2010da, we conclude that the progenitor of SN 2010da is a ~10-12 Msol yellow supergiant possibly transitioning into a blue loop phase. During outburst, SN 2010da had a peak absolute magnitude of M<-10.4 mag, dimmer than other ILOTs and supernova impostors. We detect multi-component hydrogen Balmer, Paschen, and Ca II emission lines in our high-resolution spectra, which indicate a dusty and complex circumstellar environment. Since the 2010 eruption, the star has brightened by a factor of ~5 and remains highly variable in the optical. Furthermore, we detect SN 2010da in archival Swift and Chandra observations as an ultraluminous X-ray source (L~6x10^{39} erg/s). We additionally attribute He II 4686 Angstrom and c...

  16. Characterizing the Solvated Structure of Photoexcited [Os(terpy2]2+ with X-ray Transient Absorption Spectroscopy and DFT Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the geometric and electronic structures of individual photoexcited dye molecules in solution is an important step towards understanding the interfacial properties of photo-active electrodes. The broad family of “red sensitizers” based on osmium(II polypyridyl compounds often undergoes small photo-induced structural changes which are challenging to characterize. In this work, X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy with picosecond temporal resolution is employed to determine the geometric and electronic structures of the photoexcited triplet state of [Os(terpy2]2+ (terpy: 2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine solvated in methanol. From the EXAFS analysis, the structural changes can be characterized by a slight overall expansion of the first coordination shell [OsN6]. DFT calculations supports the XTA results. They also provide additional information about the nature of the molecular orbitals that contribute to the optical spectrum (with TD-DFT and the near-edge region of the X-ray spectra.

  17. Cooling of the quasi-persistent neutron star X-ray transients KS 1731-260 and MXB 1659-29

    CERN Document Server

    Cackett, E M; Linares, M; Miller, J M; Homan, J; Lewin, W; Cackett, Edward M.; Wijnands, Rudy; Linares, Manuel; Miller, Jon M.; Homan, Jeroen; Lewin, Walter

    2006-01-01

    We present Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations that monitor the neutron star cooling of the quasi-persistent neutron star X-ray transients KS 1731-260 and MXB 1659-29 for approximately 4 years after these sources returned to quiescence from prolonged outbursts. In both sources the outbursts were long enough to significantly heat the neutron star crust out of thermal equilibrium with the core. The results of our analysis strengthen the preliminary findings of Wijnands et al. that in both sources the neutron star crust cools down very rapidly suggesting it has a high heat conductivity and that the neutron star core requires enhanced core cooling processes. Importantly, we now detect the flattening of the cooling in both sources as the crust returns to thermal equilibrium with the core. We measure the thermal equilbrium flux and temperature in both sources by fitting a curve that decays exponentially to a constant level. The cooling curves cannot be fit with just a simple exponential decay without the cons...

  18. Chest X Ray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Chest X Ray A chest x ray is a fast and painless imaging test ... tissue scarring, called fibrosis. Doctors may use chest x rays to see how well certain treatments are ...

  19. X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of ... different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat ...

  20. Medical X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Benefits The discovery of X-rays and the invention of CT represented major advances in medicine. X- ... in X-ray and CT Examinations — X-ray definition, dose measurement, safety precautions, risk, and consideration with ...

  1. The Variable Quiescent X-Ray Emission of the Neutron Star Transient XTE J1701-462

    CERN Document Server

    Fridriksson, Joel K; Wijnands, Rudy; Cackett, Edward M; Altamirano, Diego; Brown, Edward F; Degenaar, Nathalie; Mendez, Mariano; Belloni, Tomaso M

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of continued monitoring of the quiescent neutron star low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1701-462 with Chandra and Swift. A new Chandra observation from 2010 October extends our tracking of the neutron star surface temperature from ~800 days to ~1160 days since the end of an exceptionally luminous 19 month outburst. This observation indicates that the neutron star crust may still be slowly cooling toward thermal equilibrium with the core; another observation further into quiescence is needed to verify this. The shape of the cooling curve is consistent with that of a broken power law, although an exponential decay to a constant level cannot be excluded with the present data. To investigate possible low-level activity we conducted a monitoring campaign of XTE J1701-462 with Swift during 2010 April-October. Short-term flares - presumably arising from episodic low-level accretion - were observed up to a luminosity of ~1e35 erg/s, ~20 times higher than the normal quiescent level. We conclude that fl...

  2. Propeller effect in two brightest transient X-ray pulsars: 4U 0115+63 and V 0332+53

    CERN Document Server

    Tsygankov, S S; Doroshenko, V; Mushtukov, A A; Poutanen, J

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the monitoring programmes performed with the Swift/XRT telescope and aimed specifically to the detection of an abrupt decrease of the observed flux associated with a transition to the propeller regime in two well known X-ray pulsars 4U 0115+63 and V 0332+53 during their giant outbursts in 2015. Such transitions were detected at the threshold luminosities of $(1.4\\pm0.4)\\times10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$ and $(2.0\\pm0.4)\\times10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$ for 4U 0115+63 and V 0332+53, respectively. Spectra of the sources are shown to be significantly softer during the low state. In both sources, the accretion at rates close to the aforementioned threshold values briefly resumes during the periastron passage following the transition into propeller regime. The strength of the dipole component of the magnetic field required to inhibit the accretion agrees well with estimates based on the position of the cyclotron lines in their spectra, thus excluding presence of a strong multipole component of the mag...

  3. High-Dispersion Spectroscopy of the X-Ray Transient RXTE J0421+560 (= CI Cam) during Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, E L; Welsh, W F; Robinson, Edward L.; Ivans, Inese I.; Welsh, William F.

    2002-01-01

    We obtained high dispersion spectra of CI Cam, the optical counterpart of XTE J0421+560, two weeks after the peak of its short outburst in 1998 April. The optical counterpart is a supergiant B[e] star emitting a two-component wind. The cool wind (the source of narrow emission lines of neutral and ionized metals) has a velocity of 32 km/s and a temperature near 8000 K. Dense and roughly spherical, it fills the space around the sgB[e] star, and, based on the size of an infrared-emitting dust shell around the system, extends to a radius between 13 - 50 AU. It carries away mass at a high rate, Mdot > 10^(-6) solar masses per year. The hot wind has a velocity in excess of 2500 km/s and a temperature of 1.7 +/-0.3 x 10^4 K. From UV spectra of CI Cam obtained in 2000 March with Hubble Space Telescope, we derive a differential extinction E(B-V) = 0.85 +/- 0.05. We derive a distance to CI Cam > 5 kpc. Based on this revised distance, the X-ray luminosity at the peak of the outburst was L(2-25 keV) > 3.0 x 10^38 erg/s, ...

  4. Evidence for crust cooling in the transiently accreting 11-Hz X-ray pulsar in the globular cluster Terzan 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Degenaar; E.F. Brown; R. Wijnands

    2011-01-01

    The temporal heating and subsequent cooling of the crusts of transiently accreting neutron stars carries unique information about their structure and a variety of nuclear reaction processes. We report on a new Chandra Director’s Discretionary Time observation of the globular cluster Terzan 5, aimed

  5. X-ray transient absorption structural characterization of the 3MLCT triplet excited state of cis-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2]2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borfecchia, Elisa; Garino, Claudio; Salassa, Luca; Ruiu, Tiziana; Gianolio, Diego; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Attenkofer, Klaus; Chen, Lin X; Gobetto, Roberto; Sadler, Peter J; Lamberti, Carlo

    2013-05-14

    The excited state dynamics and structure of the photochemically active complex cis-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2](2+) have been investigated using optical transient absorption (OTA) and X-ray transient absorption (XTA) spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT). Upon light-excitation in aqueous solution cis-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2](2+) undergoes ultrafast dissociation of one pyridine ligand to form cis-[Ru(bpy)2(py)(H2O)](2+). OTA measurements highlighted the presence of two major time components of 1700 ps and 130 ps through which the system decays to the ground-state and evolves towards the photoproduct. XTA data were acquired after 150 ps, 500 ps, and 3000 ps from laser excitation (λexc = 351 nm) and provided the transient structure of the (3)MLCT state corresponding to the longer time component in the OTA experiment. In excellent agreement with DFT, XTA shows that the (3)MLCT geometry is characterized by an elongation of the dissociating Ru-N(py) bond and a shortening of the trans Ru-N(bpy) bond with respect to the ground state. Conversely, calculations show that the (3)MC state has a highly distorted structure with Ru-N(py) bonds between 2.77-3.05 Å.

  6. Broad-band spectroscopy of the transient X-ray binary pulsar KS 1947+300 during 2013 giant outburst: Detection of pulsating soft X-ray excess component

    CERN Document Server

    Epili, Prahlad; Jaisawal, Gaurava K

    2016-01-01

    We present the results obtained from detailed timing and spectral studies of the Be/X-ray binary pulsar KS 1947+300 during its 2013 giant outburst. We used data from Suzaku observations of the pulsar at two epochs i.e. on 2013 October 22 (close to the peak of the outburst) and 2013 November 22. X-ray pulsations at $\\sim$18.81 s were clearly detected in the light curves obtained from both observations. Pulse periods estimated during the outburst showed that the pulsar was spinning up. The pulse profile was found to be single-peaked up to $\\sim$10 keV beyond which a sharp peak followed by a dip-like feature appeared at hard X-rays. The dip-like feature has been observed up to $\\sim$70 keV. The 1-110 keV broad-band spectroscopy of both observations revealed that the best-fit model comprised of a partially absorbed Negative and Positive power law with EXponential cutoff (NPEX) continuum model along with a blackbody component for the soft X-ray excess and two Gaussian functions at 6.4 and 6.7 keV for emission line...

  7. Ultrafast dynamics of two copper bis-phenanthroline complexes measured by x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelley, Matthew S.; Shelby, Megan L.; Mara, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    have the general formula [Cu(I)(R)2]+, where R = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp) and 2,9-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline disulfonic acid disodium salt (dpps). [Cu(I)(dmp)2]+ has methyl groups at the 2,9 positions of phenanthroline (phen) and adopts a pseudo-tetrahedral geometry. In contrast, [Cu......(I)(dpps)2]+ possesses two bulky phenyl-sulfonate groups attached to each phen ligand that force the molecule to adopt a flattened tetrahedral geometry in the ground state. Previously, optical transient absorption (OTA) and synchrotron based XTA experiments with 100 ps time resolution have been employed...

  8. Tracking Co(I) Intermediate in operando in Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution by X-ray transient Absorption Spectroscopy and DFT Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi-Jun; Zhan, Fei; Xiao, Hongyan; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Kong, Qing-Yu; Fan, Xiang-Bing; Liu, Wen-Qiang; Huang, Mao-Yong; Huang, Cheng; Gao, Yu-Ji; Li, Xu-Bing; Meng, Qing-Yuan; Feng, Ke; Chen, Bin; Tung, Chen-Ho; Zhao, Hai-Feng; Tao, Ye; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2016-12-07

    X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy (XTA) and optical transient spectroscopy (OTA) were used to probe the Co(I) intermediate generated in situ from an aqueous photocatalytic hydrogen evolution system, with [RuII(bpy)3]Cl2·6H2O as the photosensitizer, ascorbic acid/ascorbate as the electron donor, and the Co-polypyridyl complex ([CoII(DPABpy) Cl]Cl) as the pre-catalyst. Upon exposure to light, the XTA measured at Co K-edge visualizes the grow and decay of the Co(I) intermediate, and reveals its Co-N bond contraction of 0.09 ± 0.03 Å. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations support the bond contraction and illustrate that the metal-to-ligand π back-bonding greatly stabilizes the penta-coordinated Co(I) intermediate, which provides easy photon access. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of capturing the penta-coordinated Co(I) intermediate in operando with bond contraction by XTA, thereby providing new insights for fundamental understanding of structure– function relationship of cobalt-based molecular catalysts.

  9. Suzaku discovery of iron absorption lines in outburst spectra of the X-ray transient 4U 1630-472

    CERN Document Server

    Kubota, A; Cottam, J; Kotani, T; Done, C; Ueda, Y; Fabian, A C; Yasuda, T; Takahashi, H; Fukazawa, Y; Yamaoka, K; Makishima, K; Yamada, S; Kohmura, T; Angelini, L; Kubota, Aya; Dotani, Tadayasu; Cottam, Jean; Kotani, Taro; Done, Chris; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Fabian, Andrew C.; Yasuda, Tomonori; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Makishima, Kazuo; Yamada, Shinya; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Angelini, Lorella

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of six Suzaku observations of the recurrent black hole transient 4U1630-472 during its decline from outburst from February 8 to March 23 in 2006. All observations show the typical high/soft state spectral shape in the 2-50keV band, roughly described by an optically thick disk spectrum in the soft energy band plus a weak power-law tail that becomes dominant only above \\~20keV. The disk temperature decreases from 1.4keV to 1.2keV as the flux decreases by a factor 2, consistent with a constant radius as expected for disk-dominated spectra. All the observations reveal significant absorption lines from highly ionized (H-like and He-like) iron Ka at 7.0keV and 6.7keV. The brightest datasets also show significant but weaker absorption structures between 7.8keV and 8.2keV, which we identify as a blend of iron Kb and nickel Ka absorption lines. The energies of these absorption lines suggest a blue shift with an outflow velocity of ~1000km/s.. The H-like iron Ka equivalent width remains approxima...

  10. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... degenerative) Bone tumor Broken bone (fracture) Dislocated bone Osteomyelitis (infection) Arthritis Other conditions for which the test ... Bone tumor Bone x-ray Broken bone Clubfoot Osteomyelitis X-ray Review Date 7/3/2016 Updated ...

