A superlinear convergence estimate for an iterative method for the biharmonic equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horn, M.A. [Wichita State Univ., Wichita, KS (United States)
1996-12-31
In [CDH] a method for the solution of boundary value problems for the biharmonic equation using conformal mapping was investigated. The method is an implementation of the classical method of Muskhelishvili. In [CDH] it was shown, using the Hankel structure, that the linear system in [Musk] is the discretization of the identify plus a compact operator, and therefore the conjugate gradient method will converge superlinearly. The purpose of this paper is to give an estimate of the superlinear convergence in the case when the boundary curve is in a Hoelder class.
Reaching the superlinear convergence phase of the CG method
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe; Karátson, J.
2014-01-01
Roč. 260, č. 260 (2014), s. 244-257 ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : superlinear convergence * conjugate gradient method * eigenvalues Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.266, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377042713005451
A Superlinearly Convergent O(square root of nL)-Iteration Algorithm for Linear Programming
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ye, Y; Tapia, Richard A; Zhang, Y
1991-01-01
.... We demonstrate that the modified algorithm maintains its O(square root of nL)-iteration complexity, while exhibiting superlinear convergence for general problems and quadratic convergence for nondegenerate problems...
Z-Q. Luo; J.F. Sturm; S. Zhang (Shuzhong)
1996-01-01
textabstractThis paper establishes the superlinear convergence of a symmetric primal-dual path following algorithm for semidefinite programming under the assumptions that the semidefinite program has a strictly complementary primal-dual optimal solution and that the size of the central path
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jian Jinbao; Li Jianling; Mo Xingde
2006-01-01
This paper discusses a kind of optimization problem with linear complementarity constraints, and presents a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm for solving a stationary point of the problem. The algorithm is a modification of the SQP algorithm proposed by Fukushima et al. [Computational Optimization and Applications, 10 (1998),5-34], and is based on a reformulation of complementarity condition as a system of linear equations. At each iteration, one quadratic programming and one system of equations needs to be solved, and a curve search is used to yield the step size. Under some appropriate assumptions, including the lower-level strict complementarity, but without the upper-level strict complementarity for the inequality constraints, the algorithm is proved to possess strong convergence and superlinear convergence. Some preliminary numerical results are reported
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vidovic, D.; Segal, A.; Wesseling, P.
2004-01-01
A method for linear reconstruction of staggered vector fields with special treatment of the divergence is presented. An upwind-biased finite volume scheme for solving the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on staggered unstructured triangular grids that uses this reconstruction is described. The scheme is applied to three benchmark problems and is found to be superlinearly convergent in space
A priori estimates of global solutions of superlinear parabolic systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julius Pacuta
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We consider the parabolic system $ u_{t}-\\Delta u = u^{r}v^{p}$, $v_{t}-\\Delta v = u^{q}v^{s}$ in $\\Omega\\times(0,\\infty$, complemented by the homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions and the initial conditions $(u,v(\\cdot,0 = (u_{0},v_{0}$ in $\\Omega$, where $\\Omega $ is a smooth bounded domain in $ \\mathbb{R}^{N} $ and $ u_{0},v_{0}\\in L^{\\infty}(\\Omega$ are nonnegative functions. We find conditions on $ p,q,r,s $ guaranteeing a priori estimates of nonnegative classical global solutions. More precisely every such solution is bounded by a constant depending on suitable norm of the initial data. Our proofs are based on bootstrap in weighted Lebesgue spaces, universal estimates of auxiliary functions and estimates of the Dirichlet heat kernel.
Mesh independent superlinear PCG rates via compact - equivalent operators
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe; Karátson, J.
2007-01-01
Roč. 45, č. 4 (2007), s. 1495-1516 ISSN 0036-1429 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : nonsymmetric elliptic problems * conjugate gradient method * preconditioning * superlinear convergence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.470, year: 2007 http://apps.isiknowledge.com
Convergence estimates in approximation theory
Gupta, Vijay
2014-01-01
The study of linear positive operators is an area of mathematical studies with significant relevance to studies of computer-aided geometric design, numerical analysis, and differential equations. This book focuses on the convergence of linear positive operators in real and complex domains. The theoretical aspects of these operators have been an active area of research over the past few decades. In this volume, authors Gupta and Agarwal explore new and more efficient methods of applying this research to studies in Optimization and Analysis. The text will be of interest to upper-level students seeking an introduction to the field and to researchers developing innovative approaches.
Superlinear scaling for innovation in cities.
Arbesman, Samuel; Kleinberg, Jon M; Strogatz, Steven H
2009-01-01
Superlinear scaling in cities, which appears in sociological quantities such as economic productivity and creative output relative to urban population size, has been observed, but not been given a satisfactory theoretical explanation. Here we provide a network model for the superlinear relationship between population size and innovation found in cities, with a reasonable range for the exponent.
Convergence and fluctuations of Regularized Tyler estimators
Kammoun, Abla; Couillet, Romain; Pascal, Frederic; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2015-01-01
This article studies the behavior of regularized Tyler estimators (RTEs) of scatter matrices. The key advantages of these estimators are twofold. First, they guarantee by construction a good conditioning of the estimate and second, being a derivative of robust Tyler estimators, they inherit their robustness properties, notably their resilience to the presence of outliers. Nevertheless, one major problem that poses the use of RTEs in practice is represented by the question of setting the regularization parameter p. While a high value of p is likely to push all the eigenvalues away from zero, it comes at the cost of a larger bias with respect to the population covariance matrix. A deep understanding of the statistics of RTEs is essential to come up with appropriate choices for the regularization parameter. This is not an easy task and might be out of reach, unless one considers asymptotic regimes wherein the number of observations n and/or their size N increase together. First asymptotic results have recently been obtained under the assumption that N and n are large and commensurable. Interestingly, no results concerning the regime of n going to infinity with N fixed exist, even though the investigation of this assumption has usually predated the analysis of the most difficult N and n large case. This motivates our work. In particular, we prove in the present paper that the RTEs converge to a deterministic matrix when n → ∞ with N fixed, which is expressed as a function of the theoretical covariance matrix. We also derive the fluctuations of the RTEs around this deterministic matrix and establish that these fluctuations converge in distribution to a multivariate Gaussian distribution with zero mean and a covariance depending on the population covariance and the parameter.
Convergence and fluctuations of Regularized Tyler estimators
Kammoun, Abla
2015-10-26
This article studies the behavior of regularized Tyler estimators (RTEs) of scatter matrices. The key advantages of these estimators are twofold. First, they guarantee by construction a good conditioning of the estimate and second, being a derivative of robust Tyler estimators, they inherit their robustness properties, notably their resilience to the presence of outliers. Nevertheless, one major problem that poses the use of RTEs in practice is represented by the question of setting the regularization parameter p. While a high value of p is likely to push all the eigenvalues away from zero, it comes at the cost of a larger bias with respect to the population covariance matrix. A deep understanding of the statistics of RTEs is essential to come up with appropriate choices for the regularization parameter. This is not an easy task and might be out of reach, unless one considers asymptotic regimes wherein the number of observations n and/or their size N increase together. First asymptotic results have recently been obtained under the assumption that N and n are large and commensurable. Interestingly, no results concerning the regime of n going to infinity with N fixed exist, even though the investigation of this assumption has usually predated the analysis of the most difficult N and n large case. This motivates our work. In particular, we prove in the present paper that the RTEs converge to a deterministic matrix when n → ∞ with N fixed, which is expressed as a function of the theoretical covariance matrix. We also derive the fluctuations of the RTEs around this deterministic matrix and establish that these fluctuations converge in distribution to a multivariate Gaussian distribution with zero mean and a covariance depending on the population covariance and the parameter.
A Quadratically Convergent O(square root of nL-Iteration Algorithm for Linear Programming
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ye, Y; Gueler, O; Tapia, Richard A; Zhang, Y
1991-01-01
...)-iteration complexity while exhibiting superlinear convergence of the duality gap to zero under the assumption that the iteration sequence converges, and quadratic convergence of the duality gap...
OSCILLATION CRITERIA FOR FORCED SUPERLINEAR DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
Using Riccati transformation techniques,some oscillation criteria for the forced second-order superlinear difference equations are established.These criteria are dis- crete analogues of the criteria for differential equations proposed by Yan.
A superlinear interior points algorithm for engineering design optimization
Herskovits, J.; Asquier, J.
1990-01-01
We present a quasi-Newton interior points algorithm for nonlinear constrained optimization. It is based on a general approach consisting of the iterative solution in the primal and dual spaces of the equalities in Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions. This is done in such a way to have primal and dual feasibility at each iteration, which ensures satisfaction of those optimality conditions at the limit points. This approach is very strong and efficient, since at each iteration it only requires the solution of two linear systems with the same matrix, instead of quadratic programming subproblems. It is also particularly appropriate for engineering design optimization inasmuch at each iteration a feasible design is obtained. The present algorithm uses a quasi-Newton approximation of the second derivative of the Lagrangian function in order to have superlinear asymptotic convergence. We discuss theoretical aspects of the algorithm and its computer implementation.
On a fourth order superlinear elliptic problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ramos
2001-01-01
Full Text Available We prove the existence of a nonzero solution for the fourth order elliptic equation $$Delta^2u= mu u +a(xg(u$$ with boundary conditions $u=Delta u=0$. Here, $mu$ is a real parameter, $g$ is superlinear both at zero and infinity and $a(x$ changes sign in $Omega$. The proof uses a variational argument based on the argument by Bahri-Lions cite{BL}.
Exponentially convergent state estimation for delayed switched recurrent neural networks.
Ahn, Choon Ki
2011-11-01
This paper deals with the delay-dependent exponentially convergent state estimation problem for delayed switched neural networks. A set of delay-dependent criteria is derived under which the resulting estimation error system is exponentially stable. It is shown that the gain matrix of the proposed state estimator is characterised in terms of the solution to a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be checked readily by using some standard numerical packages. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed state estimator.
Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.
2005-09-01
Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Ole Brun; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik
2002-01-01
Convergence trends between the WAN Internet area, characterized by best effort service provision, and the real time LAN domain, with requirements for guaranteed services, are identified and discussed. A bilateral evolution is identified, where typical bulk service applications from WAN, such as m......Convergence trends between the WAN Internet area, characterized by best effort service provision, and the real time LAN domain, with requirements for guaranteed services, are identified and discussed. A bilateral evolution is identified, where typical bulk service applications from WAN...... with the emergence of remote service provision, such as supervision and control of decentralized heating facilities and wind based electrical power production. The reliability issue is addressed from a structural viewpoint, where the concept of Structural QoS (SQoS) is defined to support reliability modelling...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prasad, Ramjee
2009-01-01
This paper presents the main conclusions which can be drawn from the discussions on Future Communication Systems and lessons on Unpredictable Future of Wireless Communication Systems. Future systems beyond the third generation are already under discussions in international bodies, such as ITU, WW...... and R&D programmes worldwide. The incoming era is characterized by the convergence of networks and access technology and the divergence of applications. Future mobile communication systems should bring something more than only faster data or wireless internet access....
Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.
2005-01-01
.p {padding-bottom:6px} Call for Papers: Convergence Guest Editors: Thomas E. Darcie, University of Victoria Robert Doverspike, AT&T Martin Zirngibl, Lucent Technologies Coordinating Associate Editor: Steven K. Korotky, Lucent Technologies The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and
Superlinearly scalable noise robustness of redundant coupled dynamical systems.
Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John F; Ditto, William L
2016-03-01
We illustrate through theory and numerical simulations that redundant coupled dynamical systems can be extremely robust against local noise in comparison to uncoupled dynamical systems evolving in the same noisy environment. Previous studies have shown that the noise robustness of redundant coupled dynamical systems is linearly scalable and deviations due to noise can be minimized by increasing the number of coupled units. Here, we demonstrate that the noise robustness can actually be scaled superlinearly if some conditions are met and very high noise robustness can be realized with very few coupled units. We discuss these conditions and show that this superlinear scalability depends on the nonlinearity of the individual dynamical units. The phenomenon is demonstrated in discrete as well as continuous dynamical systems. This superlinear scalability not only provides us an opportunity to exploit the nonlinearity of physical systems without being bogged down by noise but may also help us in understanding the functional role of coupled redundancy found in many biological systems. Moreover, engineers can exploit superlinear noise suppression by starting a coupled system near (not necessarily at) the appropriate initial condition.
Rates of convergence and asymptotic normality of curve estimators for ergodic diffusion processes
J.H. van Zanten (Harry)
2000-01-01
textabstractFor ergodic diffusion processes, we study kernel-type estimators for the invariant density, its derivatives and the drift function. We determine rates of convergence and find the joint asymptotic distribution of the estimators at different points.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Jinde
2004-01-01
In this Letter, the domain of attraction of memory patterns and exponential convergence rate of the network trajectories to memory patterns for Hopfield continuous associative memory are estimated by means of matrix measure and comparison principle. A new estimation is given for the domain of attraction of memory patterns and exponential convergence rate. These results can be used for the evaluation of fault-tolerance capability and the synthesis procedures for Hopfield continuous feedback associative memory neural networks
On Improving Convergence Rates for Nonnegative Kernel Density Estimators
Terrell, George R.; Scott, David W.
1980-01-01
To improve the rate of decrease of integrated mean square error for nonparametric kernel density estimators beyond $0(n^{-\\frac{4}{5}}),$ we must relax the constraint that the density estimate be a bonafide density function, that is, be nonnegative and integrate to one. All current methods for kernel (and orthogonal series) estimators relax the nonnegativity constraint. In this paper we show how to achieve similar improvement by relaxing the integral constraint only. This is important in appl...
Estimation of the convergence order of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for OCD metrology
Ma, Yuan; Liu, Shiyuan; Chen, Xiuguo; Zhang, Chuanwei
2011-12-01
In most cases of optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology, when applying rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) to optical modeling, a high order of Fourier harmonics is usually set up to guarantee the convergence of the final results. However, the total number of floating point operations grows dramatically as the truncation order increases. Therefore, it is critical to choose an appropriate order to obtain high computational efficiency without losing much accuracy in the meantime. In this paper, the convergence order associated with the structural and optical parameters has been estimated through simulation. The results indicate that the convergence order is linear with the period of the sample when fixing the other parameters, both for planar diffraction and conical diffraction. The illuminated wavelength also affects the convergence of a final result. With further investigations concentrated on the ratio of illuminated wavelength to period, it is discovered that the convergence order decreases with the growth of the ratio, and when the ratio is fixed, convergence order jumps slightly, especially in a specific range of wavelength. This characteristic could be applied to estimate the optimum convergence order of given samples to obtain high computational efficiency.
On the Convergence of the Iteration Sequence in Primal-Dual Interior-Point Methods
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Tapia, Richard A; Zhang, Yin; Ye, Yinyu
1993-01-01
Recently, numerous research efforts, most of them concerned with superlinear convergence of the duality gap sequence to zero in the Kojima-Mizuno-Yoshise primal-dual interior-point method for linear...
Distributed weighted least-squares estimation with fast convergence for large-scale systems.
Marelli, Damián Edgardo; Fu, Minyue
2015-01-01
In this paper we study a distributed weighted least-squares estimation problem for a large-scale system consisting of a network of interconnected sub-systems. Each sub-system is concerned with a subset of the unknown parameters and has a measurement linear in the unknown parameters with additive noise. The distributed estimation task is for each sub-system to compute the globally optimal estimate of its own parameters using its own measurement and information shared with the network through neighborhood communication. We first provide a fully distributed iterative algorithm to asymptotically compute the global optimal estimate. The convergence rate of the algorithm will be maximized using a scaling parameter and a preconditioning method. This algorithm works for a general network. For a network without loops, we also provide a different iterative algorithm to compute the global optimal estimate which converges in a finite number of steps. We include numerical experiments to illustrate the performances of the proposed methods.
Study of the Convergence in State Estimators for LTI Systems with Event Detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan C. Posada
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The methods frequently used to estimate the state of an LTI system require that the precise value of the output variable is known at all times, or at equidistant sampling times. In LTI systems, in which the output signal is measured through binary sensors (detectors, the traditional way of state observers design is not applicable even though the system has a complete observability matrix. This type of state observers design is known as passive. It is necessary, then, to introduce a new state estimation technique, which allows reckoning the state from the information of the variable’s crossing through a detector’s action threshold (switch. This paper seeks, therefore, to study the convergence in this type of estimators in finite time, allowing establishing, theoretically, whether some family of the proposed models can be estimated in a convergent way through the use of the estimation technique based on events.
An error bound estimate and convergence of the Nodal-LTS N solution in a rectangle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hauser, Eliete Biasotto; Pazos, Ruben Panta; Tullio de Vilhena, Marco
2005-01-01
In this work, we report the mathematical analysis concerning error bound estimate and convergence of the Nodal-LTS N solution in a rectangle. For such we present an efficient algorithm, called LTS N 2D-Diag solution for Cartesian geometry
Strong Convergence Bound of the Pareto Index Estimator under Right Censoring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng Zuoxiang
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Let be a sequence of positive independent and identically distributed random variables with common Pareto-type distribution function as , where represents a slowly varying function at infinity. In this note we study the strong convergence bound of a kind of right censored Pareto index estimator under second-order regularly varying conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, K.; Lucas, R.
1986-12-01
In developing a methodology for assessing potential sites for the disposal of radioactive wastes, the Department of the Environment has conducted a series of trial assessment exercises. In order to produce converged estimates of radiological risk using the SYVAC A/C simulation system an efficient sampling procedure is required. Previous work has demonstrated that importance sampling can substantially increase sampling efficiency. This study used importance sampling to produce converged estimates of risk for the first DoE trial assessment. Four major nuclide chains were analysed. In each case importance sampling produced converged risk estimates with between 10 and 170 times fewer runs of the SYVAC A/C model. This increase in sampling efficiency can reduce the total elapsed time required to obtain a converged estimate of risk from one nuclide chain by a factor of 20. The results of this study suggests that the use of importance sampling could reduce the elapsed time required to perform a risk assessment of a potential site by a factor of ten. (author)
Convergence Analysis for the Multiplicative Schwarz Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithm
Liu, Lulu
2016-10-26
The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm, based on decomposition by field type rather than by subdomain, was recently introduced to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities. This paper provides a convergence analysis of the MSPIN algorithm. Under reasonable assumptions, it is shown that MSPIN is locally convergent, and desired superlinear or even quadratic convergence can be obtained when the forcing terms are picked suitably.
Convergence Analysis for the Multiplicative Schwarz Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithm
Liu, Lulu; Keyes, David E.
2016-01-01
The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm, based on decomposition by field type rather than by subdomain, was recently introduced to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities. This paper provides a convergence analysis of the MSPIN algorithm. Under reasonable assumptions, it is shown that MSPIN is locally convergent, and desired superlinear or even quadratic convergence can be obtained when the forcing terms are picked suitably.
Zhou, Wenjie; Wei, Xuesong; Wang, Leqin; Wu, Guangkuan
2017-05-01
Solving the static equilibrium position is one of the most important parts of dynamic coefficients calculation and further coupled calculation of rotor system. The main contribution of this study is testing the superlinear iteration convergence method-twofold secant method, for the determination of the static equilibrium position of journal bearing with finite length. Essentially, the Reynolds equation for stable motion is solved by the finite difference method and the inner pressure is obtained by the successive over-relaxation iterative method reinforced by the compound Simpson quadrature formula. The accuracy and efficiency of the twofold secant method are higher in comparison with the secant method and dichotomy. The total number of iterative steps required for the twofold secant method are about one-third of the secant method and less than one-eighth of dichotomy for the same equilibrium position. The calculations for equilibrium position and pressure distribution for different bearing length, clearance and rotating speed were done. In the results, the eccentricity presents linear inverse proportional relationship to the attitude angle. The influence of the bearing length, clearance and bearing radius on the load-carrying capacity was also investigated. The results illustrate that larger bearing length, larger radius and smaller clearance are good for the load-carrying capacity of journal bearing. The application of the twofold secant method can greatly reduce the computational time for calculation of the dynamic coefficients and dynamic characteristics of rotor-bearing system with a journal bearing of finite length.
