WorldWideScience

Sample records for superluminal dispersion relations

  1. On Superluminal Particles and the Extended Relativity Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Superluminal particles are studied within the framework of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford spaces ( C-spaces). In the simplest scenario, it is found that it is the contribution of the Clifford scalar component π of the poly-vector-valued momentum which is responsible for the superluminal behavior in ordinary spacetime due to the fact that the effective mass {M} = sqrt{ M2 - π2 } is imaginary (tachyonic). However, from the point of view of C-space, there is no superluminal (tachyonic) behavior because the true physical mass still obeys M 2>0. Therefore, there are no violations of the Clifford-extended Lorentz invariance and the extended Relativity principle in C-spaces. It is also explained why the charged muons (leptons) are subluminal while its chargeless neutrinos may admit superluminal propagation. A Born's Reciprocal Relativity theory in Phase Spaces leads to modified dispersion relations involving both coordinates and momenta, and whose truncations furnish Lorentz-violating dispersion relations which appear in Finsler Geometry, rainbow-metrics models and Double (deformed) Special Relativity. These models also admit superluminal particles. A numerical analysis based on the recent OPERA experimental findings on alleged superluminal muon neutrinos is made. For the average muon neutrino energy of 17 GeV, we find a value for the magnitude |{M } | = 119.7 MeV that, coincidentally, is close to the mass of the muon m μ =105.7 MeV.

  2. `Superluminal' Photon Propagation in QED in Curved Spacetime is Dispersive and Causal

    CERN Document Server

    Hollowood, Timothy J

    2010-01-01

    It is now well-known that vacuum polarisation in QED can lead to superluminal low-frequency phase velocities for photons propagating in curved spacetimes. In a series of papers, we have shown that this quantum phenomenon is dispersive and have calculated the full frequency dependence of the refractive index, explaining in detail how causality is preserved and various familiar results from quantum field theory such as the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation and the optical theorem are realised in curved spacetime. These results have been criticised in a recent paper by Akhoury and Dolgov arXiv:1003.6110 [hep-th], who assert that photon propagation is neither dispersive nor necessarily causal. In this note, we point out a series of errors in their work which have led to this false conclusion.

  3. Superluminal Neutrinos from Special Relativity with de Sitter Space-time Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Mu-Lin; Huang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    We explore the recent OPERA experiment of superluminal neutrinos in the framework of Special Relativity with de Sitter space-time symmetry (dS-SR). According to Einstein, the photon is treated as the massless particle in the SR mechanics. The meanings of the universal parameter $c$ and the photon velocity $c_{photon}$ in SR have been analyzed. $c$ can be determined by means of the velocity-composition law in SR kinematically. And $c_{photon}$ is determined by the dispersion relations of SR. It is revealed that $c=c_{photon}$ in Einstein's Special Relativity (E-SR), but $c\

  4. Would Superluminal Influences Violate the Principle of Relativity?

    CERN Document Server

    Peacock, Kent A

    2013-01-01

    It continues to be alleged that superluminal influences of any sort would be inconsistent with special relativity for the following three reasons: (i) they would imply the existence of a distinguished' frame; (ii) they would allow the detection of absolute motion; and (iii) they would violate the relativity of simultaneity. This paper shows that the first two objections rest upon very elementary misunderstandings of Minkowski geometry and lingering Newtonian intuitions about instantaneity. The third objection has a basis, but rather than invalidating the notion of faster than light influences it points the way to more general conceptions of simultaneity that could allow for quantum nonlocality in a natural way.

  5. Emission of correlated photon pairs from superluminal perturbations in dispersive media

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Francesco Dalla; Cacciatori, Sergio Luigi; Faccio, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We develop a perturbative theory that describes a superluminal refractive perturbation propagating in a dispersive medium and the subsequent excitation of the quantum vacuum zero-point fluctuations. We find a process similar to the anomalous Doppler effect: photons are emitted in correlated pairs and mainly within a Cerenkov-like cone, one on the forward and the other in backward directions. The number of photon pairs emitted from the perturbation increases strongly with the degree of superluminality and under realizable experimental conditions, it can reach up to ~0.01 photons per pulse. Moreover, it is in principle possible to engineer the host medium so as to modify the effective group refractive index. In the presence of "fast light" media, e.g. a with group index smaller than unity, a further ~10x enhancement may be achieved and the photon emission spectrum is characterized by two sharp peaks that, in future experiments would clearly identify the correlated emission of photon pairs.

  6. Neutrino superluminality without Cherenkov-like processes in Finslerian special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zhe; Wang, Sai; 10.1016/j.physletb.2012.03.002

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Cohen and Glashow [A.G. Cohen, S.L. Glashow, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 107}, 181803 (2011)] pointed out that the superluminal neutrinos reported by the OPERA would lose their energy rapidly via the Cherenkov-like process. The Cherenkov-like process for the superluminal particles would be forbidden if the principle of special relativity holds in any frame instead violated with a preferred frame. We have proposed that the Finslerian special relativity could account for the data of the neutrino superluminality (arXiv:1110.6673[hep-ph]). The Finslerian special relativity preserves the principle of special relativity and involves a preferred direction while consists with the causality. In this paper, we prove that the energy-momentum conservation is preserved and the energy-momentum is well defined in Finslerian special relativity. The Cherenkov-like process is forbidden in the Finslerian special relativity. Thus, the superluminal neutrinos would not lose energy in their distant propagation.

  7. OPERA superluminal neutrinos and Kinematics in Finsler spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zhe; Wang, Sai

    2011-01-01

    The OPERA collaboration recently reported that muon neutrinos could be superluminal. More recently, Cohen and Glashow pointed that such superluminal neutrinos would be suppressed since they lose their energies rapidly via bremsstrahlung. In this Letter, we propose that Finslerian nature of spacetime could account for the superluminal phenomena of particles. The Finsler spacetime permits the existence of superluminal behavior of particles while the casuality still holds. A new dispersion relation is obtained in a class of Finsler spacetime. It is shown that the superluminal speed is linearly dependent on the energy per unit mass of the particle. We find that such a superluminal speed formula is consistent with data of OPERA, MINOS and Fermilab-1979 neutrino experiments as well as observations on neutrinos from SN1987a.

  8. Is OPERA Neutrino Superluminal Propagation similar to Gain-Assisted Superluminal Light Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Pankovic, Vladan

    2011-01-01

    In this work we consider a possible conceptual similarity between recent, amazing OPERA experiment of the superluminal propagation of neutrino and experiment of the gain-assisted superluminal light propagation realized about ten years ago. Last experiment refers on the propagation of the light, precisely laser pulse through a medium, precisely caesium atomic gas, with characteristic anomalous dispersion and corresponding negative group-velocity index that implies superluminal propagation of the light through this medium. Nevertheless all this, at it has been pointed out by authors, "is not at odds with causality or special relativity", since it simply represents "a direct consequence of the classical interference between ... different frequency components". We observe that OPERA experiment is in many aspects conceptually very similar to the gain-assisted superluminal light propagation, including superposition of the neutrinos component and superluminality magnitudes. For this reason we suppose that OPERA expe...

  9. Superluminal Neutrinos from Special Relativity with de Sitter Space-time Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Mu-Lin; Xiao, Neng-Chao; Huang, Wei; Hu, Sen

    2011-01-01

    We explore the recent OPERA experiment of superluminal neutrinos in the framework of Special Relativity with de Sitter space-time symmetry (dS-SR). According to Einstein a photon is treated as a massless particle in the framework of Special Relativity. In Special Relativity (SR) we have the universal parameter $c$, the photon velocity $c_{photon}$ and the phase velocity of a light wave in vacuum $c_{wave}=\\lambda\

  10. Superluminality and UV Completion

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, G M

    2007-01-01

    The idea that the existence of a consistent UV completion satisfying the fundamental axioms of local quantum field theory or string theory may impose positivity constraints on the couplings of the leading irrelevant operators in a low-energy effective field theory is critically discussed. Violation of these constraints implies superluminal propagation, in the sense that the low-frequency limit of the phase velocity $v_{\\rm ph}(0)$ exceeds $c$. It is explained why causality is related not to $v_{\\rm ph}(0)$ but to the high-frequency limit $v_{\\rm ph}(\\infty)$ and how these are related by the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, depending on the sign of the imaginary part of the refractive index $\\Ima n(\\w)$ which is normally assumed positive. Superluminal propagation and its relation to UV completion is investigated in detail in three theories: QED in a background electromagnetic field, where the full dispersion relation for $n(\\w)$ is evaluated numerically for the first time and the role of the null energy con...

  11. Dispersion relation and surface gravity of universal horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Chikun

    2016-01-01

    In Einstein-aether theory, violating Lorentz invariance permits some super-luminal communications, and the universal horizon can trap excitations traveling at arbitrarily high velocities. To better understand the nature of these universal horizons, we use ray tracing method to study their surface gravity in charged Einstein-aether black hole spacetime. Instead of the previous result in Ref. [Phys. Rev. D 89, 064061], our results show that the surface gravity of the universal horizon is dependent on the specific dispersion relation, $\\kappa_{UH}=2(z-1)\\kappa_{uh}/z$, where $z$ denotes the power of the leading term in the superluminal dispersion relation, characterizing different species of particles. And the associated Hawking temperatures also are different with $z$. These findings, which coincide with those in Ref. [arXiv: 1512.01900] derived by the tunneling method, provide a full understanding of black hole thermodynamics in Lorentz-violating theories.

  12. Dispersion relation and surface gravity of universal horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, ChiKun; Liu, ChangQing

    2017-05-01

    In Einstein-aether theory, violating Lorentz invariance permits some super-luminal communications, and the universal horizon can trap excitations traveling at arbitrarily high velocities. To better understand the nature of these universal horizons, we first modify the ray tracing method, and then use it to study their surface gravity in charged Einstein-aether black hole spacetime. Instead of the previous result by Cropp et al., our results show that the surface gravity of the universal horizon is dependent on the specific dispersion relation, K UH = 2( z - 1) K uh/ z, where z denotes the power of the leading term in the superluminal dispersion relation, characterizing different species of particles. And the associated Hawking temperatures also are different with z. These findings, which coincide with those derived by the tunneling method, provide some full understanding of black hole thermodynamics in Lorentz-violating theories.

  13. Special relativity and superluminal motions: a discussion of some recent experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recami, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy)]|[Bergamo Univ., Bergamo (Italy). Fac. di Ingegneria]|[State Univ. of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Fontana, F. [Pirelli Cavi, Milan (Italy). R and D sector; Garavaglia, R. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dell' Informazione

    2000-03-01

    Some experiments, performed at Berkeley, Cologne, Florence, Vienna, Orsay and Rennes led to the claim that something seems to travel with a group velocity larger than the speed c of light in vacuum. Various other experimental results seem to point in the same direction. For instance, localized wavelet-type solutions of Maxwell equations have been found, both theoretically and experimentally, that travel with superluminal speed. Even mounic and electronic neutrinos - it has been proposed - might be tachyons, since their square mass appears to be negative. With regard to the first mentioned experiments, it was very recently claimed by Guenter Nimtz that those results with evanescent waves or tunnelling photons - implying superluminal signal and impulse transmission - violate Einstein causality. This note, on the contrary, discusses that all such results do not place relativistic causality in jeopardy, even if they refer to actual tachyonic motions. In fact, special relativity can cope even with also the known paradoxes , devised for faster than light motion, even if this is not widely recognized. Here the paper shows, in detail and rigorously, how to solve the oldest casual paradox. originally proposed by Tolman, which is the kernel of many further tachyon paradoxes. The key to the solution is a careful application of tachyon mechanics, as it unambiguously follows from special relativity.

  14. Neutrino oscillations and superluminal propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, Joao

    2011-01-01

    We digress on the implications of recent claims of superluminal neutrino propagation. No matter how we turn it around such behaviour is very odd and sits uncomfortably even within "far-fetched" theories. In the context of non-linear realizations of the Lorentz group (where superluminal misbehaviour is run of the mill) one has to accept rather contrived constructions to predict superluminal properties for the neutrino. The simplest explanation is to require that at least one of the mass states be tachyonic. We show that due to neutrino mixing, the flavor energy does not suffer from the usual runaway pathologies of tachyons. For non-tachyonic mass states the theories become more speculative. A neutrino specific dispersion relation is exhibited, rendering the amplitude of the effect reasonable for a standard Planck energy. This uses the fact that the beam energy is close to the geometrical average of the neutrino and Planck mass; or, seen in another way, the beam energy is unexceptional but its gamma factor is v...

  15. Relativistic solitons and superluminal signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccari, Attilio [Technical Institute ' G. Cardano' , Piazza della Resistenza 1, Monterotondo, Rome 00015 (Italy)]. E-mail: solitone@yahoo.it

    2005-02-01

    Envelope solitons in the weakly nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in 1 + 1 dimensions are investigated by the asymptotic perturbation (AP) method. Two different types of solitons are possible according to the properties of the dispersion relation. In the first case, solitons propagate with the group velocity (less than the light speed) of the carrier wave, on the contrary in the second case solitons always move with the group velocity of the carrier wave, but now this velocity is greater than the light speed. Superluminal signals are then possible in classical relativistic nonlinear field equations.

  16. Nonlinearity without Superluminality

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    2002-01-01

    Quantum theory is compatible with special relativity. In particular, though measurements on entangled systems are correlated in a way that cannot be reproduced by local hidden variables, they cannot be used for superluminal signalling. As Gisin and Polchinski first pointed out, this is not true for general nonlinear modifications of the Schroedinger equation. Excluding superluminal signalling has thus been taken to rule out most nonlinear versions of quantum theory. The no superluminal signalling constraint has also been used for alternative derivations of the optimal fidelities attainable for imperfect quantum cloning and other operations. These results apply to theories satisfying the rule that their predictions for widely separated and slowly moving entangled systems can be approximated by non-relativistic equations of motion with respect to a preferred time coordinate. This paper describes a natural way in which this rule might fail to hold. In particular, it is shown that quantum readout devices which di...

  17. Superluminal antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, John; Earley, Lawrence M.; Krawczyk, Frank L.; Potter, James M.; Romero, William P.; Wang, Zhi-Fu

    2017-03-28

    A superluminal antenna element integrates a balun element to better impedance match an input cable or waveguide to a dielectric radiator element, thus preventing stray reflections and consequent undesirable radiation. For example, a dielectric housing material can be used that has a cutout area. A cable can extend into the cutout area. A triangular conductor can function as an impedance transition. An additional cylindrical element functions as a sleeve balun to better impedance match the radiator element to the cable.

  18. Superluminal Recession Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, T M; Davis, Tamara M.; Lineweaver, Charles H.

    2000-01-01

    Hubble's Law, v=HD (recession velocity is proportional to distance), is a theoretical result derived from the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. v=HD applies at least as far as the particle horizon and in principle for all distances. Thus, galaxies with distances greater than D=c/H are receding from us with velocities greater than the speed of light and superluminal recession is a fundamental part of the general relativistic description of the expanding universe. This apparent contradiction of special relativity (SR) is often mistakenly remedied by converting redshift to velocity using SR. Here we show that galaxies with recession velocities faster than the speed of light are observable and that in all viable cosmological models, galaxies above a redshift of three are receding superluminally.

  19. A note on superluminal neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, A.

    2012-05-01

    Although characterized by a possible experimental error, the first results of the Opera experiment at CERN have opened up a hot discussion on the possibility of superluminal neutrinos already observed in some space events. In particular, Cohen and Glashow (CG) have considered it simply an error justifying their position on the basis of the bremsstrahlung of electron-positron pairs. In this paper, we would like to discuss this position also in view of the recent derivation of the superluminal limit as a consequence of the classical causality principle. Even if the final answer is related only to the review of all the experimental results, we believe that neutral particles (neutrinos, photons, etc.) might exhibit superluminal behavior also in view of the fact that the analysis performed by Cohen and Glashow does not contain any absolute limit, like that present in the case of the Cherenkov effect in vacuum, which is absolutely impossible, as its violation would require an infinite energy amount. CG conclusions are not in contrast with superluminal neutrinos, which, in turn, are fully compatible with the theoretical analysis reported as well.

  20. Symmetry, causal structure and superluminality in Finsler spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zhe; Wang, Sai

    2012-01-01

    The superluminal behaviors of neutrinos were reported by the OPERA collaboration recently. It was also noticed by Cohen and Glashow that, in standard quantum field theory, the superluminal neutrinos would lose their energy via the Cherenkov-like process rapidly. Finslerian special relativity may provide a framework to cooperate with the OPERA neutrino superluminality without Cherenkov-like process. We present clearly the symmetry, causal structure and superluminality in Finsler spacetime. The principle of relativity and the causal law are preserved. The energy and momentum are well defined and conserved in Finslerian special relativity. The Cherenkov-like process is proved to be forbidden kinematically and the superluminal neutrinos would not lose energy in their distant propagations from CERN to the Gran Sasso Laboratory. The energy dependence of neutrino superluminality is studied based on the reported data of the OPERA collaboration as well as other groups.

  1. Analysis of Wave Nonlinear Dispersion Relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-jie; TAO Jian-fu

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dispersion relations and modified relations proposed by Kirby and Hedges have the limitation of intermediate minimum value. To overcome the shortcoming, a new nonlinear dispersion relation is proposed. Based on the summarization and comparison of existing nonlinear dispersion relations, it can be found that the new nonlinear dispersion relation not only keeps the advantages of other nonlinear dispersion relations, but also significantly reduces the relative errors of the nonlinear dispersion relations for a range of the relative water depth of 1<kh<1.5 and has sufficient accuracy for practical purposes.

  2. On the Superluminal Motion of Radio-Loud AGNs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhi-Bin Zhang; Yi-Zhen Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Apparent superluminal motion of different radio-loud AGNs are similarly related with beaming effect. The cosmological expanding effect would play no part in the superluminal motion of radio galaxies, BL Lacertae objects as well as quasars.Meanwhile, we confirm that estimates for apparent velocity app and Doppler boosting factor based on multi-wavelength combination and variability are comparable.

  3. Dispersion relations for unphysical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringo, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    Generalized dispersion relations are discussed for unphysical particles, e.g. confined degrees of freedom that are not present in the physical spectra but can give rise to observable bound states. While in general the propagator of the unphysical particles can have complex poles and cannot be reconstructed from the knowledge of the imaginary part, under reasonable assumptions the missing piece of information is shown to be in the rational function that contains the poles and must be added to the integral representation. For pure Yang-Mills theory, the rational part and the spectral term are identified in the explicit analytical expressions provided by the massive expansion of the gluon propagator. The multi particle spectral term turns out to be very small and the simple rational part provides, from first principles, an approximate propagator that is equivalent to the tree-level result of simple phenomenological models like the refined Gribov-Zwanziger model.

  4. Speed of the CERN Neutrinos released on 22.9.2011 - Was stated superluminality due to neglecting General Relativity?

    CERN Document Server

    Kundt, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    During the years 2009 to 2011, neutrino beams were fired repeatedly from CERN towards a detector in Italy's Gran Sasso tunnel, some 4 deg south and 7 deg east of CERN, at a distance of 730.5 km, in the shape of short bunches of particles. Their time of flight (2.5 msec) was measured at high accuracy (nsec) with caesium clocks (Reich 2011). Remarkably, the CNGS team found a deficit of 61 nsec compared with propagation at the speed of light, and concluded at superluminal speeds, of order 10$^{-4.6}$. In this communication, I will argue that this is the first experiment to test Einstein's theory for the (weak) gravity field of Earth, with the result that the neutrinos propagated (just) luminally.

  5. Cosmology with Superluminous Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Scovacricchi, Dario; Bacon, David; Sullivan, Mark; Prajs, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    We predict cosmological constraints for forthcoming surveys using Superluminous Supernovae (SLSNe) as standardisable candles. Due to their high peak luminosity, these events can be observed to high redshift (z~3), opening up new possibilities to probe the Universe in the deceleration epoch. We describe our methodology for creating mock Hubble diagrams for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), the "Search Using DECam for Superluminous Supernovae" (SUDSS) and a sample of SLSNe possible from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), exploring a range of standardisation values for SLSNe. We include uncertainties due to gravitational lensing and marginalise over possible uncertainties in the magnitude scale of the observations (e.g. uncertain absolute peak magnitude, calibration errors). We find that the addition of only ~100 SLSNe from SUDSS to 3800 Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from DES can improve the constraints on w and Omega_m by at least 20% (assuming a flat wCDM universe). Moreover, the combination of DES SNe Ia a...

  6. Extended Linear and Nonlinear Lorentz Transformations and Superluminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Faroughy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two broad scenarios for extended linear Lorentz transformations (ELTs are modeled in Section 2 for mixing subluminal and superluminal sectors resulting in standard or deformed energy-momentum dispersions. The first scenario is elucidated in the context of four diverse realizations of a continuous function f ( v , with 0 ≤ f ( v ≤ 1 and f ( 0 = f ( c = 1 , which is fitted in the ELT. What goes in the making of the ELT in this scenario is not the boost speed v , as ascertained by two inertial observers in uniform relative motion (URM, but v × f ( v . The second scenario infers the preexistence of two rest-mass-dependent superluminal speeds whereby the ELTs are finite at the light speed c . Particle energies are evaluated in this scenario at c for several particles, including the neutrinos, and are auspiciously found to be below the GKZ energy cutoff and in compliance with a host of worldwide ultrahigh energy cosmic ray data. Section 3 presents two broad scenarios involving a number of novel nonlinear LTs (NLTs featuring small Lorentz invariance violations (LIVs, as well as resurrecting the notion of simultaneity for limited spacetime events as perceived by two observers in URM. These inquiries corroborate that NLTs could be potent tools for investigating LIVs past the customary LTs.

  7. Extended Lorentz code of a superluminal particle

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Kazarian, G

    2012-01-01

    While the OPERA experimental scrutiny is ongoing in the community, in the present article we construct a toy model of {\\it extended Lorentz code} (ELC) of the uniform motion, which will be a well established consistent and unique theoretical framework to explain the apparent violations of the standard Lorentz code (SLC), the possible manifestations of which arise in a similar way in all particle sectors. We argue that in the ELC-framework the propagation of the superluminal particle, which implies the modified dispersion relation, could be consistent with causality. Furthermore, in this framework, we give a justification of forbiddance of Vavilov-Cherenkov (VC)-radiation/or analog processes in vacuum. To be consistent with the SN1987A and OPERA data, we identify the neutrinos from SN1987A and the light as so-called {\\it 1-th type} particles carrying the {\\it individual Lorentz motion code} with the velocity of light $c_{1}\\equiv c$ in vacuum as maximum attainable velocity for all the 1-th type particles. Ther...

  8. Lorentz symmetry violating low energy dispersion relations from a dimension-five photon scalar mixing operator

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguly, Avijit K

    2016-01-01

    Dimension-five photon $(\\gamma )$ scalar $(\\phi)$ interaction terms usually appear in the bosonic sector of unified theories of electromagnetism and gravity. In these theories the three propagation eigenstates are different from the three field eigenstates. The dispersion relation in an external magnetic field shows that, for a non- zero energy $(\\omega)$, out of the three propagating eigenstates one has superluminal phase velocity $v_p$. During propagation, another eigenstate undergoes amplification or attenuation, showing signs of an unstable system. The remaining one maintains causality. In this paper, using techniques from optics as well as gravity, we identify the energy $(\\omega)$ interval outside which $v_p \\le c$ for the field eigenstates $|\\gamma_{\\parallel} > $ and $ |\\phi > $, and stability of the system is restored. The behavior of group velocity $v_g$ is also explored in the same context. We conclude by pointing out its possible astrophysical implications.

  9. Phonon dispersion relation of liquid metals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P B Thakor; P N Gajjar; A R Jani

    2009-06-01

    The phonon dispersion curves of some liquid metals, viz. Na ( = 1), Mg ( = 2), Al ( = 3) and Pb ( = 4), have been computed using our model potential. The charged hard sphere (CHS) reference system is applied to describe the structural information. Our model potential along with CHS reference system is capable of explaining the phonon dispersion relation for monovalent, divalent, trivalent and tetravalent liquid metals.

  10. Superluminal Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgov, D S

    1993-01-01

    The new solution of the Einstein equations in empty space is presented. The solution is constructed using Schwarzschild solution but essentially differs from it. The basic properties of the solution are: the existence of a horizon which is a hyperboloid of one sheet moving along its axis with superluminal velocity, right signature of the metric outside the horizon and Minkovsky-flatness of it at infinity outside the horizon. There is also a discussion in the last chapter, including comparing with recent astronomical observations.

  11. Nonlinear Dispersion Relation in Wave Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞杰; 严以新; 曹宏生

    2003-01-01

    A nonlinear dispersion relation is presented to model the nonlinear dispersion of waves over the whole range of possible water depths. It reduces the phase speed over-prediction of both Hedges′ modified relation and Kirby and Dalrymple′s modified relation in the region of 1<kh<1.5 for small wave steepness and maintains the monotonicity in phase speed variation for large wave steepness. And it has a simple form. By use of the new nonlinear dispersion relation along with the mild slope equation taking into account weak nonlinearity, a mathematical model of wave transformation is developed and applied to laboratory data. The results show that the model with the new dispersion relation can predict wave transformation over complicated bathymetry satisfactorily.

  12. Superluminal Energy Transmission in the Goos-Hanchen Shift of Total Reflection

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Z Y

    2011-01-01

    This paper is to give a counter example for the theory of relativity. Firstly, the dispersion relation of surface electromagnetic waves is corresponding to that of a tachyon where the coefficient of proportionality is the squared Planck constant. Then we prove the energy flow velocity S/w of the Goos-Hanchen shift in vacuum is cn.sinI>c as well according to electrodynamics. These two different ways lead to a same conclusion that energy transport in the Goos-Hanchen effect of total reflection is faster than light. It is also helpful to study the tachyon of particle physics and superluminal motion observed in astronomy,etc.

  13. Superluminal propagation: Light cone and Minkowski spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugnai, D. [' Nello Carrara' Institute of Applied Physics, CNR Florence Research Area, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)]. E-mail: d.mugnai@ifac.cnr.it

    2007-05-14

    Superluminal behavior has been extensively studied in recent years, especially with regard to the topic of superluminality in the propagation of a signal. Particular interest has been devoted to Bessel-X waves propagation, since some experimental results showed that these waves have both phase and group velocities greater that light velocity c. However, because of the lack of an exact definition of signal velocity, no definite answer about the signal propagation (or velocity of information) has been found. The present Letter is a short note that deals in a general way with this vexed question. By analyzing the field of existence of the Bessel X-pulse in pseudo-Euclidean spacetime, it is possible to give a general description of the propagation, and to overcome the specific question related to a definition of signal velocity.

  14. Superluminal Neutrinos and Monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang

    2011-01-01

    In this letter, we show that superluminal neutrinos announced by OPERA could be explained by the existence of a monopole, which is left behind after the spontaneous symmetry braking (SSB) phase transition of some scalar fields in the universe. We assume the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole couples to the neutrinos but not photon fields. The monopole causes effective metric to the neutrinos, different from the Minkovski one. We find that the monopoles have influences on neutrinos only within the range about $10^3$ cm. Neutrinos always arrive earlier than photons by the same amount of time, once there exists a monopole on or close to their trajectories. This result reconciles the contradiction between OPERA and supernova neutrinos.

  15. Cosmology with superluminous supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovacricchi, D.; Nichol, R. C.; Bacon, D.; Sullivan, M.; Prajs, S.

    2016-02-01

    We predict cosmological constraints for forthcoming surveys using superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) as standardizable candles. Due to their high peak luminosity, these events can be observed to high redshift (z ˜ 3), opening up new possibilities to probe the Universe in the deceleration epoch. We describe our methodology for creating mock Hubble diagrams for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), the `Search Using DECam for Superluminous Supernovae' (SUDSS) and a sample of SLSNe possible from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), exploring a range of standardization values for SLSNe. We include uncertainties due to gravitational lensing and marginalize over possible uncertainties in the magnitude scale of the observations (e.g. uncertain absolute peak magnitude, calibration errors). We find that the addition of only ≃100 SLSNe from SUDSS to 3800 Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from DES can improve the constraints on w and Ωm by at least 20 per cent (assuming a flat wCDM universe). Moreover, the combination of DES SNe Ia and 10 000 LSST-like SLSNe can measure Ωm and w to 2 and 4 per cent, respectively. The real power of SLSNe becomes evident when we consider possible temporal variations in w(a), giving possible uncertainties of only 2, 5 and 14 per cent on Ωm, w0 and wa, respectively, from the combination of DES SNe Ia, LSST-like SLSNe and Planck. These errors are competitive with predicted Euclid constraints, indicating a future role for SLSNe for probing the high-redshift Universe.

  16. Superluminal radiation by uniformly moving charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaschitz, Roman

    2003-03-01

    The emission of superluminal quanta (tachyons) by freely propagating particles is scrutinized. Estimates are derived for spontaneous superluminal radiation from electrons moving close to the speed of the Galaxy in the microwave background. This is the threshold velocity for tachyon radiation to occur, a lower bound. Quantitative estimates are also given for the opposite limit, tachyon radiation emitted by ultra-relativistic electrons in linear colliders and supernova shock waves. The superluminal energy flux is studied and the spectral energy density of the radiation is derived, classically as well as in second quantization. There is a transversal bosonic and a longitudinal fermionic component of the radiation. We calculate the power radiated, its angular dependence, the mean energy of the radiated quanta, absorption and emission rates, as well as tachyonic number counts. We explain how the symmetry of the Einstein /A-coefficients connects to time-symmetric wave propagation and to the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory. A relation between the tachyon mass and the velocity of the Local Group of galaxies is suggested.

  17. Nonlocal Quantum Information Transfer Without Superluminal Signalling and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walleczek, Jan; Grössing, Gerhard

    2016-09-01

    It is a frequent assumption that—via superluminal information transfers—superluminal signals capable of enabling communication are necessarily exchanged in any quantum theory that posits hidden superluminal influences. However, does the presence of hidden superluminal influences automatically imply superluminal signalling and communication? The non-signalling theorem mediates the apparent conflict between quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity. However, as a `no-go' theorem there exist two opposing interpretations of the non-signalling constraint: foundational and operational. Concerning Bell's theorem, we argue that Bell employed both interpretations, and that he finally adopted the operational position which is associated often with ontological quantum theory, e.g., de Broglie-Bohm theory. This position we refer to as "effective non-signalling". By contrast, associated with orthodox quantum mechanics is the foundational position referred to here as "axiomatic non-signalling". In search of a decisive communication-theoretic criterion for differentiating between "axiomatic" and "effective" non-signalling, we employ the operational framework offered by Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, whereby we distinguish between Shannon signals and non-Shannon signals. We find that an effective non-signalling theorem represents two sub-theorems: (1) Non-transfer-control (NTC) theorem, and (2) Non-signification-control (NSC) theorem. Employing NTC and NSC theorems, we report that effective, instead of axiomatic, non-signalling is entirely sufficient for prohibiting nonlocal communication. Effective non-signalling prevents the instantaneous, i.e., superluminal, transfer of message-encoded information through the controlled use—by a sender-receiver pair —of informationally-correlated detection events, e.g., in EPR-type experiments. An effective non-signalling theorem allows for nonlocal quantum information transfer yet—at the same time

  18. Dispersion relations in heavily-doped nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the dispersion relation in heavily doped nano-structures. The materials considered are III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, GaP, Ge, Platinum Antimonide, stressed, GaSb, Te, II-V, HgTe/CdTe superlattices and Bismuth Telluride semiconductors. The dispersion relation is discussed under magnetic quantization and on the basis of carrier energy spectra. The influences of magnetic field, magneto inversion, and magneto nipi structures on nano-structures is analyzed. The band structure of optoelectronic materials changes with photo-excitation in a fundamental way according to newly formulated electron dispersion laws. They control the quantum effect in optoelectronic devices in the presence of light. The measurement of band gaps in optoelectronic materials in the presence of external photo-excitation is displayed. The influences of magnetic quantization, crossed electric and quantizing fields, intense electric fields on the on the dispersion relation in heavily doped semiconductors and super-lattices are also disc...

  19. Challenges Confronting Superluminal Neutrino Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evslin, Jarah

    2012-12-01

    This talk opens the CosPA2011 session on OPERA's superluminal neutrino claim. I summarize relevant observations and constraints from OPERA, MINOS, ICARUS, KamLAND, IceCube and LEP as well as observations of SN1987A. I selectively review some models of neutrino superluminality which have been proposed since OPERA's announcement, focusing on a neutrino dark energy model. Powerful theoretical constraints on these models arise from Cohen-Glashow bremsstrahlung and from phase space requirements for the initial neutrino production. I discuss these constraints and how they might be evaded in models in which the maximum velocities of both neutrinos and charged leptons are equal but only superluminal inside of a dense medium.

  20. Challenges Confronting Superluminal Neutrino Models

    CERN Document Server

    Evslin, Jarah

    2011-01-01

    This talk opens the CosPA2011 session on OPERA's superluminal neutrino claim. I summarize relevant observations and constraints from OPERA, MINOS, ICARUS, KamLAND, IceCube and LEP as well as observations of SN1987A. I selectively review some models of neutrino superluminality which have been proposed since OPERA's announcement, focusing on a neutrino dark energy model. Powerful theoretical constraints on these models arise from Cohen-Glashow bremsstrahlung and from phase space requirements for the initial neutrino production. I discuss these constraints and how they might be evaded in models in which the maximum velocities of both neutrinos and charged leptons are equal but only superluminal inside of a dense medium.

  1. Superluminal travel requires negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Olum, Ken D.

    1998-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between faster-than-light travel and weak-energy-condition violation, i.e., negative energy densities. In a general spacetime it is difficult to define faster-than-light travel, and I give an example of a metric which appears to allow superluminal travel, but in fact is just flat space. To avoid such difficulties, I propose a definition of superluminal travel which requires that the path to be traveled reach a destination surface at an earlier time than any neig...

  2. Near Scale Invariance with Modified Dispersion Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Armendariz-Picon, C

    2006-01-01

    We describe a novel mechanism to seed a nearly scale invariant spectrum of adiabatic perturbations during a non-inflationary stage. It relies on a modified dispersion relation that contains higher powers of the spatial momentum of matter perturbations. We implement this idea in the context of a massless scalar field in an otherwise perfectly homogeneous universe. The couplings of the field to background scalars and tensors give rise to the required modification of its dispersion relation, and the couplings of the scalar to matter result in an adiabatic primordial spectrum. This work is meant to explicitly illustrate that it is possible to seed nearly scale invariant primordial spectra without inflation, within a conventional expansion history.

  3. A Blind Pilot: Who is a Super-Luminal Observer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the nature of a hypothetical super-luminal observer who, as well as a real (sub-light speed observer, perceives the world by light waves. This consideration is due to that fact that the theory of relativity permits different frames of reference, including light-like and super-luminal reference frames. In analogy with a blind pilot on board a supersonic jet aeroplane (or missile, perceived by blind people, it is concluded that the light barrier is observed in the framework of only the light signal exchange experiment.

  4. Superluminal light propagation via quantum interference in decay channels

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, R.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the propagation of a weak probe light through a coherently driven $Y$-type system. Under the condition that the excited atomic levels decay via same vacuum modes, the effects of quantum interference in decay channels are considered. It is found that the interference in decay channels results in a lossless anomalous dispersion between two gain peaks. We demonstrate that the probe pulse propagation can in principle be switched from subluminal to superluminal due to the decay-induced ...

  5. Has superluminal light propagation been observed?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuan-Zhong

    2000-01-01

    It says in the report$^1$ by Wang et al. that a negative group velocity $u=-c/310$ is obtained and that a pulse advancement shift 62-ns is measured. The authors claim that the negative group velocity is associated with superluminal light propagation and that the pulse advancement is not at odds with causality or special relativity. However, it is shown here that their conclusions above are not true. Furthermore, I give some suggestion concerning a re-definition of group-velocity and a new exp...

  6. Invisibility cloaking without superluminal propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perczel, Janos; Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Tyc, Tomas, E-mail: jp394@st-andrews.ac.uk, E-mail: tomtyc@physics.muni.cz, E-mail: ulf@st-andrews.ac.uk [Faculty of Science, Kotlarska 2 and Faculty of Informatics, Botanicka 68a, Masaryk University, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-08-15

    Conventional cloaking based on Euclidean transformation optics requires that the speed of light should tend to infinity on the inner surface of the cloak. Non-Euclidean cloaking still needs media with superluminal propagation. Here we show by giving an example that this is no longer necessary.

  7. Popper's Experiment and Superluminal Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Gerjuoy, E; Gerjuoy, Edward; Sessler, Andrew M.

    2005-01-01

    We comment on Tabesh Qureshi, "Understanding Popper's Experiment," AJP 73, 541 (June 2005), in particular on the implications of its section IV. We show, in the situation envisaged by Popper, that analysis solely with conventional non-relativistic quantum mechanics suffices to exclude the possibility of superluminal communication.

  8. Probing Superluminal Neutrinos Via Refraction

    OpenAIRE

    Stebbins, Albert

    2011-01-01

    One phenomenological explanation of superluminal propagation of neutrinos, which may have been observed by OPERA and MINOS, is that neutrinos travel faster inside of matter than in vacuum. If so neutrinos exhibit refraction inside matter and should exhibit other manifestations of refraction, such as deflection and reflection. Such refraction would be easily detectable through the momentum imparted to appropriately shaped refractive material inserted into the neutrino beam. For NuMI this could...

  9. Inflationary cosmology with nonlinear dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Tao; Cleaver, Gerald; Kirsten, Klaus; Sheng, Qin

    2013-01-01

    We present a technique, {\\em the uniform asymptotic approximation}, to construct accurate analytical solutions of the linear perturbations of inflation after quantum effects of the early universe are taken into account, for which the dispersion relations generically become nonlinear. We construct explicitly the error bounds associated with the approximations and then study them in detail. With the understanding of the errors and the proper choice of the Liouville transformations of the differential equations of the perturbations, we show that the analytical solutions describe the exact evolution of the linear perturbations extremely well even only to the first-order approximations. As a simple application of the approximate analytical solutions, we calculate the power spectra and indices of scalar and tensor perturbations in the de Sitter background, and find that the amplitudes of the power spectra get modified due to the quantum effects, while the power spectrum indices remain the same as in the linear case...

  10. The Shape of Superluminous Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    What causes the tremendous explosions of superluminous supernovae? New observations reveal the geometry of one such explosion, SN 2015bn, providing clues as to its source.A New Class of ExplosionsImage of a type Ia supernova in the galaxy NGC 4526. [NASA/ESA]Supernovae are powerful explosions that can briefly outshine the galaxies that host them. There are several different classifications of supernovae, each with a different physical source such as thermonuclear instability in a white dwarf, caused by accretion of too much mass, or the exhaustion of fuel in the core of a massive star, leading to the cores collapse and expulsion of its outer layers.In recent years, however, weve detected another type of supernovae, referred to as superluminous supernovae. These particularly energetic explosions last longer months instead of weeks and are brighter at their peaks than normal supernovae by factors of tens to hundreds.The physical cause of these unusual explosions is still a topic of debate. Recently, however, a team of scientists led by Cosimo Inserra (Queens University Belfast) has obtained new observations of a superluminous supernova that might help address this question.The flux and the polarization level (black lines) along the dominant axis of SN 2015bn, 24 days before peak flux (left) and 28 days after peak flux (right). Blue lines show the authors best-fitting model. [Inserra et al. 2016]Probing GeometryInserra and collaborators obtained two sets of observations of SN 2015bn one roughly a month before and one a month after the superluminous supernovas peak brightness using a spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope in Chile. These observations mark the first spectropolarimetric data for a superluminous supernova.Spectropolarimetry is the practice of obtaining information about the polarization of radiation from an objects spectrum. Polarization carries information about broken spatial symmetries in the object: only if the object is perfectly symmetric can it

  11. Superluminal reflection and transmission of light pulses via resonant four-wave mixing in cesium vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qichang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Dan; Ahrens, Sven; Zhang, Junxiang; Zhu, Shiyao

    2016-10-17

    We report the experimental manipulation of the group velocities of reflected and transmitted light pulses in a degenerate two-level atomic system driven by a standing wave, which is created by two counter-propagating light beams of equal frequencies but variable amplitudes. It is shown that the light pulse is reflected with superluminal group velocity while the transmitted pulse propagates from subluminal to superluminal velocities via changing the power of the backward coupling field. We find that the simultaneous superluminal light reflection and transmission can be reached when the power of the backward field becomes closer or equal to the forward power, in this case the periodical absorption modulation for photonic structure is established in atoms. The theoretical discussion shows that the anomalous dispersion associated with a resonant absorption dip within the gain peak due to four-wave mixing leads to the superluminal reflection, while the varying dispersion from normal to anomalous at transparency, transparency within absorption, and electromagnetically induced absorption windows leads to the subluminal to superluminal transmission.

  12. Superluminality in the Bi- and Multi Galileon

    CERN Document Server

    de Fromont, Paul; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Matas, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We re-explore the Bi- and Multi-Galileon models with trivial asymptotic conditions at infinity and show that propagation of superluminal fluctuations is a common and unavoidable feature of these theories, unlike previously claimed in the literature. We show that all Multi-Galileon theories containing a Cubic Galileon term exhibit superluminalities at large distances from a point source, and that even if the Cubic Galileon is not present one can always find sensible matter distributions in which there are superluminal modes at large distances. In the Bi-Galileon case we explicitly show that there are always superluminal modes around a point source even if the Cubic Galileon is not present. Finally, we briefly comment on the possibility of avoiding superluminalities by modifying the asymptotic conditions at infinity.

  13. Functional crossover in the dispersion relations of magnons and phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoser, A.; Köbler, U.

    2016-09-01

    Experimental data are presented showing that the dispersion relations of magnons and acoustic phonons can consist of two sections with different functions of wave vector. In the low wave vector range a power function of wave vector often holds over a finite q-range while dispersions for larger wave vector values better approach the atomistic model predictions. In the magnon spectra ∼⃒qx power functions with exponents x=1.25, 1.5 and 2 are identified. The dispersion of the acoustic phonons can be a linear function of wave vector over a surprisingly large range of energy. Since the slope of the linear section agrees with the known sound velocities it can be concluded that the dispersion of the acoustic phonons has got attracted by the linear dispersion of the mass less Debye bosons (sound waves). Due to the different (translational) symmetries of bosons and atomistic excitations (magnons, phonons) the associated dispersions can attract each other. In the same way the different ∼⃒qx power functions in the magnon dispersions indicate that magnon dispersions are attracted by the dispersion of the bosons of the magnetic continuum (Goldstone bosons). This allows evaluation of the otherwise difficult to obtain dispersions of the Goldstone bosons from the known magnon dispersions. Interestingly, the dispersions of Goldstone bosons (Debye bosons) attract magnon dispersions (phonon dispersions) and not vice versa.

  14. Moving Schwarzschild Black Hole and Modified Dispersion Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Hinojosa, Cristian Barrera

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of a moving Schwarzschild black hole, identifying the temperature and entropy in a relativistic scenario. Furthermore, we set arguments in a framework relating invariant geometrical quantities under global spacetime transformations and the dispersion relation of the system. We then extended these arguments in order to consider more general dispersion relations, and identify criteria to rule them out.

  15. Moving Schwarzschild black hole and modified dispersion relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Barrera Hinojosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the thermodynamics of a moving Schwarzschild black hole, identifying the temperature and entropy in a relativistic scenario. Furthermore, we set arguments in a framework relating invariant geometrical quantities under global spacetime transformations and the dispersion relation of the system. We then extended these arguments in order to consider more general dispersion relations, and identify criteria to rule them out.

  16. Dispersion relations for 1D high-gain FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, S.D.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-08-23

    We present analytical results for the one-dimensional dispersion relation for high-gain FELs. Using kappa-n distributions, we obtain analytical relations between the dispersion relations for various order kappa distributions. Since an exact solution exists for the kappa-1 (Lorentzian) distribution, this provides some insight into the number of modes on the way to the Gaussian distribution.

  17. Gain-assisted superluminal propagation and rotary drag of photon and surface plasmon polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naveed; Amin Bacha, Bakht; Iqbal, Azmat; Ur Rahman, Amin; Afaq, A.

    2017-07-01

    Superluminal propagation of light is a well-established phenomenon and has motivated immense research interest that has led to state-of-the-art knowledge and potential applications in the emerging technology of quantum optics and photonics. This study presents a theoretical analysis of the gain-assisted superluminal light propagation in a four-level N -type atomic system by exploiting the scheme of electromagnetically induced gain and superluminal propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) along the gain-assisted atomic-metal interface simultaneously. In addition, a theoretical demonstration is presented on the comparison between Fresnel's rotary photon drag and SPP drag in view of light polarization state rotation by rotating the coherent atomic medium and the atomic-metal interface, respectively. Analogous to photon drag in the superluminal anomalous dispersion region where light polarization rotation occurs opposite the rotation of the gain-assisted atomic medium, the rotation of the atomic-metal interface also rotates the polarization state of SPPs opposite the rotation of the interface. This further confirms the superluminal nature of SPPs propagating along the interface with negative group velocity. Rabi frequencies of the control and pump fields considerably modify both photon and SPP drag coefficients. Metal conductivity also controls SPP propagation.

  18. Superluminal Spot Pair Events in Astronomical Settings: Sweeping Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Nemiroff, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Sweeping beams of light can cast spots moving with superluminal speeds across scattering surfaces. Such faster-than-light speeds are well-known phenomena that do not violate special relativity. It is shown here that under certain circumstances, superluminal spot pair creation and annihilation events can occur that provide unique information to observers. These spot pair events are {\\it not} particle pair events -- they are the sudden creation or annihilation of a pair of relatively illuminated spots on a scattering surface. Real spot pair illumination events occur unambiguously on the scattering surface when spot speeds diverge, while virtual spot pair events are observer dependent and perceived only when real spot radial speeds cross the speed of light. Specifically, a virtual spot pair creation event will be observed when a real spot's speed toward the observer drops below $c$, while a virtual spot pair annihilation event will be observed when a real spot's radial speed away from the observer rises above $c...

  19. Dispersion relations for circular single and double dusty plasma chains

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachenko, D V; Misko, V R

    2011-01-01

    We derive dispersion relations for a system of identical particles confined in a two-dimensional annular harmonic well and which interact through a Yukawa potential, e.g., a dusty plasma ring. When the particles are in a single chain (i.e., a one-dimensional ring) we find a longitudinal acoustic mode and a transverse optical mode which show approximate agreement with the dispersion relation for a straight configuration for large radii of the ring. When the radius decreases, the dispersion relations modify: there appears an anticrossing of the modes near the crossing point resulting in a frequency gap between the lower and upper branches of the modified dispersion relations. For the double chain (i.e., a two-dimensional zigzag configuration) the dispersion relation has four branches: longitudinal acoustic and optical and transverse acoustic and optical.

  20. Superradiant scattering of dispersive fields

    CERN Document Server

    Richartz, Maurício; Weinfurtner, Silke; Liberati, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by analogue models of classical and quantum field theory in curved spacetimes and their recent experimental realizations, we consider wave scattering processes of dispersive fields exhibiting two extra degrees of freedom. In particular, we investigate how standard superradiant scattering processes are affected by subluminal or superluminal modifications of the dispersion relation. We analyze simple 1-dimensional toy-models based on fourth-order corrections to the standard second order wave equation and show that low-frequency waves impinging on generic scattering potentials can be amplified during the process. In specific cases, by assuming a simple step potential, we determine quantitatively the deviations in the amplification spectrum that arise due to dispersion, and demonstrate that the amplification can be further enhanced due to the presence of extra degrees of freedom. We also consider dispersive scattering processes in which the medium where the scattering takes place is moving with respect ...

  1. Wave Scattering by Superluminal Spacetime Slab

    CERN Document Server

    Deck-Léger, Zoé-Lise

    2016-01-01

    Spacetime media offers new opportunities for wave manipulation. Here we study superluminal slabs, and show that the amplitudes of the reflected waves are controlled by the velocity of the medium. In addition, the backward wave continuously scans from the specular to the collinear angle. A diagrammatic method is provided for insight into the deflection angles. A fundamental symmetry between sub- and superluminal scattering is derived from this diagrammatic description.

  2. Characterization of thin films using generalized lamb wave dispersion relations

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, P; Behrend, O.; Gremaud, G.; Kulik, A.

    1993-01-01

    We used the Continuous Wave Scanning Acoustic Microscope to characterize thin film materials. The measurement of the dispersion curve of surface waves and the inversion of this dispersion equation relation, allow to determine the elastic constants, the density or the thickness of a thin layer on a substrate. Besides, it is possible to have qualitative information on the adhesion properties of the layer.

  3. Transplanckian dispersion relation and entanglement entropy of blackhole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, D. [Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsin-Chu (Taiwan); Chu, C.S.; Lin, F.L. [Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsin-Chu (Taiwan)

    2004-06-01

    The quantum correction to the entanglement entropy of the event horizon is plagued by the UV divergence due to the infinitely blue-shifted near horizon modes. The resolution of this UV divergence provides an excellent window to a better understanding and control of the quantum gravity effects. We claim that the key to resolve this UV puzzle is the transplanckian dispersion relation. We calculate the entanglement entropy using a very general type of transplanckian dispersion relation such that high energy modes above a certain scale are cutoff, and show that the entropy is rendered UV finite. We argue that modified dispersion relation is a generic feature of string theory, and this boundedness nature of the dispersion relation is a general consequence of the existence of a minimal distance in string theory. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. First stars, hypernovae, and superluminous supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Ken'Ichi

    2016-07-01

    After the big bang, production of heavy elements in the early universe takes place starting from the formation of the first (Pop III) stars, their evolution, and explosion. The Pop III supernova (SN) explosions have strong dynamical, thermal, and chemical feedback on the formation of subsequent stars and evolution of galaxies. However, the nature of Pop III stars/supernovae (SNe) have not been well-understood. The signature of nucleosynthesis yields of the first SN can be seen in the elemental abundance patterns observed in extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. We show that the abundance patterns of EMP stars, e.g. the excess of C, Co, Zn relative to Fe, are in better agreement with the yields of hyper-energetic explosions (Hypernovae, (HNe)) rather than normal supernovae. We note the large variation of the abundance patterns of EMP stars propose that such a variation is related to the diversity of the GRB-SNe and posssibly superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). For example, the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars may be related to the faint SNe (or dark HNe), which could be the explosions induced by relativistic jets. Finally, we examine the various mechanisms of SLSNe.

  5. Phonons in slow motion: dispersion relations in ultrathin Si membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffe, John; Chávez, Emigdio; Shchepetov, Andrey; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; El Boudouti, El Houssaine; Alzina, Francesc; Kehoe, Timothy; Gomis-Bresco, Jordi; Dudek, Damian; Pennec, Yan; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Prunnila, Mika; Ahopelto, Jouni; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

    2012-07-11

    We report the changes in dispersion relations of hypersonic acoustic phonons in free-standing silicon membranes as thin as ∼8 nm. We observe a reduction of the phase and group velocities of the fundamental flexural mode by more than 1 order of magnitude compared to bulk values. The modification of the dispersion relation in nanostructures has important consequences for noise control in nano- and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) as well as opto-mechanical devices.

  6. Dispersion relation of excitation mode in strongly interacting fermions matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan-Ping; Chen Ji-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the dispersion relation of the excitation mode in non-relativistic interacting fermion matter.The polarization tensor is calculated with the random phase approximation in terms of finite temperature field theory.With the polarization tensor, the influences of temperature, particle number density and interaction strength on the dispersion relation are discussed in detail. It finds that the collective effects are qualitatively more important in the unitary fermions than those in the finite contact interaction matter.

  7. A brief Introduction to Dispersion Relations and Analyticity

    CERN Document Server

    Zwicky, Roman

    2016-01-01

    In these lectures we provide a basic introduction into the topic of dispersion relation and analyticity. The properties of 2-point functions are discussed in some detail from the viewpoint of the K\\"all\\'en-Lehmann and general dispersion relations. The Weinberg sum rules figure as an application. The analytic structure of higher point functions in perturbation theory are analysed through the Landau equations and the Cutkosky rules.

  8. Understanding the relative role of dispersion mechanisms across basin scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, M.; Zarlenga, A.; Volpi, E.

    2016-05-01

    Different mechanisms are understood to represent the primary sources of the variance of travel time distribution in natural catchments. To quantify the fraction of variance introduced by each component, dispersion coefficients have been earlier defined in the framework of geomorphology-based rainfall-runoff models. In this paper we compare over a wide range of basin sizes and for a variety of runoff conditions the relative role of geomorphological dispersion, related to the heterogeneity of path lengths, and hillslope kinematic dispersion, generated by flow processes within the hillslopes. Unlike previous works, our approach does not focus on a specific study case; instead, we try to generalize results already obtained in previous literature stemming from the definition of a few significant parameters related to the metrics of the catchment and flow dynamics. We further extend this conceptual framework considering the effects of two additional variance-producing processes: the first covers the random variability of hillslope velocities (i.e. of travel times over hillslopes); the second deals with non-uniform production of runoff over the basin (specifically related to drainage density). Results are useful to clarify the role of hillslope kinematic dispersion and define under which conditions it counteracts or reinforces geomorphological dispersion. We show how its sign is ruled by the specific spatial distribution of hillslope lengths within the basin, as well as by flow conditions. Interestingly, while negative in a wide range of cases, kinematic dispersion is expected to become invariantly positive when the variability of hillslope velocity is large.

  9. Dispersion relations and the spin polarizabilities of the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Drechsel, D; Hanstein, O

    1998-01-01

    A forward dispersion calculation is implemented for the spin polarizabilities are related to the spin structure of the nucleon at low energies and are structure-constants of the Compton scattering amplitude at ${\\cal O}(\\omega^3)$. In the absence of a direct experimental measurement of these quantities, a dispersion calculation serves the purpose of constraining the model building, and of comparing with recent calculations in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory.

  10. Could the photon dispersion relation be non-linear ?

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The free photon dispersion relation is a reference quantity for high precision tests of Lorentz Invariance. We first outline theoretical approaches to a conceivable Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV). Next we address phenomenological tests based on the propagation of cosmic rays, in particular in Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). As a specific concept, which could imply LIV, we then focus on field theory in a non-commutative (NC) space, and we present non-perturbative results for the dispersion relati...

  11. The Phantom of the OPERA: Superluminal Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a brief review on the experimental measurements of the muon neutrino velocities from the OPERA, Fermilab and MINOS experiments and that of the (anti)-electron neutrino velocities from the supernova SN1987a, and consequently on the theoretical aspects to attribute the data as signals for superluminality of neutrinos. Different scenarios on how to understand and treat the background fields in the standard model extension frameworks are pointed out. Challenges on interpreting the OPERA result as a signal of neutrino superluminality are briefly reviewed and discussed. It is also pointed out that a covariant scenario of Lorentz violation can avoid the refutation on the OPERA experiment.

  12. Spectroscopy of superluminous supernova host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leloudas, G.; Kruehler, T.; Schulze, S

    2015-01-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are very bright explosions that were only discovered recently and that show a preference for occurring in faint dwarf galaxies. Understanding why stellar evolution yields different types of stellar explosions in these environments is fundamental in order to both...... uncover the elusive progenitors of SLSNe and to study star formation in dwarf galaxies. In this paper, we present the first results of our project to study SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES, focusing on the sample for which we have obtained spectroscopy. We show that SLSNe-I and SLSNe-R (hydrogen...

  13. On the Lorentz Factor of Superluminal Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Onuchukwu, Chika Christian

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the properties of features seen within superluminal sources often referred to as components. Our result indicates a fairly strong correlation of r=0.6 for quasars, r=0.4 for galaxies, and r=0.8 for BL Lac objects in our sample between component sizes and distances from the stationary core. Assumption of free adiabatic expanding plasma enabled us to constrain in general the Lorentz factor for superluminal sources. Ourestimated Lorentz factor of 7 - 17 for quasars, 6 - 13 for galaxies and 4- 9 for BL Lac objects indicate that BL Lac have the lowest range of Lorentz factor.

  14. Comment on: Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation through a Bose-Einstein condensate cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, Bruno; Ségard, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    In a recent theoretical article [S.H. Kazemi, S. Ghanbari, M. Mahmoudi, Eur. Phys. J. D 70, 1 (2016)], Kazemi et al. claim to have demonstrated superluminal light transmission in an optomechanical system where a Bose-Einstein condensate serves as the mechanical oscillator. In fact the superluminal propagation is only inferred from the existence of a minimum of transmission of the system at the probe frequency. This condition is not sufficient and we show that, in all the cases where superluminal propagation is claimed by Kazemi et al., the propagation is in reality subluminal. Moreover, we point out that the system under consideration is not minimum-phase-shift. The Kramers-Kronig relations then only fix a lower limit to the group delay and we show that these two quantities have sometimes opposite signs.

  15. Observation of image pair creation and annihilation from superluminal scattering sources

    CERN Document Server

    Clerici, Matteo; Warburton, Ryan E; Lyons, Ashley; Aniculaesei, Constantin; Richards, Joseph M; Leach, Jonathan; Henderson, Robert; Faccio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The invariance of the speed of light implies a series of consequences related to our perception of simultaneity and of time itself. Whilst these consequences are experimentally well studied for subluminal speeds, the kinematics of superluminal motion lack direct evidence. Using high temporal resolution imaging techniques, we demonstrate that if a source approaches an observer at superluminal speeds, the temporal ordering of events is inverted and its image appears to propagate backwards. If the source changes its speed, crossing the interface between sub- and super-luminal propagation, we observe image pair annihilation and creation. These results show that it is not possible to unambiguously determine the kinematics of an event from imaging and time-resolved measurements alone.

  16. Comment on "Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation through a Bose-Einstein condensate cavity system"

    CERN Document Server

    Macke, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In a recent theoretical article [Eur. Phys. J. D 70, 1 (2016)], Kazemi et al. claim to have demonstrated superluminal light transmission in an optomechanical system where a Bose-Einstein condensate serves as the mechanical oscillator. In fact the superluminal propagation is only inferred from the existence of a minimum of transmission of the system at the probe frequency. This condition is not sufficient and we show that, in all the cases where superluminal propagation is claimed by Kazemi et al., the propagation is in reality subluminal. Moreover, we point out that the system under consideration is not minimum-phase-shift. The Kramers-Kronig relations then only fix a lower limit to the group delay and we show that these two quantities have sometimes opposite signs.