  11. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are, or may be, pregnant. Alternative Names Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also ...

  12. NuSTAR discovery of a cyclotron absorption line in the transient X-ray pulsar 2S 1553-542

    CERN Document Server

    Tsygankov, Sergey S; Krivonos, Roman A; Molkov, Sergey V; Jenke, Peter J; Finger, Mark H; Poutanen, Juri

    2015-01-01

    We report results of a spectral and timing analysis of the poorly studied transient X-ray pulsar 2S 1553-542 using data collected with the NuSTAR and Chandra observatories and the Fermi/GBM instrument during an outburst in 2015. Properties of the source at high energies (>30 keV) are studied for the first time and the sky position had been essentially improved. The source broadband spectrum has a quite complicated shape and can be reasonably described by a composite model with two continuum components - a black body emission with the temperature about 1 keV at low energies and a power law with an exponential cutoff at high energies. Additionally an absorption feature at $\\sim23.5$ keV is discovered both in phase-averaged and phase-resolved spectra and interpreted as the cyclotron resonance scattering feature corresponding to the magnetic field strength of the neutron star $B\\sim3\\times10^{12}$ G. Based on the Fermi/GBM data the orbital parameters of the system were substantially improved, that allowed us to d...

  13. Hydrogenation Reactions of CO and CO2: New Insights through In Situ X-ray Spectroscopy and Chemical Transient Kinetics Experiments on Cobalt Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Walter Thomas

    . To attempt to circumvent this, a chemical transient kinetics (CTK) reactor was designed and built. Verification of the reactor was performed by evaluating a catalyst from the literature and confirming the results. A CoMgO catalyst was used to accomplish this, and our original findings show that at short time scales steric hindrances at the surface may push the product distribution towards olefinic rather than branched compounds. Continuing work on the CTK, two distinct particle sizes of Co nanoparticles were synthesized and tested under atmospheric conditions (H2:CO = 2:1) on the transient reactor. 4.3 nm Co and 9.5 nm Co were supported on MCF-17 to study the previously observed size effect, where Co nanoparticles lose activity at smaller sizes. It was found that indeed, the 4.3 nm Co are less active because they contain less CO dissociation sites, which are necessary for populating the surface with carbon monomers and spurring subsequent chain growth. The specific CO dissociation site was identified as the Co (221) step, of which larger Co particles have more and smaller Co particles have less. To investigate the nature of the MnO / Co3O4 interface, an in situ study using synchrotron radiation was undertaken. A sample of 6nm MnO nanoparticles loaded on mesoporous Co3O4 was studied with ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Mn and Co L edges, and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. X-ray measurements show that under reducing conditions of CO + H2, the MnO nanoparticles wet the Co surface until it is completely covered by a layer of MnO. Through the combination of techniques, it is shown that the system is catalytic active at the low pressures studied, and that the nature of the interface between MnO and Co3O4 is highly dependent on the temperature and gaseous environment it is prepared in. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  14. A low-level accretion flare during the quiescent state of the neutron-star X-ray transient SAX J1750.8-2900

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, R.; Degenaar, N.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a series of Swift/X-ray telescope observations, performed between 2012 February and 22 March, during the quiescent state of the neutron-star X-ray binary SAX J1750.8−2900. In these observations, the source was either just detected or undetected, depending on the exposure length (which r

  15. X-Ray Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Immler, S; Immler, Stefan; Lewin, Walter H.G.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of X-ray observations of supernovae (SNe). By observing the (~0.1--100 keV) X-ray emission from young SNe, physical key parameters such as the circumstellar matter (CSM) density, mass-loss rate of the progenitor and temperature of the outgoing and reverse shock can be derived as a function of time. Despite intensive search over the last ~25 years, only 15 SNe have been detected in X-rays. We review the individual X-ray observations of these SNe and discuss their implications as to our understanding of the physical processes giving rise to the X-ray emission.

  16. Ultrafast dynamics of strong-field dissociative ionization ofCH2Br2 probed by femtosecond soft x-ray transient absorptionspectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loh, Zhi-Heng; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-01-15

    Femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy based on a high-order harmonic generation source is used to investigate the dissociative ionization of CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2} induced by 800 nm strong-field irradiation. At moderate peak intensities (2.0 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}), strong-field ionization is accompanied by ultrafast C-Br bond dissociation, producing both neutral Br ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and Br* ({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) atoms together with the CH{sub 2}Br{sup +} fragment ion. The measured rise times for Br and Br* are 130 {+-} 22 fs and 74 {+-} 10 fs, respectively. The atomic bromine quantum state distribution shows that the Br/Br* population ratio is 8.1 {+-} 3.8 and that the Br {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} state is not aligned. The observed product distribution and the timescales of the photofragment appearances suggest that multiple field-dressed potential energy surfaces are involved in the dissociative ionization process. In addition, the transient absorption spectrum of CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup +} suggests that the alignment of the molecule relative to the polarization axis of the strong-field ionizing pulse determines the electronic symmetry of the resulting ion; alignment of the Br-Br, H-H, and C{sub 2} axis of the molecule along the polarization axis results in the production of the ion {tilde X}({sup 2}B{sub 2}), {tilde B}({sup 2}B{sub 1}) and {tilde C}({sup 2}A{sub 1}) states, respectively. At higher peak intensities (6.2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}), CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup +} undergoes sequential ionization to form the metastable CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup 2+} dication. These results demonstrate the potential of core-level probing with high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy for studying ultrafast molecular dynamics.

  17. Superluminal antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, John; Earley, Lawrence M.; Krawczyk, Frank L.; Potter, James M.; Romero, William P.; Wang, Zhi-Fu

    2017-03-28

    A superluminal antenna element integrates a balun element to better impedance match an input cable or waveguide to a dielectric radiator element, thus preventing stray reflections and consequent undesirable radiation. For example, a dielectric housing material can be used that has a cutout area. A cable can extend into the cutout area. A triangular conductor can function as an impedance transition. An additional cylindrical element functions as a sleeve balun to better impedance match the radiator element to the cable.

  18. NuSTAR discovery of a cyclotron absorption line in the transient X-ray pulsar 2S 1553-542

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Lutovinov, Alexander A.; Krivonos, Roman A.; Molkov, Sergey V.; Jenke, Peter J.; Finger, Mark H.; Poutanen, Juri

    2016-03-01

    We report the results of a spectral and timing analysis of the poorly studied transient X-ray pulsar 2S 1553-542 using data collected with the NuSTAR and Chandra observatories and the Fermi/GBM instrument during an outburst in 2015. The properties of the source at high energies (>30 keV) are studied for the first time and the sky position has been essentially improved. The source broad-band spectrum has a quite complicated shape and can be reasonably described by a composite model with two continuum components - a blackbody emission with the temperature about 1 keV at low energies and a power law with an exponential cut-off at high energies. Additionally, an absorption feature at ˜23.5 keV is discovered both in phase-averaged and phase-resolved spectra and interpreted as the cyclotron resonance scattering feature corresponding to the magnetic field strength of the neutron star B ˜ 3 × 1012 G. Based on the Fermi/GBM data, the orbital parameters of the system were substantially improved, which allowed us to determine the spin period of the neutron star P = 9.27880(3) s and a local spin-up dot{P} ˜eq -7.5 × 10^{-10} s s-1 due to the mass accretion during the NuSTAR observations. Assuming accretion from the disc and using standard torque models, we estimated the distance to the system as d = 20 ± 4 kpc.

  19. X-Ray Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kaaret, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We review the basic principles of X-ray polarimetry and current detector technologies based on the photoelectric effect, Bragg reflection, and Compton scattering. Recent technological advances in high-spatial-resolution gas-filled X-ray detectors have enabled efficient polarimeters exploiting the photoelectric effect that hold great scientific promise for X-ray polarimetry in the 2-10 keV band. Advances in the fabrication of multilayer optics have made feasible the construction of broad-band soft X-ray polarimeters based on Bragg reflection. Developments in scintillator and solid-state hard X-ray detectors facilitate construction of both modular, large area Compton scattering polarimeters and compact devices suitable for use with focusing X-ray telescopes.

  20. Detailed Radio to Soft Gamma-ray Studies of the 2005 Outburst of the New X-ray Transient XTE J1818-245

    CERN Document Server

    Bel, M Cadolle; Rodríguez, J; Ribó, M; Barragan, L; D'Avanzo, P; Hannikainen, D C; Kuulkers, E; Campana, S; Moldon, J; Chaty, S; Zurita-Heras, J; Goldwurm, A; Goldoni, P

    2009-01-01

    XTE J1818-245 is an X-ray nova that experienced an outburst in 2005, first seen by the RXTE satellite. The source was observed simultaneously at various wavelengths up to soft gamma-rays with the INTEGRAL satellite, from 2005 February to September. X-ray novae are extreme systems that often harbor a black hole, and are known to emit throughout the electromagnetic spectrum when in outburst. We analyzed radio, (N)IR, optical, X-ray and soft gamma-ray observations and constructed simultaneous broad-band X-ray spectra. Analyzing both the light curves in various energy ranges and the hardness-intensity diagram enabled us to study the long-term behavior of the source. Spectral parameters were typical of the Soft Intermediate States and the High Soft States of a black hole candidate. The source showed relatively small spectral variations in X-rays with considerable flux variation in radio. Spectral studies showed that the accretion disc cooled down from 0.64 to 0.27 keV in 100 days and that the total flux decreased ...

  1. Searching for near-infrared counterparts of the faint neutron star X-ray transients XMMU J174716.1-281048 and SAX J1806.5-2215

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Ramanpreet; Kamble, Atish; Cackett, Edward M; Kutulla, Ralf; Kaplan, David; Degenaar, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    We present our near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations of the two neutron star low mass X-ray binaries XMMU J174716.1-281048 and SAX J1806.5-2215 obtained using the PANIC instrument on the 6.5-meter Magellan telescope and the WHIRC instrument on 3.5-meter WIYN telescope. Both sources are members of the group of faint to very-faint X-ray binaries and are undergoing very long X-ray outbursts since 2003 and 2011, respectively- `the quasi-persistent X-ray binaries'. The goal of our observations is to identify the NIR counterpart of both sources. We identified two NIR stars consistent with the Chandra X-ray error circle of XMMU J174716.1-281048 and one for SAX J1806.5-2215. We studied the magnitude variations of the possible counterparts with respect to the UKIRT NIR Galactic plane observations. For XMMU J174716.1-281048, we also investigated the candidate counterparts using the color-color diagram and spectral energy distribution. We observed large variability in one NIR star having position consistent with the ...

  2. New Insights into X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Casares, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    X-ray binaries are excellent laboratories to study collapsed objects. On the one hand, transient X-ray binaries contain the best examples of stellar-mass black holes while persistent X-ray binaries mostly harbour accreting neutron stars. The determination of stellar masses in persistent X-ray binaries is usually hampered by the overwhelming luminosity of the X-ray heated accretion disc. However, the discovery of high-excitation emission lines from the irradiated companion star has opened new routes in the study of compact objects. This paper presents novel techniques which exploits these irradiated lines and summarises the dynamical masses obtained for the two populations of collapsed stars: neutron stars and black holes.

  3. LOBSTER - New Space X-Ray telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Pina, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Simon, V. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Sveda, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Inneman, A.; Semencova, V. [Center for Advanced X-ray Technologies, Reflex, Prague (Czech Republic); Skulinova, M. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

    2007-04-15

    We discuss the technological and scientific aspects of fully innovative very wide-field X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity. The prototypes of Lobster telescopes designed, developed and tested are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster Eye X-ray optics to be considered for the first time. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. For example, the Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science.

  4. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be allowed to remain with your child during the test. If you remain in the room during the X-ray exposure, you'll likely be asked to wear a lead apron to shield you from unnecessary exposure. After the X-ray ...

  5. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X-rays are a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation. The x-rays penetrate the body to form ... for detecting cavities, unless the decay is very advanced and deep. Many ... The amount of radiation given off during the procedure is less than ...

  6. X-Ray Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, P; Perri, M

    1998-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the field of X-ray surveys, especially in the hard (2-10 and 5-10 keV) bands, is given. A new detailed comparison between the measurements in the hard band and extrapolations from ROSAT counts, that takes into proper account the observed distribution of spectral slopes, is presented. Direct comparisons between deep ROSAT and BeppoSAX images show that most hard X-ray sources are also detected at soft X-ray energies. This may indicate that heavily cutoff sources, that should not be detectable in the ROSAT band but are expected in large numbers from unified AGN schemes, are in fact detected because of the emerging of either non-nuclear components, or of reflected, or partially transmitted nuclear X-rays. These soft components may complicate the estimation of the soft X-ray luminosity function and cosmological evolution of AGN.

  7. X-ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, T.

    In spite of the recent advances in X-ray instrumentation, polarimetry remains an area which has been virtually unexplored in the last 20 years. The scientific motivation to study polarization has increased during this time: emission models designed to repro- duce X-ray spectra can be tested using polarization, and polarization detected in other wavelength bands makes clear predictions as to the X-ray polarization. Polarization remains the only way to infer geometrical properties of sources which are too small to be spatially resolved. At the same time, there has been recent progress in instrumen- tation which is likely to allow searches for X-ray polarization at levels significantly below what was possible for early detectors. In this talk I will review the history of X-ray polarimetry, discuss some experimental techniques and the scientific problems which can be addressed by future experiments.