Report on some methods of determining the state of convergence of Monte Carlo risk estimates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orford, J.L.; Hufton, D.; Johnson, K.
1991-05-01
The Department of the Environment is developing a methodology for assessing potential sites for the disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. Computer models are used to simulate the groundwater transport of radioactive materials from a disposal facility back to man. Monte Carlo methods are being employed to conduct a probabilistic risk assessment (pra) of potential sites. The models calculate time histories of annual radiation dose to the critical group population. The annual radiation dose to the critical group in turn specifies the annual individual risk. The distribution of dose is generally highly skewed and many simulation runs are required to predict the level of confidence in the risk estimate i.e. to determine whether the risk estimate is converged. This report describes some statistical methods for determining the state of convergence of the risk estimate. The methods described include the Shapiro-Wilk test, calculation of skewness and kurtosis and normal probability plots. A method for forecasting the number of samples needed before the risk estimate is converged is presented. Three case studies were conducted to examine the performance of some of these techniques. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tu Fenghua; Liao Xiaofeng
2005-01-01
We study the problem of estimating the exponential convergence rate and exponential stability for neural networks with time-varying delay. Some criteria for exponential stability are derived by using the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. They are less conservative than the existing ones. Some analytical methods are employed to investigate the bounds on the interconnection matrix and activation functions so that the systems are exponentially stable
On sharp estimates of the convergence of double Fourier-Bessel series
Abilov, V. A.; Abilova, F. V.; Kerimov, M. K.
2017-11-01
The problem of approximation of a differentiable function of two variables by partial sums of a double Fourier-Bessel series is considered. Sharp estimates of the rate of convergence of the double Fourier-Bessel series on the class of differentiable functions of two variables characterized by a generalized modulus of continuity are obtained. The proofs of four theorems on this issue, which can be directly applied to solving particular problems of mathematical physics, approximation theory, etc., are presented.
Strong Convergence Bound of the Pareto Index Estimator under Right Censoring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bao Tao
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Let {Xn,n≥1} be a sequence of positive independent and identically distributed random variables with common Pareto-type distribution function F(x=1−x−1/γlF(x as γ>0, where lF(x represents a slowly varying function at infinity. In this note we study the strong convergence bound of a kind of right censored Pareto index estimator under second-order regularly varying conditions.
Exponential convergence rate estimation for uncertain delayed neural networks of neutral type
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lien, C.-H.; Yu, K.-W.; Lin, Y.-F.; Chung, Y.-J.; Chung, L.-Y.
2009-01-01
The global exponential stability for a class of uncertain delayed neural networks (DNNs) of neutral type is investigated in this paper. Delay-dependent and delay-independent criteria are proposed to guarantee the robust stability of DNNs via LMI and Razumikhin-like approaches. For a given delay, the maximal allowable exponential convergence rate will be estimated. Some numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results. The simulation results reveal significant improvement over the recent results.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Hošek, Radim; Maltese, D.; Novotný, A.
2017-01-01
Roč. 33, č. 4 (2017), s. 1208-1223 ISSN 0749-159X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATH EF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : convergence * error estimates * mixed numerical method * Navier–Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics OBOR OECD: Pure math ematics Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/num.22140/abstract
Existence of solutions for some superlinear or sublinear elliptic systems on IRN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding Yanheng; Li Shujie.
1993-10-01
The existence of solutions for some superlinear or sublinear elliptic systems on R N is demonstrated using a compact embedding lemma which enables the application of standard critical theory for such problems. 7 refs
Distributed weighted least-squares estimation with fast convergence for large-scale systems☆
Marelli, Damián Edgardo; Fu, Minyue
2015-01-01
In this paper we study a distributed weighted least-squares estimation problem for a large-scale system consisting of a network of interconnected sub-systems. Each sub-system is concerned with a subset of the unknown parameters and has a measurement linear in the unknown parameters with additive noise. The distributed estimation task is for each sub-system to compute the globally optimal estimate of its own parameters using its own measurement and information shared with the network through neighborhood communication. We first provide a fully distributed iterative algorithm to asymptotically compute the global optimal estimate. The convergence rate of the algorithm will be maximized using a scaling parameter and a preconditioning method. This algorithm works for a general network. For a network without loops, we also provide a different iterative algorithm to compute the global optimal estimate which converges in a finite number of steps. We include numerical experiments to illustrate the performances of the proposed methods. PMID:25641976
Schiecke, Karin; Pester, Britta; Feucht, Martha; Leistritz, Lutz; Witte, Herbert
2015-01-01
In neuroscience, data are typically generated from neural network activity. Complex interactions between measured time series are involved, and nothing or only little is known about the underlying dynamic system. Convergent Cross Mapping (CCM) provides the possibility to investigate nonlinear causal interactions between time series by using nonlinear state space reconstruction. Aim of this study is to investigate the general applicability, and to show potentials and limitation of CCM. Influence of estimation parameters could be demonstrated by means of simulated data, whereas interval-based application of CCM on real data could be adapted for the investigation of interactions between heart rate and specific EEG components of children with temporal lobe epilepsy.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šmíd, Martin
2009-01-01
Roč. 165, č. 1 (2009), s. 29-45 ISSN 0254-5330 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/1294 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : multistage stochastic programming problems * approximation * discretization * Monte Carlo Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.961, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/E/smid-the expected loss in the discretization of multistage stochastic programming problems - estimation and convergence rate.pdf
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duncan, Scott; Stewart, Tom; Bo Schneller, Mikkel
2018-01-01
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to examine the convergent validity of two commonly-used accelerometers for estimating time spent in various physical activity intensities in adults. METHODS: The sample comprised 37 adults (26 males) with a mean (SD) age of 37.6 (12.2) years from San Diego......, USA. Participants wore ActiGraph GT3X+ and Actical accelerometers for three consecutive days. Percent agreement was used to compare time spent within four physical activity intensity categories under three counts per minute (CPM) threshold protocols: (1) using thresholds developed specifically......Graph and Actical accelerometers provide significantly different estimates of time spent in various physical activity intensities. Regression and threshold adjustment were able to reduce these differences, although some level of non-agreement persisted. Researchers should be aware of the inherent limitations...
Global Convergence of Schubert’s Method for Solving Sparse Nonlinear Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huiping Cao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Schubert’s method is an extension of Broyden’s method for solving sparse nonlinear equations, which can preserve the zero-nonzero structure defined by the sparse Jacobian matrix and can retain many good properties of Broyden’s method. In particular, Schubert’s method has been proved to be locally and q-superlinearly convergent. In this paper, we globalize Schubert’s method by using a nonmonotone line search. Under appropriate conditions, we show that the proposed algorithm converges globally and superlinearly. Some preliminary numerical experiments are presented, which demonstrate that our algorithm is effective for large-scale problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romero-Gomez, P.; Harding, S. F.; Richmond, M. C.
2017-01-01
Standards provide recommendations for best practices when installing current meters to measure fluid flow in closed conduits. A central guideline requires the velocity distribution to be regular and the flow steady. Because of the nature of the short converging intakes typical of low-head hydroturbines, these assumptions may be invalid if current meters are intended to be used to estimate discharge. Usual concerns are (1) the effects of the number of devices, (2) the sampling location and (3) the high turbulence caused by blockage from submersible traveling screens usually deployed for safe downstream fish passage. These three effects were examined in the present study by using 3D simulated flow fields in both steady-state and transient modes. In the process of describing an application at an existing hydroturbine intake at Ice Harbor Dam, the present work outlined the methods involved, which combined computational fluid dynamics, laboratory measurements in physical models of the hydroturbine, and current meter performance evaluations in experimental settings. The main conclusions in this specific application were that a steady-state flow field sufficed to determine the adequate number of meters and their location, and that both the transverse velocity and turbulence intensity had a small impact on estimate errors. However, while it may not be possible to extrapolate these findings to other field conditions and measuring devices, the study laid out a path to conduct similar assessments in other applications.
An error bound estimate and convergence of the Nodal-LTS {sub N} solution in a rectangle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hauser, Eliete Biasotto [Faculty of Mathematics, PUCRS Av Ipiranga 6681, Building 15, Porto Alegre - RS 90619-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: eliete@pucrs.br; Pazos, Ruben Panta [Department of Mathematics, UNISC Av Independencia, 2293, room 1301, Santa Cruz do Sul - RS 96815-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: rpp@impa.br; Tullio de Vilhena, Marco [Graduate Program in Applied Mathematics, UFRGS Av Bento Goncalves 9500, Building 43-111, Porto Alegre - RS 91509-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.br
2005-07-15
In this work, we report the mathematical analysis concerning error bound estimate and convergence of the Nodal-LTS {sub N} solution in a rectangle. For such we present an efficient algorithm, called LTS {sub N} 2D-Diag solution for Cartesian geometry.
Migliorati, Giovanni
2015-08-28
We study the accuracy of the discrete least-squares approximation on a finite dimensional space of a real-valued target function from noisy pointwise evaluations at independent random points distributed according to a given sampling probability measure. The convergence estimates are given in mean-square sense with respect to the sampling measure. The noise may be correlated with the location of the evaluation and may have nonzero mean (offset). We consider both cases of bounded or square-integrable noise / offset. We prove conditions between the number of sampling points and the dimension of the underlying approximation space that ensure a stable and accurate approximation. Particular focus is on deriving estimates in probability within a given confidence level. We analyze how the best approximation error and the noise terms affect the convergence rate and the overall confidence level achieved by the convergence estimate. The proofs of our convergence estimates in probability use arguments from the theory of large deviations to bound the noise term. Finally we address the particular case of multivariate polynomial approximation spaces with any density in the beta family, including uniform and Chebyshev.
Hill, Bryon K.; Walker, Bruce K.
1991-01-01
When using parameter estimation methods based on extended Kalman filter (EKF) theory, it is common practice to assume that the unknown parameter values behave like a random process, such as a random walk, in order to guarantee their identifiability by the filter. The present work is the result of an ongoing effort to quantitatively describe the effect that the assumption of a fictitious noise (called pseudonoise) driving the unknown parameter values has on the parameter estimate convergence rate in filter-based parameter estimators. The initial approach is to examine a first-order system described by one state variable with one parameter to be estimated. The intent is to derive analytical results for this simple system that might offer insight into the effect of the pseudonoise assumption for more complex systems. Such results would make it possible to predict the estimator error convergence behavior as a function of the assumed pseudonoise intensity, and this leads to the natural application of the results to the design of filter-based parameter estimators. The results obtained show that the analytical description of the convergence behavior is very difficult.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gillet, M.
1986-07-01
This thesis presents a study for the surveillance of the Primary circuit water inventory of a pressurized water reactor. A reference model is developed for the development of an automatic system ensuring detection and real-time diagnostic. The methods to our application are statistical tests and adapted a pattern recognition method. The estimation of the detected anomalies is treated by the least square fit method, and by filtering. A new projected optimization method with superlinear convergence is developed in this framework, and a segmented linearization of the model is introduced, in view of a multiple filtering. 46 refs [fr
Infinitely many large energy solutions of superlinear Schrodinger-Maxwell equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Li
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this article we study the existence of infinitely many large energy solutions for the superlinear Schrodinger-Maxwell equations $$displaylines{ -Delta u+V(xu+ phi u=f(x,u quad hbox{in }mathbb{R}^3,cr -Delta phi=u^2, quad hbox{in }mathbb{R}^3, }$$ via the Fountain Theorem in critical point theory. In particular, we do not use the classical Ambrosetti-Rabinowitz condition.
Estimating the contribution of mortality selection to the East–West German mortality convergence
Vogt, Tobias; Missov, Trifon
2017-01-01
Background: Before German reunification, old-age mortality was considerably higher in East Germany than West Germany but converged quickly afterward. Previous studies attributed this rapid catch-up to improved living conditions. We add to this discussion by quantifying for the first time the impact
Super-linear Precision in Simple Neural Population Codes
Schwab, David; Fiete, Ila
2015-03-01
A widely used tool for quantifying the precision with which a population of noisy sensory neurons encodes the value of an external stimulus is the Fisher Information (FI). Maximizing the FI is also a commonly used objective for constructing optimal neural codes. The primary utility and importance of the FI arises because it gives, through the Cramer-Rao bound, the smallest mean-squared error achievable by any unbiased stimulus estimator. However, it is well-known that when neural firing is sparse, optimizing the FI can result in codes that perform very poorly when considering the resulting mean-squared error, a measure with direct biological relevance. Here we construct optimal population codes by minimizing mean-squared error directly and study the scaling properties of the resulting network, focusing on the optimal tuning curve width. We then extend our results to continuous attractor networks that maintain short-term memory of external stimuli in their dynamics. Here we find similar scaling properties in the structure of the interactions that minimize diffusive information loss.
A numerical method for finding sign-changing solutions of superlinear Dirichlet problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neuberger, J.M.
1996-12-31
In a recent result it was shown via a variational argument that a class of superlinear elliptic boundary value problems has at least three nontrivial solutions, a pair of one sign and one which sign changes exactly once. These three and all other nontrivial solutions are saddle points of an action functional, and are characterized as local minima of that functional restricted to a codimension one submanifold of the Hilbert space H-0-1-2, or an appropriate higher codimension subset of that manifold. In this paper, we present a numerical Sobolev steepest descent algorithm for finding these three solutions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toh, K.C.; Trefethen, L.N. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
1994-12-31
What properties of a nonsymmetric matrix A determine the convergence rate of iterations such as GMRES, QMR, and Arnoldi? If A is far from normal, should one replace the usual Ritz values {r_arrow} eigenvalues notion of convergence of Arnoldi by alternative notions such as Arnoldi lemniscates {r_arrow} pseudospectra? Since Krylov subspace iterations can be interpreted as minimization processes involving polynomials of matrices, the answers to questions such as these depend upon mathematical problems of the following kind. Given a polynomial p(z), how can one bound the norm of p(A) in terms of (1) the size of p(z) on various sets in the complex plane, and (2) the locations of the spectrum and pseudospectra of A? This talk reports some progress towards solving these problems. In particular, the authors present theorems that generalize the Kreiss matrix theorem from the unit disk (for the monomial A{sup n}) to a class of general complex domains (for polynomials p(A)).
Hoy, Robert S; Foteinopoulou, Katerina; Kröger, Martin
2009-09-01
Primitive path analyses of entanglements are performed over a wide range of chain lengths for both bead spring and atomistic polyethylene polymer melts. Estimators for the entanglement length N_{e} which operate on results for a single chain length N are shown to produce systematic O(1/N) errors. The mathematical roots of these errors are identified as (a) treating chain ends as entanglements and (b) neglecting non-Gaussian corrections to chain and primitive path dimensions. The prefactors for the O(1/N) errors may be large; in general their magnitude depends both on the polymer model and the method used to obtain primitive paths. We propose, derive, and test new estimators which eliminate these systematic errors using information obtainable from the variation in entanglement characteristics with chain length. The new estimators produce accurate results for N_{e} from marginally entangled systems. Formulas based on direct enumeration of entanglements appear to converge faster and are simpler to apply.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eyad K Almaita
2017-03-01
Keywords: Energy efficiency, Power quality, Radial basis function, neural networks, adaptive, harmonic. Article History: Received Dec 15, 2016; Received in revised form Feb 2nd 2017; Accepted 13rd 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Almaita, E.K and Shawawreh J.Al (2017 Improving Stability and Convergence for Adaptive Radial Basis Function Neural Networks Algorithm (On-Line Harmonics Estimation Application. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(1, 9-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.1.9-17
Kar, Soummya; Moura, José M. F.
2011-08-01
The paper considers gossip distributed estimation of a (static) distributed random field (a.k.a., large scale unknown parameter vector) observed by sparsely interconnected sensors, each of which only observes a small fraction of the field. We consider linear distributed estimators whose structure combines the information \\emph{flow} among sensors (the \\emph{consensus} term resulting from the local gossiping exchange among sensors when they are able to communicate) and the information \\emph{gathering} measured by the sensors (the \\emph{sensing} or \\emph{innovations} term.) This leads to mixed time scale algorithms--one time scale associated with the consensus and the other with the innovations. The paper establishes a distributed observability condition (global observability plus mean connectedness) under which the distributed estimates are consistent and asymptotically normal. We introduce the distributed notion equivalent to the (centralized) Fisher information rate, which is a bound on the mean square error reduction rate of any distributed estimator; we show that under the appropriate modeling and structural network communication conditions (gossip protocol) the distributed gossip estimator attains this distributed Fisher information rate, asymptotically achieving the performance of the optimal centralized estimator. Finally, we study the behavior of the distributed gossip estimator when the measurements fade (noise variance grows) with time; in particular, we consider the maximum rate at which the noise variance can grow and still the distributed estimator being consistent, by showing that, as long as the centralized estimator is consistent, the distributed estimator remains consistent.
The convergence of the gender pay gap: An alternative estimation approach
Castagnetti, Carolina; Rosti, Luisa; Töpfer, Marina
2017-01-01
So far, little work has been done on directly estimating differences of wage gaps. Stud- ies estimating pay differentials, generally compare them across different subsamples. This comparison does not allow to conduct any inference or, in the case of decompositions, to confront the respective decomposition components across subsamples. We propose an exten- sion of an Oaxaca-Blinder type decomposition based on the omitted variable bias formula to directly estimate the change in pay gaps across ...
Global convergence in leaf respiration from estimates of thermal acclimation across time and space.
Vanderwel, Mark C; Slot, Martijn; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Reich, Peter B; Kattge, Jens; Atkin, Owen K; Bloomfield, Keith J; Tjoelker, Mark G; Kitajima, Kaoru
2015-09-01
Recent compilations of experimental and observational data have documented global temperature-dependent patterns of variation in leaf dark respiration (R), but it remains unclear whether local adjustments in respiration over time (through thermal acclimation) are consistent with the patterns in R found across geographical temperature gradients. We integrated results from two global empirical syntheses into a simple temperature-dependent respiration framework to compare the measured effects of respiration acclimation-over-time and variation-across-space to one another, and to a null model in which acclimation is ignored. Using these models, we projected the influence of thermal acclimation on: seasonal variation in R; spatial variation in mean annual R across a global temperature gradient; and future increases in R under climate change. The measured strength of acclimation-over-time produces differences in annual R across spatial temperature gradients that agree well with global variation-across-space. Our models further project that acclimation effects could potentially halve increases in R (compared with the null model) as the climate warms over the 21st Century. Convergence in global temperature-dependent patterns of R indicates that physiological adjustments arising from thermal acclimation are capable of explaining observed variation in leaf respiration at ambient growth temperatures across the globe. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe; Karátson, J.
2017-01-01
Roč. 210, January 2017 (2017), s. 155-164 ISSN 0377-0427 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : finite difference method * error estimates * matrix splitting * preconditioning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2016 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0377042716301492?via%3Dihub
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe; Karátson, J.
2017-01-01
Roč. 210, January 2017 (2017), s. 155-164 ISSN 0377-0427 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : finite difference method * error estimates * matrix splitting * preconditioning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377042716301492?via%3Dihub
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ingo W Nader
Full Text Available Parameters of the two-parameter logistic model are generally estimated via the expectation-maximization algorithm, which improves initial values for all parameters iteratively until convergence is reached. Effects of initial values are rarely discussed in item response theory (IRT, but initial values were recently found to affect item parameters when estimating the latent distribution with full non-parametric maximum likelihood. However, this method is rarely used in practice. Hence, the present study investigated effects of initial values on item parameter bias and on recovery of item characteristic curves in BILOG-MG 3, a widely used IRT software package. Results showed notable effects of initial values on item parameters. For tighter convergence criteria, effects of initial values decreased, but item parameter bias increased, and the recovery of the latent distribution worsened. For practical application, it is advised to use the BILOG default convergence criterion with appropriate initial values when estimating the latent distribution from data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holden, Helge; Karlsen, Kenneth H.; Lie, Knut-Andreas
1999-10-01
We present and analyze a numerical method for the solution of a class of scalar, multi-dimensional, nonlinear degenerate convection-diffusion equations. The method is based on operator splitting to separate the convective and the diffusive terms in the governing equation. The nonlinear, convective part is solved using front tracking and dimensional splitting, while the nonlinear diffusion equation is solved by a suitable difference scheme. We verify L{sup 1} compactness of the corresponding set of approximate solutions and derive precise entropy estimates. In particular, these results allow us to pass to the limit in our approximations and recover an entropy solution of the problem in question. The theory presented covers a large class of equations. Important subclasses are hyperbolic conservation laws, porous medium type equations, two-phase reservoir flow equations, and strongly degenerate equations coming from the recent theory of sedimentation-consolidation processes. A thorough numerical investigation of the method analyzed in this paper (and similar methods) is presented in a companion paper. (author)
Banks, H. T.; Ito, K.