  17. Hamilton geometry: Phase space geometry from modified dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Barcaroli, Leonardo; Gubitosi, Giulia; Loret, Niccoló; Pfeifer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Hamilton geometry of the phase space of particles whose motion is characterised by general dispersion relations. In this framework spacetime and momentum space are naturally curved and intertwined, allowing for a simultaneous description of both spacetime curvature and non-trivial momentum space geometry. We consider as explicit examples two models for Planck-scale modified dispersion relations, inspired from the $q$-de Sitter and $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'e quantum groups. In the first case we find the expressions for the momentum and position dependent curvature of spacetime and momentum space, while for the second case the manifold is flat and only the momentum space possesses a nonzero, momentum dependent curvature. In contrast, for a dispersion relation that is induced by a spacetime metric, as in General Relativity, the Hamilton geometry yields a flat momentum space and the usual curved spacetime geometry with only position dependent geometric objects.

  18. Planck-scale-modified dispersion relations in FRW spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Rosati, Giacomo; Marciano, Antonino; Matassa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In recent years Planck-scale modifications of the dispersion relation have been attracting increasing interest also from the viewpoint of possible applications in astrophysics and cosmology, where spacetime curvature cannot be neglected. Nonetheless the interplay between Planck-scale effects and spacetime curvature is still poorly understood, particularly in cases where curvature is not constant. These challenges have been so far postponed by relying on an ansatz, first introduced by Jacob and Piran. We here propose a general strategy of analysis of the effects of modifications of dispersion relation in FRW spacetimes, applicable both to cases where the relativistic equivalence of frames is spoiled ("preferred-frame scenarios") and to the alternative possibility of "DSR-relativistic theories", theories that are fully relativistic but with relativistic laws deformed so that the modified dispersion relation is observer independent. We show that the Jacob-Piran ansatz implicitly assumes that spacetime translatio...

  19. Numerical calculation of dispersion relation for linear internal waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the horizontal Coriolis terms included in motion equations and the influence of compressibility of seawater on Brunt-V(a)is(a)l(a) frequency considered, a numerical method of calculating the dispersion relation for linear internal waves, which is an improvement of Cai and Gan (1995), and hence Fliegel and Hunkins (1975), had been set up. For different models (Pacific model, Atlantic model and Arctic model), simulations using the three different methods were compared and the following conclusions were reached: (1) the influence of horizontal Coriolis terms on dispersion relation cannot be neglected and is connected with the direction of the wave celerity, the latitude, and the modes of the wave;(2) the effect of compressibility of seawater in stratification is not an important factor for the dispersion relation of linear internal wave, at least for those three models. With the improved method, the wavefunction curves for the Pacific model had also been built.

  20. Further Analysis of ππ Scattering Dispersion Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhi-Guang; Zheng, Han-Qing

    2003-03-01

    The naive use of higher-order perturbation theory leads to the left-hand cut integrals in pipi dispersion relations [Phys. Lett. B 536 (2002) 59; B 549 (2002) 362; Nucl. Phys. A 695 (2001) 273] to be divergent. This problem is discussed and solved. We point out that the Adler zero condition imposes three constraints on the dispersion relations. The sigma pole position is determined using the improved method, Msigma = 483±13 MeV, Gammasigma = 705±50 MeV. The scattering length parameter is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental result.

  1. Geometrical origin of the energy-momentum dispersion relation

    CERN Document Server

    Watcharangkool, Apimook

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a link between the energy-momentum dispersion relation and the spectral distance in the context of a Lorentzian almost-commutative spectral geometry, defined by the product of Minkowski spacetime and an internal discrete noncommutative space. Using the causal structure, the almost-commutative manifold can be identified with a pair of four-dimensional Minkowski spacetimes embedded in a five-dimensional Minkowski geometry. Considering fermions travelling within the light cone of the ambient five-dimensional spacetime, we then derive the energy-momentum dispersion relation.

  2. Noncommutative geometrical origin of the energy-momentum dispersion relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharangkool, A.; Sakellariadou, M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate a link between the energy-momentum dispersion relation and the spectral distance in the context of a Lorentzian almost-commutative spectral geometry, defined by the product of Minkowski spacetime and an internal discrete noncommutative space. Using the causal structure, the almost-commutative manifold can be identified with a pair of four-dimensional Minkowski spacetimes embedded in a five-dimensional Minkowski geometry. Considering fermions traveling within the light cone of the ambient five-dimensional spacetime, we then derive the energy-momentum dispersion relation.

  3. Pair Production Constraints on Superluminal Neutrinos Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Gardner, Susan; /Kentucky U.

    2012-02-16

    We revisit the pair creation constraint on superluminal neutrinos considered by Cohen and Glashow in order to clarify which types of superluminal models are constrained. We show that a model in which the superluminal neutrino is effectively light-like can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint. In summary, any model for which the CG pair production process operates is excluded because such timelike neutrinos would not be detected by OPERA or other experiments. However, a superluminal neutrino which is effectively lightlike with fixed p{sup 2} can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint because of energy-momentum conservation. The coincidence involved in explaining the SN1987A constraint certainly makes such a picture improbable - but it is still intrinsically possible. The lightlike model is appealing in that it does not violate Lorentz symmetry in particle interactions, although one would expect Hughes-Drever tests to turn up a violation eventually. Other evasions of the CG constraints are also possible; perhaps, e.g., the neutrino takes a 'short cut' through extra dimensions or suffers anomalous acceleration in matter. Irrespective of the OPERA result, Lorentz-violating interactions remain possible, and ongoing experimental investigation of such possibilities should continue.

  4. Superluminality, Black Holes and Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Goon, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    Under the assumption that a UV theory does not display superluminal behavior, we ask what constraints on superluminality are satisfied in the effective field theory (EFT). We study two examples of effective theories: quantum electrodynamics (QED) coupled to gravity after the electron is integrated out, and the flat-space galileon. The first is realized in nature, the second is more speculative, but they both exhibit apparent superluminality around non-trivial backgrounds. In the QED case, we attempt, and fail, to find backgrounds for which the superluminal signal advance can be made larger than the putative resolving power of the EFT. In contrast, in the galileon case it is easy to find such backgrounds, indicating that if the UV completion of the galileon is (sub)luminal, quantum corrections must become important at distance scales of order the Vainshtein radius of the background configuration, much larger than the naive EFT strong coupling distance scale. Such corrections would be reminiscent of the non-per...

  5. A linearized dispersion relation for orthorhombic pseudo-acoustic modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xiaolei

    2012-11-04

    Wavefield extrapolation in acoustic orthorhombic anisotropic media suffers from wave-mode coupling and stability limitations in the parameter range. We introduce a linearized form of the dispersion relation for acoustic orthorhombic media to model acoustic wavefields. We apply the lowrank approximation approach to handle the corresponding space-wavenumber mixed-domain operator. Numerical experiments show that the proposed wavefield extrapolator is accurate and practically free of dispersions. Further, there is no coupling of qSv and qP waves, because we use the analytical dispersion relation. No constraints on Thomsen\\'s parameters are required for stability. The linearized expression may provide useful application for parameter estimation in orthorhombic media.

  6. Dispersion relations of strained as well as complex Lieb lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Zhong, Weiping; Li, Changbiao; Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dispersion relations of strained as well as complex Lieb lattices systematically based on the tight-binding method when the nearest-neighbor approximation is adopted. We find that edge states will no appear for strained Lieb lattices and $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetry Lieb lattice cannot be obtained.

  7. Engineering plasmon dispersion relations : hybrid nanoparticle chain - substrate plasmon polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compaijen, Paul J.; Malyshev, Victor A.; Knoester, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    We consider the dispersion relations of the optical excitations in a chain of silver nanoparticles situated above a metal substrate and show that they are hybrid plasmon polaritons, composed of localized surface plasmons and surface plasmon polaritons. We demonstrate a strong dependence of the syste

  8. The dispersion relations of dispersive Alfvén waves in superthermal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaelzer, Rudi; Ziebell, Luiz F.

    2014-12-01

    The effects of velocity distribution functions (VDFs) that exhibit a power law dependence on the high-energy tail have been the subject of intense research by the space plasma community. Such functions, known as superthermal or kappa distributions, have been found to provide a better fitting to the VDF measured by several spacecraft in the plasma environment of the solar wind. In the literature, the general treatment for waves excited by (bi-)Maxwellian plasmas is well established. However, for kappa distributions, either isotropic or anisotropic, the wave characteristics have been studied mostly for the limiting cases of purely parallel or perpendicular propagation. Contributions for the general case of obliquely propagating waves have been scarcely reported so far. In this work we introduce a mathematical formalism that provides expressions for the dielectric tensor components and subsequent dispersion relations for oblique propagating dispersive Alfvén waves (DAWs) resulting from a kappa VDF. We employ an isotropic distribution, but the methods used here can be easily applied to more general anisotropic distributions, such as the bi-kappa or product-bi-kappa. The effect of the kappa index and thermal corrections on the dispersion relations of DAW is discussed.

  9. Dispersion Relations for Electroweak Observables in Composite Higgs Models

    CERN Document Server

    Contino, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We derive dispersion relations for the electroweak oblique observables measured at LEP in the context of $SO(5)/SO(4)$ composite Higgs models. It is shown how these relations can be used and must be modified when modeling the spectral functions through a low-energy effective description of the strong dynamics. The dispersion relation for the parameter $\\epsilon_3$ is then used to estimate the contribution from spin-1 resonances at the 1-loop level. Finally, it is shown that the sign of the contribution to the $\\hat S$ parameter from the lowest-lying spin-1 states is not necessarily positive definite, but depends on the energy scale at which the asymptotic behavior of current correlators is attained.

  10. Sub- and super-luminal light propagation using a Rydberg state

    CERN Document Server

    Bharti, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical study to investigate sub- and super-luminal light propagation in a rubidium atomic system consisting of a Rydberg state by using density matrix formalism. The analysis is performed in a 4-level vee+ladder system interacting with a weak probe, and strong control and switching fields. The dispersion and absorption profiles are shown for stationary atoms as well as for moving atoms by carrying out Doppler averaging at room temperature. We also present the group index variation with control Rabi frequency and observe that a transparent medium can be switched from sub- to super-luminal propagation in the presence of switching field. Finally, the transient response of the medium is discussed, which shows that the considered 4-level scheme has potential applications in absorptive optical switching.

  11. The Use of Dispersion Relations For The Geomagnetic Transfer Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuello, A.; Queralt, P.; Ledo, J. J.

    The magnetotelluric responses are complex magnitudes, where real and imaginary parts contain the same information on the geoelectrical structure. It seems possible, from very general hypotheses on the geoelectrical models (causality, stability and passivity), to apply the Kramers-Krönig dispersion relations to the magnetotelluric responses (impedance, geomagnetic transfer functions,...). In particular, the applica- bility of these relations to the impedance is a current point of discussion, but there are not many examples of their application to the geomagnetic transfer functions (tipper). The aim of this paper is to study how the relations of dispersion are applied to the real and imaginary part of the geomagnetic transfer functions, and to check its validity. For this reason, we have considered data (or responses) from two- and three-dimensional structures, and for these data, we have taken two situations: 1.- Responses that have been synthetically generated from numerical modelling, that allows us to control the quality of the data. 2.- Responses obtained from fieldwork, that are affected by exper- imental error. Additionally, we have also explored the use of these relations to extrap- olate the geomagnetic transfer functions outside the interval of measured frequencies, in order to obtain constrains on the values of these extrapolated data. The results have shown that the dispersion relations are accomplished for the geomag- netic transfer functions, and they can offer information about how these responses are behaved outside (but near) the range of measured frequencies.

  12. The superluminal radio source 4c 39. 25 as relativistic jet prototype. El cuasar superluminal 4C 93. 25 como prototipo de jet relativistia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, A.; Gomez, J.L.; Marcaide, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a numerical code which solves the synchrotron radiation transfer equations to compute the total and polarized emission of bent shocked relativistic jets, and we have applied it to reproduce the compact structure, kinematic evolution of the superluminal radio source 4C 39.25 contains a bent relativistic jet which is misaligned relative to the observer near the core region, leading to a relatively low core brightness. (Author) 12 refs.

  13. Field signature for apparently superluminal particle motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Martin

    2015-05-01

    In the context of Stueckelberg's covariant symplectic mechanics, Horwitz and Aharonovich [1] have proposed a simple mechanism by which a particle traveling below light speed almost everywhere may exhibit a transit time that suggests superluminal motion. This mechanism, which requires precise measurement of the particle velocity, involves a subtle perturbation affecting the particle's recorded time coordinate caused by virtual pair processes. The Stueckelberg framework is particularly well suited to such problems, because it permits pair creation/annihilation at the classical level. In this paper, we study a trajectory of the type proposed by Horwitz and Aharonovich, and derive the Maxwell 4-vector potential associated with the motion. We show that the resulting fields carry a signature associated with the apparent superluminal motion, providing an independent test for the mechanism that does not require direct observation of the trajectory, except at the detector.

  14. Field signature for apparently superluminal particle motion

    CERN Document Server

    Land, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In the context of Stueckelberg's covariant symplectic mechanics, Horwitz and Aharonovich have proposed a simple mechanism by which a particle traveling below light speed almost everywhere may exhibit a transit time that suggests superluminal motion. This mechanism, which requires precise measurement of the particle velocity, involves a subtle perturbation affecting the particle's recorded time coordinate caused by virtual pair processes. The Stueckelberg framework is particularly well suited to such problems, because it permits pair creation/annihilation at the classical level. In this paper, we study a trajectory of the type proposed by Horwitz and Aharonovich, and derive the Maxwell 4-vector potential associated with the motion. We show that the resulting fields carry a signature associated with the apparent superluminal motion, providing an independent test for the mechanism that does not require direct observation of the trajectory, except at the detector.

  15. On the Lorentz factor of superluminal sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chika Christian Onuchukwu; Augustine A.Ubachukwu

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the properties of features seen within superluminal sources often referred to as components.Our result indicates a fairly strong correlation of r ~ 0.5 for quasars,r ~ 0.4 for galaxies and r ~ 0.7 for BL Lac objects in our sample between component sizes and distances from the stationary core.The assumption of free adiabatic expanding plasma enables us to constrain the Lorentz factor for superluminal sources.Our estimated Lorentz factor of γ ~ 9-13 for quasars,γ ~ 7-11for galaxies and γ ~ 4-9 for BL Lac objects indicates that BL Lacs have the lowest range of Lorentz factors.

  16. Modified dispersion relations, inflation and scale-invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, Stefano; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2016-01-01

    For a certain type of modified dispersion relations, the vacuum quantum state for very short wavelength cosmological perturbations is scale-invariant and it has been suggested that this may be the source of the scale-invariance observed in the temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. We point out that for this scenario to be possible, it is necessary to red-shift these short wavelength modes to cosmological scales in such a way that the scale-invariance is not lost. This can be done by inflation with a sufficiently large Hubble rate, without any requirement for slow roll. We also show that in the case of slow-roll inflation, modes that start in their vacuum quantum state will become nearly scale-invariant when they exit the Hubble radius for any power law modified dispersion relation.

  17. Representation of Integral Dispersion Relations by Local Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Erasmo

    2007-01-01

    The representation of the usual integral dispersion relations (IDR) of scattering theory through series of derivatives of the amplitudes is discussed, extended, simplified, and confirmed as mathematical identities. Forms of derivative dispersion relations (DDR) valid for the whole energy interval, recently obtained and presented as double infinite series, are simplified through the use of new sum rules of the incomplete $\\Gamma$ functions, being reduced to single summations, where the usual convergence criteria are easily applied. For the forms of the imaginary amplitude used in phenomenology of hadronic scattering, we show that expressions for the DDR can represent, with absolute accuracy, the IDR of scattering theory, as true mathematical identities. Besides the fact that the algebraic manipulation can be easily understood, numerical tests prove the accuracy of these representations up to the maximum available machine precision. As consequence of our analytical and numerical work, it is concluded that the s...

  18. Pionic dispersion relations in presence of weak magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Adhya, Souvik Priyam; Biswas, Subhrajyoti; Roy, Pradip K

    2016-01-01

    In this work, dispersion relations of $\\pi^0$ and $\\pi^{\\pm}$ have been studied in vacuum in the limit of weak external magnetic field using a phenomenological pion-nucleon $(\\pi N)$ Lagrangian. For our purpose, we have calculated the results up to one loop order in self energy diagrams with the pseudoscalar $(PS)$ and pseudovector $(PV)$ pion-nucleon interactions. By assuming weak external magnetic field it is seen that the effective mass of pion gets explicit magnetic field dependence and it is modified significantly for the case of PS coupling. However, for the PV coupling, only a modest increase in the effective mass is observed. These modified dispersion relations due to the presence of the external field can have substantial influence in the phenomenological aspect of the mesons both in the context of neutron stars as well as relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  19. Vacuum fluctuations in theories with deformed dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Arzano, Michele; Magueijo, Joao; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We examine vacuum fluctuations in theories with modified dispersion relations which represent dimensional reduction at high energies. By changing units of energy and momentum we can obtain a description rendering the dispersion relations undeformed and transferring all the non-trivial effects to the integration measure in momentum space. Using this description we propose a general quantization procedure, which should be applicable whether or not the theory explicitly introduces a preferred frame. Based on this scheme we evaluate the power spectrum of quantum vacuum fluctuations. We find that in {\\it all} theories which run to 2 dimensions in the ultraviolet the vacuum fluctuations, in the ultraviolet regime, are scale-invariant. This is true in flat space but also for "inside the horizon" modes in an expanding universe. We spell out the conditions upon the gravity theory for this scale-invariance to be preserved as the modes are frozen-in outside the horizon. We also digress on the meaning of dimensionality (...

  20. Comment on "Dispersion relation for MHD waves in homogeneous plasma"

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Suresh; Kumthekar, B K; Sharma, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Pandey & Dwivedi (2007) again tried to claim that the dispersion relation for the given set of equations must be a sixth degree polynomial. Through a series of papers, they are unnecessarily creating confusion. In the present communication, we have shown how Pandey & Dwivedi (2007) are introducing an additional root, which is insignificant. Moreover, five roots of both the polynomials are common and they are sufficient for the discussion of propagation of slow-mode and fast-mode waves.

  1. Observation of image pair creation and annihilation from superluminal scattering sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Matteo; Spalding, Gabriel C; Warburton, Ryan; Lyons, Ashley; Aniculaesei, Constantin; Richards, Joseph M; Leach, Jonathan; Henderson, Robert; Faccio, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    The invariance of the speed of light is one of the foundational pillars of our current understanding of the universe. It implies a series of consequences related to our perception of simultaneity and, ultimately, of time itself. Whereas these consequences are experimentally well studied in the case of subluminal motion, the kinematics of superluminal motion lack direct evidence or even a clear experimental approach. We investigate kinematic effects associated with the superluminal motion of a light source. By using high-temporal-resolution imaging techniques, we directly demonstrate that if the source approaches an observer at superluminal speeds, the temporal ordering of events is inverted and its image appears to propagate backward. Moreover, for a source changing its speed and crossing the interface between subluminal and superluminal propagation regions, we observe image pair annihilation and creation, depending on the crossing direction. These results are very general and show that, regardless of the emitter speed, it is not possible to unambiguously determine the kinematics of an event from imaging and time-resolved measurements alone. This has implications not only for light, but also, for example, for sound and other wave phenomena.

  2. General characteristics of relative dispersion in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Raffaele; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Palatella, Luigi; Santoleri, Rosalia; Zambianchi, Enrico

    2017-04-01

    The multi-scale and nonlinear nature of the ocean dynamics dramatically affects the spreading of matter, like pollutants, marine litter, etc., of physical and chemical seawater properties, and the biological connectivity inside and among different basins. Based on the Finite-Scale Lyapunov Exponent analysis of the largest available near-surface Lagrangian data set from the Global Drifter Program, our results show that, despite the large variety of flow features, relative dispersion can ultimately be described by a few parameters common to all ocean sub-basins, at least in terms of order of magnitude. This provides valuable information to undertake Lagrangian dispersion studies by means of models and/or of observational data. Moreover, our results show that the relative dispersion rates measured at submesoscale are significantly higher than for large-scale dynamics. Auxiliary analysis of high resolution GPS-tracked drifter hourly data as well as of the drogued/undrogued status of the buoys is provided in support of our conclusions. A possible application of our study, concerning reverse drifter motion and error growth analysis, is proposed relatively to the case of the missing Malaysia Airlines MH370 aircraft.

  3. Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clobert, J.; Danchin, E.; Dhondt, A.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of species to migrate and disperse is a trait that has interested ecologists for many years. Now that so many species and ecosystems face major environmental threats from habitat fragmentation and global climate change, the ability of species to adapt to these changes by dispersing, migrating, or moving between patches of habitat can be crucial to ensuring their survival. This book provides a timely and wide-ranging overview of the study of dispersal and incorporates much of the latest research. The causes, mechanisms, and consequences of dispersal at the individual, population, species and community levels are considered. The potential of new techniques and models for studying dispersal, drawn from molecular biology and demography, is also explored. Perspectives and insights are offered from the fields of evolution, conservation biology and genetics. Throughout the book, theoretical approaches are combined with empirical data, and care has been taken to include examples from as wide a range of species as possible.

  4. Aspects of Quantum Non-Locality I: Superluminal Signalling, Action-at-a-Distance, Non-Separability and Holism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovitz, Joseph

    In this paper and its sequel, I consider the significance of Jarrett's and Shimony's analyses of the so-called factorisability (Bell-locality) condition for clarifying the nature of quantum non-locality. In this paper, I focus on four types of non-locality: superluminal signalling, action-at-a-distance, non-separability and holism. In the second paper, I consider a fifth type of non-locality: superluminal causation according to 'logically weak' concepts of causation, where causal dependence requires neither action nor signalling. In this connection, I pay special attention to the difficulties that superluminal causation raises in relativistic space-time. I conclude by evaluating the relevance of Jarrett's and Shimony's analyses for clarifying the question of the compatibility of quantum non-locality with relativity theory. My main conclusions are, first: these analyses are significant for clarifying the questions of superluminal signalling in quantum phenomena and for the compatibility of these phenomena with relativity. But, second, by contrast: these analyses are not very significant for the study of action-at-a distance, superluminal causation, non-separability and holism in quantum phenomena.

  5. Fast Pairwise Conversion of Supernova Neutrinos: A Dispersion Relation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg; Tamborra, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Collective pair conversion νeν¯ e↔νxν¯ x by forward scattering, where x =μ or τ , may be generic for supernova neutrino transport. Depending on the local angular intensity of the electron lepton number carried by neutrinos, the conversion rate can be "fast," i.e., of the order of √{2 }GF(nνe-nν¯e)≫Δ matm2/2 E . We present a novel approach to understand these phenomena: a dispersion relation for the frequency and wave number (Ω ,K ) of disturbances in the mean field of νeνx flavor coherence. Runaway solutions occur in "dispersion gaps," i.e., in "forbidden" intervals of Ω and/or K where propagating plane waves do not exist. We stress that the actual solutions also depend on the initial and/or boundary conditions, which need to be further investigated.

  6. Dispersion Relation of Linear Waves in Quantum Magnetoplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model is applied in investigating the propagation of linear waves in quantum magnetoplasmas. Using the QMHD model, the dispersion equation for quantum magnetoplasmas and the dispersion relations of linear waves are deduced. Results show that quantum effects affect the propagation of electron plasma waves and extraordinary waves (X waves). When we select the plasma parameters of the laser-based plasma compression (LBPC) schemes for calculation, the quantum correction cannot be neglected. Meanwhile, the corrections produced by the Fermi degeneracy pressure and Bohm potential are compared under different plasma parameter conditions. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11447125) and the Research Training Program for Undergraduates of Shanxi University of China (Nos. 2014012167, 2015013182)

  7. Resolving 7 problems with OPERA's superluminal neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrlich, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Physicists have raised many troubling inconsistencies with the OPERA claim of superluminal neutrinos that cast doubt on its validity. This paper examines ways that 7 of these inconsistencies can be resolved. It also discusses evidence that the electron neutrino is superluminal, based on previously published cosmic ray observations, and secondarily a re-examination of tritium beta decay data.

  8. Superluminality in the Bi- and Multi-Galileon

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fromont, Paul; de Rham, Claudia; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Matas, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    We re-explore the Bi- and Multi-Galileon models with trivial asymptotic conditions at infinity and show that propagation of superluminal fluctuations is a common and unavoidable feature of these theories, unlike previously claimed in the literature. We show that all Multi-Galileon theories containing a Cubic Galileon term exhibit superluminalities at large distances from a point source, and that even if the Cubic Galileon is not present one can always find sensible matter distributions in which there are superluminal modes at large distances. In the Bi-Galileon case we explicitly show that there are always superluminal modes around a point source even if the Cubic Galileon is not present. Finally, we briefly comment on the possibility of avoiding superluminalities by modifying the asymptotic conditions at infinity.

  9. Superluminal Velocities in the Synchronized Space-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedev S. Yu.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the non-gravitational generalization of the special relativity, a problem of possible superluminal motion of particles and signals is considered. It has been proven that for the particles with non-zero mass the existence of anisotropic light barrier with the shape dependent on the reference frame velocity results from the Tangherlini transformations. The maximal possible excess of neutrino velocity over the absolute velocity of light related to the Earth (using th e clock with instantaneous synchronization has been estimated. The illusoriness of t he acausality problem has been illustrated and conclusion is made on the lack of the upper limit of velocities of signals of informational nature.

  10. On the impossibility of superluminal travel: the warp drive lesson

    CERN Document Server

    Barceló, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The question of whether it is possible or not to surpass the speed of light is already centennial. The special theory of relativity took the existence of a speed limit as a principle, the light postulate, which has proven to be enormously predictive. Here we discuss some of its twists and turns when general relativity and quantum mechanics come into play. In particular, we discuss one of the most interesting proposals for faster than light travel: warp drives. Even if one succeeded in creating such spacetime structures, it would be still necessary to check whether they would survive to the switching on of quantum matter effects. Here, we show that the quantum back-reaction to warp-drive geometries, created out of an initially flat spacetime, inevitably lead to their destabilization whenever superluminal speeds are attained. We close this investigation speculating the possible significance of this further success of the speed of light postulate.

  11. Dispersion Relation for the Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Furuichi, Susumu; Watanbe, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    Elastic electromagnetic form factors of nucleons are investigated both for the time-like and the space-like momentums by using the unsubtracted dispersion relation with QCD constraints. It is shown that the calculated form factors reproduce the experimental data reasonably well; they agree with recent experimental data for the neutron magnetic form factors for the space-like data obtained by the CLAS collaboration and are compatible with the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors for the time-like momentum obtained by the BABAR collaboration.

  12. Local stability of a gravitating filament: a dispersion relation

    CERN Document Server

    Freundlich, Jonathan; Combes, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Filamentary structures are ubiquitous in astrophysics and are observed at various scales. On a cosmological scale, matter is usually distributed along filaments, and filaments are also typical features of the interstellar medium. Within a cosmic filament, matter can contract and form galaxies, whereas an interstellar gas filament can clump into a series of bead-like structures which can then turn into stars. To investigate the growth of such instabilities, we derive a local dispersion relation for an idealized self-gravitating filament, and study some of its properties. Our idealized picture consists of an infinite self-gravitating and rotating cylinder with pressure and density related by a polytropic equation of state. We assume no specific density distribution, treat matter as a fluid, and use hydrodynamics to derive the linearized equations that govern the local perturbations. We obtain a dispersion relation for axisymmetric perturbations and study its properties in the (k_R, k_z) phase space, where k_R a...

  13. Wide Dispersion and Diversity of Clonally Related Inhibitory Interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Corey C; Fuentealba, Luis C; Gonzalez-Cerrillo, Adrian; Parker, Phillip R L; Gertz, Caitlyn C; Mazzola, Emanuele; Garcia, Miguel Turrero; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cepko, Constance L; Kriegstein, Arnold R

    2015-09-02

    The mammalian neocortex is composed of two major neuronal cell types with distinct origins: excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons, generated in dorsal and ventral progenitor zones of the embryonic telencephalon, respectively. Thus, inhibitory neurons migrate relatively long distances to reach their destination in the developing forebrain. The role of lineage in the organization and circuitry of interneurons is still not well understood. Utilizing a combination of genetics, retroviral fate mapping, and lineage-specific retroviral barcode labeling, we find that clonally related interneurons can be widely dispersed while unrelated interneurons can be closely clustered. These data suggest that migratory mechanisms related to the clustering of interneurons occur largely independent of their clonal origin.

  14. Dispersion relations in quantum electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, J.W.

    2006-12-15

    We study field theories on the noncommutative Minkowski space with noncommuting time. The focus lies on dispersion relations in quantized interacting models in the Yang-Feldman formalism. In particular, we compute the two-point correlation function of the field strength in noncommutative quantum electrodynamics to second order. At this, we take into account the covariant coordinates that allow the construction of local gauge invariant quantities (observables). It turns out that this does not remove the well-known severe infrared problem, as one might have hoped. Instead, things become worse, since nonlocal divergences appear. We also show that these cancel in a supersymmetric version of the theory if the covariant coordinates are adjusted accordingly. Furthermore, we study the {phi}{sup 3} and the Wess-Zumino model and show that the distortion of the dispersion relations is moderate for parameters typical for the Higgs field. We also discuss the formulation of gauge theories on noncommutative spaces and study classical electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space using covariant coordinates. In particular, we compute the change of the speed of light due to nonlinear effects in the presence of a background field. Finally, we examine the so-called twist approach to quantum field theory on the noncommutative Minkowski space and point out some conceptual problems of this approach. (orig.)

  15. Relative toxicity of oil dispersants to Mytilus viridis and Macrobrachium idella

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, C.; Row, A.

    There was a great variation in the relative toxicity of different oil dispersants. Dispersant IB 2/80 was most toxic and dispersant IB 11/80 was not lethal at the highest concentration tested. The ranking order of the emulsions (oil dispersant...

  16. Superluminal Motion Found In Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Researchers using the Very Large Array (VLA) have discovered that a small, powerful object in our own cosmic neighborhood is shooting out material at nearly the speed of light -- a feat previously known to be performed only by the massive cores of entire galaxies. In fact, because of the direction in which the material is moving, it appears to be traveling faster than the speed of light -- a phenomenon called "superluminal motion." This is the first superluminal motion ever detected within our Galaxy. During March and April of this year, Dr. Felix Mirabel of the Astrophysics Section of the Center for Studies at Saclay, France, and Dr. Luis Rodriguez of the Institute of Astronomy at the National Autonomous University in Mexico City and NRAO, observed "a remarkable ejection event" in which the object shot out material in opposite directions at 92 percent of the speed of light, or more than 171,000 miles per second. This event ejected a mass equal to one-third that of the moon with the power of 100 million suns. Such powerful ejections are well known in distant galaxies and quasars, millions and billions of light-years away, but the object Mirabel and Rodriguez observed is within our own Milky Way Galaxy, only 40,000 light-years away. The object also is much smaller and less massive than the core of a galaxy, so the scientists were quite surprised to find it capable of accelerating material to such speeds. Mirabel and Rodriguez believe that the object is likely a double-star system, with one of the stars either an extremely dense neutron star or a black hole. The neutron star or black hole is the central object of the system, with great mass and strong gravitational pull. It is surrounded by a disk of material orbiting closely and being drawn into it. Such a disk is known as an accretion disk. The central object's powerful gravity, they believe, is pulling material from a more-normal companion star into the accretion disk. The central object is emitting jets of

  17. Thermal fermionic dispersion relations in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Elmfors, P; Skagerstam, B S; Elmfors, Per; Persson, David; Skagerstam, Bo Sture

    1996-01-01

    The thermal self-energy of an electron in a static uniform magnetic field B is calculated to first order in the fine structure constant \\alpha and to all orders in eB. We use two methods, one based on the Furry picture and another based on Schwinger's proper-time method. As external states we consider relativistic Landau levels with special emphasis on the lowest Landau level. In the high-temperature limit we derive self-consistent dispersion relations for particle and hole excitations, showing the chiral asymmetry caused by the external field. For weak fields, earlier results on the ground- state energy and the anomalous magnetic moment are discussed and compared with the present analysis. In the strong-field limit the appearance of a field-independent imaginary part of the self-energy, related to Landau damping in the e^{+}e^{-} plasma, is pointed out.

  18. Fast Pairwise Conversion of Supernova Neutrinos: A Dispersion Relation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg; Tamborra, Irene

    2017-01-13

    Collective pair conversion ν_{e}ν[over ¯]_{e}↔ν_{x}ν[over ¯]_{x} by forward scattering, where x=μ or τ, may be generic for supernova neutrino transport. Depending on the local angular intensity of the electron lepton number carried by neutrinos, the conversion rate can be "fast," i.e., of the order of sqrt[2]G_{F}(n_{ν_{e}}-n_{ν[over ¯]_{e}})≫Δm_{atm}^{2}/2E. We present a novel approach to understand these phenomena: a dispersion relation for the frequency and wave number (Ω,K) of disturbances in the mean field of ν_{e}ν_{x} flavor coherence. Runaway solutions occur in "dispersion gaps," i.e., in "forbidden" intervals of Ω and/or K where propagating plane waves do not exist. We stress that the actual solutions also depend on the initial and/or boundary conditions, which need to be further investigated.

  19. The Relation Between Halo Shape, Velocity Dispersion and Formation Time

    CERN Document Server

    Ragone-Figueroa, C; Merchan, M; Gottlober, S; Yepes, G

    2010-01-01

    We use dark matter haloes identified in the MareNostrum Universe and galaxy groups identified in the Sloan Data Release 7 galaxy catalogue, to study the relation between halo shape and halo dynamics, parametrizing out the mass of the systems. A strong shape-dynamics, independent of mass, correlation is present in the simulation data, which we find it to be due to different halo formation times. Early formation time haloes are, at the present epoch, more spherical and have higher velocity dispersions than late forming-time haloes. The halo shape-dynamics correlation, albeit weaker, survives the projection in 2D (ie., among projected shape and 1-D velocity dispersion). A similar shape-dynamics correlation, independent of mass, is also found in the SDSS DR7 groups of galaxies and in order to investigate its cause we have tested and used, as a proxy of the group formation time, a concentration parameter. We have found, as in the case of the simulated haloes, that less concentrated groups, corresponding to late fo...

  20. Slow to superluminal light waves in thin 3D photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galisteo-López, J F; Galli, M; Balestreri, A; Patrini, M; Andreani, L C; López, C

    2007-11-12

    Phase measurements on self-assembled three-dimensional photonic crystals show that the group velocity of light can flip from small positive (slow) to negative (superluminal) values in samples of a few mum size. This phenomenon takes place in a narrow spectral range around the second-order stop band and follows from coupling to weakly dispersive photonic bands associated with multiple Bragg diffraction. The observations are well accounted for by theoretical calculations of the phase delay and of photonic states in the finite-sized systems.

  1. Threshold singularities, dispersion relations and fixed-order perturbative calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Beneke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We show how to correctly treat threshold singularities in fixed-order perturbative calculations of the electron anomalous magnetic moment and hadronic pair production processes such as top pair production. With respect to the former, we demonstrate the equivalence of the "non-perturbative", resummed treatment of the vacuum polarization contribution, whose spectral function exhibits bound state poles, with the fixed-order calculation by identifying a threshold localized term in the four-loop spectral function. In general, we find that a modification of the dispersion relation by threshold subtractions is required to make fixed-order calculations well-defined and provide the subtraction term. We then solve the apparent problem of a divergent convolution of the partonic cross section with the parton luminosity in the computation of the top pair production cross section starting from the fourth-order correction. We find that when the computation is performed in the usual way as an integral of real and virtual cor...

  2. Counterintuitive dispersion violating Kramers-Kronig relations in gain slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Gang; Wang, Lin; Al-Amri, M; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M Suhail

    2014-06-13

    We demonstrate the counterintuitive dispersion effect that the peaks (dips) in the gain spectrum correspond to abnormal (normal) dispersion, contrary to the usual Kramers-Kronig point of view. This effect may also lead to two unique features: a broadband abnormal dispersion region and an observable Hartman effect. These results are explained in terms of interference and boundary effects. Finally, two experiments are proposed for the potential experimental verification.

  3. Age velocity dispersion relations and heating histories in disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Aumer, Michael; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the heating of stellar discs by non axisymmetric structures and giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies. The analysis resolves long-standing discrepancies between models and data by demonstrating the importance of distinguishing between measured age-velocity dispersion relations (AVRs) and the heating histories of the stars that make up the AVR. We fit both AVRs and heating histories with formulae proportional to t^beta and determine the exponents beta_R and beta_z derived from in-plane and vertical AVRs and ~beta_R and ~beta_z from heating histories. Values of beta_z are in almost all simulations larger than values of ~beta_z, whereas values of beta_R are similar to or mildly larger than values of ~beta_R. Moreover, values of beta_z (~beta_z) are generally larger than values of beta_R (~beta_R). The dominant cause of these relations is the decline over the life of the disc in importance of GMCs as heating agents relative to spiral structure and the bar. We exam...

  4. Causal ubiquity in quantum physics. A superluminal and local-causal physical ontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelamkavil, Raphael

    2014-07-01

    A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly [non-causal] processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the [non-causal]. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That is, the QM world is sub-luminally, luminally and superluminally local-causal throughout, and the Law of Causality is ubiquitous in the micro-world. Thus, ''probabilistic causality'' is a merely epistemic term.

  5. Gain-assisted superluminal microwave pulse propagation via four-wave mixing in superconducting phase quantum circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sabegh, Z Amini; Maleki, M A; Mahmoudi, M

    2015-01-01

    We study the propagation and amplification of a microwave field in a four-level cascade quantum system which is realized in a superconducting phase quantum circuit. It is shown that by increasing the microwave pump tones feeding the system, the normal dispersion switches to the anomalous and the gain-assisted superluminal microwave propagation is obtained in this system. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the stimulated microwave field is generated via four-wave mixing without any inversion population in the energy levels of the system (amplification without inversion) and the group velocity of the generated pulse can be controlled by the external oscillating magnetic fluxes. We also show that in some special set of parameters, the absorption-free superluminal generated microwave propagation is obtained in superconducting phase quantum circuit system.

  6. Considerations about the apparent ''superluminal expansions'' observed in astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recami, E.; Castellino, A.; Maccarrone, G.D.; Rodono, M.

    1986-06-11

    The orthodox models devised to explain the apparent ''superluminal expansions'' observed in astrophysics - and here briefly summarized and discussed together with the experimental data - do not seem to be too much successful, especially when confronted with the most recent observations, suggesting complicated expansion patterns, even with possible accelerations. At this point it may be, therefore, of some interest to explore the possible alternative models in which actual Superluminal motions take place. To prepare the ground, we start from a variational principle, introduce the elements of a tachyon mechanics within special relativity, and argue about the expected behaviour of tachyonic objects when interacting (gravitationally, for instance) among themselves or with ordinary matter. We then review and develop the simplet ''Superluminal models'', paying particular attention to the observations which they would give rise to. We conclude that some of them appear to be physically acceptable and are statistically favoured with respect to the orthodox ones.

  7. Threshold singularities, dispersion relations and fixed-order perturbative calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M.; Ruiz-Femenía, P. [Physik Department T31, Technische Universität München,James-Franck-Straße, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-08-24

    We show how to correctly treat threshold singularities in fixed-order perturbative calculations of the electron anomalous magnetic moment and hadronic pair production processes such as top pair production. With respect to the former, we demonstrate the equivalence of the “non-perturbative”, resummed treatment of the vacuum polarization contribution, whose spectral function exhibits bound state poles, with the fixed-order calculation by identifying a threshold localized term in the four-loop spectral function. In general, we find that a modification of the dispersion relation by threshold subtractions is required to make fixed-order calculations well-defined and provide the subtraction term. We then solve the apparent problem of a divergent convolution of the partonic cross section with the parton luminosity in the computation of the top pair production cross section starting from the fourth-order correction. We find that when the computation is performed in the usual way as an integral of real and virtual corrections over phase space at a given order in the expansion in the strong coupling, an additional contribution has to be added at N3LO.

  8. On the Klein-Gordon equation using the dispersion relation of Doubly Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe, Yese J.

    2017-01-01

    The theory of Doubly Special Relativity or Deformed Special Relativity (DSR), proposes that there is a maximum energy scale and a minimum length scale that is invariant for all observers. These maximum energy and minimum length correspond to the Planck energy and the Planck length, respectively. As a consequence, the dispersion relation is modified to be E2 =p2c2 +m2c4 + λE3 + ... Previous work has been done to express Quantum Mechanics using the dispersion relation of DSR. Solutions of the free particle, the harmonic oscillator, and the Hydrogen atom have been obtained from the DSR Schrodinger equation. We explore how the DSR Klein-Gordon equation can be consistently approximated in the non-relativistic limit in order to derive the DSR Schrodinger equation.

  9. Once and twice subtracted dispersion relations in the analysis of pi pi amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, R; Peláez, J R; Ynduráin, F J

    2009-01-01

    Once and twice subtracted crossing symmetric dispersion relations applied to $\\pi\\pi \\to \\pi\\pi$ scattering data are analyzed and compared. Both sets of dispersion relations can be used to test the $\\pi\\pi$ amplitudes in low partial waves up to about 1 GeV. We show how once subtracted dispersion relations can provide stronger constraints for $\\pi\\pi$ amplitudes than twice subtracted ones in the 400 to 1100 MeV range, given the same experimental input.

  10. Hole-burning in an Autler-Townes doublet and in superluminal (subluminal) Electromagnetically induced transparency of a light pulse via a joint nonlinear coherent Kerr effect and Doppler broadening

    CERN Document Server

    Bacha, Bakhtt A; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of light pulse propagation in a 4-level double Lambda atomic system under condition of electromagnetically induced transparency. The Fano type interference effect and spectral hole burning appears in the the dynamics of the absorption-dispersion spectra caused by the joint nonlinear coherence Kerr effect and Doppler broadening. The coherent Kerr effect exhibits an enhancement (reduction) in superluminal (subluminal) in negative (in positive) group index while the Doppler broadening generates multiple hole burning in the Autler-Townes like spectra of this system. The hole burning in addition with coherent Kerr effect on the spectral profile influences the dynamics of subluminal and superluminal of the probe pulse through the medium. The characteristics of superluminality and subluminality modified by considering cold-Kerr-free medium and hot-Kerr-dependent mediums. The light pulse delays and advances in different regions of dispersion medium with the Doppler broadening and coherent ...

  11. The Logistics of Oil Spill Dispersant Application. Volume I. Logistics-Related Properties of Oil Spill Dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    IN FRESH AND SEAWATER(I) (3)Product Mean Minimum Dispersant-to-Oil Ratio Name on Venezuelan Lago Medio Crude Oil (4) 0C in Fresh Water in Salt Water...higher terminal velocity, adding to the mixing energy. Orienting the nozzles aft can be expected to reduce the relative velocity of the drops, and result

  12. Three-particle physics and dispersion relation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Anisovich, A V; Matveev, M A; Nikonov, V A; Nyiri, J; Sarantsev, A V

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of describing three-nucleon and three-quark systems have led to a constant interest in the problem of three particles. The question of including relativistic effects appeared together with the consideration of the decay amplitude in the framework of the dispersion technique. The relativistic dispersion description of amplitudes always takes into account processes connected with the investigated reaction by the unitarity condition or by virtual transitions; in the case of three-particle processes they are, as a rule, those where other many-particle states and resonances are produced. The description of these interconnected reactions and ways of handling them is the main subject of the book.

  13. Dispersion relations of externally and thermally excited dust lattice modes in 2D complex plasma crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xuefeng; Cui Jian; Zhang Yuan [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu Yue [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The dispersion relations of the externally and thermally (naturally) excited dust lattice modes (both longitudinal and transverse) in two-dimensional Debye-Yukawa complex plasma crystals are investigated. The dispersion relations are calculated numerically by taking the neutral gas damping effects into account and the numerical results are in agreement with the experimental data given by Nunomura et al.[Phys. Rev. E 65, 066402 (2002)]. It is found that for the mode excited by an external disturbance with a real frequency, the dispersion properties are changed at a critical frequency near where the group velocity of the mode goes to zero. Therefore, the high frequency branch with negative dispersion cannot be reached. In contrast, for the thermally excited mode, the dispersion curve can extend all the way to the negative dispersion region, while a 'cut-off' wave number exists at the long wavelength end of the dispersion in the transverse mode.

  14. Skewness of cloud droplet spectrum and an improved estimation for its relative dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Lu, Chunsong; Li, Weiliang

    2017-02-01

    The relative dispersion of the cloud droplet spectrum is a very important parameter in describing and modeling cloud microphysical processes. Based on the definition of skewness as well as theoretical and data analyses, a linear fitting relationship ( α = 2.91 ɛ-0.59) between skewness ( α) and relative dispersion ( ɛ) is established and a new method is developed to estimate the relative dispersion of the cloud droplet spectrum. The new method does not depend on any assumption of a particular distribution for the cloud droplet spectrum and has broader applicability than the previous methods. Comparisons of the three methods for the relative dispersion with the observed data supported the following conclusions. (1) The skewness of the cloud droplet spectrum is asymmetrically distributed. An assumption of zero skewness in quantifying the relative dispersion inevitably results in relatively large deviations from the observations. Errors of the estimated relative dispersion due to the omission of the skewness term are not solely related to the skewness, but rather to the product of the skewness and relative dispersion. (2) The use of the assumption that the cloud droplet spectrum takes a gamma distribution is similar to the assumption that the skewness is twice the relative dispersion. This leads to a better accuracy in estimating the relative dispersion than that with zero skewness assumption. (3) Comparisons with observations show that the new method is more accurate than the one under gamma distribution assumption and is the best among all the three methods. (4) It is believed that finding a better correlation between the skewness and the relative dispersion would further reduce the deviations for the estimated relative dispersion.

  15. Dispersion relation for hadronic light-by-light scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procura Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Our dispersive approach defines unambiguously the pion-pole and the pion-box contribution to the HLbL tensor. Using Mandelstam’s double-spectral representation, we have proven that the pion-box contribution coincides exactly with the one-loop scalar QED amplitude, multiplied by the appropriate pion vector form factors.

  16. Comparison of Forward Dispersion Relations with Experiments around 10 GeV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, B.; Møller-Nielsen, Peter; Olesen, P.

    1965-01-01

    Using the recent experimental data on the real part of the forward π±-p amplitude around 10 GeV, we have carried out a comparison of forward dispersion relations with experiments in the high-energy region. In this work we propose a new method for testing forward dispersion relations which involves...... no assumptions whatsoever about the unknown cross sections above 20 GeV. On account of the large systematic errors in the measured real parts, no definite conclusion can be drawn as to the validity of forward dispersion relations. In estimating the standard deviations in the dispersion integrals, a Monte Carlo...... method has been used....

  17. Superluminal Motion and Polarization in Blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hui Fan; Yong-Jiu Wang; Jiang-He Yang; Cheng-Yue Su

    2004-01-01

    A relativistic beaming model has been successfully used to explain the observed properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In this model there are two emission components, a boosted one and an unbeamed one, shown up in the radio band as the core and lobe components. The luminosity ratio of the core to the lobe is defined as the core-dominance parameter (R = LCore/LLobe) The de-beamed radio luminosity (Ldbjet) in the jet is assumed to be proportional to the unbeamed luminosity (Lub) in the co-moving frame, i.e., f = Ldbjet/Lub and f is determined in our previous paper. We further discuss the relationship between BL Lacertae objects(BLs) and flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), which are subclasses of blazars with different degrees of polarization, using the calculated values of the ratio f for a sample of superluminal blazars. We found 1) that the BLs show smaller averaged Doppler factors and Lorentz factors, larger viewing angles and higher coredominance parameters than do the FSRQs, and 2) that in the polarization-core dominance parameter plot (P - log R) the BLs and FSRQs occupy a scattered region, but in a revised plot (logP/c(m) - logR), they gather around two different lines, suggesting that they have some different intrinsic properties.

  18. Spectrum formation in Superluminous Supernovae (Type I)

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzali, P A; Pian, E; Greiner, J; Kann, D A; ARI-LJMU,; UK,; Garching, MPA; Germany,; Southampton, Univ; INAF-IASFBO,; Italy,; Pisa, SNS; Garching, MPE; Tautenburg,; Germany),

    2016-01-01

    The near-maximum spectra of most superluminous supernovae that are not dominated by interaction with a H-rich CSM (SLSN-I) are characterised by a blue spectral peak and a series of absorption lines which have been identified as OII. SN2011kl, associated with the ultra-long gamma-ray burst GRB111209A, also had a blue peak but a featureless optical/UV spectrum. Radiation transport methods are used to show that the spectra (not including SN2007bi, which has a redder spectrum at peak, like ordinary SNe Ic) can be explained by a rather steep density distribution of the ejecta, whose composition appears to be typical of carbon-oxygen cores of massive stars which can have low metal content. If the photospheric velocity is ~10000-15000 km/s, several lines form in the UV. OII lines, however, arise from very highly excited lower levels, which require significant departures from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium to be populated. These SLSNe are not thought to be powered primarily by 56Ni decay. An appealing scenario is th...

  19. Super-luminous supernovae from PESSTO

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholl, M; Jerkstrand, A; Inserra, C; Chen, T -W; Kotak, R; Valenti, S; Howell, D A; McCrum, M; Margheim, S; Rest, A; Benetti, S; Fraser, M; Gal-Yam, A; Smith, K W; Sullivan, M; Young, D R; Baltay, C; Hadjiyska, E; McKinnon, R; Rabinowitz, D; Walker, E S; Feindt, U; Nugent, P; Lawrence, A; Mead, A; Anderson, J P; Sollerman, J; Taddia, F; Leloudas, G; Mattila, S; Elias-Rosa, N

    2014-01-01

    We present optical spectra and light curves for three hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae followed by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO). Time series spectroscopy from a few days after maximum light to 100 days later shows them to be fairly typical of this class, with spectra dominated by Ca II, Mg II, Fe II and Si II, which evolve slowly over most of the post-peak photospheric phase. We determine bolometric light curves and apply simple fitting tools, based on the diffusion of energy input by magnetar spin-down, \\Ni decay, and collision of the ejecta with an opaque circumstellar shell. We investigate how the heterogeneous light curves of our sample (combined with others from the literature) can help to constrain the possible mechanisms behind these events. We have followed these events to beyond 100-200 days after peak, to disentangle host galaxy light from fading supernova flux and to differentiate between the models, which predict diverse behaviour at this phase. Models p...

  20. Superluminous Supernovae: No Threat from Eta Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian; Melott, A. L.; Fields, B. D.; Anthony-Twarog, B. J.

    2008-05-01

    Recently Supernova 2006gy was noted as the most luminous ever recorded, with a total radiated energy of 1044 Joules. It was proposed that the progenitor may have been a massive evolved star similar to η Carinae, which resides in our own galaxy at a distance of about 2.3 kpc. η Carinae appears ready to detonate. Although it is too distant to pose a serious threat as a normal supernova, and given its rotation axis is unlikely to produce a Gamma-Ray Burst oriented toward the Earth, η Carinae is about 30,000 times nearer than 2006gy, and we re-evaluate it as a potential superluminous supernova. We find that given the large ratio of emission in the optical to the X-ray, atmospheric effects are negligible. Ionization of the atmosphere and concomitant ozone depletion are unlikely to be important. Any cosmic ray effects should be spread out over 104 y, and similarly unlikely to produce any serious perturbation to the biosphere. We also discuss a new possible effect of supernovae, endocrine disruption induced by blue light near the peak of the optical spectrum. This is a possibility for nearby supernovae at distances too large to be considered "dangerous” for other reasons. However, due to reddening and extinction by the interstellar medium, η Carinae is unlikely to trigger such effects to any significant degree.

  1. Superluminous supernovae: No threat from Eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Brian C; Fields, Brian D; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J

    2007-01-01

    Recently Supernova 2006gy was noted as the most luminous ever recorded, with a total radiated energy of ~10^44 Joules. It was proposed that the progenitor may have been a massive evolved star similar to Eta Carinae, which resides in our own galaxy at a (poorly determined) distance of ~2.5 kpc. Eta Carinae appears ready to detonate, and in fact had an outburst in 1843. Although it is too distant to pose a serious threat as a normal supernova, and given its rotation axis is unlikely to produce a Gamma Ray Burst oriented toward the Earth, Eta Carinae is about 30,000 times nearer than 2006gy, and we re-evaluate it as a potential superluminous supernova. We find that given the large ratio of emission in the optical to the X-ray, atmospheric effects are negligible. Ionization of the atmosphere and concomitant ozone depletion are unlikely to be important. Any cosmic ray effects should be spread out over ~10^4 y, and similarly unlikely to produce any serious perturbation to the biosphere. We also discuss a new possib...

  2. Tachyons, Lamb shifts and superluminal chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaschitz, R.

    2000-10-01

    An elementary account on the origins of cosmic chaos in an open and multiply connected universe is given; there is a finite region in the open 3-space in which the world-lines of galaxies are chaotic, and the mixing taking place in this chaotic nucleus of the universe provides a mechanism to create equidistribution. The galaxy background defines a distinguished frame of reference and a unique cosmic time order; in this context superluminal signal transfer is studied. Tachyons are described by a real Proca field with negative mass square, coupled to a current of subluminal matter. Estimates on tachyon mixing in the geometric optics limit are derived. The potential of a static point source in this field theory is a damped periodic function. We treat this tachyon potential as a perturbation of the Coulomb potential, and study its effects on energy levels in hydrogenic systems. By comparing the induced level shifts to high-precision Lamb shift measurements and QED calculations, we suggest a tachyon mass of 2.1 keV/c2 and estimate the tachyonic coupling strength to subluminal matter. The impact of the tachyon field on ground state hyperfine transitions in hydrogen and muonium is investigated. Bounds on atomic transition rates effected by tachyon radiation as well as estimates on the spectral energy density of a possible cosmic tachyon background radiation are derived.

  3. Dispersion relations of the acoustic modes in divalent liquid metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inui Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Collective dynamics in liquid Ca and liquid Cd was studied by inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS. Using our experimental technique to prepare proper sample cells and high performance of an IXS beamline (BL35XU at SPring-8 in Japan, the dynamic structure factor with reasonable statistics was obtained for these divalent liquid metals. For both liquids, the dynamic structure factor at low Q exhibits a central peak with a shoulder or small hump clearly visible on each side, and the inelastic excitation energy determined using the model function composed of Lorentzian and the damped harmonic oscillator function disperses with increasing Q. The dispersion curves of these liquids were compared with that of the longitudinal acoustic phonon in each crystalline phase. From these results, clear difference in the interatomic interaction be- tween liquid Ca and liquid Cd was inferred.

  4. DISPERSION RELATION OF A MAGNETIZED PLASMA-FILLED BACKWARD WAVE OSCILLATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO HONG; LIU SHENG-GANG

    2000-01-01

    A linear theory and a more general dispersion relation of electromagnetic radiation from a magnetized plasma-filled backward wave oscillator with sinusoidally corrugated slow-wave structure driven by a solid intense relativistic electron beam have been given. The comparisons show good agreement with the previous works when B0 → ∞ and ωb = 0 from this dispersion relation.

  5. How superluminal motion can lead to backward time travel

    CERN Document Server

    Nemiroff, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly asserted that superluminal particle motion can enable backward time travel, but little has been written providing details. It is shown here that the simplest example of a "closed loop" event -- a twin paradox scenario where a single spaceship both traveling out and returning back superluminally -- does {\\it not} result in that ship straightforwardly returning to its starting point before it left. However, a more complicated scenario -- one where the superluminal ship first arrives at an intermediate destination moving subluminally -- can result in backwards time travel. This intermediate step might seem physically inconsequential but is shown to break Lorentz-invariance and be oddly tied to the sudden creation of a pair of spacecraft, one of which remains and one of which annihilates with the original spacecraft.

  6. Jet Stability and the Generation of Superluminal and Stationary Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Ivan; Gomez, Jose-Luis; Marti, Jose-Maria; Ibanez, Jose-Maria; Marscher, Alan P.; Alberdi, Antonio; Aloy, Miguel-Angel; Hardee, Philip E.

    2001-01-01

    We present a numerical simulation of the response of an expanding relativistic jet to the ejection of a superluminal component. The simulation has been performed with a relativistic time-dependent hydrodynamical code from which simulated radio maps are computed by integrating the transfer equations for synchrotron radiation. The interaction of the superluminal component with the underlying jet results in the formation of multiple conical shocks behind the main perturbation. These trailing components can be easily distinguished because they appear to be released from the primary superluminal component instead of being ejected from the core. Their oblique nature should also result in distinct polarization properties. Those appearing closer to the core show small apparent motions and a very slow secular decrease in brightness and could be identified as stationary components. Those appearing farther downstream are weaker and can reach superluminal apparent motions. The existence of these trailing components indicates that not all observed components necessarily represent major perturbations at the jet inlet; rather, multiple emission components can be generated by a single disturbance in the jet. While the superluminal component associated with the primary perturbation exhibits a rather stable pattern speed, trailing components have velocities that increase with distance from the core but move at less than the jet speed. The trailing components exhibit motion and structure consistent with the triggering of pinch modes by the superluminal component. The increase in velocity of the trailing components is an indirect consequence of the acceleration of the expanding fluid, which is assumed to be relativistically hot; if observed, such accelerations would therefore favor an electron-positron (as opposed to proton rest mass) dominated jet.

  7. Dispersion relations and the nonlinear generation of C1-surface exciton polaritons in spatially dispersive ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, M.; So, V. C.-Y.; Stegeman, G. I.

    1980-07-01

    The recent experiments of DeMartini, Colocci, Kohn, and Shen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1223 (1977)] on the nonlinear generation of C1- (n=1 in the series) surface exciton polaritons in spatially dispersive ZnO are analyzed. It is shown for a prism-air-sample geometry that the air-gap thickness plays an important role in determining the polariton attenuation, and to a lesser degree the polariton energy. Reasonably good agreement with the experimental dispersion relations of DeMartini and co-workers is obtained by including spatial dispersion via the additional boundary condition (ABC) ∂P→ex/∂z=0 for the excitonic polarization P→ex at the surface: The ABC P→ex=0 does not yield a good fit. The theory of the nonlinear generation of surface exciton polaritons in isotropic, spatially dispersive media is developed and applied to angle- and frequency-scanning experimental geometries. Numerical estimates of both the power radiated out via the prism (in the absence of surface roughness) and the line shape were also found to be in reasonable agreement with experiment for the ABC ∂P→ex/∂x=0, but not for P→ex=0.