  8. GRB060602B = Swift J1749.4−2807: an unusual transiently accreting neutron-star X-ray binary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, R.; Rol, E.; Cackett, E.; Starling, R.L.C.; Remillard, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and X-ray telescope (XRT) data of GRB060602B, which is most likely an accreting neutron star in a binary system and not a gamma-ray burst. Our analysis shows that the BAT burst spectrum is consistent with a thermonuclear flash (type I X

  9. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  10. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  12. Bone x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or broken bone Bone tumors Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection) ... Multiple myeloma Osgood-Schlatter disease Osteogenesis imperfecta Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Paget disease of the bone Rickets X-ray ...

  13. Hand x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include fractures, bone tumors , degenerative bone conditions, and osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection). ... chap 46. Read More Bone tumor Broken bone Osteomyelitis X-ray Review Date 9/8/2014 Updated ...

  14. Pelvis x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - pelvis ... Tumors Degenerative conditions of bones in the hips, pelvis, and upper legs ... hip joint Tumors of the bones of the pelvis Sacroiliitis (inflammation of the area where the sacrum ...

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Medical Imaging Costs Magnetoencephalography ( ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  17. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used ... diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A ...

  18. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... x-ray particles pass through the body. A computer or special film records the images. Structures that ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  19. X-Ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  20. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  1. X-Ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CT Angiography Video: Myelography Video: CT of the Heart Video: Radioiodine I-131 Therapy Radiology and You ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray is taken with the ... an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) ... diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? The technologist, an individual specially ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray is taken with the ... an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  9. The observation of a transient surface morphology in the femtosecond laser ablation process by using the soft x-ray laser probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Noboru; Nishikino, Masaharu; Tomita, Takuro; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Ito, Atsushi M.; Eyama, Takashi; Kakimoto, Naoya; Idutsu, Rui; Minami, Yasuo; Baba, Motoyoshi; Faenov, Anatoly Y.; Inogamov, Nail A.; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Suemoto, Tohru

    2015-09-01

    We have improved a soft x-ray laser (SXRL) interferometer synchronized with a Ti:Sapphire laser pulse to observe the single-shot imaging of the nano-scaled structure dynamics of the laser induced materials. By the precise imaging optics and double time fiducial system having been installed, the lateral resolution on the sample surface and the precision of the temporal synchronization between the SXRL and Ti:Sapphire laser pulses were improved to be 700 nm and 2 ps, respectively. By using this system, the initial stage (t < 200 ps) of the ablation process of the Pt surface pumped by 80 fs Ti:Sapphire laser pulse was observed by the comparison between the soft x-ray reflective image and interferogram. We have succeeded in the direct observation of the unique ablation process around the ablation threshold such as the rapid increase of the surface roughness and surface vibration.

  10. The 2008 October Swift detection of X-ray bursts/outburst from the transient SGR-like AXP 1E 1547.0-5408

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, G L; Rea, N; Dall'Osso, S; Senziani, F; Romano, P; Mangano, V; Götz, D; Zane, S; Tiengo, A; Palmer, D M; Krimm, H; Gehrels, N; Mereghetti, S; Stella, L; Turolla, R; Campana, S; Perna, R; Angelini, L; De Luca, A

    2010-01-01

    We report on the detailed study of the 2008 October outburst from the anomalous X-ray pulsar (AXP) 1E 1547.0-5408 discovered through the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) detection of SGR-like short X-ray bursts on 2008 October 3. The Swift/X-ray Telescope (XRT) started observing the source after less than 100 s since the BAT trigger, when the flux (about 6E-11 erg/cm^2/s in the 2-10 keV range) was >50 times higher than its quiescent level. Swift monitored the outbursting activity of 1E 1547.0-5408 on a daily basis for approximately three weeks. This strategy allowed us to find a phase-coherent solution for the source pulsations after the burst, which, besides period and period derivative, requires a positive Period second derivative term (spin-down increase). The time evolution of the pulse shape is complex and variable, with the pulsed fraction increasing from 20% to 50% within the Swift observational window. The XRT spectra can be fitted well by means of a single component, either a power-law (PL) or a bla...

  11. A cold neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary HETE J1900.1-2455 after 10 years of active accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Degenaar, N; Reynolds, M T; Wijnands, R; Page, D

    2016-01-01

    The neutron star low-mass X-ray binary and intermittent millisecond X-ray pulsar HETE J1900.1-2455 returned to quiescence in late 2015, after a prolonged accretion outburst of ~10 yr. Using a Chandra observation taken ~180 d into quiescence we detect the source at a luminosity of ~4.5E31 (D/4.7 kpc)^2 erg/s (0.5-10 keV). The X-ray spectrum can be described by a neutron star atmosphere model with a temperature of ~54 eV for an observer at infinity. We perform thermal evolution calculations based on the 2016 quiescent data and a <98 eV temperature upper limit inferred from a Swift observation taken during an unusually brief (<2 weeks) quiescent episode in 2007. We find no evidence in the present data that the thermal properties of the crust, such as the heating rate and thermal conductivity, are different than those of non-pulsating neutron stars. Finding this neutron star so cold after its long outburst imposes interesting constraints on the heat capacity of the stellar core; these become even stronger i...

  12. A cold neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary HETE J1900.1-2455 after 10 yr of active accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenaar, N.; Ootes, L. S.; Reynolds, M. T.; Wijnands, R.; Page, D.

    2017-02-01

    The neutron star low-mass X-ray binary and intermittent millisecond X-ray pulsar HETE J1900.1-2455 returned to quiescence in late 2015, after a prolonged accretion outburst of ≃10 yr. Using a Chandra observation taken ≃180 d into quiescence, we detect the source at a luminosity of ≃4.5 × 1031 (D/4.7 kpc)2 erg s-1 (0.5-10 keV). The X-ray spectrum can be described by a neutron star atmosphere model with a temperature of ≃54 eV for an observer at infinity. We perform thermal evolution calculations based on the 2016 quiescent data and a ≲98 eV temperature upper limit inferred from a Swift observation taken during an unusually brief (≲2 weeks) quiescent episode in 2007. We find no evidence in the present data that the thermal properties of the crust, such as the heating rate and thermal conductivity, are different than those of non-pulsating neutron stars. Finding this neutron star so cold after its long outburst imposes interesting constraints on the heat capacity of the stellar core; these become even stronger if further cooling were to occur.

  13. A strong steric hindrance effect on ground state, excited state, and charge separated state properties of a CuI-diimine complex captured by X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, J.; Mara, M.W.; Stickrath, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Photophysical and structural properties of a CuI diimine complex with very strong steric hindrance, [CuI(dppS)2]+ (dppS = 2,9-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline disulfonic acid disodium salt), are investigated by optical and X-ray transient absorption (OTA and XTA) spectroscopy. The bulky phenylsulfonic...... of metal complex/semiconductor NP hybrids but also provide guidance for designing efficient CuI diimine complexes with optimized structures for application in solar-to-electricity conversion. This journal is...

  14. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  15. X-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Roland

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsars shine thanks to the conversion of the gravitational energy of accreted material to X-ray radiation. The accretion rate is modulated by geometrical and hydrodynamical effects in the stellar wind of the pulsar companions and/or by instabilities in accretion discs. Wind driven flows are highly unstable close to neutron stars and responsible for X-ray variability by factors $10^3$ on time scale of hours. Disk driven flows feature slower state transitions and quasi periodic oscillations related to orbital motion and precession or resonance. On shorter time scales, and closer to the surface of the neutron star, X-ray variability is dominated by the interactions of the accreting flow with the spinning magnetosphere. When the pulsar magnetic field is large, the flow is confined in a relatively narrow accretion column, whose geometrical properties drive the observed X-ray emission. In low magnetized systems, an increasing accretion rate allows the ignition of powerful explosive thermonuclear burning at t...

  16. Novel X-ray telescopes for wide-field X-ray monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudec, R. [Academy of science of Czech Republic, Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Inneman, A. [Centre for advanced X-ray technologies Reflex sro, Prague (Czech Republic); Pina, L.; Sveda, L. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Nuclear Science

    2005-07-15

    We report on fully innovative very wide-field of view X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity as well as large field of view. The prototypes are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster-eye X-ray optics to be considered. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study and to understand various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. The Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science.

  17. Non-thermal emission from supernova shock breakout and the origin of the X-ray transient associated with SN2008D

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiang-Yu; Waxman, Eli; Meszaros, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We suggest that non-thermal emission can be produced by multiple scatterings of the photons between the supernova ejecta and pre-shock material in supernova shock breakout. Such bulk-Comptonization process may significantly change the original thermal photon spectrum, forming a power-law non-thermal component at higher energies. We then show that the luminous X-ray outburst XRO081009 associated with SN2008D is likely to be such shock breakout emission from an ordinary type Ib/c supernova.

  18. Transient Lattice Response to the Interaction between Pulse-Laser and Semiconductors Probed by Time-Resolved X-Ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimura, Hiroaki; Kawano, Hidetaka; Hironaka, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Kazutaka G.; Kondo, Ken-ichi

    2004-07-01

    Time-resolved X-ray diffraction has been performed on laser irradiated Si and Ge crystals. In the case of Si, the lattice expansion due to laser heating is observed. On the other hand, the compression wave is propagated into a Ge crystal. The maximum compression of Ge is about 4 %, which is larger than the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL). The results suggest that Ge is not compressed hydrostatically, but compressed uniaxially at 7.5 GPa in a picosecond time scale. The strain profiles inside the crystals are obtained as the calculated rocking curves represent well the experiment.

  19. INTEGRAL monitoring of the X-ray burster XTE J1739-285

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Chenevez, Jérôme;

    2008-01-01

    XTE J1739-285 is a recurrent X-ray transient first discovered by INTEGRAL as an X-ray burster. We have carried out a systematic search for X-ray bursts at various levels of accretion rate onto the Neutron Star surface during the source outbursts in 2005 and 2006. A total of 25 X-ray bursts were f...

  20. Outbursts in ultracompact X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hameury, J -M

    2016-01-01

    Very faint X-ray binaries appear to be transient in many cases with peak luminosities much fainter than that of usual soft X-ray transients, but their nature still remains elusive. We investigate the possibility that this transient behaviour is due to the same thermal/viscous instability which is responsible for outbursts of bright soft X-ray transients, occurring in ultracompact binaries for adequately low mass-transfer rates. More generally, we investigate the observational consequences of this instability when it occurs in ultracompact binaries. We use our code for modelling the thermal-viscous instability of the accretion disc, assumed here to be hydrogen poor. We also take into account the effects of disc X-ray irradiation, and consider the impact of the mass-transfer rate on the outburst brightness. We find that one can reproduce the observed properties of both the very faint and the brighter short transients (peak luminosity, duration, recurrence times), provided that the viscosity parameter in quiesce...

  1. X-Ray Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-01-01

    15,000. • When developed In Kodak liquid X-ray developer for 5 min at a temperature of 200 C. b Film sensitivities vary with photon energy by the...for example temporomandibular -joint exposures where a skin dose of 25 r or more may be obtained during a single exposure with 65 kvp, 1.5 mm aluminum...communication. W. J. Updegrave, Temporomandibular articulation-X-ray examina- tion, Dental Radiography and Photography 26, No. 3, 41 (1953). H. 0. Wyckoff, R. J

  2. X-ray Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, A. C.; Ross, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Material irradiated by X-rays produces backscattered radiation which is commonly known as the Reflection Spectrum. It consists of a structured continuum, due at high energies to the competition between photoelectric absorption and electron scattering enhanced at low energies by emission from the material itself, together with a complex line spectrum. We briefly review the history of X-ray reflection in astronomy and discuss various methods for computing the reflection spectrum from cold and ionized gas, illustrated with results from our own work reflionx. We discuss how the reflection spectrum can be used to obtain the geometry of the accretion flow, particularly the inner regions around black holes and neutron stars.

  3. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  4. Soft X-ray follow-up of five hard X-ray emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Pavan, L; Ferrigno, C; Falanga, M; Campana, S; Paltani, S; Stella, L; Walter, R

    2013-01-01

    We studied the soft-X-ray emission of five hard-X sources: IGR J08262-3736, IGR J17354-3255, IGR J16328-4726, SAX J1818.6-1703 and IGR J17348-2045. These sources are: a confirmed supergiant high mass X-ray binary (IGR J08262-3736); candidates (IGR J17354-3255, IGR J16328- 4726) and confirmed (SAX J1818.6-1703) supergiant fast X-ray transients; IGR J17348-2045 is one of the as-yet unidentified objects discovered with INTEGRAL. Thanks to dedicated XMM-Newton observations, we obtained the first detailed soft X-ray spectral and timing study of IGR J08262-3736. The results obtained from the observations of IGR J17354-3255 and IGR J16328-4726 provided further support in favor of their association with the class of Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients. SAX J1818.6-1703, observed close to phase 0.5, was not detected by XMM-Newton, thus supporting the idea that this source reaches its lowest X-ray luminosity (~10^32 erg/s) around apastron. For IGR J17348-2045 we identified for the first time the soft X-ray counterpart and...