1988-01-01
Numerical techniques for parameter identification in distributed-parameter systems are developed analytically. A general convergence and stability framework (for continuous dependence on observations) is derived for first-order systems on the basis of (1) a weak formulation in terms of sesquilinear forms and (2) the resolvent convergence form of the Trotter-Kato approximation. The extension of this framework to second-order systems is considered.
Convergence of mayer expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brydges, D.C.
1986-01-01
The tree graph bound of Battle and Federbush is extended and used to provide a simple criterion for the convergence of (iterated) Mayer expansions. As an application estimates on the radius of convergence of the Mayer expansion for the two-dimensional Yukawa gas (nonstable interaction) are obtained
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Network Convergence. User is interested in application and content - not technical means of distribution. Boundaries between distribution channels fade out. Network convergence leads to seamless application and content solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gillet, M.
1986-07-01
This thesis presents a study for the surveillance of the ''primary coolant circuit inventory monitoring'' of a pressurized water reactor. A reference model is developed in view of an automatic system ensuring detection and diagnostic in real time. The methods used for the present application are statistical tests and a method related to pattern recognition. The estimation of failures detected, difficult owing to the non-linearity of the problem, is treated by the least error squares method of the predictor or corrector type, and by filtering. It is in this frame that a new optimized method with superlinear convergence is developed, and that a segmented linearization of the model is introduced, in view of a multiple filtering [fr
Local Convergence and Radius of Convergence for Modified Newton Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Măruşter Ştefan
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We investigate the local convergence of modified Newton method, i.e., the classical Newton method in which the derivative is periodically re-evaluated. Based on the convergence properties of Picard iteration for demicontractive mappings, we give an algorithm to estimate the local radius of convergence for considered method. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm gives estimated radii which are very close to or even equal with the best ones.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mic, Rodica; Gaida, Gilles
2004-01-01
A flow-duration-frequency regionalisation is carried out on the Timis and Bega rivers sub-catchments in the west of Romania. This regionalisation concerns 28 sub-catchments having about thirty years of stream flow measurements (daily flow, instantaneous flood peaks and hydrographs). This work about the floods regionalisation is realized in the framework of the European project Riverlife. The regional model will allow defining the hydrographs of project necessary for the hydraulic modelling. This hydraulic project is necessary in order to protect Timisoara - city against the floods. The method uses the hypotheses of the converging QdF model and adapts the index flood method for obtaining a regional dimensionless distribution. For long return periods, this approach uses the GRADEX method, which extrapolates discharge distributions according to the rainfall distributions. The dimensionless regional QdF model needs two local descriptors of target site to be denormed: QIXA10 and Δ: the annual maximum instantaneous flow with a 10% probability to be exceeded (the 10-year peak flood) and a characteristic duration, respectively. For these both variables, the relations obtained by regression are presented, involving morphologic and climatic basin characteristics.(Author)
... is also found to be weak. If both accommodation and convergence are weak, reading glasses, sometimes with prism added, may be a great option for these patients. It is very difficult to improve accommodation with exercises. Updated 7/2017 Eye Terms & Conditions ...
Marjon van der Pol; Shiell, Alan; Au, Flora; Johnston, David; Tough, Suzanne
2008-12-01
The Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) has become increasingly popular as a method for eliciting patient or population preferences. If DCE estimates are to inform health policy, it is crucial that the answers they provide are valid. Convergent validity is tested in this paper by comparing the results of a DCE exercise with the answers obtained from direct, open-ended questions. The two methods are compared in terms of preferred attribute levels and willingness to pay (WTP) values. Face-to-face interviews were held with 292 women in Calgary, Canada. Similar values were found between the two methods with respect to preferred levels for two out of three of the attributes examined. The DCE predicted less well for levels outside the range than for levels inside the range reaffirming the importance of extensive piloting to ensure appropriate level range in DCEs. The mean WTP derived from the open-ended question was substantially lower than the mean derived from the DCE. However, the two sets of willingness to pay estimates were consistent with each other in that individuals who were willing to pay more in the open-ended question were also willing to pay more in the DCE. The difference in mean WTP values between the two approaches (direct versus DCE) demonstrates the importance of continuing research into the different biases present across elicitation methods.
Do convergent developmental mechanisms underlie convergent phenotypes?
Wray, Gregory A.
2002-01-01
Convergence is a pervasive evolutionary process, affecting many aspects of phenotype and even genotype. Relatively little is known about convergence in developmental processes, however, nor about the degree to which convergence in development underlies convergence in anatomy. A switch in the ecology of sea urchins from feeding to nonfeeding larvae illustrates how convergence in development can be associated with convergence in anatomy. Comparisons to more distantly related taxa, however, suggest that this association may be limited to relatively close phylogenetic comparisons. Similarities in gene expression during development provide another window into the association between convergence in developmental processes and convergence in anatomy. Several well-studied transcription factors exhibit likely cases of convergent gene expression in distantly related animal phyla. Convergence in regulatory gene expression domains is probably more common than generally acknowledged, and can arise for several different reasons. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Convergence in Multispecies Interactions
Bittleston, Leonora Sophia; Pierce, Naomi E.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Pringle, Anne
2016-01-01
The concepts of convergent evolution and community convergence highlight how selective pressures can shape unrelated organisms or communities in similar ways. We propose a related concept, convergent interactions, to describe the independent evolution of multispecies interactions with similar physiological or ecological functions. A focus on convergent interactions clarifies how natural selection repeatedly favors particular kinds of associations among species. Characterizing convergent inter...
Convergence and migration among provinces.
Helliwell, J F
1996-04-01
"Have regional disparities in Canada changed over the past thirty years? This paper assesses the robustness of earlier findings of convergence in the levels and growth rates of provincial per capita GDP, and then estimates the extent to which interprovincial and international migration is being influenced by regional differences in incomes and employment." excerpt
Convergence in Multispecies Interactions.
Bittleston, Leonora S; Pierce, Naomi E; Ellison, Aaron M; Pringle, Anne
2016-04-01
The concepts of convergent evolution and community convergence highlight how selective pressures can shape unrelated organisms or communities in similar ways. We propose a related concept, convergent interactions, to describe the independent evolution of multispecies interactions with similar physiological or ecological functions. A focus on convergent interactions clarifies how natural selection repeatedly favors particular kinds of associations among species. Characterizing convergent interactions in a comparative context is likely to facilitate prediction of the ecological roles of organisms (including microbes) in multispecies interactions and selective pressures acting in poorly understood or newly discovered multispecies systems. We illustrate the concept of convergent interactions with examples: vertebrates and their gut bacteria; ectomycorrhizae; insect-fungal-bacterial interactions; pitcher-plant food webs; and ants and ant-plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Converged Registries Solution (CRS)
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Converged Registries platform is a hardware and software architecture designed to host individual patient registries and eliminate duplicative development effort...
ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENCE WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION SIGMA AND BETA CONVERGENCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Begu Liviu-Stelian
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Real convergence study began with the development of neoclassical models of growth and especially with the passage of econometric applications of these models. In this paper we present applications of indicators and patterns of convergence on the example of European Union member countries and some current economic impact assessments on European convergence process. This analysis is based on the estimated a- and b convergence and on Markov chains. The study deals with the economic convergence of the European countries and especially the convergence of the EU countries, including Romania. In the end of the study presents several economic scenarios for a faster and easier exit from the current crisis in Romania.
Surface meshing with curvature convergence
Li, Huibin; Zeng, Wei; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Chen, Liming; Gu, Xianfengdavid
2014-01-01
Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.
Surface meshing with curvature convergence
Li, Huibin
2014-06-01
Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.
Docherty, A R; Moscati, A; Peterson, R; Edwards, A C; Adkins, D E; Bacanu, S A; Bigdeli, T B; Webb, B T; Flint, J; Kendler, K S
2016-10-25
Biometrical genetic studies suggest that the personality dimensions, including neuroticism, are moderately heritable (~0.4 to 0.6). Quantitative analyses that aggregate the effects of many common variants have recently further informed genetic research on European samples. However, there has been limited research to date on non-European populations. This study examined the personality dimensions in a large sample of Han Chinese descent (N=10 064) from the China, Oxford, and VCU Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology study, aimed at identifying genetic risk factors for recurrent major depression among a rigorously ascertained cohort. Heritability of neuroticism as measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) was estimated to be low but statistically significant at 10% (s.e.=0.03, P=0.0001). In addition to EPQ, neuroticism based on a three-factor model, data for the Big Five (BF) personality dimensions (neuroticism, openness, conscientiousness, extraversion and agreeableness) measured by the Big Five Inventory were available for controls (n=5596). Heritability estimates of the BF were not statistically significant despite high power (>0.85) to detect heritabilities of 0.10. Polygenic risk scores constructed by best linear unbiased prediction weights applied to split-half samples failed to significantly predict any of the personality traits, but polygenic risk for neuroticism, calculated with LDpred and based on predictive variants previously identified from European populations (N=171 911), significantly predicted major depressive disorder case-control status (P=0.0004) after false discovery rate correction. The scores also significantly predicted EPQ neuroticism (P=6.3 × 10 -6 ). Factor analytic results of the measures indicated that any differences in heritabilities across samples may be due to genetic variation or variation in haplotype structure between samples, rather than measurement non-invariance. Findings demonstrate that neuroticism
Almost convergence of triple sequences
Ayhan Esi; M.Necdet Catalbas
2013-01-01
In this paper we introduce and study the concepts of almost convergence and almost Cauchy for triple sequences. Weshow that the set of almost convergent triple sequences of 0's and 1's is of the first category and also almost everytriple sequence of 0's and 1's is not almost convergent.Keywords: almost convergence, P-convergent, triple sequence.
Convergence of Nelson diffusions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dell'Antonio, G.; Posilicano, A.
1991-01-01
Let ψ t , ψ t n , n≥1, be solutions of Schroedinger equations with potentials form-bounded by -1/2 Δ and initial data in H 1 (R d ). Let P, P n , n≥1, be the probability measures on the path space Ω=C(R + , R d ) given by the corresponding Nelson diffusions. We show that if {ψ t n } n≥1 converges to ψ t in H 2 (R d ), uniformly in t over compact intervals, then {P n } n≥1 converges to P in total variation. Moreover, if the potentials are in the Kato class K d , we show that the above result follows from H 1 -convergence of initial data, and K d -convergence of potentials. (orig.)
Fixed mobile convergence handbook
Ahson, Syed A
2010-01-01
From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2012-12-01
This book explains IT-BT convergence technology as the future technology, which includes a prolog, easy IT-BT convergence technology that has infinite potentials for new value, policy of IT-BT convergence technology showing the potential of smart Korea, IT-BT convergence opening happy future, for the new future of IT powerful nation Korea with IT-BT convergence technology and an epilogue. This book reveals the conception, policy, performance and future of IT-BT convergence technology.
Quantifying convergence in the sciences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara Lumbreras
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Traditional epistemological models classify knowledge into separate disciplines with different objects of study and specific techniques, with some frameworks even proposing hierarchies (such as Comte’s. According to thinkers such as John Holland or Teilhard de Chardin, the advancement of science involves the convergence of disciplines. This proposed convergence can be studied in a number of ways, such as how works impact research outside a specific area (citation networks or how authors collaborate with other researchers in different fields (collaboration networks. While these studies are delivering significant new insights, they cannot easily show the convergence of different topics within a body of knowledge. This paper attempts to address this question in a quantitative manner, searching for evidence that supports the idea of convergence in the content of the sciences themselves (that is, whether the sciences are dealing with increasingly the same topics. We use Latent Dirichlet Analysis (LDA, a technique that is able to analyze texts and estimate the relative contributions of the topics that were used to generate them. We apply this tool to the corpus of the Santa Fe Institute (SFI working papers, which spans research on Complexity Science from 1989 to 2015. We then analyze the relatedness of the different research areas, the rise and demise of these sub-disciplines over time and, more broadly, the convergence of the research body as a whole. Combining the topic structure obtained from the collected publication history of the SFI community with techniques to infer hierarchy and clustering, we reconstruct a picture of a dynamic community which experiences trends, periodically recurring topics, and shifts in the closeness of scholarship over time. We find that there is support for convergence, and that the application of quantitative methods such as LDA to the study of knowledge can provide valuable insights that can help
Testing the Conditional Convergence Hypothesis for Pakistan
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Sajjad Ahmad Jan (Corresponding Author
2011-09-01
Full Text Available This study investigates for the existence or non-existence of conditional convergence across the provinces of Pakistan. The annual output data from 1973 to 2000 is pooled for the four Pakistani provinces. The cross-sectional specific effects, the time specific effects, the manufacturing output, and the structural variable for aggregate supply or production shocks are used to control the different steady state levels of per capita incomes of thedifferent provinces. The equation for conditional convergence is estimated through generalized least squares (GLS method, after controlling for the different steady states of the provinces. The result shows that the provinces of Pakistan converge to their own respective steady states with a convergence speed of 11% per annum. At the same time manufacturing output is also statistically significant and positively affects the economic growth in the provinces. However the structural variable is not statistically significant.
Costin, Ovidiu; Dunne, Gerald V.
2018-01-01
We show how to convert divergent series, which typically occur in many applications in physics, into rapidly convergent inverse factorial series. This can be interpreted physically as a novel resummation of perturbative series. Being convergent, these new series allow rigorous extrapolation from an asymptotic region with a large parameter, to the opposite region where the parameter is small. We illustrate the method with various physical examples, and discuss how these convergent series relate to standard methods such as Borel summation, and also how they incorporate the physical Stokes phenomenon. We comment on the relation of these results to Dyson’s physical argument for the divergence of perturbation theory. This approach also leads naturally to a wide class of relations between bosonic and fermionic partition functions, and Klein-Gordon and Dirac determinants.
On convergence of kernel learning estimators
Norkin, V.I.; Keyzer, M.A.
2009-01-01
The paper studies convex stochastic optimization problems in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). The objective (risk) functional depends on functions from this RKHS and takes the form of a mathematical expectation (integral) of a nonnegative integrand (loss function) over a probability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdul Hameed Q. A. Al-Tai
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce and study the fuzzy neighborhood, the limit fuzzy number, the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence on the base which is adopted by Abdul Hameed (every real number r is replaced by a fuzzy number r¯ (either triangular fuzzy number or singleton fuzzy set (fuzzy point. And then, we will consider that some results respect effect of the upper sequence on the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prasad, Ramjee; Ruggieri, Marina
2008-01-01
The paper focuses on the revolutionary changes that could characterise the future of networks. Those changes involve many aspects in the conceivement and exploitation of networks: architecture, services, technologies and modeling. The convergence of wired and wireless technologies along...... with the integration of system componennts and the convergence of services (e.g. communications and navigation) are only some of the elements that shape the perpsected mosaic. Authors delineate this vision, highlighting the presence of the space and stratospheric components and the related services as building block...
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Coghetto Roland
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.
Branca, Mario
2013-01-01
Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)
Language Convergence Infrastructure
V. Zaytsev (Vadim); J.M. Fernandes; R. Lämmel (Ralf); J.M.W. Visser (Joost); J. Saraiva
2011-01-01
htmlabstractThe process of grammar convergence involves grammar extraction and transformation for structural equivalence and contains a range of technical challenges. These need to be addressed in order for the method to deliver useful results. The paper describes a DSL and the infrastructure behind
Kolodzy, Janet; Grant, August E.; DeMars, Tony R.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey S.
2014-01-01
The emergence of the Internet, social media, and digital technologies in the twenty-first century accelerated an evolution in journalism and communication that fit under the broad term of convergence. That evolution changed the relationship between news producers and consumers. It broke down the geographical boundaries in defining our communities,…
Summable series and convergence factors
Moore, Charles N
1938-01-01
Fairly early in the development of the theory of summability of divergent series, the concept of convergence factors was recognized as of fundamental importance in the subject. One of the pioneers in this field was C. N. Moore, the author of the book under review.... Moore classifies convergence factors into two types. In type I he places the factors which have only the property that they preserve convergence for a convergent series or produce convergence for a summable series. In type II he places the factors which not only maintain or produce convergence but have the additional property that
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher
networks are still more prominently expected by students. Against this backdrop, an action research project has worked with the definition and testing of the hypothesized constituents of the Convergent Learning Space and how it challenges our traditional conceptions of learning spaces. The article...... describes this pilot study involving teachers in conscious, documented reflection on methods, approaches, and procedures conducive to learning processes in this new learning space. As a perspective, the article briefly outlines an intervention study aimed at investigating how students benefit from......The concept of the Convergent Learning Space has been hypothesized and explored in an ongoing action research project carried out at undergraduate level in select bachelor programs at a Danish University College, where classrooms are technology rich and students bring their own devices. The changes...
The Convergent Learning Space:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Asmussen, Jørgen Bering
is described as well as the theoretical construct and hypotheses surrounding the emergence of the concept in technology-rich classrooms, where students bring their own devices and involve their personal learning spaces and networks. The need for new ways of approaching concepts like choice, learning resources......This paper describes the concept of “The Convergent Learning Space” as it is being explored in an ongoing action research project carried out at undergraduate level in select bachelor programs at a Danish University College. The background nature, design, and beginning of this work in progress......, trajectories of participation etc. calls for new action and new pedagogies by teachers in order to secure alignment between students’ worlds and expectations and aims and plans of the teacher. Action research methods are being used to define and test the constituents and variables of the convergent learning...
Simpson, Seamus
2015-01-01
The Broadcasting, Information Technology and Telecommunications sectors have in recent years been the subject of notable transformation, one important feature of which is their coming closer together in a number of ways - it is now commonplace to speak of a new hybrid sector, Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs). This convergence is of considerable interest to policy-makers in industry and government at the national and international level, as well as the academic community and,...
Convergence semigroup categories
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Gary Richardson
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Properties of the category consisting of all objects of the form (X, S, λ are investigated, where X is a convergence space, S is a commutative semigroup, and λ: X × S → X is a continuous action. A “generalized quotient” of each object is defined without making the usual assumption that for each fixed g ∈ S, λ(., g : X → X is an injection.
Multiplier convergent series and uniform convergence of mapping ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
MS received 14 April 2011; revised 17 November 2012. Abstract. In this paper, we introduce the frame property of complex sequence sets and study the uniform convergence of nonlinear mapping series in β-dual of spaces consisting of multiplier convergent series. Keywords. Multiplier convergent series; mapping series. 1.
Measuring Convergence using Dynamic Equilibrium Models: Evidence from Chinese Provinces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pan, Lei; Posch, Olaf; van der Wel, Michel
We propose a model to study economic convergence in the tradition of neoclassical growth theory. We employ a novel stochastic set-up of the Solow (1956) model with shocks to both capital and labor. Our novel approach identifies the speed of convergence directly from estimating the parameters which...
Productivity convergence and spatial dependence among Spanish regions
Dall'erba, S.D.
2005-01-01
This paper estimates the evolution of labor productivity disparities among 48 Spanish regions over 1980-1996 according to the concepts of β- and σ-convergence. The results of β-convergence emphasize the importance of including the impact of neighboring locations' productivity and a disaggregate
Convergence semigroup actions: generalized quotients
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H. Boustique
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Continuous actions of a convergence semigroup are investigated in the category of convergence spaces. Invariance properties of actions as well as properties of a generalized quotient space are presented
IT Convergence and Security 2012
Chung, Kyung-Yong
2013-01-01
The proceedings approaches the subject matter with problems in technical convergence and convergences of security technology. This approach is new because we look at new issues that arise from techniques converging. The general scope of the proceedings content is convergence security and the latest information technology. The intended readership are societies, enterprises, and research institutes, and intended content level is mid- to highly educated personals. The most important features and benefits of the proceedings are the introduction of the most recent information technology and its related ideas, applications and problems related to technology convergence, and its case studies and finally an introduction of converging existing security techniques through convergence security. Overall, through the proceedings, authors will be able to understand the most state of the art information strategies and technologies of convergence security.