  8. Control of superluminal transit through a heterogeneous medium

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, M; Rao, V S C Manga; Gupta, S Dutta

    2004-01-01

    We consider pulse propagation through a two component composite medium (metal inclusions in a dielectric host) with or without cavity mirrors. We show that a very thin slab of such a medium, under conditions of localized plasmon resonance, can lead to significant superluminality with detectable levels of transmitted pulse. A cavity containing the heterogeneous medium is shown to lead to subluminal-to-superluminal transmission depending on the volume fraction of the metal inclusions. The predictions of phase time calculations are verified by explicit calculations of the transmitted pulse shapes. We also demonstrate the independence of the phase time on system width and the volume fraction under specific conditions.

  9. Statistics of Superluminal Motion in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Wei Zhang; Jun-Hui Fan

    2008-01-01

    We have collected an up-to-date sample of 123 superluminal sources (84 quasars, 27 BL Lac objects and 12 galaxies) and calculated the apparent velocities (βapp) for 224 components in the sources with the A-CDM model. We checked the relationships between their proper motions, redshifts,βapp and 5 GHz flux densities. Our analysis shows that the radio emission is strongly boosted by the Doppler effect. The superluminal motion and the relativistic beaming boosting effect are, to some extent, the same in active galactic nuclei.

  10. There is Neither Classical Bug with a Superluminal Shadow Nor Quantum Absolute Collapse Nor (Subquantum) Superluminal Hidden Variable

    CERN Document Server

    Pankovic, V; Krmar, M; Radovanovic, M; Pankovic, Vladan; Predojevic, Milan; Krmar, Miodrag; Radovanovic, Milan

    2005-01-01

    In this work we analyse critically Griffiths's example of the classical superluminal motion of a bug shadow. Griffiths considers that this example is conceptually very close to quantum nonlocality or superluminality,i.e. quantum breaking of the famous Bell inequality. Or, generally, he suggests implicitly an absolute asymmetric duality (subluminality vs. superluminality) principle in any fundamental physical theory.It, he hopes, can be used for a natural interpretation of the quantum mechanics too. But we explain that such Griffiths's interpretation retires implicitly but significantly from usual, Copenhagen interpretation of the standard quantum mechanical formalism. Within Copenhagen interpretation basic complementarity principle represents, in fact, a dynamical symmetry principle (including its spontaneous breaking, i.e. effective hiding by measurement). Similarly, in other fundamental physical theories instead of Griffiths's absolute asymmetric duality principle there is a dynamical symmetry (including it...

  11. Spectrum formation in superluminous supernovae (Type I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzali, P. A.; Sullivan, M.; Pian, E.; Greiner, J.; Kann, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    The near-maximum spectra of most superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) that are not dominated by interaction with a H-rich circum-stellar medium (SLSN-I) are characterized by a blue spectral peak and a series of absorption lines which have been identified as O II. SN 2011kl, associated with the ultra-long gamma-ray burst GRB111209A, also had a blue peak but a featureless optical/ultraviolet (UV) spectrum. Radiation transport methods are used to show that the spectra (not including SN 2007bi, which has a redder spectrum at peak, like ordinary SNe Ic) can be explained by a rather steep density distribution of the ejecta, whose composition appears to be typical of carbon-oxygen cores of massive stars which can have low metal content. If the photospheric velocity is ˜10 000-15 000 km s-1, several lines form in the UV. O II lines, however, arise from very highly excited lower levels, which require significant departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium to be populated. These SLSNe are not thought to be powered primarily by 56Ni decay. An appealing scenario is that they are energized by X-rays from the shock driven by a magnetar wind into the SN ejecta. The apparent lack of evolution of line velocity with time that characterizes SLSNe up to about maximum is another argument in favour of the magnetar scenario. The smooth UV continuum of SN 2011kl requires higher ejecta velocities (˜20 000 km s-1): line blanketing leads to an almost featureless spectrum. Helium is observed in some SLSNe after maximum. The high-ionization near-maximum implies that both He and H may be present but not observed at early times. The spectroscopic classification of SLSNe should probably reflect that of SNe Ib/c. Extensive time coverage is required for an accurate classification.

  12. The complex dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons at gold/para-hexaphenylene interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Christoph; Leißner, Till; Klick, Alwin;

    2014-01-01

    Two-photon photoemission electron microscopy (2P-PEEM) is used to measure the real and imaginary part of the dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons at different interface systems. A comparison of calculated and measured dispersion data for a gold/vacuum interface demonstrates the capab......Two-photon photoemission electron microscopy (2P-PEEM) is used to measure the real and imaginary part of the dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons at different interface systems. A comparison of calculated and measured dispersion data for a gold/vacuum interface demonstrates...... the capability of the presented experimental approach. A systematic 2P-PEEM study on the dispersion relation of dielectric-loaded gold surfaces shows how effective the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at a gold/para-hexaphenylene interface can be tuned by adjustment of the dielectric film thickness...

  13. Planck-scale-modified dispersion relations in homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcaroli, Leonardo; Brunkhorst, Lukas K.; Gubitosi, Giulia; Loret, Niccoló; Pfeifer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The covariant understanding of dispersion relations as level sets of Hamilton functions on phase space enables us to derive the most general dispersion relation compatible with homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes. We use this concept to present a Planck-scale deformation of the Hamiltonian of a particle in Friedman-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry that is locally identical to the κ -Poincaré dispersion relation, in the same way as the dispersion relation of point particles in general relativity is locally identical to the one valid in special relativity. Studying the motion of particles subject to such a Hamiltonian, we derive the redshift and lateshift as observable consequences of the Planck-scale deformed FLRW universe.

  14. On determination of the geometric cosmological constant from the OPERA experiment of superluminal neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Mu-Lin; Huang, Wei; Xiao, Neng-Chao

    2011-01-01

    The recent OPERA experiment of superluminal neutrinos has deep consequences in cosmology. In cosmology a fundamental constant is the cosmological constant. From observations one can estimate the effective cosmological constant $\\Lambda_{eff}$ which is the sum of the quantum zero point energy $\\Lambda_{dark energy}$ and the geometric cosmological constant $\\Lambda$. The OPERA experiment can be applied to determine the geometric cosmological constant $\\Lambda$. It is the first time to distinguish the contributions of $\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda_{dark energy}$ from each other by experiment. The determination is based on an explanation of the OPERA experiment in the framework of Special Relativity with de Sitter space-time symmetry.

  15. Causal ubiquity in quantum physics a superluminal and local-causal physical ontology

    CERN Document Server

    Neelamkavil, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly non-causal processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the non-causal. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That

  16. On a time-domain representation of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters; Hughes; Brandenburger; Miller

    2000-11-01

    The development of Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations is typically carried out in the frequency domain. An alternative approach known as the time-causal theory develops dispersion relations for media with attenuation obeying a frequency power law through analysis in the time domain [T. L. Szabo, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 491-500 (1994)]. Although both approaches predict identical dispersion relations, it is perceived that these two approaches are distinct from each other. It is shown, however, that the time-causal theory is in essence a time-domain formulation of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations for the special case of media with attenuation obeying a frequency power law. Additionally, it is shown that time-domain representations of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations are available for a broader class of media than simply those with power law attenuation. The time-causal theory and the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations can be viewed as two complementary, yet equivalent, approaches to the study of dispersion.

  17. New dispersion relations in the description of $\\pi\\pi$ scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, R; Grynkiewicz, P; Peláez, J R; Ynduráin, F J

    2009-01-01

    We present a set of once subtracted dispersion relations which implement crossing symmetry conditions for the $\\pi\\pi$ scattering amplitudes below 1 GeV. We compare and discuss the results obtained for the once and twice subtracted dispersion relations, known as Roy's equations, for three $\\pi\\pi$ partial JI waves, S0, P and S2. We also show that once subtracted dispersion relations provide a stringent test of crossing and analyticity for $\\pi\\pi$ partial wave amplitudes, remarkably precise in the 400 to 1.1 GeV region, where the resulting uncertainties are significantly smaller than those coming from standard Roy's equations, given the same input.

  18. Superluminal Physics and Instantaneous Physics as New Trends in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandache F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a similar way as passing from Euclidean Geometry to Non-Euclidean Geometry, we can pass from Subluminal Physics to Superluminal Physics, and further to Instantaneous Physics. In the lights of two consecutive successful CERN experiments with superlumi- nal particles in the Fall of 2011, we believe that these two new fields of research should begin developing.

  19. Negative and Superluminal Group Velocity Propagation with Narrow Pulse in a Coaxial Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Xiao-Juan; ZHOU Wei; LI Lin; TENG Li-Hu; FENG Bao-Ying; ZHENG Sheng-Feng; WANG Feng-Wei

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the propagation of electric signal along a spatially periodic impedance mismatched transmission line group. Anomalous dispersion is caused by the periodically mismatched impedance structure and a forbidden band appears near 8 MHz in transmission. The group velocity of the amplitude-modulated signal is augmented up to infinity, even -3.89c (c the speed of light in vacuum) in the forbidden region with the amplitude of the modulated signal increasing. When the carrier sinusoid signal is modulated in amplitude by the modulating sinusoid signal, of which the peak is superimposed with a narrow pulse at fivefold frequency, the superluminal group velocity also occurs. The experiment failed to show whether the propagation velocity of narrow pulse exceeds c or not.

  20. Discussions of the Quantum Superluminality%论量子超光速性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志洵

    2012-01-01

    A.Einstein held an opposite attitude towards Quantum Mechanics(QM),which first appeared in 1926 and reached the top in 1935 when he,together with B.Podolsky,N.Rosen published the EPR thesis and it promotes science development in an opposite side.The EPR thesis is based on Special Relativity(SR).Both SR and EPR deny the possibility of faster-than-light.But QM allows the existence of faster-than-light,agreeing to non-locality of QM is the premise of researching in faster-than light.In 1965,during the interview John Bell confided that his unequality was the outcome of EPR thinking,which denied ultra-space effect under EPR thesis,conditions resulted in quite peculiar correlations that QM predicted.The results of Aspect’s experiments were within expectation that QM has never been wrong now and will not in the future despite of strict requirements.Undoubtedly,the experiments proved that Einstein’s ideas didn’t hold water.In Bell’s opinion,to get rid of the difficulties after the announcement of the Aspect’s experiments,it intends to go back to Lorentz and Poincarè,and assume that ether existed as a referential system in which matters went faster than light.Bell repeatedly pointed out that be wanted to go back to ether because EPR had predicted there was something faster than light in the background.…… Since 1992,it is reported that there have been many successful faster than light experiments.Some of them are based on quantum tunneling effect;some are based on classic physical phenomena such as evanescent waves,anomalous dispersion.And in 2008,D.Salart et.al.performed a experiment using entangled photons between two villages separated by 18km.In conclusion,the speed of the influence of quantum entanglement would have to exceed than of light by at least four orders of magnitude,i.e.10 4 c ~ 10 7 c.Anyway,this experiment was the summation of discussions about the EPR thesis for a long time.For the past 25 years Quantum Superluminality was one subject of my

  1. A new dispersion-relation preserving method for integrating the classical Boussinesq equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, T. S.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a dispersion-relation preserving method is proposed for nonlinear dispersive waves, starting from the oldest weakly nonlinear dispersive wave mathematical model in shallow water waves, i.e., the classical Boussinesq equation. It is a semi-analytic procedure, however, which preserves, as a distinctive feature, the dispersion-relation imbedded in the model equation without adding (unwelcome) numerical effects, i.e., the proposed method has the same dispersion-relation as the original classical Boussinesq equation. This remarkable (dispersion-relation) preserving property is proved mathematically for small wave motion in present study. The property is also numerically examined by observing both the local wave number and the local frequency of a slowly varying water-wave group. The dispersion-relation preserving method proposed here is powerful as well for observing nonlinear wave phenomena such as solitary waves and their collision. In fact, the main features of nonlinear wave characteristics are clearly seen through not only a single propagating solitary wave but counter-propagating (head-on) solitary wave collisions. They are compared with known (exact) nonlinear solutions, the results of which represent a major improvement over existing solution formulations in the literature.

  2. On the relative contributions of wind vs. animals to seed dispersal of four Sierra Nevada pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wall, Stephen B

    2008-07-01

    Selective pressures that influence the form of seed dispersal syndromes are poorly understood. Morphology of plant propagules is often used to infer the means of dispersal, but morphology can be misleading. Several species of pines, for example, have winged seeds adapted for wind dispersal but owe much of their establishment to scatter-hoarding animals. Here the relative importance of wind vs. animal dispersal is assessed for four species of pines of the eastern Sierra Nevada that have winged seeds but differed in seed size: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta murrayana, 8 mg); ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa ponderosa, 56 mg); Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi, 160 mg); and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana, 231 mg). Pre-dispersal seed mortality eliminated much of the ponderosa pine seed crop (66%), but had much less effect on Jeffrey pine (32% of seeds destroyed), lodgepole pine (29%), and sugar pine (7%). When cones opened most filled seeds were dispersed by wind. Animals removed > 99% of wind-dispersed Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds from the ground within 60 days, but animals gathered only 93% of lodgepole pine seeds and 38% of ponderosa pine seeds during the same period. Animals gathered and scatter hoarded radioactively labeled ponderosa, Jeffrey, and sugar pine seeds, making a total of 2103 caches over three years of study. Only three lodgepole pine caches were found. Caches typically contained 1-4 seeds buried 5-20 mm deep, depths suitable for seedling emergence. Although Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds are initially wind dispersed, nearly all seedlings arise from animal caches. Lodgepole pine is almost exclusively wind dispersed, with animals acting as seed predators. Animals treated ponderosa pine in an intermediate fashion. Two-phased dispersal of large, winged pine seeds appears adaptive; initial wind dispersal helps to minimize pre-dispersal seed mortality whereas scatter hoarding by animals places seeds in sites with a higher probability of seedling establishment.

  3. Fracture statistics of torsion and dispersion relations in round bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, G.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper has adopted a theoretical viewpoint for studying Fracture Statistics in round bars subjected to torsion, and for determining the cumulative probabilities of fracture using Weibull's specific-risk function for materials that exhibit volume and surface brittleness. The use of the defined-functions method has allowed to get the specific-risk-of-fracture function and, in addition, to carry out a separation between volume part and surface part concerning materials presenting both brittlenesses at the same time. Dispersion of the parameters are determined resorting to Fisher's information matrix.

    Se estudió desde un punto de vista teórico la estadística de fractura de barras de sección circular sometidas a torsión y se determinó las probabilidades acumulativas de fractura usando la función riesgo específico de Weibull para materiales con fragilidades volumétrica y superficial. Mediante el método de las funciones definidas se obtuvo la función riesgo específico de fractura, además se separó la parte volumétrica de la parte superficial para materiales que poseen ambas fragilidades. La dispersión de los parámetros se determinó con la matriz de información de Fisher.

  4. Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Jerkstrand, A.; Inserra, C.; McCrum, M.; Kotak, R.; Fraser, M.; Wright, D.; Chen, T.-W.; Smith, K.; Young, D. R.; Sim, S. A.; Valenti, S.; Howell, D. A.; Bresolin, F.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Tonry, J. L.; Huber, M. E.; Rest, A.; Pastorello, A.; Tomasella, L.; Cappellaro, E.; Benetti, S.; Mattila, S.; Kankare, E.; Kangas, T.; Leloudas, G.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Berger, E.; Chornock, R.; Narayan, G.; Stubbs, C. W.; Foley, R. J.; Lunnan, R.; Soderberg, A.; Sanders, N.; Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Morales-Garoffolo, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Botticella, M. T.; Gezari, S.; Urata, Y.; Rodney, S.; Riess, A. G.; Scolnic, D.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K.; Flewelling, H. A.; Magnier, E. A.; Kaiser, N.; Metcalfe, N.; Morgan, J.; Price, P. A.; Sweeney, W.; Waters, C.

    2013-10-01

    Super-luminous supernovae that radiate more than 1044 ergs per second at their peak luminosity have recently been discovered in faint galaxies at redshifts of 0.1-4. Some evolve slowly, resembling models of `pair-instability' supernovae. Such models involve stars with original masses 140-260 times that of the Sun that now have carbon-oxygen cores of 65-130 solar masses. In these stars, the photons that prevent gravitational collapse are converted to electron-positron pairs, causing rapid contraction and thermonuclear explosions. Many solar masses of 56Ni are synthesized; this isotope decays to 56Fe via 56Co, powering bright light curves. Such massive progenitors are expected to have formed from metal-poor gas in the early Universe. Recently, supernova 2007bi in a galaxy at redshift 0.127 (about 12 billion years after the Big Bang) with a metallicity one-third that of the Sun was observed to look like a fading pair-instability supernova. Here we report observations of two slow-to-fade super-luminous supernovae that show relatively fast rise times and blue colours, which are incompatible with pair-instability models. Their late-time light-curve and spectral similarities to supernova 2007bi call the nature of that event into question. Our early spectra closely resemble typical fast-declining super-luminous supernovae, which are not powered by radioactivity. Modelling our observations with 10-16 solar masses of magnetar-energized ejecta demonstrates the possibility of a common explosion mechanism. The lack of unambiguous nearby pair-instability events suggests that their local rate of occurrence is less than 6 × 10-6 times that of the core-collapse rate.

  5. Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, M; Smartt, S J; Jerkstrand, A; Inserra, C; McCrum, M; Kotak, R; Fraser, M; Wright, D; Chen, T-W; Smith, K; Young, D R; Sim, S A; Valenti, S; Howell, D A; Bresolin, F; Kudritzki, R P; Tonry, J L; Huber, M E; Rest, A; Pastorello, A; Tomasella, L; Cappellaro, E; Benetti, S; Mattila, S; Kankare, E; Kangas, T; Leloudas, G; Sollerman, J; Taddia, F; Berger, E; Chornock, R; Narayan, G; Stubbs, C W; Foley, R J; Lunnan, R; Soderberg, A; Sanders, N; Milisavljevic, D; Margutti, R; Kirshner, R P; Elias-Rosa, N; Morales-Garoffolo, A; Taubenberger, S; Botticella, M T; Gezari, S; Urata, Y; Rodney, S; Riess, A G; Scolnic, D; Wood-Vasey, W M; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K; Flewelling, H A; Magnier, E A; Kaiser, N; Metcalfe, N; Morgan, J; Price, P A; Sweeney, W; Waters, C

    2013-10-17

    Super-luminous supernovae that radiate more than 10(44) ergs per second at their peak luminosity have recently been discovered in faint galaxies at redshifts of 0.1-4. Some evolve slowly, resembling models of 'pair-instability' supernovae. Such models involve stars with original masses 140-260 times that of the Sun that now have carbon-oxygen cores of 65-130 solar masses. In these stars, the photons that prevent gravitational collapse are converted to electron-positron pairs, causing rapid contraction and thermonuclear explosions. Many solar masses of (56)Ni are synthesized; this isotope decays to (56)Fe via (56)Co, powering bright light curves. Such massive progenitors are expected to have formed from metal-poor gas in the early Universe. Recently, supernova 2007bi in a galaxy at redshift 0.127 (about 12 billion years after the Big Bang) with a metallicity one-third that of the Sun was observed to look like a fading pair-instability supernova. Here we report observations of two slow-to-fade super-luminous supernovae that show relatively fast rise times and blue colours, which are incompatible with pair-instability models. Their late-time light-curve and spectral similarities to supernova 2007bi call the nature of that event into question. Our early spectra closely resemble typical fast-declining super-luminous supernovae, which are not powered by radioactivity. Modelling our observations with 10-16 solar masses of magnetar-energized ejecta demonstrates the possibility of a common explosion mechanism. The lack of unambiguous nearby pair-instability events suggests that their local rate of occurrence is less than 6 × 10(-6) times that of the core-collapse rate.

  6. 超光速佯谬和中微子%Superluminal Paradox and Neutrino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪光炯

    2002-01-01

    爱因斯坦的狭义相对论和因果原理意味着任何运动物体的速度不能超过光在真空中的速度.然而,有许多讨论超光速运动粒子的尝试,这些讨论或者是在狭义相对论的框架下进行的,或者是超越了狭义相对论.这些讨论都遇到一系列难以克服的困难,即"超光速佯谬".文中详细分析了这种佯谬,并证明它在与狭义相对论兼容的量子理论中显然是不出现的.在实在世界中,中微子最可能是一种超光速粒子.%Einstein′s theory of special relativity (SR) and the principle of causality imply that the speed of any moving object can not exceed that of light in a vacuum (c). However, there were many attempts in literature discussing the particle moving with speed u>c(called as superluminal particle or tachyon) either in the scheme of SR or beyond it. These theories all encountered a series of insurmountable difficulties which will be named "superluminal paradox"in this paper. We will analyze it in some detail and then prove that the paradox disappears unambiguously in quantum theory, which is compatible with SR. Most likely, the superluminal particle in real world is just a kind of known particle, the neutrino.

  7. Renormalized dispersion relations of β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chains in equilibrium and nonequilibrium states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shi-xiao W.; Lu, Hai-hao; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2014-09-01

    We study the nonlinear dispersive characteristics in β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) chains in both thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium steady state. By applying a multiple scale analysis to the FPU chain, we analyze the contribution of the trivial and nontrivial resonance to the renormalization of the dispersion relation. Our results show that the contribution of the nontrivial resonance remains significant to the renormalization, in particular, in strongly nonlinear regimes. We contrast our results with the dispersion relations obtained from the Zwanzig-Mori formalism and random phase approximation to further illustrate the role of resonances. Surprisingly, these theoretical dispersion relations can be generalized to describe dispersive characteristics well at the nonequilibrium steady state of the FPU chain with driving-damping in real space. Through numerical simulation, we confirm that the theoretical renormalized dispersion relations are valid for a wide range of nonlinearities in thermal equilibrium as well as in nonequilibrium steady state. We further show that the dispersive characteristics persist in nonequilibrium steady state driven-damped in Fourier space.

  8. Renormalized dispersion relations of β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chains in equilibrium and nonequilibrium states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shi-xiao W; Lu, Hai-hao; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2014-09-01

    We study the nonlinear dispersive characteristics in β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) chains in both thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium steady state. By applying a multiple scale analysis to the FPU chain, we analyze the contribution of the trivial and nontrivial resonance to the renormalization of the dispersion relation. Our results show that the contribution of the nontrivial resonance remains significant to the renormalization, in particular, in strongly nonlinear regimes. We contrast our results with the dispersion relations obtained from the Zwanzig-Mori formalism and random phase approximation to further illustrate the role of resonances. Surprisingly, these theoretical dispersion relations can be generalized to describe dispersive characteristics well at the nonequilibrium steady state of the FPU chain with driving-damping in real space. Through numerical simulation, we confirm that the theoretical renormalized dispersion relations are valid for a wide range of nonlinearities in thermal equilibrium as well as in nonequilibrium steady state. We further show that the dispersive characteristics persist in nonequilibrium steady state driven-damped in Fourier space.

  9. A linear dispersion relation for the hybrid kinetic-ion/fluid-electron model of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Told, Daniel; Astfalk, Patrick; Jenko, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A dispersion relation for a commonly used hybrid model of plasma physics is developed, which combines fully kinetic ions and a massless-electron fluid description. Although this model and variations of it have been used to describe plasma phenomena for about 40 years, to date there exists no general dispersion relation to describe the linear wave physics contained in the model. Previous efforts along these lines are extended here to retain arbitrary wave propagation angles, temperature anisotropy effects, as well as additional terms in the generalized Ohm's law which determines the electric field. A numerical solver for the dispersion relation is developed, and linear wave physics is benchmarked against solutions of a full Vlasov-Maxwell dispersion relation solver. This work opens the door to a more accurate interpretation of existing and future wave and turbulence simulations using this type of hybrid model.

  10. Precise analysis of pion-pion scattering data from Roy equations and forward dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Peláez, J R; Kaminski, R; Ynduráin, F J

    2008-01-01

    We review our recent analysis of pion-pion scattering data in terms of Roy equations and Forward Dispersion Relations, and present some preliminary results in terms of a new set of once-subtracted coupled equations for partial waves. The first analysis consists of independent fits to the different pion-pion channels that satisfies rather well the dispersive representation. In the second analysis we constrain the fit with the dispersion relations. The latter provides a very precise and model independent description of data using just analyticity, causality and crossing.

  11. Integral and derivative dispersion relations for pp and $\\overline{p}p$ amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Alkin, A

    2010-01-01

    The methods of integral dispersion relations (IDR) and derivative dispersion relations (DDR) are applied for analysis of the data on pp and ¯pp total cross sections and ratios of real to imaginary part of elastic forward scattering amplitude. The models of pomeron behaving as triple, double and simple pole (with intercept larger than one) in the angular momentum plane are considered. Predictions of the models are given for the TOTEM measurements at 7 and 14 TeV.

  12. On the renormalization procedure for quantum fields with modified dispersion relation in curved spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Nacir, Diana López

    2009-01-01

    We review our recent results on the renormalization procedure for a free quantum scalar field with modified dispersion relations in curved spacetimes. For dispersion relations containing up to $2s$ powers of the spatial momentum, the subtraction necessary to renormalize $$ and $$ depends on $s$. We first describe our previous analysis for spatially flat Friedman-Robertson-Walker and Bianchi type I metrics. Then we present a new power counting analysis for general background metrics in the weak field approximation.

  13. Green's function of a massless scalar field in curved space-time and superluminal phase velocity of the retarded potential

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, De-Chang

    2012-01-01

    We study a retarded potential solution of a massless scalar field in curved space-time. In a special ansatz for a particle at rest whose magnitude of the (scalar) charge is changing with time, we found an exact analytic solution. The solution indicates that the phase velocity of the retarded potential of a non-moving scalar charge is position dependent, and may easily be greater than the speed of light at a given point. In the case of the Schwarzschild space-time, at the horizon, the phase velocity becomes infinitely faster than the coordinate speed of light at that point. Superluminal phase velocity is relatively common phenomenon, with the the phase velocity of the massive Klein-Gordon field as the best known example. We discuss why it is possible to have modes with superluminal phase velocity even for a massless field.

  14. How cooperatively breeding birds identify relatives and avoid incest: New insights into dispersal and kin recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Christina; Stern, Caitlin A

    2015-12-01

    Cooperative breeding in birds typically occurs when offspring - usually males - delay dispersal from their natal group, remaining with the family to help rear younger kin. Sex-biased dispersal is thought to have evolved in order to reduce the risk of inbreeding, resulting in low relatedness between mates and the loss of indirect fitness benefits for the dispersing sex. In this review, we discuss several recent studies showing that dispersal patterns are more variable than previously thought, often leading to complex genetic structure within cooperative avian societies. These empirical findings accord with recent theoretical models suggesting that sex- biased dispersal is neither necessary, nor always sufficient, to prevent inbreeding. The ability to recognize relatives, primarily by learning individual or group-specific vocalizations, may play a more important role in incest avoidance than currently appreciated.

  15. A general numerical solution of dispersion relations for the nuclear optical model

    CERN Document Server

    Capote, R; Quesada, J M; Capote, Roberto; Molina, Alberto; Quesada, Jose Manuel

    2001-01-01

    A general numerical solution of the dispersion integral relation between the real and the imaginary parts of the nuclear optical potential is presented. Fast convergence is achieved by means of the Gauss-Legendre integration method, which offers accuracy, easiness of implementation and generality for dispersive optical model calculations. The use of this numerical integration method in the optical-model parameter search codes allows for a fast and accurate dispersive analysis. PACS number(s): 11.55.Fv, 24.10.Ht, 02.60.Jh

  16. Stellar populations across the black hole mass - velocity dispersion relation

    CERN Document Server

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Bosch, Remco C E van den; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Forbes, Duncan A

    2016-01-01

    Coevolution between supermassive black holes (BHs) and their host galaxies is universally adopted in models for galaxy formation. In the absence of feedback from active galactic nuclei, simulated massive galaxies keep forming stars in the local Universe. From an observational point of view, however, such coevolution remains unclear. We present a stellar population analysis of galaxies with direct BH mass measurements and the BH mass-{\\sigma} relation as a working framework. We find that over-massive BH galaxies, i.e., galaxies lying above the best-fitting BH mass-{\\sigma} line, tend to be older and more {\\alpha}-element enhanced than under-massive BH galaxies. The scatter in the BH mass-{\\sigma}-[{\\alpha}/Fe] plane is significantly lower than in the standard BH mass-{\\sigma} relation. We interpret this trend as an imprint of active galactic nucleus feedback on the star formation histories of massive galaxies.

  17. 超光速:可能与不可能%On the Superluminal Movement:Possible and Impossible?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄政新

    2012-01-01

    The OPERA experimental results indicate that neutrinos move even faster than the speed of light,which triggers extensive skepticism with regards of Einstein's assertion that superluminal movement does not exists in nature.This paper first makes a brief review to the history of tachyon(faster-than-light particle) research home and abroad in the past half-century.It then points out that:(1) there is no solid and sufficient reason in Einstein's assertion that superluminal movement does not exists in nature;(2) so far there is no solid experimental foundation for those currently established superluminal theories;(3) a correct superluminal theory should return to special relativity under extreme conditions(i.e.when the velocity approaches the speed of light).%"奥佩拉"(OPERA)实验结果显示中微子运动得比光速还快。这引起许多人对爱因斯坦关于自然界不存在超光速运动这一断言的怀疑。本文回顾了半个世纪以来国内外快子(超光速粒子)研究的简要历史。接着,本文指出:(1)爱因斯坦断言自然界不存在超光速运动是没有充分理由的;(2)所有已建立的超光速理论都没有坚实的实验基础;(3)一个正确的超光理论在极限条件下(当速度趋于光速时)时应当回归狭义相对论。

  18. The superluminous supernova PS1-11ap: bridging the gap between low and high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    McCrum, M; Kotak, R; Rest, A; Jerkstrand, A; Inserra, C; Rodney, S A; Chen, T -W; Howell, D A; Huber, M E; Pastorello, A; Tonry, J L; Bresolin, F; Kudritzki, R -P; Chornock, R; Berger, E; Smith, K; Botticella, M T; Foley, R J; Fraser, M; Milisavljevic, D; Nicholl, M; Riess, A G; Stubbs, C W; Valenti, S; Wood-Vasey, W M; Wright, D; Young, D R; Drout, M; Czekala, I; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K C; Draper, P; Flewelling, H; Hodapp, K W; Kaiser, N; Magnier, E A; Metcalfe, N; Sweeney, W; Wainscoat, R J

    2013-01-01

    We present optical photometric and spectroscopic coverage of the superluminous supernova (SLSN) PS1-11ap, discovered with the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey at z = 0.524. This intrinsically blue transient rose slowly to reach a peak magnitude of M_u = -21.4 mag and bolometric luminosity of 8 x 10^43 ergs^-1 before settling onto a relatively shallow gradient of decline. The observed decline is significantly slower than those of the superluminous type Ic SNe which have been the focus of much recent attention. Spectroscopic similarities with the lower redshift SN2007bi and a decline rate similar to 56Co decay timescale initially indicated that this transient could be a candidate for a pair instability supernova (PISN) explosion. Overall the transient appears quite similar to SN2007bi and the lower redshift object PTF12dam. The extensive data set, from 30 days before peak to 230 days after, allows a detailed and quantitative comparison with published models of PISN explosions. We find that the PS1-11ap data do no...

  19. Propagation of Superluminous L-O Mode Waves During Geomagnetic Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fuliang; CHEN Lunjin; ZHENG Huinan; ZHOU Qinghua; WANG Shui

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the azimuthal angle ψ of the wave vector k on the propagation characteristics of the superluminous L-O mode waves (together with a case of the R-X mode) during different geomagnetic activities using a three-dimensional (3D) ray-tracing method is investigated.This work is primarily an extension of our previous two-dimensional study in which the wave azimuthal angle was not considered.We present numerical simulations for this mode which is generated in the source cavity along a 70° night geomagnetic field line at the specific altitude of 1.5RE (where RE is the Earth's radius).It is found that,as in the two-dimensional case,the trajectory of L-O mode starting in the source meridian plane (or the wave azimuthal angle ψ=180°) can reach the lowest latitude;whereas it basically stays at relatively higher latitudes starting off the source meridian plane (or ψ≠180°).The results reveal that under appropriate conditions,the superluminous L-O mode waves may exist in the radiation belts of the Earth,but this remains to be supplemented by observational data.

  20. Multifrequency observations of the superluminal quasar 3C 345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Matthews, K.; Roellig, T. P. L.; Bregman, J. D.; Witteborn, F. C.; Lester, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the continuum properties of the superluminal quasar 3C 345, on the basis of radio, optical, IR, and X-ray frequency monitorings, as well as by means of simultaneous multifrequency spectra extending from the radio through the X-ray bands. Radio outbursts, which appear to follow IR-optical outbursts by about one year, first occur at the highest frequencies, as expected from optical depth effects; the peak flux is nevertheless often reached at several frequencies at once. The beginning of outbursts, as defined by mm-measurements, corresponds to the appearance of the three known 'superluminal' components. An increase in the X-ray flux during 1979-1980 corresponds to increased radio flux, while the IR flux changes in the opposite sense.

  1. The hypothesis of superluminal neutrinos: Comparing OPERA with other data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drago, A.; Masina, I.; Pagliara, G.

    2012-01-01

    The OPERA Collaboration reported evidence for muonic neutrinos traveling slightly faster than light in vacuum. While waiting further checks from the experimental community, here we aim at exploring some theoretical consequences of the hypothesis that muonic neutrinos are superluminal, considering...... in particular the tachyonic and the Coleman-Glashow cases. We show that a tachyonic interpretation is not only hardly reconciled with OPERA data on energy dependence, but that it clashes with neutrino production from pion and with neutrino oscillations. A Coleman-Glashow superluminal neutrino beam would also...... have problems with pion decay kinematics for the OPERA setup; it could be easily reconciled with SN1987a data, but then it would be very problematic to account for neutrino oscillations. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2012...

  2. The hypothesis of superluminal neutrinos: Comparing OPERA with other data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drago, A.; Masina, I.; Pagliara, G.

    2012-01-01

    The OPERA Collaboration reported evidence for muonic neutrinos traveling slightly faster than light in vacuum. While waiting further checks from the experimental community, here we aim at exploring some theoretical consequences of the hypothesis that muonic neutrinos are superluminal, considering...... in particular the tachyonic and the Coleman-Glashow cases. We show that a tachyonic interpretation is not only hardly reconciled with OPERA data on energy dependence, but that it clashes with neutrino production from pion and with neutrino oscillations. A Coleman-Glashow superluminal neutrino beam would also...... have problems with pion decay kinematics for the OPERA setup; it could be easily reconciled with SN1987a data, but then it would be very problematic to account for neutrino oscillations. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2012...

  3. Multi-Epoch Spectroscopy of Hydrogen-Poor Superluminous Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Robert; De Cia, Annalisa; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leloudas, Giorgos; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Perley, Daniel A.; Vreeswijk, Paul; Yan, Lin

    2016-06-01

    A growing sample of intrinsically rare supernovae is being uncovered by wide-field synoptic surveys, such as the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). A fraction of these events have been labeled "superluminous supernovae" due to their peak luminosities, which can exceed normal supernovae by factors of 10 to 100. The power sources for these events and thus their connection to normal luminosity supernovae remains uncertain. Here we present results from 134 spectroscopic observations of 17 hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSN-I) discovered by PTF. We select our targets from the full PTF sample using only spectroscopic information; we do not employ the traditional cut in absolute magnitude (e.g. M physical insights into the nature of these explosions offered by this unique dataset.

  4. Subluminal and Superluminal Phenomena in a Four-Level Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ding-An; ZENG Ya-Guang; CAO Hui

    2008-01-01

    In a four-level atomic system,we investigate the light pulse propagation properties interacting with only one laser field.It is shown that in the steady state,the group velocity of the light pulse can be changed from subluminal to superluminal by varying the field detuning.Meanwhile,the effects of the field intensity on the group velocity are also shown.At last,with special parameters,the analytical solution for the group index is also obtained.

  5. Unified interpretation of superluminal behaviors in wave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranfagni, A. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata ' Nello Carrara' , Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Viliani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Ranfagni, C. [Facolta di Scienze Matematiche Fisiche e Naturali, Corso di Laurea in Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Mignani, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Edoardo Amaldi' , Universita degli Studi di Roma ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Ruggeri, R. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: rocco.ruggeri@isc.cnr.it; Ricci, A.M. [Istituto per le Telecomunicazioni e l' Elettronica della Marina Militare ' Giancarlo Vallauri' (Mariteleradar), Viale Italia 72, 57100 Livorno (Italy)

    2007-10-29

    By using two approaches, we demonstrate that superluminal behaviors in wave propagation can be attributed to mechanisms acting in the near-field limit. One approach is based on complex waves, while the other relies on a path-integral treatment of stochastic motion. The results of the two approaches are comparable, and suitable for interpreting the data obtained in microwave experiments; these experiments, over a wide range of distances, show a time advance which, in any case, is limited to nanoseconds.

  6. Rainbows without unicorns: Metric structures in theories with Modified Dispersion Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Lobo, Iarley P; Nettel, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    "Rainbow" metrics are a widely used approach to metric formalism for theories with Modified Dispersion Relations. They have had a huge success in the Quantum Gravity Phenomenology literature, since they allow to introduce momentum-dependent spacetime metrics into the description of systems with Modified Dispersion Relation. This approach, however, presents some compatibility issues with a relativistic description, even in the case of introducing deformed spacetime symmetries to keep the theory's modified dispersion relation invariant. In this paper we would like to introduce the readers to this issue and to describe how the relativistic properties of the theory can be recovered taking into account a more complex (but also complete) momentum-space curvature framework. We also introduce a new metric structure from a Polyakov-like description of the action.

  7. Interface energy effect on the dispersion relation of nano-sized cylindrical piezoelectric/piezomagnetic composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xue-Qian; Liu, Yue; Liu, Xiang-Lin; Liu, Jin-Xi

    2015-02-01

    Interface between the constituents plays an important role in the non-destructive detection of smart piezoelectric/piezomagnetic devices. The propagation of SH waves in nano-sized cylindrically multiferroic composites consisting of a piezoelectric layer and a piezomagnetic central cylinder is investigated, and the size-dependent dispersion relation with interface effect is derived. The general solutions of decoupled governing equation in different regions are expressed by using Bessel functions, and the unknown coefficients are determined by satisfying the boundary conditions at the inner interface with negligible thickness and the outer surface of the structure. Through the numerical examples of dispersion relation, it is found that the interface around the nano-cylinder may remarkably reduce the phase velocity, depending on the combination of the value of thickness ratio and the surface condition. The interface shows different effect on the first and second modes of dispersion relation.

  8. In-medium dispersion relations of charmonia studied by the maximum entropy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Atsuro; Asakawa, Masayuki; Kitazawa, Masakiyo

    2017-01-01

    We study in-medium spectral properties of charmonia in the vector and pseudoscalar channels at nonzero momenta on quenched lattices, especially focusing on their dispersion relation and the weight of the peak. We measure the lattice Euclidean correlation functions with nonzero momenta on the anisotropic quenched lattices and study the spectral functions with the maximum entropy method. The dispersion relations of charmonia and the momentum dependence of the weight of the peak are analyzed with the maximum entropy method together with the errors estimated probabilistically in this method. We find a significant increase of the masses of charmonia in medium. We also find that the functional form of the charmonium dispersion relations is not changed from that in the vacuum within the error even at T ≃1.6 Tc for all the channels we analyze.

  9. In-medium dispersion relations of charmonia studied by maximum entropy method

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Atsuro; Kitazawa, Masakiyo

    2016-01-01

    We study in-medium spectral properties of charmonia in the vector and pseudoscalar channels at nonzero momenta on quenched lattices, especially focusing on their dispersion relation and weight of the peak. We measure the lattice Euclidean correlation functions with nonzero momenta on the anisotropic quenched lattices and study the spectral functions with the maximum entropy method. The dispersion relations of charmonia and the momentum dependence of the weight of the peak are analyzed with the maximum entropy method together with the errors estimated probabilistically in this method. We find significant increase of the masses of charmonia in medium. It is also found that the functional form of the charmonium dispersion relations is not changed from that in the vacuum within the error even at $T\\simeq1.6T_c$ for all the channels we analyzed.

  10. Dispersion relations with crossing symmetry for pipi D and F wave amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, R

    2011-01-01

    A set of once subtracted dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition for the pipi D- and F-wave amplitudes is derived and analyzed. An example of numerical calculations in the effective two pion mass range from the threshold to 1.1 GeV is presented. It is shown that these new dispersion relations impose quite strong constraints on the analyzed pipi interactions and are very useful tools to test the pipi amplitudes. One of the goals of this work is to provide a complete set of equations required for easy use. Full analytical expressions are presented. Along with the well known dispersion relations successful in testing the pipi S- and P-wave amplitudes, those presented here for the D and F waves give a complete set of tools for analyzes of the pipi interactions.

  11. Direct numerical experiment on measuring of dispersion relation for gravity waves in the presence of condensate

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    During previous numerical experiments on isotropic turbulence of surface gravity waves we observed formation of the long wave background (condensate). It was shown (Korotkevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 101 (7), 074504 (2008)), that presence of the condensate changes a spectrum of direct cascade, corresponding to the flux of energy to the small scales from pumping region (large scales). Recent experiments show that the inverse cascade spectrum is also affected by the condensate. In this case mechanism proposed as a cause for the change of direct cascade spectrum cannot work. But inverse cascade is directly influenced by the linear dispersion relation for waves, as a result direct measurement of the dispersion relation in the presence of condensate is necessary. We performed the measurement of this dispersion relation from the direct numerical experiment. The results demonstrate that in the region of inverse cascade influence of the condensate cannot be neglected.

  12. Dispersion relations at finite temperature and density for nucleons and pions

    CERN Document Server

    Hurtado, R; Quimbay, C; Hurtado, Rafael; Morales, John; Quimbay, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    We calculate the nucleonic and pionic dispersion relations at finite temperature T and non-vanishing chemical potentials $(\\mu_f)$ in the context of an effective chiral theory that describes the strong and electromagnetic interactions for nucleons and pions. The dispersion relations are calculated in the broken chiral symmetry phase, where the nucleons are massive and pions are taken as massless. The calculation is performed at lowest order in the energy expansion, working in the framework of the real time formalism of thermal field theory in the Feynman gauge. These one-loop dispersion relations are obtained at leading order with respect to T and $\\mu_f$. We also evaluate the effective masses of the quasi-nucleon and quasi-pion excitations in thermal and chemical conditions as the ones of a neutron star.

  13. A new approximate analytical approach for dispersion relation of the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C. W.; Wu, B. S.; He, L. H.

    2001-12-01

    A novel approach is presented for obtaining approximate analytical expressions for the dispersion relation of periodic wavetrains in the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation with even potential function. By coupling linearization of the governing equation with the method of harmonic balance, we establish two general analytical approximate formulas for the dispersion relation, which depends on the amplitude of the periodic wavetrain. These formulas are valid for small as well as large amplitude of the wavetrain. They are also applicable to the large amplitude regime, which the conventional perturbation method fails to provide any solution, of the nonlinear system under study. Three examples are demonstrated to illustrate the excellent approximate solutions of the proposed formulas with respect to the exact solutions of the dispersion relation. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Traits related to species persistence and dispersal explain changes in plant communities subjected to habitat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Lorenzo; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Heikkinen, Risto

    2012-01-01

    Aim Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss but it is insufficiently known how much its effects vary among species with different life-history traits; especially in plant communities, the understanding of the role of traits related to species persistence and dispersal...... in determining dynamics of species communities in fragmented landscapes is still limited. The primary aim of this study was to test how plant traits related to persistence and dispersal and their interactions modify plant species vulnerability to decreasing habitat area and increasing isolation. Location Five...... of habitat loss on plant species richness was pervasive across different regions, whereas the effect of habitat isolation on species richness was not evident. This area effect was, however, not equal for all the species, and life-history traits related to both species persistence and dispersal modified plant...

  15. The general dispersion relation of induced streaming instabilities in quantum outflow systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdian, H., E-mail: mehdian@khu.ac.ir; Hajisharifi, K.; Hasanbeigi, A. [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr Mofatteh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this manuscript the dispersion relations of streaming instabilities, by using the unique property (neutralized in charge and current by default) of plasma shells colliding, have been generalized and studied. This interesting property for interpenetrating beams enables one to find the general dispersion relations without any restrictions used in the previous works in this area. In our previous work [H. Mehdian et al., ApJ. 801, 89 (2015)], employing the plasma shell concept and boost frame method, the general dispersion relation for filamentation instability has been derived in the relativistic classical regime. But in this paper, using the above mentioned concepts, the general dispersion relations (for each of streaming instabilities, filamentation, two-stream and multi-stream) in the non-relativistic quantum regime have been derived by employing the quantum fluid equations together with Maxwell equations. The derived dispersion relations enable to describe any arbitrary system of interacting two and three beams, justified neutralization condition, by choosing the inertial reference frame embedded on the one of the beams. Furthermore, by the numerical and analytical study of these dispersion relations, many new features of streaming instabilities (E.g. their cut-off wave numbers and growth rates) in terms of all involved parameters have been illustrated. The obtained results in this paper can be used to describe many astrophysical systems and laboratory astrophysics setting, such as collision of non-parallel plasma shells over a background plasma or the collision of three neutralized plasma slabs, and justifying the many plasma phenomena such as particle accelerations and induced fields.

  16. The Effects of Relative Humidity on the Flowability and Dispersion Performance of Lactose Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiang-Yun; Chen, Lan; Wu, Chuan-Yu; Chan, Hak-Kim; Freeman, Tim

    2017-05-29

    The flowability and dispersion behavior are two important physicochemical properties of pharmaceutical formulations for dry powder inhalers (DPIs). They are usually affected by the environmental conditions, such as temperature and relative humidity (RH). However, very few studies have been focused on the relationship between the two properties and their dependence on RH during storage. In this research, model pharmaceutical formulations were prepared using mixtures of coarse and fine lactose. The fractions of fines in the mixtures were 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, respectively. These blends were stored at four different RH levels, 0%, 30%, 58%, and 85%, for 48 h. The FT4 Powder Rheometer was used to evaluate the powder flowability, and the Malvern Spraytec(®) laser diffraction system was employed to assess the powder dispersion performance. The results indicated that both the flow and dispersion properties of lactose blends deteriorate after being stored at 85% RH, but improved after being conditioned at 58% RH. The fine particle fractions (FPFs) of the blends with 5% and 10% fine fractions and the as-received coarse lactose decreased when they were conditioned at 30% RH. For the blend with 20% fine fraction, a high RH during storage (i.e., 85% RH) affected the dispersion property, but had a limited influence on its flowability, while, for the coarse lactose powder, the different RH conditions affected its flowability, but not the dispersion results. A strong correlation between the powder flowability and its dispersion performance was found.

  17. Surface plasmon polariton dispersion relation at organic/dielectric/metal interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Kawalec, Tomasz;

    2014-01-01

    The dispersion relation of a hybrid photonic–plasmonic system consisting of a light emitting thin organic para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) layer separated by a dielectric gap from a plasmonic silver film is investigated using leakage radiation spectroscopy. Experimental studies are complemented by numer......The dispersion relation of a hybrid photonic–plasmonic system consisting of a light emitting thin organic para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) layer separated by a dielectric gap from a plasmonic silver film is investigated using leakage radiation spectroscopy. Experimental studies are complemented...

  18. Forward dispersion relations for pion-kaon scattering and the K*0(800) resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Rodas, A

    2016-01-01

    We review our recent analysis of $\\pi K$ scattering data in terms of forward dispersion relations, and also present the parameters of the strange resonances. This work consists of fits to the data that are constrained to satisfy analyticity requirements. The method yields a set of simple and consistent parameterizations that are compatible with forward dispersion relations up to 1.6 GeV while still describing the data. We also obtain the pole parameters of the $K^*_0(800)$ and the $K^*(892)$ resonances.

  19. Dispersion relations with crossing symmetry for pipi D and F wave amplitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, R.

    2011-01-01

    A set of once subtracted dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition for the pipi D- and F-wave amplitudes is derived and analyzed. An example of numerical calculations in the effective two pion mass range from the threshold to 1.1 GeV is presented. It is shown that these new dispersion relations impose quite strong constraints on the analyzed pipi interactions and are very useful tools to test the pipi amplitudes. One of the goals of this work is to provide a complete set o...

  20. Dispersion relations for stationary light in one-dimensional atomic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakoupov, Ivan; Ott, Johan R.; Chang, Darrick E.; Sørensen, Anders S.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the dispersion relations for light coupled to one-dimensional ensembles of atoms with different level schemes. The unifying feature of all the considered setups is that the forward and backward propagating quantum fields are coupled by the applied classical drives such that the group velocity can vanish in an effect known as "stationary light." We derive the dispersion relations for all the considered schemes, highlighting the important differences between them. Furthermore, we show that additional control of stationary light can be obtained by treating atoms as discrete scatterers and placing them at well-defined positions. For the latter purpose, a multimode transfer matrix theory for light is developed.

  1. Anomalous Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Anisotropic Media with a Unique Dispersion Relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Wei-Xing; LUO Hai-Lu; LI Fei; REN Zhong-Zhou

    2006-01-01

    @@ We investigate the propagation of electromagnetic waves at the interface between an isotropic material and the anisotropic medium with a unique dispersion relation. We show that the refraction behaviour of E-polarized waves is opposite to that of H-polarized waves, though the dispersion relations for E- and H-polarized waves are the same. It is found that waves exhibit different propagation properties in anisotropic media with different sign combinations of the permittivity and permeability tensors. Some interesting properties of propagation are also found in the special anisotropic media, leading to potential applications.

  2. Gyro-viscosity and linear dispersion relations in pair-ion magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, M

    2015-01-01

    A fluid theory has been developed by taking account of gyro-viscosity to study wave propagation characteristics in a homogeneous pair-ion magnetized plasma with a cylindrical symmetry. The exact dispersion relations derived by the Hankel-Fourier transformation are shown comparable with those observed in the experiment by Oohara and co-workers. The gyro-viscosity is responsible for the change in propagation characteristics of the ion cyclotron wave from forward to backward by suppressing the effect of the thermal pressure which normally causes the forward nature of dispersion. Although the experiment has been already explained by a kinetic theory by the present authors, the kinetic derivations are so involved because of exact particle orbits in phase space, finite Larmor radius effects, and higher order ion cyclotron resonances. The present fluid theory provides a simple and transparent structure to the dispersion relations since the gyro-viscosity is renormalized into the ion cyclotron frequency which itself ...

  3. Black Hole Radiation with Modified Dispersion Relation in Tunneling Paradigm: Static Frame

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Due to the exponential high gravitational red shift near the event horizon of a black hole, it might appears that the Hawking radiation would be highly sensitive to some unknown high energy physics. To study possible deviations from the Hawking's prediction, the dispersive field theory models have been proposed, following the Unruh's hydrodynamic analogue of a black hole radiation. In the dispersive field theory models, the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified at high energies, which leads to modifications of equations of motion. In this paper, we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to investigate the dispersive field theory models. The preferred frame is the static frame of the black hole. The dispersion relation adopted agrees with the relativistic one at low energies but is modified near the Planck mass $m_{p}$. We calculate the corrections to the Hawking temperature for massive and charged particles to $\\mathcal{O}\\left(m_{p}^{-2}\\right) $ and massless and neutral particles to all orders. Our res...

  4. THE SUPERLUMINAL CHARACTER OF THE COMPACT STEEP SPECTRUM QUASAR 3C-216

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VENTURI, T; PEARSON, TJ; BARTHEL, PD; HERBIG, T

    We report the results of fourth epoch VLBI observations at 4990.99 MHz, with a resolution of approximately 1 mas, of the compact steep-spectrum quasar 3C 216. Superluminal motion in this object is confirmed. Although a constant superluminal expansion at upsilon(app) = 3.9c +/- 0.6 is not ruled out,

  5. Magnon dispersion relation and exchange interactions in MnF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikotin, O.; Lindgård, Per-Anker; Dietrich, O. W.

    1969-01-01

    The magnon dispersion relation for MnF2 at 4·2 °K has been measured by means of the triple-axis neutron scattering technique along the symmetry lines in the (010) plane of the Brillouin zone. Using an exact dipole model, the three nearest-neighbour exchange constants were found to be J1 = 0·028 ±...

  6. The Quantum Yang Baxter conditions and the dispersion relations for the Nambu-Goldstone bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Arraut, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the extensions of the spontaneous symmetry breaking condition, when applied to the non-relativistic systems, have a correspondence with the Yang-Baxter conditions. This correspondence guarantees the appropriate dispersion relation and the appropriate counting for the Nambu-Goldstones bosons.

  7. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis in the presence of sterile neutrinos with altered dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Aeikens, Elke; Pakvasa, Sandip; Weiler, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Big Bang Nucleosynthesis imposes stringent bounds on light sterile neutrinos mixing with the active flavors. Here we discuss how altered dispersion relations can weaken such bounds and allow compatibility of new sterile neutrino degrees of freedom with a successful generation of the light elements in the early Universe.

  8. Phonon Dispersion Relation for Copper Measured by Triple Axis Spectrometer at CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Xiao-bai; HAO; Li-jie; GAO; Jian-bo; LI; Yu-qing; LIU; Xin-zhi; WU; Li-qi

    2013-01-01

    In 2013,the triple axis spectrometer at China Advanced Research Reactor has been put into operation successfully.After spectrometer commissioning,including modification of the scan programs and determination of the zero point of the spectrometer angles,the frequency/wave-vector dispersion relation in copper at room temperature has been measured.The results are shown in Fig.1.As the

  9. The Dispersion Relation for the 1/sinh(exp 2) Potential in the Classical Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The dispersion relation for the inverse hyperbolic potential is calculated in the classical limit. This is shown for both the low amplitude phonon branch and the high amplitude soliton branch. It is shown these results qualitatively follow that previously found for the inverse squared potential where explicit analytic solutions are known.

  10. Dispersion relation for electromagnetic wave propagation in a strongly magnetized plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Marklund, G B M; Shukla, P K

    2006-01-01

    A dispersion relation for electromagnetic wave propagation in a strongly magnetized cold plasma is deduced, taking photon-photon scattering into account. It is shown that the combined plasma and quantum electrodynamic effect is important for understanding the mode-structures in magnetar and pulsar atmospheres. The implications of our results are discussed.

  11. Morphological Tuning of the Plasmon Dispersion Relation in Dielectric-Loaded Nanofiber Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Lemke, Christoph; Fiutowski, Jacek;

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of lateral mode confinement in plasmonic waveguides is of fundamental interest regarding potential applications in plasmonic devices. The knowledge of the frequency-wave vector dispersion relation provides the full information on electromagnetic field propagation in a wav...

  12. Backwards and forwards relative dispersion in turbulent flow: An experimental investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, J.; Lüthi, B.; Mann, J.;

    2006-01-01

    From particle tracking velocimetry we present an experimental measure of the ratio between backwards and forwards relative dispersion in an intermediate Reynolds number turbulent flow. Lack of time-reversal symmetry implies that their ratio may be different from 1. From a stochastic model, this has...

  13. Surface plasmon polariton dispersion relation at organic/dielectric/metal interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Kawalec, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The dispersion relation of a hybrid photonic–plasmonic system consisting of a light emitting thin organic para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) layer separated by a dielectric gap from a plasmonic silver film is investigated using leakage radiation spectroscopy. Experimental studies are complemented...... by numerical simulations for the same structure but in the complementary, inverted configuration. The numerical simulations use as input ellipsometric measurements providing optical constants of p-6P in a wide spectral range. From a comparison between calculated and measured dispersion curves it is concluded...

  14. The dispersive properties of an excited-doublet four-level atomic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zheng-Feng; Deng Jian-Liao; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the dispersive properties of excited-doublet four-level atoms interacting with a weak probe field and an intense coupling laser field.We have derived an analytical expression of the dispersion relation for a general excited-doublet four-level atomic system sunject to a one-photon detuning.The numerical results demonstrate that for a typical rubidium D1 line configuration,due to the unequal dipole moments for the transitions of each ground state to double excited states,generally there exists no exact dark state in the system.Close to the two-photon resonance,the probe light can be absorbed or gained and propagate in the so-called superluminal form.This system may be used as an optical switch.

  15. The surface plasmon polariton dispersion relations in a nonlinear-metal-nonlinear dielectric structure of arbitrary nonlinearity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Bing-Can; Yu Li; Lu Zhi-Xin

    2011-01-01

    The analytic surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) dispersion relation is studied in a system consisting of a thin metallic film bounded by two sides media of nonlinear dielectric of arbitrary nonlinearity is studied by applying a generalised first integral approach. We consider both asymmetric and symmetric structures. Especially, in the symmetric system, two possible modes can exist: the odd mode and the even mode. The dispersion relations of the two modes are obtained. Due to the nonlinear dielectric, the magnitude of the electric field at the interface appears and alters the dispersion relations. The changes in SPPs dispersion relations depending on film thicknesses and nonlinearity are studied.

  16. Forward problem for Love and quasi-Rayleigh waves: Exact dispersion relations and their sensitivities

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, David R.; Slawinski, Michael A.; Stachura, Piotr; Stanoev, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    We examine two types of guided waves: the Love and the quasi-Rayleigh waves. Both waves propagate in the same model of an elastic isotropic layer above an elastic isotropic halfspace. From their dispersion relations, we calculate their speeds as functions of the elasticity parameters, mass densities, frequency and layer thickness. We examine the sensitivity of these relations to the model and wave properties.

  17. Dispersion Models to Forecast Traffic-related Emissions in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Scannapieco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Down the centuries, a direct link had been developed between increase in mobility and increase in wealth. On the other hand, air emission of greenhouse gases (GHG due to vehicles equipped with internal combustion engines can be regarded as a negative pressure over the environment. In the coming decades, road transport is likely to remain a significant contributor to air pollution in cities. Many urban trips cover distances of less than 6 km. Since the effectiveness of catalytic converters in the initial minutes of engine operation is small, the average emission per distance driven is very high in urban areas. Also, poorly maintained vehicles that lack exhaust aftertreatment systems are responsible for a major part of pollutant emissions. Therefore in urban areas, where higher concentrations of vehicles can be easily found, air pollution represents a critical issue, being it related with both environment and human health protection: in truth, research in recent decades consistently indicates the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on human health, and the evidence points to air pollution stemming from transport as an important contributor to these effects. Several institutions (EEA, USEPA, etc. focused their interest in dispersion models because of their potential effectiveness to forecast atmospheric pollution. Furthermore, air micropollutants such as Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAH and Metallic Trace Elements (MTE are traffic-related and although very low concentrations their dispersion is a serious issue. However, dispersion models are usefully implemented to better manage this estimation problem. Nonetheless, policy makers and land managers have to deal with model selection, taking into account that several dispersion models are available, each one of them focused on specific goals (e.g., wind transport of pollutants, land morphology implementation, evaluation of micropollutants transport, etc.; a further aspect to be considered is

  18. Superluminal neutrinos at OPERA confront pion decay kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowsik, Ramanath; Nussinov, Shmuel; Sarkar, Utpal

    2011-12-16

    Violation of Lorentz invariance (VLI) has been suggested as an explanation of the superluminal velocities of muon neutrinos reported by OPERA. In this Letter, we show that the amount of VLI required to explain this result poses severe difficulties with the kinematics of the pion decay, extending its lifetime and reducing the momentum carried away by the neutrinos. We show that the OPERA experiment limits α=(ν(ν)-c)/c<4×10(-6). We then take recourse to cosmic-ray data on the spectrum of muons and neutrinos generated in Earth's atmosphere to provide a stronger bound on VLI: (ν-c)/c<10(-12).