  5. Analysis by synchrotron X-ray radiography of convection effects on the dynamic evolution of the solid-liquid interface and on solute distribution during the initial transient of solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogno, A., E-mail: abdoul-aziz.bogno@im2np.fr [Aix Marseille Universite, Campus Saint-Jerome, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); CNRS, UMR 6242, Campus Saint-Jerome, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Nguyen-Thi, H. [Aix Marseille Universite, Campus Saint-Jerome, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); CNRS, UMR 6242, Campus Saint-Jerome, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Buffet, A. [ESRF, Avenue des Martyrs, BP 220, 38048 Grenoble Cedex (France); Reinhart, G.; Billia, B.; Mangelinck-Noel, N.; Bergeon, N. [Aix Marseille Universite, Campus Saint-Jerome, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); CNRS, UMR 6242, Campus Saint-Jerome, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Baruchel, J. [ESRF, Avenue des Martyrs, BP 220, 38048 Grenoble Cedex (France); Schenk, T. [LPM - ENSMN, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2011-06-15

    In situ monitoring of the initial transient of directional solidification was carried out by means of synchrotron X-ray radiography. Experiments with Al-4 wt.% Cu alloy samples were performed on beamline ID19 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in a dedicated Bridgman-type furnace. X-ray radiography enabled a detailed analysis of the evolution over time of the solid-liquid interface macroscopic shape in interaction with convection in the melt. Lateral solute segregation induced by fluid flow resulted in a significant deformation of the solid-liquid interface. The time-dependent velocity of the solidification front was determined at different abscissa values along the curved interface during the solidification process, from the growth phase with a smooth interface to the onset of morphological instability. Further, using a novel quantitative image analysis technique we were able to measure longitudinal solute profiles in the melt during the initial transient. Solutal length was then deduced as well as concentration in the melt, both at the interface and far away from it. The influence of convection on growth velocity and the characteristic parameters of the solute boundary layer are discussed, and a comparison with the Warren and Langer model is also presented.

  6. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Therapy November 8 is the International Day of Radiology (IDoR) Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  7. Echoes in X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    O'Brien, K; Hynes, R; Chen, W; Haswell, C; Still, M

    2002-01-01

    We present a method of analysing the correlated X-ray and optical/UV variability in X-ray binaries, using the observed time delays between the X-ray driving lightcurves and their reprocessed optical echoes. This allows us to determine the distribution of reprocessing sites within the binary. We model the time-delay transfer functions by simulating the distribution of reprocessing regions, using geometrical and binary parameters. We construct best-fit time-delay transfer functions, showing the regions in the binary responsible for the reprocessing of X-rays. We have applied this model to observations of the Soft X-ray Transient, GRO j1655-40. We find the optical variability lags the X-ray variability with a mean time delay of 19.3$pm{2.2}$ seconds. This means that the outer regions of the accretion disc are the dominant reprocessing site in this system. On fitting the data to a simple geometric model, we derive a best-fit disk half-opening angle of 13.5$^{+2.1}_{-2.8}$ degrees, which is similar to that observe...

  8. The SAS-3 X-ray observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The experiment section of the Small Astronomy Satellite-3 (SAS-3) launched in May 1975 is an X-ray observatory intended to determine the location of bright X-ray sources to an accuracy of 15 arc-seconds; to study a selected set of sources over a wide energy range, from 0.1 to 55 keV, while performing very specific measurements of the spectra and time variability of known X-ray sources; and to monitor the sky continuously for X-ray novae, flares, and unexpected phenomena. The improvements in SAS-3 spacecraft include a clock accurate to 1 part in 10 billion, rotatable solar panels, a programmable data format, and improved nutation damper, a delayed command system, improved magnetic trim and azimuth control systems. These improvements enable SAS-3 to perform three-axis stabilized observations of any point on the celestial sphere at any time of the year. The description of the experiment section and the SAS-3 operation is followed by a synopsis of scientific results obtained from the observations of X-ray sources, such as Vela X-1 (supposed to be an accreting neutron star), a transient source of hard X-ray (less than 36 min in duration) detected by SAS-3, the Crab Nebula pulsar, the Perseus cluster of galaxies, and the Vela supernova remnant.

  9. In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2009-12-01

    Electromigration-induced hydrostatic elastic stress in Pb-free SnCu solder joints was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray white beam microdiffraction. The elastic stresses in two different grains with similar crystallographic orientation, one located at the anode end and the other at the cathode end, were analyzed based on the elastic anisotropy of the Beta-Sn crystal structure. The stress in the grain at the cathode end remained constant except for temperature fluctuations, while the compressive stress in the grain at the anode end was built-up as a function of time during electromigration until a steady state was reached. The measured compressive stress gradient between the cathode and the anode is much larger than what is needed to initiate Sn whisker growth. The effective charge number of Beta-Sn derived from the electromigration data is in good agreement with the calculated value.

  10. In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2009-05-15

    Electromigration-induced hydrostatic elastic stress in Pb-free SnCu solder joints was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray white beam microdiffraction. The elastic stresses in two different grains with similar crystallographic orientation, one located at the anode end and the other at the cathode end, were analyzed based on the elastic anisotropy of the {beta}-Sn crystal structure. The stress in the grain at the cathode end remained constant except for temperature fluctuations, while the compressive stress in the grain at the anode end was built-up as a function of time during electromigration until a steady state was reached. The measured compressive stress gradient between the cathode and the anode is much larger than what is needed to initiate Sn whisker growth. The effective charge number of {beta}-Sn derived from the electromigration data is in good agreement with the calculated value.

  11. Multifrequency observations of the superluminal quasar 3C 345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Matthews, K.; Roellig, T. P. L.; Bregman, J. D.; Witteborn, F. C.; Lester, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the continuum properties of the superluminal quasar 3C 345, on the basis of radio, optical, IR, and X-ray frequency monitorings, as well as by means of simultaneous multifrequency spectra extending from the radio through the X-ray bands. Radio outbursts, which appear to follow IR-optical outbursts by about one year, first occur at the highest frequencies, as expected from optical depth effects; the peak flux is nevertheless often reached at several frequencies at once. The beginning of outbursts, as defined by mm-measurements, corresponds to the appearance of the three known 'superluminal' components. An increase in the X-ray flux during 1979-1980 corresponds to increased radio flux, while the IR flux changes in the opposite sense.

  12. X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    Dr. S. N. Zhang has lead a seven member group (Dr. Yuxin Feng, Mr. XuejunSun, Mr. Yongzhong Chen, Mr. Jun Lin, Mr. Yangsen Yao, and Ms. Xiaoling Zhang). This group has carried out the following activities: continued data analysis from space astrophysical missions CGRO, RXTE, ASCA and Chandra. Significant scientific results have been produced as results of their work. They discovered the three-layered accretion disk structure around black holes in X-ray binaries; their paper on this discovery is to appear in the prestigious Science magazine. They have also developed a new method for energy spectral analysis of black hole X-ray binaries; four papers on this topics were presented at the most recent Atlanta AAS meeting. They have also carried Monte-Carlo simulations of X-ray detectors, in support to the hardware development efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These computation-intensive simulations have been carried out entirely on the computers at UAH. They have also carried out extensive simulations for astrophysical applications, taking advantage of the Monte-Carlo simulation codes developed previously at MSFC and further improved at UAH for detector simulations. One refereed paper and one contribution to conference proceedings have been resulted from this effort.

  13. X-ray Chirped Pulse Amplification: towards GW Soft X-ray Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fajardo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive modeling of the seeding of plasma-based soft X-ray lasers is reported in this article. Seminal experiments on amplification in plasmas created from solids have been studied in detail and explained. Using a transient collisional excitation scheme, we show that a 18 µJ, 80 fs fully coherent pulse is achievable by using plasmas pumped by a compact 10 Hz laser. We demonstrate that direct seeding of plasmas created by nanosecond lasers is not efficient. Therefore, we propose and fully study the transposition to soft X-rays of the Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA technique. Soft X-ray pulses with energy of 6 mJ and 200 fs duration are reachable by seeding plasmas pumped by compact 100 J, sub-ns, 1 shot/min lasers. These soft X-ray lasers would reach GW power, corresponding to an increase of 100 times as compared to the highest peak power achievable nowadays in the soft X-ray region (30 eV–1 keV. X-ray CPA is opening new horizon for soft x-ray ultra-intense sources.

  14. X-ray lithography masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Henry I. (Inventor); Lim, Michael (Inventor); Carter, James (Inventor); Schattenburg, Mark (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    X-ray masking apparatus includes a frame having a supporting rim surrounding an x-ray transparent region, a thin membrane of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material attached at its periphery to the supporting rim covering the x-ray transparent region and a layer of x-ray opaque material on the thin membrane inside the x-ray transparent region arranged in a pattern to selectively transmit x-ray energy entering the x-ray transparent region through the membrane to a predetermined image plane separated from the layer by the thin membrane. A method of making the masking apparatus includes depositing back and front layers of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material on front and back surfaces of a substrate, depositing back and front layers of reinforcing material on the back and front layers, respectively, of the hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing the material including at least a portion of the substrate and the back layers of an inside region adjacent to the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing a portion of the front layer of reinforcing material opposite the inside region to expose the surface of the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material separated from the inside region by the latter front layer, and depositing a layer of x-ray opaque material on the surface of the latter front layer adjacent to the inside region.

  15. A strong and broad iron line in the XMM-Newton spectrum of the new X-ray transient and black-hole candidate XTE J1652-453

    CERN Document Server

    Hiemstra, Beike; Done, Chris; Trigo, Maria Diaz; Altamirano, Diego; Casella, Piergiorgio

    2010-01-01

    We observed the new X-ray transient and black-hole candidate XTE J1652-453 simultaneously with XMM-Newton and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The observation was done during the decay of the 2009 outburst, when XTE J1652-453 was in the hard-intermediate state. The spectrum shows a strong and broad iron emission line with an equivalent width of ~ 450 eV. The profile is consistent with that of a line being produced by reflection off the accretion disk, broadened by relativistic effects close to the black hole. The best-fitting inner radius of the accretion disk is ~ 4 gravitational radii. Assuming that the accretion disk is truncated at the radius of the innermost stable circular orbit, the black hole in XTE J1652-453 has a spin parameter of ~ 0.5. The power spectrum of the RXTE observation has an additional variability component above 50 Hz, which is typical for the hard-intermediate state. No coherent quasi-periodic oscillations at low frequency are apparent in the power spectrum, which may imply that...

  16. Monitoring Chandra observations of the quasi-persistent neutron-star X-ray transient MXB 1659-29 in quiescence: the cooling curve of the heated neutron-star crust

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, R; Miller, J M; Lewin, W H G; Wijnands, Rudy; Homan, Jeroen; Miller, Jon M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.

    2004-01-01

    We have observed the quasi-persistent neutron-star X-ray transient and eclipsing binary MXB 1659-29 in quiescence on three occasions with Chandra. The purpose of our observations was to monitor the quiescent behavior of the source after its last prolonged (~2.5 years) outburst which ended in September 2001. The X-ray spectra of the source are consistent with thermal radiation from the neutron-star surface. We found that the bolometric flux of the source decreased by a factor of 7-9 over the time-span of 1.5 years between our first and last Chandra observations. The effective temperature also decreased, but by a factor of 1.6-1.7. The decrease in time of the bolometric flux and effective temperature can be described using exponential decay functions, with e-folding times of ~0.7 and ~3 years, respectively. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that we observed a cooling neutron-star crust which was heated considerably during the prolonged accretion event and which is still out of thermal equilibrium w...

  17. M-shell resolved high-resolution X-ray spectroscopic study of transient matter evolution driven by hot electrons in kJ-laser produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condamine, F. P.; Šmíd, M.; Renner, O.; Dozières, M.; Thais, F.; Angelo, P.; Rosmej, F. B.

    2017-03-01

    Hot electrons represent a key subject for high intensity laser produced plasmas and atomic physics. Simulations of the radiative properties indicate a high sensitivity to hot electrons, that in turn provides the possibility for their detailed characterization by high-resolution spectroscopic methods. Of particular interest is X-ray spectroscopy due to reduced photo-absorption in dense matter and their efficient generation by hot electrons (inner-shell ionization/excitation). Here, we report on an experimental campaign conducted at the ns, kJ laser facility PALS at Prague in Czech Republic. Thin copper foils have been irradiated with 1ω pulses. Two spherically bent quartz Bragg crystal spectrometers with high spectral (λ/Δλ > 5000) and spatial resolutions (Δx = 30µm) have been set up simultaneously to achieve a high level of confidence for the complex Kα emission group. In particular, this group, which shows a strong overlap between lines, can be resolved in several substructures. Furthermore, an emission on the red wing of the Kα2 transition (λ = 1.5444A) could be identified with Hartree-Fock atomic structure calculations. We discuss possible implications for the analysis of non-equilibrium phenomena and present first simulations.

  18. Insights into Surface Interactions between Metal Organic Frameworks and Gases during Transient Adsorption and Diffusion by In-Situ Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumée, Ludovic F.; He, Li; Hodgson, Peter; Kong, Lingxue

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of molecular gas sieving materials with specific affinities for a single gas species and able to store large quantities of materials at a low or atmospheric pressure is desperately required to reduce the adverse effects of coal and oil usage in carbon capture. Fundamental understanding of the dynamic adsorption of gas, the diffusion mechanisms across thin film membranes, and the impact of interfaces play a vital role in developing these materials. In this work, single gas permeation tests across micro-porous membrane materials, based on metal organic framework crystals grown on the surface of carbon nanotubes (ZiF-8@CNT), were performed for the first time in-situ at the Australian Synchrotron on the small angle X-ray scattering beamline in order to reveal molecular sieving mechanisms and gas adsorption within the material. The results show that specific chemi-sorption of CO2 across the ZiF-8 crystal lattices affected the morphology and unit cell parameters, while the sieving of other noble or noble like gases across the ZiF-8@CNT membranes was found to largely follow Knudsen diffusion. This work demonstrates for the first time a novel and effective technique to assess molecular diffusion at the nano-scale across sub-nano-porous materials by probing molecular flexibility across crystal lattice and single cell units. PMID:27598211

  19. Insights into Surface Interactions between Metal Organic Frameworks and Gases during Transient Adsorption and Diffusion by In-Situ Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic F. Dumée

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of molecular gas sieving materials with specific affinities for a single gas species and able to store large quantities of materials at a low or atmospheric pressure is desperately required to reduce the adverse effects of coal and oil usage in carbon capture. Fundamental understanding of the dynamic adsorption of gas, the diffusion mechanisms across thin film membranes, and the impact of interfaces play a vital role in developing these materials. In this work, single gas permeation tests across micro-porous membrane materials, based on metal organic framework crystals grown on the surface of carbon nanotubes (ZiF-8@CNT, were performed for the first time in-situ at the Australian Synchrotron on the small angle X-ray scattering beamline in order to reveal molecular sieving mechanisms and gas adsorption within the material. The results show that specific chemi-sorption of CO2 across the ZiF-8 crystal lattices affected the morphology and unit cell parameters, while the sieving of other noble or noble like gases across the ZiF-8@CNT membranes was found to largely follow Knudsen diffusion. This work demonstrates for the first time a novel and effective technique to assess molecular diffusion at the nano-scale across sub-nano-porous materials by probing molecular flexibility across crystal lattice and single cell units.