Institutional and Socio-Economic Convergence in the European Union
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Jordi López-Tamayo
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze convergence in institutional, social, and macroeconomic conditions between EU member states. Our analysis covers the period 1995-2013 and considers the potential impact of the Great Recession. With this aim, we use a composite indicator that combines information from 51 hard and soft indicators, and we estimate convergence equations for the composite indicator and its seven dimensions considering different country groups. The obtained results show evidence of conditional convergence among EU member states but limited evidence of unconditional convergence over the considered period.
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Rogério Christofoletti
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Three ideas would suffice for the reading of “Cultura da Convergência” (Culture of Convergence by Henry Jenkins to be of interest to journalists and researchers in the area: media convergence as a cultural process; the strengthening of an emotional economy which guides consumers of symbolic goods and media creators; the expansion of trans-media narrative forms.
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Rogério Christofoletti
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Three ideas would suffice for the reading of “Cultura da Convergência” (Culture of Convergence by Henry Jenkins to be of interest to journalists and researchers in the area: media convergence as a cultural process; the strengthening of an emotional economy which guides consumers of symbolic goods and media creators; the expansion of trans-media narrative forms.
Real Economic Convergence in Western Europe from 1995 to 2013
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Dzenita Siljak
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the economic convergence of real per capita GDP in the Western European countries with two types of measurement methodology. The first is sigma convergence, based on the coefficient of variation of real per capita GDP. The second is beta convergence, absolute/unconditional and conditional, including economic and socio-political variables, based on the neoclassical growth theory. The hypothesis of the paper is that there has been real economic convergence in Western Europe in at least one analyzed sub-period. The relationships between selected macroeconomic variables and the rate of economic growth are econometrically tested. Both sigma and beta convergence are estimated for the period 1995-2013 and four sub-periods: 1995-2003, 2004-2013, pre-crisis sub-period 2004-2008 and the crisis sub-period 2009-2013. The empirical findings support the hypothesis of economic convergence, i.e. that the poorer countries tend to grow faster than the rich ones in per capita terms, for some periods. However, the countries had a tendency to diverge, confiriming the negative effects of the crisis on per capita GDP growth. Sigma convergence is consistent with beta convergence. According to the results, the half-life of real convergence may take from 12 to 1078 years. Significant dissimilarities between the growth patterns among individual countries show the considerable heterogeneity of growth, i.e. the convergence clubs.
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Ioana Sorina Mihuț
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Convergence may be considered a central issue of the current economic literature, and not only, concentrating upon income distribution within different economies, but also focusing on different aspects of polarity and inequality that characterize especially the emerging economies. Testing convergence within economies may serve as a useful instrument for the validation of the economic growth models. While convergence was considered a defining element of the neoclassical growth models, the majority of the new endogenous growth models argue in favour of divergence across different economies. Testing convergence among European Union is even more challenging due to the high degree of heterogeneity that characterizes these economies. The recent accessions with ten new countries in 2004 and with another two in 2007 were considered only the first step towards assuring a sustainable convergence and finally adopting a common currency-the euro. A series of empirical studies concentrated upon testing convergence among EU, using as benchmark the real convergence quantified by the level of GDP/capita as an indicator for the living standards of every economy. The most popular approach rely on Beta and Sigma convergence, the first one being and indicator of the GDP/capita dispersion between different economies, and the later one being an estimator of the reverse relationship between GDP/capita and its initial level. The main purpose of this paper is to test Beta converge among the new EU member states, in order to obtained more information about the fact whether the poor countries are trying to catch-up with the more developed one. Also Beta convergence indicator embodies useful information about conditional and un-conditional convergence, two leading hypothesis within the neoclassical and endogenous growth models. For Beta convergence hypothesis to be valid it should be taken into consideration a ”catch-up” mechanism over a longer period of time
Medialogy - convergence and transdisciplinarity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nordahl, Rolf
2007-01-01
Art and design have many qualities which intuitively by society are appreciated. But on daily basis they are also assessed and evaluated. Some communities also share common understandings that norms, standards, conventions evolve, both from artistic desire as well as from more physical needs...... for changes in society, developments in taste etc. However, it certainly seems fair to say, that available technology makes a great difference to the development of any art form or practice. With the up rise of new educations such as Medialogy, new aspects of convergence and different forms...... of interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity is a pre-requisite for both researchers and students. In this talk we will demonstrate our approach through concrete examples of student productions and projects. We will also display the pedagogical method (problem based learning), that enables students to bridge gaps...
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Notermans Ton
2015-02-01
Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely
Convergence, Shocks and Poverty
Elbers, Chris; Gunning, Jan Willem; Kinsey, Bill
2002-01-01
Using a unique panel data set for rural households in Zimbabwe we estimate amicroeconomic model of growth under uncertainty, a stochastic version of the Ramsey modelwith livestock as the single asset. We use the estimation results in simulation experiments(over a 20-year period) to quantify the
World health inequality: convergence, divergence, and development.
Clark, Rob
2011-02-01
Recent studies characterize the last half of the twentieth century as an era of cross-national health convergence, with some attributing welfare gains in the developing world to economic growth. In this study, I examine the extent to which welfare outcomes have actually converged and the extent to which economic development is responsible for the observed trends. Drawing from estimates covering 195 nations during the 1955-2005 period, I find that life expectancy averages converged during this time, but that infant mortality rates continuously diverged. I develop a narrative that implicates economic development in these contrasting trends, suggesting that health outcomes follow a "welfare Kuznets curve." Among poor countries, economic development improves life expectancy more than it reduces infant mortality, whereas the situation is reversed among wealthier nations. In this way, development has contributed to both convergence in life expectancy and divergence in infant mortality. Drawing from 674 observations across 163 countries during the 1980-2005 period, I find that the positive effect of GDP PC on life expectancy attenuates at higher levels of development, while the negative effect of GDP PC on infant mortality grows stronger. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
On the Convergence of Iterative Receiver Algorithms Utilizing Hard Decisions
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Jürgen F. Rößler
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The convergence of receivers performing iterative hard decision interference cancellation (IHDIC is analyzed in a general framework for ASK, PSK, and QAM constellations. We first give an overview of IHDIC algorithms known from the literature applied to linear modulation and DS-CDMA-based transmission systems and show the relation to Hopfield neural network theory. It is proven analytically that IHDIC with serial update scheme always converges to a stable state in the estimated values in course of iterations and that IHDIC with parallel update scheme converges to cycles of length 2. Additionally, we visualize the convergence behavior with the aid of convergence charts. Doing so, we give insight into possible errors occurring in IHDIC which turn out to be caused by locked error situations. The derived results can directly be applied to those iterative soft decision interference cancellation (ISDIC receivers whose soft decision functions approach hard decision functions in course of the iterations.
Guaranteed convergence of the Hough transform
Soffer, Menashe; Kiryati, Nahum
1995-01-01
The straight-line Hough Transform using normal parameterization with a continuous voting kernel is considered. It transforms the colinearity detection problem to a problem of finding the global maximum of a two dimensional function above a domain in the parameter space. The principle is similar to robust regression using fixed scale M-estimation. Unlike standard M-estimation procedures the Hough Transform does not rely on a good initial estimate of the line parameters: The global optimization problem is approached by exhaustive search on a grid that is usually as fine as computationally feasible. The global maximum of a general function above a bounded domain cannot be found by a finite number of function evaluations. Only if sufficient a-priori knowledge about the smoothness of the objective function is available, convergence to the global maximum can be guaranteed. The extraction of a-priori information and its efficient use are the main challenges in real global optimization problems. The global optimization problem in the Hough Transform is essentially how fine should the parameter space quantization be in order not to miss the true maximum. More than thirty years after Hough patented the basic algorithm, the problem is still essentially open. In this paper an attempt is made to identify a-priori information on the smoothness of the objective (Hough) function and to introduce sufficient conditions for the convergence of the Hough Transform to the global maximum. An image model with several application dependent parameters is defined. Edge point location errors as well as background noise are accounted for. Minimal parameter space quantization intervals that guarantee convergence are obtained. Focusing policies for multi-resolution Hough algorithms are developed. Theoretical support for bottom- up processing is provided. Due to the randomness of errors and noise, convergence guarantees are probabilistic.
Moen, Daniel S; Morlon, Hélène; Wiens, John J
2016-01-01
Striking evolutionary convergence can lead to similar sets of species in different locations, such as in cichlid fishes and Anolis lizards, and suggests that evolution can be repeatable and predictable across clades. Yet, most examples of convergence involve relatively small temporal and/or spatial scales. Some authors have speculated that at larger scales (e.g., across continents), differing evolutionary histories will prevent convergence. However, few studies have compared the contrasting roles of convergence and history, and none have done so at large scales. Here we develop a two-part approach to test the scale over which convergence can occur, comparing the relative importance of convergence and history in macroevolution using phylogenetic models of adaptive evolution. We apply this approach to data from morphology, ecology, and phylogeny from 167 species of anuran amphibians (frogs) from 10 local sites across the world, spanning ~160 myr of evolution. Mapping ecology on the phylogeny revealed that similar microhabitat specialists (e.g., aquatic, arboreal) have evolved repeatedly across clades and regions, producing many evolutionary replicates for testing for morphological convergence. By comparing morphological optima for clades and microhabitat types (our first test), we find that convergence associated with microhabitat use dominates frog morphological evolution, producing recurrent ecomorphs that together encompass all sampled species in each community in each region. However, our second test, which examines whether and how much species differ from their inferred optima, shows that convergence is incomplete: that is, phenotypes of most species are still somewhat distant from the estimated optimum for each microhabitat, seemingly because of insufficient time for more complete adaptation (an effect of history). Yet, these effects of history are related to past ecologies, and not clade membership. Overall, our study elucidates the dominant drivers of
Convergent systems vs. incremental stability
Rüffer, B.S.; Wouw, van de N.; Mueller, M.
2013-01-01
Two similar stability notions are considered; one is the long established notion of convergent systems, the other is the younger notion of incremental stability. Both notions require that any two solutions of a system converge to each other. Yet these stability concepts are different, in the sense
Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution
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Givnish Thomas J
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.
A Study on Diffusion Pattern of Technology Convergence: Patent Analysis for Korea
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Jae Young Choi
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Technology convergence indicates that technologies of different application areas are converted into a new and common unity of technology. Its range spans from inter-field, whereby technologies are converged between heterogeneous fields in homogeneous sector, to a wider inter-sector, whereby technologies belong to heterogeneous technology sector are converged. This paper determined the definition of technology convergence from previous literature and classified patents into technology category depending on patent information. Furthermore, we empirically measure technology convergence degree based on co-classification analysis and estimate its diffusion trend at the entire technology domain level by using overall 1,476,967 of patents filed to the KIPO (Korean Intellectual Property Office from 1998 to 2010. As a result, potential size and growth rate of technology convergence are varied by both technology and type of technology convergence, i.e., inter-field and inter-sector technology convergence. Diffusion pattern of inter-sector technology convergence appears as the more various form than that of inter-field technology convergence. In a relationship between potential size and growth rate of technology convergence, growth rate of technology convergence is in inverse proportion to potential size of technology convergence in general. That is, the faster the growth rate of technology convergence, the smaller the potential size of technology convergence. In addition, this paper found that technology convergence of the instrument and chemistry sector is actively progressing in both inter-field and inter-sector convergence, while the technologies related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT in electrical engineering sector have relatively mature progress of technology convergence, especially in inter-sector technology convergence.
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R. Siriram
2012-01-01
Full Text Available
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Technology is a catalyst for competitive advantage. However, it is how technology is used that leads to a firm’s improved performance. In this article, an investigative framework is constructed to understand better what strategically drives new technology adoption. The strategic drivers include technology and business strategy alignment, better technology planning and selection of new technologies, the effects on a firm’s culture and climate, links to a firm’s organisational and environmental evolution, and benefits through convergence and collaboration. Using an investigative framework, it is shown how the strategic drivers link to improve a firm’s performance, producing competitive advantage. The investigative framework is tested using structural equation modelling. Various hypotheses are formed, and recommendations for further research are made.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnologie is ‘n katalisator vir mededingende voordeel. Dit is egter hoe tegnologie aangewend word wat aanleiding gee tot ‘n onderneming se verbeterde prestasie. In hierdie artikel word ‘n ondersoekende raamwerk gekonstrueer om insig te kry in dit wat die aanvaarding van nuwe tegnologie strategies dryf. Die strategiese dryfvere sluit in die belyning van tegnologie en ondernemingstrategie, beter tegnologiebeplanning en seleksie van nuwe tegnologieë, die effek op ‘n onderneming se kultuur en klimaat, koppeling na ‘n onderneming se organisatoriese en omgewingsevolusie, en voordele verkry deur konvergensie en samewerking. Deur ‘n ondersoekende raamwerk te gebruik, word daar getoon dat die strategiese dryfvere koppel om ‘n onderneming se prestasie te verbeter en sodoende ‘n mededingende voordeel te skep. Die raamwerk word getoets en hipoteses geformuleer waarna aanbevelings oor verdere navorsing aan die hand gedoen word.
Isotropy analyses of the Planck convergence map
Marques, G. A.; Novaes, C. P.; Bernui, A.; Ferreira, I. S.
2018-01-01
The presence of matter in the path of relic photons causes distortions in the angular pattern of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations, modifying their properties in a slight but measurable way. Recently, the Planck Collaboration released the estimated convergence map, an integrated measure of the large-scale matter distribution that produced the weak gravitational lensing (WL) phenomenon observed in Planck CMB data. We perform exhaustive analyses of this convergence map calculating the variance in small and large regions of the sky, but excluding the area masked due to Galactic contaminations, and compare them with the features expected in the set of simulated convergence maps, also released by the Planck Collaboration. Our goal is to search for sky directions or regions where the WL imprints anomalous signatures to the variance estimator revealed through a χ2 analyses at a statistically significant level. In the local analysis of the Planck convergence map, we identified eight patches of the sky in disagreement, in more than 2σ, with what is observed in the average of the simulations. In contrast, in the large regions analysis we found no statistically significant discrepancies, but, interestingly, the regions with the highest χ2 values are surrounding the ecliptic poles. Thus, our results show a good agreement with the features expected by the Λ cold dark matter concordance model, as given by the simulations. Yet, the outliers regions found here could suggest that the data still contain residual contamination, like noise, due to over- or underestimation of systematic effects in the simulation data set.
The Convergence in Spatial Tasks
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Vladimir P. Kulagin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The article reveals the problem of convergence of direct and inverse problems in Earth Sciences, describes the features and application of these problems, discloses analytical features of direct and inverse problems. The convergence criteria and conditions for convergence were presented. This work is supported by the Grant of the Government of the Russian Federation for support of scientific research, implemented under the supervision of leading scientists in Russian institutions of higher education in the field "Space Research and Technologies" in 2011–2013.
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Bilal MEHMOOD
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Conventional Convergence models usually oversee the role of information and communications technology (ICT as a determinant of convergence. This paper introduces ICT as a factor contributing towards economic convergence in Asian countries. In addition to ICT, other factors like demographic traits, level of human development and electricity consumption are used as regressors. System GMM technique is used to estimate convergence regression for se-lected Asian countries for data of time span 2001-2010. Support for ICT-augmented conver-gence is found, implying that ICT has the tendency to participate in convergence process. Suitable demographic features, human development and electricity consumption are also found to contribute to economic convergence in the sample countries of Asia. Findings of this paper indicate the need to complement the favorable demographic endowments in Asian economies with economically productive usage of ICT to proceed towards economic convergence in Asian Region.
Labour Productivity Convergence in 52 Industries: A Panel Data Analysis of Some European Countries
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Tahir Mahmood
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Beta convergence and the speed of convergence of labour productivity for 52 industries are studied with a panel of data including 13 European countries. We use fixed effect approach to model the heterogeneity across countries. In primary sector and in service sector, the existence of -convergence is found for all industries. In manufacturing sector, convergence is found for all industries except for electronic and computing equipment industries. In general the speed of convergence estimates show slow adjustment. Speed is highest in the capital intensive industries. In primary production the convergence is slowest in agriculture and fastest in fishing industry. In manufacturing sector the convergence is slowest in food, drink and tobacco, and it is fastest in oil refining and nuclear fuel manufacturing industries. By augmenting the productivity models with labour utilization variable speeds up the convergence. Labour utilization is positively related to productivity growth in primary production industries, ICT producing manufacturing industries, and ICT producing services industries.
Ecomorphological convergence in planktivorous surgeonfishes
Friedman, S. T.; Price, S. A.; Hoey, Andrew; Wainwright, P. C.
2016-01-01
two diet regimes: zooplanktivores and nonzooplanktivorous grazers. Accounting for phylogenetic relationships, the best-fitting model indicates that zooplanktivorous species are converging on a separate adaptive peak from their grazing relatives
Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved. A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rogério Christofoletti
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Três idéias já seriam suficientes para que a leitura de “Culturada Convergência”, de Henry Jenkins, interessasse a jornalistas epesquisadores da área: a convergência midiática como um processo cultural; o fortalecimento de uma economia afetiva que orienta consumidores de bens simbólicos e criadores midiáticos; a expansão de formas narrativas transmidiáticas.
Globalization and Contemporary Fertility Convergence.
Hendi, Arun S
2017-09-01
The rise of the global network of nation-states has precipitated social transformations throughout the world. This article examines the role of political and economic globalization in driving fertility convergence across countries between 1965 and 2009. While past research has typically conceptualized fertility change as a country-level process, this study instead employs a theoretical and methodological framework that examines differences in fertility between pairs of countries over time. Convergence in fertility between pairs of countries is hypothesized to result from increased cross-country connectedness and cross-national transmission of fertility-related schemas. I investigate the impact of various cross-country ties, including ties through bilateral trade, intergovernmental organizations, and regional trade blocs, on fertility convergence. I find that globalization acts as a form of social interaction to produce fertility convergence. There is significant heterogeneity in the effects of different cross-country ties. In particular, trade with rich model countries, joint participation in the UN and UNESCO, and joining a free trade agreement all contribute to fertility convergence between countries. Whereas the prevailing focus in fertility research has been on factors producing fertility declines, this analysis highlights specific mechanisms-trade and connectedness through organizations-leading to greater similarity in fertility across countries. Globalization is a process that propels the spread of culturally laden goods and schemas impinging on fertility, which in turn produces fertility convergence.
Multi-sectorial convergence in greenhouse gas emissions.
Oliveira, Guilherme de; Bourscheidt, Deise Maria
2017-07-01
This paper uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to test the hypothesis of per capita convergence in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a multi-sectorial panel of countries. The empirical strategy applies conventional estimators of random and fixed effects and Arellano and Bond's (1991) GMM to the main pollutants related to the greenhouse effect. For reasonable empirical specifications, the model revealed robust evidence of per capita convergence in CH 4 emissions in the agriculture, food, and services sectors. The evidence of convergence in CO 2 emissions was moderate in the following sectors: agriculture, food, non-durable goods manufacturing, and services. In all cases, the time for convergence was less than 15 years. Regarding emissions by energy use, the largest source of global warming, there was only moderate evidence in the extractive industry sector-all other pollutants presented little or no evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trophic convergence drives morphological convergence in marine tetrapods.
Kelley, Neil P; Motani, Ryosuke
2015-01-01
Marine tetrapod clades (e.g. seals, whales) independently adapted to marine life through the Mesozoic and Caenozoic, and provide iconic examples of convergent evolution. Apparent morphological convergence is often explained as the result of adaptation to similar ecological niches. However, quantitative tests of this hypothesis are uncommon. We use dietary data to classify the feeding ecology of extant marine tetrapods and identify patterns in skull and tooth morphology that discriminate trophic groups across clades. Mapping these patterns onto phylogeny reveals coordinated evolutionary shifts in diet and morphology in different marine tetrapod lineages. Similarities in morphology between species with similar diets-even across large phylogenetic distances-are consistent with previous hypotheses that shared functional constraints drive convergent evolution in marine tetrapods.