  19. Gyro-viscosity and linear dispersion relations in pair-ion magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, M. [Faculty of Policy Studies, Chuo University, Tokyo 192-0393 (Japan); Vranjes, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Tenerife E38205 (Spain); Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife E38205 (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    A fluid theory has been developed by taking account of gyro-viscosity to study wave propagation characteristics in a homogeneous pair-ion magnetized plasma with a cylindrical symmetry. The exact dispersion relations derived by the Hankel-Fourier transformation are shown comparable with those observed in the experiment by Oohara and co-workers. The gyro-viscosity is responsible for the change in propagation characteristics of the ion cyclotron wave from forward to backward by suppressing the effect of the thermal pressure which normally causes the forward nature of dispersion. Although the experiment has been already explained by a kinetic theory by the present authors, the kinetic derivations are so involved because of exact particle orbits in phase space, finite Lamor radius effects, and higher order ion cyclotron resonances. The present fluid theory provides a simple and transparent structure to the dispersion relations since the gyro-viscosity is renormalized into the ion cyclotron frequency which itself indicates the backward nature of dispersion. The usual disadvantage of a fluid theory, which treats only fundamental modes of eigen-waves excited in a system and is not able to describe higher harmonics that a kinetic theory does, is compensated by simple derivations and clear picture based on the renormalization of the gyro-viscosity.

  20. Discussions of the Quantum Superluminality%论量子超光速性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志洵

    2012-01-01

    , the experiments proved that Einstein' s ideas didn' t hold water. In Bell' s opinion, to get rid of the difficulties after the announce- ment of the Aspect' s experiments, it intends to go back to Lorentz and Poincare, and assume that ether existed as a referential system in which matters went faster than light. Bell repeatedly pointed out that be wanted to go back to ether because EPR had predicted there was something faster than light in the back- ground. …… Since 1992, it is reported that there have been many successful faster than light experi-ments. Some of them are based on quantum tunneling effect;some are based on classic physical phenome- na such as evanescent waves, anomalous dispersion. And in 2008, D. Salart et. al. performed a experiment using entangled photons between two villages separated by 18km. In conclusion ,the speed of the influence of quantum entanglement would have to exceed than of light by at least four orders of magnitude, i. e. 10^4c 10^7c. Anyway, this experiment was the summation of discussions about the EPR thesis for a long time. For the past 25 years Quantum Superluminality was one subject of my chief study. In 1985 ,we pro- posed the model of quantum potential barrier equivalent circuit. In 1991, we first indicated that there could be the wave velocity vp 〈 0 and vg 〈 0 in the evanescent waves mode of the waveguide below cut off and the book "An Introduction to the Theory of waveguide Below Cut -off " made me get the First Na- tional Scientific and Technology Book Award of China. Moreover, in 2003 we through an experiment in the coaxial photonic crystal, a superluminal group velocity of ( 1.5 - 2.4) c are observed in the stop - band of frequency. In 2005, we suggested the term of General Information Velocity (GIV) ;and in 2010, we sugges- ted the term of Quantum Superluminality ( QS), and also suggested remodel the existing accelerator to dis- cover the superluminal strange electron. Now,this paper discusses some problems of

  1. Building a Dispersion Relation Solver for Hot Plasmas with Arbitrary Non-relativistic Parallel Velocity Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Waters, T.; Gary, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Collisionless space plasmas often deviate from Maxwellian-like velocity distributions. To study kinetic waves and instabilities in such plasmas, the dispersion relation, which depends on the velocity distribution, needs to be solved numerically. Most current dispersion solvers (e.g. WHAMP) take advantage of mathematical properties of the Gaussian (or generalized Lorentzian) function, and assume that the velocity distributions can be modeled by a combination of several drift-Maxwellian (or drift-Lorentzian) components. In this study we are developing a kinetic dispersion solver that admits nearly arbitrary non-relativistic parallel velocity distributions. A key part of any dispersion solver is the evaluation of a Hilbert transform of the velocity distribution function and its derivative along Landau contours. Our new solver builds upon a recent method to compute the Hilbert transform accurately and efficiently using the fast Fourier transform, while simultaneously treating the singularities arising from resonances analytically. We have benchmarked our new solver against other codes dealing with Maxwellian distributions. As an example usage of our code, we will show results for several instabilities that occur for electron velocity distributions observed in the solar wind.

  2. Longitudinal dielectric function and dispersion relation of electrostatic waves in relativistic plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touil, B.; Bendib, A.; Bendib-Kalache, K.

    2017-02-01

    The longitudinal dielectric function is derived analytically from the relativistic Vlasov equation for arbitrary values of the relevant parameters z = m c 2 / T , where m is the rest electron mass, c is the speed of light, and T is the electron temperature in energy units. A new analytical approach based on the Legendre polynomial expansion and continued fractions was used. Analytical expression of the electron distribution function was derived. The real part of the dispersion relation and the damping rate of electron plasma waves are calculated both analytically and numerically in the whole range of the parameter z . The results obtained improve significantly the previous results reported in the literature. For practical purposes, explicit expressions of the real part of the dispersion relation and the damping rate in the range z > 30 and strongly relativistic regime are also proposed.

  3. Correction of Cardy–Verlinde formula for Fermions and Bosons with modified dispersion relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadatian, S. Davood, E-mail: sd-sadatian@um.ac.ir; Dareyni, H.

    2017-05-15

    Cardy–Verlinde formula links the entropy of conformal symmetry field to the total energy and its Casimir energy in a D-dimensional space. To correct black hole thermodynamics, modified dispersion relation can be used which is proposed as a general feature of quantum gravity approaches. In this paper, the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild four-dimensional black hole is corrected using the modified dispersion relation for Fermions and Bosons. Finally, using modified thermodynamics of Schwarzschild four-dimensional black hole, generalization for Cardy–Verlinde formula is obtained. - Highlights: • The modified Cardy–Verlinde formula obtained using MDR for Fermions and Bosons. • The modified entropy of the black hole used to correct the Cardy–Verlinde formula. • The modified entropy of the CFT has been obtained.

  4. Dispersion Relation of σ Meson and Pion at Finite Nuclear Density in Chiral σ Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Dong-Qiao; CHEN Wei; WEN De-Hua; LIU Liang-Gang; Masahiro Nakano

    2004-01-01

    The propagators of pion and sigma meson at a finite nuclear density and zero temperature are studied in chiral σ model. Their dispersion relations are calculated numerically in one-loop approximation. In order to avoid the so-called tachyon pole appearing in the one-loop propagators of pion and sigma meson, we regard the mass of sigma meson mσ as a free parameter and adjust it to fit the nuclear saturation properties. For mσ equal to 3075 MeV, the tachyonpole does not appear at the normal nuclear density. Thus the dispersion relation can be calculated in chiral σ model in one-loop level for the first time.

  5. Extreme Supernova Models for the Superluminous Transient ASASSN-15lh

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzopoulos, E; Vinko, J; Nagy, A P; Wiggins, B K; Even, W P

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of the unprecedentedly superluminous transient ASASSN-15lh (or SN 2015L) challenges all the power-input models that have been proposed for superluminous supernovae. Here we examine some of the few viable interpretations of ASASSN-15lh in the context of a stellar explosion, involving combinations of one or more power inputs. We model the lightcurve of ASASSN-15lh with a hybrid model that includes contributions from magnetar spin-down energy and hydrogen-poor circumstellar interaction. We also investigate models of pure circumstellar interaction with a massive hydrogen-deficient shell and discuss about the lack of interaction features in the observed spectra. We find that ASASSN-15lh can be best modeled by the energetic core-collapse of a ~40 Msun supernova interacting with a hydrogen-poor shell of ~20 Msun. The circumstellar shell and progenitor mass are consistent with a rapidly rotating pulsational pair-instability supernova progenitor as required for strong interaction following the fin...

  6. Space-time measures for subluminal and superluminal motions

    CERN Document Server

    Calvo-Mozo, Benjam\\'\\in

    2014-01-01

    In present work we examine the implications on both, space-time measures and causal structure, of a generalization of the local causality postulate by asserting its validity to all motion regimes, the subluminal and superluminal ones. The new principle implies the existence of a denumerable set of metrical null cone speeds, \\{$c_k\\}$, where $c_1$ is the speed of light in vacuum, and $c_k/c \\simeq \\epsilon^{-k+1}$ for $k\\geq2$, where $\\epsilon^2$ is a tiny dimensionless constant which we introduce to prevent the divergence of the $x, t$ measures in Lorentz transformations, such that their generalization keeps $c_k$ invariant and as the top speed for every regime of motion. The non divergent factor $\\gamma_k$ equals $k\\epsilon^{-1}$ at speed $c_k$. We speak then of $k-$timelike and $k-$null intervals and of k-timelike and k-null paths on space-time, and construct a causal structure for each regime. We discuss also the possible transition of a material particle from the subluminal to the first superluminal regim...

  7. Dispersion relations and entropy of scalar fields in Rindler and de Sitter spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, F; Yazaki, K

    2014-01-01

    Properties of scalar fields in Rindler and de Sitter spaces are the subject of this work. Using the "brick wall model'' the dispersion relations are determined and the remarkable properties common to both spaces as well as their differences are discussed. Equipped with these tools the horizon induced thermodynamics is revisited and shown to be dominated by a single mode propagating perpendicular to the horizon. Explicit expressions for the partition function, entropy and heat capacity for massless and massive fields are presented.

  8. A plausible (overlooked) super-luminous supernova in the Sloan digital sky survey stripe 82 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Kozłowski, Szymon; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Djorgovski, S. George; Mahabal, Ashish A. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Glikman, Eilat [Department of Physics and Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520-8121 (United States); Koposov, Sergey, E-mail: zkostrzewa@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: simkoz@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: wyrzykow@astrouw.edu.pl [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-01

    We present the discovery of a plausible super-luminous supernova (SLSN), found in the archival data of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, called PSN 000123+000504. The supernova (SN) peaked at m {sub g} < 19.4 mag in the second half of 2005 September, but was missed by the real-time SN hunt. The observed part of the light curve (17 epochs) showed that the rise to the maximum took over 30 days, while the decline time lasted at least 70 days (observed frame), closely resembling other SLSNe of SN 2007bi type. The spectrum of the host galaxy reveals a redshift of z = 0.281 and the distance modulus of μ = 40.77 mag. Combining this information with the SDSS photometry, we found the host galaxy to be an LMC-like irregular dwarf galaxy with an absolute magnitude of M{sub B} = –18.2 ± 0.2 mag and an oxygen abundance of 12+log [O/H]=8.3±0.2; hence, the SN peaked at M {sub g} < –21.3 mag. Our SLSN follows the relation for the most energetic/super-luminous SNe exploding in low-metallicity environments, but we found no clear evidence for SLSNe to explode in low-luminosity (dwarf) galaxies only. The available information on the PSN 000123+000504 light curve suggests the magnetar-powered model as a likely scenario of this event. This SLSN is a new addition to a quickly growing family of super-luminous SNe.

  9. Black hole radiation with modified dispersion relation in tunneling paradigm: Static frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang

    2017-09-01

    To study possible deviations from the Hawking's prediction, we assume that the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified at high energies and use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to investigate the corresponding effects on the Hawking radiation in this paper. The preferred frame is the static frame of the black hole. The dispersion relation adopted agrees with the relativistic one at low energies but is modified near the Planck mass mp. We calculate the corrections to the Hawking temperature for massive and charged particles to O (mp-2) and massless and neutral particles to all orders. Our results suggest that the thermal spectrum of radiations near horizon is robust, e.g. corrections to the Hawking temperature are suppressed by mp. After the spectrum of radiations near the horizon is obtained, we use the brick wall model to compute the thermal entropy of a massless scalar field near the horizon of a 4D spherically symmetric black hole. We find that the subleading logarithmic term of the entropy does not depend on how the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified. Finally, the luminosities of black holes are computed by using the geometric optics approximation.

  10. Black hole radiation with modified dispersion relation in tunneling paradigm: Static frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To study possible deviations from the Hawking's prediction, we assume that the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified at high energies and use the Hamilton–Jacobi method to investigate the corresponding effects on the Hawking radiation in this paper. The preferred frame is the static frame of the black hole. The dispersion relation adopted agrees with the relativistic one at low energies but is modified near the Planck mass mp. We calculate the corrections to the Hawking temperature for massive and charged particles to O(mp−2 and massless and neutral particles to all orders. Our results suggest that the thermal spectrum of radiations near horizon is robust, e.g. corrections to the Hawking temperature are suppressed by mp. After the spectrum of radiations near the horizon is obtained, we use the brick wall model to compute the thermal entropy of a massless scalar field near the horizon of a 4D spherically symmetric black hole. We find that the subleading logarithmic term of the entropy does not depend on how the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified. Finally, the luminosities of black holes are computed by using the geometric optics approximation.

  11. Neutrino Dispersion Relations at Finite Temperature and Density in the Left-Right Symmetric Model

    CERN Document Server

    Villalba-Pardo, F D

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the Left-Right Symmetric Model, where left-handed neutrinos are massive via the see-saw mechanism, we determine the effects of temperature and density in the dispersion relations for neutrinos, considering that there exists an excess of leptons over antileptons in the plasma. To achieve this we first calculate the dispersion relations at finite temperature and density, computing the neutrino self-energy at one loop order in perturbation theory, obtaining a fully analytic expression for this self-energy even in the fully broken symmetry case by using the Mellin summation technique. From the dispersion relation found from the self energy we obtain the thermal effective mass for neutrinos at high temperature limit. This result allow us to establish the effect of finite temperature and density for neutrino oscillations in thermal and dense media for this framework. We can do it if we take into account that the oscillation patterns depend explicitly on neutrino masses. As a result, a generaliza...

  12. Dispersion relations for stationary light in one-dimensional atomic ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakoupov, Ivan; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Chang, Darrick E

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the dispersion relations for light coupled to one-dimensional ensembles of atoms with different level schemes. The unifying feature of all the considered setups is that the forward and backward propagating quantum fields are coupled by the applied classical drives such that the gro...... and placing them at well-defined positions. For the latter purpose, a multimode transfer matrix theory for light is developed.......We investigate the dispersion relations for light coupled to one-dimensional ensembles of atoms with different level schemes. The unifying feature of all the considered setups is that the forward and backward propagating quantum fields are coupled by the applied classical drives such that the group...... velocity can vanish in an effect known as “stationary light.” We derive the dispersion relations for all the considered schemes, highlighting the important differences between them. Furthermore, we show that additional control of stationary light can be obtained by treating atoms as discrete scatterers...

  13. Superluminal two-color light in a multiple Raman gain medium

    KAUST Repository

    Kudriašov, V.

    2014-09-17

    We investigate theoretically the formation of two-component light with superluminal group velocity in a medium controlled by four Raman pump fields. In such an optical scheme only a particular combination of the probe fields is coupled to the matter and exhibits superluminal propagation; the orthogonal combination is uncoupled. The individual probe fields do not have a definite group velocity in the medium. Calculations demonstrate that this superluminal component experiences an envelope advancement in the medium with respect to the propagation in vacuum.

  14. Design of a superluminal ring laser gyroscope using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong; Han, Xiang; Wu, Suyong; Huang, Yun; Luo, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze a superluminal ring laser gyroscope (RLG) using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay (GD). This GD assisted superluminal RLG can measure the absolute rotation with a giant sensitivity-enhancement factor of ~10(3); while, the broadband FWHM of the enhancement factor can reach 20 MHz. This superluminal RLG is based on a traditional RLG with minimal re-engineering, and beneficial for miniaturization according to theoretical calculation. The idea of using GD coatings as a fast-light medium will shed lights on the design and application of fast-light sensors.

  15. Selfing ability and dispersal are positively related, but not affected by range position: a multispecies study on southern African Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, C; Rodger, J G; Anderson, B; Ellis, A G

    2014-05-01

    Dispersal and breeding system traits are thought to affect colonization success. As species have attained their present distribution ranges through colonization, these traits may vary geographically. Although several theories predict associations between dispersal ability, selfing ability and the relative position of a population within its geographic range, there is little theoretical or empirical consensus on exactly how these three variables are related. We investigated relationships between dispersal ability, selfing ability and range position across 28 populations of 13 annual, wind-dispersed Asteraceae species from the Namaqualand region of South Africa. Controlling for phylogeny, relative dispersal ability--assessed from vertical fall time of fruits--was positively related to an index of autofertility--determined from hand-pollination experiments. These findings support the existence of two discrete syndromes: high selfing ability associated with good dispersal and obligate outcrossing associated with lower dispersal ability. This is consistent with the hypothesis that selection for colonization success drives the evolution of an association between these traits. However, no general effect of range position on dispersal or breeding system traits was evident. This suggests selection on both breeding system and dispersal traits acts consistently across distribution ranges. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Experimental Determination of Whistler Wave Dispersion Relation in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansby, D.; Horbury, T. S.; Chen, C. H. K.; Matteini, L.

    2016-09-01

    The origins and properties of large-amplitude whistler wavepackets in the solar wind are still unclear. In this Letter, we utilize single spacecraft electric and magnetic field waveform measurements from the ARTEMIS mission to calculate the plasma frame frequency and wavevector of individual wavepackets over multiple intervals. This allows direct comparison of experimental measurements with theoretical dispersion relations to identify the observed waves as whistler waves. The whistlers are right-hand circularly polarized, travel anti-sunward, and are aligned with the background magnetic field. Their dispersion is strongly affected by the local electron parallel beta in agreement with linear theory. The properties measured are consistent with the electron heat flux instability acting in the solar wind to generate these waves.

  17. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreepada, Sastry R.; Rippel, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  18. Measurements of Finite Dust Temperature Effects in the Dispersion Relation of the Dust Acoustic Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Erica; Williams, Jeremiah

    2009-04-01

    A dusty plasma is a four-component system composed of ions, electrons, neutral particles and charged microparticles. The presence of these charged microparticles gives rise to new plasma wave modes, including the dust acoustic wave. Recent measurements [1, 2] of the dispersion relationship for the dust acoustic wave in a glow discharge have shown that finite temperature effects are observed at higher values of neutral pressure. Other work [3] has shown that these effects are not observed at lower values of neutral pressure. We present the results of ongoing work examining finite temperature effects in the dispersion relation as a function of neutral pressure. [4pt] [1] E. Thomas, Jr., R. Fisher, and R. L. Merlino, Phys. Plasmas 14, 123701 (2007). [0pt] [2] J. D. Williams, E. Thomas Jr., and L. Marcus, Phys. Plasmas 15, 043704 (2008). [0pt] [3] T. Trottenberg, D. Block, and A. Piel, Phys. Plasmas 13, 042105 (2006).

  19. Experimental determination of whistler wave dispersion relation in the solar wind

    CERN Document Server

    Stansby, D; Chen, C H K; Matteini, L

    2016-01-01

    The origins and properties of large amplitude whistler wave packets in the solar wind are still unclear. In this Letter we utilise single spacecraft electric and magnetic field waveform measurements from the ARTEMIS mission to calculate the plasma frame frequency and wavevector of individual wave packets over multiple intervals. This allows direct comparison of experimental measurements with theoretical dispersion relations to identify the observed waves as whistler waves. The whistlers are right-hand circularly polarised, travel anti-sunward and are aligned with the background magnetic field. Their dispersion is strongly affected by the local electron parallel beta in agreement with linear theory. The properties measured are consistent with the electron heat flux instability acting in the solar wind to generate these waves.

  20. Neutrino and the Possibility of Superluminal Phenomenon%中微子和超光速现象的可能性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩锋

    2012-01-01

    If the rest mass of the neutrino is not zero, it is required that neutrino be superluminal in order to explain the two - component neutrino theory of parity non - conservation. In the light of this, the paper discusses the superluminal phenomenon under the guidance of the theory of relativity and also the possibility of the existence of tachyon.%如果中微子静止质量不为零,那么为了解释宇称不守恒的二分量中微子理论就要求中微子是超光速的。讨论了在相对论框架内对这种超光速现象的理解,以及存在"快子"的可能性。

  1. Optical glass: deviation of relative partial dispersion from the normal line-need for a common definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Peter

    2015-10-01

    The design of high-quality imaging lenses continues to strive for the best color trueness over wider and wider wavelength ranges such as for multiwavelength fluorescence microscopy or hyperspectral imaging. Glasses suitable for sharp images at more than two wavelengths must differ in their dispersion from the classical crown and flint glass types, which gather along a straight line in a plot of the relative partial dispersion against the Abbe number. Glasses suitable for multicolor correction can be recognized by a considerable deviation of their relative partial dispersion from this normal line. Originally, the normal lines for different relative partial dispersions were defined by using the SCHOTT glass types K7 and F2. Today's data sheets of all glass manufacturers contain numerical values for deviations of relative partial dispersions from the normal lines. A comparison of almost identical glasses shows differences between these deviations being too large, obviously coming from different versions of K7 and F2 dispersion curves used. For preselection in designs and for direct comparison of glass types, it is necessary to agree on common dispersion curves each for K7 and for F2 in order to obtain really comparable values for deviations of the relative partial dispersion from the normal line.

  2. Numerical investigation of zeros of some dispersion relations appearing in sound attenuation problems in a circular lined duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana TANASIE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the zeros of some dispersion relations apperaring in sound attenuation problems in circular lined ducts, carrying a gas flow, are investigated numerically. To find the values of frequencies for which the dispersion relations vanish is not easy at all. That is beacause these relations contain the solution of an initial value problem which depends on the unknown frequency and can not be found explicitly. In order to overcome this difficulty we consider approximate dispersion relations, obtained by replacing in the shear flow the solution of the initial value problem by its Taylor’s polynomial approximate. For numerical computations typical aeronautical examples are considered.

  3. Diffusion related isotopic fractionation effects with one-dimensional advective–dispersive transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bruce S. [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4 (Canada); Lollar, Barbara Sherwood [Earth Sciences Department, University of Toronto, 22 Russell Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3B1 (Canada); Passeport, Elodie [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4 (Canada); Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry Department, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3E5 (Canada); Sleep, Brent E., E-mail: sleep@ecf.utoronto.ca [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Aqueous phase diffusion-related isotope fractionation (DRIF) for carbon isotopes was investigated for common groundwater contaminants in systems in which transport could be considered to be one-dimensional. This paper focuses not only on theoretically observable DRIF effects in these systems but introduces the important concept of constraining “observable” DRIF based on constraints imposed by the scale of measurements in the field, and on standard limits of detection and analytical uncertainty. Specifically, constraints for the detection of DRIF were determined in terms of the diffusive fractionation factor, the initial concentration of contaminants (C{sub 0}), the method detection limit (MDL) for isotopic analysis, the transport time, and the ratio of the longitudinal mechanical dispersion coefficient to effective molecular diffusion coefficient (D{sub mech}/D{sub eff}). The results allow a determination of field conditions under which DRIF may be an important factor in the use of stable carbon isotope measurements for evaluation of contaminant transport and transformation for one-dimensional advective–dispersive transport. This study demonstrates that for diffusion-dominated transport of BTEX, MTBE, and chlorinated ethenes, DRIF effects are only detectable for the smaller molar mass compounds such as vinyl chloride for C{sub 0}/MDL ratios of 50 or higher. Much larger C{sub 0}/MDL ratios, corresponding to higher source concentrations or lower detection limits, are necessary for DRIF to be detectable for the higher molar mass compounds. The distance over which DRIF is observable for VC is small (less than 1 m) for a relatively young diffusive plume (< 100 years), and DRIF will not easily be detected by using the conventional sampling approach with “typical” well spacing (at least several meters). With contaminant transport by advection, mechanical dispersion, and molecular diffusion this study suggests that in field sites where D{sub mech}/D{sub eff} is

  4. Dispersion relation for hadronic light-by-light scattering: theoretical foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Colangelo, Gilberto; Procura, Massimiliano; Stoffer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we make a further step towards a dispersive description of the hadronic light-by-light (HLbL) tensor, which should ultimately lead to a data-driven evaluation of its contribution to $(g-2)_\\mu$. We first provide a Lorentz decomposition of the HLbL tensor performed according to the general recipe by Bardeen, Tung, and Tarrach, generalizing and extending our previous approach, which was constructed in terms of a basis of helicity amplitudes. Such a tensor decomposition has several advantages: the role of gauge invariance and crossing symmetry becomes fully transparent; the scalar coefficient functions are free of kinematic singularities and zeros, and thus fulfill a Mandelstam double-dispersive representation; and the explicit relation for the HLbL contribution to $(g-2)_\\mu$ in terms of the coefficient functions simplifies substantially. We demonstrate explicitly that the dispersive approach defines both the pion-pole and the pion-loop contribution unambiguously and in a model-independent way. Th...

  5. Black Hole Radiation with Modified Dispersion Relation in Tunneling Paradigm: Free-fall Frame

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng; Ying, Shuxuan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the exponential high gravitational red shift near the event horizon of a black hole, it might appear that the Hawking radiation would be highly sensitive to some unknown high energy physics. To study effects of any unknown physics at the Planck scale on the Hawking radiation, the dispersive field theory models have been proposed, which are variations of Unruh's sonic black hole analogy. In this paper, we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to investigate the dispersive field theory models. The preferred frame is the free-fall frame of the black hole. The dispersion relation adopted agrees with the relativistic one at low energy but is modified near the Planck mass $m_{p}$. The corrections to the Hawking temperature are calculated for massive and charged particles to $\\mathcal{O}\\left( m_{p}^{-2}\\right) $ and neutral and massless particles with $\\lambda=0$ to all orders. The Hawking temperature of radiation agrees with the standard one at the leading order. After the spectrum of radiation near the horizon is...

  6. Black hole radiation with modified dispersion relation in tunneling paradigm: free-fall frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang; Ying, Shuxuan [Sichuan University, Center for Theoretical Physics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Chengdu (China)

    2016-01-15

    Due to the exponential high gravitational red shift near the event horizon of a black hole, it might appear that the Hawking radiation would be highly sensitive to some unknown high energy physics. To study the effects of any unknown physics at the Planck scale on the Hawking radiation, the dispersive field theory models have been proposed, which are variations of Unruh's sonic black hole analogy. In this paper, we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to investigate the dispersive field theory models. The preferred frame is the free-fall frame of the black hole. The dispersion relation adopted agrees with the relativistic one at low energy but is modified near the Planck mass m{sub p}. The corrections to the Hawking temperature are calculated for massive and charged particles to O(m{sub p}{sup -2}) and neutral and massless particles with λ = 0 to all orders. The Hawking temperature of radiation agrees with the standard one at the leading order. After the spectrum of radiation near the horizon is obtained, we use the brick wall model to compute the thermal entropy of a massless scalar field near the horizon of a 4D spherically symmetric black hole and a 2D one. Finally, the luminosity of a Schwarzschild black hole is calculated by using the geometric optics approximation. (orig.)

  7. Relative dispersion of clustered drifters in a small micro-tidal estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suara, Kabir; Chanson, Hubert; Borgas, Michael; Brown, Richard J.

    2017-07-01

    Small tide-dominated estuaries are affected by large scale flow structures which combine with the underlying bed generated smaller scale turbulence to significantly increase the magnitude of horizontal diffusivity. Field estimates of horizontal diffusivity and its associated scales are however rare due to limitations in instrumentation. Data from multiple deployments of low and high resolution clusters of GPS-drifters are used to examine the dynamics of a surface flow in a small micro-tidal estuary through relative dispersion analyses. During the field study, cluster diffusivity, which combines both large- and small-scale processes ranged between, 0.01 and 3.01 m2/s for spreading clusters and, -0.06 and -4.2 m2/s for contracting clusters. Pair-particle dispersion, Dp2, was scale dependent and grew as Dp2 ∼ t1.83 in streamwise and Dp2 ∼ t0.8 in cross-stream directions. At small separation scale, pair-particle (d law and became weaker as separation scale increases. Pair-particle diffusivity was described as Kp ∼ d1.01 and Kp ∼ d0.85 in the streamwise and cross-stream directions, respectively for separation scales ranging from 0.1 to 10 m. Two methods were used to identify the mechanism responsible for dispersion within the channel. The results clearly revealed the importance of strain fields (stretching and shearing) in the spreading of particles within a small micro-tidal channel. The work provided input for modelling dispersion of passive particle in shallow micro-tidal estuaries where these were not previously experimentally studied.

  8. Superluminal solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation and a causality problem

    CERN Document Server

    Borghardt, A A; Karpenko, D Y

    2003-01-01

    We present a new axially symmetric monochromatic free-space solution to the Klein-Gordon equation propagating with a superluminal group velocity and show that it gives rise to an imaginary part of the causal propagator outside the light cone. We address the question about causality of the spacelike paths and argue that the signal with a well-defined wavefront formed by the superluminal modes would propagate in vacuum with the light speed.

  9. Bessel-X waves: superluminal propagation and the Minkowski space-time

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnai, D.

    2006-01-01

    Superluminal behavior has been extensively studied in recent years, especially with regard to the topic of superluminality in the propagation of a signal. Particular interest has been devoted to Bessel-X waves propagation, since some experimental results showed that these waves have both phase and group velocities greater that light velocity c. However, because of the lack of an exact definition of signal velocity, no definite answer about the signal propagation (or velocity of information) h...

  10. Constraints and tests of the OPERA superluminal neutrinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiao-Jun; Yin, Peng-Fei; Yu, Zhao-Huan; Yuan, Qiang

    2011-12-09

    The superluminal neutrinos detected by OPERA indicate Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) of the neutrino sector at the order of 10(-5). We study the implications of the result in this work. We find that such a large LIV implied by OPERA data will make the neutrino production process π → μ + ν(μ) kinematically forbidden for a neutrino energy greater than about 5 GeV. The OPERA detection of neutrinos at 40 GeV can constrain the LIV parameter to be smaller than 3×10(-7). Furthermore, the neutrino decay in the LIV framework will modify the neutrino spectrum greatly. The atmospheric neutrino spectrum measured by the IceCube Collaboration can constrain the LIV parameter to the level of 10(-12). The future detection of astrophysical neutrinos of galactic sources is expected to be able to give an even stronger constraint on the LIV parameter of neutrinos.

  11. "OPERA superluminal neutrinos explained by spontaneous emission and stimulated absorption"

    CERN Document Server

    Torrealba, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    In this work it is shown, that for short 3ns neutrino pulses reported by OPERA, a relativistic shape deforming effect of the neutrino distribution function due to spontaneous emission, produces an earlier arrival of 65.8ns in agreement with the reported 62.1ns\\pm 3.7ns, with a RMS of 16.4ns explaining the apparent superluminal effect. It is also shown, that early arrival of long 10500ns neutrinos pulse to Gran Sasso, by 57.8ns with respect to the speed of light, could be explained by a shape deforming effect due to a combination of stimulated absorption and spontaneous emission, while traveling by the decay tunnel that acts as a LASER tube.

  12. Fermionic dispersion relations at finite temperature and non-vanishing chemical potentials in the minimal standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, J; Fonseca, F; Morales, John; Quimbay, Carlos; Fonseca, Frank

    1999-01-01

    We calculate the fermionic dispersion relations in the minimal standard model at finite temperature in presence of non-vanishing chemical potentials due to the CP-asymmetric fermionic background. The dispersion relations are calculated for a vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field equal to zero (unbroken electroweak symmetry). The calculation is performed in the real time formalism of the thermal field theory at one-loop order in a general $\\xi$ gauge. The fermionic self-energy is calculated at leading order in temperature and chemical potential and this fact permits us to obtain gauge invariant analytical expressions for the dispersion relations.

  13. Morphological Tuning of the Plasmon Dispersion Relation in Dielectric-Loaded Nanofiber Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Lemke, Christoph; Fiutowski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    in a waveguide. This Letter reports on the measurement of the real part of the surface plasmon polariton dispersion relation in the near infrared spectral regime for individual nanoscale plasmonic waveguides, which were formed by deposition of para-hexaphenylene (p-6P) based nanofibers on top of a gold film....... A detailed structural characterization of the nanofibers provides accurate information on the dimensions of the investigated waveguides and enables us to quantify the effect of mode confinement by comparison with experimental results from continuous p-6P films and calculations based on the effective index...

  14. Disordered locality and Lorentz dispersion relations: an explicit model of quantum foam

    CERN Document Server

    Caravelli, F

    2012-01-01

    Using the framework of Quantum Graphity, we construct an explicit model of a quantum foam, a quantum spacetime with spatial wormholes. The states depend on two parameters: the minimal size of the wormholes and their density with respect to this length. Macroscopic Lorentz invariance requires that the quantum superposition of spacetimes is suppressed by the length of these wormholes. We parametrize this suppression by the distribution of wormhole lengths in the quantum foam. We discuss the general case and then analyze two specific natural wormhole distributions. Corrections to the Lorentz dispersion relations are calculated using techniques developed in previous work.

  15. Light-induced nonlinear effects on dispersion relation of ultracold Bose gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡正峰; 杜春光; 李师群

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of A-configuration ultracold dense Bose gas interacting with two laser pulses, which usually result in electromagnetically induced transparency. With the nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics and taking into account the atomic dipole-dipole interaction and local field effect, we have derived the Maxwell-Bloch equations of the system. The dispersion relation of an ultracold Bose gas has been obtained and the light-induced nonlinear effects have been analysed. The light-induced nonlinear effects are different from the effects induced by two-body collision of Bose-Einstein condensation atoms which have a frequency shift of transparent window.

  16. Light—induced nonlinear effects of dispersion relation of ultracold Bose gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuZheng-Feng; DuChunGuang; LiShi-Qun

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of A-configuration ultracold dense Bose gas interacting with two laser pulses, which usually result in electromagnetically induced transparency. With the nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics and taking into account the atomic dipole-dipole interaction and local field effect, we have derived the Maxwell-Bloch equations of the system. The dispersion relation of an ultracold Bose gas has been obtained and the light-induced nonlinear effects have been analysed. The light-induced nonlinear effects are different from the effects induced by two-body collision of Bose-Einstein condensation atoms which have a frequency shift of transparent window.

  17. Near-field heat transfer between graphene monolayers: Dispersion relation and parametric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ge; Yang, Jiang; Ma, Yungui

    2016-12-01

    Plasmon polaritons in graphene can enhance near-field heat transfer. In this work, we give a complete parametric analysis on the near-field heat transfer between two graphene monolayers that allows transfer efficiencies several orders-of-magnitude larger than blackbody radiation. Influences of major parameters are conclusively clarified from the changes of the interlayer supermode coupling and their dispersion relations. The method to maximize the near-field heat flux is discussed. The generalized Stefan-Boltzmann formula is proposed to describe the near-field heat transfer dominated by evanescent wave tunneling. Our results are of practical significance in guiding the design of thermal management systems.

  18. Dispersion Relation of a Surface Wave at a Rough Metal-Air Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kotelnikov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    We derived a dispersion relation of a surface wave at a rough metal-air interface. In contrast to previous publications, we assumed that an intrinsic surface impedance due to a finite electric conductivity of the metal can be of the same order as the roughness-induced impedance. We then applied our results to the analysis of a long-standing problem of the discrepancy between the experimental data on the propagation of surface waves in the terahertz range of frequencies and the classical Drude theory.

  19. An Analysis of the New LHC Data through the Dispersion Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Selyugin, O V

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the tension between the (indirect) measurements of the total cross section, and show the impact of various assumptions on the extraction of the parameters from the elastic scattering amplitude, with a special attention to the total cross section. In particular, the determination of the phase of the elastic scattering amplitude will play an important role, and we shall study it via dispersion relations. We shall also examine the origin of the dependence on momentum transfer of the slopes of the different parts of the scattering amplitude in different models. We shall also give the results of another similar analysis based on a Regge-trajectory approach for the hadron scattering amplitude.

  20. Scattering matrix simulations of fields and dispersion relations in superconducting cavities for XFEL and ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Shinton, I

    2008-01-01

    The globalised cascaded scattering matrix technique is a well proven, practical method that can be used to simulate large accelerating RF structures in which realistic fabrication errors to be incorporated in an efficient manner without the necessity to re-mesh the entire geometry. The globalised scattering matrix (GMS) technique allows one to obtain the scattering matrix for a structure. The method allows rapid e.m. field calculations to be obtained. Results are presented on monopole mode fields and dispersion relations calculated from direct and analytical methods. Analytical approximate results are also presented for the equivalent shunt susceptance of an iris loaded structure.

  1. Spectroscopy of superluminous supernova host galaxies. A preference of hydrogen-poor events for extreme emission line galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Leloudas, G; Kruehler, T; Gorosabel, J; Christensen, L; Mehner, A; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Amorin, R; Thoene, C C; Anderson, J P; Bauer, F E; Gallazzi, A; Helminiak, K G; Hjorth, J; Ibar, E; Malesani, D; Morell, N; Vinko, J; Wheeler, J C

    2014-01-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) were only discovered recently due to their preference for occurring in faint dwarf galaxies. Understanding why stellar evolution yields different types of stellar explosions in these environments is fundamental in order to both uncover the elusive progenitors of SLSNe and to study star formation in dwarf galaxies. In this paper, we present the first results of our project to study SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES (SUSHIES), focusing on the sample for which we have obtained spectroscopy. We show that SLSNe-I and SLSNe-R (hydrogen-poor) often (~50% in our sample) occur in a class of galaxies that is known as Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (EELGs). The probability of this happening by chance is negligible and we therefore conclude that the extreme environmental conditions and the SLSN phenomenon are related. In contrast, SLSNe-II (hydrogen-rich) occur in more massive, more metal-rich galaxies with softer radiation fields. Therefore, if SLSNe-II constitute a uniform class, th...

  2. Effects of Dispersal-Related Factors on Species Distribution Model Accuracy for Boreal Lake Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Hallstan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution modeling is used in applied ecology; for example in predicting the consequences of global change. However, questions still remain about the robustness of model predictions. Here we estimate effects of landscape spatial configuration and organism flight ability—factors related to dispersal—on the accuracy of species distribution models. Distribution models were developed for 129 phytoplankton taxa, 164 littoral invertebrate taxa and 44 profundal invertebrate taxa sampled in 105 Swedish lakes, using six different modeling techniques (generalized linear models (GLM, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, classification tree analysis (CTA, mixture discriminant analysis (MDA, generalized boosting models (GBM and random forests (RF. Model accuracy was not affected by dispersal ability (i.e., invertebrate flight ability, but the accuracy of phytoplankton assemblage predictions and, to a lesser extent, littoral invertebrate assemblages were related to ecosystem size and connectivity. Although no general pattern across species or spatial configuration was evident from our study, we recommend that dispersal and spatial configuration of ecosystems should be considered when developing species distribution models.

  3. Stability and dispersion relations of three-dimensional solitary waves in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Mateo, A.; Brand, J.

    2015-12-01

    We analyse the dynamical properties of three-dimensional solitary waves in cylindrically trapped Bose-Einstein condensates. Families of solitary waves bifurcate from the planar dark soliton and include the solitonic vortex, the vortex ring and more complex structures of intersecting vortex lines known collectively as Chladni solitons. The particle-like dynamics of these guided solitary waves provides potentially profitable features for their implementation in atomtronic circuits, and play a key role in the generation of metastable loop currents. Based on the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation we calculate the dispersion relations of moving solitary waves and their modes of dynamical instability. The dispersion relations reveal a complex crossing and bifurcation scenario. For stationary structures we find that for μ /{\\hslash }{ω }\\perp \\gt 2.65 the solitonic vortex is the only stable solitary wave. More complex Chladni solitons still have weaker instabilities than planar dark solitons and may be seen as transient structures in experiments. Fully time-dependent simulations illustrate typical decay scenarios, which may result in the generation of multiple separated solitonic vortices.

  4. The XMM Cluster Survey: evolution of the velocity dispersion -- temperature relation over half a Hubble time

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Susan; Rooney, Philip J; Caldwell, Caroline; Kay, Scott T; Collins, Chris A; McCarthy, Ian G; Romer, A Kathy; Bermeo-Hernandez, Alberto; Bernstein, Rebecca; da Costa, Luiz; Gifford, Daniel; Hollowood, Devon; Hoyle, Ben; Jeltema, Tesla; Liddle, Andrew R; Maia, Marcio A G; Mann, Robert G; Mayers, Julian A; Mehrtens, Nicola; Miller, Christopher J; Nichol, Robert C; Ogando, Ricardo; Sahlén, Martin; Stahl, Benjamin; Stott, John P; Thomas, Peter A; Viana, Pedro T P; Wilcox, Harry

    2015-01-01

    We measure the evolution of the velocity dispersion--temperature ($\\sigma_{\\rm v}$--$T_{\\rm X}$) relation up to $z = 1$ using a sample of 38 galaxy clusters drawn from the \\textit{XMM} Cluster Survey. This work improves upon previous studies by the use of a homogeneous cluster sample and in terms of the number of high redshift clusters included. We present here new redshift and velocity dispersion measurements for 12 $z > 0.5$ clusters observed with the GMOS instruments on the Gemini telescopes. Using an orthogonal regression method, we find that the slope of the relation is steeper than that expected if clusters were self-similar, and that the evolution of the normalisation is slightly negative, but not significantly different from zero ($\\sigma_{\\rm v} \\propto T^{0.86 \\pm 0.14} E(z)^{-0.37 \\pm 0.33}$). We verify our results by applying our methods to cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. The lack of evolution seen from the data suggests that the feedback does not significantly heat the gas, a result that...

  5. The influence of the directional energy distribution on the nonlinear dispersion relation in a random gravity wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Tung, C.-C.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of the directional distribution of wave energy on the dispersion relation is calculated numerically using various directional wave spectrum models. The results indicate that the dispersion relation varies both as a function of the directional energy distribution and the direction of propagation of the wave component under consideration. Furthermore, both the mean deviation and the random scatter from the linear approximation increase as the energy spreading decreases. Limited observational data are compared with the theoretical results. The agreement is favorable.

  6. Are Ring Current Ions Lost in Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Wave Dispersion Relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Gamayunov, K. V.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are widely observed in the inner and outer magnetosphere, at geostationary orbit, at high latitudes along the plasmapause, and at the ionospheric altitudes. Interaction of the Ring Current (RC) ions and EMIC waves causes ion scattering into the loss cone and leads to decay of the RC, especially during the main phase of storms when the RC decay times of about one hour or less are observed. The oblique EMIC waves damp due to Landau resonance with the thermal plasmaspheric electrons, and subsequent transport of the dissipating wave energy into the ionosphere below causes an ionosphere temperature enhancement. Induced scattering of these waves by the plasmaspheric thermal ions leads to ion temperature enhancement, and forms a so-called hot zone near the plasmapause where the temperature of core plasma ions can reach tens of thousands of degrees. Relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt also interact well with the EMIC waves, and during the main and/or recovery phases of the storms these electrons can easily be scattered into the loss cone over a time scale from several hours to a day. The plasma density distribution in the magnetosphere and the ion content play a critical role in EMIC wave generation and propagation, but the wave dispersion relation in the known RC-EMIC wave interaction models is assumed to be determined by the thermal plasma distribution only. In these models, the modification of the EMIC wave dispersion relation caused by the RC ions is not taken into account, and the RC ions are only treated as a source of free energy in order to generate EMIC waves. At the same time, the RC ions can dominate the thermal magnetospheric content in the night MLT sector at great L shells during the main and/or recovery storm phase. In this study, using our self-consistent RC-EMIC wave model [Khazanov et al., 2006], we simulate the May 1998 storm in order to quantify the global EMIC wave redistribution caused by

  7. Effect of Ring Current Ions on Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Wave Dispersion Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are widely observed in the inner and outer magnetosphere, at geostationary orbit, at high latitudes along the plasmapause, and at the ionospheric altitudes. Interaction of the Ring Current (RC) ions and EMIC waves causes ion scattering into the loss cone and leads to decay of the RC, especially during the main phase of storms when the RC decay times of about one hour or less are observed. The oblique EMIC waves damp due to Landau resonance with the thermal plasmaspheric electrons, and subsequent transport of the dissipating wave energy into the ionosphere below causes an ionosphere temperature enhancement. Induced scattering of these waves by the plasmaspheric thermal ions leads to ion temperature enhancement, and forms a so-called hot zone near the plasmapause where the temperature of core plasma ions can reach tens of thousands of degrees. Relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt also interact well with the EMIC waves, and during the main and/or recovery phases of the storms these electrons can easily be scattered into the loss cone over a time scale from several hours to a day. The plasma density distribution in the magnetosphere and the ion content play a critical role in EMIC wave generation and propagation, but the wave dispersion relation in the known RC-EMIC wave interaction models is assumed to be determined by the thermal plasma distribution only. In these models, the modification of the EMIC wave dispersion relation caused by the RC ions is not taken into account, and the RC ions are only treated as a source of free energy in order to generate EMIC waves. At the same time, the RC ions can dominate the thermal magnetospheric content in the night MLT sector at great L shells during the main and/or recovery storm phase. In this study, using our self-consistent RC-EMIC wave model [Khazanov et al., 2006], we simulate the May 1998 storm in order to quantify the global EMIC wave redistribution caused by

  8. Black Hole Corrections due to Minimal Length and Modified Dispersion Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser

    2015-01-01

    The generalized uncertainty principles (GUP) and modified dispersion relations (MDR) are much like two faces for one coin in research for the phenomenology of quantum gravity which apparently plays an important role in estimating the possible modifications of the black hole thermodynamics and the Friedmann equations. We first reproduce the horizon area for different types of black holes and investigate the quantum corrections to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (entropy-area law). Based on this, we study further thermodynamical quantities and accordingly the modified Friedmann equation in four-dimensional de Sitter-Schwarzschild, Reissner-N\\"{o}rdstrom and Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black holes. In doing this we applied various quantum gravity approaches. The MDR parameter relative to the GUP one is computed and the properties of the black holes are predicted. This should play an important role in estimating response of quantum gravity to the various metric-types of black holes. We found a considerable change in...

  9. Effective matter dispersion relation in quantum covariant Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandre, Jean

    2015-01-01

    We study how quantum fluctuations of the metric in covariant Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity influence the propagation of classical fields (complex scalar and photon). The effective Lorentz-symmetry violation induced by the breaking of 4-dimensional diffeomorphism is then evaluated, by comparing the dressed dispersion relations for both external fields. The constraint of vanishing 3-dimensional Ricci scalar is imposed in the path integral, which therefore explicitly depends on two propagating gravitational degrees of freedom only. Because the matter fields are classical, the present model contains only logarithmic divergences. Furthermore, it imposes the characteristic Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz scale, above which General Relativity is no-longer valid, to be smaller than $10^{10}$ GeV, if one wishes not to violate the current bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation.

  10. Causality and dispersion relations and the role of the S-matrix in the ongoing research

    CERN Document Server

    Schroer, Bert

    2011-01-01

    The adaptation of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations to the causal localization structure of QFT led to an important project in particle physics, the only one with a successful closure. The same cannot be said about the subsequent attempts to formulate particle physics as a pure S-matrix project. The feasibility of a pure S-matrix approach are critically analyzed and their serious shortcomings are highlighted. Whereas the conceptual/mathematical demands of renormalized perturbation theory are modest and misunderstandings could easily be corrected, the correct understanding about the origin of the crossing property demands the use of the mathematical theory of modular localization and its relation to the thermal KMS condition. These concepts which combine localization, vacuum polarization and thermal properties under the roof of modular theory will be explained and their use in a new constructive (nonperturbative) approach to QFT will be indicated. The S-matrix still plays a predominant role, but differen...

  11. Dispersal pattern of Paederus fuscipes (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Paederinae) in relation to environmental factors and the annual rice crop cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Lee-Jin; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Lee, Chow-Yang; Jaal, Zairi

    2013-10-01

    Paederus fuscipes Curtis, a dermatitis linearis causing agent, has received increasing attention from the public, as it poses a serious health threat after mass dispersal into human-dominated areas. Preventive measures against this insect have so far been unsuccessful partly because of limited knowledge about its dispersal pattern. In this study, the dispersal activity of P. fuscipes was studied at infestation-prone residential buildings in Mainland Penang, Malaysia. The dispersal activity of P. fuscipes showed two peaks, that is, from February to April and August to October. Overall, there was no statistical significant correlation between dispersal and climatic parameters, that is, temperature, relative humidity, total rainfall, at all sampling localities. However, dispersal was primarily caused by human activities in rice fields, which accounted for >60% of the variability in dispersal. Particularly, rice harvesting, including straw burning, and cultivation were the major factors triggering P. fuscipes dispersal. These activities presumably disrupted the habitat and normal activities of P. fuscipes and rendered the rice fields unfavorable refuges. In addition, the beetles might also face food shortages after the disturbance of their prey base in the crop fields. The current study provides a predictive tool of P. fuscipes flight periods to ensure insecticide residual spraying is timed in the infestation-prone residential areas before the onset of infestation.

  12. Relation between QT dispersion, left ventricle systolic function and frequency of ventricular arrhythmias in coronary patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoičkov Viktor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction QT dispersion (QTd is a measure of non-homogeneous repolarisation of the myocardium and is used as an indicator of arrhythmogenicity. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the relation between QT dispersion, left ventricle systolic function and frequency of ventricular arrhythmias in coronary patients. Method We studied 290 coronary patients, 72 with angina pectoris and 218 after myocardial infarction. Eighty-one coronary patients had frequent and complex ventricular arrhythmias (out of them 19 had ventricular tachycardia and 209 were without arrhythmias or with infrequent ventricular premature contractions (VPC≤10/h. In all patients, QT dispersion, exercise test, 24-hour Holter monitoring and echocardiographic examination were performed. Results Patients with frequent and complex ventricular arrhythmias had significantly higher values of QTd (71.8±25.5 vs 55.6±21.7 ms; p<0.001, corrected QT dispersion (QTdc: 81.3±31.5 vs. 60.3±26.1 ms; p<0.001, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd: 56.2±6.9 vs. 53.4±6.2 mm; p<0.001 and left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESd: 39.5±6.2 vs. 36.0±6.3 mm; p<0.001, and significantly lower values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF: 47.7±13.9 vs. 55.9±11.6%; p<0.001 in comparison to those without arrhythmias or with infrequent VPC. Patients with VT had significantly higher values of QTd and QTdc in comparison to other patients with frequent and complex ventricular arrhythmias (83.8±17.1 vs. 69.4±26.2 ms; p<0.02 for QTd; 101.1±23.9:77.6±31.4 ms; p<0.005 for QTdc. There is a significant negative correlation of QTd and QTdc with LVEF, and a significant positive correlation of QTd and QTdc with inside dimensions of the left ventricle, in patients with frequent and complex ventricular arrhythmias. Conclusion The study demonstrated that patients with frequent and complex ventricular arrhythmias had significantly higher values of QTd and QTdc, as well as a higher

  13. Predictions for TOTEM experiment at LHC from integral and derivative dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Alkin, A

    2010-01-01

    Integral and derivative dispersion relations (IDR and DDR) are considered for the proton-proton and antiproton-proton forward scattering amplitudes. A scheme for calculation of the corrections to asymptotic form for the DDR is presented. The data on the total proton-proton and antiproton-proton cross sections as well as the data on the ratios $\\rho $ of real to imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitudes have been analyzed by the IDR and DDR methods within high-energy Regge models. Regge parametrizations of high-energy total cross sections supplemented by the properly calculated low-energy part of the dispersion integral (from the two-proton threshold up to center-of-mass energy 5 GeV) allow to reproduce well the $\\rho $ data at low energies with the only free parameter, subtraction constant. It is shown that three models for the pomeron, simple pole pomeron (with intercept large than unity), tripole pomeron and dipole pomeron (the both with the unit value intercept) lead to practically equivalent des...

  14. Age-velocity dispersion relations and heating histories in disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumer, Michael; Binney, James; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-10-01

    We analyse the heating of stellar discs by non-axisymmetric structures and giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies. The analysis resolves long-standing discrepancies between models and data by demonstrating the importance of distinguishing between measured age-velocity dispersion relations (AVRs) and the heating histories of the stars that make up the AVR. We fit both AVRs and heating histories with formulae ∝tβ and determine the exponents βR and βz derived from in-plane and vertical AVRs and tilde{β }_R and tilde{β }_z from heating histories. Values of βz are in almost all simulations larger than values of tilde{β }_z, whereas values of βR are similar to or mildly larger than values of tilde{β }_R. Moreover, values of βz (tilde{β }_z) are generally larger than values of βR (tilde{β }_R). The dominant cause of these relations is the decline over the life of the disc in importance of GMCs as heating agents relative to spiral structure and the bar. We examine how age errors and biases in solar neighbourhood surveys influence the measured AVR: they tend to decrease β values by smearing out ages and thus measured dispersions. We compare AVRs and velocity ellipsoid shapes σz/σR from simulations to solar neighbourhood data. We conclude that for the expected disc mass and dark halo structure, combined GMC and spiral/bar heating can explain the AVR of the Galactic thin disc. Strong departures of the disc mass or the dark halo structure from expectation spoil fits to the data.

  15. Clonally Related Forebrain Interneurons Disperse Broadly across Both Functional Areas and Structural Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christian; Jaglin, Xavier H; Cobbs, Lucy V; Bandler, Rachel C; Streicher, Carmen; Cepko, Constance L; Hippenmeyer, Simon; Fishell, Gord

    2015-09-02

    The medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) gives rise to the majority of mouse forebrain interneurons. Here, we examine the lineage relationship among MGE-derived interneurons using a replication-defective retroviral library containing a highly diverse set of DNA barcodes. Recovering the barcodes from the mature progeny of infected progenitor cells enabled us to unambiguously determine their respective lineal relationship. We found that clonal dispersion occurs across large areas of the brain and is not restricted by anatomical divisions. As such, sibling interneurons can populate the cortex, hippocampus striatum, and globus pallidus. The majority of interneurons appeared to be generated from asymmetric divisions of MGE progenitor cells, followed by symmetric divisions within the subventricular zone. Altogether, our findings uncover that lineage relationships do not appear to determine interneuron allocation to particular regions. As such, it is likely that clonally related interneurons have considerable flexibility as to the particular forebrain circuits to which they can contribute.

  16. Studies on relative catalytic efficiencies of zinc and aluminium on nucleation of dispersed bismuth droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Chaubey

    2007-04-01

    In Zn–Bi and Al–Bi systems, both of which belong to monotectic class, dispersion of second phase particles within the matrix have been produced through rapid solidification processing (RSP) route. In order to understand relative catalytic efficiencies of Zn and Al matrices in catalyzing nucleation of Bi particles entrapped in the respective metal matrices, thermal analysis in constant program mode was performed. Thermal analyses revealed that Bi undercools by 132° in Zn matrix and by 157° in Al matrix. Thermodynamic barrier to nucleation (*) for Bi has also been calculated, which is 39.8 kcal/mole and 47.085 kcal/mole, in Zn and Al matrices, respectively at the maximum recorded undercoolings.

  17. Forward dispersion relations and Roy equations in $\\pi\\pi$ scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, R; Ynduráin, F J

    2007-01-01

    We review results of an analysis of pipi interactions in S, P and D waves for two-pion effective mass from threshold to about 1.4 GeV. In particular we show a recent improvement of this analysis above the K anti-K threshold using more data for phase shifts and including the S0 wave inelasticity from pipi -> K anti-K. In addition, we have improved the fit to the f2(1270) resonance and used a more flexible P wave parametrization above the K anti-K threshold and included an estimation of the D2 wave inelasticity. The better accuracy thus achieved also required a refinement of the Regge analysis above 1.42 GeV. We have checked that the pipi scattering amplitudes obtained in this approach satisfy remarkably well forward dispersion relations and Roy's equations.

  18. Modified Dispersion Relations: from Black-Hole Entropy to the Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Garattini, Remo

    2011-01-01

    Quantum Field Theory is plagued by divergences in the attempt to calculate physical quantities. Standard techniques of regularization and renormalization are used to keep under control such a problem. In this paper we would like to use a different scheme based on Modified Dispersion Relations (MDR) to remove infinities appearing in one loop approximation in contrast to what happens in conventional approaches. In particular, we apply the MDR regularization to the computation of the entropy of a Schwarzschild black hole from one side and the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) of the graviton from the other side. The graviton ZPE is connected to the cosmological constant by means of of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation.

  19. Modified Dispersion Relations: from Black-Hole Entropy to the Cosmological Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Remo

    2012-07-01

    Quantum Field Theory is plagued by divergences in the attempt to calculate physical quantities. Standard techniques of regularization and renormalization are used to keep under control such a problem. In this paper we would like to use a different scheme based on Modified Dispersion Relations (MDR) to remove infinities appearing in one loop approximation in contrast to what happens in conventional approaches. In particular, we apply the MDR regularization to the computation of the entropy of a Schwarzschild black hole from one side and the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) of the graviton from the other side. The graviton ZPE is connected to the cosmological constant by means of of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation.

  20. Effect of magnetic field on the wave dispersion relation in three-dimensional dusty plasma crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xuefeng [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang Zhengxiong [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Three-dimensional plasma crystals under microgravity condition are investigated by taking into account an external magnetic field. The wave dispersion relations of dust lattice modes in the body centered cubic (bcc) and the face centered cubic (fcc) plasma crystals are obtained explicitly when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the wave motion. The wave dispersion relations of dust lattice modes in the bcc and fcc plasma crystals are calculated numerically when the magnetic field is in an arbitrary direction. The numerical results show that one longitudinal mode and two transverse modes are coupled due to the Lorentz force in the magnetic field. Moreover, three wave modes, i.e., the high frequency phonon mode, the low frequency phonon mode, and the optical mode, are obtained. The optical mode and at least one phonon mode are hybrid modes. When the magnetic field is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the primitive wave motion, all the three wave modes are hybrid modes and do not have any intersection points. It is also found that with increasing the magnetic field strength, the frequency of the optical mode increases and has a cutoff at the cyclotron frequency of the dust particles in the limit of long wavelength, and the mode mixings for both the optical mode and the high frequency phonon mode increase. The acoustic velocity of the low frequency phonon mode is zero. In addition, the acoustic velocity of the high frequency phonon mode depends on the angle of the magnetic field and the wave motion but does not depend on the magnetic field strength.