  20. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a ... Your e-mail address: Personal message (optional): Bees: Wax: Notice: RadiologyInfo respects your privacy. Information entered here ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  3. Soft X-ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, John

    1999-05-20

    The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is used to: ... and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses ... assess trauma patients in emergency departments. A CT scan can image complicated fractures, subtle fractures or dislocations. ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ...

  10. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small dose ... to produce pictures of the inside of the abdominal cavity. It is used to evaluate the stomach, liver, ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it ... organs, allow more of the x-rays to pass through them. As a result, bones appear white ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations ... patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... and Media Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to X-ray ( ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is used to: ... and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for ...

  16. X-Ray Scattering Applications Using Pulsed X-Ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, B.C.

    1999-05-23

    Pulsed x-ray sources have been used in transient structural phenomena investigations for over fifty years; however, until the advent of synchrotrons sources and the development of table-top picosecond lasers, general access to ligh temporal resolution x-ray diffraction was relatively limited. Advances in diffraction techniques, sample excitation schemes, and detector systems, in addition to IncEased access to pulsed sources, have ld tO what is now a diverse and growing array of pulsed-source measurement applications. A survey of time-resolved investigations using pulsed x-ray sources is presented and research opportunities using both present and planned pulsed x-ray sources are discussed.

  17. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Hip A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: cadera What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  18. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Finger A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: dedo What It Is A finger X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  19. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Foot A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: pie What It Is A foot X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  20. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Wrist A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: muñeca What It Is A wrist X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  1. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Ankle A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: tobillo What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  2. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Pelvis A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: pelvis What It Is A pelvis X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  3. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Forearm A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: brazo What It Is A forearm X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  4. X-ray selected BALQSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Page, M J; Ceballos, M; Corral, A; Ebrero, J; Esquej, P; Krumpe, M; Mateos, S; Rosen, S; Schwope, A; Streblyanska, A; Symeonidis, M; Tedds, J A; Watson, M G

    2016-01-01

    We study a sample of six X-ray selected broad absorption line (BAL) quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) from the XMM-Newton Wide Angle Survey. All six objects are classified as BALQSOs using the classic balnicity index, and together they form the largest sample of X-ray selected BALQSOs. We find evidence for absorption in the X-ray spectra of all six objects. An ionized absorption model applied to an X-ray spectral shape that would be typical for non-BAL QSOs (a power law with energy index alpha=0.98) provides acceptable fits to the X-ray spectra of all six objects. The optical to X-ray spectral indices, alpha_OX, of the X-ray selected BALQSOs, have a mean value of 1.69 +- 0.05, which is similar to that found for X-ray selected and optically selected non-BAL QSOs of similar ultraviolet luminosity. In contrast, optically-selected BALQSOs typically have much larger alpha_OX and so are characterised as being X-ray weak. The results imply that X-ray selection yields intrinsically X-ray bright BALQSOs, but their X-ray sp...

  5. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Edward Snell, a National Research Council research fellow at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), prepares a protein crystal for analysis by x-ray crystallography as part of NASA's structural biology program. The small, individual crystals are bombarded with x-rays to produce diffraction patterns, a map of the intensity of the x-rays as they reflect through the crystal.

  6. The Quiescent X-Ray Properties of the Accreting Millisecond X-Ray Pulsar and Eclipsing binary Swift J1749.4-2807

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Degenaar; A. Patruno; R. Wijnands

    2012-01-01

    Swift J1749.4-2807 is a transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary that contains an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar spinning at 518 Hz. It is the first of its kind that displays X-ray eclipses, which holds significant promise to precisely constrain the mass of the neutron star. We report on a s

  7. GRBs and Lobster Eye X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2013-07-01

    A large majority of GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray telescopes of Lobster Eye type. We show that the wide field and fine sensitivity of Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of GRBs.

  8. Long Duration X-ray Bursts Observed by MAXI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serino, Motoko; Iwakiri, Wataru; Tamagawa, Toru; Sakamoto, Takanori; Nakahira, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Negoro, Hitoshi

    Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) is X-ray mission on the International Space Station. MAXI scans all sky every 92 min and detects various X-ray transient events including X-ray bursts. Among the X-ray bursts observed by MAXI, eleven had long duration and were observed more than one scan. Six out of eleven long bursts have the e-folding time of >1 h, that should be classified as "superbursts", while the rest are "intermediate-duration bursts". The total emitted energy of these long X-ray bursts range from 1041 to 1042 ergs. The lower limits of the superburst recurrence time of 4U 0614+091 and Ser X-1 are calculated as 4400 and 59 days, which may be consistent with the observed recurrence time of 3523 and 1148 days, respectively.

  9. SMM x ray polychromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, J. L. R.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time. The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions.

  10. X-ray today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, U. [Philips Medical Systems, Hamburg (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    The interest attracted by the new imaging modalities tends to overshadow the continuing importance of projection radiography and fluoroscopy. Nevertheless, projection techniques still represent by far the greatest proportion of diagnostic imaging examinations, and play an essential role in the growing number of advanced interventional procedures. This article describes some of the latest developments in X-ray imaging technology, using two products from the Philips range as examples: the Integris Allura cardiovascular system with 3D image reconstruction, and the BV Pulsera: a high-end, multi-functional mobile C-arm system with cardiac capabilities. (orig.)

  11. X-ray lithography source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  12. The X-ray Spectral Evolution of Galactic Black Hole X-ray Binaries Toward Quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Plotkin, Richard M; Jonker, Peter G

    2013-01-01

    Most transient black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) spend the bulk of their time in a quiescent state, where they accrete matter from their companion star at highly sub-Eddington luminosities (we define quiescence here as a normalized Eddington ratio l_x = L_{0.5-10 keV}}/L_{Edd} < 1e-5). Here, we present Chandra X-ray imaging spectroscopy for three BHXB systems (H 1743-322, MAXI J1659-152, and XTE J1752-223) as they fade into quiescence following an outburst. Multiple X-ray observations were taken within one month of each other, allowing us to track each individual system's X-ray spectral evolution during its decay. We compare these three systems to other BHXB systems. We confirm that quiescent BHXBs have softer X-ray spectra than low-hard state BHXBs, and that quiescent BHXB spectral properties show no dependence on the binary system's orbital parameters. However, the observed anti-correlation between X-ray photon index and l_x in the low-hard state does not continue once a BHXB enters quiescence. Instead, ...

  13. Active star-forming galaxies in the X ray foreground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R. E.; Padovani, P.

    1989-01-01

    Star forming galaxies were discovered as a component of the X-ray background (XRB) in the Einstein deep surveys. Such star forming galaxies may be largely powered by superluminous Population 1 massive X-ray binaries (MXRB), formed in the wake of star formation in regions of low metallicity. The star forming galaxies with moderate numbers of MXRB may evolve into the infrared starburst galaxies found at low redshifts using IRAS (Infrared Astronomy Satellite), and may also be related to those galaxies identified with sub-mJy radio sources. A conservative contribution to the XRB of at least approximately 15 percent, without evolution is estimated. It is shown that moderate evolution leads to a contribution at least equalling that of quasars. Above 3 keV, star forming galaxies may dominate the XRB.

  14. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  15. X-ray instrumentation for SR beamlines

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, M V; Zheludeva, S I; Aleshko-Ozhevsky, O P; Arutynyan, E H; Kheiker, D M; Kreines, A Y; Lider, V V; Pashaev, E M; Shilina, N Y; Shishkov, V A

    2000-01-01

    The main possibilities and parameters of experimental X-ray stations are presented: 'Protein crystallography', 'X-ray structure analysis', 'High-precision X-ray optics', 'X-ray crystallography and material science', 'X-ray topography', 'Photoelectron X-ray standing wave' that are being installed at Kurchatov SR source by A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography.

  16. X-ray Fluorescence Sectioning

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Wenxiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an x-ray fluorescence imaging system for elemental analysis. The key idea is what we call "x-ray fluorescence sectioning". Specifically, a slit collimator in front of an x-ray tube is used to shape x-rays into a fan-beam to illuminate a planar section of an object. Then, relevant elements such as gold nanoparticles on the fan-beam plane are excited to generate x-ray fluorescence signals. One or more 2D spectral detectors are placed to face the fan-beam plane and directly measure x-ray fluorescence data. Detector elements are so collimated that each element only sees a unique area element on the fan-beam plane and records the x-ray fluorescence signal accordingly. The measured 2D x-ray fluorescence data can be refined in reference to the attenuation characteristics of the object and the divergence of the beam for accurate elemental mapping. This x-ray fluorescence sectioning system promises fast fluorescence tomographic imaging without a complex inverse procedure. The design can be ad...

  17. Soft X-ray optics

    CERN Document Server

    Spiller, Eberhard A

    1993-01-01

    This text describes optics mainly in the 10 to 500 angstrom wavelength region. These wavelengths are 50 to 100 times shorter than those for visible light and 50 to 100 times longer than the wavelengths of medical x rays or x-ray diffraction from natural crystals. There have been substantial advances during the last 20 years, which one can see as an extension of optical technology to shorter wavelengths or as an extension of x-ray diffraction to longer wavelengths. Artificial diffracting structures like zone plates and multilayer mirrors are replacing the natural crystals of x-ray diffraction.

  18. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  19. The enigmatic black-hole candidate and X-ray transient IGR J17091-3624 in its quiescent state as seen with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, Rudy; Altamirano, Diego

    2012-01-01

    We report on two short XMM-Newton observations performed in August 2006 and February 2007 during the quiescence state of the enigmatic black hole candidate system IGR J17091-3624. During both observations the source was clearly detected. Although the errors on the estimated fluxes are large, the source appears to be brighter by several tens of percents during the February 2007 observation compared to the August 2006 observation. During both observations the 2-10 keV luminosity of the source was close to ~10^{33} erg/s for an assumed distance of 10 kpc. However, we note that the distance to this source is not well constrained and it has been suggested it might be as far as 35 kpc which would result in an order of magnitude higher luminosities. If the empirically found relation between the orbital period and the quiescence luminosity of black hole transients is also valid for IGR J17091-3624, then we can estimate an orbital period of >100 hours (>4 days) for a distance of 10 kpc but it could be as large as tens...

  20. JEM-X observations of the Be/X-ray binary EXO 2030+375

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, S.M.; Reig, P.; Blay, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have used data from the Joint European Monitor (JEM-X) to perform an X-ray spectral and timing analysis of the 42-s transient pulsar EXO 2030+375 during an X-ray outburst. X-ray pulsations are clearly detected with an average pulse period of 41.66+/-0.05 s and an average pulse fraction of 60%....

  1. X-ray Pulsation Searches with NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Paul S.; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2016-04-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an X-ray telescope with capabilities optimized for the study of the structure, dynamics, and energetics of neutron stars through high-precision timing of rotation- and accretion-powered pulsars in the 0.2-12 keV band. It has large collecting area (twice that of the XMM-Newton EPIC-pn camera), CCD-quality spectral resolution, and high-precision photon time tagging referenced to UTC through an onboard GPS receiver. NICER will begin its 18-month prime mission as an attached payload on the International Space Station around the end of 2016. I will describe the science planning for the pulsation search science working group, which is charged with searching for pulsations and studying flux modulation properties of pulsars and other neutron stars. A primary goal of our observations is to detect pulsations from new millisecond pulsars that will contribute to NICER’s studies of the neutron star equation of state through pulse profile modeling. Beyond that, our working group will search for pulsations in a range of source categories, including LMXBs, new X-ray transients that might be accreting millisecond pulsars, X-ray counterparts to unassociated Fermi LAT sources, gamma-ray binaries, isolated neutron stars, and ultra-luminous X-ray sources. I will survey our science plans and give an overview of our planned observations during NICER’s prime mission.

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays to pass through them. As a result, bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray and air ...

  4. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  5. X-Ray Tomographic Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnie Schmittberger

    2010-08-25

    Tomographic scans have revolutionized imaging techniques used in medical and biological research by resolving individual sample slices instead of several superimposed images that are obtained from regular x-ray scans. X-Ray fluorescence computed tomography, a more specific tomography technique, bombards the sample with synchrotron x-rays and detects the fluorescent photons emitted from the sample. However, since x-rays are attenuated as they pass through the sample, tomographic scans often produce images with erroneous low densities in areas where the x-rays have already passed through most of the sample. To correct for this and correctly reconstruct the data in order to obtain the most accurate images, a program employing iterative methods based on the inverse Radon transform was written. Applying this reconstruction method to a tomographic image recovered some of the lost densities, providing a more accurate image from which element concentrations and internal structure can be determined.