Digital Convergence and Content Regulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael John Starks
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Broadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps are evident too, with broadcasters providing online and on-demand services and newspapers developing electronic versions. Does this mean that media regulation policies must converge too?My argument is that they should, though only where historically different communications are now fulfilling a similar function, e.g. broadcaster online services and electronic versions of newspapers. Convergence requires a degree of harmonisation and, to this end, I advocate a review of UK broadcasting's 'due impartiality' requirement and of the UK's application of the public service concept. I also argue for independent self-regulation (rather than state-based regulation of non-public-service broadcasting journalism.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rogério Christofoletti
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Três idéias já seriam suficientes para que a leitura de “Cultura da Convergência”, de Henry Jenkins, interessasse a jornalistas e pesquisadores da área: a convergência midiática como um processo cultural; o fortalecimento de uma economia afetiva que orienta consumidores de bens simbólicos e criadores midiáticos; a expansão de formas narrativas transmidiáticas.
Alisher Aldashev
2011-01-01
The paper analyzes unequal regional development in Kazakhstan. Applying the nonlinear least squares method in presence of spatial correlation we estimate the convergence rate of wages across Kazakh regions for the period 2003-2009. The estimated convergence rate is about 3% which is somewhat higher than estimates obtained for the USA and Europe. At the same time there is slight divergence in the GRP per capita. It is argued that convergence in wages which coincides with divergence in the per ...
Convergence accommodation to convergence CA/C ratio: convergence versus divergence.
Simmons, Joshua M; Firth, Alison Y
2014-09-01
To determine whether the convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratio during divergence with base-in (BI) prisms is of a similar or different magnitude to that measured during convergence with base-out (BO) prisms. Eighteen participants with normal binocular single vision were recruited. The participants viewed a pseudo-Gaussian target, which consisted of a light emitting diode (LED) behind a diffusing screen at 40 cm. After 5 minutes of dark adaptation, the refractive status of the eye was measured without any prism using a Shin-Nippon SRW-5000 autorefractor. The participant held the selected prism (5Δ or 10Δ BO or BI, counterbalanced) in front of their right eye and obtained a single, fused image of the target while refractive measures were taken with each. A 30-second rest period was given between measurements. The mean age of the participants was 20.6±3.22 years. The mean CA/C ratios for the 5Δ BO, 10Δ BO, 5Δ BI, and 10Δ BI were 0.108 (±0.074) D/Δ, 0.110 (±0.056) D/Δ, 0.100 (±0.090) D/Δ, and 0.089 (±0.055) D/Δ, respectively. A 2-factor repeated measures ANOVA found that the CA/C ratio did not significantly change with differing levels of prism-induced convergence and divergence (p=0.649). Change in accommodation induced by manipulating vergence is similar whether convergence or divergence are induced. The CA/C ratio did not show any change with differing levels of prism-induced convergence and divergence.
Design of convergent switched systems
Berg, van den R.A.; Pogromsky, A.Y.; Leonov, G.A.; Rooda, J.E.; Pettersen, K.Y.; Gravdahl, J.T.; Nijmeijer, H.
2006-01-01
In this paper we deal with the problem of rendering hybrid/nonlinear systems into convergent closed-loop systems by means of a feedback law or switching rules. We illustrate our approach to this problem by means of two examples: the anti-windup design for a marginally stable system with input
Convergence Patterns in Latin America
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos
characteristics, and external shocks in the region. I study three important phases, following Thorp (1998): from 1900 to 1930, the exporting phase, from 1931 to 1974, the industrialization phase, and from 1975 to 2007, the globalization phase. During the last two phases, I find strong evidence of convergence...
Convergence of a Catalan Series
Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang
2012-01-01
This article studies the convergence of the infinite series of the reciprocals of the Catalan numbers. We extract the sum of the series as well as some related ones, illustrating the power of the calculus in the study of the Catalan numbers.
Digital Convergence and Content Regulation
Starks, Michael John
2014-01-01
abstractBroadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps
Revisiting convergence: A research note.
Clark, Rob
2015-09-01
A number of recent studies show that income inequality is declining between countries. In this research note, I question the significance of this trend by examining the role of initial conditions in producing convergence. An important (but neglected) property of inequality dynamics is the tendency for extreme distributions to become more moderate. When income disparities are large, the subsequent trend is biased toward convergence. Conversely, when initial conditions approach parity, divergence becomes the more likely long-term outcome. I apply this principle to trends in GDP PC across 127 countries during the 1980-2010 period. Using counterfactual analysis, I manipulate the initial level of inequality in GDP PC while holding constant each country's observed growth rate during the sample period. I find that the growth dynamics of GDP PC produce either convergence or divergence based simply on the initial distribution of income. The point of transition occurs at a moderate level of inequality, whether using population weights (Gini=.365) or not (Gini=.377). I conclude that the recent convergence observed in GDP PC is primarily a function of large income gaps between countries and would not have materialized at more moderate levels of initial inequality. By contrast, an examination of the pre-1950 period reveals divergent growth patterns that are not sensitive to initial conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Industrial Evolution Through Complementary Convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frøslev Christensen, Jens
2011-01-01
The article addresses the dynamics through which product markets become derailed from early product life cycle (PLC)-tracks and engaged in complementary convergence with other product markets or industries. We compare and contrast the theories that can explain, respectively, the PLC...
Privatization, convergence, and institutional autonomy
Rooijen, van M.
2011-01-01
Some of the trends incoming for 2011 – greater institutional autonomy, public/private convergence, entrepreneurial management, civic engagement – suggest innovation for hard times, with socio-economic and political rationales increasingly driving borderless developments. Others – open learning and
Converging Information and Communication Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øst, Alexander
2003-01-01
in the future to have - significant importance to the process and consequences of the convergence. The project focuses on the appliances, i.e. the TV sets, the computers and their peripheral equipment. It also takes into account the infrastructure and signals, which contain and deliver the information...
Evolution and convergence in telecommunications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radicella, S; Grilli, D [Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy)
2002-12-15
These lectures throw a spotlight on different aspects of the evolution of telecommunications networks, namely on the various facets of service and network convergence. The last years progress in data and telecommunications technologies, such as P-based networks, and the enormous potential of mobile communication systems and users' demands for comprehensive and network-independent have led to a convergence of data and telecommunications infrastructures in many aspects. In order to help the reader to an easier understanding of the phenomenon convergence, in the first two parts of this volume the evolution of the basic technologies is described one by one. This is done briefly and is focused on the principle topics, just to build a basis for the third part devoted to problems of convergence in telecommunications. These notes are addressed to those readers, who in a quick overview want to be informed on the future service and network landscape. The notes are equally suited for professionals with the desire to extend their horizon as well as for students looking for an introduction into telecommunications under more general aspects. The authors clearly understand the difficulties in writing a book devoted to the evolution in telecommunications. Today, telecom landscape varies at very high speed. Every few months new network technologies, new products and new services are developed. Attempts to present them in time can be accessible only for magazine publications or contributions to conferences. Therefore, in a number of areas, such as Voice over IP and new switching technologies not much more than the starting point of new paradigms is described. However, the content is up-to-date to a degree, that the phenomenon convergence can be fully understood. Partially, these notes are based on a number of lecture courses that were delivered during recent ICTP winter schools devoted to multimedia and digital communications.
Evolution and convergence in telecommunications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radicella, S.; Grilli, D.
2002-01-01
These lectures throw a spotlight on different aspects of the evolution of telecommunications networks, namely on the various facets of service and network convergence. The last years progress in data and telecommunications technologies, such as P-based networks, and the enormous potential of mobile communication systems and users' demands for comprehensive and network-independent have led to a convergence of data and telecommunications infrastructures in many aspects. In order to help the reader to an easier understanding of the phenomenon convergence, in the first two parts of this volume the evolution of the basic technologies is described one by one. This is done briefly and is focused on the principle topics, just to build a basis for the third part devoted to problems of convergence in telecommunications. These notes are addressed to those readers, who in a quick overview want to be informed on the future service and network landscape. The notes are equally suited for professionals with the desire to extend their horizon as well as for students looking for an introduction into telecommunications under more general aspects. The authors clearly understand the difficulties in writing a book devoted to the evolution in telecommunications. Today, telecom landscape varies at very high speed. Every few months new network technologies, new products and new services are developed. Attempts to present them in time can be accessible only for magazine publications or contributions to conferences. Therefore, in a number of areas, such as Voice over IP and new switching technologies not much more than the starting point of new paradigms is described. However, the content is up-to-date to a degree, that the phenomenon convergence can be fully understood. Partially, these notes are based on a number of lecture courses that were delivered during recent ICTP winter schools devoted to multimedia and digital communications
Searching for convergence and its causes – an industry perspective
Inklaar, Robert; Jorgenson, Dale W.; Fukao, Kyoji; Timmer, Marcel P.
2016-01-01
The past 20 years has been a period of rapid growth in emerging economies, leading to convergence in income and productivity levels. Less is known about the industry origins of this development, a gap this chapter aims to fill. For 30 industries in 40 economies, I estimate industry relative
Convergence of derivatives for certain mixed Szasz-Beta operators
Gupta, Vijay; Noor, Muhammad Aslam
2006-09-01
In this paper we study the mixed summation-integral type operators having Szasz and Beta basis functions in summation and integration, respectively, we obtain the rate of point-wise convergence, a Voronovskaja type asymptotic formula and an error estimate in simultaneous approximation.
Tackling the premature convergence problem in Monte-Carlo localization
Kootstra, Gert; de Boer, Bart
Monte-Carlo localization uses particle filtering to estimate the position of the robot. The method is known to suffer from the loss of potential positions when there is ambiguity present in the environment. Since many indoor environments are highly symmetric, this problem of premature convergence is
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glashow, S.L.
1976-01-01
These are scattered remarks concerning what is happening to (not in) elementary particle physics. New developments are unfolding with unprecedented speed, so that one does not even attempt to give a comprehensive review at this time. Mostly charm is discussed, both its phenomenology and its impact on belief in quarks, chromodynamics, and unified theories. Beneath the newsworthy experimental discoveries of the last two years lies a quieter and more profound theoretical development: the emergence of a theory of particle physics
Nonaka, Fumitaka; Hasebe, Satoshi; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi
2004-01-01
To evaluate the convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratio in strabismic patients and to clarify its clinical implications. Seventy-eight consecutive patients (mean age: 12.9 +/- 6.0 years) with intermittent exotropia and decompensated exophoria who showed binocular fusion at least at near viewing were recruited. The CA/C ratio was estimated by measuring accommodative responses induced by horizontal prisms with different magnitudes under accommodation feedback open-loop conditions. The CA/C ratios were compared with accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios and other clinical parameters. A linear regression analysis indicated that the mean (+/-SD) CA/C ratio was 0.080 +/- 0.043 D/prism diopter or 0.48 +/- 0.26 D/meter angle. There was no inverse or reciprocal relationship between CA/C and AC/A ratios. The patients with lower CA/C ratios tended to have smaller tonic accommodation under binocular viewing conditions and larger exodeviation at near viewing. The CA/C ratio, like the AC/A ratio, is an independent parameter that characterizes clinical features. A lower CA/C may be beneficial for the vergence control system to compensate for ocular misalignment with minimum degradation of accommodation accuracy.
Economic convergence and climate policy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciscar, J.C.; Soria, A.
2000-01-01
This paper addresses the relevance of the economic convergence hypotheses between the developing and the developed world in international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions negotiations. The results are based on a two-region (the OECD and the rest of the world, ROW) neo-classical growth model with exogenous technical progress, different technological diffusion patterns, and a set of geophysical relationships that consider an environmental externality linked to GHG emissions. A game framework is taken into account in the model to capture the strategic interactions between agents. The outcome of the negotiations seems indeed to depend on the economic convergence hypotheses. Faster economic growth of the ROW countries would encourage them to further mitigate carbon emissions. (Author)
Converging-barrel plasma accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paine, T.O.
1971-01-01
The invention comprises a device for generating and accelerating plasma to extremely high velocity, while focusing the plasma to a decreasing cross section for attaining a very dense high-velocity plasma burst capable of causing nuclear fusion reactions. A converging coaxial accelerator-electrode configuration is employed with ''high-pressure'' gas injection in controlled amounts to achieve acceleration by deflagration and focusing by the shaped electromagnetic fields. (U.S.)
Convergence theorems for certain classes of nonlinear mappings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chidume, C.E.
1992-01-01
Recently, Xinlong Weng announced a convergence theorem for the iterative approximation of fixed points of local strictly pseudo-contractive mappings in uniformly smooth Banach spaces, (Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. Vol.113, No.3 (1991) 727-731). An example is presented which shows that this theorem of Weng is false. Then, a convergence theorem is proved, in certain real Banach spaces, for approximation a solution of the inclusion f is an element of x + Tx, where T is a set-valued monotone operator. An explicit error estimate is also presented. (author). 26 refs
Natural gas and electricity convergence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calger, C.
1998-01-01
Convergence between the gas and electricity industries was described as a means for creating an increasingly more efficient energy market where prices and fundamental relationships exist between gas and electricity. Convergence creates new opportunities for producers and consumers. Convergence will likely lead to the disaggregation of the electricity and gas industry into segments such as: (1) power generation and production, (2) transmission wires and pipelines, (3) wholesale merchants, (4) distribution wires and pipelines, and (5) retail marketing, services and administration. The de-integration of integrated utilities has already begun in the U.S. energy markets and retail open access is accelerating. This retail competition will create very demanding customers and the changing risk profile will create new issues for stakeholders. The pace of reform for the telecommunications, airlines, natural gas and electricity industries was graphically illustrated to serve as an example of what to expect. The different paths that the industry might take to deregulation (aggressively embrace reform, or defensively blocking it), and the likely consequences of each reaction were also described. A map indicating where U.S. electric and natural gas utility merger and acquisition activities have taken place between 1994-1997, was included. Another map showing the physical asset positions of the Enron grid, one of the largest independent oil and gas companies in the U.S., with increasing international operations, including an electric power transmission and distribution arm, was also provided as an illustration of a fully integrated energy market company of the future. 9 figs
The effect of migration on income growth and convergence: Meta-analytic evidence
Ozgen, C.; Nijkamp, P.; Poot, H.J.
2010-01-01
We compare a set of econometric studies that measure the effect of net internal migration in neoclassical models of long-run real income convergence and derive 67 comparable effect sizes. The precision-weighted estimate of beta convergence is about 2.7 per cent. An increase of one percentage point
a globally convergent hyperpl onvergent hyperplane
African Journals Online (AJOL)
userpc
Bayero Journal of Pure and App. ISSN 2006 – 6996 ... Globally Convergent Hyper plane-BFGS method for solving nonline. The attractive ... Numerical performance on some b rates there liability ..... convergence of a class of quasi methods on ...
Density by Moduli and Lacunary Statistical Convergence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vinod K. Bhardwaj
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We have introduced and studied a new concept of f-lacunary statistical convergence, where f is an unbounded modulus. It is shown that, under certain conditions on a modulus f, the concepts of lacunary strong convergence with respect to a modulus f and f-lacunary statistical convergence are equivalent on bounded sequences. We further characterize those θ for which Sθf=Sf, where Sθf and Sf denote the sets of all f-lacunary statistically convergent sequences and f-statistically convergent sequences, respectively. A general description of inclusion between two arbitrary lacunary methods of f-statistical convergence is given. Finally, we give an Sθf-analog of the Cauchy criterion for convergence and a Tauberian theorem for Sθf-convergence is also proved.
Stable convergence and stable limit theorems
Häusler, Erich
2015-01-01
The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...
Technology assessment using NBIC convergence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaseashta, Ashok
2009-01-01
Full text: Notwithstanding progress in the areas of nanotechnology/nanoscience, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive sciences (NBIC), the synergy arising from convergence of these disciplines offers great potential for transformational, revolutionary, and embryonic opportunities with many technological applications. In addition, advances in synthesis and characterization methods have provided the means to study, understand, control, or even manipulate the transitional characteristics between isolated atoms and bulk material. In recent years, newly developed architectures in nanostructures and nanosystems with improved functionality, and ensuing unique characteristics have been developed with applications in chemical and biological sensors, nanobiotechnology, nanophotonics, and analysis of cellular processes. Novel convergence methodologies will integrate and advance next generation solutions to current and future technical challenges. Convergence in research methodologies transform the way research is conducted by overcoming specific barriers or filling existing knowledge gaps. NBIC Convergence and associated research methodologies has exceptionally high potential for transforming the manner in which state-of-the-art information is gathered, analyzed, and leveraged to enable future advances and applications. Examples of synergy of these disciplines include: label free, highly multiplexed over broad dynamic range, and decentralized nanotechnology based sensor platform for detection of biological and chemical agents; nucleic acid layers in conjunction with nanomaterials-based electrochemical or optical transducers as DNA Biosensor; potential targets for the next generation of vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics to enhance human performance; basis for 'Gene Ontology' to provides an important link between gene function and systems biology to understand a global picture of host-microbe interactions - to name a few. Since the idea of 'Converging
Interest rate convergence in the EMS prior to European Monetary Union
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frömmel, Michael; Kruse, Robinson
In this paper we analyze the convergence of interest rates in the European Monetary System (EMS) in a framework of changing persistence. This allows us to estimate the exact date of full convergence from the data. A change in persistence means that a time series switches from stationarity to non......-stationarity, or vice versa. It is often argued that due to the specific historical situation in the EMS the interest rate differential was non-stationary before the full convergence of interest rates was achieved and stationary afterwards. Our empirical results suggest that the convergence date has been very different...
Statistical convergence on intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karakus, S.; Demirci, K.; Duman, O.
2008-01-01
Saadati and Park [Saadati R, Park JH, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;27:331-44] has recently introduced the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy normed space. In this paper, we study the concept of statistical convergence on intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces. Then we give a useful characterization for statistically convergent sequences. Furthermore, we display an example such that our method of convergence is stronger than the usual convergence on intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces
Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels
Kosinka, Jiří
2016-02-12
We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.
Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels
Kosinka, Jiří
2016-01-01
We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.
Economic Growth, Convergence and Innovation in the EU Regions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiiu Paas
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The paper focuses on quantitative assessment of the innovation’s role in explaining regional disparities and convergence in Europe. The empirical part of the study bases on the regional GDP pc and innovation indicators on the EU-27 NUTS2 level regions. Based on the selected set of initial regional innovation indicators and using the principal components factor analysis method, three composite indicators of regional innovation capacity are extracted. Estimating convergence equations, we noticed that regional innovations tend to increase inter-regional differences, at least during the short-run period. Thus, if regional income convergence is a policy target, additional policy measures beside innovation activities should be effectively implemented.
On the systematic construction of convergent perturbation series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, C.
1993-12-01
Starting from the general decomposition of the many-body Hamiltonian parametrized by an operator Λwe derive the class of 'Λ-transformed' perturbation series. Aiming at practical applications we consider many-body perturbation theory of atoms and molecules in finite dimensional Hilbert spaces. Investigation of the analyticity properties of the eigenvalues and eigenstates of the Hamiltonian as functions of the coupling parameter defined by the particular decomposition of H allows for the construction of (minimal) Λoperators mapping an originally divergent series to a convergent one. There exists an operator Λ opt leading to the exact results in first order. Further improvements of the above mentioned minimal Λoperators can be achieved by approximations of Λ opt leading to fast convergent perturbation series. As the size of the remaining perturbation is given by the Λoperator chosen this method provides an a priori estimate of the convergence properties. (orig.)