  1. Reflection thermal diffuse x-ray scattering for quantitative determination of phonon dispersion relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, A. B.; Hellman, O.; Schlepütz, C. M.; Rockett, A.; Chiang, T.-C.; Hultman, L.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.

    2015-11-01

    Synchrotron reflection x-ray thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) measurements, rather than previously reported transmission TDS, are carried out at room temperature and analyzed using a formalism based upon second-order interatomic force constants and long-range Coulomb interactions to obtain quantitative determinations of MgO phonon dispersion relations ℏ ωj (q), phonon densities of states g (ℏ ω ), and isochoric temperature-dependent vibrational heat capacities cv(T ) . We use MgO as a model system for investigating reflection TDS due to its harmonic behavior as well as its mechanical and dynamic stability. Resulting phonon dispersion relations and densities of states are found to be in good agreement with independent reports from inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering experiments. Temperature-dependent isochoric heat capacities cv(T ) , computed within the harmonic approximation from ℏ ωj (q) values, increase with temperature from 0.4 ×10-4eV /atom K at 100 K to 1.4 ×10-4eV /atom K at 200 K and 1.9 ×10-4eV /atom K at 300 K, in excellent agreement with isobaric heat capacity values cp(T ) between 4 and 300 K. We anticipate that the experimental approach developed here will be valuable for determining vibrational properties of heteroepitaxial thin films since the use of grazing-incidence (θ ≲θc , where θc is the density-dependent critical angle) allows selective tuning of x-ray penetration depths to ≲10 nm .

  2. Two superluminous supernovae from the early universe discovered by the supernova legacy survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Kasen, D. [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Lidman, C. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Sullivan, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-389 (United States); Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N. [LPNHE, CNRS-IN2P3 and University of Paris VI and VII, F-75005 Paris (France); Carlberg, R. G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Fouchez, D. [CPPM, CNRS-IN2P3 and University Aix Marseille II, Case 907, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V. [DSM/IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Perrett, K. [DRDC Ottawa, 3701 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, ON K1A 0Z4 (Canada); Pritchet, C. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2013-12-20

    We present spectra and light curves of SNLS 06D4eu and SNLS 07D2bv, two hydrogen-free superluminous supernovae (SNe) discovered by the Supernova Legacy Survey. At z = 1.588, SNLS 06D4eu is the highest redshift superluminous SN with a spectrum, at M{sub U} = –22.7 it is one of the most luminous SNe ever observed, and it gives a rare glimpse into the rest-frame ultraviolet where these SNe put out their peak energy. SNLS 07D2bv does not have a host galaxy redshift, but on the basis of the SN spectrum, we estimate it to be at z ∼ 1.5. Both SNe have similar observer-frame griz light curves, which map to rest-frame light curves in the U band and UV, rising in ∼20 rest-frame days or longer and declining over a similar timescale. The light curves peak in the shortest wavelengths first, consistent with an expanding blackbody starting near 15,000 K and steadily declining in temperature. We compare the spectra with theoretical models, and we identify lines of C II, C III, Fe III, and Mg II in the spectra of SNLS 06D4eu and SCP 06F6 and find that they are consistent with an expanding explosion of only a few solar masses of carbon, oxygen, and other trace metals. Thus, the progenitors appear to be related to those suspected for SNe Ic. A high kinetic energy, 10{sup 52} erg, is also favored. Normal mechanisms of powering core-collapse or thermonuclear SNe do not seem to work for these SNe. We consider models powered by {sup 56}Ni decay and interaction with circumstellar material, but we find that the creation and spin-down of a magnetar with a period of 2 ms, a magnetic field of 2 × 10{sup 14} G, and a 3 M {sub ☉} progenitor provides the best fit to the data.

  3. A sub-solar metallicity is required for superluminous supernova progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, T -W; Yates, R M; Nicholl, M; Krühler, T; Schady, P; Dennefeld, M; Inserra, C

    2016-01-01

    Host galaxy properties provide strong constraints on the stellar progenitors of superluminous supernovae. By comparing a sample of 18 low-redshift superluminous supernova hosts to a volume-limited galaxy population in the local Universe, we show that sub-solar metallici- ties seems to be a requirement. All superluminous supernovae in hosts with high measured gas-phase metallicities are found to explode at large galactocentric radii, indicating that the metallicity at the explosion site is likely lower than the integrated host value. We also confirm that high specific star-formation rates are a feature of superluminous supernova host galaxies, but interpret this as simply a consequence of the anti-correlation between gas-phase metallic- ity and specific star-formation rate and the requirement of on-going star formation to produce young, massive stars greater than ~ 10-20 M_sun . Based on our sample, we propose an upper limit of ~ 0.5 Z_sun for forming superluminous supernova progenitors (assuming an N2 metal- ...

  4. Cultivated walnut trees showed earlier but not final advantage over its wild relatives in competing for seed dispersers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmao; Chu, Wei; Zhang, Zhibin

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about seeding regeneration of cultivated trees compared to wild relatives in areas where seed dispersers are shared. Here, we investigated the differences in seed fates of cultivated walnut (Juglans regia) and wild Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica) trees under rodent predation and dispersal. J. regia seeds have higher nutritional value (large size, mass and kernel mass) and lower mechanical defensiveness (thin endocarp) than J. mandshurica seeds. We tracked seeds of J. regia and J. mandshurica under both enclosure and field conditions to assess differences in competing for seed dispersers of the two co-occurring tree species of the same genus. We found that rodents preferred to harvest, eat and scatter-hoard seeds of J. regia as compared to those of J. mandshurica. Seeds of J. regia were removed and scatter-hoarded faster than those of J. mandshurica. Caches of J. regia were more likely to be rediscovered by rodents than those of J. mandshurica. These results suggest that J. regia showed earlier dispersal fitness but not the ultimate dispersal fitness over J. mandshurica in seeding regeneration under rodent mediation, implying that J. regia has little effect on seeding regeneration of J. mandshurica in the field. The effects of seed traits on seed dispersal fitness may vary at different dispersal stages under animal mediation.

  5. Cooperation is related to dispersal patterns in Sino-Tibetan populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Jia; Ji, Ting; He, Qiao-Qiao; Du, Juan; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition in both evolutionary biology and anthropology that dispersal is key to establishing patterns of cooperation. However, some models predict that cooperation is more likely to evolve in low dispersal (viscous) populations, while others predict that local competition for resources inhibits cooperation. Sex-biased dispersal and extra-pair mating may also have an effect. Using economic games in Sino-Tibetan populations with strikingly different dispersal patterns, we measure cooperation in 36 villages in southwestern China; we test whether social structure is associated with cooperative behaviour toward those in the neighbourhood. We find that social organization is associated with levels of cooperation in public goods and dictator games and a resource dilemma; people are less cooperative towards other villagers in communities where dispersal by both sexes is low. This supports the view that dispersal for marriage played an important role in the evolution of large-scale cooperation in human society. PMID:26478534

  6. Super-luminous supernovae: 56Ni power versus magnetar radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Dessart, Luc; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli; Blondin, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Much uncertainty surrounds the origin of super-luminous supernovae (SNe). Motivated by the discovery of the Type Ic SN2007bi, we study its proposed association with a pair-instability SN (PISN). We compute stellar-evolution models for primordial ~200Msun stars, simulating the implosion/explosion due to the pair-production instability, and use them as inputs for detailed non-LTE time-dependent radiative-transfer simulations that include non-local energy deposition and non-thermal processes. We retrieve the basic morphology of PISN light curves from red-supergiant, blue-supergiant, and Wolf-Rayet (WR) star progenitors. Although we confirm that a progenitor 100Msun helium core (PISN model He100) fits well the SN2007bi light curve, the low ratios of its kinetic energy and 56Ni mass to the ejecta mass, similar to standard core-collapse SNe, conspire to produce cool photospheres, red spectra subject to strong line blanketing, and narrow line profiles, all conflicting with SN2007bi observations. He-core models of in...

  7. Rapidly Rising Transients in the Supernova - Superluminous Supernova Gap

    CERN Document Server

    Arcavi, Iair; Howell, D Andrew; Bildsten, Lars; Leloudas, Giorgos; Hardin, Delphine; Prajs, Szymon; Perley, Daniel A; Svirski, Gilad; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Katz, Boaz; McCully, Curtis; Cenko, S Bradley; Lidman, Chris; Sullivan, Mark; Valenti, Stefano; Astier, Pierre; Balland, Cristophe; Carlberg, Ray G; Conley, Alex; Fouchez, Dominique; Guy, Julien; Pain, Reynald; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris J; Regnault, Nicolas; Rich, James; Ruhlmann-Kleider, Vanina

    2015-01-01

    We present observations of four rapidly rising (t_{rise}~10d) transients with peak luminosities between those of supernovae (SNe) and superluminous SNe (M_{peak}~-20) - one discovered and followed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and three by the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). The light curves resemble those of SN 2011kl, recently shown to be associated with an ultra-long-duration gamma ray burst (GRB), though no GRB was seen to accompany our SNe. The rapid rise to a luminous peak places these events in a unique part of SN phase space, challenging standard SN emission mechanisms. Spectra of the PTF event formally classify it as a Type II SN due to broad Halpha emission, but an unusual absorption feature, which can be interpreted as either high velocity Halpha (though deeper than in previously known cases) or Si II (as seen in Type Ia SNe), is also observed. We find that existing models of white dwarf detonations, CSM interaction, shock breakout in a wind (or steeper CSM) and magnetar spindown can not r...

  8. Spectropolarimetry of Superluminous Supernovae: Insight into Their Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, C.; Bulla, M.; Sim, S. A.; Smartt, S. J.

    2016-11-01

    We present the first spectropolarimetric observations of a hydrogen-free superluminous supernova (SLSN) at z = 0.1136, namely SN 2015bn. The transient shows significant polarization at both of the observed epochs: one 24 days before maximum light in the rest-frame, and the other at 27 days after peak luminosity. Analysis of the Q - U plane suggests the presence of a dominant axis and no physical departure from the main axis at either epoch. The polarization spectrum along the dominant axis is characterized by a strong wavelength dependence and an increase in the signal from the first to the second epoch. We use a Monte Carlo code to demonstrate that these properties are consistent with a simple toy model that adopts an axisymmetric ellipsoidal configuration for the ejecta. We find that the wavelength dependence of the polarization is possibly due to a strong wavelength dependence in the line opacity, while the higher level of polarization at the second epoch is a consequence of the increase in the asphericity of the inner layers of the ejecta or the fact that the photosphere recedes into less spherical layers. The geometry of the SLSN is similar to that of stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe connected to GRB, while the overall evolution of the ejecta shape could be consistent with a central engine.

  9. Spectral evolution of superluminal components in parsec-scale jets

    CERN Document Server

    Mimica, P; Agudo, I; Martí, J M; Gómez, J L; Miralles, J A

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) We present numerical simulations of the spectral evolution and radio emission of superluminal components in relativistic jets. We have developed an algorithm (SPEV) for the transport of a population of non-thermal particles (NTPs). For very large values of the ratio of gas pressure to magnetic field energy density ($\\sim 6\\times 10^4$), quiescent over-pressured jet models show substantial spectral evolution compared to models whithout radiative losses. Larger values of the magnetic field yield much shorter jets. Larger magnetic fields result in shorter losses-dominated regimes, with a rapid and intense radiation of energy. We also show that jets with a positive photon spectral index may result if the lower limit $\\gamma_min$ of the NTP energy distribution is placed close or above a threshold $\\gamma_M$, where the synchrotron function R has its maximum. A temporary increase of the Lorentz factor at the jet inlet produces a traveling perturbation that appears in the synthetic maps as a radio componen...

  10. The Trails of Superluminal Jet Components in 3C 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadler, M.; Ros, E.; Perucho, M.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Homan, D. C.; Agudo, I.; Kellermann, K. I.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Lister, M. L.; Zensus, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    The parsec-scale radio jet of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 has been monitored since 1995 as part of the 2cm Survey and MOJAVE monitoring observations conducted with the VLBA. Here, we present results from 18 epochs of VLBA observations of 3C 111 and from 18 years of radio flux density monitoring observations conducted at the University of Michigan. A major radio flux-density outburst of 3C 111 occurred in 1996 and was followed by a particularly bright plasma ejection associated with a superluminal jet component. This major event allows us to study a variety of processes associated with outbursts of radio-loud AGN in much greater detail than possible in other cases: the primary perturbation gives rise to the formation of a forward and a backward-shock, which both evolve in characteristically different ways and allow us to draw conclusions about the workflow of jet-production events; the expansion, acceleration and recollimation of the ejected jet plasma in an environment with steep pressure and density gradients are revealed; trailing components are formed in the wake of the primary perturbation as a result of Kelvin- Helmholtz instabilities from the interaction of the jet with the external medium. The jet-medium interaction is further scrutinized by the linear-polarization signature of jet components traveling along the jet and passing a region of steep pressure/density gradients.

  11. The Trails of Superluminal Jet Components in 3C111

    CERN Document Server

    Kadler, M; Perucho, M; Kovalev, Y Y; Homan, D C; Agudo, I; Kellermann, K I; Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Lister, M L; Zensus, J A

    2008-01-01

    In 1996, a major radio flux-density outburst occured in the broad-line radio galaxy 3C111. It was followed by a particularly bright plasma ejection associated with a superluminal jet component, which has shaped the parsec-scale structure of 3C111 for almost a decade. Here, we present results from 18 epochs of Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations conducted since 1995 as part of the VLBA 2 cm Survey and MOJAVE monitoring programs. This major event allows us to study a variety of processes associated with outbursts of radio-loud AGN in much greater detail than has been possible in other cases: the primary perturbation gives rise to the formation of a leading and a following component, which are interpreted as a forward and a backward-shock. Both components evolve in characteristically different ways and allow us to draw conclusions about the work flow of jet-production events; the expansion, acceleration and recollimation of the ejected jet plasma in an environment with steep pressure and density gradien...

  12. Zooming In on the Progenitors of Superluminous Supernovae With HST

    CERN Document Server

    Lunnan, R; Berger, E; Rest, A; Fong, W; Scolnic, D; Jones, D; Soderberg, A M; Challis, P M; Drout, M R; Foley, R J; Huber, M E; Kirshner, R P; Leibler, C; Marion, G H; McCrum, M; Milisavljevic, D; Narayan, G; Sanders, N E; Smartt, S J; Smith, K W; Tonry, J L; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K C; Flewelling, H; Kudritzki, R -P; Wainscoat, R J; Waters, C

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame ultraviolet imaging of the host galaxies of 16 hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), including 11 events from the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Survey. Taking advantage of the superb angular resolution of HST, we characterize the galaxies' morphological properties, sizes and star formation rate densities. We determine the SN locations within the host galaxies through precise astrometric matching, and measure physical and host-normalized offsets, as well as the SN positions within the cumulative distribution of UV light pixel brightness. We find that the host galaxies of H-poor SLSNe are irregular, compact dwarf galaxies, with a median half-light radius of just 0.9 kpc. The UV-derived star formation rate densities are high ( ~ 0.1 M_sun/yr/kpc^2), suggesting that SLSNe form in overdense environments. Their locations trace the UV light of their host galaxies, with a distribution intermediate between that of LGRBs (which are strongly clustered on the brightest regi...

  13. On the nature of Hydrogen-rich Superluminous Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Inserra, C; Gall, E E E; Leloudas, G; Chen, T -W; Schulze, S; Jerkstarnd, A; Nicholl, M; Anderson, J P; Arcavi, I; Benetti, S; Cartier, R A; Childress, M; Della Valle, M; Flewelling, H; Fraser, M; Gal-Yam, A; Gutierrez, C P; Hosseinzadeh, G; Howell, D A; Huber, M; Kankare, E; Magnier, E A; Maguire, K; McCully, C; Prajs, S; Primak, N; Scalzo, R; Schmidt, B P; Smith, K W; Tucker, B E; Valenti, S; Wilman, M; Young, D R; Yuan, F

    2016-01-01

    We present observational data for two hydrogen-rich superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), namely SN 2013hx and PS15br. These objects, together with SN 2008es are the only SLSNe showing a distinct, broad H$\\alpha$ feature during the photospheric phase and also do not show any clear sign of interaction between fast moving ejecta and circumstellar shells in their early spectra. Therefore we classify them as SLSN II as distinct from the known class of SLSN IIn. Both transients show a slow decline at later times, and monitoring of SN 2013hx out to 300 days after explosion indicates that the luminosity in this later phase does have a contribution from interaction. We detect strong, multi-component H$\\alpha$ emission at 240 days past maximum which we interpret as an indication of interaction of the ejecta with an asymmetric, clumpy circumstellar material. The spectra and photometric evolution of the two objects are similar to some bright type II (or type IIL) supernovae, although they have much higher luminosity and evo...

  14. A cannonball model of gamma-ray bursts superluminal signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon; Dar, Arnon; Rujula, Alvaro De

    2000-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that the long-duration gamma ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows are produced by highly relativistic jets emitted in supernova explosions. We propose that the result of the event is not just a compact object plus the ejecta: within a day, a fraction of the parent star falls back to produce a thick accretion disk. The subsequent accretion generates jets and constitutes the GRB ``engine'', as in the observed ejection of relativistic ``cannonballs'' of plasma by microquasars and active galactic nuclei. The GRB is produced as the jetted cannonballs exit the supernova shell reheated by the collision, re-emitting their own radiation and boosting the light of the shell. They decelerate by sweeping up interstellar matter, which is accelerated to cosmic-ray energies and emits synchrotron radiation: the afterglow. We emphasize here a smoking-gun signature of this model of GRBs: the superluminal motion of the afterglow, that can be searched for ---the sooner the better--- in the particular...

  15. Spectropolarimetry of superluminous supernovae: insight into their geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Inserra, C; Sim, S A; Smartt, S J

    2016-01-01

    We present the first spectropolarimetric observations of a hydrogen-free superluminous supernova at z=0.1136, namely SN 2015bn. The transient shows significant polarization at both the observed epochs: one 24 days before maximum light in the rest-frame, and the subsequent at 27 days after peak luminosity. Analysis of the Q-U plane suggests the presence of a dominant axis and no physical departure from the main axis at either epoch. The polarization spectrum along the dominant axis is characterized by a strong wavelength dependence and an increase in the signal from the first to the second epoch. We use a Monte Carlo code to demonstrate that these properties are consistent with a simple toy model that adopts an axi-symmetric ellipsoidal configuration for the ejecta. We find that the wavelength dependence of the polarisation is possibly due to a strong wavelength dependence in the line opacity, while the higher level of polarisation at the second epoch is a consequence of the increase in the asphericity of the ...

  16. Astronomy. ASASSN-15lh: A highly super-luminous supernova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Subo; Shappee, B J; Prieto, J L; Jha, S W; Stanek, K Z; Holoien, T W-S; Kochanek, C S; Thompson, T A; Morrell, N; Thompson, I B; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Brimacombe, J; Brown, J S; Bufano, F; Chen, Ping; Conseil, E; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Grupe, D; Kiyota, S; Masi, G; Nicholls, B; Olivares E, F; Pignata, G; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Szczygiel, D M; Woźniak, P R

    2016-01-15

    We report the discovery of ASASSN-15lh (SN 2015L), which we interpret as the most luminous supernova yet found. At redshift z = 0.2326, ASASSN-15lh reached an absolute magnitude of Mu ,AB = -23.5 ± 0.1 and bolometric luminosity Lbol = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10(45) ergs s(-1), which is more than twice as luminous as any previously known supernova. It has several major features characteristic of the hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose energy sources and progenitors are currently poorly understood. In contrast to most previously known SLSNe-I that reside in star-forming dwarf galaxies, ASASSN-15lh appears to be hosted by a luminous galaxy (MK ≈ -25.5) with little star formation. In the 4 months since first detection, ASASSN-15lh radiated (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(52) ergs, challenging the magnetar model for its engine. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Long-duration superluminous supernovae at late times

    CERN Document Server

    Jerkstrand, A; Inserra, C; Nicholl, M; Chen, T -W; Krühler, T; Sollerman, J; Taubenberger, S; Gal-Yam, A; Kankare, E; Maguire, K; Fraser, M; Valenti, S; Sullivan, M; Cartier, R; Young, D R

    2016-01-01

    We present nebular-phase observations and spectral models of Type Ic superluminous supernovae. LSQ14an and SN 2015bn both display late-time spectra similar to SN 2007bi, and the class shows strong similarity with broad-lined Type Ic SNe such as SN 1998bw. Near-infrared observations of SN 2015bn at +315d show a strong Ca II triplet, O I 9263, O I 1.13 micron and Mg I 1.50 micron, but no strong He, Si, or S emission. The high Ca II NIR/[Ca II] 7291, 7323 ratio of 2 indicates a high electron density of n_e >~ 10^8 cm^{-3}. Spectral models of oxygen-zone emission are investigated to put constraints on the emitting region. Models require M(O) >~ 10 Msun to produce enough [O I] 6300, 6364 luminosity to match observed levels, irrespective of the powering situation and the density. This is an argument against shell collisions from pair-instability pulsations for explaining the powering, as these shells are limited to a few solar masses in published models. The high oxygen-zone mass, supported by high estimated magnes...

  18. The Volumetric Rate of Superluminous Supernovae at z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Prajs, S; Smith, M; Levan, A; Karpenka, N V; Edwards, T D P; Walker, C R; Wolf, W M; Balland, C; Carlberg, R; Howell, A; Lidman, C; Pain, R; Pritchet, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V

    2016-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) at z~1, measured using archival data from the first four years of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). We develop a method for the photometric classification of SLSNe to construct our sample. Our sample includes two previously spectroscopically-identified objects, and a further new candidate selected using our classification technique. We use the point-source recovery efficiencies from Perrett et.al. (2010) and a Monte Carlo approach to calculate the rate based on our SLSN sample. We find that the three identified SLSNe from SNLS give a rate of 91 (+76/-36) SNe/Yr/Gpc^3 at a volume-weighted redshift of z=1.13. This is equivalent to 2.2 (+1.8/-0.9) x10^-4 of the volumetric core collapse supernova rate at the same redshift. When combined with other rate measurements from the literature, we show that the rate of SLSNe increases with redshift in a manner consistent with that of the cosmic star formati...

  19. Rates of Superluminous Supernovae at z~0.2

    CERN Document Server

    Quimby, Robert M; Akerlof, Car; Wheeler, J Craig

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) based on 5 events discovered with the ROTSE-IIIb telescope. We gather light curves of 19 events from the literature and our own unpublished data and employ crude k-corrections to constrain the pseudo-absolute magnitude distributions in the rest frame ROTSE-IIIb (unfiltered) band pass for both the hydrogen poor (SLSN-I) and hydrogen rich (SLSN-II) populations. We find that the peak magnitudes of the available SLSN-I are narrowly distributed ($M = -21.7 \\pm 0.4$) in our unfiltered band pass and may suggest an even tighter intrinsic distribution when the effects of dust are considered, although the sample may be skewed by selection and publication biases. The presence of OII features near maximum light may uniquely signal a high luminosity event, and we suggest further observational and theoretical work is warranted to assess the possible utility of such SN 2005ap-like SLSN-I as distance indicators. Using the pseudo-absolute magnitude distribut...

  20. RAPIDLY RISING TRANSIENTS IN THE SUPERNOVA—SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA GAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcavi, Iair; Howell, D. Andrew [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93111 (United States); Wolf, William M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bildsten, Lars; McCully, Curtis; Valenti, Stefano [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Katz, Boaz [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel); Hardin, Delphine; Astier, Pierre; Balland, Cristophe [LPNHE, CNRS-IN2P3 and University of Paris VI and VII, F-75005 Paris (France); Prajs, Szymon; Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Perley, Daniel A. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Svirski, Gilad [Racah Institute for Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lidman, Chris [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Carlberg, Ray G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Conley, Alex, E-mail: iarcavi@lcogt.net [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-389 (United States); and others

    2016-03-01

    We present observations of four rapidly rising (t{sub rise} ≈ 10 days) transients with peak luminosities between those of supernovae (SNe) and superluminous SNe (M{sub peak} ≈ −20)—one discovered and followed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and three by the Supernova Legacy Survey. The light curves resemble those of SN 2011kl, recently shown to be associated with an ultra-long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), though no GRB was seen to accompany our SNe. The rapid rise to a luminous peak places these events in a unique part of SN phase space, challenging standard SN emission mechanisms. Spectra of the PTF event formally classify it as an SN II due to broad Hα emission, but an unusual absorption feature, which can be interpreted as either high velocity Hα (though deeper than in previously known cases) or Si ii (as seen in SNe Ia), is also observed. We find that existing models of white dwarf detonations, CSM interaction, shock breakout in a wind (or steeper CSM), and magnetar spin down cannot readily explain the observations. We consider the possibility that a “Type 1.5 SN” scenario could be the origin of our events. More detailed models for these kinds of transients and more constraining observations of future such events should help to better determine their nature.

  1. What do the remnants of superluminous supernovae look like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloudas, G.

    2016-06-01

    The remnants of core-collapse supernovae often present significant asymmetries while those of thermonuclear supernovae are, more or less, spherically symmetric. As superluminous supernovae (SLSN) do not occur in Milky Way-type galaxies (they prefer metal-poor starburst dwarfs), our chances of studying directly a SLSN remnant are very limited, except perhaps in the Magellanic clouds. Therefore, the only way of probing the SLSN geometry, and thus identifying potential SLSN remnant candidates, is through polarimetry of the explosions themselves. I will present the first polarimetric observations of SLSNe obtained through a dedicated ToO program at the VLT. LSQ14mo is a SLSN-I that showed only a very limited degree of polarisation (P = 0.52%), which corresponds to an upper limit of 10% in the photosphere asphericity. In addition, this signal can be entirely due to interstellar polarisation in the host galaxy. This is perhaps surprising as the leading models for H-poor SLSNe involve a magnetar or CSM interaction, i.e. configurations that are not expected to be spherically symmetric. Observations of a SLSN-II yielded a more significant degree of polarisation, while preliminary analysis for a SLSN-R reveals similarly low levels of asphericity as for LSQ14mo.

  2. Do not mess with time: Probing faster than light travel and chronology protection with superluminal warp drives

    CERN Document Server

    Liberati, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    While General Relativity ranks undoubtedly among the best physics theories ever developed, it is also among those with the most striking implications. In particular, General Relativity admits solutions which allow faster than light motion and consequently time travel. Here we shall consider a "pre-emptive" chronology protection mechanism that destabilises superluminal warp drives via quantum matter back-reaction and hence forbids even the conceptual possibility to use these solutions for building a time machine. This result will be considered both in standard quantum field theory in curved spacetime as well as in the case of a quantum field theory with Lorentz invariance breakdown at high energies. Some lessons and future perspectives will be finally discuss.

  3. Inverse Doppler shift and control field as coherence generators for the stability in superluminal light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Fazal; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Khan, Salman

    2015-05-01

    A gain-based four-level atomic medium for the stability in superluminal light propagation using control field and inverse Doppler shift as coherence generators is studied. In regimes of weak and strong control field, a broadband and multiple controllable transparency windows are, respectively, identified with significantly enhanced group indices. The observed Doppler effect for the class of high atomic velocity of the medium is counterintuitive in comparison to the effect of the class of low atomic velocity. The intensity of each of the two pump fields is kept less than the optimum limit reported in [M. D. Stenner and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063801 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevA.67.063801] for stability in the superluminal light pulse. Consequently, superluminal stable domains with the generated coherence are explored.

  4. A plausible (overlooked) super-luminous supernova in the SDSS Stripe 82 data

    CERN Document Server

    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz; Djorgovski, S George; Glikman, Eilat; Mahabal, Ashish A

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of a plausible super-luminous supernova (SLSN), found in the archival data of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, called PSN 000123+000504. The supernova peaked at M_g<-21.3 mag in the second half of September 2005, but was missed by the real-time supernova hunt. The observed part of the light curve (17 epochs) showed that the rise to the maximum took over 30 days, while the decline time lasted at least 70 days (observed frame), closely resembling other SLSNe of SN2007bi type. Spectrum of the host galaxy reveals a redshift of z=0.281 and the distance modulus of \\mu=40.77 mag. Combining this information with the SDSS photometry, we found the host galaxy to be an LMC-like irregular dwarf galaxy with the absolute magnitude of M_B=-18.2+/-0.2 mag and the oxygen abundance of 12+log[O/H]=8.3+/-0.2. Our SLSN follows the relation for the most energetic/super-luminous SNe exploding in low-metallicity environments, but we found no clear evidence for SLSNe to explode in low-luminosity ...

  5. On the early-time excess emission in hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Vreeswijk, Paul M; Gal-Yam, Avishay; De Cia, Annalisa; Perley, Daniel A; Quimby, Robert M; Waldman, Roni; Sullivan, Mark; Yan, Lin; Ofek, Eran O; Fremling, Christoffer; Taddia, Francesco; Sollerman, Jesper; Valenti, Stefano; Arcavi, Iair; Howell, D Andrew; Filippenko, Alexei V; Cenko, S Bradley; Yaron, Ofer; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Cao, Yi; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Horesh, Assaf; Rubin, Adam; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Nugent, Peter E; Laher, Russ; Rebbapragada, Umaa D; Woźniak, Przemysław; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R

    2016-01-01

    We present the light curves of the hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) PTF12dam and iPTF13dcc, discovered by the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory. Both show excess emission at early times and a slowly declining light curve at late times. The early bump in PTF12dam is very similar in duration (~10 days) and brightness relative to the main peak (2-3 mag fainter) compared to those observed in other SLSNe-I, such as SN2006oz, LSQ14bdq and DES14X3taz. In contrast, the long-duration (>30 days) early excess emission in iPTF13dcc, whose brightness competes with that of the main peak, appears to be of a different nature. We construct bolometric light curves for both targets, and fit a variety of light-curve models to both the early bump and main peak in an attempt to understand the nature of these explosions. Even though the slope of the late-time light-curve decline in both SLSNe is suggestively close to that expected from the radioactive decay of $^{56}$Ni and $^{56}$Co, the amount of nickel req...

  6. Host-Galaxy Properties of 32 Low-Redshift Superluminous Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Perley, Daniel A; Yan, Lin; Vreeswijk, Paul; De Cia, Annalisa; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Filippenko, Alexei V; Graham, Melissa L; Nugent, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    We present ultraviolet through near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of the host galaxies of all superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory prior to 2013, and derive measurements of their luminosities, star-formation rates, stellar masses, and gas-phase metallicities. We find that Type I (hydrogen-poor) SLSNe are found almost exclusively in low-mass (M 0.5 Z_sun. Extremely low metallicities are not required, and indeed provide no further increase in the relative SLSN rate. Several SLSN-I hosts are undergoing vigorous starbursts, but this may simply be a side effect of metallicity dependence: dwarf galaxies tend to have bursty star-formation histories. Type-II (hydrogen-rich) SLSNe are found over the entire range of galaxy masses and metallicities, and their integrated properties do not suggest a strong preference for (or against) low-mass/low-metallicity galaxies. Two hosts exhibit unusual properties: PTF 10uhf is a Type I SLSN in a massive, luminous infrared galaxy at re...

  7. Causality and dispersion relations and the role of the S-matrix in the ongoing research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert, E-mail: schroer@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freie Univ. , Berlin (Germany). Inst. fur Theoretische Physik

    2011-07-01

    The adaptation of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations to the causal localization structure of QFT led to an important project in particle physics, the only one with a successful closure. The same cannot be said about the subsequent attempts to formulate particle physics as a pure S-matrix project. The feasibility of a pure S-matrix approach are critically analyzed and their seri- ous shortcomings are highlighted. Whereas the conceptual/mathematical demands of renormalized perturbation theory are modest and misunderstandings could easily be corrected, the correct understanding about the origin of the crossing property demands the use of the mathematical theory of modular localization and its relation to the thermal KMS condition. These concepts which combine localization, vacuum polarization and thermal properties under the roof of modular theory will be explained and their use in a new constructive (nonperturbative) approach to QFT will be indicated. The S-matrix still plays a predominant role, but different from Heisenberg's and Mandelstam's proposals the new project is not a pure S-matrix approach. (author)

  8. Dispersion Relation of Longitudinal Waves in Liquid He-4 in the framework of the Bohm interpretation of QM

    CERN Document Server

    Molinari, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    He-4 is known to become superfluid at very low temperatures. This effect is now generally accepted to be connected with BEC (Bose-Einstein Condensation). The dispersion relation of pressure waves in superfluid He-4 has been determined at 1.1 {\\deg}K by Yarnell et al., and exhibits a non monotonic behaviour - with a maximum and a minimum - usually explained in terms of excitations called rotons, introduced by Landau. In the present work an attempt is made to describe the phenomenon within the bohmian interpretation of QM. To this end, the effects of the intermolecular potential, taken to be essentially of the Lennard-Jones type, are included as a Vlasov-type self-consistent field. A dispersion relation is found, that is in good agreement with Yarnell's curve. Keywords: Bohm potential; Intermolecular potential; Dispersion relation; Superfluid He-4; First sound. PACS: 05.30.Jp; 05.20.Dd; 03.75.Kk; 67.25.dt

  9. Superluminal motions? A bird-eye view of the experimental situation

    CERN Document Server

    Recami, E

    2001-01-01

    In this article (after some brief theoretical considerations) a bird-eye view is presented -with the help of nine figures- of the various experimental sectors of physics in which Superluminal motions seem to appear. In particular, a panorama is presented of the experiments with evanescent waves and/or tunnelling photons, and with the "localized Superluminal solutions" to the Maxwell equations (e.g., with the so-called X-shaped ones). The present paper is sketchy, but is followed by a large enough bibliography to allow the interested reader deepening the preferred topic.

  10. Calibrating stellar velocity dispersions based on spatially-resolved h-band spectra for improving the m-sigma relation

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Wol-Rang; Schulze, Andreas; Riechers, Dominik A; Kim, Sang Chul; Park, Daeseong; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2013-01-01

    To calibrate stellar velocity dispersion measurements from optical and near-IR stellar lines, and to improve the black hole mass (MBH)- stellar velocity dispersion (sigma) relation, we measure stellar velocity dispersions based on high quality H-band spectra for a sample of 31 nearby galaxies, for which dynamical MBH is available in the literature. By comparing velocity dispersions measured from stellar lines in the H-band with those measured from optical stellar lines, we find no significant difference, suggesting that optical and near-IR stellar lines represent the same kinematics and that dust effect is negligible for early-type galaxies. Based on the spatially-resolved rotation and velocity dispersion measurements along the major axis of each galaxy, we find that a rotating stellar disk is present for 80% of galaxies in the sample. For galaxies with a rotation component, velocity dispersions measured from a single aperture spectrum can vary by up to ~20%, depending on the size of the adopted extraction ap...

  11. Wave equations, dispersion relations, and van Hove singularities for applications of doublet mechanics to ultrasound propagation in bio- and nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junru; Layman, Christopher; Liu, Jun

    2004-02-01

    A fundamental mathematical framework for applications of Doublet Mechanics to ultrasound propagation in a discrete material is introduced. A multiscale wave equation, dispersion relation for longitudinal waves, and shear waves are derived. The van Hove singularities and corresponding highest frequency limits for the Mth-order wave equations of longitudinal and shear waves are determined for a widely used microbundle structure. Doublet Mechanics is applied to soft tissue and low-density polyethylene. The experimental dispersion data for soft tissue and low-density polyethylene are compared with results predicted by Doublet Mechanics and an attenuation model based on a Kramers-Kronig relation in classical continuum mechanics.

  12. Maximal refraction and superluminal propagation in a gaseous nanolayer

    CERN Document Server

    Keaveney, J; Sargsyan, A; Sarkisyan, D; Adams, C S

    2012-01-01

    We present an experimental measurement of the refractive index of high density Rb vapor in a gaseous atomic nanolayer. We use heterodyne interferometry to measure the relative phase shift between two copropagating laser beams as a function of the laser detuning and infer a peak index n = 1.26 \\pm 0.02, close to the theoretical maximum of 1.31. The large index has a concomitant large index gradient creating a region with steep anomalous dispersion where a sub-nanosecond optical pulse is advanced by >100 ps over a propagation distance of 390 nm, corresponding to a group index of -1x10^5, the largest negative group index measured to date.

  13. The volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae at z ˜ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajs, S.; Sullivan, M.; Smith, M.; Levan, A.; Karpenka, N. V.; Edwards, T. D. P.; Walker, C. R.; Wolf, W. M.; Balland, C.; Carlberg, R.; Howell, D. A.; Lidman, C.; Pain, R.; Pritchet, C.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2017-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) at z ˜ 1.0, measured using archival data from the first four years of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). We develop a method for the photometric classification of SLSNe to construct our sample. Our sample includes two previously spectroscopically identified objects, and a further new candidate selected using our classification technique. We use the point-source recovery efficiencies from Perrett et al. and a Monte Carlo approach to calculate the rate based on our SLSN sample. We find that the three identified SLSNe from SNLS give a rate of 91^{+76}_{-36} SNe yr-1 Gpc-3 at a volume-weighted redshift of z = 1.13. This is equivalent to 2.2^{+1.8}_{-0.9}× 10^{-4} of the volumetric core-collapse supernova rate at the same redshift. When combined with other rate measurements from the literature, we show that the rate of SLSNe increases with redshift in a manner consistent with that of the cosmic star formation history. We also estimate the rate of ultra-long gamma-ray bursts based on the events discovered by the Swift satellite, and show that it is comparable to the rate of SLSNe, providing further evidence of a possible connection between these two classes of events. We also examine the host galaxies of the SLSNe discovered in SNLS, and find them to be consistent with the stellar-mass distribution of other published samples of SLSNe.

  14. Thermal mass and dispersion relations of quarks in the deconfined phase of quenched QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kaczmarek, Olaf; Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Soeldner, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Temporal quark correlation functions are analyzed in quenched lattice QCD for two values of temperature above the critical temperature (Tc) for deconfinement, T=1.5Tc and 3Tc. A two-pole ansatz for the quark spectral function is used to determine the bare quark mass and the momentum dependence of excitation spectra on large lattices of size up to 128^3x16. The dependence of the quark correlator on these parameters as well as the finite volume dependence of the excitation energies are analyzed in detail in order to examine the reliability of our analysis. Our results suggest the existence of quasi-particle peaks in the quark spectrum. We furthermore find evidence that the dispersion relation of the plasmino mode has a minimum at non-zero momentum even in the non-perturbative region near Tc. We also elaborate on the enhancement of the quark correlator near the chiral limit which is observed at T=1.5Tc on about half of the gauge configurations. We attribute this to the presence of near zero-modes of the fermion ...

  15. Average and dispersion of the luminosity-redshift relation in the concordance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Dayan, I. [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gasperini, M. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Marozzi, G. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France); Geneve Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Theorique and CAP; Nugier, F. [Ecole Normale Superieure CNRS, Paris (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique; Veneziano, G. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Physics Dept.; New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-03-15

    Starting from the luminosity-redshift relation recently given up to second order in the Poisson gauge, we calculate the effects of the realistic stochastic background of perturbations of the so-called concordance model on the combined light-cone and ensemble average of various functions of the luminosity distance, and on their variance, as functions of redshift. We apply a gauge-invariant light-cone averaging prescription which is free from infrared and ultraviolet divergences, making our results robust with respect to changes of the corresponding cutoffs. Our main conclusions, in part already anticipated in a recent letter for the case of a perturbation spectrum computed in the linear regime, are that such inhomogeneities not only cannot avoid the need for dark energy, but also cannot prevent, in principle, the determination of its parameters down to an accuracy of order 10{sup -3} - 10{sup -5}, depending on the averaged observable and on the regime considered for the power spectrum. However, taking into account the appropriate corrections arising in the non-linear regime, we predict an irreducible scatter of the data approaching the 10% level which, for limited statistics, will necessarily limit the attainable precision. The predicted dispersion appears to be in good agreement with current observational estimates of the distance-modulus variance due to Doppler and lensing effects (at low and high redshifts, respectively), and represents a challenge for future precision measurements.

  16. A Mathematical Model for the Flow Resistance and the Related Hydrodynamic Dispersion Induced by River Dunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Pannone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Present work is aimed at the derivation of a simply usable equation for the total flow resistance associated with river bedforms, by a unifying approach allowing for bypassing some of the limiting restrictions usually adopted in similar types of studies. Specifically, we focused on the effect induced by the out-of-phase free surface undulations appearing in presence of sand dunes. The proposed expression, obtained by combining the balance of momentum referred to the control volume whose longitudinal dimension coincides with the dune wavelength and the energy balance integrated between its extreme sections, was tested by comparison with some laboratory experimental measurements available in the literature and referred to steady flow past fixed, variably rough bedforms. In terms of shear stress or friction factor, the proposed theory provides estimates in good agreement with the real data, especially if evaluated against the performances provided by other classical similar approaches. Moreover, when analyzed in terms of hydrodynamic dispersive properties as a function of the skin roughness on the basis of a previously derived analytical solution, the dune-covered beds seem to behave like meandering channels, responsible for a globally enhanced fluid particles longitudinal spreading, with a relatively reduced effect in the presence of less pronounced riverbed modelling.

  17. Forward dispersion relations and Roy equations in {pi}{pi} scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, R. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Theoretical Physics Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Pelaez, J.R. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, II (Metodos Matematicos), Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Madrid (Spain); Yndurain, F.J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    We first review the results of an analysis of {pi}{pi} interactions in S, P and D waves for the two-pion effective mass from threshold to about 1.4 GeV. In particular, we show a recent improvement of this analysis above the K anti K threshold using more data for phase shifts and including the S0-wave inelasticity from {pi}{pi}{yields}K anti K. In addition, we have improved the fit to the f{sub 2}(1270)-resonance and used a more flexible P-wave parametrization above the K anti K threshold and included an estimation of the D2-wave inelasticity. The better accuracy thus achieved also required a refinement of the Regge analysis above 1.42 GeV. Finally, in this work we check that the {pi}{pi} scattering amplitudes obtained in this approach satisfy remarkably well forward dispersion relations and Roy's equations. (orig.)

  18. Fast flavor conversions of supernova neutrinos: Classifying instabilities via dispersion relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Francesco; Dasgupta, Basudeb; Lisi, Eligio; Marrone, Antonio; Mirizzi, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Supernova neutrinos can exhibit a rich variety of flavor conversion mechanisms. In particular, they can experience "fast" self-induced flavor conversions almost immediately above the core. Very recently, a novel method has been proposed to investigate these phenomena, in terms of the dispersion relation for the complex frequency and wave number (ω ,k ) of disturbances in the mean field of the νeνx flavor coherence. We discuss a systematic approach to such instabilities, originally developed in the context of plasma physics, and based of the time-asymptotic behavior of the Green's function of the system. Instabilities are typically seen to emerge for complex ω and can be further characterized as convective (moving away faster than they spread) and absolute (growing locally), depending on k -dependent features. Stable cases emerge when k (but not ω ) is complex, leading to disturbances damped in space, or when both ω and k are real, corresponding to complete stability. The analytical classification of both unstable and stable modes leads not only to qualitative insights about their features but also to quantitative predictions about the growth rates of instabilities. Representative numerical solutions are discussed in a simple two-beam model of interacting neutrinos. As an application, we argue that supernova and binary neutron star mergers exhibiting a "crossing" in the electron lepton number would lead to an absolute instability in the flavor content of the neutrino gas.

  19. Dispersion Relations and Polarizations of Low-frequency Waves in Two-fluid Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the dispersion relations and polarizations of low-frequency waves in magnetized plasmas based on two-fluid model are obtained. The properties of waves propagating at different angles (to the ambient magnetic field $\\mathbf{B}_{0}$) and \\beta (the ratio of the plasma to magnetic pressures) values are investigated. It is shown that two linearly polarized waves, namely the fast and Alfv\\'{e}n modes in the low-\\beta $\\left( \\beta \\ll 1\\right)$ plasmas, the fast and slow modes in the \\beta \\sim 1 plasmas, and the Alfv\\'{e}n and slow modes in the high-\\beta $\\left( \\beta \\gg 1\\right)$ plasmas, become circularly polarized at the near-parallel (to $\\mathbf{B}_{0}$) propagation. The negative magnetic-helicity of the Alfv\\'{e}n mode occurs only at small or moderate angles in the low-\\beta plasmas, and the ion cross-helicity of the slow mode is nearly the same as that of the Alfv\\'{e}n mode in the high-\\beta plasmas. It also shown the electric polarization $\\delta E_{z}/\\delta E_{y}$ decreases...

  20. Analytical study of dispersion relations for shear horizontal wave propagation in plates with periodic stubs

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-08-01

    The coupled mode theory with coupling of diffraction modes and waveguide modes is usually used on the calculations of transmission and reflection coefficients for electromagnetic waves traveling through periodic sub-wavelength structures. In this paper, I extend this method to derive analytical solutions of high-order dispersion relations for shear horizontal (SH) wave propagation in elastic plates with periodic stubs. In the long wavelength regime, the explicit expression is obtained by this theory and derived specially by employing an effective medium. This indicates that the periodical stubs are equivalent to an effective homogenous layer in the long wavelength. Notably, in the short wavelength regime, high-order diffraction modes in the plate and high-order waveguide modes in the stubs are considered with modes coupling to compute the band structures. Numerical results of the coupled mode theory fit pretty well with the results of the finite element method (FEM). In addition, the band structures\\' evolution with the height of the stubs and the thickness of the plate shows clearly that the method can predict well the Bragg band gaps, locally resonant band gaps and high-order symmetric and anti-symmetric thickness-twist modes for the periodically structured plates. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Average and dispersion of the luminosity-redshift relation in the concordance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Dayan, I. [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gasperini, M. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Marozzi, G. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France); Geneve Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Theorique and CAP; Nugier, F. [Ecole Normale Superieure CNRS, Paris (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique; Veneziano, G. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Physics Dept.; New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-03-15

    Starting from the luminosity-redshift relation recently given up to second order in the Poisson gauge, we calculate the effects of the realistic stochastic background of perturbations of the so-called concordance model on the combined light-cone and ensemble average of various functions of the luminosity distance, and on their variance, as functions of redshift. We apply a gauge-invariant light-cone averaging prescription which is free from infrared and ultraviolet divergences, making our results robust with respect to changes of the corresponding cutoffs. Our main conclusions, in part already anticipated in a recent letter for the case of a perturbation spectrum computed in the linear regime, are that such inhomogeneities not only cannot avoid the need for dark energy, but also cannot prevent, in principle, the determination of its parameters down to an accuracy of order 10{sup -3} - 10{sup -5}, depending on the averaged observable and on the regime considered for the power spectrum. However, taking into account the appropriate corrections arising in the non-linear regime, we predict an irreducible scatter of the data approaching the 10% level which, for limited statistics, will necessarily limit the attainable precision. The predicted dispersion appears to be in good agreement with current observational estimates of the distance-modulus variance due to Doppler and lensing effects (at low and high redshifts, respectively), and represents a challenge for future precision measurements.

  2. Optical waveguide materials, structures, and dispersion modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jiaming; Lin, Jian; Li, Wenxiu; Xue, Xia; Huang, Anping; Xiao, Zhisong

    2016-11-01

    Optical waveguide is used in most integrated optic devices to confine and guide light in higher refractive index channels. The structures and materials of slot waveguides are reviewed in this paper. Coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) can be used for a rotation sensor with compact size, low power consumption and low cost. The loss determines the ultimate sensitivity of CROW gyros. Resonator-based optical gyroscope's sensitivity for measuring rotation is enhanced via using the anomalous dispersion characteristic of superluminal light propagation, which can be also generated by using passive optical resonators.

  3. Influence of nonlinearity of the phonon dispersion relation on wave velocities in the four-moment maximum entropy phonon hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larecki, Wieslaw; Banach, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the propagation of the waves of weak discontinuity in a phonon gas described by the four-moment maximum entropy phonon hydrodynamics involving a nonlinear isotropic phonon dispersion relation. For the considered hyperbolic equations of phonon gas hydrodynamics, the eigenvalue problem is analyzed and the condition of genuine nonlinearity is discussed. The speed of the wave front propagating into the region in thermal equilibrium is first determined in terms of the integral formula dependent on the phonon dispersion relation and subsequently explicitly calculated for the Dubey dispersion-relation model: |k|=ωc-1(1+bω2). The specification of the parameters c and b for sodium fluoride (NaF) and semimetallic bismuth (Bi) then makes it possible to compare the calculated dependence of the wave-front speed on the sample’s temperature with the empirical relations of Coleman and Newman (1988) describing for NaF and Bi the variation of the second-sound speed with temperature. It is demonstrated that the calculated temperature dependence of the wave-front speed resembles the empirical relation and that the parameters c and b obtained from fitting respectively the empirical relation and the original material parameters of Dubey (1973) are of the same order of magnitude, the difference being in the values of the numerical factors. It is also shown that the calculated temperature dependence is in good agreement with the predictions of Hardy and Jaswal’s theory (Hardy and Jaswal, 1971) on second-sound propagation. This suggests that the nonlinearity of a phonon dispersion relation should be taken into account in the theories aiming at the description of the wave-type phonon heat transport and that the Dubey nonlinear isotropic dispersion-relation model can be very useful for this purpose.

  4. [Effects of relative abundance of Quercus mongolica acorns on five tree species seed dispersal in Xiaoxing' an Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Shi, Xiao-Xiao; Yi, Xian-Feng; Wang, De-Xiang

    2013-06-01

    An investigation was conducted in a forest farm in the Xiaoxing' an Mountains in autumn, 2009 and 2010 to study the effects of Quercus mongolica acorn quantity and rodent density on the seed dispersal of five tree species (Juglans mandshurica, Pinus koraiensis, Corylus mandshurica, Corylus heterophylla, and Q. mongolica). In the farm, there was an annual change in rodent density. The total capture rate of small rodents in 2009 (31.0%) was significantly higher than that in 2010 (16.7%). The acorn quantity and relative seed abundance (per capita rodent) of Quercus mongolica in 2009 (6.2 +/- 2.1 acorns x m(-2) and 20.0, respectively) were significantly lower than those in 2010 (26.7 +/- 10.2 acorns x m(-2) and 160.0, respectively). In 2009, all the seeds of the five tree species except J. mandshurica were dispersed or eaten in situ, among which, the acorns of Q. mongolica were scatter-hoarded most, and their average dispersal distance was the furthest. In 2010, the seeds of J. mandshurica were scatter-hoarded most, and their average dispersal distance was the furthest. The relative seed abundance of Q. mongolica could be the key factor determining the seed dispersal of the other tree species in the study area.

  5. Relative impacts of adult movement, larval dispersal and harvester movement on the effectiveness of reserve networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüss, Arnaud; Kaplan, David M; Hart, Deborah R

    2011-01-01

    Movement of individuals is a critical factor determining the effectiveness of reserve networks. Marine reserves have historically been used for the management of species that are sedentary as adults, and, therefore, larval dispersal has been a major focus of marine-reserve research. The push to use marine reserves for managing pelagic and demersal species poses significant questions regarding their utility for highly-mobile species. Here, a simple conceptual metapopulation model is developed to provide a rigorous comparison of the functioning of reserve networks for populations with different admixtures of larval dispersal and adult movement in a home range. We find that adult movement produces significantly lower persistence than larval dispersal, all other factors being equal. Furthermore, redistribution of harvest effort previously in reserves to remaining fished areas ('fishery squeeze') and fishing along reserve borders ('fishing-the-line') considerably reduce persistence and harvests for populations mobile as adults, while they only marginally changes results for populations with dispersing larvae. Our results also indicate that adult home-range movement and larval dispersal are not simply additive processes, but rather that populations possessing both modes of movement have lower persistence than equivalent populations having the same amount of 'total movement' (sum of larval and adult movement spatial scales) in either larval dispersal or adult movement alone.

  6. Relative impacts of adult movement, larval dispersal and harvester movement on the effectiveness of reserve networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Grüss

    Full Text Available Movement of individuals is a critical factor determining the effectiveness of reserve networks. Marine reserves have historically been used for the management of species that are sedentary as adults, and, therefore, larval dispersal has been a major focus of marine-reserve research. The push to use marine reserves for managing pelagic and demersal species poses significant questions regarding their utility for highly-mobile species. Here, a simple conceptual metapopulation model is developed to provide a rigorous comparison of the functioning of reserve networks for populations with different admixtures of larval dispersal and adult movement in a home range. We find that adult movement produces significantly lower persistence than larval dispersal, all other factors being equal. Furthermore, redistribution of harvest effort previously in reserves to remaining fished areas ('fishery squeeze' and fishing along reserve borders ('fishing-the-line' considerably reduce persistence and harvests for populations mobile as adults, while they only marginally changes results for populations with dispersing larvae. Our results also indicate that adult home-range movement and larval dispersal are not simply additive processes, but rather that populations possessing both modes of movement have lower persistence than equivalent populations having the same amount of 'total movement' (sum of larval and adult movement spatial scales in either larval dispersal or adult movement alone.

  7. Two parameters describing a superluminal neutrino%二参量描述的超光速中微子述的超光速中微子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪光炯; 张操

    2002-01-01

    Based on the experimental data that the mass-square of neutrino might be negative, a quantum theory for superluminal neutrino is proposed. Two Weyl equations coupled together via a mass term respecting the maximum parity violation lead to a new equation which describes the superluminal motion of neutrino with permanent helicity. Various strange features of subluminal and superluminal particles can be ascribed to the relative variation of two contradictory fields superposing coherently inside the particle with the change of its speed u in the whole range (0<u<∞). Being compatible with the theory of special relativity, this theory may have various applications.%根据中微子质量平方是负值的实验数据,提出了一个关于超光速中微子的量子理论.用一个和最大宇称破坏相关的质量项将两个Weyl方程耦合在一起,得到一个描述具有永久螺旋度且超光速运动的中微子的新方程.超光速粒子的速度在 (0,∞)范围内变化,其内部相干迭加的两个矛盾场的相对变化导致亚光速粒子和超光速粒子的各种奇异特性.这个理论和狭义相对论是兼容的,因而可以有多方面的应用.

  8. Dispersion relation for localized magnetic polaritons propagating at the junction of two ferromagnetic/ non-magnetic superlattices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R T Tagiyeva

    2004-09-01

    Localized magnetic polaritons are investigated in the systems consisting of two magnetic superlattices, coupled by a ferromagnetic contact layer. The general dispersion relation for localized magnetic polaritons are derived in the framework of the electromagnetic wave theory in the Voigt geometry by the `transfer' matrix method. The numerical calculations were carried out for different parameters of the superlattices and contact layer and then discussed.

  9. The Dispersion Relations and Instability Thresholds of Oblique Plasma Modes in the Presence of an Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Verscharen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An ion beam can destabilize Alfv\\'en/ion-cyclotron waves and magnetosonic/whistler waves if the beam speed is sufficiently large. Numerical solutions of the hot-plasma dispersion relation have previously shown that the minimum beam speed required to excite such instabilities is significantly smaller for oblique modes with $\\vec k \\times \\vec B_0\

  10. Effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion relation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli–Euler beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with analytically predicting the effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion relation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli– Euler beam performing bending oscillations. Two cases are considered: (i) large transverse deflections, where nonlinear (true) curvature...

  11. Subtracted dispersion relation formalism for the two-photon exchange correction to elastic electron-proton scattering: Comparison with data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomalak, O. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany); Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Department of Physics, Kyiv (Ukraine); Vanderhaeghen, M. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    We apply a subtracted dispersion relation formalism with the aim to improve predictions for the two-photon exchange corrections to elastic electron-proton scattering observables at finite momentum transfers. We study the formalism on the elastic contribution, and make a detailed comparison with existing data for unpolarized cross sections as well as polarization transfer observables. (orig.)

  12. The pion-kaon scattering amplitude constrained with forward dispersion relations up to 1.6 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Pelaez, J R

    2016-01-01

    In this work we provide simple and precise parameterizations of the existing $\\pi K$ scattering data from threshold up to 1.6 GeV, which are constrained to satisfy forward dispersion relations as well as three additional threshold sum rules. We also provide phenomenological values of the threshold parameters and of the resonance poles that appear in elastic scattering.

  13. The XMM cluster survey:evolution of the velocity dispersion-temperature relation over half a Hubble time

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Susan; Rooney, Philip J; Caldwell, Caroline; Kay, Scott T; Collins, Chris A.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Romer, A. Kathy; Bermeo, Alberto; Bernstein, Rebecca; da Costa, Luiz; Gifford, Daniel; Hollowood, Devon; Hoyle, Ben; Jeltema, Tesla; Liddle, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    We measure the evolution of the velocity dispersion-temperature (sigma(v)-T-X) relation up to z = 1 using a sample of 38 galaxy clusters drawn from the XMM Cluster Survey. This work improves upon previous studies by the use of a homogeneous cluster sample and in terms of the number of high-redshift clusters included. We present here new redshift and velocity dispersion measurements for 12 z > 0.5 clusters observed with the Gemini Multi Object Spectographs instruments on the Gemini telescopes....

  14. Study on the Superluminal Group Velocity in a Coaxial Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuGuizhen; HuangZhixun; GuanJian

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the superluminal group velocity in a coaxial photonic crystal is studied. The simulation of the effective refraction index in coaxial photonic crystal is performed. The group velocity is calculated based on the transmission line equations and compared with experimental results.

  15. Revealing the binary origin of Type Ic superluminous supernovae through nebular hydrogen emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Liu, Zheng-Wei; Mackey, Jonathan; Chen, Ting-Wan; Langer, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    We propose that nebular Hα emission, as detected in the Type Ic superluminous supernova iPTF13ehe, stems from matter that is stripped from a companion star when the supernova ejecta collide with it. The temporal evolution, the line broadening, and the overall blueshift of the emission are consistent with this interpretation. We scale the nebular Hα luminosity predicted for Type Ia supernovae in single-degenerate systems to derive the stripped mass required to explain the Hα luminosity of iPTF13ehe. We find a stripped mass of 0.1-0.9 solar masses, assuming that the supernova luminosity is powered by radioactivity or magnetar spin down. Because a central heating source is required to excite the Hα emission, an interaction-powered model is not favored for iPTF13ehe if the Hα emission is from stripped matter. We derive a companion mass of more than 20 solar masses and a binary separation of less than about 20 companion radii based on the stripping efficiency during the collision, indicating that the supernova progenitor and the companion formed a massive close binary system. If Type Ic superluminous supernovae generally occur in massive close binary systems, the early brightening observed previously in several Type Ic superluminous supernovae may also be due to the collision with a close companion. Observations of nebular hydrogen emission in future Type Ic superluminous supernovae will enable us to test this interpretation.