  6. X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

  7. Meta-stable low-level accretion rate states or neutron star crust cooling in the Be/X-ray transients V0332+53 and 4U 0115+63

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnands, R.; Degenaar, N.

    2016-11-01

    The Be/X-ray transients V0332+53 and 4U 0115+63 exhibited giant, type-II outbursts in 2015. Here we present Swift/XRT follow-up observations at the end of those outbursts. Surprisingly, the sources did not decay back to their known quiescent levels but stalled at a (slowly decaying) meta-stable state with luminosities a factor ˜10 above that observed in quiescence. The spectra in these states are considerably softer than the outburst spectra and appear to soften in time when the luminosity decreases. The physical mechanism behind these meta-stable states is unclear and they could be due to low-level accretion (either directly on to the neutron stars or on to their magnetospheres) or due to cooling of the accretion-heated neutron star crusts. Based on the spectra, the slowly decreasing luminosities, and the spectral softening, we favour the crust cooling hypothesis but we cannot exclude the accretion scenarios. On top of this meta-stable state, weak accretion events were observed that occurred at periastron passage and may thus be related to regular type-I outbursts.

  8. Meta-stable low-level accretion rate states or neutron star crust cooling in the Be/X-ray transients V0332+53 and 4U 0115+63

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    The Be/X-ray transients V0332+53 and 4U 0115+63 exhibited giant, type-II outbursts in 2015. Here we present Swift/XRT follow-up observations at the end of those outbursts. Surprisingly, the sources did not decay back to their known quiescent levels but stalled at a (slowly decaying) meta-stable state with luminosities ~10 times that observed in quiescence. The spectra in these states are considerably softer than the outburst spectra and appear to soften in time when the luminosity decreases. The physical mechanism behind these meta-stable states is unclear and they could be due to low-level accretion (either direct accretion onto the neutron stars or on to their magnetospheres) or due to cooling of the accretion-heated neutron star crusts. Based on the spectra, the slowly decreasing luminosities, and the spectral softening, we favour the crust cooling hypothesis but we cannot exclude the accretion scenarios. On top of this meta-stable state, weak accretion events were observed that occurred at periastron pass...

  9. X-ray monitoring optical elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Shvydko, Yury; Katsoudas, John; Blank, Vladimir D.; Terentyev, Sergey A.

    2016-12-27

    An X-ray article and method for analyzing hard X-rays which have interacted with a test system. The X-ray article is operative to diffract or otherwise process X-rays from an input X-ray beam which have interacted with the test system and at the same time provide an electrical circuit adapted to collect photoelectrons emitted from an X-ray optical element of the X-ray article to analyze features of the test system.

  10. X-ray diagnostics for TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.

    1982-12-01

    A short description of the x-ray diagnostic preparation for the TFTR tokamak is given. The x-ray equipment consists of the limiter x-ray monitoring system, the soft x-ray pulse-height-analysis-system, the soft x-ray imaging system and the x-ray crystal spectrometer. Particular attention is given to the radiation protection of the x-ray systems from the neutron environment.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Table-Top X-Ray Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyaptsev, V N; Dunn, J; Moon, S; Osterheld, A L; Rocca, J J; Detering, F; Rozmus, W; Matte, J P; Fiedorowicz, H; Bartnik, A; Kanouff, M

    2002-04-29

    In this work we report numerical modeling results of laser-generated transient inversion and capillary discharge X-ray lasers. We have found the importance of plasma kinetics approaches in transient X-ray lasers physics by expanding the physical model beyond hydrodynamics approximation. Using Particle and Fokker-Planck codes the clear evidence of the Langdon effect was inferred from the recent experimental data obtained with the Ni-like Pd X-ray laser. In the search for more efficient X-ray lasers we looked closely at alternative target designs utilizing low density targets. In conjunction with recent experiments at LLNL the numerical investigations of gas puff targets has been performed.

  12. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bony fragments following treatment of a fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement ... A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  18. CELESTIAL X-RAY SOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    sources, (4) the physical conditions in the pulsating x-ray source in the Crab Nebula , and (5) miscellaneous related topics. A bibliography of all work performed under the contract is given. (Author)

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... asked to wait until the radiologist determines that all the necessary images have been obtained. A bone ... while it may be barely seen, if at all, on a hip x-ray. For suspected spine ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... patients and physicians. Because x-ray imaging is fast and easy, it is particularly useful in emergency ... diagnosis and treatment of the individual patient's condition. Ultrasound imaging, which uses sound waves instead of ionizing ...

  1. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the ... individual patient's condition. Ultrasound imaging, which uses sound waves instead of ionizing radiation to create diagnostic images, ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are easily accessible and are frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. ... of North America, Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose ... bone x-ray makes images of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... patients and physicians. Because x-ray imaging is fast and easy, it is particularly useful in emergency ... 06, 2016 Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient for ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ... radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... x-ray images were maintained on large film sheets (much like a large photographic negative). Today, most ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ... so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is ... code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 Radiological ...

  15. Infrared spectroscopy of the superluminal Galactic source GRS 1915+105 during the 1994 September outburst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CastroTirado, A.J.; Geballe, T.R.; Lund, Niels

    1996-01-01

    We have obtained K-band IR spectra of the superluminal Galactic source GRS 1915+105 on two different dates. The second spectrum, obtained immediately after a bright X-ray outburst in 1994 September, has shown prominent H and He emission lines. The lines are not Doppler shifted, as are those obser...

  16. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  17. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  18. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  19. X-ray Sensitive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    these published reports. There were two main types of X-ray detection methods: “indirect,” which uses a scintillation material coupled to a light...Reference 3), inorganic semiconductors (silicon [Si], cadmium zinc telluride [CdZnTe]) (Reference 4) and selenium (References 5 and 6), Ne-Xe...metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) X-ray dosimeters (Reference 24). Electrets may be charged by a range of methods

  20. X-ray laser; Roentgenlaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsen, Emil J.; Breiby, Dag W.

    2009-07-01

    X-ray is among the most important research tools today, and has given priceless contributions to all disciplines within the natural sciences. State of the art in this field is called XFEL, X-ray Free Electron Laser, which may be 10 thousand million times stronger than the x-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble. In addition XFEL has properties that allow the study of processes which previously would have been impossible. Of special interest are depictions on atomic- and molecular level by the use of x-ray holographic methods, and being able to study chemical reactions in nature's own timescale, the femtosecond. Conclusion: The construction of x-ray lasers is a natural development in a scientific field which has an enormous influence on the surrounding society. While the discovery of x-ray was an important breakthrough in itself, new applications appear one after the other: Medical depiction, dissemination, diffraction, DNA and protein structures, synchrotron radiation and tomography. There is reason to believe that XFEL implies a technological leap as big as the synchrotrons some decades ago. As we are now talking about studies of femtosecond and direct depiction of chemical reactions, it is obvious that we are dealing with a revolution to come, with extensive consequences, both scientifically and culturally. (EW)

  1. Nonlinearity without Superluminality

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    2002-01-01

    Quantum theory is compatible with special relativity. In particular, though measurements on entangled systems are correlated in a way that cannot be reproduced by local hidden variables, they cannot be used for superluminal signalling. As Gisin and Polchinski first pointed out, this is not true for general nonlinear modifications of the Schroedinger equation. Excluding superluminal signalling has thus been taken to rule out most nonlinear versions of quantum theory. The no superluminal signalling constraint has also been used for alternative derivations of the optimal fidelities attainable for imperfect quantum cloning and other operations. These results apply to theories satisfying the rule that their predictions for widely separated and slowly moving entangled systems can be approximated by non-relativistic equations of motion with respect to a preferred time coordinate. This paper describes a natural way in which this rule might fail to hold. In particular, it is shown that quantum readout devices which di...

  2. X-Rays, Pregnancy and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging X-Rays, Pregnancy and You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... the decision with your doctor. What Kind of X-Rays Can Affect the Unborn Child? During most ...

  3. Monitoring the activity variations of galactic X-ray sources with WATCH on EURECA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, N.

    1995-01-01

    sources the observation periods extended over more than 100 days. A number of X-ray transients with durations between one and five days were discovered, and, additionally two long duration X-ray transients (GRS 1915+10 and GRO J0422+32) were active and could be monitored. Towards the end of the mission...

  4. Recent X-Ray Laser Experiments on the COMET Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J; Smith, R F; Nilsen, J; Hunter, J R; Barbee, T W; Shlyaptsev, V N; Filevich, J; Rocca, J J; Marconi, M C; Fiedorowicz, H; Bartnik, A

    2001-09-22

    The development of the transient collisional excitation x-ray laser scheme using tabletop laser systems with multiple pulse capability has progressed rapidly in the last three years. The high small-signal gain and strong x-ray output have been demonstrated for laser drive energies of typically less than 10 J. We report recent x-ray laser experiments on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET) tabletop facility using this technique. In particular, the saturated output from the Ni-like Pd ion 4d - 4p x-ray laser at 146.8 {angstrom} has been well characterized and has potential towards a useable x-ray source in a number of applications. One important application of a short wavelength x-ray laser beam with picosecond pulse duration is the study of a high density laser-produced plasma. We report the implementation of a Mach-Zehnder type interferometer using diffraction grating optics as beam splitters designed for the Ni-like Pd laser and show results from probing a 600 ps heated plasma. In addition, gas puff targets are investigated as an x-ray laser gain medium and we report results of strong lasing on the n = 3 - 3 transitions of Ne-like Ar.

  5. Hunting for X-ray Outbursts from Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, W. N.

    2005-09-01

    Transient X-ray outbursts from galactic nuclei are likely caused by inevitable fueling events of nuclear supermassive black holes when a star, planet, or gas cloud is tidally disrupted and partially accreted. We propose to extend current studies of such events by searching for new X-ray outbursts with harder X-ray spectra, lower X-ray luminosities, and higher redshifts. We will pursue a two-pronged strategy utilizing a combination of (1) about 380 fields with moderate-depth coverage by both Chandra and XMM-Newton and (2) deep Chandra surveys, primarily the Chandra Deep Fields. Aside from their innate interest, our results will be useful for planning future missions such as the Black Hole Finder Probe, Lobster, ROSITA, and LISA.

  6. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >108 ) with broadband ≃5 - 13 meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 103 signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  7. X-ray echo spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin-echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a point-like x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x-rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1--0.02-meV ultra-high-resolution IXS applications (resolving power $> 10^8$) with broadband $\\simeq$~5--13~meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than $10^3$ signal e...

  8. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-26

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >10^{8}) with broadband ≃5-13  meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 10^{3} signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  9. X-ray imaging: Perovskites target X-ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Wolfgang; Brabec, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Single crystals of perovskites are currently of interest to help fathom fundamental physical parameters limiting the performance of perovskite-based polycrystalline solar cells. Now, such perovskites offer a technology platform for optoelectronic devices, such as cheap and sensitive X-ray detectors.

  10. Portable X-Ray Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  11. A search for near-infrared counterparts of two faint neutron star X-ray transients: XMMU J174716.1-281048 and SAX J1806.5-2215

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ramanpreet; Wijnands, Rudy; Kamble, Atish; Cackett, Edward M.; Kutulla, Ralf; Kaplan, David; Degenaar, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    We present our near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations of two neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries XMMU J174716.1-281048 and SAX J1806.5-2215 obtained using the PANIC instrument on the 6.5-metre Magellan telescope and the WIYN High-Resolution Infrared Camera instrument on the 3.5-metre WIYN telescope, respectively. Both sources are members of the class of faint to very faint X-ray binaries and undergo very long X-ray outburst, hence classified as `quasi-persistent X-ray binaries'. While XMMU J174716.1-281048 was active for almost 12 yr between 2003 and 2015, SAX J1806.5-2215 has been active for more than 5 yr now since 2011. From our observations, we identify two NIR stars consistent with the Chandra X-ray error circle of XMMU J174716.1-281048. The comparison of our observations with the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Galactic plane observations taken during the same outburst, colour-colour diagram analysis and spectral energy distribution suggest that both stars are probably a part of the field population and are likely high-mass stars. Hence possibly neither of the two stars is a true NIR counterpart. For the faint X-ray binary SAX J1806.5-2215 during its current outburst, we detected an NIR star in our K-band WIYN observations consistent with its Chandra error circle. The identified NIR star was not detected during the UKIRT observations taken during its quiescent state. The comparison of two observations suggests that there was an increase in flux by at least one magnitude of the detected star during our observations, and hence suggests the detection of the likely counterpart of SAX J1806.5-2215.

  12. A search for near-infrared counterparts of two faint neutron star X-ray transients : XMMU J174716.1-281048 and SAX J1806.5-2215

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ramanpreet; Wijnands, Rudy; Kamble, Atish; Cackett, Edward M.; Kutulla, Ralf; Kaplan, David; Degenaar, Nathalie

    2016-09-01

    We present our near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations of two neutron star low mass X-ray binaries XMMU J174716.1-281048 and SAX J1806.5-2215 obtained using the PANIC instrument on the 6.5-meter Magellan telescope and the WHIRC instrument on the 3.5-meter WIYN telescope respectively. Both sources are members of the class of faint to very-faint X-ray binaries and undergo very long X-ray outburst, hence classified as `quasi persistent X-ray binaries'. While XMMU J174716.1-281048 was active for almost 12 years between 2003 and 2015, SAX J1806.5-2215 has been active for more than 5 years now since 2011. From our observations, we identify two NIR stars consistent with the Chandra X-ray error circle of XMMU J174716.1-281048. The comparison of our observations with the UKIRT Galactic plane observations taken during the same outburst, color-color diagram analysis and spectral energy distribution suggest that both stars are probably a part of the field population and are likely high mass stars. Hence possibly neither of the two stars is a true NIR counterpart. For the faint X-ray binary SAX J1806.5-2215 during its current outburst, we detected a NIR star in our K band WIYN observations consistent with its Chandra error circle. The identified NIR star was not detected during the UKIRT observations taken during its quiescent state. The comparison of two observations suggest that there was an increase in flux by at least one magnitude of the detected star during our observations, hence suggests the detection of the likely counterpart of SAX J1806.5-2215.