Semantic Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon
Ameel, Eef; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert; Van Assche, Fons
2009-01-01
Bilinguals' lexical mappings for their two languages have been found to converge toward a common naming pattern. The present paper investigates in more detail how semantic convergence is manifested in bilingual lexical knowledge. We examined how semantic convergence affects the centers and boundaries of lexical categories for common household…
"Nanoselves": NBIC and the Culture of Convergence
Venkatesan, Priya
2010-01-01
The subject of this essay is NBIC convergence (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science convergence). NBIC convergence is a recurring trope that is dominated by the paradigm of integration of the sciences. It is largely influenced by the considerations of social and economic impact, and it assumes positivism in…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Stavárek
2014-09-01
Full Text Available After enlargement of the European Union and subsequently joining of a new member states to the euro area, the question of economic convergence attracted considerable research interest. This paper adopts three alternative concepts to examine the level and trend of convergence in the Visegrad countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia. We concurrently estimate the β-convergence, σ-convergence and business cycle synchronization to find out whether all countries are on the way towards higher convergence with the euro area. The results suggest that convergence of all countries has been increasing. However, the recent acceleration of the convergence process is caused mainly by external shocks in the form of the financial crisis and following economic slowdowns. Hence, the current level of convergence in the Visegrad countries cannot be considered as fully adequate.
Ecomorphological convergence in planktivorous surgeonfishes
Friedman, S. T.
2016-01-26
© 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Morphological convergence plays a central role in the study of evolution. Often induced by shared ecological specialization, homoplasy hints at underlying selective pressures and adaptive constraints that deterministically shape the diversification of life. Although midwater zooplanktivory has arisen in adult surgeonfishes (family Acanthuridae) at least four independent times, it represents a clearly specialized state, requiring the capacity to swiftly swim in midwater locating and sucking small prey items. Whereas this diet has commonly been associated with specific functional adaptations in fishes, acanthurids present an interesting case study as all nonplanktivorous species feed by grazing on benthic algae and detritus, requiring a vastly different functional morphology that emphasizes biting behaviours. We examined the feeding morphology in 30 acanthurid species and, combined with a pre-existing phylogenetic tree, compared the fit of evolutionary models across two diet regimes: zooplanktivores and nonzooplanktivorous grazers. Accounting for phylogenetic relationships, the best-fitting model indicates that zooplanktivorous species are converging on a separate adaptive peak from their grazing relatives. Driving this bimodal landscape, zooplanktivorous acanthurids tend to develop a slender body, reduced facial features, smaller teeth and weakened jaw adductor muscles. However, despite these phenotypic changes, model fitting suggests that lineages have not yet reached the adaptive peak associated with plankton feeding even though some transitions appear to be over 10 million years old. These findings demonstrate that the selective demands of pelagic feeding promote repeated - albeit very gradual - ecomorphological convergence within surgeonfishes, while allowing local divergences between closely related species, contributing to the overall diversity of the clade. Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Ecomorphological convergence in planktivorous surgeonfishes.
Friedman, S T; Price, S A; Hoey, A S; Wainwright, P C
2016-05-01
Morphological convergence plays a central role in the study of evolution. Often induced by shared ecological specialization, homoplasy hints at underlying selective pressures and adaptive constraints that deterministically shape the diversification of life. Although midwater zooplanktivory has arisen in adult surgeonfishes (family Acanthuridae) at least four independent times, it represents a clearly specialized state, requiring the capacity to swiftly swim in midwater locating and sucking small prey items. Whereas this diet has commonly been associated with specific functional adaptations in fishes, acanthurids present an interesting case study as all nonplanktivorous species feed by grazing on benthic algae and detritus, requiring a vastly different functional morphology that emphasizes biting behaviours. We examined the feeding morphology in 30 acanthurid species and, combined with a pre-existing phylogenetic tree, compared the fit of evolutionary models across two diet regimes: zooplanktivores and nonzooplanktivorous grazers. Accounting for phylogenetic relationships, the best-fitting model indicates that zooplanktivorous species are converging on a separate adaptive peak from their grazing relatives. Driving this bimodal landscape, zooplanktivorous acanthurids tend to develop a slender body, reduced facial features, smaller teeth and weakened jaw adductor muscles. However, despite these phenotypic changes, model fitting suggests that lineages have not yet reached the adaptive peak associated with plankton feeding even though some transitions appear to be over 10 million years old. These findings demonstrate that the selective demands of pelagic feeding promote repeated - albeit very gradual - ecomorphological convergence within surgeonfishes, while allowing local divergences between closely related species, contributing to the overall diversity of the clade. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European
SCORE DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY: THE CONVERGENCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chernyshov Alexander V.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Explores the role of digital scorewriters in today's culture, education, and music industry and media environment. The main principle of the development of software is not only publishing innovation (relating to the sheet music, and integration into the area of composition, arrangement, education, creative process for works based on digital technology (films, television and radio broadcasting, Internet, audio and video art. Therefore the own convergence of musically-computer technology is a total phenomenon: notation program combined with means MIDI-sequencer, audio and video editor. The article contains the unique interview with the creator of music notation processors.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Lars Skov; Zimmer, Annette; Smith, Steven Rathgeb
. Specifically, we will investigate whether and to what extent social services and health care in these three countries are affected by current changes. With a special focus on nonprofit organizations, we will particularly address the question whether a trend towards convergence of the very different welfare......Due to severe societal, economic and political changes, of which the financial crisis counts prominently, welfare states all over the world are under stress. In our comparative analysis, we will concentrate on specific segments of welfare state activity in Denmark, Germany, and the United States...
A note on exponential convergence of neural networks with unbounded distributed delays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chu Tianguang [Intelligent Control Laboratory, Center for Systems and Control, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: chutg@pku.edu.cn; Yang Haifeng [Intelligent Control Laboratory, Center for Systems and Control, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2007-12-15
This note examines issues concerning global exponential convergence of neural networks with unbounded distributed delays. Sufficient conditions are derived by exploiting exponentially fading memory property of delay kernel functions. The method is based on comparison principle of delay differential equations and does not need the construction of any Lyapunov functionals. It is simple yet effective in deriving less conservative exponential convergence conditions and more detailed componentwise decay estimates. The results of this note and [Chu T. An exponential convergence estimate for analog neural networks with delay. Phys Lett A 2001;283:113-8] suggest a class of neural networks whose globally exponentially convergent dynamics is completely insensitive to a wide range of time delays from arbitrary bounded discrete type to certain unbounded distributed type. This is of practical interest in designing fast and reliable neural circuits. Finally, an open question is raised on the nature of delay kernels for attaining exponential convergence in an unbounded distributed delayed neural network.
A note on exponential convergence of neural networks with unbounded distributed delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu Tianguang; Yang Haifeng
2007-01-01
This note examines issues concerning global exponential convergence of neural networks with unbounded distributed delays. Sufficient conditions are derived by exploiting exponentially fading memory property of delay kernel functions. The method is based on comparison principle of delay differential equations and does not need the construction of any Lyapunov functionals. It is simple yet effective in deriving less conservative exponential convergence conditions and more detailed componentwise decay estimates. The results of this note and [Chu T. An exponential convergence estimate for analog neural networks with delay. Phys Lett A 2001;283:113-8] suggest a class of neural networks whose globally exponentially convergent dynamics is completely insensitive to a wide range of time delays from arbitrary bounded discrete type to certain unbounded distributed type. This is of practical interest in designing fast and reliable neural circuits. Finally, an open question is raised on the nature of delay kernels for attaining exponential convergence in an unbounded distributed delayed neural network
Pointwise convergence of Fourier series
Arias de Reyna, Juan
2002-01-01
This book contains a detailed exposition of Carleson-Hunt theorem following the proof of Carleson: to this day this is the only one giving better bounds. It points out the motivation of every step in the proof. Thus the Carleson-Hunt theorem becomes accessible to any analyst.The book also contains the first detailed exposition of the fine results of Hunt, Sjölin, Soria, etc on the convergence of Fourier Series. Its final chapters present original material. With both Fefferman's proof and the recent one of Lacey and Thiele in print, it becomes more important than ever to understand and compare these two related proofs with that of Carleson and Hunt. These alternative proofs do not yield all the results of the Carleson-Hunt proof. The intention of this monograph is to make Carleson's proof accessible to a wider audience, and to explain its consequences for the pointwise convergence of Fourier series for functions in spaces near $äcal Lü^1$, filling a well-known gap in the literature.
Hedging, arbitrage and optimality with superlinear frictions
Guasoni, Paolo; Rásonyi, Miklós
2015-01-01
In a continuous-time model with multiple assets described by c\\`{a}dl\\`{a}g processes, this paper characterizes superhedging prices, absence of arbitrage, and utility maximizing strategies, under general frictions that make execution prices arbitrarily unfavorable for high trading intensity. Such frictions induce a duality between feasible trading strategies and shadow execution prices with a martingale measure. Utility maximizing strategies exist even if arbitrage is present, because it is n...
Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids.
Ortega, A López; Lombardini, M; Hill, D J
2011-11-01
We present an approximate description of the behavior of an elastic-plastic material processed by a cylindrically or spherically symmetric converging shock, following Whitham's shock dynamics theory. Originally applied with success to various gas dynamics problems, this theory is presently derived for solid media, in both elastic and plastic regimes. The exact solutions of the shock dynamics equations obtained reproduce well the results obtained by high-resolution numerical simulations. The examined constitutive laws share a compressible neo-Hookean structure for the internal energy e=e(s)(I(1))+e(h)(ρ,ς), where e(s) accounts for shear through the first invariant of the Cauchy-Green tensor, and e(h) represents the hydrostatic contribution as a function of the density ρ and entropy ς. In the strong-shock limit, reached as the shock approaches the axis or origin r=0, we show that compression effects are dominant over shear deformations. For an isothermal constitutive law, i.e., e(h)=e(h)(ρ), with a power-law dependence e(h) is proportional to ρ(α), shock dynamics predicts that for a converging shock located at r=R(t) at time t, the Mach number increases as M is proportional to [log(1/R)](α), independently of the space index s, where s=2 in cylindrical geometry and 3 in spherical geometry. An alternative isothermal constitutive law with p(ρ) of the arctanh type, which enforces a finite density in the strong-shock limit, leads to M is proportional to R(-(s-1)) for strong shocks. A nonisothermal constitutive law, whose hydrostatic part e(h) is that of an ideal gas, is also tested, recovering the strong-shock limit M is proportional to R(-(s-1)/n(γ)) originally derived by Whitham for perfect gases, where γ is inherently related to the maximum compression ratio that the material can reach, (γ+1)/(γ-1). From these strong-shock limits, we also estimate analytically the density, radial velocity, pressure, and sound speed immediately behind the shock. While the
Origins of saline fluids at convergent margins
Martin, Jonathan B.; Kastner, Miriam; Egeberg, Per Kr.
The compositions of pore and venting fluids at convergent margins differ from seawater values, reflecting mixing and diagenesis. Most significantly, the concentration of Cl-, assumed to be a conservative ion, differs from its seawater value. Chloride concentrations could be elevated by four processes, although two, the formation of gas hydrate and ion filtration by clay membranes, are insignificant in forming saline fluids at convergent margins. During the formation of gas hydrate, the resulting Cl--rich fluids, estimated to contain an average excess of ˜140 mM Cl- over seawater value, probably would be flushed from the sediment when the pore fluids vent to seawater. Ion filtration by clay membranes requires compaction pressures typical of >2 km burial depths. Even at these depths, the efficiency of ion filtration will be negligible because (1) fluids will flow through fractures, thereby bypassing clay membranes, (2) concentrations of clay minerals are diluted by other phases, and (3) during burial, smectite converts to illite, which has little capacity for ion filtration. A third process, mixing with subaerially evaporated seawater, elevates Cl- concentrations to 1043 mM in forearc basins along the Peru margin. Evaporation of seawater, however, will be important only in limited geographic regions that are characterized by enclosed basins, arid climates, and permeable sediments. At the New Hebrides and Izu-Bonin margins, Cl- concentrations are elevated to a maximum of 1241 mM. The process responsible for this increase is the alteration of volcanic ash to hydrous clay and zeolite minerals. Mass balance calculations, based on the decrease in δ18O values to -9.5‰ (SMOW), suggest that the Cl- concentrations could increase solely from the formation of smectite in a closed system. The diagenesis of volcanic ash also alters the concentrations of most dissolved species in addition to Cl-. Depending on the volume of this altered fluid, it could influence seawater
Convergent Validity of the PUTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valerie Cathérine Brandt
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Premonitory urges are a cardinal feature in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Severity of premonitory urges can be assessed with the Premonitory Urge for Tic Disorders Scale (PUTS. However, convergent validity of the measure has been difficult to assess due to the lack of other urge measures.We investigated the relationship between average real-time urge intensity assessed by an in-house developed real-time urge monitor, measuring urge intensity continuously for 5mins on a visual analogue scale, and general urge intensity assessed by the PUTS in 22 adult Tourette patients (mean age 29.8+/- 10.3; 19 male. Additionally, underlying factors of premonitory urges assessed by the PUTS were investigated in the adult sample using factor analysis and were replicated in 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (mean age 12.05 +/- 2.83 SD, 31 male.Cronbach’s alpha for the PUTS10 was acceptable (α = .79 in the adult sample. Convergent validity between average real-time urge intensity scores (as assessed with the real-time urge monitor and the 10-item version of the PUTS (r = .64 and the 9-item version of the PUTS (r = .66 was good. A factor analysis including the 10 items of the PUTS and average real-time urge intensity scores revealed three factors. One factor included the average real-time urge intensity score and appeared to measure urge intensity, while the other two factors can be assumed to reflect the (sensory quality of urges and subjective control, respectively. The factor structure of the 10 PUTS items alone was replicated in a sample of children and adolescents.The results indicate that convergent validity between the PUTS and the real-time urge assessment monitor is good. Furthermore, the results suggest that the PUTS might assess more than one dimension of urges and it may be worthwhile developing different sub-scales of the PUTS assessing premonitory urges in terms of intensity and quality, as well as subjectively
Professional convergence in forensic practice.
Mercer, D; Mason, T; Richman, J
2001-06-01
This paper outlines the development and convergence of forensic science and secure psychiatric services in the UK, locating the professionalization of forensic nursing within a complex web of political, economic, and ideological structures. It is suggested that a stagnation of the therapeutic enterprise in high and medium security provision has witnessed an intrusion of medical power into the societal body. Expanding technologies of control and surveillance are discussed in relation to the move from modernity to postmodernity and the ongoing dynamic of medicalized offending. Four aspects of globalization are identified as impacting upon the organization and application of forensic practice: (i) organized capitalism and the exhaustion of the welfare state; (ii) security versus danger and trust versus risk; (iii) science as a meta-language; and (iv) foreclosure as a mechanism of censorship. Finally, as a challenge for the profession, some predictions are offered about the future directions or demise of forensic nursing.
Mosaic convergence of rodent dentitions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincent Lazzari
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible
Beyond Brainstorming: Exploring Convergence in Teams
Seeber, Isabella; de Vreede, Gert-Jan; Maier, Ronald; Weber, Barbara
2017-01-01
Abstract Collaborative brainstorming is often followed by a convergence activity where teams extract the most promising ideas on a useful level of detail from the brainstorming results. Contrary to the wealth of research on electronic brainstorming, there is a dearth of research on convergence. We used experimental methods for an in-depth exploration of two facilitation-based interventions in a convergence activity: attention guidance (focusing participants on procedures to execute a convergence task) and discussion encouragement (engaging participants in conversations to combine knowledge on ideas). Our findings show that both attention guidance and discussion encouragement are correlated with higher convergence quality. We argue that attention guidance’s contribution is in its support of coordination, information processing, and goal specification. Similar, we argue that discussion encouragement’s contribution is in its stimulation of idea clarification and idea combination. Contrary to past research, our findings further show that satisfaction was higher after convergence than after brainstorming. PMID:29399005
Vadose zone flow convergence test suite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butcher, B. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2017-06-05
Performance Assessment (PA) simulations for engineered disposal systems at the Savannah River Site involve highly contrasting materials and moisture conditions at and near saturation. These conditions cause severe convergence difficulties that typically result in unacceptable convergence or long simulation times or excessive analyst effort. Adequate convergence is usually achieved in a trial-anderror manner by applying under-relaxation to the Saturation or Pressure variable, in a series of everdecreasing RELAxation values. SRNL would like a more efficient scheme implemented inside PORFLOW to achieve flow convergence in a more reliable and efficient manner. To this end, a suite of test problems that illustrate these convergence problems is provided to facilitate diagnosis and development of an improved convergence strategy. The attached files are being transmitted to you describing the test problem and proposed resolution.
Regional Convergence and Sustainable Development in China
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fang Yang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the convergence theory of economic growth, this paper extends this concept to the human development index and carries out an empirical analysis of regional development in China between 1997 and 2006. Our research shows that the conditional convergence has been identified. Investment in fixed assets, government expenditure on education, health and infrastructure construction have positive effects on regional convergence of social development. Population weighted analysis of human development index provides support for weak convergence amongst provinces. Analysis of dynamics of regional distribution reveals the club convergence, which indicate two different convergence states. Central China is in the shade and lags behind, giving rise to the so-called “central downfall”. To solve this problem, the “Rise of Central China” Plan is necessary to promote the connection between coastal and inland regions of China and reduce the regional development gap.
Conformational Transitions and Convergence of Absolute Binding Free Energy Calculations
Lapelosa, Mauro; Gallicchio, Emilio; Levy, Ronald M.
2011-01-01
The Binding Energy Distribution Analysis Method (BEDAM) is employed to compute the standard binding free energies of a series of ligands to a FK506 binding protein (FKBP12) with implicit solvation. Binding free energy estimates are in reasonably good agreement with experimental affinities. The conformations of the complexes identified by the simulations are in good agreement with crystallographic data, which was not used to restrain ligand orientations. The BEDAM method is based on λ -hopping Hamiltonian parallel Replica Exchange (HREM) molecular dynamics conformational sampling, the OPLS-AA/AGBNP2 effective potential, and multi-state free energy estimators (MBAR). Achieving converged and accurate results depends on all of these elements of the calculation. Convergence of the binding free energy is tied to the level of convergence of binding energy distributions at critical intermediate states where bound and unbound states are at equilibrium, and where the rate of binding/unbinding conformational transitions is maximal. This finding mirrors similar observations in the context of order/disorder transitions as for example in protein folding. Insights concerning the physical mechanism of ligand binding and unbinding are obtained. Convergence for the largest FK506 ligand is achieved only after imposing strict conformational restraints, which however require accurate prior structural knowledge of the structure of the complex. The analytical AGBNP2 model is found to underestimate the magnitude of the hydrophobic driving force towards binding in these systems characterized by loosely packed protein-ligand binding interfaces. Rescoring of the binding energies using a numerical surface area model corrects this deficiency. This study illustrates the complex interplay between energy models, exploration of conformational space, and free energy estimators needed to obtain robust estimates from binding free energy calculations. PMID:22368530
The Convergence Acceleration of Two-Dimensional Fourier Interpolation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anry Nersessian
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Hereby, the convergence acceleration of two-dimensional trigonometric interpolation for a smooth functions on a uniform mesh is considered. Together with theoretical estimates some numerical results are presented and discussed that reveal the potential of this method for application in image processing. Experiments show that suggested algorithm allows acceleration of conventional Fourier interpolation even for sparse meshes that can lead to an efficient image compression/decompression algorithms and also to applications in image zooming procedures.
convergent methods for calculating thermodynamic Green functions
Bowen, S. P.; Williams, C. D.; Mancini, J. D.
1984-01-01
A convergent method of approximating thermodynamic Green functions is outlined briefly. The method constructs a sequence of approximants which converges independently of the strength of the Hamiltonian's coupling constants. Two new concepts associated with the approximants are introduced: the resolving power of the approximation, and conditional creation (annihilation) operators. These ideas are illustrated on an exactly soluble model and a numerical example. A convergent expression for the s...
On statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bipan Hazarika
2017-04-01
Full Text Available In this article the notion of statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences in Pringsheim's sense has been introduced. We prove the decompostion theorems for statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences and some theorems related to that concept have been established using the four dimensional matrix transformations. We provided some examples, where the results of acceleration convergence fails to hold for the statistical cases.