  16. Infrared spectroscopy of the superluminal Galactic source GRS 1915+105 during the 1994 September outburst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CastroTirado, A.J.; Geballe, T.R.; Lund, Niels

    1996-01-01

    We have obtained K-band IR spectra of the superluminal Galactic source GRS 1915+105 on two different dates. The second spectrum, obtained immediately after a bright X-ray outburst in 1994 September, has shown prominent H and He emission lines. The lines are not Doppler shifted, as are those obser...

  17. Superluminal neutrinos and extra dimensions: constraints from the null energy condition

    OpenAIRE

    Gubser, Steven S.

    2011-01-01

    In light of the recent results from the OPERA collaboration, indicating that neutrinos can travel superluminally, I review a simple extra-dimensional strategy for accommodating such behavior; and I also explain why it is hard in this strategy to avoid violating the null energy condition somewhere in the extra dimensions.

  18. NEW SUPERLUMINAL QUASAR-1633+382 AND THE BLAZAR-GAMMA-RAY CONNECTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BARTHEL, PD; CONWAY, JE; MYERS, ST; PEARSON, TJ; READHEAD, ACS

    1995-01-01

    We report detection of superluminal motion in the core of 4C 38.41, associated with the z = 1.814 quasar 1633+382. The dominant nucleus in the similar to 30 kpc triple morphology of the radio source displays a core-jet structure on the milliarcsecond scale, and a jet component is found moving

  19. Heterogeneity of Taiwan's indigenous population: possible relation to prehistoric Mongoloid dispersals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M; Chu, C C; Lee, H L; Chang, S L; Ohashi, J; Tokunaga, K; Akaza, T; Juji, T

    2000-01-01

    Taiwan's 9 indigenous tribes (Tsou, Bunun, Paiwan, Rukai, Atayal, Saisiat, Ami, Puyuma, Yami) are highly homogeneous within each tribe, but diversified among the different tribes due to long-term isolation, most probably since Taiwan became an island about 12,000 years ago. Homogeneity of each tribe is evidenced by many HLA-A,B,C alleles having the world's highest ever reported frequencies, e.g. A24 (86.3%), A26 (18.8%), Cw10 (36.8%), Cw7 (66%), Cw8 (32.1%), B13 (27.9%), B62 (37.4%), B75 (18%), B39 (53.5%), B60 (33.3%), and B48 (24%). Also, all of these tribes have HLA class I haplotype frequencies greater than 10%, with A24-Cw7-B39 in Saisiat (44.5%) being the highest, suggesting Taiwan's indigenous tribes are probably the most homogeneous ( the "purest") population in the world. A24-Cw8-B48, A24-Cw10-B60 and A24-Cw9-B61 found common to many Taiwan indigenous tribes, have also been observed in Maori, Papua New Guinea Highlanders, Orochons, Mongolians, Inuit, Japanese, Man, Buryat, Yakut, Tlingit, Tibetans and Thais. These findings suggest Taiwan's indigenous groups are more or less genetically related to both northern and southern Asians. Principal component analysis and the phylogenetic tree (using the neighbor-joining method) showed close relationship between the indigenous groups and Oceanians. This relationship supports the hypothesis that Taiwan was probably on the route of prehistoric Mongoloid dispersals that most likely took place along the coastal lowland of the Asian continent (which is under the sea today). Cultural anthropology also suggests a relationship between Taiwan's indigenous tribes and southern Asians and to a lesser extent, northern Asians. However, the indigenous groups show little genetic relationship to current southern and northern Han Chinese.

  20. Dispersal syndromes related to edge distance in cerrado sensu stricto fragments of central-western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Vitor Fleuri Jardim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main selective forces affecting the fruiting strategies are related to the environment in which plants occur. As a savanna, microclimatic conditions should not vary in relation to distance from edge in cerrado sensu stricto fragments. Thus, we postulated that the importance of different dispersal syndromes would not vary towards the fragment core. Our aim was to test in four cerrado sensu stricto fragments in central Brazil whether the absolute density of anemo-, auto-, and zoochorous individuals varied in relation to edge distance. According to results, the absolute density of anemo-and autochorous individuals did not vary, whereas those of zoochorous individuals increased with edge distance, pointing out that there were other factors rather than abiotic conditions shifting zoochorous species to the interior of cerrado sensu stricto fragments.As principais forças seletivas que afetam as estratégias de frutificação estão relacionadas ao ambiente em que as plantas ocorrem. Como fragmentos de cerrado sensu stricto são savânicos, as condições microclimáticas não devem variar em relação à distância da borda. Assim, postulamos que a importância das diferentes síndromes de dispersão não varia da borda ao interior de um fragmento de vegetação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar, em quatro fragmentos de cerrado sensu stricto (centro-oeste do Brasil, se a densidade absoluta de indivíduos anemo, auto e zoocóricos variava em função da distância da borda. Segundo nossos resultados, a densidade absoluta de indivíduos anemo e autocóricos não variou significativamente borda em direção ao interior dos fragmentos, enquanto que a dos indivíduos zoocóricos aumentou, indicando que existem outros fatores, que não as condições abióticas, deslocando as espécies zoocóricas para o interior dos fragmentos de cerrado sensu stricto.

  1. Investigation of magnon dispersion relations and neutron scattering cross sections with special attention to anisotropy effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Kowalska, A.; Laut, Peter

    1967-01-01

    A general bilinear two-Bose Hamiltonian is diagonalized and the result used in a discussion of non-imteracting spin waves in a two-sub-lattice ferromagnet having not negligible anisotropy in the spin interaction. Model-independent functions suitable for the analysis of experimental dispersion...... for the exchange interaction seem to be necessary for agreement with experimental dispersion curves be obtained. The effect of the anisotropy in the cross section is estimated and shown to be important for small magnon energies....

  2. The Mean and Scatter of the Velocity Dispersion-Optical Richness Relation for MaxBCG Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, M.R.; McKay, T.A.; /Michigan U.; Koester, B.; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Wechsler, R.H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rozo, E.; /Ohio State U.; Evrard, A.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Johnston, D.; /Caltech, JPL; Sheldon, E.; /New York U.; Annis, J.; /Fermilab; Lau, E.; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Nichol, R.; /Portsmouth U., ICG; Miller, C.; /Michigan U.

    2007-06-05

    The distribution of galaxies in position and velocity around the centers of galaxy clusters encodes important information about cluster mass and structure. Using the maxBCG galaxy cluster catalog identified from imaging data obtained in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we study the BCG--galaxy velocity correlation function. By modeling its non-Gaussianity, we measure the mean and scatter in velocity dispersion at fixed richness. The mean velocity dispersion increases from 202 {+-} 10 km s{sup -1} for small groups to more than 854 {+-} 102 km s{sup -1} for large clusters. We show the scatter to be at most 40.5{+-}3.5%, declining to 14.9{+-}9.4% in the richest bins. We test our methods in the C4 cluster catalog, a spectroscopic cluster catalog produced from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR2 spectroscopic sample, and in mock galaxy catalogs constructed from N-body simulations. Our methods are robust, measuring the scatter to well within one-sigma of the true value, and the mean to within 10%, in the mock catalogs. By convolving the scatter in velocity dispersion at fixed richness with the observed richness space density function, we measure the velocity dispersion function of the maxBCG galaxy clusters. Although velocity dispersion and richness do not form a true mass--observable relation, the relationship between velocity dispersion and mass is theoretically well characterized and has low scatter. Thus our results provide a key link between theory and observations up to the velocity bias between dark matter and galaxies.

  3. DES13S2cmm: the first superluminous supernova from the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Sullivan, M; Nichol, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Biswas, R.; Brown, P. J.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Finley, D. A.; Fischer, J. A.; Gupta, R. R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S. E.; Spinka, H.; Bernstein, J. P.

    2015-05-11

    We present DES13S2cmm, the first spectroscopically-confirmed superluminous supernova (SLSN) from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We briefly discuss the data and search algorithm used to find this event in the first year of DES operations, and outline the spectroscopic data obtained from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope to confirm its redshift (z = 0.663 +/- 0.001 based on the host-galaxy emission lines) and likely spectral type (Type I). Using this redshift, we find M-U(peak) = -21.05(-0.09)(+0.10) for the peak, rest-frame U-band absolute magnitude, and find DES13S2cmm to be located in a faint, low-metallicity (subsolar), low stellar-mass host galaxy (log (M/M-circle dot) = 9.3 +/- 0.3), consistent with what is seen for other SLSNe-I. We compare the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm to 14 similarly well-observed SLSNe-I in the literature and find that it possesses one of the slowest declining tails (beyond +30 d rest-frame past peak), and is the faintest at peak. Moreover, we find the bolometric light curves of all SLSNe-I studied herein possess a dispersion of only 0.2-0.3 mag between +25 and +30 d after peak (rest frame) depending on redshift range studied; this could be important for 'standardizing' such supernovae, as is done with the more common Type Ia. We fit the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm with two competing models for SLSNe-I-the radioactive decay of Ni-56, and a magnetar - and find that while the magnetar is formally a better fit, neither model provides a compelling match to the data. Although we are unable to conclusively differentiate between these two physical models for this particular SLSN-I, further DES observations of more SLSNe-I should break this degeneracy, especially if the light curves of SLSNe-I can be observed beyond 100 d in the rest frame of the supernova.

  4. "Cold" dispersion relation of corrugated waveguide filled with plasma immersed in a finite magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 魏彦玉; 谢鸿全; 刘盛纲; 巩马理

    2003-01-01

    A general dispersion equation of a partially filled plasma corrugated waveguide immersed in a finite magnetic field is presented. When the guiding magnet Bo →∞ or 0, this equation can be reduced to the results obtained in previous works.

  5. Solutions of the benchmark problems by the dispersion-relation-preserving scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Shen, H.; Kurbatskii, K. A.; Auriault, L.

    1995-01-01

    The 7-point stencil Dispersion-Relation-Preserving scheme of Tam and Webb is used to solve all the six categories of the CAA benchmark problems. The purpose is to show that the scheme is capable of solving linear, as well as nonlinear aeroacoustics problems accurately. Nonlinearities, inevitably, lead to the generation of spurious short wave length numerical waves. Often, these spurious waves would overwhelm the entire numerical solution. In this work, the spurious waves are removed by the addition of artificial selective damping terms to the discretized equations. Category 3 problems are for testing radiation and outflow boundary conditions. In solving these problems, the radiation and outflow boundary conditions of Tam and Webb are used. These conditions are derived from the asymptotic solutions of the linearized Euler equations. Category 4 problems involved solid walls. Here, the wall boundary conditions for high-order schemes of Tam and Dong are employed. These conditions require the use of one ghost value per boundary point per physical boundary condition. In the second problem of this category, the governing equations, when written in cylindrical coordinates, are singular along the axis of the radial coordinate. The proper boundary conditions at the axis are derived by applying the limiting process of r approaches 0 to the governing equations. The Category 5 problem deals with the numerical noise issue. In the present approach, the time-independent mean flow solution is computed first. Once the residual drops to the machine noise level, the incident sound wave is turned on gradually. The solution is marched in time until a time-periodic state is reached. No exact solution is known for the Category 6 problem. Because of this, the problem is formulated in two totally different ways, first as a scattering problem then as a direct simulation problem. There is good agreement between the two numerical solutions. This offers confidence in the computed results. Both

  6. The superluminous supernova PS1-11ap: bridging the gap between low and high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrum, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Kotak, R.; Rest, A.; Jerkstrand, A.; Inserra, C.; Rodney, S. A.; Chen, T.-W.; Howell, D. A.; Huber, M. E.; Pastorello, A.; Tonry, J. L.; Bresolin, F.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Smith, K.; Botticella, M. T.; Foley, R. J.; Fraser, M.; Milisavljevic, D.; Nicholl, M.; Riess, A. G.; Stubbs, C. W.; Valenti, S.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Wright, D.; Young, D. R.; Drout, M.; Czekala, I.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.; Sweeney, W.; Wainscoat, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present optical photometric and spectroscopic coverage of the superluminous supernova (SLSN) PS1-11ap, discovered with the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey at z = 0.524. This intrinsically blue transient rose slowly to reach a peak magnitude of Mu = -21.4 mag and bolometric luminosity of 8 × 1043 erg s-1 before settling on to a relatively shallow gradient of decline. The observed decline is significantly slower than those of the SLSNe-Ic which have been the focus of much recent attention. Spectroscopic similarities with the lower redshift SN2007bi and a decline rate similar to 56Co decay time-scale initially indicated that this transient could be a candidate for a pair instability supernova (PISN) explosion. Overall the transient appears quite similar to SN2007bi and the lower redshift object PTF12dam. The extensive data set, from 30 d before peak to 230 d after, allows a detailed and quantitative comparison with published models of PISN explosions. We find that the PS1-11ap data do not match these model explosion parameters well, supporting the recent claim that these SNe are not pair instability explosions. We show that PS1-11ap has many features in common with the faster declining SLSNe-Ic, and the light-curve evolution can also be quantitatively explained by the magnetar spin-down model. At a redshift of z = 0.524, the observer-frame optical coverage provides comprehensive rest-frame UV data and allows us to compare it with the SLSNe recently found at high redshifts between z = 2 and 4. While these high-z explosions are still plausible PISN candidates, they match the photometric evolution of PS1-11ap and hence could be counterparts to this lower redshift transient.

  7. On the Early-Time Excess Emission in Hydrogen-Poor Superluminous Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeswijk, Paul M.; Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay; De Cia, Annalisa; Perley, Daniel A.; Quimby, Robert M.; Waldman, Roni; Sullivan, Mark; Yan, Lin; Ofek, Eran O.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the light curves of the hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe I) PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc, discovered by the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory. Both show excess emission at early times and a slowly declining light curve at late times. The early bump in PTF 12dam is very similar in duration (approximately 10 days) and brightness relative to the main peak (23 mag fainter) compared to that observed in other SLSNe I. In contrast, the long-duration (greater than 30 days) early excess emission in iPTF 13dcc, whose brightness competes with that of the main peak, appears to be of a different nature. We construct bolometric light curves for both targets, and fit a variety of light-curve models to both the early bump and main peak in an attempt to understand the nature of these explosions. Even though the slope of the late-time decline in the light curves of both SLSNe is suggestively close to that expected from the radioactive decay of 56Ni and 56Co, the amount of nickel required to power the full light curves is too large considering the estimated ejecta mass. The magnetar model including an increasing escape fraction provides a reasonable description of the PTF 12dam observations. However, neither the basic nor the double-peaked magnetar model is capable of reproducing the light curve of iPTF 13dcc. A model combining a shock breakout in an extended envelope with late-time magnetar energy injection provides a reasonable fit to the iPTF 13dcc observations. Finally, we find that the light curves of both PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc can be adequately fit with the model involving interaction with the circumstellar medium.

  8. An Ultraviolet Excess in the Superluminous Supernova Gaia16apd Reveals a Powerful Central Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Margutti, R.; Blanchard, P. K.; Milisavljevic, D.; Challis, P.; Metzger, B. D.; Chornock, R.

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) in the last decade, it has been known that these events exhibit bluer spectral energy distributions than other supernova subtypes, with significant output in the ultraviolet. However, the event Gaia16apd seems to outshine even the other SLSNe at rest-frame wavelengths below ∼3000 Å. Yan et al. have recently presented HST UV spectra and attributed the UV flux to low iron-group abundance in the outer ejecta, and hence reduced line blanketing. Here, we present UV and optical light curves over a longer baseline in time, revealing a rapid decline at UV wavelengths despite a typical optical evolution. Combining the published UV spectra with our own optical data, we demonstrate that Gaia16apd has a much hotter continuum than virtually any SLSN at maximum light, but it cools rapidly thereafter and is indistinguishable from the others by ∼10–15 days after peak. Comparing the equivalent widths of UV absorption lines with those of other events, we show that the excess UV continuum is a result of a more powerful central power source, rather than a lack of UV absorption relative to other SLSNe or an additional component from interaction with the surrounding medium. These findings strongly support the central-engine hypothesis for hydrogen-poor SLSNe. An explosion ejecting Mej = 4.8(0.2/κ) M⊙, where κ is the opacity in cm2 g‑1, and forming a magnetar with spin period P = 2 ms, and B = 2 × 1014 G (lower than other SLSNe with comparable rise times) can consistently explain the light curve evolution and high temperature at peak. The host metallicity, Z = 0.18 Z⊙, is comparable to other SLSNe.

  9. Host-galaxy Properties of 32 Low-redshift Superluminous Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, D. A.; Quimby, R. M.; Yan, L.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; De Cia, A.; Lunnan, R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Yaron, O.; Filippenko, A. V.; Graham, M. L.; Laher, R.; Nugent, P. E.

    2016-10-01

    We present ultraviolet through near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of the host galaxies of all superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory prior to 2013 and derive measurements of their luminosities, star formation rates, stellar masses, and gas-phase metallicities. We find that Type I (hydrogen-poor) SLSNe (SLSNe I) are found almost exclusively in low-mass ({M}* \\lt 2× {10}9 {M}ȯ ) and metal-poor (12 + log10[O/H] \\lt 8.4) galaxies. We compare the mass and metallicity distributions of our sample to nearby galaxy catalogs in detail and conclude that the rate of SLSNe I as a fraction of all SNe is heavily suppressed in galaxies with metallicities ≳ 0.5 {Z}ȯ . Extremely low metallicities are not required and indeed provide no further increase in the relative SLSN rate. Several SLSN I hosts are undergoing vigorous starbursts, but this may simply be a side effect of metallicity dependence: dwarf galaxies tend to have bursty star formation histories. Type II (hydrogen-rich) SLSNe (SLSNe II) are found over the entire range of galaxy masses and metallicities, and their integrated properties do not suggest a strong preference for (or against) low-mass/low-metallicity galaxies. Two hosts exhibit unusual properties: PTF 10uhf is an SLSN I in a massive, luminous infrared galaxy at redshift z = 0.29, while PTF 10tpz is an SLSN II located in the nucleus of an early-type host at z = 0.04.

  10. The relation between velocity dispersion and mass in simulated clusters of galaxies: dependence on the tracer and the baryonic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, Emiliano; Borgani, Stefano; Murante, Giuseppe; Fabjan, Dunja

    2013-01-01

    [Abridged] We present an analysis of the relation between the masses of cluster- and group-sized halos, extracted from $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological N-body and hydrodynamic simulations, and their velocity dispersions, at different redshifts from $z=2$ to $z=0$. The main aim of this analysis is to understand how the implementation of baryonic physics in simulations affects such relation, i.e. to what extent the use of the velocity dispersion as a proxy for cluster mass determination is hampered by the imperfect knowledge of the baryonic physics. In our analysis we use several sets of simulations with different physics implemented. Velocity dispersions are determined using three different tracers, DM particles, subhalos, and galaxies. We confirm that DM particles trace a relation that is fully consistent with the theoretical expectations based on the virial theorem and with previous results presented in the literature. On the other hand, subhalos and galaxies trace steeper relations, and with larger values of the n...

  11. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  12. Dispersion relations of elastic waves in one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal with functionally graded interlayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao; Wei, Peijun; Lan, Man; Li, Li

    2016-08-01

    The effects of functionally graded interlayers on dispersion relations of elastic waves in a one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal are studied in this paper. First, the state transfer equation of the functionally graded interlayer is derived from the motion equation by the reduction of order (from second order to first order). The transfer matrix of the functionally graded interlayer is obtained by solving the state transfer equation with the spatial-varying coefficient. Based on the transfer matrixes of the piezoelectric slab, the piezomagnetic slab and the functionally graded interlayers, the total transfer matrix of a single cell is obtained. Further, the Bloch theorem is used to obtain the resultant dispersion equations of in-plane and anti-plane Bloch waves. The dispersion equations are solved numerically and the numerical results are shown graphically. Five kinds of profiles of functionally graded interlayers between a piezoelectric slab and a piezomagnetic slab are considered. It is shown that the functionally graded interlayers have evident influences on the dispersion curves and the band gaps.

  13. Effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion relation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli-Euler beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Vladislav S; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2016-02-01

    The paper deals with analytically predicting the effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion relation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli-Euler beam performing bending oscillations. Two cases are considered: (i) large transverse deflections, where nonlinear (true) curvature, nonlinear material and nonlinear inertia owing to longitudinal motions of the beam are taken into account, and (ii) mid-plane stretching nonlinearity. A novel approach is employed, the method of varying amplitudes. As a result, the isolated as well as combined effects of the considered sources of nonlinearities are revealed. It is shown that nonlinear inertia has the most substantial impact on the dispersion relation of a non-uniform beam by removing all frequency band-gaps. Explanations of the revealed effects are suggested, and validated by experiments and numerical simulation.

  14. Dispersion relations for surface excitations as a probe for variational solutions of optimized paired-phonon analysis equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybisz, Leszek

    1990-06-01

    The self-consistency of solutions obtained from a recently proposed numerical relaxation method of solving the Euler-Lagrange equations for the ground state of inhomogeneous Bose systems at zero temperature is investigated. For this kind of system at least three different dispersion relations can be formulated, all of them providing information about the same eigenstates. The quality of our optimization scheme is studied by analyzing the convergence of the low-lying eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of these dispersion relations. Numerical results for the spectrum and spatial shape of elementary excitations of a thin film of liquid 4He supported by an external potential are reported. The optimal lowest-lying eigenvalues are compared with estimations based on simple theoretical approaches and with calculations performed by other authors.

  15. Influence of Complete Coriolis Force on the Dispersion Relation of Ocean Internal-wave in a Background Currents Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this thesis, the influence of complete Coriolis force (the model includes both the vertical and horizontal components of Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field are studied, it is important to the study of ocean internal waves in density-stratified ocean. We start from the control equation of sea water movement in the background of the non-traditional approximation, and the vertical velocity solution is derived where buoyancy frequency N(z gradually varies with the ocean depth z. The results show that the influence of complete Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field is obvious, and these results provide strong evidence for the understanding of dynamic process of density stratified ocean internal waves.

  16. Time-Dependent Variational Approach to the Phonon Dispersion Relation of the Commensurate Quantum Frenkel-Kontorova Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Hong-Wei; TANG Yi

    2006-01-01

    @@ The phonon dispersion relation of the commensurate quantum Frenkel-Kontorova model is studied by means of the time-dependent variational approach combined with a Hartree-type many-body trial wavefunction for the particles. The single-particle state is taken to be a frozen Jackiw-Kerman wavefunction. Under the condition of minimum uncertainty, equations of motion for the particle expectation values are derived to obtain the phonon dispersion relation. It is shown that the strength of the substrate potential and the phonon excitation gap are reduced due to the quantum fluctuations in comparison with those of the classical model. We also compare our results with those previously obtained by using the path-integral molecular dynamics.

  17. Dispersion relation and growth rate for a corrugated channel free-electron laser with a helical wiggler pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Hasanbeigi; H.Mehdian

    2013-01-01

    The effects of corrugated ion channels on electron trajectories and spatial growth rate for a free-electron laser with a one-dimensional helical wiggler have been investigated.Analysis of the steady-state electron trajectories is performed by solving the equations of motion.Our results show that the presence of a corrugated channel shifts the resonance frequency to smaller values of ion channel frequency.The sixth-order dispersion equation describing the coupling between the electrostatic beam mode and the electromagnetic mode has also been derived.The dispersion relation characteristic is analyzed in detail by numerical solution.Results show that the growth rate of instability in the presence of corrugated ion channels can be greatly enhanced relative to the case of an uniform ion channel.

  18. Quantum dispersion relations for excitations of long folded spinning superstring in AdS_5 x S^5

    CERN Document Server

    Giombi, S; Roiban, R; Tseytlin, A A

    2010-01-01

    We use AdS_5 x S^5 superstring sigma model perturbation theory to compute the leading one-loop corrections to the dispersion relations of the excitations near a long spinning string in AdS. This investigation is partially motivated by the OPE-based approach to the computation of the expectation value of null polygonal Wilson loops suggested in arXiv:1006.2788. Our results are in partial agreement with the recent asymptotic Bethe ansatz computation in arXiv:1010.5237. In particular, we find that the heaviest AdS mode (absent in the ABA approach) is stable and has a corrected one-loop dispersion relation similar to the other massive modes. Its stability might hold also at the next-to-leading order as we suggest using a unitarity-based argument.

  19. Once subtracted Roy-like dispersion relations and a precise analysis of $\\pi\\pi$ scattering data

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Martin, R; Peláez, J R; Ynduráin, F J

    2009-01-01

    We report our progress on the data analysis of $\\pi\\pi$ scattering data in terms of Forward Dispersion Relations (FDR), as well as Roy equations (RE) and their once-subtracted counterpart, GKPY equations. The first part of the analysis consists of independent fits to the different $\\pi\\pi$ channels. The GKPY equations provide a more stringent consistency check for the parametrizations of the S0-wave data in the region from 400 to 1100 MeV, In the second part we present our preliminary analysis where the fits are constrained to satisfy all dispersion relations within errors, including the new GKPY Eqs., thus providing a very precise and model independent description of data using just analyticity, causality and crossing.

  20. The variability of processes involved in transgene dispersal - case studies from Brassica and related genera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo; D'Hertefeldt, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope We strive to predict consequences of genetically modified plants (GMPs) being cultivated openly in the environment, as human and animal health, biodiversity, agricultural practise and farmers’ economy could be affected. Therefore, it is unfortunate that the risk...... of fitness parameters. Monitoring of the extent of spontaneous introgression in natural populations was also performed. Modelling was used as an additional tool to identify key parameters in gene flow. Results The GM plant may affect the environment directly or indirectly by dispersal of the transgene....... In the present review, this is illustrated through a bunch of examples mostly from our own research on oilseed rape, Brassica napus. In the Brassica cases, the variability affected all five main steps in the process of gene dispersal. The modelling performed suggests that in Brassica, differences in fitness...

  1. Dispersion of the Nabro volcanic plume and its relation to the Asian summer monsoon

    OpenAIRE

    Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J.-P.; M. Natarajan; Bedka, K M

    2014-01-01

    We use nighttime measurements from the Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, together with a Lagrangian trajectory model, to study the initial dispersion of volcanic aerosol from the eruption of Mt. Nabro (Ethiopia/Eritrea) in June 2011. The Nabro eruption reached the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) directly, and the plume was initially entrained by the flow surrounding the Asian anticyclone, which prevails in ...

  2. Modeling the Dispersion and Polarization Content of Gravitational Waves for Tests of General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Tso, Rhondale; Chen, Yanbei; Stein, Leo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a generic, phenomenological approach to modifying the dispersion of gravitational waves, independent of corrections to the generation mechanism. This model-independent approach encapsulates all previously proposed parametrizations, including Lorentz violation in the Standard-Model Extension, and provides a roadmap for additional theories. Furthermore, we present a general approach to include modulations to the gravitational-wave polarization content. The framework developed here can be implemented in existing data analysis pipelines for future gravitational-wave observation runs.

  3. Density-dependent nest predation in waterfowl: the relative importance of nest density versus nest dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Ringelman, Kevin M.; Eadie, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    When nest predation levels are very high or very low, the absolute range of observable nest success is constrained (a floor/ceiling effect), and it may be more difficult to detect density-dependent nest predation. Density-dependent nest predation may be more detectable in years with moderate predation rates, simply because there can be a greater absolute difference in nest success between sites. To test this, we replicated a predation experiment 10 years after the original study, using both natural and artificial nests, comparing a year when overall rates of nest predation were high (2000) to a year with moderate nest predation (2010). We found no evidence for density-dependent predation on artificial nests in either year, indicating that nest predation is not density-dependent at the spatial scale of our experimental replicates (1-ha patches). Using nearest-neighbor distances as a measure of nest dispersion, we also found little evidence for “dispersion-dependent” predation on artificial nests. However, when we tested for dispersion-dependent predation using natural nests, we found that nest survival increased with shorter nearest-neighbor distances, and that neighboring nests were more likely to share the same nest fate than non-adjacent nests. Thus, at small spatial scales, density-dependence appears to operate in the opposite direction as predicted: closer nearest neighbors are more likely to be successful. We suggest that local nest dispersion, rather than larger-scale measures of nest density per se, may play a more important role in density-dependent nest predation.

  4. In memory of Paco Yndurain: A precise determination of pion-pion scattering from experiment and dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Peláez, J R; Kaminski, R; Ynduráin, F J

    2009-01-01

    This talk is dedicated to the memory of Paco Yndurain, the original speaker in the conference. After a short account of his scientific career, we briefly review our ongoing collaboration to determine precisely the $\\pi\\pi$ scattering amplitude including the most recent data by means of Forward Dispersion Relations and Roy Equations. A remarkable improvement in precision over the intermediate energy region is obtained by using once-subtracted Roy Equations in addition to the standard twice-subtracted ones.

  5. In memory of Paco Yndurain: A precise determination of {pi}{pi} scattering from experiment and dispersion relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, J.R.; Garcia Martin, R. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica II, Univ. Complutense de Madrid. 28040 Madrid. Spain (Spain); Kaminski, R. [Department of Theoretical Physics Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342, Krakow (Poland); Yndurain, F.J. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica, C-XI Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    This talk is dedicated to the memory of Paco Yndurain, the original speaker in the conference. After a short account of his scientific career, we briefly review our ongoing collaboration to determine precisely the {pi}{pi} scattering amplitude including the most recent data by means of Forward Dispersion Relations and Roy Equations. A remarkable improvement in precision over the intermediate energy region is obtained by using once-subtracted Roy Equations in addition to the standard twice-subtracted ones.

  6. An improved approximation for the analytical treatment of the local linear gyro-kinetic plasma dispersion relation in toroidal geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliano, P.; Zarzoso, D.; Artola, F. J.; Camenen, Y.; Garbet, X.

    2017-09-01

    The analytical treatment of plasma kinetic linear instabilities in toroidal geometry is commonly tackled employing a power series expansion of the resonant part of the dispersion relation. This expansion is valid under the assumption that the modulus of the mode frequency is smaller than the magnitude of the frequencies characterising the system (the drift, bounce and transit frequencies for example). We will refer to this approximation as high frequency approximation (HFA). In this paper the linear plasma dispersion relation is derived in the framework of the gyro-kinetic model, for the electrostatic case, in the local limit, in the absence of collisions, for a non rotating plasma, considering adiabatic electrons, in toroidal circular geometry, neglecting the parallel dynamics effect. A systematic analysis of the meaning and limitations of the HFA is performed. As already known, the HFA is not valid for tokamak relevant parameters. A new way to approximate the resonant part of the dispersion relation, called here Improved high frequency approximation (IHFA), is therefore proposed. A quantitative analysis of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability is presented. The IHFA is shown to be applicable to the treatment of the ITG instability in tokamaks.

  7. Strange Horizons: Understanding Causal Barriers Beyond General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cropp, Bethan

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores two avenues into understanding the physics of black holes and horizons beyond general relativity, via analogue models and Lorentz violating theories. Analogue spacetimes have wildly different dynamics to general relativity; this allows the possibility of non-Killing horizons in stationary solutions. In the case of non-Killing horizons different definitions of surface gravity are truly different quantities. This also has application to modified theories of gravity, where there is no reason to expect all horizons to be Killing horizons. In Lorentz violating theories, the situation becomes even stranger, as Killing horizons are at best low energy barriers, but for superluminal dispersion relations a true causal barrier, the universal horizon, may be present. We investigate the nature of these universal horizons via a ray tracing study, and delve into what happens near both the universal and Killing horizons. From this study we determine the surface gravity of universal horizons by the peelin...

  8. Hawking radiation with dispersion versus breakdown of WKB

    CERN Document Server

    Schützhold, R

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the condensed matter analogues of black holes (a.k.a. dumb holes), we study Hawking radiation in the presence of a modified dispersion relation which becomes super-luminal at large wave-numbers. In the usual stationary coordinates $(t,x)$, one can describe the asymptotic evolution of the wave-packets in WKB, but this WKB approximation breaks down in the vicinity of the horizon, thereby allowing for a mixing between initial and final creation and annihilation operators. Thus, one might be tempted to identify this point where WKB breaks down with the moment of particle creation. However, using different coordinates $(\\tau,U)$, we find that one can evolve the waves so that WKB in these coordinates is valid throughout this transition region -- which contradicts the above identification of the breakdown of WKB as the cause of the radiation. Instead, our analysis suggests that the tearing apart of the waves into two different asymptotic regions (inside and outside the horizon) is the major ingredient of...

  9. A Non-Mainstream Viewpoint on Apparent Superluminal Phenomena in AGN Jet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wen-Po Liu; Li-Yan Liu; Chun-Cheng Wang

    2014-09-01

    The group velocity of light in material around the AGN jet is acquiescently one ( as a unit), but this is only a hypothesis. Here, we re-derive apparent superluminal and Doppler formulas for the general case (it is assumed that the group velocity of light in the uniform and isotropic medium around a jet (a beaming model) is not necessarily equal to one, e.g., Araudo et al. (2010) thought that there may be dense clouds around AGN jet base), and show that the group velocity of light close to one could seriously affect apparent superluminal phenomena and Doppler effect in the AGN jet (when the viewing angle and Lorentz factor take some appropriate values).

  10. Diffusion Simulation of Outer Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics Induced by Superluminous L-O Mode Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fu-Liang; HE Zhao-Guo; ZHANG Sai; SU Zhen-Peng; CHEN Liang-Xu

    2011-01-01

    Temporal evolution of outer radiation belt electron dynamics resulting from superluminous L-O mode waves is simulated at L=6.5. Diffusion rates are evaluated and then used as inputs to solve a 2D momentum-pitch-angle diffusion equation, particularly with and without cross diffusion terms. Simulated results demonstrate that phase space density(PSD) of energetic electrons due to L-O mode waves can enhance significantly within 24 h, covering a broader pitch-angle range in the absence of cross terms than that in the presence of cross terms. PSD evolution is also determined by the peak wave frequency, particularly at high kinetic energies. This result indicates that superluminous waves can be a potential candidate responsible for outer radiation belt electron dynamics.

  11. Dynamic evolution of outer radiation belt electrons driven by superluminous R-X mode waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We present initial results on the temporal evolution of the phase space density (PSD) of the outer radiation belt energetic electrons driven by the superluminous R-X mode waves. We calculate diffusion rates in pitch angle and momentum assuming the standard Gaussian distributions in both wave frequency and wave normal angle at the location L=6.5. We solve a 2D momentum-pitch-angle Fokker-Planck equation using those diffusion rates as inputs. Numerical results show that R-X mode can produce significant acceleration of relativistic electrons around geostationary orbit,supporting previous findings that superluminous waves potentially contribute to dramatic variation in the outer radiation belt electron dynamics.

  12. Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation through a Bose-Einstein condensate cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamide Kazemi, S.; Ghanbari, S.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of a probe laser field in a cavity optomechanical system with a Bose-Einstein condensate is studied. The transmission properties of the system are investigated and it is shown that the group velocity of the probe pulse field can be controlled by Rabi frequency of the pump laser field. The effect of the decay rate of the cavity photons on the group velocity is studied and it is demonstrated that for small values of the decay rates, the light propagation switches from subluminal to superluminal just by changing the Rabi frequency of the pump field. Then, the gain-assisted superluminal light propagation due to the cross-Kerr nonlinearity is established in cavity optomechanical system with a Bose-Einstein condensate. Such behavior can not appear in the pump-probe two-level atomic systems in the normal phase. We also find that the amplification is achieved without inversion in the population of the quantum energy levels.

  13. Self-accelerating Massive Gravity: Superluminality, Cauchy Surfaces and Strong Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Motloch, Pavel; Joyce, Austin; Motohashi, Hayato

    2015-01-01

    Self-accelerating solutions in massive gravity provide explicit, calculable examples that exhibit the general interplay between superluminality, the well-posedness of the Cauchy problem, and strong coupling. For three particular classes of vacuum solutions, one of which is new to this work, we construct the conformal diagram for the characteristic surfaces on which isotropic stress-energy perturbations propagate. With one exception, all solutions necessarily possess spacelike characteristics, indicating perturbative superluminality. Foliating the spacetime with these surfaces gives a pathological frame where kinetic terms of the perturbations vanish, confusing the Hamiltonian counting of degrees of freedom. This frame dependence distinguishes the vanishing of kinetic terms from strong coupling of perturbations or an ill-posed Cauchy problem. We give examples where spacelike characteristics do and do not originate from a point where perturbation theory breaks down and where spacelike surfaces do or do not inte...

  14. On determination of the geometric cosmological constant from the OPERA experiment of superluminal neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Mu-Lin; Hu, Sen; Huang, Wei; Xiao, Neng-Chao

    2011-01-01

    The recent OPERA experiment of superluminal neutrinos has deep consequences in cosmology. In cosmology a fundamental constant is the cosmological constant. From observations one can estimate the effective cosmological constant $\\Lambda_{eff}$ which is the sum of the quantum zero point energy $\\Lambda_{dark energy}$ and the geometric cosmological constant $\\Lambda$. The OPERA experiment can be applied to determine the geometric cosmological constant $\\Lambda$. It is the first time to distingui...

  15. Swift and LT UV and optical observations of type IIn superluminous supernova 2017gir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Zach; Kuin, Paul; Chandra, Poonam; Ashall, Chris; Malesani, Daniele; Pastorello, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    We observed the field of the type IIn superluminous supernova 2017gir (ATLAS17jsb, Tonry et al. 2017; Lyman et al. 2017, ATel 10674) with Swift via a target-of-opportunity for three epochs (6th, 16th and 19th of September, 2017) in the three UVOT UV filters (w1, m1, w2). The SN is clearly detected in all three filters, and it is seen that its brightness fades over this timescale.

  16. Properties of Magnetars Mimicking 56Ni-powered Light Curves in Type IC Superluminous Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Chen, Ting-Wan; Langer, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Many Type Ic superluminous supernovae have light-curve decline rates after their luminosity peak, which are close to the nuclear decay rate of {}56{Co}, consistent with the interpretation that they are powered by {}56{Ni} and possibly pair-instability supernovae. However, their rise times are typically shorter than those expected from pair-instability supernovae, and Type Ic superluminous supernovae are often suggested to be powered by magnetar spin-down. If magnetar spin-down is actually a major mechanism to power Type Ic superluminous supernovae, it should be able to produce decline rates similar to the {}56{Co} decay rate rather easily. In this study, we investigate the conditions for magnetars under which their spin-down energy input can behave like the {}56{Ni} nuclear decay energy input. We find that an initial magnetic field strength within a certain range is sufficient to keep the magnetar energy deposition within a factor of a few of the {}56{Co} decay energy for several hundreds of days. Magnetar spin-down needs to be by almost pure dipole radiation with the braking index close to three to mimic {}56{Ni} in a wide parameter range. Not only late-phase {}56{Co}-decay-like light curves, but also rise time and peak luminosity of most {}56{Ni}-powered light curves can be reproduced by magnetars. Bolometric light curves for more than 700 days are required to distinguish the two energy sources solely by them. We expect that more slowly declining superluminous supernovae with short rise times should be found if they are mainly powered by magnetar spin-down.

  17. Superluminous Supernovae as Standardizable Candles and High-redshift Distance Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the use of type Ic superluminous supernovae (SLSN Ic) as standardizable candles and distance indicators. Their appeal as cosmological probes stems from their remarkable peak luminosities, hot blackbody temperatures, and bright rest-frame ultraviolet emission. We present a sample of 16 published SLSN, from redshifts 0.1 to 1.2, and calculate accurate K corrections to determine uniform magnitudes in 2 synthetic rest-frame filter bandpasses with central wavelengths at 400 nm and 520 nm. At 400 nm, we find an encouragingly low scatter in their uncorrected, raw mean magnitudes with M(400) = -21.86 ± 0.35 mag for the full sample of 16 objects. We investigate the correlation between their decline rates and peak magnitude and find that the brighter events appear to decline more slowly. In a manner similar to the Phillips relation for type Ia SNe (SNe Ia), we define a ΔM 20 decline relation. This correlates peak magnitude and decline over 20 days and can reduce the scatter in standardized peak magnitudes to ±0.22 mag. We further show that M(400) appears to have a strong color dependence. Redder objects are fainter and also become redder faster. Using this peak magnitudecolor evolution relation, a surprisingly low scatter of between ±0.08 mag and ±0.13 mag can be found in peak magnitudes, depending on sample selection. However, we caution that only 8 to 10 objects currently have enough data to test this peak magnitudecolor evolution relation. We conclude that SLSN Ic are promising distance indicators in the high-redshift universe in regimes beyond those possible with SNe Ia. Although the empirical relationships are encouraging, the unknown progenitor systems, how they may evolve with redshift, and the uncertain explosion physics are of some concern. The two major measurement uncertainties are the limited numbers of low-redshift, well-studied objects available to test these relationships and internal dust extinction in the host galaxies.

  18. Nonlinear effects related to circularly polarized dispersive Alfvén waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swati; Gaur, Nidhi; Sharma, R. P.

    2016-09-01

    In situ measurements of solar wind have strongly implicated its turbulent behavior. The observed power spectra report a breakpoint around length scales of the order of ion scales. As one of the responsible mechanisms for the observed steepening in power spectrum, our approach includes a right circularly polarized dispersive Alfvén wave (DAW) with finite frequency correction which, when subjected to transverse collapse/filamentation instability, may possibly result in steepening of spectrum and progressive transfer of energy from larger scales to smaller scales. We have studied the nonlinear effects associated with coupling of DAW with kinetic Alfvén wave in solar wind at 1 A.U. The formation of localized structures provides a clue about the emergence of turbulence. Numerical simulation is performed to study localization and power spectral density of the field and density fluctuations. The results show steeper spectrum indicating transfer of large scale turbulent energy down to small scales.

  19. Gravitational Contraction versus Supernova Driving and the Origin of the Velocity Dispersion-Size Relation in Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Mejía, Juan C.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Klessen, Ralf S.; Baczynski, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Molecular cloud (MC) observations show that clouds have non-thermal velocity dispersions that scale with the cloud size as σ ∝ R 1/2 at a constant surface density, and for varying surface density scale with both the cloud’s size and surface density, σ 2 ∝ RΣ. The energy source driving these chaotic motions remains poorly understood. We describe the velocity dispersions observed in a cloud population formed in a numerical simulation of a magnetized, stratified, supernova (SN)-driven, interstellar medium, including diffuse heating and radiative cooling, before and after we include the effects of the self-gravity of the gas. We compare the relationships between velocity dispersion, size, and surface density measured in the simulated cloud population to those found in observations of Galactic MCs. Our simulations prior to the onset of self-gravity suggest that external SN explosions alone do not drive turbulent motions of the observed magnitudes within dense clouds. On the other hand, self-gravity induces non-thermal motions as gravitationally bound clouds begin to collapse in our model, approaching the observed relations between velocity dispersion, size, and surface density. Energy conservation suggests that the observed behavior is consistent with the kinetic energy being proportional to the gravitational energy. However, the clouds in our model show no sign of reaching a stable equilibrium state at any time, even for strongly magnetized clouds. We conclude that gravitationally bound MCs are always in a state of gravitational contraction and their properties are a natural result of this chaotic collapse. In order to agree with observed star formation efficiencies, this process must be terminated by the early destruction of the clouds, presumably from internal stellar feedback.

  20. Superluminal Propagation in Er3+-doped Fiber Bragg Grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Zhong-chang; SU Xue-mei; YU Yong-sen; ZHENG Wei; ZHANG Yu-shu

    2005-01-01

    The method to pump the FBG written into an Er3+-doped optical fiber is proposed to increase the group velocity of a probing pulse based on the facts that pump-induced process changes the refractive index and dispersion associated with the 4I15/2 -4I13/2 transition in Er3+-doped optical fiber. The system equations are derived. The effects of pump power and doping concentration on the group velocity are discussed.

  1. Analysis of vertical dispersion and relative concentration of an elevated plume in the tropical boundary layer using video digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, B.; Raman, S.; Templeman, S.; Nigam, S.; Singh, M. P.

    Digital analysis of smoke plume imagery is applied to video and photographs of a smoke plume taken on 22 June 1987 at the Badrapur Power Plant in New Delhi, India. Using a medium resolution video digitizer, these photographs and video are digitized and analyzed to produce a composite averaged plume that corresponds to a sampling interval of 2 min. These estimates are then used to estimate parameters of vertical dispersion and relative centerline concentration. Estimates of vertical dispersion are compared with Briggs' recommended values for stability class C (slightly unstable conditions). The digital technique produces values of σz that compare well with those estimated using Briggs' formulations. The values obtained using the digital method did not vary by more than 5 per cent from those formulated by Briggs. Estimates of relative concentration, which are values normalized by the concentration associated with a travel distance of 100 m, are compared with relative concentrations obtained using the Gaussian diffusion equation. The digital method produces estimates of relative concentration that compare well with the Gaussian diffusion equation, the differences encountered varying by less than 10 per cent throughout the calculated travel distance.

  2. Tunable THz Generation by the Interaction of a Super-luminous Laser Pulse with Biased Semiconductor Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Zigler, A.

    2006-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is electromagnetic radiation in the range between several hundred and a few thousand GHz. It covers the gap between fast-wave electronics (millimeter waves) and optics (infrared). This spectral region offers enormous potential for detection of explosives and chemical/biological agents, non-destructive testing of non-metallic structural materials and coatings of aircraft structures, medical imaging, bio-sensing of DNA stretching modes and high-altitude secure communications. The development of these applications has been hindered by the lack of powerful, tunable THz sources with controlled waveform. The need for such sources is accentuated by the strong, but selective absorption of THz radiation during transmission through air with high vapor content. The majority of the current experimental work relies on time-domain spectroscopy using fast electrically biased photoconductive sources in conjunction with femto-second mode-locked Ti:Sapphire lasers. These sources known as Large Aperture Photoconductive Antennas (LAPA) have very limited tunability, relatively low upper bound of power and no bandwidth control. The paper presents a novel source of THz radiation known as Miniature Photoconductive Capacitor Array (MPCA). Experiments demonstrated tunability between .1 - 2 THz, control of the relative bandwidth Δf/f between .5-.01, and controlled pulse length and pulse waveform (temporal shape, chirp, pulse-to-pulse modulation etc.). Direct scaling from the current device indicates efficiency in excess of 30% at 1 THz with 1/f2 scaling at higher frequencies, peak power of 100 kW and average power between .1-1 W. The physics underlying the MPCA is the interaction of a super-luminous ionization front generated by the oblique incidence of a Ti:Sapphire laser pulse on a semiconductor crystal (ZnSe) biased with an alternating electrostatic field, similar to that of a frozen wave generator. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that the

  3. Differential equations and dispersion relations for Feynman amplitudes. The two-loop massive sunrise and the kite integral

    CERN Document Server

    Remiddi, Ettore

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the study of the imaginary part and of the corresponding dispersion relations of Feynman graph amplitudes within the differential equations method can provide a powerful tool for the solution of the equations, especially in the massive case. The main features of the approach are illustrated by discussing the simple cases of the 1-loop self-mass and of a particular vertex amplitude, and then used for the evaluation of the two-loop massive sunrise and the QED kite graph (the problem studied by Sabry in 1962), up to first order in the (d-4) expansion.

  4. Differential equations and dispersion relations for Feynman amplitudes. The two-loop massive sunrise and the kite integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remiddi, Ettore; Tancredi, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    It is shown that the study of the imaginary part and of the corresponding dispersion relations of Feynman graph amplitudes within the differential equations method can provide a powerful tool for the solution of the equations, especially in the massive case. The main features of the approach are illustrated by discussing the simple cases of the 1-loop self-mass and of a particular vertex amplitude, and then used for the evaluation of the two-loop massive sunrise and the QED kite graph (the problem studied by Sabry in 1962), up to first order in the (d - 4) expansion.

  5. Relation between Dispersion Characteristics over Surfaces with Dissimilar Roughness and Atmospheric Stability, under Conditions of Equal Geostrophic Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1981-01-01

    A simple model was described that related the dispersion of material from ground-level sources at 2 areas, taking into account dissimilarities in the surface roughness parameter (z0) and the atmospheric stability characterized by the Monin-Obukhov length (L). The geostrophic wind speed was assumed...... that travelled a distance x; .hivin.z/L was found when z0/L and x/z0 were known. The model was reduced to 3 dimensionless parameters by merging .hivin.z/L for the 2 areas into a composite parameter. Dimensionless results from the model were illustrated for discrete values of this composite parameter....

  6. A view of EPR non-locality problems based on Aron's stochastic foundation of relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Jens

    1990-12-01

    It is argued that the problem of causal anomalies that still may exist in Vigier's explanation of superluminal EPR type correlations may be removed in the framework of Aron's stochastic foundation of relativity.

  7. A proposal for a feasible quantum-optical scheme to test for the existence of superluminal signals via quantum mechanical entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Kalamidas, Demetrios A

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by a proposal from Greenberger [Physica Scripta T76, p.57 (1998) ] for superluminal signaling, and inspired by an experiment from Mandel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, p.318 (1991) ] showing interference effects within multi-particle entanglement without coincidence detection, we propose a feasible quantum-optical scheme that purports to manifest the capacity for superluminal transfer of information between distant parties.

  8. Quantifying the impact of relativity and of dispersion interactions on the activation of molecular oxygen promoted by noble metal nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed

    2014-06-26

    We compared the mechanism of O2 dissociation catalyzed by Cu38, Ag38, and Au38 nanoparticles. Overall, our results indicate that O2 dissociation is extremely easy on Cu38, with an almost negligible barrier for the O-O breaking step. It presents an energy barrier close to 20 kcal/mol on Ag38, which decreases to slightly more than 10 kcal/mol on Au38. This behavior is analyzed to quantify the impact of relativity and of dispersion interactions through a comparison of nonrelativistic, scalar-relativistic, and dispersioncorrected DFT methods. Nonrelativistic calculations show a clear trend down the triad, with larger in size nanoparticle (NP), weaker O2 adsorption energy, and higher O2 dissociation barrier, which is so high for Au38 to be in sharp contrast with the mild conditions used experimentally. Inclusion of relativity has no impact on the O2 adsorption energy, but it reduces the energy barrier for O2 dissociation on Au38 from 30.1 to 11.4 kcal/mol, making it even lower than that on Ag38 and consistent with the mild conditions used experimentally. Dispersion interactions have a remarkable role in improving the adsorption ability of O2 on the heavier Ag38 and especially Au38 NPs, contributing roughly 50% of the total adsorption energy, while they have much less impact on O2 adsorption on Cu38.

  9. The XMM Cluster Survey: evolution of the velocity dispersion-temperature relation over half a Hubble time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Susan; Hilton, Matt; Rooney, Philip J.; Caldwell, Caroline; Kay, Scott T.; Collins, Chris A.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Romer, A. Kathy; Bermeo, Alberto; Bernstein, Rebecca; da Costa, Luiz; Gifford, Daniel; Hollowood, Devon; Hoyle, Ben; Jeltema, Tesla; Liddle, Andrew R.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Mann, Robert G.; Mayers, Julian A.; Mehrtens, Nicola; Miller, Christopher J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Ogando, Ricardo; Sahlén, Martin; Stahl, Benjamin; Stott, John P.; Thomas, Peter A.; Viana, Pedro T. P.; Wilcox, Harry

    2016-11-01

    We measure the evolution of the velocity dispersion-temperature (σv-TX) relation up to z = 1 using a sample of 38 galaxy clusters drawn from the XMM Cluster Survey. This work improves upon previous studies by the use of a homogeneous cluster sample and in terms of the number of high-redshift clusters included. We present here new redshift and velocity dispersion measurements for 12 z > 0.5 clusters observed with the Gemini Multi Object Spectographs instruments on the Gemini telescopes. Using an orthogonal regression method, we find that the slope of the relation is steeper than that expected if clusters were self-similar, and that the evolution of the normalization is slightly negative, but not significantly different from zero (σv ∝ T0.86±0.14E(z)-0.37±0.33). We verify our results by applying our methods to cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. The lack of evolution seen in our data is consistent with simulations that include both feedback and radiative cooling.

  10. Linear Dispersion Relation and Depth Sensitivity to Swell Parameters: Application to Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging and Bathymetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Boccia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long gravity waves or swell dominating the sea surface is known to be very useful to estimate seabed morphology in coastal areas. The paper reviews the main phenomena related to swell waves propagation that allow seabed morphology to be sensed. The linear dispersion is analysed and an error budget model is developed to assess the achievable depth accuracy when Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data are used. The relevant issues and potentials of swell-based bathymetry by SAR are identified and discussed. This technique is of particular interest for characteristic regions of the Mediterranean Sea, such as in gulfs and relatively close areas, where traditional SAR-based bathymetric techniques, relying on strong tidal currents, are of limited practical utility.

  11. Linear dispersion relation and depth sensitivity to swell parameters: application to synthetic aperture radar imaging and bathymetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Valentina; Renga, Alfredo; Rufino, Giancarlo; D'Errico, Marco; Moccia, Antonio; Aragno, Cesare; Zoffoli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Long gravity waves or swell dominating the sea surface is known to be very useful to estimate seabed morphology in coastal areas. The paper reviews the main phenomena related to swell waves propagation that allow seabed morphology to be sensed. The linear dispersion is analysed and an error budget model is developed to assess the achievable depth accuracy when Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data are used. The relevant issues and potentials of swell-based bathymetry by SAR are identified and discussed. This technique is of particular interest for characteristic regions of the Mediterranean Sea, such as in gulfs and relatively close areas, where traditional SAR-based bathymetric techniques, relying on strong tidal currents, are of limited practical utility.

  12. Is ‘Superluminal’Light Propagation Possible in Dispersive Media?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kai; WU Ling-An; SHIH Yan-Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ In a dispersive medium, different monochromatic modes of light have different phase velocities. Under special circumstances, a superposition of these modes results in an interesting effect wherein the group velocity (the velocity at which the peak of the wavepacket propagates) could be greater than c or even negative although the phase velocities of the modes are all less than c. Can this superluminal group velocity be used for information velocity of its component modes. Thus the maximum speed for information transfer, which involves the sending of a finite pulse, cannot be greater than the maximum phase velocity in the medium.

  13. A search for the analogue to Cherenkov radiation by high energy neutrinos at superluminal speeds in ICARUS

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, M.; Baibussinov, B.; Baldo Ceolin, M.; Benetti, P.; Calligarich, E.; Canci, N.; Carbonara, F.; Centro, S.; Cesana, A.; Cieslik, K.; Cline, D.B.; Cocco, A.G.; Dabrowska, A.; Dequal, D.; Dermenev, A.; Dolfini, R.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Ferrari, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Gibin, D.; Gigli Berzolari, A.; Gninenko, S.; Guglielmi, A.; Haranczyk, M.; Holeczek, J.; Ivashkin, A.; Kisiel, J.; Kochanek, I.; Lagoda, J.; Mania, S.; Mannocchi, G.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Montanari, C.; Otwinowski, S.; Periale, L.; Piazzoli, A.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Plonski, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.R.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scaramelli, A.; Segreto, E.; Sergiampietri, F.; Stefan, D.; Stepaniak, J.; Sulej, R.; Szarska, M.; Terrani, M.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H.; Yang, X.; Zalewska, A.; Zaremba, K.; Cohen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The OPERA collaboration [1] has claimed evidence of superluminal propagation between CERN and the LNGS with . We find that the neutrino energy distribution of the ICARUS events in LAr agrees with the expectations from the Monte Carlo predictions from an unaffected energy distribution of beam from CERN. Our results therefore refute a superluminal interpretation of the OPERA result according to the Cohen and Glashow prediction [2] for a weak currents analog to Cherenkov radiation. In particular no events with a superluminal Cherenkov like e+e- pair or gamma emission have been directly observed inside the fiducial volume of the "bubble chamber like" ICARUS TPC-LAr detector, setting much stricter limits to the value of delta comparable with the one due to the observations from the SN1987A.

  14. LSQ14bdq: A Type Ic super-luminous supernova with a double-peaked light curve

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholl, M; Jerkstrand, A; Sim, S A; Inserra, C; Anderson, J P; Baltay, C; Benetti, S; Chambers, K; Chen, T -W; Elias-Rosa, N; Feindt, U; Flewelling, H A; Fraser, M; Gal-Yam, A; Galbany, L; Huber, M E; Kangas, T; Kankare, E; Kotak, R; Krühler, T; Maguire, K; McKinnon, R; Rabinowitz, D; Rostami, S; Schulze, S; Smith, K W; Sullivan, M; Tonry, J L; Valenti, S; Young, D R

    2015-01-01

    We present data for LSQ14bdq, a hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernova (SLSN) discovered by the La Silla QUEST survey and classified by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects. The spectrum and light curve are very similar to slow-declining SLSNe such as PTF12dam. However, detections within $\\sim1$ day after explosion show a bright and relatively fast initial peak, lasting for $\\sim15$ days, prior to the usual slow rise to maximum light. The broader, main peak can be fit with either central engine or circumstellar interaction models. We discuss the implications of the precursor peak in the context of these models. It is too bright and narrow to be explained as a normal \\Ni-powered SN, and we suggest that interaction models may struggle to fit the precursor and main peak simultaneously. We propose that the initial peak is from the post-shock cooling of an extended stellar envelope, and reheating by a central engine drives the second peak. In this picture, we show that an explosion energy of $\\...