  13. Magnetic Untwisting in Most Solar X-Ray Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald; Sterling, Alphonse; Falconer, David; Robe, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    From 54 X-ray jets observed in the polar coronal holes by Hinode's X-Ray Telescope (XRT) during coverage in movies from Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) taken in its He II 304 Å band at a cadence of 12 s, we have established a basic characteristic of solar X-ray jets: untwisting motion in the spire. In this presentation, we show the progression of few of these X-ray jets in XRT images and track their untwisting in AIA He II images. From their structure displayed in their XRT movies, 19 jets were evidently standard jets made by interchange reconnection of the magnetic-arcade base with ambient open field, 32 were evidently blowout jets made by blowout eruption of the base arcade, and 3 were of ambiguous form. As was anticipated from the >10,000 km span of the base arcade in most polar X-ray jets and from the disparity of standard jets and blowout jets in their magnetic production, few of the standard X-ray jets (3 of 19) but nearly all of the blowout X-ray jets (29 of 32) carried enough cool (T is approximately 105 K) plasma to be seen in their He II movies. In the 32 X-ray jets that showed a cool component, the He II movies show 10-100 km/s untwisting motions about the axis of the spire in all 3 standard jets and in 26 of the 29 blowout jets. Evidently, the open magnetic field in nearly all blowout X-ray jets and probably in most standard X-ray jets carries transient twist. This twist apparently relaxes by propagating out along the open field as a torsional wave. High-resolution spectrograms and Dopplergrams have shown that most Type-II spicules have torsional motions of 10-30 km/s. Our observation of similar torsional motion in X-ray jets strengthens the case for Type-II spicules being made in the same way as X-ray jets, by blowout eruption of a twisted magnetic arcade in the spicule base and/or by interchange reconnection of the twisted base arcade with the ambient open field. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ... This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation ... x-ray images are among the clearest, most detailed views of ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is ... encourage linking to this site. × Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From ( ...

  16. X-rays and magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-09-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques.

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray ( ... are the fastest and easiest way for your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and ...

  18. X-Ray Diffractive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area of the body being imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain the ...

  20. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  1. X-ray backscatter imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Dan-Cristian; Schubert, Jeffrey R.; Callerame, J.

    2008-04-01

    In contrast to transmission X-ray imaging systems where inspected objects must pass between source and detector, Compton backscatter imaging allows both the illuminating source as well as the X-ray detector to be on the same side of the target object, enabling the inspection to occur rapidly and in a wide variety of space-constrained situations. A Compton backscatter image is similar to a photograph of the contents of a closed container, taken through the container walls, and highlights low atomic number materials such as explosives, drugs, and alcohol, which appear as especially bright objects by virtue of their scattering characteristics. Techniques for producing X-ray images based on Compton scattering will be discussed, along with examples of how these systems are used for both novel security applications and for the detection of contraband materials at ports and borders. Differences between transmission and backscatter images will also be highlighted. In addition, tradeoffs between Compton backscatter image quality and scan speed, effective penetration, and X-ray source specifications will be discussed.

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is ... encourage linking to this site. × Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From ( ...

  4. Stellar X-Ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, J.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes. The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will study the effects on polarization of strong gravity of black holes and strong magnetism of neutron stars. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams. Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dislocations. In elderly or patients with osteoporosis, a hip fracture may be clearly seen on a CT scan, while it may be barely seen, if at all, on a hip x-ray. For suspected spine injury or other ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  7. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot, F. M. F.

    2001-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption process. Section II discusses 1s X-ray absorption, i.e., the K edges, and section III deals with 2p X-ray absorption, the L edges. X-ray emission is discussed in, respectively, the L edges. X-ray emis...

  8. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  9. Cosmology with Superluminous Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Scovacricchi, Dario; Bacon, David; Sullivan, Mark; Prajs, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    We predict cosmological constraints for forthcoming surveys using Superluminous Supernovae (SLSNe) as standardisable candles. Due to their high peak luminosity, these events can be observed to high redshift (z~3), opening up new possibilities to probe the Universe in the deceleration epoch. We describe our methodology for creating mock Hubble diagrams for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), the "Search Using DECam for Superluminous Supernovae" (SUDSS) and a sample of SLSNe possible from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), exploring a range of standardisation values for SLSNe. We include uncertainties due to gravitational lensing and marginalise over possible uncertainties in the magnitude scale of the observations (e.g. uncertain absolute peak magnitude, calibration errors). We find that the addition of only ~100 SLSNe from SUDSS to 3800 Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from DES can improve the constraints on w and Omega_m by at least 20% (assuming a flat wCDM universe). Moreover, the combination of DES SNe Ia a...

  10. Superluminal Recession Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, T M; Davis, Tamara M.; Lineweaver, Charles H.

    2000-01-01

    Hubble's Law, v=HD (recession velocity is proportional to distance), is a theoretical result derived from the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. v=HD applies at least as far as the particle horizon and in principle for all distances. Thus, galaxies with distances greater than D=c/H are receding from us with velocities greater than the speed of light and superluminal recession is a fundamental part of the general relativistic description of the expanding universe. This apparent contradiction of special relativity (SR) is often mistakenly remedied by converting redshift to velocity using SR. Here we show that galaxies with recession velocities faster than the speed of light are observable and that in all viable cosmological models, galaxies above a redshift of three are receding superluminally.

  11. Jets and Accretion Disks in X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsick, John

    The outflow of material in the form of jets is a common phenomenon in astronomical sources with accretion disks. Even though jets are seen coming from the cores of galaxies, Galactic compact objects in X-ray binaries, and stars as they are forming, we do not understand in detail what accretion disk conditions are necessary to support a relativistic jet. This proposal focuses on multi-wavelength studies of X-ray binaries in order to improve our understanding of the connection between the disk and the jet. Specifically, this proposal includes work on two approved cycle 14 Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) programs, an approved XMM-Newton program, as well as a synthesis study of transient black hole X-ray binaries using archival RXTE and radio data. We plan to use X-ray spectral and timing properties to determine the disk properties during the re-activation of the compact jet (as seen in the radio and infrared) during the decays of black hole transient outbursts, to determine how the inner disk properties change at low mass accretion rates, and to use RXTE along with multi-wavelength observations to constrain the jet properties required for the microquasar Cygnus~X-3 to produce high- energy emission. Due to the ubiquity of jets in astrophysical settings, these science topics are relevant to NASA programs dealing with the origin, structure, evolution, and destiny of the Universe, and especially to understanding phenomena near black holes.

  12. Ultrafast Time Resolved X-ray Diffraction Studies of Laser Heated Metals and Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peilin; Tomov, I. V.; Rentzepis, P. M.

    1998-03-01

    Time resolved hard x-ray diffraction has been employed to study the dynamics of lattice structure deformation. When laser pulse energy is deposited in a material it generates a non uniform transient temperature distribution, which alters the lattice structure of the crystal. The deformed crystal lattice will change the angle of diffraction for a monochromatic x-ray beam. We report picosecond and nanosecond time resolved x-ray diffraction measurements of the lattice temperature distribution, transient structure and stress, in Pt (111) and GaAs (111) crystals, caused by pulsed UV laser irradiation. An ArF excimer laser operated at 300 Hz was used, both, to drive an x-ray diode with copper anode and heat the crystal. Bragg diffracted x-ray radiation was recorded by a direct imaging x-ray CCD. Changes in the diffraction patterns induced by a few millijouls pulse energy were observed at different time delays between the laser heating pulse and the x-ray probing pulse. A kinematical model for time resolved x-ray diffraction was used to analyze the experimental data. Good agreement between the measured and calculated scattered x-ray intensities profiles was achieved, indicating that detailed time resolved x-ray diffraction measurements can be made with nanosecond and picosecond resolution for small temperature changes. Our system can detect changes in the lattice spacing of about 10-3 A.

  13. X-ray reprocessing in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Biswajit

    2016-07-01

    We will discuss several aspects of X-ray reprocessing into X-rays or longer wavelength radiation in different kinds of binary systems. In high mass X-ray binaries, reprocessing of hard X-rays into emission lines or lower temperature black body emission is a useful tool to investigate the reprocessing media like the stellar wind, clumpy structures in the wind, accretion disk or accretion stream. In low mass X-ray binaries, reprocessing from the surface of the companion star, the accretion disk, warps and other structures in the accretion disk produce signatures in longer wavelength radiation. X-ray sources with temporal structures like the X-ray pulsars and thermonuclear burst sources are key in such studies. We will discuss results from several new investigations of X-ray reprocessing phenomena in X-ray binaries.

  14. The Dynamic X-ray Sky of the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Soderberg, Alicia M; Bloom, Joshua S; Gezari, Suvi; Piro, Anthony L; Belloni, Tomaso; Liu, Jifeng; Paizis, Ada; Berger, Edo; Coppi, Paolo; Kawai, Nobu; Gehrels, Neil; Metzger, Brian; Allen, Branden; Barret, Didier; Bazzano, Angela; Bignami, Giovanni; Caraveo, Patrizia; Corbel, Stephane; De Luca, Andrea; Drake, Jeremy; Fabbiano, Pepi; Finger, Mark; Feroci, Marco; Hartmann, Dieter; Hong, JaeSub; Jernigan, Garrett; Kaaret, Philip; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kutyrev, Alexander; Loeb, Avi; Pareschi, Giovanni; Skinner, Gerry; Di Stefano, Rosanne; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Ubertini, Pietro; van der Klis, Michiel; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A

    2009-01-01

    Over the next decade, we can expect time domain astronomy to flourish at optical and radio wavelengths. In parallel with these efforts, a dedicated transient "machine" operating at higher energies (X-ray band through soft gamma-rays) is required to reveal the unique subset of events with variable emission predominantly visible above 100 eV. Here we focus on the transient phase space never yet sampled due to the lack of a sensitive, wide-field and triggering facility dedicated exclusively to catching high energy transients and enabling rapid coordinated multi-wavelength follow-up. We first describe the advancements in our understanding of known X-ray transients that can only be enabled through such a facility and then focus on the classes of transients theoretically predicted to be out of reach of current detection capabilities. Finally there is the exciting opportunity of revealing new classes of X-ray transients and unveiling their nature through coordinated follow-up observations at longer wavelengths.

  15. X-Ray-powered Macronovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisaka, Shota; Ioka, Kunihito; Nakar, Ehud

    2016-02-01

    A macronova (or kilonova) was observed as an infrared excess several days after the short gamma-ray burst GRB 130603B. Although the r-process radioactivity is widely discussed as an energy source, it requires a huge mass of ejecta from a neutron star (NS) binary merger. We propose a new model in which the X-ray excess gives rise to the simultaneously observed infrared excess via thermal re-emission, and explore what constraints this would place on the mass and velocity of the ejecta. This X-ray-powered model explains both the X-ray and infrared excesses with a single energy source such as the central engine like a black hole, and allows for a broader parameter region than the previous models, in particular a smaller ejecta mass ˜ {10}-3{--}{10}-2{M}⊙ and higher iron abundance mixed as suggested by general relativistic simulations for typical NS-NS mergers. We also discuss the other macronova candidates in GRB 060614 and GRB 080503, and the implications for the search of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves.

  16. Be/X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to review the observational properties of Be/X-ray binaries. The open questions in Be/X-ray binaries include those related to the Be star companion, that is, the so-called "Be phenomenon", such as, timescales associated to the formation and dissipation of the equatorial disc, mass-ejection mechanisms, V/R variability, and rotation rates; those related to the neutron star, such as, mass determination, accretion physics, and spin period evolution; but also, those that result from the interaction of the two constituents, such as, disc truncation and mass transfer. Until recently, it was thought that the Be stars' disc was not significantly affected by the neutron star. In this review, I present the observational evidence accumulated in recent years on the interaction between the circumstellar disc and the compact companion. The most obvious effect is the tidal truncation of the disc. As a result, the equatorial discs in Be/X-ray binaries are smaller and denser than those around isolat...

  17. X-Ray Crystallography Reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Microcapsules prepared by encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane by are disclosed. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation under conditions where the shear forces are limited to 0-100 dynes per square centimeter at the interface. By placing the microcapsules in a high osmotic dewatering solution. the protein solution is gradually made saturated and then supersaturated. and the controlled nucleation and crystallization of the protein is achieved. The crystal-filled microcapsules prepared by this method can be conveniently harvested and stored while keeping the encapsulated crystals in essentially pristine condition due to the rugged. protective membrane. Because the membrane components themselves are x-ray transparent, large crystal-containing microcapsules can be individually selected, mounted in x-ray capillary tubes and subjected to high energy x-ray diffraction studies to determine the 3-D smucture of the protein molecules. Certain embodiments of the microcapsules of the invention have composite polymeric outer membranes which are somewhat elastic, water insoluble, permeable only to water, salts, and low molecular weight molecules and are structurally stable in fluid shear forces typically encountered in the human vascular system.