On Convergence of Kernel Density Estimates in Particle Filtering
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Coufal, David
2016-01-01
Roč. 52, č. 5 (2016), s. 735-756 ISSN 0023-5954 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03708S; SVV(CZ) 260334/2016 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Fourier analysis * kernel methods * particle filter Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2016
Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza
The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....
Convergence as conditionant for Media Regulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Othon Jambeiro
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Convergence comprises a combination of interlinked and interdependent transformations, of technological, industrial, commercial, cultural and social nature, which affect communication regulation. Customers, at their time, turned also convergent, involved in an intense participative culture, which is too, from the point of view of its social and geographical range, thanks to convergence, more and more extense. Instead of passive consumers of media and information and communication services, we have now active and socially connected consumers, no more readers/spectators/listeners, but noisy activists and publishers. To understand this phenomenon is essential to discern a regulatory frame suitable for it. This paper tries to define convergence and to discuss its consequences.
Quadratically convergent MCSCF scheme using Fock operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, G.
1981-01-01
A quadratically convergent formulation of the MCSCF method using Fock operators is presented. Among its advantages the present formulation is quadratically convergent unlike the earlier ones based on Fock operators. In contrast to other quadratically convergent schemes as well as the one based on generalized Brillouin's theorem, this method leads easily to a hybrid scheme where the weakly coupled orbitals (such as the core) are handled purely by Fock equations, while the rest of the orbitals are treated by a quadratically convergent approach with a truncated virtual space obtained by the use of the corresponding Fock equations
Nonlinear convergence active vibration absorber for single and multiple frequency vibration control
Wang, Xi; Yang, Bintang; Guo, Shufeng; Zhao, Wenqiang
2017-12-01
This paper presents a nonlinear convergence algorithm for active dynamic undamped vibration absorber (ADUVA). The damping of absorber is ignored in this algorithm to strengthen the vibration suppressing effect and simplify the algorithm at the same time. The simulation and experimental results indicate that this nonlinear convergence ADUVA can help significantly suppress vibration caused by excitation of both single and multiple frequency. The proposed nonlinear algorithm is composed of equivalent dynamic modeling equations and frequency estimator. Both the single and multiple frequency ADUVA are mathematically imitated by the same mechanical structure with a mass body and a voice coil motor (VCM). The nonlinear convergence estimator is applied to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of fast convergence rate and small steady state frequency error, which are incompatible for linear convergence estimator. The convergence of the nonlinear algorithm is mathematically proofed, and its non-divergent characteristic is theoretically guaranteed. The vibration suppressing experiments demonstrate that the nonlinear ADUVA can accelerate the convergence rate of vibration suppressing and achieve more decrement of oscillation attenuation than the linear ADUVA.
The Convergence Problems of Eigenfunction Expansions of Elliptic Differential Operators
Ahmedov, Anvarjon
2018-03-01
In the present research we investigate the problems concerning the almost everywhere convergence of multiple Fourier series summed over the elliptic levels in the classes of Liouville. The sufficient conditions for the almost everywhere convergence problems, which are most difficult problems in Harmonic analysis, are obtained. The methods of approximation by multiple Fourier series summed over elliptic curves are applied to obtain suitable estimations for the maximal operator of the spectral decompositions. Obtaining of such estimations involves very complicated calculations which depends on the functional structure of the classes of functions. The main idea on the proving the almost everywhere convergence of the eigenfunction expansions in the interpolation spaces is estimation of the maximal operator of the partial sums in the boundary classes and application of the interpolation Theorem of the family of linear operators. In the present work the maximal operator of the elliptic partial sums are estimated in the interpolation classes of Liouville and the almost everywhere convergence of the multiple Fourier series by elliptic summation methods are established. The considering multiple Fourier series as an eigenfunction expansions of the differential operators helps to translate the functional properties (for example smoothness) of the Liouville classes into Fourier coefficients of the functions which being expanded into such expansions. The sufficient conditions for convergence of the multiple Fourier series of functions from Liouville classes are obtained in terms of the smoothness and dimensions. Such results are highly effective in solving the boundary problems with periodic boundary conditions occurring in the spectral theory of differential operators. The investigations of multiple Fourier series in modern methods of harmonic analysis incorporates the wide use of methods from functional analysis, mathematical physics, modern operator theory and spectral
Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?
Ronteltap, A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Tobi, H.
2011-01-01
Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate
On the Convergence of Biogeography-Based Optimization for Binary Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haiping Ma
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Biogeography-based optimization (BBO is an evolutionary algorithm inspired by biogeography, which is the study of the migration of species between habitats. A finite Markov chain model of BBO for binary problems was derived in earlier work, and some significant theoretical results were obtained. This paper analyzes the convergence properties of BBO on binary problems based on the previously derived BBO Markov chain model. Analysis reveals that BBO with only migration and mutation never converges to the global optimum. However, BBO with elitism, which maintains the best candidate in the population from one generation to the next, converges to the global optimum. In spite of previously published differences between genetic algorithms (GAs and BBO, this paper shows that the convergence properties of BBO are similar to those of the canonical GA. In addition, the convergence rate estimate of BBO with elitism is obtained in this paper and is confirmed by simulations for some simple representative problems.
Temporal Convergence for Knowledge Management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Phillip Martin
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Time and knowledge have tended to be conceptualised in conventional knowledge management systems as either ‘timeless’ recordings of procedures, or time-stamped records of past events and states. The concept of temporal convergence was previously developed to help apply knowledge-management theory to complex military processes such as commander’s intent, shared situation awareness, and self-synchronisation. This paper clarifies the concept and introduces several others in forming a framework to assist discussion and exploration of the types of knowledge required for complex endeavours, such as warfighting, characterised by opposition and uncertainty. The approach is grounded in a pragmatist philosophy and constructivist epistemology. Argument proceeds along mathematical lines from a basis that the types of knowledge most valuable to goal-directed agents in uncertain environments can be modelled as directed graph topologies. The framework is shown to be useful in describing and reasoning about the knowledge requirements and prerequisites for distributed decision-making through the sharing of situational knowledge and common intentions, with practical application to the planning and execution of operations. To the designers of knowledge management systems seeking to address this space, it presents a challenge that cannot be addressed merely by construction, storage, search and retrieval of documents and records pertaining to the past.
Escalated convergent artificial bee colony
Jadon, Shimpi Singh; Bansal, Jagdish Chand; Tiwari, Ritu
2016-03-01
Artificial bee colony (ABC) optimisation algorithm is a recent, fast and easy-to-implement population-based meta heuristic for optimisation. ABC has been proved a rival algorithm with some popular swarm intelligence-based algorithms such as particle swarm optimisation, firefly algorithm and ant colony optimisation. The solution search equation of ABC is influenced by a random quantity which helps its search process in exploration at the cost of exploitation. In order to find a fast convergent behaviour of ABC while exploitation capability is maintained, in this paper basic ABC is modified in two ways. First, to improve exploitation capability, two local search strategies, namely classical unidimensional local search and levy flight random walk-based local search are incorporated with ABC. Furthermore, a new solution search strategy, namely stochastic diffusion scout search is proposed and incorporated into the scout bee phase to provide more chance to abandon solution to improve itself. Efficiency of the proposed algorithm is tested on 20 benchmark test functions of different complexities and characteristics. Results are very promising and they prove it to be a competitive algorithm in the field of swarm intelligence-based algorithms.
Europe of energy: convergencies - complexity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chevalier, J.M. and others
2001-01-01
This issue of 'Economies et Societes' journal comprises 16 articles dealing with the evolution of European energy markets: the security of European petroleum supplies (P.R. Bauquis); the security of European natural gas supplies (J.M. Dauger); an empirical analysis of the power prices convergence in the European union (J.A. Vega-Cervera, A. Jurado-Malaga); the integration of European power markets, from the juxtaposition of national market to the establishment of a regional market (D. Finon); the fusions-acquisitions in the energy sector and the globalization impact (C.A. Michalet); the reorganization of power economics and the share of right (M.A. Frison-Roche); the European industry facing the new economy (J.M. Chevalier); the confidence stake of the traditional power operators (Y. Benamour, A. Bonanni); status and prospects of gas prices in continental Europe (G. Bellec); the gas and power transport challenges and the access charges fixing (L. David, J. Percebois); the strategic challenges of underground storage in the new European gas context (B. Esnault); stranded costs and deregulation of power networks: some questions raised by the US experience (J. Bezzina); natural gas in Europe and the emergence of spot markets and trading hubs (G. Heyvaert); the competitiveness of the power exchange market of the Netherlands (F. Boisseleau); setting up and de-regulated trades in European markets (H. Geman); the Californian power market (P.L. Joskow). (J.S.)
NONPARAMETRIC IDENTIFICATION FOR NONLINEAR AUTOREGRESSIVE TIMESERIES MODELS： CONVERGENCE RATES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUZUDI; CHENGPING
1999-01-01
In this paper the optimal convergence rates of estimators ba~ed on kernel approach fornonlinear AR model are investigated in the sense of Stone[17'1a]. By combining the mixingproperty of the stationary solution with the characteristics of the model itself, the restrictiveconditions in the literature which are not easy to be satisfied by the nonlinear AR model axeremoved, and the mild conditions are obtained to guarantee the optimal ratea of the estimatorof autoregTession function. In addition: the strongly coasistent estimator of the ~riance ofwhite noise is also constructed.
The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia
Tameling, Klaske; Broersma, Marcel
2012-01-01
KLASKE TAMELING & MARCEL BROERSMA The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia Since the end of the twentieth century, convergence and cross-media journalism are concepts that are widely used to guide the future of journalism world wide. This study
Frequency response functions for nonlinear convergent systems
Pavlov, A.V.; Wouw, van de N.; Nijmeijer, H.
2007-01-01
Convergent systems constitute a practically important class of nonlinear systems that extends the class of asymptotically stable linear time-invariant systems. In this note, we extend frequency response functions defined for linear systems to nonlinear convergent systems. Such nonlinear frequency
Beyond Brainstorming: Exploring Convergence in Teams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seeber, Isabella; de Vreede, Gert-Jan; Maier, Ronald
2017-01-01
Collaborative brainstorming is often followed by a convergence activity where teams extract the most promising ideas on a useful level of detail from the brainstorming results. Contrary to the wealth of research on electronic brainstorming, there is a dearth of research on convergence. We used...
Explaining convergence of oecd welfare states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmitt, C.; Starke, Peter
2011-01-01
of conditional convergence helps to both better describe and explain the phenomenon. By applying error correction models, we examine conditional convergence of various types of social expenditure in 21 OECD countries between 1980 and 2005. Our empirical findings go beyond the existing literature in two respects...
New concurrent iterative methods with monotonic convergence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao, Qingchuan [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
1996-12-31
This paper proposes the new concurrent iterative methods without using any derivatives for finding all zeros of polynomials simultaneously. The new methods are of monotonic convergence for both simple and multiple real-zeros of polynomials and are quadratically convergent. The corresponding accelerated concurrent iterative methods are obtained too. The new methods are good candidates for the application in solving symmetric eigenproblems.
Convergence analysis in near-field imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao, Gang; Li, Peijun
2014-01-01
This paper is devoted to the mathematical analysis of the direct and inverse modeling of the diffraction by a perfectly conducting grating surface in the near-field regime. It is motivated by our effort to analyze recent significant numerical results, in order to solve a class of inverse rough surface scattering problems in near-field imaging. In a model problem, the diffractive grating surface is assumed to be a small and smooth deformation of a plane surface. On the basis of the variational method, the direct problem is shown to have a unique weak solution. An analytical solution is introduced as a convergent power series in the deformation parameter by using the transformed field and Fourier series expansions. A local uniqueness result is proved for the inverse problem where only a single incident field is needed. On the basis of the analytic solution of the direct problem, an explicit reconstruction formula is presented for recovering the grating surface function with resolution beyond the Rayleigh criterion. Error estimates for the reconstructed grating surface are established with fully revealed dependence on such quantities as the surface deformation parameter, measurement distance, noise level of the scattering data, and regularity of the exact grating surface function. (paper)
Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective
Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.
2012-12-01
Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview
On the convergence of finite state mean-field games through Γ-convergence
Ferreira, Rita C.; Gomes, Diogo A.
2014-01-01
In this study, we consider the long-term convergence (trend toward an equilibrium) of finite state mean-field games using Γ-convergence. Our techniques are based on the observation that an important class of mean-field games can be viewed as the Euler-Lagrange equation of a suitable functional. Therefore, using a scaling argument, one can convert a long-term convergence problem into a Γ-convergence problem. Our results generalize previous results related to long-term convergence for finite state problems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
On the convergence of finite state mean-field games through Γ-convergence
Ferreira, Rita C.
2014-10-01
In this study, we consider the long-term convergence (trend toward an equilibrium) of finite state mean-field games using Γ-convergence. Our techniques are based on the observation that an important class of mean-field games can be viewed as the Euler-Lagrange equation of a suitable functional. Therefore, using a scaling argument, one can convert a long-term convergence problem into a Γ-convergence problem. Our results generalize previous results related to long-term convergence for finite state problems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shen Diao; Lan Ju
2017-01-01
In the process of meida Convergence,many researchers paid excessive attention to media technology,industry and management,and ignored the culture dimensions of media convergence.Therefore,to transcend media convergence technology,industrial thinking and more to the particularity attach importance to cultural media,it is a right way to achieve media convergence.But in the context of China's culture,media convergence should value the cultural uniqueness and the imbalance of the realistic problems,to reach innovation and breakthrough.
Kim, Seongho; Li, Lang
2014-02-01
The statistical identifiability of nonlinear pharmacokinetic (PK) models with the Michaelis-Menten (MM) kinetic equation is considered using a global optimization approach, which is particle swarm optimization (PSO). If a model is statistically non-identifiable, the conventional derivative-based estimation approach is often terminated earlier without converging, due to the singularity. To circumvent this difficulty, we develop a derivative-free global optimization algorithm by combining PSO with a derivative-free local optimization algorithm to improve the rate of convergence of PSO. We further propose an efficient approach to not only checking the convergence of estimation but also detecting the identifiability of nonlinear PK models. PK simulation studies demonstrate that the convergence and identifiability of the PK model can be detected efficiently through the proposed approach. The proposed approach is then applied to clinical PK data along with a two-compartmental model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
On the rate of convergence in von Neumann's ergodic theorem with continuous time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kachurovskii, A G; Reshetenko, Anna V
2010-01-01
The rate of convergence in von Neumann's mean ergodic theorem is studied for continuous time. The condition that the rate of convergence of the ergodic averages be of power-law type is shown to be equivalent to requiring that the spectral measure of the corresponding dynamical system have a power-type singularity at 0. This forces the estimates for the convergence rate in the above ergodic theorem to be necessarily spectral. All the results obtained have obvious exact analogues for wide-sense stationary processes. Bibliography: 7 titles.
Neutron gain for converging guide tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mildner, D.F.R.
1982-01-01
The method of acceptance diagrams is used to obtain analytical expressions for the neutron gain of a one-dimensional converging guide tube. It is found that the results are more easily expressed by analyzing the acceptance diagram at the exit of the funnel. The results are compared with those for the straight guide. When both guides have the same dimensions at the guide exit, the converging guide has higher transmitted intensity but with greater divergence of the beam. This analytical method is useful to assess the performance of a converging guide, though numerical computations may be required for detailed analysis of a guide system. (orig.)
Convergence analysis of canonical genetic algorithms.
Rudolph, G
1994-01-01
This paper analyzes the convergence properties of the canonical genetic algorithm (CGA) with mutation, crossover and proportional reproduction applied to static optimization problems. It is proved by means of homogeneous finite Markov chain analysis that a CGA will never converge to the global optimum regardless of the initialization, crossover, operator and objective function. But variants of CGA's that always maintain the best solution in the population, either before or after selection, are shown to converge to the global optimum due to the irreducibility property of the underlying original nonconvergent CGA. These results are discussed with respect to the schema theorem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyeokseong Lee
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Firms in high-technology industries have faced great technological and market uncertainty and volatility in the past few decades. In order to be competitive and sustainable in this environment, firms have been pursuing technological innovation, product differentiation, vertical integration, and alliances, which eventually drive industry convergence, defined as the process of blurring boundaries between previously distinct industries. Although industry convergence has greatly affected industrial structure and the economy, little research has investigated this phenomenon, especially its diffusion patterns; thus, it is still unclear which industries are converging more rapidly or have a higher potential for convergence. This paper explores these issues by investigating industry convergence in U.S. high-technology industries, using a large set of newspaper articles from 1987 to 2012. We perform a co-occurrence-based analysis to obtain information on industry convergence and estimate its diffusion patterns using an internal-influence logistic model. We find heterogeneous diffusion patterns, depending on convergent-industry pairs and their wide dispersion. In addition, we find that the potential degree of industry convergence is significantly negatively associated with its growth rate, which indicates that a great deal of time will be required for industry convergence between high-technology industries with this high potential to achieve a high degree of convergence.
Strategic business transformation through technology convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agarwal, Nivedita; Brem, Alexander
2015-01-01
-time intelligence. This paper presents the case of General Electric (GE) and studies the various transitional phases and transformation dimensions that GE is experiencing, to manage this technology convergence. The evaluation of GE's experience indicates that convergence-related business transformation is nonlinear......Technology adoption is crucial for an organisation to remain competitive in the marketplace. Traditionally, two technologies - operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT) - have operated independently from one another; however, technological advancements that businesses...... are experiencing have increased the overlap and convergence of these two areas. Industrial organisations are investing heavily in the integration and alignment of these technologies and expect to benefit in several ways from this convergence, such as through increased productivity, reduction in cost, and real...
Convergent Validity of Four Innovativeness Scales.
Goldsmith, Ronald E.
1986-01-01
Four scales of innovativeness were administered to two samples of undergraduate students: the Open Processing Scale, Innovativeness Scale, innovation subscale of the Jackson Personality Inventory, and Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory. Intercorrelations indicated the scales generally exhibited convergent validity. (GDC)
A class of convergent neural network dynamics
Fiedler, Bernold; Gedeon, Tomáš
1998-01-01
We consider a class of systems of differential equations in Rn which exhibits convergent dynamics. We find a Lyapunov function and show that every bounded trajectory converges to the set of equilibria. Our result generalizes the results of Cohen and Grossberg (1983) for convergent neural networks. It replaces the symmetry assumption on the matrix of weights by the assumption on the structure of the connections in the neural network. We prove the convergence result also for a large class of Lotka-Volterra systems. These are naturally defined on the closed positive orthant. We show that there are no heteroclinic cycles on the boundary of the positive orthant for the systems in this class.
Divergence and convergence in nutrition science
Penders, Bart; Spruit, Shannon L.; Sikkema, Jan; Maat, Jan; Schuurbiers, Daan
2015-01-01
Nutrigenomics diverged from mainstream nutrition science, ideologically, instrumentally and culturally, due to the establishment of a protective niche. That protection is fading. This article chronicles a case in which convergence between nutrigenomics and nutrition science is pursued. Here we
Advances and Challenges in Convergent Communication Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toral-Cruz, Homero; Mihovska, Albena
2017-01-01
Welcome to this special issue of Wireless Personal Communications on Advances and Challenges in Convergent Communication Networks. The main purpose of this special issue is to present new progresses and challenges in convergent networks. Communication networks play an important role in our daily...... life because they allow communicating and sharing contents between heterogeneous nodes around the globe. The emergence of multiple network architectures and emerging technologies have resulted in new applications and services over a heterogeneous network. This heterogeneous network has undergone...... significant challenges in recent years, such as the evolution to a converged network with the capability to support multiple services, while maintaining a satisfactory level of QoE/QoS, security, efficiency and trust. The special issue on Advances and Challenges in Convergent Communication Networks...
Convergence of Corporate and Information Security
Syed; Rahman, M.; Donahue, Shannon E.
2010-01-01
As physical and information security boundaries have become increasingly blurry many organizations are experiencing challenges with how to effectively and efficiently manage security within the corporate. There is no current standard or best practice offered by the security community regarding convergence; however many organizations such as the Alliance for Enterprise Security Risk Management (AESRM) offer some excellent suggestions for integrating a converged security program. This paper rep...