  15. DES14X3taz: A Type I Superluminous Supernova Showing a Luminous, Rapidly Cooling Initial Pre-Peak Bump

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, M; D'Andrea, C B; Castander, F J; Casas, R; Prajs, S; Papadopoulos, A; Nichol, R C; Karpenka, N V; Bernard, S R; Brown, P; Cartier, R; Cooke, J; Curtin, C; Davis, T M; Finley, D A; Foley, R J; Gal-Yam, A; Goldstein, D A; González-Gaitán, S; Gupta, R R; Howell, D A; Inserra, C; Kessler, R; Lidman, C; Marriner, J; Nugent, P; Pritchard, T A; Sako, M; Smartt, S; Smith, R C; Spinka, H; Wolf, R C; Zentano, A; Abbott, T M C; Benoit-Lévy, A; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Crocce, M; Cunha, C E; da Costa, L N; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Doel, P; Estrada, J; Evrard, A E; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D W; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; James, D J; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Li, T S; Marshall, J L; Martini, P; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Rykoff, E S; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thomas, R C; Walker, A R; Wester, W

    2015-01-01

    We present DES14X3taz, a new hydrogen-poor super luminous supernova (SLSN-I) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova program, with additional photometric data provided by the Survey Using DECam for Superluminous Supernovae (SUDSS). Spectra obtained using OSIRIS on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) show DES14X3taz is a SLSN-I at z=0.608. Multi-color photometry reveals a double-peaked light curve: a blue and relatively bright initial peak that fades rapidly prior to the slower rise of the main light curve. Our multi-color photometry allows us, for the first time, to show that the initial peak cools from 22,000K to 8,000K over 15 rest-frame days, and is faster and brighter than any published core-collapse supernova, reaching 30% of the bolometric luminosity of the main peak. No physical Ni-powered model can fit this initial peak. We show that a shock-cooling model followed by a magnetar driving the second phase of the light curve can adequately explain the light curve of DES14X3taz, with the coolin...

  16. Relation of early changes of QT dispersion to changes in left ventricular systolic and diastolic function after a first acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob E; Husic, Mirza; Søndergaard, Eva

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the relation between changes of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and changes of QT dispersion (difference in duration between longest and shortest QT interval) following acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN: QT dispersion was determined at admission, hospital...... normalized QT dispersion was associated with a significant decrease of ventricular volumes. After 1 year end-systolic (70 +/- 32 ml vs 49 +/- 16 ml, p = 0.006) and end-diastolic volumes (138 +/- 41 ml vs 105 +/- 22 ml, p = 0.001) were higher in Group B. In a multivariate model Group B was significantly...

  17. Enhanced Sensitivity in a Superluminal Single Mode DPAL Cavity at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Salloum, Tony; Yablon, Joshua; Tseng, Shih; Shahriar, Selim

    2012-06-01

    The note beat between two counter-propagating beams in a cavity is used to measure the effective change of the length of the cavity or interferometer for applications such as optical gyroscopes, vibrometers, and gravitational wave detectors. We show in this talk how a superluminal single mode laser cavity can enhance the measured note beat dramatically. We consider the inhomogeneous broadening case and study the dependence of the enhancement factor on few key parameters. We also show how Diode Pump Alkali Lasers (DPAL) are excellent candidates for such devices. Using a Rubidium based DPAL, we study the characteristics of these lasers and their effect on the proposed enhanced sensitivity.

  18. Closed timelike curves, superluminal signals, and "free will" in universal quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolic, H

    2010-01-01

    We explore some implications of the hypothesis that quantum mechanics (QM) is universal, i.e., that QM does not merely describe information accessible to observers, but that it also describes the observers themselves. From that point of view, "free will" (FW) - the ability of experimentalists to make free choices of initial conditions - is merely an illusion. As a consequence, by entangling a part of brain (responsible for the illusion of FW) with a distant particle, one may create nonlocal correlations that can be interpreted as superluminal signals. In addition, if FW is an illusion, then QM on a closed timelike curve can be made consistent even without the Deutch nonlinear consistency constraint.

  19. Diffraction effects in microwave propagation at the origin of superluminal behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranfagni, A. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata ' Nello Carrara' , Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Ricci, A.M. [Istituto per le Telecomunicazioni e l' Elettronica della Marina Militare ' Giancarlo Vallauri' (Mariteleradar), Viale Italia 72, 57100 Livorno (Italy); Ruggeri, R. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: rocco.ruggeri@isc.cnr.it; Agresti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, Firenze (Italy)

    2008-10-27

    Superluminal behaviors, as evidenced by the presence of forerunners, in advanced position with respect to the main luminal peak, have been revealed in microwave propagation experiments by using a radar technique. The results are interpreted on the basis of (fast) complex waves, usually considered only in the near-field region, but still surviving beyond this limit. Consideration of further diffraction effects, as due to geometrical limitations of the experimental set-up, allows for the obtainment of a plausible description of the results.

  20. SGC Switching Between Subluminal to Superluminal Propagation in V-Type Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ding-An; GUO Hong; BAI Yan-Feng; SUN Hui; ZENG Ya-Guang

    2006-01-01

    For a V-type three-level atomic system with two closely spaced upper levels, we investigate the light pulse propagation properties with only one laser field. Due to spontaneously generated coherence, the group velocity of the light pulse can be changed from subluminal to superluminal. The effects of the field intensity and the two-upper level splitting on the group velocity are also shown. At last, an analytical expression for the group velocity is given in the case of a weak field.

  1. Visualization of superluminal pulses inside a white light cavity using plane wave spatio temporal transfer functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, H N; Jang, Y J; Liu, X; Shahriar, M S

    2012-08-13

    In a white light cavity (WLC), the group velocity is superluminal over a finite bandwidth. For a WLC-based data buffering system we recently proposed, it is important to visualize the behavior of pulses inside such a cavity. The conventional plane wave transfer functions, valid only over space that is translationally invariant, cannot be used for the space inside WLC or any cavity, which is translationally variant. Here, we develop the plane wave spatio temporal transfer function (PWSTTF) method to solve this problem, and produce visual representations of a Gaussian input pulse incident on a WLC, for all times and positions.

  2. Universe of superluminal velocities: tests of astrophysics, from dogma-to reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechelnitsky, A.

    The Barrier of speed of light is the most chained and, perhaps, the most unreasonable Interdiction of the standard (astro) physics and cosmology. Its theoretical bases are speculative and unconvincing, and it actually has not been proved by observations from the very beginning of its promulgations. Moreover, it is gradually increase a stream of the observational data frankly contradicting to the Barrier. This monumental Dogma substantially holds down the initiative of researchers and development of sciences about the Universe. Resolving proofs of absence of the Barrier and real existence of superluminal velocities can come, most likely, from the side of observational astrophysics, when appear fair predictions, based on the alternative theory. Predictions and observational Tests, in particular, are those. The advanced astrophysical researches will lead to accumulation of the precision data and construction of histograms of the velocities observable in the Universe (in the centers of galaxies, AGN, blazàrs, BL Lac, etc), which will show: i) Distribution of the transversal (in a picture plane) superluminal velocities has distinct peaks near to the values specified by the alternative theory: (in G[ -6] Shell) β =v/c: 1.77; 1.48; 1.25; 1.05; 0.88; 0.74; 0.62; 0.52; 0.44; (G[ -7] Shell) β =v/c:: 6.48 ; 5.45; 4.58; 3.85; 3.24; 2.72; 2.29; 1.92; 1.62; (G[ -8] Shell) β =v/c: 23.79; 20.00; 16.82; 14.14; 11.89; 10.00; 8.41; 7.07; 5.95 ii) The same peaks are available (already now, - and it can be shown on the basis of the spectroscopic data) in distribution (histograms) of beam (radial) superluminal velocities (with the same multiplicator M = 2 = 1.1892). iii) The predicted property of discreteness, quantization of superluminal velocities (as well as subluminal) velocities is the exclusive pattern, essentially distinguishing alternative representations (Wave Universe Concept [Chechelnitsky 1980-2004]; see, in particular, the bibliography in Advances in Space Research, v

  3. Stellar Populations across the Black Hole Mass-Velocity Dispersion Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Brodie, Jean P.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Forbes, Duncan A.

    2016-11-01

    Coevolution between supermassive black holes (BH) and their host galaxies is universally adopted in models for galaxy formation. In the absence of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), simulated massive galaxies keep forming stars in the local universe. From an observational point of view, however, such coevolution remains unclear. We present a stellar population analysis of galaxies with direct BH mass measurements and the BH mass-σ relation as a working framework. We find that over-massive BH galaxies, i.e., galaxies lying above the best-fitting BH mass-σ line, tend to be older and more α-element-enhanced than under-massive BH galaxies. The scatter in the BH mass-σ-[α/Fe] plane is significantly lower than that in the standard BH mass-σ relation. We interpret this trend as an imprint of AGN feedback on the star formation histories of massive galaxies.

  4. More about tunnelling times and superluminal tunnelling (Hartmann effect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olkhovsky, V.S. [Ukrainian Akademy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. for Nuclear Research]|[INFN-Sezione di Catania (Italy); Recami, E. [Bergamo Univ. (Italy). Facolta` di Ingegneria]|[State Univ. at Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Raciti, F. [Catania Univ. (Italy); Zaichenko, A. [Ukrainian Akademy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. for Nuclear Reserch

    1995-05-01

    Aims of the present paper are: (i) presenting and analysing the results of various numerical calculations on the penetration and return times <{tau}{sub Pen}>, <{tau}{sub Ret}>, during tunnelling inside a rectangular potential barrier, for various penetration depths x{sub f}; (ii) putting forth and discussing suitable definitions, besides of the mean values, also of the variances (or dispersions) D{sub {tau}T} and D{sub {tau}R} for the time durations of transmission and reflection processes; (iii) mentioning, moreover, that our definition <{tau}{sub T}> for the average transmission time results to constitute an improvement of the ordinary dwell- time formula; (iv) commenting, at last, on the basis of the new numerical results, upon some recent criticism by C.R. Leavens. The paper stresses that numerical evaluations confirm that the approach implied, and implies, the existence of the Hartmann effect: an effect that in these days (due to the theoretical connections between tunnelling and evanescent-wave propagation) is receiving - at Cologne, Berkeley, Florence and Vienna - indirect, but quite interesting, experimental verification.

  5. A new approach to measure phonon dispersion relation (PDR) by Raman scattering and a downbending observation in diamond PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Lin; Xia, Lei; Chen, Weihua; Li, D. Y.; Li, Wanyu; He, Juan

    2016-12-01

    The phonon dispersion relation (PDR), i.e., the dependence of phonon frequency ω on its wavevector q, ω(q), was measured traditionally by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) or inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS). A new approach to measure PDR by Raman scattering (RS) of nanostructures was proposed and applied to observe the longitudinal optical (LO) PDR of diamond successfully. Due to the higher resolution and accuracy of ω and q in RS, a clear downbending feature of ω with increasing q away from the Brillouin zoon center was observed for the first time. The validity of the new approach has been confirmed also by the appearing of the downward bending in PDR, which is originally measured by traditional high-resolution IXS experiment. The downbending feature may give us a clue for deep understanding of the interactions occur in diamond, while the overbending feature observed by INS and IXS has been attributed to strong effective second-nearest-neighbor forces.

  6. Observation of the nonlinear dispersion relation and spatial statistics of wave turbulence on the surface of a fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Eric; Mordant, Nicolas; Falcon, Eric

    2010-10-01

    We report experiments on gravity-capillary wave turbulence on the surface of a fluid. The wave amplitudes are measured simultaneously in time and space by using an optical method. The full space-time power spectrum shows that the wave energy is localized on several branches in the wave-vector-frequency space. The number of branches depends on the power injected within the waves. The measurement of the nonlinear dispersion relation is found to be well described by a law suggesting that the energy transfer mechanisms involved in wave turbulence are restricted not only to purely resonant interaction between nonlinear waves. The power-law scaling of the spatial spectrum and the probability distribution of the wave amplitudes at a given wave number are also measured and compared to the theoretical predictions.

  7. The variability of processes involved in transgene dispersal - case studies from Brassica and related genera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo; D'Hertefeldt, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope We strive to predict consequences of genetically modified plants (GMPs) being cultivated openly in the environment, as human and animal health, biodiversity, agricultural practise and farmers’ economy could be affected. Therefore, it is unfortunate that the risk...... is a valuable tool in identifying key factors in the gene-flow process for which more knowledge is needed, and identifying parameters and processes which are relatively insensitive to change and therefore require less attention in future collections of data. But the interdependence between models...

  8. On the mass-metallicity relation, velocity dispersion and gravitational well depth of GRB host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Arabsalmani, Maryam; Fynbo, Johan P U; Christensen, Lise; Freudling, Wolfram; Savaglio, Sandra; Zafar, Tayyaba

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a sample of 16 absorption systems intrinsic to long duration GRB host galaxies at $z \\gtrsim 2$ for which the metallicities are known. We compare the relation between the metallicity and cold gas velocity width for this sample to that of the QSO-DLAs, and find complete agreement. We then compare the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity relation of our sample to that of QSO-DLAs and find that also GRB hosts favour a late onset of this evolution, around a redshift of $\\approx 2.6$. We compute predicted stellar masses for the GRB host galaxies using the prescription determined from QSO-DLA samples and compare the measured stellar masses for the four hosts where stellar masses have been determined from SED fits. We find excellent agreement and conclude that, on basis of all available data and tests, long duration GRB-DLA hosts and intervening QSO-DLAs are consistent with being drawn from the same underlying population. GRB host galaxies and QSO-DLAs are found to have different impact parameter di...

  9. Diurnal variation and dispersion in QT interval in cirrhosis: relation to haemodynamic changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stig; Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    with cirrhosis, undergoing a haemodynamic investigation. 24-h 12 lead Holter monitoring provided information on QT and heart rate variability. RESULTS: Mean QT(C) was above upper normal limit (440 ms(1/2)) in eleven patients (47%) and significantly higher than in controls (441 vs 400 ms(1/2), p...=0.03-0.001). No diurnal variation of QT(disp) was found in cirrhosis. Heart rate variability was reduced with a significant relation to central hypovolaemia (r=0.55, p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-four hours QT(C) is prolonged in a substantial fraction of patients with cirrhosis, but with normal...... diurnal variation. The combination of long QT(C) and normal QT(disp) suggests delayed myocyte repolarisation on the cellular level, rather than temporal and spatial heterogeneity in the myocardial wall....

  10. DIFFUSIVE-DISPERSIVE TRAVELING WAVES AND KINETIC RELATIONS IV.COMPRESSIBLE EULER EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The authors consider the Euler equations for a compressible fluid in one space dimensionwhen the equation of state of the fluid does not fulfill standard convexity assumptions andviscosity and capillarity effects are taken into account. A typical example of nonconvex con-stitutive equation for fluids is Van der Waals' equation. The first order terms of these partialdifferential equations form a nonlinear system of mixed (hyperbolic-elliptic) type. For a class ofnonconvex equations of state, an existence theorem of traveling waves solutions with arbitrarylarge amplitude is established here. The authors distinguish between classical (compressive) andnonclassical (undercompressive) traveling waves. The latter do not fulfill Lax shock inequali-ties, and are characterized by the so-called kinetic relation, whose properties are investigatedin this paper.

  11. Relative contribution of dispersal and natural selection to the maintenance of a hybrid zone in Littorina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Raquel; Vilas, Carlos; Mosquera, Javier; García, Carlos

    2004-12-01

    Habitat preference behavior may play an important role in nonallopatric speciation. However, most examples of habitat preference contributing to differentiation within natural populations correspond to parasites or herbivores living in the discrete environments constituted by their animal or plant hosts. In the present study we investigated migration guided by habitat preference in the intertidal snail Littorina saxatilis in a hybrid zone associated with an ecotone across the shore, which is therefore a continuously varying environment. First, we found evidence for this behavior in one of the two locations studied. Second, we made reciprocal transplants to suppress the phenotypic gradient observed across the hybrid zone and measured the relative contributions of selection and migration to its regeneration. Selection played an important role at the two locations studied, but migration was only important at one, where it accounted for between a third and a half of the regenerated gradient. This overall minor effect of migration was relevant for theoretical models dealing with nonallopatric speciation, because it suggested that variation for habitat preference did not have an important role in the initiation of the differentiation process. The preference behavior observed in the hybrid zone would have evolved secondarily, as a consequence of habitat-dependent fitness differences between phenotypes.

  12. Axonal transmission in the retina introduces a small dispersion of relative timing in the ganglion cell population response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Zeck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual stimuli elicit action potentials in tens of different retinal ganglion cells. Each ganglion cell type responds with a different latency to a given stimulus, thus transforming the high-dimensional input into a temporal neural code. The timing of the first spikes between different retinal projection neurons cells may further change along axonal transmission. The purpose of this study is to investigate if intraretinal conduction velocity leads to a synchronization or dispersion of the population signal leaving the eye. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We 'imaged' the initiation and transmission of light-evoked action potentials along individual axons in the rabbit retina at micron-scale resolution using a high-density multi-transistor array. We measured unimodal conduction velocity distributions (1.3±0.3 m/sec, mean ± SD for axonal populations at all retinal eccentricities with the exception of the central part that contains myelinated axons. The velocity variance within each piece of retina is caused by ganglion cell types that show narrower and slightly different average velocity tuning. Ganglion cells of the same type respond with similar latency to spatially homogenous stimuli and conduct with similar velocity. For ganglion cells of different type intraretinal conduction velocity and response latency to flashed stimuli are negatively correlated, indicating that differences in first spike timing increase (up to 10 msec. Similarly, the analysis of pair-wise correlated activity in response to white-noise stimuli reveals that conduction velocity and response latency are negatively correlated. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Intraretinal conduction does not change the relative spike timing between ganglion cells of the same type but increases spike timing differences among ganglion cells of different type. The fastest retinal ganglion cells therefore act as indicators of new stimuli for postsynaptic neurons. The intraretinal dispersion

  13. Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholl, M; Jerkstrand, A; Inserra, C; McCrum, M; Kotak, R; Fraser, M; Wright, D; Chen, T -W; Smith, K; Young, D R; Sim, S A; Valenti, S; Howell, D A; Bresolin, F; Kudritzki, R P; Tonry, J L; Huber, M E; Rest, A; Pastorello, A; Tomasella, L; Cappellaro, E; Benetti, S; Mattila, S; Kankare, E; Kangas, T; Leloudas, G; Sollerman, J; Taddia, F; Berger, E; Chornock, R; Narayan, G; Stubbs, C W; Foley, R J; Lunnan, R; Soderberg, A; Sanders, N; Milisavljevic, D; Margutti, R; Kirshner, R P; Elias-Rosa, N; Morales-Garoffolo, A; Taubenberger, S; Botticella, M T; Gezari, S; Urata, Y; Rodney, S; Riess, A G; Scolnic, D; Wood-Vasey, W M; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K; Flewelling, H A; Magnier, E A; Kaiser, N; Metcalfe, N; Morgan, J; Price, P A; Sweeney, W; Waters, C

    2013-01-01

    Super-luminous supernovae that radiate more than 10^44 ergs per second at their peak luminosity have recently been discovered in faint galaxies at redshifts of 0.1-4. Some evolve slowly, resembling models of 'pair-instability' supernovae. Such models involve stars with original masses 140-260 times that of the Sun that now have carbon-oxygen cores of 65-30 solar masses. In these stars, the photons that prevent gravitational collapse are converted to electron-positron pairs, causing rapid contraction and thermonuclear explosions. Many solar masses of 56Ni are synthesized; this isotope decays to 56Fe via 56Co, powering bright light curves. Such massive progenitors are expected to have formed from metal-poor gas in the early Universe. Recently, supernova 2007bi in a galaxy at redshift 0.127 (about 12 billion years after the Big Bang) with a metallicity one-third that of the Sun was observed to look like a fading pair-instability supernova. Here we report observations of two slow-to-fade super-luminous supernovae...

  14. The evolution of superluminous supernova LSQ14mo and its interacting host galaxy system

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, T -W; Smartt, S J; Mazzali, P A; Yates, R M; Moriya, T J; Inserra, C; Langer, N; Kruehler, T; Pan, Y -C; Kotak, R; Galbany, L; Schady, P; Wiseman, P; Greiner, J; Schulze, S; Man, A W S; Jerkstrand, A; Smith, K W; Dennefeld, M; Baltay, C; Bolmer, J; Kankare, E; Knust, F; Maguire, K; Rabinowitz, D; Rostami, S; Sullivan, M; Young, D R

    2016-01-01

    We present and analyse an extensive dataset of the superluminous supernova LSQ14mo (z = 0.256), consisting of a multi-colour lightcurve from -30 d to +70 d in the rest-frame and a series of 6 spectra from PESSTO covering -7 d to +50 d. This is among the densest spectroscopic coverage, and best-constrained rising lightcurve, for a fast-declining hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova. The bolometric lightcurve can be reproduced with a millisecond magnetar model with ~ 4 M_sol ejecta mass, and the temperature and velocity evolution is also suggestive of a magnetar as the power source. Spectral modelling indicates that the SN ejected ~ 6 M_sol of CO-rich material with a kinetic energy of ~ 7 x 10^51 erg, and suggests a partially thermalised additional source of luminosity between -2 d and +22 d. This may be due to interaction with a shell of material originating from pre-explosion mass loss. We further present a detailed analysis of the host galaxy system of LSQ14mo. PESSTO and GROND imaging show three spatially ...

  15. Predictions for signatures of the quark-nova in superluminous supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyed, Rachid; Jaikumar, Prashanth

    2009-01-01

    [Abridged] Superluminous Supernovae (SN2006gy, SN2005gj, SN2005ap, SN2008fz, SN2003ma) have been a challenge to explain by standard models. We present an alternative scenario involving a quark-nova (QN), an explosive transition of the newly born neutron star to a quark star in which a second explosion (delayed) occurs inside the already expanding ejecta of a normal SN. The reheated SN ejecta can radiate at higher levels for longer periods of time primarily due to reduced adiabatic expansion losses, unlike the standard SN case. Our model is successfully applied to SN2006gy, SN2005gj, SN2005ap, SN2008fz, SN2003ma with encouraging fits to the lightcurves. There are four predictions in our model: (i) superluminous SNe optical lightcurves should show a double-hump with the SN hump at weaker magnitudes occurring days to weeks before the QN; (ii) Two shock breakouts should be observed vis-a-vis one for a normal SN. Depending on the time delay, this would manifest as two distinct spikes in the X-ray region or a broad...

  16. Superluminal motion in a compact steep spectrum radio source 3C 138

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Z Q; Kameno, S; Chen, Y J

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of 5 GHz VLBI observations of a compact steep spectrum source 3C 138. The data are consistent with the western end being the location of the central activity. The observed offset between different frequencies in the central region of 3C 138 can be accounted for by a frequency dependent shift of the synchrotron self-absorbed core. Our new measurements confirm the existence of a superluminal motion, but its apparent velocity of 3.3c is three times slower than the reported one. This value is consistent with the absence of parsec-scale counter-jet emission in the inner region, but seems still too high to allow the overall counter-jet to be seen in terms of Doppler boosting of an intrinsically identical jet. Either an interaction of jet with central dense medium, or an intrinsically asymmetrical jet must be invoked to reconcile the detected superluminal speed with the observed large scale asymmetry in 3C 138.

  17. ASASSN-15lh: A Superluminous Ultraviolet Rebrightening Observed by Swift and Hubble

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Peter J; Cooke, Jeff; Olaes, Melanie; Quimby, Robert M; Baade, Dietrich; Gehrels, Neil; Hoeflich, Peter; Maund, Justyn; Mould, Jeremy; Patat, Ferdinando; Wang, Lifan; Wheeler, J Craig

    2016-01-01

    We present and discuss ultraviolet (UV) and optical photometry from the Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) and X-ray limits from the X-Ray Telescope on Swift and imaging polarimetry and UV/optical spectroscopy with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of ASASSN-15lh. It has been classified as a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN I) more luminous than any other supernova observed. From the polarimetry we determine that the explosion was only mildly asymmetric. We find the flux of ASASSN-15lh to increase strongly into the UV, with a UV luminosity a hundred times greater than the hydrogen-rich, UV-bright SLSN II SN~2008es. A late rebrightening -- most prominent at shorter wavelengths -- is seen about two months after the peak brightness, which by itself is as bright as a superluminous supernova. ASASSN-15lh is not detected in the X-rays in individual observations or when the data are summed into two separate bins for the early phase and the rebrightening. The HST UV spectrum during the rebrightening is do...

  18. Two superluminous supernovae from the early universe discovered by the Supernova Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, D A; Lidman, C; Sullivan, M; Conley, A; Astier, P; Carlberg, C Balland R G; Fouchez, D; Guy, J; Hardin, D; Pain, R; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Perrett, K; Pritchet, C J; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V

    2013-01-01

    We present spectra and lightcurves of SNLS 06D4eu and SNLS 07D2bv, two hydrogen-free superluminous supernovae discovered by the Supernova Legacy Survey. At z = 1.588, SNLS 06D4eu is the highest redshift superluminous SN with a spectrum, at M_U = -22.7 is one of the most luminous SNe ever observed, and gives a rare glimpse into the restframe ultraviolet where these supernovae put out their peak energy. SNLS 07D2bv does not have a host galaxy redshift, but based on the supernova spectrum, we estimate it to be at z ~ 1.5. Both supernovae have similar observer-frame griz lightcurves, which map to restframe lightcurves in the U-band and UV, rising in ~ 20 restframe days or longer, and declining over a similar timescale. The lightcurves peak in the shortest wavelengths first, consistent with an expanding blackbody starting near 15,000 K and steadily declining in temperature. We compare the spectra to theoretical models, and identify lines of C II, C III, Fe III, and Mg II in the spectrum of SNLS 06D4eu and SCP 06F6...

  19. Extensions of Born’s rule to non-linear quantum mechanics, some of which do not imply superluminal communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Bassam; Chen, Yanbei

    2017-08-01

    Nonlinear modifications of quantum mechanics have a troubled history. They were initially studied for many promising reasons: resolving the measurement problem, formulating a theory of quantum mechanics and gravity, and understanding the limits of standard quantum mechanics. However, certain non-linear theories have been experimentally tested and failed. More significantly, it has been shown that, in general, deterministic non-linear theories can be used for superluminal communication. We highlight another serious issue: the distribution of measurement results predicted by non-linear quantum mechanics depends on the formulation of quantum mechanics. In other words, Born’s rule cannot be uniquely extended to non-linear quantum mechanics. We present these generalizations of Born’s rule, and then examine whether some exclude superluminal communication. We determine that a large class do not allow for superluminal communication, but many lack a consistent definition. Nonetheless, we find a single extension of Born’s rule with a sound operational definition, and that does not exhibit superluminal communication. The non-linear time-evolution leading to a certain measurement event is driven by the state conditioned on measurements that lie within the past light cone of that event.

  20. Superluminal Radio Features in the M87 Jet and the Site of Flaring TeV Gamma-ray Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, C C; Stawarz, L

    2007-01-01

    Superluminal motion is a common feature of radio jets in powerful gamma-ray emitting active galactic nuclei. Conventionally, the variable emission is assumed to originate near the central supermassive black-hole where the jet is launched on parsec scales or smaller. Here, we report the discovery of superluminal radio features within a distinct flaring X-ray emitting region in the jet of the nearby radio galaxy M87 with the Very Long Baseline Array. This shows that these two phenomenological hallmarks -- superluminal motion and high-energy variability -- are associated, and we place this activity much further (>=120 pc) from the ``central engine'' in M87 than previously thought in relativistic jet sources. We argue that the recent excess very high-energy TeV emission from M87 reported by the H.E.S.S. experiment originates from this variable superluminal structure, thus providing crucial insight into the production region of gamma-ray emission in more distant blazars.

  1. Long-distance dispersal in migratory pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca is relatively common between the UK and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.; Robinson, R.A.; Van der Jeugd, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal can potentially have important consequences for evolutionary change, but is difficult to quantify. We present quantitative estimates of natal dispersal between the UK and the Netherlands in a long-distance migratory bird, the pied flycatcher. Due to over 90 000 individual rin

  2. A chemical signal possibly related to physiology in fossil cells detected by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X

    2006-02-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) is a widely used tool employed to detect elemental composition and its spatial distribution in a sample without causing damage. Charcoalified cytoplasm is a new type of fossil material that came to people's attention only recently. In this paper, EDXMA is used for the first time to detect the spatial elemental distribution in charcoalified cytoplasm of two fossil plants that are more than 100 million years old. The results demonstrate certain elemental distribution patterns within charcoalified cytoplasm and the surrounding cell walls. Based on the results from cytological studies of extant material, the heterogeneous spatial elemental distribution within the charcoalified cytoplasm has the potential to be related to the maturation of cells, the presence of certain organelles, and the physiology of these organelles. This is the first chemical signal detected in cytoplasm residue that can possibly be related to plant physiology. This paves the way for further research on fossil cytoplasm, which will better our understanding on the physiology of fossil plants.

  3. New insights into the phylogeny and worldwide dispersion of two closely related nematode species, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Bursaphelenchus mucronatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pereira

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the greatest threats to coniferous forests worldwide, causing severe ecological damage and economic loss. The biology of B. xylophilus is similar to that of its closest relative, B. mucronatus, as both species share food resources and insect vectors, and have very similar morphological characteristics, although little pathogenicity to conifers has been associated with B. mucronatus. Using both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we show that B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus form distinct phylogenetic groups with contrasting phylogeographic patterns. B. xylophilus presents lower levels of intraspecific diversity than B. mucronatus, as expected for a species that evolved relatively recently through geographical or reproductive isolation. Genetic diversity was particularly low in recently colonised areas, such as in southwestern Europe. By contrast, B. mucronatus displays high levels of genetic diversity and two well-differentiated clades in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA phylogenies. The lack of correlation between genetic and geographic distances in B. mucronatus suggests intense gene flow among distant regions, a phenomenon that may have remained unnoticed due to the reduced pathogenicity of the species. Overall, our findings suggest that B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus have different demographic histories despite their morphological resemblance and ecological overlap. These results suggest that Bursaphelenchus species are a valuable model for understanding the dispersion of invasive species and the risks posed to native biodiversity and ecosystems.

  4. Gas-solute dispersivity ratio in granular porous media as related to particle size distribution and particle shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Straface, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    data. This paper evaluates the possibility for estimating solute dispersion based on gas dispersion measurements. Breakthrough measurements were carried out at different fluid velocities (covering the same range in Reynolds number), using O2 and NaCl as gas and solute tracers, respectively. Three...... different, granular porous materials were used: (1) crushed granite (very angular particles), (2) gravel (particles of intermediate roundness) and (3) Leca® (almost spherical particles). For each material, 21 different particle size fractions were used. Gas and solute dispersion coefficients were determined...

  5. On causality, apparent 'superluminality' and reshaping in barrier penetration

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolovski, D

    2010-01-01

    We consider tunnelling of a non-relativistic particle across a potential barrier. It is shown that the barrier acts as an effective beam splitter which builds up the transmitted pulse from the copies of the initial envelope shifted in the coordinate space backwards relative to the free propagation. Although along each pathway causality is explicitly obeyed, in special cases reshaping can result an overall reduction of the initial envelope, accompanied by an arbitrary coordinate shift. In the case of a high barrier the delay amplitude distribution (DAD) mimics a Dirac $\\delta$-function, the transmission amplitude is superoscillatory for finite momenta and tunnelling leads to an accurate advancement of the (reduced) initial envelope by the barrier width. In the case of a wide barrier, initial envelope is accurately translated into the complex coordinate plane. The complex shift, given by the first moment of the DAD, accounts for both the displacement of the maximum of the transmitted probability density and the...

  6. Temporal coupled mode theory linking to surface-wave dispersion relations in near-field electromagnetic heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Hideo; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-11-01

    We provide a detailed discussion of the use of coupled mode theory to describe near-field heat transfer. We consider a simple physical model system of coupled harmonic oscillators with each oscillator maintaining at a different temperature, where heat transfer between the oscillators can be analytically treated from first-principles using the Newton's equation and the fluctuation dissipation theorem. Applying a slowly varying envelope approximation to the Newton's equation, we derive a coupled mode theory formalism. We then apply this coupled mode theory formalism in the study of the near-field heat transfer between either silicon carbide plates or between two graphene sheets. The coupled mode theory provides a quantitative link between the dispersion relation of the coupled system and the heat transfer, and agrees with exact numerical results over all range of wavevectors. To obtain such complete agreement, the key observation here is that one should include the frequency shift, that is, the frequency of the individual mode used in the coupled mode theory should be different from the frequency of the mode of an isolated structure. Finally, we show that the coupled mode theory can be applied even when more than two modes are involved in the heat transfer. As an example, we extend our formalism to the near-field heat transfer in a four-layer graphene structure.

  7. Relations de dispersion pour cha\\^ines lin\\'eaires comportant des interactions harmoniques auto-similaires

    CERN Document Server

    Michelitsch, Thomas M; Nicolleau, Franck C G A; Nowakowski, Andrzej F; Derogar, Shahram

    2009-01-01

    Many systems in nature have arborescent and bifurcated structures such as trees, fern, snails, lungs, the blood vessel system, etc. and look self-similar over a wide range of scales. Which are the mechanical and dynamic properties that evolution has optimized by choosing self-similarity? How can we describe the mechanics of self-similar structures in the static and dynamic framework? Physical systems with self-similarity as a symmetry property require the introduction of non-local particle-particle interactions and a (quasi-) continuous distribution of mass. We construct self-similar functions and linear operators such as a self-similar variant of the Laplacian and of the D'Alembertian wave operator. The obtained self-similar linear wave equation describes the dynamics of a quasi-continuous linear chain of infinite length with a spatially self-similar distribution of nonlocal inter-particle springs. The self-similarity of the nonlocal harmonic particle-particle interactions results in a dispersion relation of...

  8. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis using fundamental parameter approach of Catha edulis and other related plant samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A.; Moharram, Mohammed A.; Mostafa, Nasser Y.

    2012-01-01

    This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method.

  9. Taking stock of superluminous supernovae and long gamma-ray burst host galaxy comparison using a complete sample of LGRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japelj, J.; Vergani, S. D.; Salvaterra, R.; Hunt, L. K.; Mannucci, F.

    2016-10-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) and superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are both explosive transients with very massive progenitor stars. Clues about the nature of the progenitors can be found by investigating environments in which such transients occur. While studies of LGRB host galaxies have a long history, dedicated observational campaigns have only recently resulted in a high enough number of photometrically and spectroscopically observed SLSN hosts to allow statistically significant analysis of their properties. In this paper we make a comparison of the host galaxies of hydrogen-poor (H-poor) SLSNe and the Swift/BAT6 sample of LGRBs. In contrast to previous studies, we use a complete sample of LGRBs and we pay special attention to the comparison methodology and the selection of SLSN sample whose data have been compiled from the available literature. At intermediate redshifts (0.3 < z < 0.7) the two classes of transients select galaxies whose properties (stellar mass, luminosity, star formation rate, specific star formation rate and metallicity) do not differ significantly. Moreover, the host galaxies of both classes of objects follow the fundamental metallicity relation and the fundamental plane of metallicity. In contrast to previous studies we show that at intermediate redshifts the emission line equivalent widths of the two populations are essentially the same and that the previous claims regarding the higher fraction of SLSN hosts among the extreme emission line galaxies with respect to LGRBs are mostly due to a larger fraction of strong-line emitters among SLSN hosts at z < 0.3, where samples of LGRB hosts are small and poorly defined.

  10. Magnetar-Powered Supernovae in Two Dimensions. I. Superluminous Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Sukhbold, Tuguldur

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the radiation emitted by a rapidly rotating magnetar embedded in a young supernova can greatly amplify its luminosity. These one-dimensional studies have also revealed the existence of an instability arising from the piling up of radiatively accelerated matter in a thin dense shell deep inside the supernova. Here we examine the problem in two dimensions and find that, while instabilities cause mixing and fracture this shell into filamentary structures that reduce the density contrast, the concentration of matter in a hollow shell persists. The extent of the mixing depends upon the relative energy input by the magnetar and the kinetic energy of the inner ejecta. The light curve and spectrum of the resulting supernova will be appreciably altered, as will the appearance of the supernova remnant, which will be shellular and filamentary. A similar pile up and mixing might characterize other events where energy is input over an extended period by a centrally concentrated source, e.g...

  11. Variations of Positive and Negative Dispersions in Both Highly and Weakly Absorptive Atomic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Salloum, Tony; Snell, Scott; Davis, Jon; Narducci, Frank

    2011-05-01

    Positive and negative dispersive media are essential in subluminal, superluminal and negative group velocity pulse propagation applications. Three-level atomic media at resonance, especially the Lambda configuration, are positively dispersive and transparent. In contrast, two-level atomic systems are negatively dispersive and opaque. In this work we study higher level atomic systems comprised of three fields coupled to three levels (double lambda) or four levels (N-Scheme). We explore the systems of interest for critical features such as negative dispersion and transparency, a combination that is needed in numerous applications, e.g. optical gyroscopes. We solve the time dependent equations perturbatively and compare them to well established behavior in three-level systems. Some of the results are analyzed in terms of resonances which control the different features of the observed dispersive and absorptive behaviors.

  12. Dispersion of traffic-related exhaust particles near the Berlin urban motorway – estimation of fleet emission factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Birmili

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particle number size distributions of airborne particles (diameter range 10–500 nm were collected over ten weeks at three sites in the vicinity of the A100 urban motorway in Berlin, Germany. The A100 carries about 180 000 vehicles on a weekday. The roadside particle distributions showed a number maximum between 20 and 60 nm clearly related to the motorway emissions. The average total number concentration at roadside was 28 000 cm−3 with a total range of 1200–168 000 cm−3. At distances of 80 and 400 m from the motorway the concentrations decreased to mean levels of 11 000 and 9000 cm−3, respectively. An obstacle-resolving dispersion model was applied to simulate the 3-D flow field and traffic tracer transport in the urban environment around the motorway. By inverse modelling, vehicle emission factors were derived that are representative of a fleet with a relative share of 6% lorry-like vehicles, and driving at a speed of 80 km h−1. Three different calculation approaches were compared, which differ in the choice of the experimental winds driving the flow simulation. The average emission factor per vehicle was 2.1 (±0.2 · 1014 km−1 for particle number and 0.077 (±0.01 · 1014 cm3 km−1 for particle volume. Regression analysis suggested that lorry-like vehicles emit 123 (±28 times more particle number than passenger car-like vehicles, and lorry-like vehicles account for about 91% of particulate number emissions on weekdays. Our work highlights the increasing applicability of 3-D flow models in urban microscale environments and their usefulness for determining traffic emission factors.

  13. The redshift-distance relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, I E

    1993-06-01

    Key predictions of the Hubble law are inconsistent with direct observations on equitable complete samples of extragalactic sources in the optical, infrared, and x-ray wave bands-e.g., the predicted dispersion in apparent magnitude is persistently greatly in excess of its observed value, precluding an explanation via hypothetical perturbations or irregularities. In contrast, the predictions of the Lundmark (homogeneous quadratic) law are consistent with the observations. The Lundmark law moreover predicts the deviations between Hubble law predictions and observation with statistical consistency, while the Hubble law provides no explanation for the close fit of the Lundmark law. The flux-redshift law F [symbol, see text] (1 + z)/z appears consistent with observations on equitable complete samples in the entire observed redshift range, when due account is taken of flux limits by an optimal statistical method. Under the theoretical assumption that space is a fixed sphere, as in the Einstein universe, this law implies the redshift-distance relation z = tan2(r/2R), where R is the radius of the spherical space. This relation coincides with the prediction of chronometric cosmology, which estimates R as 160 +/- 40 Mpc (1 parsec = 3.09 x 10(16) m) from the proper motion to redshift relation of superluminal sources. Tangential aspects, including statistical methodology, fundamental physical theory, bright cluster galaxy samples, and proposed luminosity evolution, are briefly considered.

  14. 3D Simulations of Relativistic Precessing Jets Probing the Structure of Superluminal Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Aloy, M A; Gómez, J L; Agudo, I; Müller, E; Ibanyez, J M; Aloy, Miguel Angel; Marti, Jose Maria; Gomez, Jose Luis; Agudo, Ivan; Mueller, Ewald; Ibanyez, Jose Maria

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a three-dimensional, relativistic, hydrodynamic simulation of a precessing jet into which a compact blob of matter is injected. A comparison of synthetic radio maps computed from the hydrodynamic model, taking into account the appropriate light travel time delays, with those obtained from observations of actual superluminal sources shows that the variability of the jet emission is the result of a complex combination of phase motions, viewing angle selection effects, and non-linear interactions between perturbations and the underlying jet and/or the external medium. These results question the hydrodynamic properties inferred from observed apparent motions and radio structures, and reveal that shock-in-jet models may be overly simplistic.

  15. Superluminal Propagation Caused by Radiative Corrections in a Uniform Electromagnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Shiba, Noburo

    2012-01-01

    We consider the effect of radiative corrections on the maximum velocity of propagation of neutral scalar fields in a uniform electromagnetic field. The propagator of neutral scalar fields interacting with charged fields depends on the electromagnetic field through charged particle loops. The kinetic terms of the scalar fields are corrected and the maximum velocity of the scalar particle becomes greater or less than unity. We show that the maximum velocity becomes greater than unity in a simple example, a neutral scalar field coupled with two charged Dirac fields by Yukawa interaction. The maximum velocity depends on the frame of reference and causality is not violated. We discuss the possibility of this superluminal propagation in the Standard Model.

  16. Superluminal Neutrinos and a Curious Phenomenon in the Relativistic Quantum Hamilton-Jacobi Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Matone, Marco

    2011-01-01

    OPERA's results, if confirmed, pose the question of superluminal neutrinos. We investigate the kinematics defined by the quantum version of the relativistic Hamilton-Jacobi equation, i.e. E^2=p^2c^2+m^2c^4+2mQc^2, with Q the quantum potential of the free particle. The key point is that the quantum version of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is a third-order differential equation, so that it has integration constants which are missing in the Schr\\"odinger and Klein-Gordon equations. In particular, a non-vanishing imaginary part of an integration constant leads to a quantum correction to the expression of the velocity which is curiously in agreement with OPERA's results.

  17. Stimulated generation of superluminal light pulses via four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Ryan T; Vogl, Ulrich; Lett, Paul D

    2012-04-27

    We report on the four-wave mixing of superluminal pulses, in which both the injected and generated pulses involved in the process propagate with negative group velocities. Generated pulses with negative group velocities of up to v(g)=-1/880c are demonstrated, corresponding to the generated pulse's peak exiting the 1.7 cm long medium ≈50 ns earlier than if it had propagated at the speed of light in vacuum, c. We also show that in some cases the seeded pulse may propagate with a group velocity larger than c, and that the generated conjugate pulse peak may exit the medium even earlier than the amplified seed pulse peak. We can control the group velocities of the two pulses by changing the seed detuning and the input seed power.

  18. Can pair-instability supernova models match the observations of superluminous supernovae?

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyreva, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of so-called superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are discovered. It is believed that at least some of them with slowly fading light curves originate in stellar explosions induced by the pair instability mechanism. Recent stellar evolution models naturally predict pair instability supernovae (PISNe) from very massive stars at wide range of metallicities (up to Z=0.006, Yusof et al. 2013). In the scope of this study we analyse whether PISN models can match the observational properties of SLSNe with various light curve shapes. Specifically, we explore the influence of different degrees of macroscopic chemical mixing in PISN explosive products on the resulting observational properties. We artificially apply mixing to the 250 Msun PISN evolutionary model from Kozyreva et al. (2014) and explore its supernova evolution with the one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code STELLA. The greatest success in matching SLSN observations is achieved in the case of an extreme macroscopic mixing, where all r...

  19. Holographic View of the Brain Memory Mechanism Based on Evanescent Superluminal Photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Musha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available D. Pollen and M. Trachtenberg proposed the holographic brain theory to help explain the existence of photographic memories in some people. They suggested that such individuals had more vivid memories because they somehow could access a very large region of their memory holograms. Hameroff suggested in his paper that cylindrical neuronal microtubule cavities, or centrioles, function as waveguides for the evanescent photons for quantum signal processing. The supposition is that microtubular structures of the brain function as a coherent fiber bundle set used to store holographic images, as would a fiber-optic holographic system. In this paper, the author proposes that superluminal photons propagating inside the microtubules via evanescent waves could provide the access needed to record or retrieve a quantum coherent entangled holographic memory.

  20. SN 2012au: A GOLDEN LINK BETWEEN SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR LOWER-LUMINOSITY COUNTERPARTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Margutti, Raffaella; Drout, Maria R.; Marion, G. Howie; Sanders, Nathan E.; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Chornock, Ryan; Berger, Edo; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Pete; Kirshner, Robert P.; Dittmann, Jason; Bieryla, Allyson; Kamble, Atish; Chakraborti, Sayan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T. [6127 Wilder Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Levesque, Emily M., E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); and others

    2013-06-20

    We present optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2012au, a slow-evolving supernova (SN) with properties that suggest a link between subsets of energetic and H-poor SNe and superluminous SNe. SN 2012au exhibited conspicuous Type-Ib-like He I lines and other absorption features at velocities reaching Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} km s{sup -1} in its early spectra, and a broad light curve that peaked at M{sub B} = -18.1 mag. Models of these data indicate a large explosion kinetic energy of {approx}10{sup 52} erg and {sup 56}Ni mass ejection of M{sub Ni} Almost-Equal-To 0.3 M{sub Sun} on par with SN 1998bw. SN 2012au's spectra almost one year after explosion show a blend of persistent Fe II P-Cyg absorptions and nebular emissions originating from two distinct velocity regions. These late-time emissions include strong [Fe II], [Ca II], [O I], Mg I], and Na I lines at velocities {approx}> 4500 km s{sup -1}, as well as O I and Mg I lines at noticeably smaller velocities {approx}< 2000 km s{sup -1}. Many of the late-time properties of SN 2012au are similar to the slow-evolving hypernovae SN 1997dq and SN 1997ef, and the superluminous SN 2007bi. Our observations suggest that a single explosion mechanism may unify all of these events that span -21 {approx}< M{sub B} {approx}< -17 mag. The aspherical and possibly jetted explosion was most likely initiated by the core collapse of a massive progenitor star and created substantial high-density, low-velocity Ni-rich material.

  1. Extreme Supernova Models for the Super-luminous Transient ASASSN-15lh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulos, E.; Wheeler, J. C.; Vinko, J.; Nagy, A. P.; Wiggins, B. K.; Even, W. P.

    2016-09-01

    The recent discovery of the unprecedentedly super-luminous transient ASASSN-15lh (or SN 2015L) with its UV-bright secondary peak challenges all the power-input models that have been proposed for super-luminous supernovae. Here we examine some of the few viable interpretations of ASASSN-15lh in the context of a stellar explosion, involving combinations of one or more power inputs. We model the light curve of ASASSN-15lh with a hybrid model that includes contributions from magnetar spin-down energy and hydrogen-poor circumstellar interaction. We also investigate models of pure circumstellar interaction with a massive hydrogen-deficient shell and discuss the lack of interaction features in the observed spectra. We find that, as a supernova, ASASSN-15lh can be best modeled by the energetic core-collapse of an ˜40 M ⊙ star interacting with a hydrogen-poor shell of ˜20 M ⊙. The circumstellar shell and progenitor mass are consistent with a rapidly rotating pulsational pair-instability supernova progenitor as required for strong interaction following the final supernova explosion. Additional energy injection by a magnetar with an initial period of 1-2 ms and magnetic field of 0.1-1 × 1014 G may supply the excess luminosity required to overcome the deficit in single-component models, but this requires more fine-tuning and extreme parameters for the magnetar, as well as the assumption of efficient conversion of magnetar energy into radiation. We thus favor a single-input model where the reverse shock formed in a strong SN ejecta-circumstellar matter interaction following a very powerful core-collapse SN explosion can supply the luminosity needed to reproduce the late-time UV-bright plateau.

  2. Precise determination of the parameters of resonances f0(500 and f0(980 by fitting the data and dispersion relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelaez J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-standing puzzle in the parameters of the f0(500, as well as the f0(980, is finally being settled [1] thanks to precise dispersive analyses carried out during the last years. Here we report on our very recent dispersive data analysis which allowed for a precise and model independent determination of the amplitudes for the S, P, D and F waves [2–4]. The analytic continuation of once subtracted dispersion relations for the S0 wave to the complex energy plane leads to very precise results for the f0(500 pole: √spole = 457-13+14 - i279-7+11 MeV and for the f0(980 pole: √spole = 996 ± 7 - i25-6+10 MeV.

  3. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis using fundamental parameter approach of Catha edulis and other related plant samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A., E-mail: shaltout_a@hotmail.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Moharram, Mohammed A. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Mostafa, Nasser Y. [Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative analysis of Catha edulis was carried out using standardless WDXRF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential thermal analysis was used for determination of the loss of ignition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of hydroxyapatite in Catha edulis plant has been confirmed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CRM results confirmed the validity of the developed method.

  4. Gravitational contraction versus Supernova driving and the origin of the velocity dispersion-size relation in molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez-Mejía, Juan C; Klessen, Ralf S; Baczynski, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Molecular cloud observations show that clouds have non-thermal velocity dispersions that scale with the cloud size as $\\sigma\\propto R^{1/2}$ at constant surface density, and for varying surface density scale with both the cloud`s size and surface density, $\\sigma^2 \\propto R \\Sigma$. The energy source driving these chaotic motions remains poorly understood. We describe the velocity dispersions observed in a cloud population formed in a kiloparsec-scale numerical simulation of a magnetized, supernova-driven, self-gravitating, interstellar medium, including diffuse heating and radiative cooling. We compare the relationships between velocity dispersion, size, and surface density measured in the simulated cloud population to those found in observations of Galactic molecular clouds. We find that external supernova explosions can not drive turbulent motions of the observed magnitudes within dense clouds. On the other hand, self-gravity also induces non-thermal motions as gravitationally bound clouds begin to colla...

  5. Relating solubility data of parabens in liquid PEG 400 to the behaviour of PEG 4000-parabens solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unga, Johan; Tajarobi, Farhad; Norder, Ove; Frenning, Göran; Larsson, Anette

    2009-10-01

    The solid state behaviour of polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) and dispersions of a homologous series of parabens (methyl- (MP), ethyl- (EP), propyl- (PP) and butyl- (BP)) were examined and compared to the paraben solubility in liquid PEG 400. Dispersions were prepared by co-melting different amounts of paraben (5-80% (w/w)) and PEG 4000 and were studied using a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small and wide angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD/WAXD). Depending on the concentration of parabens in the dispersions, DSC showed melting peaks from folded and unfolded forms of PEG, a eutectic melting and melting of pure parabens. The fraction of folded PEG increased and the melting temperatures of both PEG forms decreased with increasing paraben content. In an apparent phase diagram of PP-PEG dispersions a eutectic mixture appeared above 5% PP. In addition, a melting peak corresponding to the paraben appeared for dispersion containing more than 60% PP. Similar phase diagrams were shown for the other parabens. The SAXD data and a 1D correlation function analysis revealed that MP and BP were incorporated into the amorphous domains of the lamellae of solid PEG to a higher degree than EP and PP. In addition, the lamellae thickness of PEG and the fraction of amorphous domains increased more for MP and BP compared to EP and PP. BP showed the highest solubility of the parabens followed by MP, EP and PP in both liquid and solid PEG. Furthermore, the thickness of the amorphous domains of the PEG in the different parabens-PEG dispersions could be correlated to the solubility in liquid PEG 400.

  6. “Cold” dispersion relation of corrugated waveguide filled with plasma immersed in a finite magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiWei; WeiYan-Yu; XieHong-Quan; LiuSheng-Gang; GongMa-Li

    2003-01-01

    A general dispersion equation of a partially filled plasma corrugated waveguide immersed in a finite magnetic field is presented.When the guiding magnet B0→∞ or 0, this equation can be reduced to the results obtained in previous works.

  7. Dispersion relations of refractive indices suitable for KBesub>2sub>BOsub>3sub>Fsub>2sub> crystal deep-ultraviolet applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rukang; Wang, Lirong; Wang, Xiaoyang; Wang, Guiling; Chen, Chuangtian

    2016-12-20

    KBesub>2sub>BOsub>3sub>Fsub>2sub> (KBBF) is the only nonlinear optical crystal available to generate deep-ultraviolet (DUV) laser output by direct harmonic generation. High-precision refractive indices, including in the DUV region, were measured, and starting from a double resonance model of polarizability, new dispersion relations of the refractive indices were deduced from the measured data. The predicted phase matching angles for second-harmonic generation down to 165 nm from the new relations agree well with the previous reported values. Moreover, the new dispersion relations show superior results in an even shorter wavelength range, giving perfectly calculated phase matching angles for fifth-harmonic generation down to as short as 149.8 nm.

  8. Evaluation of regional and local atmospheric dispersion models for the analysis of traffic-related air pollution in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah-Shorshani, Masoud; Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2017-10-01

    Dispersion of road transport emissions in urban metropolitan areas is typically simulated using Gaussian models that ignore the turbulence and drag induced by buildings, which are especially relevant for areas with dense downtown cores. To consider the effect of buildings, street canyon models are used but often at the level of single urban corridors and small road networks. In this paper, we compare and validate two dispersion models with widely varying algorithms, across a modelling domain consisting of the City of Montreal, Canada accounting for emissions of more 40,000 roads. The first dispersion model is based on flow decomposition into the urban canopy sub-flow as well as overlying airflow. It takes into account the specific height and geometry of buildings along each road. The second model is a Gaussian puff dispersion model, which handles complex terrain and incorporates three-dimensional meteorology, but accounts for buildings only through variations in the initial vertical mixing coefficient. Validation against surface observations indicated that both models under-predicted measured concentrations. Average weekly exposure surfaces derived from both models were found to be reasonably correlated (r = 0.8) although the Gaussian dispersion model tended to underestimate concentrations around the roadways compared to the street canyon model. In addition, both models were used to estimate exposures of a representative sample of the Montreal population composed of 1319 individuals. Large differences were noted whereby exposures derived from the Gaussian puff model were significantly lower than exposures derived from the street canyon model, an expected result considering the concentration of population around roadways. These differences have large implications for the analyses of health effects associated with NO2 exposure.

  9. Spatial variation in population structure and its relation to movement and the potential for dispersal in a model intertidal invertebrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor T Bringloe

    Full Text Available Dispersal, the movement of an individual away from its natal or breeding ground, has been studied extensively in birds and mammals to understand the costs and benefits of movement behavior. Whether or not invertebrates disperse in response to such attributes as habitat quality or density of conspecifics remains uncertain, due in part to the difficulties in marking and recapturing invertebrates. In the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada, the intertidal amphipod Corophium volutator swims at night around the new or full moon. Furthermore, this species is regionally widespread across a large spatial scale with site-to-site variation in population structure. Such variation provides a backdrop against which biological determinants of dispersal can be investigated. We conducted a large-scale study at nine mudflats, and used swimmer density, sampled using stationary plankton nets, as a proxy for dispersing individuals. We also sampled mud residents using sediment cores over 3 sampling rounds (20-28 June, 10-17 July, 2-11 August 2010. Density of swimmers was most variable at the largest spatial scales, indicating important population-level variation. The smallest juveniles and large juveniles or small adults (particularly females were consistently overrepresented as swimmers. Small juveniles swam at most times and locations, whereas swimming of young females decreased with increasing mud presence of young males, and swimming of large juveniles decreased with increasing mud presence of adults. Swimming in most stages increased with density of mud residents; however, proportionally less swimming occurred as total mud resident density increased. We suggest small juveniles move in search of C. volutator aggregations which possibly act as a proxy for better habitat. We also suggest large juveniles and small adults move if potential mates are limiting. Future studies can use sampling designs over large spatial scales with varying population structure to help

  10. Perfect Dispersive Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Shulabh

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion is at the heart of all ultrafast real-time signal processing systems across the entire electromagnetic spectrum ranging from radio-frequencies to optics. However, following Kramer-Kronig relations, these signal processing systems have been plagued with the parasitic amplitude distortions due to frequency dependent, and non-flat amplitude transmission of naturally dispersive media. This issue puts a serious limitation on the applicability and performance of these signal processing systems. To solve the above mentioned issue, a perfect dispersive medium is proposed in this work, which artificially violates the Kramer-Kronig relations, while satisfying all causality requirements. The proposed dispersive metamaterial is based on loss-gain metasurface pairs and exhibit a perfectly flat transmission response along with arbitrary dispersion in a broad bandwidth, thereby solving a seemingly unavoidable issue in all ultrafast signal processing systems. Such a metamaterial is further shown using sub-waveleng...

  11. Effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of traffic-related air pollution in a large urban area: Implications of a multi-canyon air pollution dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiangwen; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George A.; Zhang, Jiachen; Huang, Xin; Ouyang, Bin; Popoola, Olalekan; Tao, Shu

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are ubiquitous in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants in street canyons can adversely affect human health. In this study, an urban-scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed considering street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. In the model, vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows first disperse inside street canyons along the micro-scale wind field generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Then, pollutants leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing. We found that an increase in building height leads to heavier pollution inside canyons and lower pollution outside canyons at pedestrian level, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, canyons with highly even or highly uneven building heights on each side of the street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Further, increasing street widths tends to lead to lower pollutant concentrations by reducing emissions and enhancing ventilation simultaneously. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry while considering traffic demand as well as local weather patterns may significantly reduce inhalation of unhealthy air by urban residents.

  12. Relations de Dispersion et Diffusion des Glueballs et des Mesons dans la Theorie de Jauge U(1)(2+1) Compacte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Chaara El Mouez

    Nous avons etudie les relations de dispersion et la diffusion des glueballs et des mesons dans le modele U(1)_{2+1} compact. Ce modele a ete souvent utilise comme un simple modele de la chromodynamique quantique (QCD), parce qu'il possede le confinement ainsi que les etats de glueballs. Par contre, sa structure mathematique est beaucoup plus simple que la QCD. Notre methode consiste a diagonaliser l'Hamiltonien de ce modele dans une base appropriee de graphes et sur reseau impulsion, afin de generer les relations de dispersion des glueballs et des mesons. Pour la diffusion, nous avons utilise la methode dependante du temps pour calculer la matrice S et la section efficace de diffusion des glueballs et des mesons. Les divers resultats obtenus semblent etre en accord avec les travaux anterieurs de Hakim, Alessandrini et al., Irving et al., qui eux, utilisent plutot la theorie des perturbations en couplage fort, et travaillent sur un reseau espace-temps.

  13. Superluminal energy transmission in the Goos-Hanchen shift of total reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Yue

    2011-04-01

    The dispersion relation ω2 = β2c2 - τ2c2 of surface electromagnetic waves is corresponding to that E2 = p2c2 - m02c4 of a tachyon where the coefficient of proportionality is the squared Planck constant ℏ2. Then we prove the energy flow velocity of the Goos-Hanchen shift in vacuum is cn sin θi > c as well according to electrodynamics. These two different ways lead to a same conclusion that energy transport in the Goos-Hanchen effect of total reflection is faster than light.