  18. A Hard X-Ray Power-Law Spectral Cutoff in Centaurus X-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Tomsick, John A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unkno...

  19. Discovery of extended X-ray emission around the highly magnetic RRAT J1819-1458

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rea, N.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Gaensler, B.M.; Slane, P.O.; Stella, L.; Reynolds, S.P.; Burgay, M.; Israel, G.L.; Possenti, A.; Chatterjee, S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of extended X-ray emission around the high magnetic field rotating radio transient J1819-1458. Using a 30 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation, we found significant evidence for extended X-ray emission with a peculiar shape: a compact region out to similar to 5.'' 5, and more dif

  20. The X-ray spectrum of the black hole candidate Swift J1753.5-0127

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafa, Reham; Mendez, Mariano; Hiemstra, Beike; Soleri, Paolo; Belloni, Tomaso; Ibrahim, Alaa I.; Yasein, Mohammed N.

    2013-01-01

    We present a spectral analysis of the black hole candidate and X-ray transient source Swift J1753.5-0127 making use of simultaneous observations of XMM-Newton and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer in 2006, when the source was in outburst. The aim of this paper is to test whether a thermal component due to

  1. SWIFT J1749.4-2807: X-ray decay, refined position and optical observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y. J.; Russell, D. M.; Wijnands, R.; van der Klis, M.; Altamirano, D.; Patruno, A.; Watts, A.; Armas Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; Linares, M.; Casella, P.; Rea, N.; Soleri, P.; Lewis, F.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed seven, target ID 31686, Swift follow-up observations of the neutron-star X-ray transient Swfit J1749.4-2807 (Wijnands et al. 2009) currently in outburst and which was found to be an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar (ATel #2565). The observations span from April 11 to April 20.

  2. SWIFT J1749.4-2807 : X-ray decay, refined position and optical observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.J.; Russell, D. M.; Wijnands, R.; van der Klis, M.; Altamirano, D.; Patruno, A.; Watts, A.; Armas Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; Linares, M.; Casella, P.; Rea, N.; Soleri, P.; Lewis, F.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed seven, target ID 31686, Swift follow-up observations of the neutron-star X-ray transient Swfit J1749.4-2807 (Wijnands et al. 2009) currently in outburst and which was found to be an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar (ATel #2565). The observations span from April 11 to April 20.

  3. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ...

  4. Picosecond resolution soft x-ray laser plasma interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S; Nilsen, J; Ng, A; Shlyaptsev, V; Dunn, J; Hunter, J; Keenan, R; Marconi, M; Filevich, J; Rocca, J; Smith, R

    2003-12-01

    We describe a soft x-ray laser interferometry technique that allows two-dimensional diagnosis of plasma electron density with picosecond time resolution. It consists of the combination of a robust high throughput amplitude division interferometer and a 14.7 nm transient inversion soft x-ray laser that produces {approx} 5 ps pulses. Due to its picosecond resolution and short wavelength scalability, this technique has potential for extending the high inherent precision of soft x-ray laser interferometry to the study of very dense plasmas of significant fundamental and practical interest, such as those investigated for inertial confined fusion. Results of its use in the diagnostics of dense large scale laser-created plasmas are presented.

  5. 11th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ciaran L. S; X-Ray Lasers 2008

    2009-01-01

    This book provides a thorough account of the current status of achievements made in the area of soft X-ray laser source development and of the increasingly diverse applications being demonstrated using such radiation sources. There is significant effort worldwide to develop very bright, short duration radiation sources in the X-ray spectral region – driven by the multitude of potential applications in all branches of science. This book contains updates on several different approaches for comparative purposes but concentrates on developments in the area of laser-produced plasmas, whereby transient population inversion and gain between ion states is pumped by optical lasers interacting with pre-formed plasmas. The most significant development here is the demonstrated increasing feasibility to produce useful soft X-ray laser beams with high repetition rates in a typical, small, university-class laboratory – as opposed to the requirement of access to a national facility some 20 years ago. Experimental progres...

  6. IGR j17497-2821: a new X-ray nova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, R.; Lubinski, P.; Paltani, S.; Produit, N. [INTEGRAL Sci Data Ctr, CH-1290 Versoix, (Switzerland); Walter, R.; Paltani, S.; Produit, N.; Blecha, A.; Cherix, M. [Univ Genova, Observ Geneva, CH-1290 Sauverny, (Switzerland); Lubinski, P. [Nicholas Copernicus Astron Ctr, PL-00716 Warsaw, (Poland); Zurita, J. [CEA Saclay, DSM, DAPNIA, SAp, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Kuulkers, E. [ESA, ESAC, ISOC, Madrid 28080, (Spain); Beckmann, V.; Gehrels, N. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Astrophys Sci Div, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Beckmann, V. [Univ Maryland Baltimore Cty, Joint Ctr Astrophys, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Carrier, F. [Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, B-3001 Louvain, (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Context. A new hard X-ray transient has been discovered by INTEGRAL on 2006 Sep. 17 at 1 degree from the Galactic Centre. Aims. INTEGRAL, Swift/XRT and optical photometric observations are used to characterize IGR J17497-2821 and to unveil its nature. Methods. The X-ray position has been refined to arcsec level through a study of the optical variability of the possible counterparts. Hard X-ray variability and spectroscopy are used to determine the nature of the source outburst. Results. IGR J17497-2821 is a new X-ray Nova in low-hard state, probably a new Black-Hole Candidate. (authors)

  7. Instrumentation and data analysis for hard X ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang Nan

    The current status of hard x ray astronomy is reviewed. The applicability of various hard x ray detectors in such new telescopes are discussed and the current status of hard x ray telescope design is reviewed. Background production mechanisms in hard x ray telescopes are discussed and some techniques for background reduction are also discussed. A simple method for estimating the optimum detector thickness is presented and the use of some detector materials which should minimize the neutron background is proposed. Three imaging techniques are briefly described. A simple discussion about their relative merits has suggested that the rotating modulation collimator (RMC) technique based on an improved detector technique provides the best imaging system. The pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique is essential for the realization of such new detectors. The basic principles of various PSD methods are made for hard x ray phoswich detector applications. A new fast-veto technique is proposed and may be used in a quadruple phoswich detector system to provide good energy resolution and efficient background rejection. A proposed satellite-borne hard x ray telescope (CHIXSAT), which would use such detectors as its main detection elements, is described. A range of statistical data analysis methods for hard x ray and gamma ray astronomy are studied. Fisher's fact test is found to give the most reliable significance test. Methods for parameter estimation, including upper limit calculations, are described. The sensitivity of a telescope is defined with clear statistical meaning and a method for estimating the sensitivity is derived. A new method, called the chi3-test is proposed to be unbiased and have a very high power for multiple on-off observations, especially in searching for transient sources.

  8. LATE TIME MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF SWIFT J1644+5734: A LUMINOUS OPTICAL/IR BUMP AND QUIESCENT X-RAY EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levan, A. J.; Brown, G. C.; Lyman, J. D.; Stanway, E. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R.; Page, K. L.; O’Brien, P. T.; Wiersema, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Metzger, B. D. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Fruchter, A. S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bloom, J. S., E-mail: A.J.Levan@warwick.ac.uk [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We present late time multi-wavelength observations of Swift J1644+57, suggested to be a relativistic tidal disruption flare (TDF). Our observations extend to >4 years from discovery and show that 1.4 years after outburst the relativistic jet switched off on a timescale less than tens of days, corresponding to a power-law decay faster than t{sup −70}. Beyond this point weak X-rays continue to be detected at an approximately constant luminosity of L{sub X} ∼ 5 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1} and are marginally inconsistent with a continuing decay of t{sup −5/3}, similar to that seen prior to the switch-off. Host photometry enables us to infer a black hole mass of M{sub BH} = 3 × 10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}, consistent with the late time X-ray luminosity arising from sub-Eddington accretion onto the black hole in the form of either an unusually optically faint active galactic nucleus or a slowly varying phase of the transient. Optical/IR observations show a clear bump in the light curve at timescales of 30–50 days, with a peak magnitude (corrected for host galaxy extinction) of M{sub R} ∼ −22 to −23. The luminosity of the bump is significantly higher than seen in other, non-relativistic TDFs and does not match any re-brightening seen at X-ray or radio wavelengths. Its luminosity, light curve shape, and spectrum are broadly similar to those seen in superluminous supervnovae, although subject to large uncertainties in the correction of the significant host extinction. We discuss these observations in the context of both TDF and massive star origins for Swift J1644+5734 and other candidate relativistic tidal flares.

  9. X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: escoliosis What It Is A scoliosis X-ray is a relatively safe and painless test ...

  10. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Neck KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Neck A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: cuello What It Is A neck X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  11. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) A A A ... español Radiografía: fémur What It Is A femur X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  12. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source.

  13. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  14. Superluminal Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgov, D S

    1993-01-01

    The new solution of the Einstein equations in empty space is presented. The solution is constructed using Schwarzschild solution but essentially differs from it. The basic properties of the solution are: the existence of a horizon which is a hyperboloid of one sheet moving along its axis with superluminal velocity, right signature of the metric outside the horizon and Minkovsky-flatness of it at infinity outside the horizon. There is also a discussion in the last chapter, including comparing with recent astronomical observations.

  15. Exotic x-ray emission from dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmej, F. B.; Dachicourt, R.; Deschaud, B.; Khaghani, D.; Dozières, M.; Šmíd, M.; Renner, O.

    2015-11-01

    Exotic x-ray emission from dense matter is identified as the complex high intensity satellite emission from autoionizing states of highly charged ions. Among a vast amount of possible transitions, double K-hole hollow ion (HI) x-ray emission K0L X → K1L X-1 + hν hollow is of exceptional interest due to its advanced diagnostic potential for matter under extreme conditions where opacity and radiation fields play important roles. Transient ab initio simulations identify intense short pulse radiation fields (e.g., those emitted by x-ray free electron lasers) as possible driving mechanisms of HI x-ray emission via two distinct channels: first, successive photoionization of K-shell electrons, second, photoionization followed by resonant photoexciation among various ionic charge states that are simultaneously present in high density matter. We demonstrated that charge exchange of intermixing inhomogenous plasmas as well as collisions driven by suprathermal electrons are possible mechanisms to populate HIs to observable levels in dense plasmas, particularly in high current Z-pinch plasmas and high intensity field-ionized laser produced plasmas. Although the HI x-ray transitions were repeatedly identified in many other cases of dense optical laser produced plasmas on the basis of atomic structure calculations, their origin is far from being understood and remains one of the last holy grails of high intensity laser-matter interaction.

  16. Fundamental properties of High-Mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    González-Galán, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this PhD Thesis is to characterize a representative sample of Supergiant X-ray Binaries (SGXBs) formed by 4 sources: XTE J1855-026, a classical SGXB with long-term stable X-ray flux; AX J1841.0-0535 and AX J1845.0-0433, two supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) with the X-ray emission mostly dominated by flaring; and IGR J00370+6122, something in between these 2 sub-groups. The physical processes that produce these observable differences are still a matter of debate. In this PhD Thesis I performed a study of these 4 different systems to provide new data to constrain the models. This study consists of:(i) the determination of the orbital solution,(ii) a systematic study of the wind behavior along the orbit by the measure of Halpha variations,(iii) a model of stellar atmospheres of the donor star,(iv) establish whether there are X-ray flux variations modulated by the orbital period. The study of the wind shows that Halpha variations are dominated by intrinsic wind processes. The stellar atmosphere...

  17. Ultrafast structural dynamics studied by kilohertz time-resolved x-ray diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鑫; 江舟亚; 陈龙; 陈黎明; 辛建国; 陈洁

    2015-01-01

    Ultrashort multi-keV x-ray pulses are generated by electron plasma produced by the irradiation of femtosecond pulses on metals. These sub-picosecond x-ray pulses have extended the field of x-ray spectroscopy into the femtosecond time domain. However, pulse-to-pulse instability and long data acquisition time restrict the application of ultrashort x-ray systems operating at low repetition rates. Here we report on the performance of a femtosecond laser plasma-induced hard x-ray source that operates at 1-kHz repetition rate, and provides a flux of 2.0 × 1010 photons/s of Cu Kα radiation. Using this system for time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments, we record in real time, the transient processes and structural changes induced by the interaction of 400-nm femtosecond pulse with the surface of a 200-nm thick Au (111) single crystal.

  18. X-Ray Visions of SS Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory is the most sophisticated X-ray observatory launched by NASA. Chandra is designed to observe X-rays from highenergy regions of the universe, such as X-ray binary stars. On September 14, 2000, triggered by alerts from amateur astronomers worldwide, Chandra observed the outburst of the brightest northern dwarf nova SS Cygni. The cooperation of hundreds of amateur variable star astronomers and the Chandra X-Ray scientists and spacecraft specialists provided proof that the collaboration of amateur and professional astronomers is a powerful tool to study cosmic phenomena.

  19. X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.R.; /SLAC; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

    2006-01-17

    We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

  20. Comets: mechanisms of x-ray activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibadov, Subhon

    2016-07-01

    Basic mechanisms of X-ray activity of comets are considered, including D-D mechanism corresponding to generation of X-rays due to production of hot short-living plasma clumps at high-velocity collisions between cometary and interplanetary dust particles as well as M-M one corresponding to production of X-rays due to recombination of multicharge ions of solar wind plasma via charge exchange process at their collisions with molecules/atoms of the cometary atmospheres. Peculiarities of the variation of the comet X-ray spectrum and X-ray luminosity with variation of its heliocentric distance are revealed.