  14. Relation between the structure and catalytic activity for automotive emissions. Use of x-ray anomalous dispersion effect

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuki, J; Tanaka, H

    2003-01-01

    The employment of the X-ray anomalous dispersion effect allows us to detect the change in structure of catalytic converters with the environment exposed. Here we show that palladium atoms in a perovskite crystal move into and out of the crystal by anomalous X-ray diffraction and absorption techniques. This movement of the precious metal plays an important role to keep the catalytic activity long-lived. (author)

  15. Evidence for a dispersion relation of optical modes in the cuticle of the scarab beetle Cotinis mutabilis

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, Arturo; Muñoz-Pineda, Eloy; Järrendahl, Kenneth; Arwin, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Variable angle Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to study the properties of light reflected from the exoskeleton (cuticle) of the scarab beetle Cotinis mutabilis. For unpolarized incident light, the ellipticity and degree of polarization of the reflected light reveal a lefthanded helical structure in the beetle cuticle. Analysis of the spectral position of the maxima and minima in the interference oscillations of the Mueller-matrix elements provides evidence for a dispersion r...

  16. LATERAL DISPERSAL OF ADULT AQUATIC INSECTS FOLLOWING EMERGENCE FROM THE MIDDLE REACHES OF THE CHIKUMA RIVER(HONSHU ISLAND,JAPAN)IN RELATION TO WATERFRONT VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kimio; HIRABAYASHI; Goro; KIMURA; Yachiyo; FUKUNAGA; Kumiko; TSUKADA; Makoto; ANDO; Atsushi; HATTORI

    2006-01-01

    Adults of aquatic insects emerge fromstreamslive inthe nearby riparian zone where they can select streamsidevegetations as preferred sites in order to(a)completemetamorphosis,(b)rest while awaiting proper swarmingtime,(c)feedin order to produce eggs,or(d)mate toreproduce[1—3].Most adult aquatic insect dispersal studies have fo-cused on quantifying the degree of upstream move-ment[4,5].Some researchers have shown distinct patternsof upstreammovement related to post-mating ovipositionalbehavior[6],while there...

  17. Dispersion Relation Tool for generalized lower-hybrid mode with, density gradient, equilibrium ExB drift, collisions and finite electron Larmor radius

    CERN Document Server

    Romadanov, Ivan; Frias, Winston; Chapurin, Oleksandr; Koshkarov, Oleksandr

    2016-01-01

    MATLAB solver has been developed for studies of local instabilities in partially magnetized plasmas typical for ExB discharge plasmas. Examples for the Simon-Hoh, lower-hybrid and ion-sound instabilities in Penning discharge. The detailed behavior of the local dispersion relation can be investigated, plotted and saved with this solver. It allows to include various effects, change plasma parameters and obtain eigen-frequencies as a function of the wavenumbers in x or y directions.

  18. Seed dispersal in fens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  19. Giant magnon solution and dispersion relation in string theory in AdS_3 x S^3 x T^4 with mixed flux

    CERN Document Server

    Hoare, B; Tseytlin, A A

    2013-01-01

    We address the question about the exact form of the dispersion relation for light-cone string excitations in string theory in AdS3 x S3 x T4 with mixed R-R and NS-NS 3-form fluxes. The analogy with string theory in AdS5 x S5 suggests that in addition to the data provided by the perturbative near-BMN expansion and the symmetry algebra considerations there is also another source of information about the dispersion relation -- the semiclassical giant magnon solution. In earlier work in arXiv:1303.1037 and arXiv:1304.4099 it was found that the symmetry algebra constraints consistent with perturbative expansion do not completely determine the form of the dispersion relation. The aim of the present paper is to fix it by constructing a generalization of the known dyonic giant magnon soliton on S3 to the presence of a non-zero NS-NS flux described by a WZ term in the string action. We find that the angular momentum of this soliton gets shifted by a term linear in world-sheet momentum. We also discuss the symmetry alg...

  20. DETECTION OF BROAD Hα EMISSION LINES IN THE LATE-TIME SPECTRA OF A HYDROGEN-POOR SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Lin; Masci, F. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Quimby, R. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Ofek, E.; Gal-Yam, A.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Leloudas, G.; Cia, A. de; Yaron, O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Mazzali, P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Perley, D. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cao, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nugent, P. E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rebbapragada, Umaa D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Woźniak, P. R., E-mail: lyan@ipac.caltech.edu [Space and Remote Sensing, ISR-2, MS-B244 Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    iPTF13ehe is a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) at z = 0.3434, with a slow-evolving light curve and spectral features similar to SN2007bi. It rises in 83–148 days to reach a peak bolometric luminosity of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}, then decays slowly at 0.015 mag day{sup −1}. The measured ejecta velocity is ∼ 13,000 km s{sup −1}. The inferred explosion characteristics, such as the ejecta mass (70–220 M{sub ⊙}), and the total radiative and kinetic energy (E{sub rad} ∼ 10{sup 51} erg, E{sub kin} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 53} erg), are typical of slow-evolving H-poor SLSN events. However, the late-time spectrum taken at +251 days (rest, post-peak) reveals a Balmer Hα emission feature with broad and narrow components, which has never been detected before among other H-poor SLSNe. The broad component has a velocity width of ∼4500 km s{sup −1} and a ∼300 km s{sup −1} blueward shift relative to the narrow component. We interpret this broad Hα emission with a luminosity of ∼2 × 10{sup 41} erg s{sup −1} as resulting from the interaction between the supernova ejecta and a discrete H-rich shell, located at a distance of ∼4 × 10{sup 16} cm from the explosion site. This interaction causes the rest-frame r-band LC to brighten at late times. The fact that the late-time spectra are not completely absorbed by the shock-ionized H-shell implies that its Thomson scattering optical depth is likely ≤1, thus setting upper limits on the shell mass ≤30 M{sub ⊙}. Of the existing models, a Pulsational Pair Instability supernova model can naturally explain the observed 30 M{sub ⊙} H-shell, ejected from a progenitor star with an initial mass of (95–150) M{sub ⊙} about 40 years ago. We estimate that at least ∼15% of all SLSNe-I may have late-time Balmer emission lines.

  1. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Stellar Velocity Dispersions of Quasar Hosts and the M-sigma Relation to z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yue; Ho, Luis C; Brandt, W N; Denney, Kelly D; Horne, Keith; Jiang, Linhua; Kochanek, Christopher S; McGreer, Ian D; Merloni, Andrea; Peterson, Bradley M; Petitjean, Patrick; Schneider, Donald P; Schulze, Andreas; Strauss, Michael A; Tao, Charling; Trump, Jonathan R; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    We present host stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of 88 broad-line quasars at 0.10.6) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project. High signal-to-noise ratio coadded spectra (average S/N~30 per 69 km/s pixel) from SDSS-RM allowed decomposition of the host and quasar spectra, and measurement of the host stellar velocity dispersions and black hole (BH) masses using the single-epoch (SE) virial method. The large sample size and dynamic range in luminosity (L5100=10^(43.2-44.7) erg/s) lead to the first clear detection of a correlation between SE virial BH mass and host stellar velocity dispersion far beyond the local universe. However, the observed correlation is significantly flatter than the local relation, suggesting that there are selection biases in high-z luminosity-threshold quasar samples for such studies. Our uniform sample and analysis enable an investigation of the redshift evolution of the M-sigma relation free of caveats by comparing different samples...

  2. Evolution equation of population genetics: relation to the density-matrix theory of quasiparticles with general dispersion laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezák, V

    2003-02-01

    The Waxman-Peck theory of population genetics is discussed in regard of soil bacteria. Each bacterium is understood as a carrier of a phenotypic parameter p. The central objective is the calculation of the probability density with respect to p, Phi(p,t;p(0)), of the carriers living at time t>0, provided that initially at t(0)=0, all bacteria carried the phenotypic parameter p(0)=0. The theory involves two small parameters: the mutation probability mu and a parameter gamma involved in a function w(p) defining the fitness of the bacteria to survive the generation time tau and give birth to an offspring. The mutation from a state p to a state q is defined by a Gaussian with a dispersion sigma(2)(m). The author focuses our attention on a function phi(p,t) which determines uniquely the function Phi(p,t;p(0)) and satisfies a linear equation (Waxman's equation). The Green function of this equation is mathematically identical with the one-particle Bloch density matrix, where mu characterizes the order of magnitude of the potential energy. (In the x representation, the potential energy is proportional to the inverted Gaussian with the dispersion sigma(2)(m)). The author solves Waxman's equation in the standard style of a perturbation theory and discusses how the solution depends on the choice of the fitness function w(p). In a sense, the function c(p)=1-w(p)/w(0) is analogous to the dispersion function E(p) of fictitious quasiparticles. In contrast to Waxman's approximation, where c(p) was taken as a quadratic function, c(p) approximately gammap(2), the author exemplifies the problem with another function, c(p)=gamma[1-exp(-ap(2))], where gamma is small but a may be large. The author shows that the use of this function in the theory of the population genetics is the same as the use of a nonparabolic dispersion law E=E(p) in the density-matrix theory. With a general function c(p), the distribution function Phi(p,t;0) is composed of a delta-function component, N

  3. Determination of power-law attenuation coefficient and dispersion spectra in multi-wall carbon nanotube composites using Kramers-Kronig relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Joel; Mack, Richard A; Gladden, Joseph R; Mantena, P Raju

    2009-07-01

    Using a broadband through-transmission technique, the attenuation coefficient and phase velocity spectra have been measured for a set of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-nylon composites (from pure nylon to 20% MWCNT by weight) in the ultrasonic frequency band from 4 to 14 MHz. The samples were found to be effectively homogeneous on spatial scales from the low end of ultrasonic wavelengths investigated and up (>0.2 mm). Using Kramers-Kronig relations, the attenuation and dispersion data were found to be consistent with a power-law attenuation model with a range of exponents from y=1.12 to y=1.19 over the measurement bandwidth. The attenuation coefficients of the respective samples are found to decrease with increasing MWCNT content and a similar trend holds also for the dispersion. In contrast, the mean phase velocities for the samples rise with increasing MWCNT content indicating an increase in the mechanical moduli.

  4. Revealing the binary origin of Type Ic superluminous supernovae through nebular hydrogen emission

    CERN Document Server

    Moriya, Takashi J; Mackey, Jonathan; Chen, Ting-Wan; Langer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    We propose that nebular Halpha emission as detected in the Type Ic superluminous supernova iPTF13ehe stems from matter which is stripped from a companion star when the supernova ejecta collide with it. The temporal evolution, the line broadening, and the overall blueshift of the emission are consistent with this interpretation. We scale the nebular Halpha luminosity predicted for Type Ia supernovae in single-degenerate systems to derive the stripped mass required to explain the Halpha luminosity of iPTF13ehe. We find a stripped mass of 0.1 - 0.9 solar masses, assuming that the supernova luminosity is powered by radioactivity or magnetar spin down. Because a central heating source is required to excite the Halpha emission, an interaction-powered model is not favored for iPTF13ehe. We derive a companion mass of more than 20 solar masses and a binary separation of less than about 20 companion radii based on the stripping efficiency during the collision, indicating that the supernova progenitor and the companion ...

  5. Superluminal non-ballistic jet swing in the quasar NRAO 150 revealed by mm-VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    Agudo, I; Krichbaum, T P; Marscher, A P; Gonidakis, I; Diamond, P J; Perucho, M; Alef, W; Graham, D A; Witzel, A; Zensus, J A; Bremer, M; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Barrena, R

    2007-01-01

    NRAO 150 -a compact and bright radio to mm source showing core/jet structure- has been recently identified as a quasar at redshift z=1.52 through a near-IR spectral observation. To study the jet kinematics on the smallest accessible scales and to compute the first estimates of its basic physical properties, we have analysed the ultra-high-resolution images from a new monitoring program at 86 GHz and 43 GHz with the GMVA and the VLBA, respectively. An additional archival and calibration VLBA data set, covering from 1997 to 2007, has been used. Our data shows an extreme projected counter-clock-wise jet position angle swing at an angular rate of up to ~11 deg./yr within the inner ~31 pc of the jet, which is associated with a non-ballistic superluminal motion of the jet within this region. The results suggest that the magnetic field could play an important role in the dynamics of the jet in NRAO 150, which is supported by the large values of the magnetic field strength obtained from our first estimates. The extre...

  6. An extreme ultraviolet excess in the superluminous supernova Gaia16apd reveals a powerful central engine

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholl, M; Margutti, R; Blanchard, P K; Milisavljevic, D; Challis, P; Metzger, B D; Chornock, R

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) in the last decade, it has been known that these events exhibit bluer spectral energy distributions than other supernova subtypes, with significant output in the ultraviolet. However, the event Gaia16apd seems to outshine even the other SLSNe at rest-frame wavelengths below $\\sim 3000$ \\AA. Yan et al (2016) have recently presented HST UV spectra and attributed the UV flux to low metallicity and hence reduced line blanketing. Here we present UV and optical light curves over a longer baseline in time, revealing a rapid decline at UV wavelengths despite a typical optical evolution. Combining the published UV spectra with our own optical data, we demonstrate that Gaia16apd has a much hotter continuum than virtually any SLSN at maximum light, but it cools rapidly thereafter and is indistinguishable from the others by $\\sim 10$-15 days after peak. Comparing the equivalent widths of UV absorption lines with those of other events, we show that the excess UV cont...

  7. Gaia16apd -- a link between fast-and slowly-declining type I superluminous supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Kangas, T; Mattila, S; Lundqvist, P; Fraser, M; Hardy, L K; Stritzinger, M D; Cappellaro, E; Elias-Rosa, N; Harmanen, J; Hsiao, E Y; Kankare, E; Nielsen, M B; Reynolds, T M; Rhodes, L; Somero, A; Wyrzykowski, L

    2016-01-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical and infrared photometry and optical spectroscopy of the type Ic superluminous supernova (SLSN) Gaia16apd, covering its evolution from 27 d before the $g$-band peak to the nebular phase, including the latest spectrum ever obtained for a fast-declining type Ic SLSN at 150.9 d. Gaia16apd is one of the closest SLSNe known ($z = 0.102\\pm0.001$), with detailed optical and \\emph{Swift} ultraviolet (UV) band observations covering the peak. Gaia16apd is a spectroscopically typical type Ic SLSN, exhibiting the characteristic blue early spectra with O {\\sc ii} absorption, and reaches a peak $M_{g} = -21.8 \\pm 0.1$ mag. However, photometrically it exhibits an evolution intermediate between the fast- and slowly-declining type Ic SLSNe, with an early evolution closer to the fast-declining events. It is unusually UV-bright even for a SLSN, reaching a non-$K$-corrected $M_{uvm2} \\simeq -23.2$ mag, the only other type Ic SLSN with similar UV brightness being SN 2010gx. This event highlights the...

  8. An Extended Model for Interaction Between Left-hand Superluminous Waves and Magnetospheric Electrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Fuliang; Zheng Huinan; Wang Shui

    2005-01-01

    The left-hand superluminous electromagnetic waves, L-O mode and L-X mode, can be excited and observed in the auroral cavity of the Earth during the magnetic storms. The two modes can propagate into outer radiation zone and encounter enhanced resonant interactions with the trapped energetic electrons over a wide range of magnetosphere. A current first-order resonant model is extended to evaluate the stochastic acceleration of electrons by the L-O mode and L-X mode at the higher-order resonance. Similar to the first-order resonance, L-O mode can produce significant acceleration of electrons at the higher harmonic resonances over a wide range of wave normal angles and spatial regions. However, the higher harmonic resonance's contribution for significant electron acceleration by L-X mode is less than that of the first order resonance,with the requirement of higher minimum energies, e.g., ~1 MeV in the outer radiation belt. This indicates that L-O mode may be one of the efficient mechanisms for the stochastic acceleration of electrons within the outer radiation zone.

  9. Studies of the Jet in BL Lacertae. II. Superluminal Alfv\\'en Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, M H; Arshakian, T G; Clausen-Brown, E; Homan, D C; Hovatta, T; Kovalev, Y Y; Lister, M L; Pushkarev, A B; Richards, J L; Savolainen, T

    2014-01-01

    Ridge lines on the pc-scale jet of the active galactic nucleus BL Lac display transverse patterns that move superluminally downstream. The patterns are not ballistic, but are analogous to waves on a whip. Their apparent speeds $\\beta_\\mathrm{app}$ (units of $c$) range from 4.2 to 13.5, corresponding to $\\beta_\\mathrm{wave}^\\mathrm{gal}= 0.981 - 0.998$ in the galaxy frame. We show that the magnetic field in the jet is well-ordered with a strong transverse component, and assume that it is helical and that the transverse patterns are longitudinal Alfv\\'en waves. The wave-induced transverse speed of the jet is non-relativistic ($\\beta_\\mathrm{tr}^\\mathrm{gal}\\sim 0.09$) and in agreement with our assumption of low-amplitude waves. In 2010 the wave activity subsided and the jet displayed a mild wiggle that had a complex oscillatory behavior. The waves are excited by changes in the position angle of the recollimation shock, in analogy to exciting a wave on a whip by shaking it. Simple models of the system are presen...

  10. H i Absorption in the Steep-Spectrum Superluminal Quasar 3C 216.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlström; Vermeulen; Taylor; Conway

    1999-11-01

    The search for H i absorption in strong compact steep-spectrum sources is a natural way to probe the neutral gas contents in young radio sources. In turn, this may provide information about the evolution of powerful radio sources. The recently improved capabilities of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope have made it possible to detect a 0.31% (19 mJy) deep neutral atomic hydrogen absorption line associated with the steep-spectrum superluminal quasar 3C 216. The redshift (z=0.67) of the source shifts the frequency of the 21 cm line down to the ultra-high-frequency (UHF) band (850 MHz). The exact location of the H i-absorbing gas remains to be determined by spectral line VLBI observations at 850 MHz. We cannot exclude that the gas might be extended on galactic scales, but we think it is more likely to be located in the central kiloparsec. Constraints from the lack of X-ray absorption probably rule out obscuration of the core region, and we argue that the most plausible site for the H i absorption is in the jet-cloud interaction observed in this source.

  11. Polarimetry of the Superluminous Supernova LSQ14mo: No Evidence for Significant Deviations from Spherical Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloudas, Giorgos; Patat, Ferdinando; Maund, Justyn R.; Hsiao, Eric; Malesani, Daniele; Schulze, Steve; Contreras, Carlos; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Sollerman, Jesper; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Taddia, Francesco; Wheeler, J. Craig; Gorosabel, Javier

    2015-12-01

    We present the first polarimetric observations of a Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN). LSQ14mo was observed with VLT/FORS2 at five different epochs in the V band, with the observations starting before maximum light and spanning 26 days in the rest frame (z = 0.256). During this period, we do not detect any statistically significant evolution (\\lt 2σ ) in the Stokes parameters. The average values we obtain, corrected for interstellar polarization in the Galaxy, are Q = -0.01% (±0.15%) and U = -0.50% (±0.14%). This low polarization can be entirely due to interstellar polarization in the SN host galaxy. We conclude that, at least during the period of observations and at the optical depths probed, the photosphere of LSQ14mo does not present significant asymmetries, unlike most lower-luminosity hydrogen-poor SNe Ib/c. Alternatively, it is possible that we may have observed LSQ14mo from a special viewing angle. Supporting spectroscopy and photometry confirm that LSQ14mo is a typical SLSN I. Further studies of the polarization of Type I SLSNe are required to determine whether the low levels of polarization are a characteristic of the entire class and to also study the implications for the proposed explosion models.

  12. SN 2012aa - a transient between Type Ibc core-collapse and superluminous supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, R; Silverman, J M; Pastorello, A; Fransson, C; Drake, A; Taddia, F; Fremling, C; Kankare, E; Kumar, B; Cappellaro, E; Bose, S; Benetti, S; Filippenko, A V; Valenti, S; Nyholm, A; Ergon, M; Sutaria, F; Kumar, B; Pandey, S B; Nicholl, M; Garcia-Alvarez, D; Tomasella, L; Karamehmetoglu, E; Migotto, K

    2016-01-01

    Context: Research on supernovae (SNe) over the past decade has confirmed that there is a distinct class of events which are much more luminous (by $\\sim2$ mag) than canonical core-collapse SNe (CCSNe). These events with visual peak magnitudes $\\lesssim-21$ are called superluminous SNe (SLSNe). Aims: There are a few intermediate events which have luminosities between these two classes. Here we study one such object, SN 2012aa. Methods: The optical photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations of the event were conducted over a time span of about 120 days. Results: With V_abs at peak ~-20 mag, the SN is an intermediate-luminosity transient between regular SNe Ibc and SLSNe. It also exhibits an unusual secondary bump after the maximum in its light curve. We interpret this as a manifestation of SN-shock interaction with the CSM. If we would assume a $^{56}$Ni-powered ejecta, the bolometric light curve requires roughly 1.3 M_sun of $^{56}$Ni and an ejected mass of ~14 M_sun. This would also imply a high kin...

  13. Polarimetry of the superluminous supernova LSQ14mo: no evidence for significant deviations from spherical symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Leloudas, Giorgos; Maund, Justyn R; Hsiao, Eric; Malesani, Daniele; Schulze, Steve; Contreras, Carlos; Postigo, Antonio de Ugarte; Sollerman, Jesper; Stritzinger, Maximilian D; Taddia, Francesco; Wheeler, J Craig; Gorosabel, Javier

    2015-01-01

    We present the first polarimetric observations of a Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN). LSQ14mo was observed with VLT/FORS2 at 5 different epochs in the V band, observations starting before maximum light and spanning 26 days in the rest-frame (z=0.256). During this period, we do not detect any statistically significant evolution (< 2$\\sigma$) in the Stokes parameters. The average values we obtain, corrected for interstellar polarisation in the Galaxy, are Q = -0.01% ($\\pm$ 0.15%) and U = - 0.50% ($\\pm$ 0.14%). This low polarisation can be entirely due to interstellar polarisation in the SN host galaxy. We conclude that, at least during the period of observations and at the optical depths probed, the photosphere of LSQ14mo does not present significant asymmetries, unlike most lower-luminosity hydrogen-poor SNe Ib/c. Alternatively, it is possible that we may have observed LSQ14mo from a special viewing angle. Supporting spectroscopy and photometry confirm that LSQ14mo is a typical SLSN I. Further studies ...

  14. Pulsational Pair-instability Model for Superluminous Supernova PTF12dam: Interaction and Radioactive Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstov, Alexey; Nomoto, Ken’ichi; Blinnikov, Sergei; Sorokina, Elena; Quimby, Robert; Baklanov, Petr

    2017-02-01

    Being a superluminous supernova, PTF12dam can be explained by a 56Ni-powered model, a magnetar-powered model, or an interaction model. We propose that PTF12dam is a pulsational pair-instability supernova, where the outer envelope of a progenitor is ejected during the pulsations. Thus, it is powered by a double energy source: radioactive decay of 56Ni and a radiative shock in a dense circumstellar medium. To describe multicolor light curves and spectra, we use radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the STELLA code. We found that light curves are well described in the model with 40 M⊙ ejecta and 20–40 M⊙ circumstellar medium. The ejected 56Ni mass is about 6 M⊙, which results from explosive nucleosynthesis with large explosion energy (2–3) × 1052 erg. In comparison with alternative scenarios of pair-instability supernova and magnetar-powered supernova, in the interaction model, all the observed main photometric characteristics are well reproduced: multicolor light curves, color temperatures, and photospheric velocities.

  15. Compared propagation characteristics of superluminal and slow light in SOA and EDFA based on rectangle signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu; Wang, Zhi; Wu, Chongqing; Sun, Zhenchao; Mao, Yaya; Liu, Lanlan; Li, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    Based on the general mechanism of the coherent population oscillations (CPO) in the Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) and Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), the group time delay of rectangle signal propagating in the active media is deduced. Compared with the sinusoidal signal, the time delay difference between the fundamental harmonics (FHFD: fundamental harmonic fractional delay) is first investigated in detail for the rectangle signal which is more popularly used in the digital signal systems. The plenty of simulations based on the propagation equations and some experiments for the sinusoidal and rectangle signals are used to analyze the differences and evaluate the slow and superluminal light effects. Furthermore, the time delay/advance always takes place accompanying with the signal distortion, which is evaluated by the total harmonic distortion (THD). The distortion caused by the SOA is smaller than that by the EDFA. A factor Q which is defined to evaluate the trade-off between the FHFD and the THD, shows that higher input power or higher optical gain is better for optical signal processing and optical telecommunications, and the SOA is more suitable for the higher modulation frequency (>10 GHz).

  16. Constraining the ellipticity of strongly magnetized neutron stars powering superluminous supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Tauris, Thomas M.

    2016-07-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) have been suggested to be powered by strongly magnetized, rapidly rotating neutron stars which are often called magnetars. In this process, rotational energy of the magnetar is radiated via magnetic dipole radiation and heats the supernova ejecta. However, if magnetars are highly distorted in their geometric shape, rotational energy is mainly lost as gravitational wave radiation and thus such magnetars cannot power SLSNe. By simply comparing electromagnetic and gravitational wave emission time-scales, we constrain upper limits to the ellipticity of magnetars by assuming that they power the observed SLSNe. We find that their ellipticity typically needs to be less than about a few 10-3. This indicates that the toroidal magnetic field strengths in these magnetars are typically less than a few 1016 G so that their distortions remain small. Because light-curve modelling of SLSNe shows that their dipole magnetic field strengths are of the order of 1014 G, the ratio of poloidal to toroidal magnetic field strengths is found to be larger than ˜0.01 in magnetars powering SLSNe.

  17. Constraining the ellipticity of strongly-magnetized neutron stars powering superluminous supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Moriya, Takashi J

    2016-01-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) have been suggested to be powered by strongly-magnetized, rapidly-rotating neutron stars which are often called magnetars. In this process, rotational energy of the magnetar is radiated via magnetic dipole radiation and heats the supernova ejecta. However, if magnetars are highly distorted in their geometric shape, rotational energy is mainly lost as gravitational wave radiation and thus such magnetars cannot power SLSNe. By simply comparing electromagnetic and gravitational wave emission timescales, we constrain upper limits to the ellipticity of magnetars by assuming that they power the observed SLSNe. We find that their ellipticity typically needs to be less than about a few 1e-3. This indicates that the toroidal magnetic field strengths in these magnetars are typically less than a few 1e16 G so that their distortions remain small. Because light-curve modeling of SLSNe shows that their dipole magnetic field strengths are of the order of 1e14 G, the ratio of poloidal to toro...

  18. A Triple-energy-source Model for Superluminous Supernova iPTF13ehe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. Q.; Liu, L. D.; Dai, Z. G.; Wang, L. J.; Wu, X. F.

    2016-09-01

    Almost all superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) whose peak magnitudes are ≲ -21 mag can be explained by the 56Ni-powered model, the magnetar-powered (highly magnetized pulsar) model, or the ejecta-circumstellar medium (CSM) interaction model. Recently, iPTF13ehe challenged these energy-source models, because the spectral analysis shows that ˜ 2.5{M}⊙ of 56Ni have been synthesized, but are inadequate to power the peak bolometric emission of iPTF13ehe, while the rebrightening of the late-time light curve (LC) and the Hα emission lines indicate that the ejecta-CSM interaction must play a key role in powering the late-time LC. Here we propose a triple-energy-source model, in which a magnetar together with some amount (≲ 2.5{M}⊙ ) of 56Ni may power the early LC of iPTF13ehe, while the late-time rebrightening can be quantitatively explained by an ejecta-CSM interaction. Furthermore, we suggest that iPTF13ehe is a genuine core-collapse supernova rather than a pulsational pair-instability supernova candidate. Further studies on similar SLSNe in the future would eventually shed light on their explosion and energy-source mechanisms.

  19. DES13S2cmm: The First Superluminous Supernova from the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, A; Sullivan, M; Nichol, R C; Barbary, K; Biswas, R; Brown, P J; Covarrubias, R A; Finley, D A; Fischer, J A; Foley, R F; Goldstein, D; Gupta, R R; Kessler, R; Kovacs, E; Kuhlmann, S E; Lidman, C; March, M; Nugent, P E; Sako, M; Smith, R C; Spinka, H; Wester, W; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F; Allam, S S; Banerji, M; Bernstein, J P; Bernstein, R A; Carnero, A; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Eifler, T; Evrard, A E; Flaugher, B; Frieman, J A; Gerdes, D; Gruen, D; Honscheid, K; James, D; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Maia, M A G; Makler, M; Marshall, J L; Merritt, K W; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Roe, N A; Romer, A K; Rykoff, E; Sanchez, E; Santiago, B X; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla, I; Santos, M Soares-; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Tucker, D L; Wechsler, R H; Zuntz, J

    2015-01-01

    We present DES13S2cmm, the first spectroscopically-confirmed superluminous supernova (SLSN) from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We briefly discuss the data and search algorithm used to find this event in the first year of DES operations, and outline the spectroscopic data obtained from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope to confirm its redshift (z = 0.663 +/- 0.001 based on the host-galaxy emission lines) and likely spectral type (type I). Using this redshift, we find M_U_peak = -21.05 +0.10 -0.09 for the peak, rest-frame U-band absolute magnitude, and find DES13S2cmm to be located in a faint, low metallicity (sub-solar), low stellar-mass host galaxy (log(M/M_sun) = 9.3 +/- 0.3); consistent with what is seen for other SLSNe-I. We compare the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm to fourteen similarly well-observed SLSNe-I in the literature and find it possesses one of the slowest declining tails (beyond +30 days rest frame past peak), and is the faintest at peak. Moreover, we find the b...

  20. Comments on Musha's theorem that an evanescent photon in the microtubule is a superluminal particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Syamala D

    2014-07-01

    Takaaki Musha's research of high performance quantum computation in living systems is motivated by the theories of Penrose and Hameroff that microtubules in the brain function as quantum computers, and by those of Jibu and Yasue that the quantum states of microtubules depend upon boson condensates of evanescent photons. His work is based on the assumption that the evanescent photons described by Jibu et al. are superluminal and that they are tachyons defined and discussed by well-known physicists such as Sudarshan, Feinberg and Recami. Musha gives a brief justification for the assumption and sometimes calls it a theorem. However, the assumption is not valid because Jibu et al. stated that the evanescent photons have transmission speed smaller than that of light and that their mass is real and momentum is imaginary whereas a tachyon's mass is imaginary and momentum is real. We show here that Musha's proof of the "theorem" has errors and hence his theorem/assumption is not valid. This article is not meant to further discuss any biological aspects of the brain but only to comment on the consistency of the quantum-physical aspects of earlier work by Musha et al.

  1. SN 2015bn: a detailed multi-wavelength view of a nearby superluminous supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholl, M; Smartt, S J; Margutti, R; Kamble, A; Alexander, K D; Chen, T -W; Inserra, C; Arcavi, I; Blanchard, P K; Cartier, R; Chambers, K C; Childress, M J; Chornock, R; Cowperthwaite, P S; Drout, M; Flewelling, H A; Fraser, M; Gal-Yam, A; Galbany, L; Harmanen, J; Holoien, T W -S; Hosseinzadeh, G; Howell, D A; Huber, M E; Jerkstrand, A; Kankare, E; Kochanek, C S; Lin, Z -Y; Lunnan, R; Magnier, E A; Maguire, K; McCully, C; McDonald, M; Metzger, B D; Milisavljevic, D; Mitra, A; Reynolds, T; Saario, J; Shappee, B J; Smith, K W; Valenti, S; Villar, V A; Waters, C; Young, D R

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of SN 2015bn (= PS15ae = CSS141223-113342+004332 = MLS150211-113342+004333), a Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN) at $z=0.1136$. As well as being one of the closest SLSNe, it is intrinsically brighter ($M_U\\approx-23.1$) and in a fainter host ($M_B\\approx-16.0$) than other SLSNe at $z\\sim0.1$. We collected the most extensive dataset for an SLSN I to date, including spectroscopy and UV to NIR photometry from $-$50 to +250 d from maximum light. SN 2015bn is a slowly-declining SLSN, but exhibits surprising undulations in the light curve on a timescale of 30-50 d, which are more pronounced in the UV. The spectrum resembles other SLSNe, but our well-sampled data reveal extraordinarily slow evolution except for a rapid transformation between +7 and +30 d. We detect weak features that we tentatively suggest may be hydrogen and helium. At late times, blue colours and a trio of lines around 6000 \\AA\\ seem to distinguish slowly-declining SLSNe from faster ones. We derive physical properties i...

  2. Experimental demonstration of a new radiation mechanism: emission by an oscillating, accelerated, superluminal polarization current

    CERN Document Server

    Ardavan, A; Ardavan, H; Fopma, J; Halliday, D; Hayes, W

    2004-01-01

    We describe the experimental implementation of a superluminal ({\\it i.e.} faster than light {\\it in vacuo}) polarization current distribution that both oscillates and undergoes centripetal acceleration. Theoretical treatments lead one to expect that the radiation emitted from each volume element of such a polarization current will comprise a \\v{C}erenkov-like envelope with two sheets that meet along a cusp. The emission from the experimental machine is in good agreement with these expectations, the combined effect of the volume elements leading to tightly-defined beams of a well-defined geometry, determined by the source speed and trajectory. In addition, over a restricted range of angles, we detect the presence of cusps in the emitted radiation. These are due to the detection over a short time period (in the laboratory frame) of radiation emitted over a considerably longer period of source time. Consequently, the intensity of the radiation at these angles was observed to decline more slowly with increasing d...

  3. Detection of Broad H$\\alpha$ Emission Lines in the Late-time Spectra of a Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Lin; Ofek, E; Gal-Yam, A; Mazzali, P; Perley, D; Vreeswijk, P; Leloudas, G; de Cia, A; Masci, F; Cenko, S B; Cao, Y; Kulkarni, S R; Nugent, P E; Rebbapragada, Umaa D; Woźniak, P R; Yaron, O

    2015-01-01

    iPTF13ehe is a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) at z=0.3434, with properties similar to SN2007bi. It rises within (83-148)days (rest-frame) to reach a peak bolometric luminosity of 1.3x$10^{44}$erg/s, then decays very slowly at 0.015mag. per day. The measured ejecta velocity is 13000km/s. The inferred explosion characteristics, such as the ejecta mass (67-220$M_\\odot$), the total radiative and kinetic energy ($10^{51}$ & 2x$10^{53}$erg respectively), is typical of SLSN-R events. However, the late-time spectrum taken at +251days reveals a Balmer Halpha emission feature with broad and narrow components, which has never been detected before among other H-poor SLSNe. The broad component has a velocity width of ~4500km/s and has a ~300km/s blue-ward shift relative to the narrow component. We interpret this broad Halpha emission line as the interaction between the supernova ejecta and a H-rich circumstellar medium (CSM) shell, located at a distance of ~4x$10^{16}$cm from the explosion site. This eje...

  4. Superluminous Supernova SN 2015bn in the Nebular Phase: Evidence for the Engine-powered Explosion of a Stripped Massive Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Margutti, R.; Chornock, R.; Blanchard, P. K.; Jerkstrand, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Arcavi, I.; Challis, P.; Chambers, K. C.; Chen, T.-W.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Magnier, E. A.; Maguire, K.; Mazzali, P. A.; McCully, C.; Milisavljevic, D.; Smith, K. W.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Yaron, O.; Young, D. R.

    2016-09-01

    We present nebular-phase imaging and spectroscopy for the hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) SN 2015bn, at redshift z = 0.1136, spanning +250-400 days after maximum light. The light curve exhibits a steepening in the decline rate from 1.4 mag (100 days)-1 to 1.7 mag (100 days)-1, suggestive of a significant decrease in the opacity. This change is accompanied by a transition from a blue continuum superposed with photospheric absorption lines to a nebular spectrum dominated by emission lines of oxygen, calcium, and magnesium. There are no obvious signatures of circumstellar interaction or large 56Ni mass. We show that the spectrum at +400 days is virtually identical to a number of energetic SNe Ic such as SN 1997dq, SN 2012au, and SN 1998bw, indicating similar core conditions and strengthening the link between “hypernovae”/long gamma-ray bursts and SLSNe. A single explosion mechanism may unify these events that span absolute magnitudes of -22 < M B < -17. Both the light curve and spectrum of SN 2015bn are consistent with an engine-driven explosion ejecting 7-30 M ⊙ of oxygen-dominated ejecta (for reasonable choices in temperature and opacity). A strong and relatively narrow O i λ7774 line, seen in a number of these energetic events but not in normal supernovae, may point to an inner shell that is the signature of a central engine.

  5. Dispersive hydrodynamics: Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondini, G.; El, G. A.; Hoefer, M. A.; Miller, P. D.

    2016-10-01

    This Special Issue on Dispersive Hydrodynamics is dedicated to the memory and work of G.B. Whitham who was one of the pioneers in this field of physical applied mathematics. Some of the papers appearing here are related to work reported on at the workshop "Dispersive Hydrodynamics: The Mathematics of Dispersive Shock Waves and Applications" held in May 2015 at the Banff International Research Station. This Preface provides a broad overview of the field and summaries of the various contributions to the Special Issue, placing them in a unified context.

  6. Influence of long-distance seed dispersal on the genetic diversity of seed rain in fragmented Pinus densiflora populations relative to pollen-mediated gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Hajime; Watanabe, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Kentaro; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) of seeds has a critical impact on species survival in patchy landscapes. However, relative to pollen dispersal, empirical data on how seed LDD affects genetic diversity in fragmented populations have been poorly reported. Thus, we attempted to indirectly evaluate the influence of seed LDD by estimating maternal and paternal inbreeding in the seed rain of fragmented 8 Pinus densiflora populations. In total, the sample size was 458 seeds and 306 adult trees. Inbreeding was estimated by common parentage analysis to evaluate gene flow within populations and by sibship reconstruction analysis to estimate gene flow within and among populations. In the parentage analysis, the observed probability that sampled seeds had the same parents within populations was significantly larger than the expected probability in many populations. This result suggested that gene dispersal was limited to within populations. In the sibship reconstruction, many donors both within and among populations appeared to contribute to sampled seeds. Significant differences in sibling ratios were not detected between paternity and maternity. These results suggested that seed-mediated gene flow and pollen-mediated gene flow from outside population contributed some extent to high genetic diversity of the seed rain (H E > 0.854). We emphasize that pine seeds may have excellent potential for gene exchange within and among populations.

  7. Reflection and Refraction on the Boundary of a Left-Handed Material with a Hyperbolic Dispersion Relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yu; SHEN Lin-Fang; RAN Li-Xin; CHEN Xu-Dong; Liisi Jylh(a); Tomasz M. Grzegorczyk; Jin Au Kong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Wave reflection and refraction at the interface between a normal media and a one-dimensional left-handed material (1 DLHM) with a hyperbolic dispersion relationship is studied. It is found that in a special case that the boundary is perpendicular to one asymptotic line of the hyperbola, phase matching cannot be achieved unless the 1 DLHM is regarded to be intrinsically lossy. After introducing a small loss factor to the 1 DLHM, a reasonable solution for the phase matching is obtained. According to the analytical result, a wave confined to a thin layer near the boundary is found, which can be excited at the interface as a reflected wave or a refracted wave attenuating drastically away from the boundary inside the 1 DLHM in both cases.

  8. Dendrochemical patterns of calcium, zinc, and potassium related to internal factors detected by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin T.; Balouet, Jean Christophe; Shortle, Walter C.; Chalot, Michel; Beaujard, François; Grudd, Håkan; Vroblesky, Don A.; Burkem, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provides highly sensitive and precise spatial resolution of cation content in individual annual growth rings in trees. The sensitivity and precision have prompted successful applications to forensic dendrochemistry and the timing of environmental releases of contaminants. These applications have highlighted the need to distinguish dendrochemical effects of internal processes from environmental contamination. Calcium, potassium, and zinc are three marker cations that illustrate the influence of these processes. We found changes in cation chemistry in tree rings potentially due to biomineralization, development of cracks or checks, heartwood/sapwood differentiation, intra-annual processes, and compartmentalization of infection. Distinguishing internal from external processes that affect dendrochemistry will enhance the value of EDXRF for both physiological and forensic investigations.

  9. Some aspects of dispersive horizons: lessons from surface waves

    CERN Document Server

    Chaline, J; Maïssa, P; Rousseaux, G

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodynamic surface waves propagating on a moving background flow experience an effective curved space-time. We discuss experiments with gravity waves and capillary-gravity waves in which we study hydrodynamic black/white-hole horizons and the possibility of penetrating across them. Such possibility of penetration is due to the interaction with an additional "blue" horizon, which results from the inclusion of surface tension in the low-frequency gravity-wave theory. This interaction leads to a dispersive cusp beyond which both horizons completely disappear. We speculate the appearance of high-frequency "superluminal" corrections to be a universal characteristic of analogue gravity systems, and discuss their relevance for the trans-Planckian problem. We also discuss the role of Airy interference in hybridising the incoming waves with the flowing background (the effective spacetime) and blurring the position of the black/white-hole horizon.

  10. Rates of Gravel Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the three-dimensional dispersion of mixed size sediment. From a kinematics standpoint, few studies are available to inform on the streamwise and vertical rates of sediment dispersion in natural channels. This research uses a gravel tracing program to quantify dispersion rates over 19 flood seasons. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2500 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1989 and 1992 in four generations. To quantify gravel dispersion over distances up to 2.6 km, observations are taken from 11 recoveries. Over 280 floods capable of moving bedload occurred during this period, with five exceeding the estimated bankfull discharge. Streamwise dispersion is quantified by virtual velocity, while dispersion into the streambed is quantified by a vertical burial rate. The temporal trend in streamwise dispersion rates is described by a power function. Initial virtual velocities decline rapidly from around 1.4 m/hr to approach an asymptote value of about 0.2 m/hr. The rapid change corresponds to a significant increase in the proportion of buried tracers due to vertical mixing. Initial burial rates reflect the magnitude of the first flood after tracer deployment and range from 0.07 to 0.46 cm/hr depending on tracer generation. Burial rates converge to about 0.06 cm/hr after the fourth flood season and then gradually decline to about 0.01 cm/hr. Thus, the rate of streamwise dispersion exceeds that of vertical dispersion by three orders of magnitude when the movement of sediment routinely activated by floods is considered.

  11. THE HOST GALAXY OF THE SUPER-LUMINOUS SN 2010gx AND LIMITS ON EXPLOSIVE {sup 56}Ni PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ting-Wan; Smartt, Stephen J.; Kotak, Rubina; McCrum, Matt; Fraser, Morgan [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Pastorello, Andrea [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Valenti, Stefano [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Super-luminous supernovae have a tendency to occur in faint host galaxies which are likely to have low mass and low metallicity. While these extremely luminous explosions have been observed from z = 0.1 to 1.55, the closest explosions allow more detailed investigations of their host galaxies. We present a detailed analysis of the host galaxy of SN 2010gx (z = 0.23), one of the best studied super-luminous type Ic supernovae. The host is a dwarf galaxy (M{sub g} = -17.42 {+-} 0.17) with a high specific star formation rate. It has a remarkably low metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.5 {+-} 0.1 dex as determined from the detection of the [O III] {lambda}4363 line. This is the first reliable metallicity determination of a super-luminous stripped-envelope supernova host. We collected deep multi-epoch imaging with Gemini + GMOS between 240 and 560 days after explosion to search for any sign of radioactive {sup 56}Ni, which might provide further insights on the explosion mechanism and the progenitor's nature. We reach griz magnitudes of m{sub AB} {approx} 26, but do not detect SN 2010gx at these epochs. The limit implies that any {sup 56}Ni production was similar to or below that of SN 1998bw (a luminous type Ic SN that produced around 0.4 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni). The low volumetric rates of these supernovae ({approx}10{sup -4} of the core-collapse population) could be qualitatively matched if the explosion mechanism requires a combination of low-metallicity (below 0.2 Z{sub Sun }), high progenitor mass (>60 M{sub Sun }) and high rotation rate (fastest 10% of rotators).

  12. Dispersion relation for ion-acoustic waves in plasma%等离子体中离子声波的色散关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张开彪; 王红艳

    2013-01-01

    以含有满足玻耳兹曼分布的低温电子、远离平衡态的高温电子和离子组成的等离子体为研究对象,推导得到在该等离子体中传播的离子声波的色散关系.利用数值模拟方法讨论系统参数如快电子数、两种电子温度之比和数密度比值对离子声波的色散关系的影响.结果表明:系统参数的变化均会影响和改变着系统的色散关系,其中ω2随快电子数α的增大而增大.%A plasma which consisted of lower temperature Boltzmann distributed electrons,higher temperature non-thermal distributed electrons and ions was studied and the dispersion relation of ionacoustic waves was obtained in this paper.The effects and influences of system parameters,such as the fast electrons number,the ratio of the two electrons temperatures,and the ratio of the two electrons densities on the dispersion relation of the ion-acoustic waves were analyzed carefully by using numerical simulation method.The results showed that variation of the plasma parameters has an important influence on the dispersion relation of this system.In addition,ω2 increase with the increase of the fast electrons number α.

  13. Measurement of the Generalized Polarizabilities of the Proton in Virtual Compton Scattering at Q2=0.92 and 1.76 Gev2: II. Dispersion Relation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laveissière, G; Degrande, N; Jaminion, S; Jutier, C; Di Salvo, R; Van Hoorebeke, L; Alexa, L C; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K A; Arundell, K; Audit, G; Auerbach, L; Baker, F T; Baylac, M; Berthot, J; Bertin, P Y; Bertozzi, W; Bimbot, L; Böglin, W; Brash, E J; Breton, V; Breuer, H; Burtin, E; Calarco, J R; Cardman, L S; Cavata, C; Chang, C C; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Dale, D S; De Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deur, A; D'Hose, N; Dodge, G E; Domingo, John J; Elouadrhiri, L; Epstein, M B; Ewell, L A; Finn, J M; Fissum, K G; Fonvieille, H; Fournier, G; Frois, B; Frullani, S; Furget, C; Gao, H; Gao, J; Garibaldi, F; Gasparian, A; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A; Glashausser, C; Gómez, J; Gorbenko, V; Grenier, P; Guichon, P A M; Hansen, J O; Holmes, R; Holtrop, M; Howell, C; Huber, G M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Incerti, S; Iodice, M; Jardillier, J; Jones, M K; Kahl, W; Kato, S; Katramatou, A T; Kelly, J J; Kerhoas, S; Ketikyan, A; Khayat, M; Kino, K; Kox, S; Kramer, L H; Kumar, K S; Kumbartzki, G; Kuss, M; Leone, A; Le Rose, J J; Liang, M; Lindgren, R A; Liyanage, N; Lolos, G J; Lourie, R W; Madey, R; Maeda, K; Malov, S; Manley, D M; Marchand, C; Marchand, D; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marroncle, J; Martino, J; Martoff, C J; McCormick, K; McIntyre, J; Mehrabyan, S S; Merchez, F; Meziani, Z E; Michaels, R; Miller, G W; Mougey, J Y; Nanda, S K; Neyret, D; Offermann, E A J M; Papandreou, Z; Pasquini, B; Perdrisat, C F; Perrino, R; Petratos, G G; Platchkov, S; Pomatsalyuk, R I; Prout, D L; Punjabi, V A; Pussieux, T; Quéméner, G; Ransome, R D; Ravel, O; Real, J S; Renard, F; Roblin, Y; Rowntree, D; Rutledge, G; Rutt, P M; Saha, A; Saitô, T; Sarty, A J; Serdarevic, A; Smith, T; Smirnov, G; Soldi, K; Sorokin, P; Souder, P A; Suleiman, R; Templon, J A; Terasawa, T; Tieulent, R; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E; Tsubota, H; Ueno, H; Ulmer, P E; Urciuoli, G M; Vanderhaeghen, M; Van De Vyver, R; Van der Meer, R L J; Vernin, P; Vlahovic, B; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wijesooriya, K; Wilson, R; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Zainea, D G; Zhang, W M; Zhao, J; Zhou, Z L

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Compton Scattering is studied at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in the energy domain below pion threshold and in the Delta(1232) resonance region. The data analysis is based on the Dispersion Relation (DR) approach. The electric and magnetic Generalized Polarizabilities (GPs) of the proton and the structure functions Pll-Ptt/epsilon and Plt are determined at four-momentum transfer squared Q2=0.92 and 1.76 GeV2. The DR analysis is consistent with the low-energy expansion analysis. The world data set indicates that neither the electric nor magnetic GP follows a simple dipole form.

  14. Validity condition of separating dispersion of PCFs into material dispersion and geometrical dispersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Lantian Hou; Zhaolun Liu; Guiyao Zhou

    2009-01-01

    When using normalized dispersion method for the dispersion design of photonic crystal fibers(PCFs),it is vital that the group velocity dispersion of PCF can be seen as the sum of geometrical dispersion and material dispersion.However,the error induced by this way of calculation will deteriorate the final results.Taking 5 ps/(km·nm)and 5% as absolute error and relative error limits,respectively,the structure parameter boundaries of PCFs about when separating total dispersion into geometrical and material components is valid are provided for wavelength shorter than 1700 nm.By using these two criteria together,it is adequate to evaluate the simulatcd dispersion of PCFs when normalized dispersion method is employed.

  15. Polypyrrole: FeOx·ZnO nanoparticle solar cells with breakthrough open-circuit voltage prepared from relatively stable liquid dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Zong, Baoyu

    2014-01-01

    Organic hybrid solar cells with a large open-circuit voltage, up to above that of 1.5 V standard battery voltage, were demonstrated using blends of polypyrrole: Fe2O3·ZnO nanoparticles as active-layers. The cell active-layers were readily coated in open air from relatively stable liquid dark-color polypyrrole-based dispersions, which were synthesized using appropriate surfactants during the in situ polymerization of pyrrole with FeCl3 or both H2O2 and FeCl3 as the oxidizers. The performance of the cells depends largely on the synthesized blend phase, which is determined by the surfactants, oxidizers, as well as the reactant ratio. Only the solar cells fabricated from the stable dispersions can produce both a high open-circuit voltage (>1.0 V) and short-circuit current (up to 7.5 mA cm-2) due to the relatively uniform porous network nanomorphology and higher shunt to series resistance ratio of the active-layers. The cells also display a relatively high power-conversion efficiency of up to ∼3.8%. This journal is

  16. The unexpected, long-lasting, UV rebrightening of the superluminous supernova ASASSN-15lh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Rivera, D.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Chen, Ping; Dong, Subo; Prieto, J. L.; Shappee, B. J.; Jha, S. W.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Thompson, Todd. A.; Grupe, D.; Beacom, J. F.

    2017-04-01

    Given its peak luminosity and early-time spectra, ASASSN-15lh was classified as the most luminous supernova ever discovered. Here, we report a UV rebrightening of ASASSN-15lh observed with Swift during our follow-up campaign. The rebrightening began at t ≃ 90 d (observer frame) after the primary peak and was followed by a ∼120-d long plateau in the bolometric luminosity, before starting to fade again at t ≃ 210 d. ASASSN-15lh rebrightened in the Swift UV bands by ΔmUVW2 ≃ -1.75 mag, ΔmUVM2 ≃ -1.25 mag and ΔmUVW1 ≃ -0.8 mag, but did not rebrighten in the optical bands. Throughout its initial decline, subsequent rebrightening and renewed decline, the spectra did not show evidence of interactions between the ejecta and circumstellar medium such as narrow emission lines. There are hints of weak Hα emission at late-times, but Margutti et al. have shown that it is narrow line emission consistent with star formation in the host nucleus. By fitting a blackbody, we find that during the rebrightening, the effective photospheric temperature increased from TBB ≃ 11 000 K to TBB ≃ 18 000 K. Over the ∼ 550 d since its detection, ASASSN-15lh has radiated ∼1.7 -1.9 × 1052 erg. Although its physical nature remains uncertain, the evolution of ASASSN-15lh's photospheric radius, its radiated energy and the implied event rate, are all more similar to those of H-poor superluminous supernovae than to tidal disruption events.

  17. SN 2015BN: A Detailed Multi-wavelength View of a Nearby Superluminous Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S. J.; Margutti, R.; Kamble, A.; Alexander, K. D.; Chen, T.-W.; Inserra, C.; Arcavi, I.; Blanchard, P. K.; Cartier, R.; Chambers, K. C.; Childress, M. J.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Drout, M.; Flewelling, H. A.; Fraser, M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Galbany, L.; Harmanen, J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A.; Huber, M. E.; Jerkstrand, A.; Kankare, E.; Kochanek, C. S.; Lin, Z.-Y.; Lunnan, R.; Magnier, E. A.; Maguire, K.; McCully, C.; McDonald, M.; Metzger, B. D.; Milisavljevic, D.; Mitra, A.; Reynolds, T.; Saario, J.; Shappee, B. J.; Smith, K. W.; Valenti, S.; Villar, V. A.; Waters, C.; Young, D. R.

    2016-07-01

    We present observations of SN 2015bn (=PS15ae = CSS141223-113342+004332 = MLS150211-113342+004333), a Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN) at redshift z = 0.1136. As well as being one of the closest SLSNe I yet discovered, it is intrinsically brighter ({M}U≈ -23.1) and in a fainter galaxy ({M}B≈ -16.0) than other SLSNe at z˜ 0.1. We used this opportunity to collect the most extensive data set for any SLSN I to date, including densely sampled spectroscopy and photometry, from the UV to the NIR, spanning -50 to +250 days from optical maximum. SN 2015bn fades slowly, but exhibits surprising undulations in the light curve on a timescale of 30-50 days, especially in the UV. The spectrum shows extraordinarily slow evolution except for a rapid transformation between +7 and +20-30 days. No narrow emission lines from slow-moving material are observed at any phase. We derive physical properties including the bolometric luminosity, and find slow velocity evolution and non-monotonic temperature and radial evolution. A deep radio limit rules out a healthy off-axis gamma-ray burst, and places constraints on the pre-explosion mass loss. The data can be consistently explained by a ≳ 10 M {}⊙ stripped progenitor exploding with ˜ {10}51 erg kinetic energy, forming a magnetar with a spin-down timescale of ˜20 days (thus avoiding a gamma-ray burst) that reheats the ejecta and drives ionization fronts. The most likely alternative scenario—interaction with ˜20 M {}⊙ of dense, inhomogeneous circumstellar material—can be tested with continuing radio follow-up.

  18. ANALYTICAL LIGHT CURVE MODELS OF SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE: {chi}{sup 2}-MINIMIZATION OF PARAMETER FITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzopoulos, E.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Vinko, J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Horvath, Z. L.; Nagy, A., E-mail: manolis@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged (Hungary)

    2013-08-10

    We present fits of generalized semi-analytic supernova (SN) light curve (LC) models for a variety of power inputs including {sup 56}Ni and {sup 56}Co radioactive decay, magnetar spin-down, and forward and reverse shock heating due to supernova ejecta-circumstellar matter (CSM) interaction. We apply our models to the observed LCs of the H-rich superluminous supernovae (SLSN-II) SN 2006gy, SN 2006tf, SN 2008am, SN 2008es, CSS100217, the H-poor SLSN-I SN 2005ap, SCP06F6, SN 2007bi, SN 2010gx, and SN 2010kd, as well as to the interacting SN 2008iy and PTF 09uj. Our goal is to determine the dominant mechanism that powers the LCs of these extraordinary events and the physical conditions involved in each case. We also present a comparison of our semi-analytical results with recent results from numerical radiation hydrodynamics calculations in the particular case of SN 2006gy in order to explore the strengths and weaknesses of our models. We find that CS shock heating produced by ejecta-CSM interaction provides a better fit to the LCs of most of the events we examine. We discuss the possibility that collision of supernova ejecta with hydrogen-deficient CSM accounts for some of the hydrogen-deficient SLSNe (SLSN-I) and may be a plausible explanation for the explosion mechanism of SN 2007bi, the pair-instability supernova candidate. We characterize and discuss issues of parameter degeneracy.

  19. SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE POWERED BY MAGNETARS: LATE-TIME LIGHT CURVES AND HARD EMISSION LEAKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S. Q.; Wang, L. J.; Dai, Z. G. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, X. F., E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2015-01-20

    Recently, research performed by two groups has revealed that the magnetar spin-down energy injection model with full energy trapping can explain the early-time light curves of SN 2010gx, SN 2013dg, LSQ12dlf, SSS120810, and CSS121015 but fails to fit the late-time light curves of these superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). These results imply that the original magnetar-powered model is challenged in explaining these SLSNe. Our paper aims to simultaneously explain both the early- and late-time data/upper limits by considering the leakage of hard emissions. We incorporate quantitatively the leakage effect into the original magnetar-powered model and derive a new semianalytical equation. Comparing the light curves reproduced by our revised magnetar-powered model with the observed data and/or upper limits of these five SLSNe, we found that the late-time light curves reproduced by our semianalytical equation are in good agreement with the late-time observed data and/or upper limits of SN 2010gx, CSS121015, SN 2013dg, and LSQ12dlf and the late-time excess of SSS120810, indicating that the magnetar-powered model might be responsible for these SLSNe and that the gamma-ray and X-ray leakages are unavoidable when the hard photons were down-Comptonized to softer photons. To determine the details of the leakage effect and unveil the nature of SLSNe, more high-quality bolometric light curves and spectra of SLSNe are required.

  20. The Unexpected, Long-Lasting, UV Rebrightening of the Super-Luminous Supernova ASASSN-15lh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Rivera, D.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Chen, Ping; Dong, Subo; Prieto, J. L.; Shappee, B. J.; Jha, S. W.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Thompson, Todd. A.; Grupe, D.; Beacom, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Given its peak luminosity and early-time spectra, ASASSN-15lh was classified as the most luminous supernova (SN) ever discovered (Dong et al. 2016).. Here we report a UV rebrightening of ASASSN-15lh observed with Swift during our follow-up campaign. The rebrightening began at t ≃ 90 days (observer frame) after the primary peak and was followed by a ˜120-day long plateau in the bolometric luminosity, before starting to fade again at t ≃ 210 days. ASASSN-15lh rebrightened in the Swift UV bands by ΔmUVW2 ≃ -1.75 mag, ΔmUVM2 ≃ -1.25 mag, and ΔmUVW1 ≃ -0.8 mag, but did not rebrighten in the optical bands. Throughout its initial decline, subsequent rebrightening, and renewed decline, the spectra did not show evidence of interactions between the ejecta and circumstellar medium (CSM) such as narrow emission lines. There are hints of weak Hα emission at late-times, but Margutti et al. (2016) have shown that it is narrow line emission consistent with star formation in the host nucleus. By fitting a blackbody we find that during the rebrightening the effective photospheric temperature increased from TBB ≃ 11000 K to TBB ≃ 18000 K. Over the ˜ 550 days since its detection, ASASSN-15lh has radiated ˜1.7 - -1.9 × 1052 ergs. Although its physical nature remains uncertain, the evolution of ASASSN-15lh's photospheric radius, its radiated energy, and the implied event rate, are all more similar to those of H-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) than to tidal disruption events (TDEs).