Convergence in Global Food Demand and Delivery
Regmi, Anita; Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Unnevehr, Laurian J.
2008-01-01
Using food expenditures and food sales data over 1990-2004, this report examines whether food consumption and delivery trends are converging across 47 high- and middle-income countries. Middle-income countries, such as China and Mexico, appear to be following trends in high-income countries, measured across several dimensions of food system growth and change. Convergence is apparent in most important food expenditure categories and in indicators of food system modernization such as supermarke...
Convergence Science in a Nano World
Cady, Nathaniel
2013-01-01
Convergence is a new paradigm that brings together critical advances in the life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. Going beyond traditional “interdisciplinary” studies, “convergence” describes the culmination of truly integrated research and development, yielding revolutionary advances in both scientific research and new technologies. At its core, nanotechnology embodies these elements of convergence science by bringing together multiple disciplines with the goal of creating innova...
Global Convergence of a Modified LS Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu JinKui
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The LS method is one of the effective conjugate gradient methods in solving the unconstrained optimization problems. The paper presents a modified LS method on the basis of the famous LS method and proves the strong global convergence for the uniformly convex functions and the global convergence for general functions under the strong Wolfe line search. The numerical experiments show that the modified LS method is very effective in practice.
International Convergence on Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure
Allison, M. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arctur, D. K.; Cox, S.; Jackson, I.; Nativi, S.; Wyborn, L. A.
2012-04-01
There is growing international consensus on addressing the challenges to cyber(e)-infrastructure for the geosciences. These challenges include: Creating common standards and protocols; Engaging the vast number of distributed data resources; Establishing practices for recognition of and respect for intellectual property; Developing simple data and resource discovery and access systems; Building mechanisms to encourage development of web service tools and workflows for data analysis; Brokering the diverse disciplinary service buses; Creating sustainable business models for maintenance and evolution of information resources; Integrating the data management life-cycle into the practice of science. Efforts around the world are converging towards de facto creation of an integrated global digital data network for the geosciences based on common standards and protocols for data discovery and access, and a shared vision of distributed, web-based, open source interoperable data access and integration. Commonalities include use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO specifications and standardized data interchange mechanisms. For multidisciplinarity, mediation, adaptation, and profiling services have been successfully introduced to leverage the geosciences standards which are commonly used by the different geoscience communities -introducing a brokering approach which extends the basic SOA archetype. Principal challenges are less technical than cultural, social, and organizational. Before we can make data interoperable, we must make people interoperable. These challenges are being met by increased coordination of development activities (technical, organizational, social) among leaders and practitioners in national and international efforts across the geosciences to foster commonalities across disparate networks. In doing so, we will 1) leverage and share resources, and developments, 2) facilitate and enhance emerging technical and structural advances, 3) promote
The role of nozzle convergence in diesel combustion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J. Benajes; S. Molina; C. Gonzaalez; R. Donde [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)
2008-08-15
An experimental study has been performed for identifying the role of injector nozzle hole convergence and cavitation in diesel engine combustion and pollutant emissions. For doing so, five nozzles were tested under different operating and experimental conditions. The critical cavitation number of each nozzle was analyzed. With this value, an estimation of the mixing process at different conditions obtained. This data is used to explain the combustion results which are analyzed in terms of the apparent combustion time, rate of heat release, in-cylinder pressures, adiabatic temperatures and soot and NOx emissions. Special emphasis is put in developing an expression to explicitly link the mixing process and the injection rate with the rate of heat release. The results show that the fuel-air mixing process can be improved by the use of both convergent and cavitating nozzles, thus lowering the soot emissions. The NOx production, being dependent of the injection rate and the mixing process, does not necessarily increase with the use of more convergent nozzles. 40 refs., 8 fig., tabs.
Monte Carlo criticality source convergence in a loosely coupled fuel storage system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blomquist, Roger N.; Gelbard, Ely M.
2003-01-01
The fission source convergence of a very loosely coupled array of 36 fuel subassemblies with slightly non-symmetric reflection is studied. The fission source converges very slowly from a uniform guess to the fundamental mode in which about 40% of the fissions occur in one corner subassembly. Eigenvalue and fission source estimates are analyzed using a set of statistical tests similar to those used in MCNP, including the 'drift-in-mean' test and a new drift-in-mean test using a linear fit to the cumulative estimate drift, the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality, the relative error test, and the '1/N' test. The normality test does not detect a drifting eigenvalue or fission source. Applied to eigenvalue estimates, the other tests generally fail to detect an unconverged solution, but they are sometimes effective when evaluating fission source distributions. None of the tests provides completely reliable indication of convergence, although they can detect nonconvergence. (author)
Global Sensitivity Analysis of Environmental Models: Convergence, Robustness and Validation
Sarrazin, Fanny; Pianosi, Francesca; Khorashadi Zadeh, Farkhondeh; Van Griensven, Ann; Wagener, Thorsten
2015-04-01
Global Sensitivity Analysis aims to characterize the impact that variations in model input factors (e.g. the parameters) have on the model output (e.g. simulated streamflow). In sampling-based Global Sensitivity Analysis, the sample size has to be chosen carefully in order to obtain reliable sensitivity estimates while spending computational resources efficiently. Furthermore, insensitive parameters are typically identified through the definition of a screening threshold: the theoretical value of their sensitivity index is zero but in a sampling-base framework they regularly take non-zero values. There is little guidance available for these two steps in environmental modelling though. The objective of the present study is to support modellers in making appropriate choices, regarding both sample size and screening threshold, so that a robust sensitivity analysis can be implemented. We performed sensitivity analysis for the parameters of three hydrological models with increasing level of complexity (Hymod, HBV and SWAT), and tested three widely used sensitivity analysis methods (Elementary Effect Test or method of Morris, Regional Sensitivity Analysis, and Variance-Based Sensitivity Analysis). We defined criteria based on a bootstrap approach to assess three different types of convergence: the convergence of the value of the sensitivity indices, of the ranking (the ordering among the parameters) and of the screening (the identification of the insensitive parameters). We investigated the screening threshold through the definition of a validation procedure. The results showed that full convergence of the value of the sensitivity indices is not necessarily needed to rank or to screen the model input factors. Furthermore, typical values of the sample sizes that are reported in the literature can be well below the sample sizes that actually ensure convergence of ranking and screening.
Improving Convergence of Iterative Feedback Tuning using Optimal External Perturbations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Hjalmarsson, Håkon; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
2008-01-01
Iterative feedback tuning constitutes an attractive control loop tuning method for processes in the absence of sufficient process insight. It is a purely data driven approach to optimization of the loop performance. The standard formulation ensures an unbiased estimate of the loop performance cost...... function gradient, which is used in a search algorithm. A slow rate of convergence of the tuning method is often experienced when tuning for disturbance rejection. This is due to a poor signal to noise ratio in the process data. A method is proposed for increasing the information content in data...
Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies
Roco, Mihail C.
2008-01-01
The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and
Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roco, Mihail C.
2008-01-01
The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and
Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (NSF) (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov
2008-01-15
The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karlsen, Kenneth Hvistendal; Risebro, Nils Henrik
2000-09-01
We consider the initial value problem for degenerate viscous and inviscid scalar conservation laws where the flux function depends on the spatial location through a ''rough'' coefficient function k(x). we show that the Engquist-Osher (and hence all monotone) finite difference approximations converge to the unique entropy solution of the governing equation if, among other demands, k' is in BV, thereby providing alternative (new) existence proofs for entropy solutions of degenerate convection-diffusion equations as well as new convergence results for their finite difference approximations. In the inviscid case, we also provide a rate of convergence. Our convergence proofs are based on deriving a series of a priori estimates and using a general L{sup p} compactness criterion. (author)
A spatial error model with continuous random effects and an application to growth convergence
Laurini, Márcio Poletti
2017-10-01
We propose a spatial error model with continuous random effects based on Matérn covariance functions and apply this model for the analysis of income convergence processes (β -convergence). The use of a model with continuous random effects permits a clearer visualization and interpretation of the spatial dependency patterns, avoids the problems of defining neighborhoods in spatial econometrics models, and allows projecting the spatial effects for every possible location in the continuous space, circumventing the existing aggregations in discrete lattice representations. We apply this model approach to analyze the economic growth of Brazilian municipalities between 1991 and 2010 using unconditional and conditional formulations and a spatiotemporal model of convergence. The results indicate that the estimated spatial random effects are consistent with the existence of income convergence clubs for Brazilian municipalities in this period.
Estimation of POL-iteration methods in fast running DNBR code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwon, Hyuk; Kim, S. J.; Seo, K. W.; Hwang, D. H. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
In this study, various root finding methods are applied to the POL-iteration module in SCOMS and POLiteration efficiency is compared with reference method. On the base of these results, optimum algorithm of POL iteration is selected. The POL requires the iteration until present local power reach limit power. The process to search the limiting power is equivalent with a root finding of nonlinear equation. POL iteration process involved in online monitoring system used a variant bisection method that is the most robust algorithm to find the root of nonlinear equation. The method including the interval accelerating factor and escaping routine out of ill-posed condition assured the robustness of SCOMS system. POL iteration module in SCOMS shall satisfy the requirement which is a minimum calculation time. For this requirement of calculation time, non-iterative algorithm, few channel model, simple steam table are implemented into SCOMS to improve the calculation time. MDNBR evaluation at a given operating condition requires the DNBR calculation at all axial locations. An increasing of POL-iteration number increased a calculation load of SCOMS significantly. Therefore, calculation efficiency of SCOMS is strongly dependent on the POL iteration number. In case study, the iterations of the methods have a superlinear convergence for finding limiting power but Brent method shows a quardratic convergence speed. These methods are effective and better than the reference bisection algorithm.
Gene Acquisition Convergence between Entomopoxviruses and Baculoviruses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julien Thézé
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Organisms from diverse phylogenetic origins can thrive within the same ecological niches. They might be induced to evolve convergent adaptations in response to a similar landscape of selective pressures. Their genomes should bear the signature of this process. The study of unrelated virus lineages infecting the same host panels guarantees a clear identification of phyletically independent convergent adaptation. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of genes in the accessory genome shared by unrelated insect large dsDNA viruses: the entomopoxviruses (EPVs, Poxviridae and the baculoviruses (BVs. EPVs and BVs have overlapping ecological niches and have independently evolved similar infection processes. They are, in theory, subjected to the same selective pressures from their host’s immune responses. Their accessory genomes might, therefore, bear analogous genomic signatures of convergent adaption and could point out key genomic mechanisms of adaptation hitherto undetected in viruses. We uncovered 32 homologous, yet independent acquisitions of genes originating from insect hosts, different eukaryotes, bacteria and viruses. We showed different evolutionary levels of gene acquisition convergence in these viruses, underlining a continuous evolutionary process. We found both recent and ancient gene acquisitions possibly involved to the adaptation to both specific and distantly related hosts. Multidirectional and multipartite gene exchange networks appear to constantly drive exogenous gene assimilations, bringing key adaptive innovations and shaping the life histories of large DNA viruses. This evolutionary process might lead to genome level adaptive convergence.
Log-binomial models: exploring failed convergence.
Williamson, Tyler; Eliasziw, Misha; Fick, Gordon Hilton
2013-12-13
Relative risk is a summary metric that is commonly used in epidemiological investigations. Increasingly, epidemiologists are using log-binomial models to study the impact of a set of predictor variables on a single binary outcome, as they naturally offer relative risks. However, standard statistical software may report failed convergence when attempting to fit log-binomial models in certain settings. The methods that have been proposed in the literature for dealing with failed convergence use approximate solutions to avoid the issue. This research looks directly at the log-likelihood function for the simplest log-binomial model where failed convergence has been observed, a model with a single linear predictor with three levels. The possible causes of failed convergence are explored and potential solutions are presented for some cases. Among the principal causes is a failure of the fitting algorithm to converge despite the log-likelihood function having a single finite maximum. Despite these limitations, log-binomial models are a viable option for epidemiologists wishing to describe the relationship between a set of predictors and a binary outcome where relative risk is the desired summary measure. Epidemiologists are encouraged to continue to use log-binomial models and advocate for improvements to the fitting algorithms to promote the widespread use of log-binomial models.
Noise can speed convergence in Markov chains.
Franzke, Brandon; Kosko, Bart
2011-10-01
A new theorem shows that noise can speed convergence to equilibrium in discrete finite-state Markov chains. The noise applies to the state density and helps the Markov chain explore improbable regions of the state space. The theorem ensures that a stochastic-resonance noise benefit exists for states that obey a vector-norm inequality. Such noise leads to faster convergence because the noise reduces the norm components. A corollary shows that a noise benefit still occurs if the system states obey an alternate norm inequality. This leads to a noise-benefit algorithm that requires knowledge of the steady state. An alternative blind algorithm uses only past state information to achieve a weaker noise benefit. Simulations illustrate the predicted noise benefits in three well-known Markov models. The first model is a two-parameter Ehrenfest diffusion model that shows how noise benefits can occur in the class of birth-death processes. The second model is a Wright-Fisher model of genotype drift in population genetics. The third model is a chemical reaction network of zeolite crystallization. A fourth simulation shows a convergence rate increase of 64% for states that satisfy the theorem and an increase of 53% for states that satisfy the corollary. A final simulation shows that even suboptimal noise can speed convergence if the noise applies over successive time cycles. Noise benefits tend to be sharpest in Markov models that do not converge quickly and that do not have strong absorbing states.
Sectoral Energy, and Labour, Productivity Convergence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mulder, P.; De Groot, H.L.F.
2007-01-01
This paper empirically investigates the development of cross-country differences in energy- and labour productivity. The analysis is performed at a detailed sectoral level for 14 OECD countries, covering the period 1970-1997. A ρ-convergence analysis reveals that the development over time of the cross-country variation in productivity performance differs across sectors as well as across different levels of aggregation. Both patterns of convergence as well as divergence are found. Cross-country variation of productivity levels is typically larger for energy than for labour. A β-convergence analysis provides support for the hypothesis that in most sectors lagging countries tend to catch up with technological leaders, in particular in terms of energy productivity. Moreover, the results show that convergence is conditional, meaning that productivity levels converge to country-specific steady states. Energy prices and wages are shown to positively affect energy- and labour-productivity growth, respectively. We also find evidence for the importance of economies of scale, whereas the investment share, openness and specialization play only a modest role in explaining cross-country variation in energy- and labour-productivity growth
Convergent dynamics for multistable delayed neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shih, Chih-Wen; Tseng, Jui-Pin
2008-01-01
This investigation aims at developing a methodology to establish convergence of dynamics for delayed neural network systems with multiple stable equilibria. The present approach is general and can be applied to several network models. We take the Hopfield-type neural networks with both instantaneous and delayed feedbacks to illustrate the idea. We shall construct the complete dynamical scenario which comprises exactly 2 n stable equilibria and exactly (3 n − 2 n ) unstable equilibria for the n-neuron network. In addition, it is shown that every solution of the system converges to one of the equilibria as time tends to infinity. The approach is based on employing the geometrical structure of the network system. Positively invariant sets and componentwise dynamical properties are derived under the geometrical configuration. An iteration scheme is subsequently designed to confirm the convergence of dynamics for the system. Two examples with numerical simulations are arranged to illustrate the present theory
Well-Tempered Metadynamics Converges Asymptotically
Dama, James F.; Parrinello, Michele; Voth, Gregory A.
2014-06-01
Metadynamics is a versatile and capable enhanced sampling method for the computational study of soft matter materials and biomolecular systems. However, over a decade of application and several attempts to give this adaptive umbrella sampling method a firm theoretical grounding prove that a rigorous convergence analysis is elusive. This Letter describes such an analysis, demonstrating that well-tempered metadynamics converges to the final state it was designed to reach and, therefore, that the simple formulas currently used to interpret the final converged state of tempered metadynamics are correct and exact. The results do not rely on any assumption that the collective variable dynamics are effectively Brownian or any idealizations of the hill deposition function; instead, they suggest new, more permissive criteria for the method to be well behaved. The results apply to tempered metadynamics with or without adaptive Gaussians or boundary corrections and whether the bias is stored approximately on a grid or exactly.
Filamentation of a converging heavy ion beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, E.P.; Buchanan, H.L.; Rosenbluth, M.N.
1980-01-01
A major concern in the use of heavy ion beams as igniters in pellet fusion systems is the vulnerability of the beam to the transverse flamentation instability. The undesirable consequence of this mode is the transverse heating of the beam to the extent that convergence on the pellet becomes impossible. This work considers the case of a beam injected into a gas filled reactor vessel, where finite pulse length and propagation distance play an important role in limiting growth. Two geometries are analyzed: a nonconverging case where the radius at injection is nearly equal to the desired radius at the pellet, and a converging case in which the injection radius is large and the beam is pre-focused to converge at the target. It is found that a cold beam will be severely disrupted if the product of the magnetic plasma frequency and the propagation distance is much larger than unity
Multicloud: Multigrid convergence with a meshless operator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katz, Aaron; Jameson, Antony
2009-01-01
The primary objective of this work is to develop and test a new convergence acceleration technique we call multicloud. Multicloud is well-founded in the mathematical basis of multigrid, but relies on a meshless operator on coarse levels. The meshless operator enables extremely simple and automatic coarsening procedures for arbitrary meshes using arbitrary fine level discretization schemes. The performance of multicloud is compared with established multigrid techniques for structured and unstructured meshes for the Euler equations on two-dimensional test cases. Results indicate comparable convergence rates per unit work for multicloud and multigrid. However, because of its mesh and scheme transparency, multicloud may be applied to a wide array of problems with no modification of fine level schemes as is often required with agglomeration techniques. The implication is that multicloud can be implemented in a completely modular fashion, allowing researchers to develop fine level algorithms independent of the convergence accelerator for complex three-dimensional problems.
Plurality or convergence in sustainability reporting standards?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadia Albu
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Over the last years an increasing number of companies issued Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR or Sustainability Reports to complement their traditional financial reporting. Companies use various sustainability reporting standards or develop their own reporting frameworks starting from the existing ones. This variation of practices pointed out by empirical research raises questions about the quality and comparability of sustainability reporting, its role in the sustainable development, and also about the suitability of accepting the plurality of reporting frameworks or the need for convergence. This study aims to investigate the issues of plurality and convergence in sustainability reporting standards, by mobilizing the discourses on regulation and the case of a group of companies in the IT industry in order to shed some light on the current challenges in this area. We frame a discussion on the opportunities and pitfalls of convergence in sustainability reporting regulations and contribute to a better understanding of this issue by academics, preparers, users and standard setters
International Accounting Convergences Related to EU Admitance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Niculae Feleaga
2006-05-01
Full Text Available Starting from January 1, 2005, member countries of the European Union began the obligatory or optional application of the international standards IAS/IFRS for consolidated accounts, what means a revolution in financial reporting of the enterprises. In regards to the individual accounts (generally based on the national book-keeping standards these will converge gradually to referential international book-keeper on short and medium term. At the world level the process which dominates the accounting systems is the convergence between american and international reference system, followed immediatly more or less by the convergence between national accounting systems and the international one. Where Romania and its specialists are situated confronting this process? A reflection subject which finalises this article.
Science and technology convergence: with emphasis for nanotechnology-inspired convergence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bainbridge, William S.; Roco, Mihail C.
2016-01-01
Convergence offers a new universe of discovery, innovation, and application opportunities through specific theories, principles, and methods to be implemented in research, education, production, and other societal activities. Using a holistic approach with shared goals, convergence seeks to transcend existing human limitations to achieve improved conditions for work, learning, aging, physical, and cognitive wellness. This paper outlines ten key theories that offer complementary perspectives on this complex dynamic. Principles and methods are proposed to facilitate and enhance science and technology convergence. Several convergence success stories in the first part of the 21st century—including nanotechnology and other emerging technologies—are discussed in parallel with case studies focused on the future. The formulation of relevant theories, principles, and methods aims at establishing the convergence science.
Science and technology convergence: with emphasis for nanotechnology-inspired convergence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bainbridge, William S.; Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov [National Science Foundation (United States)
2016-07-15
Convergence offers a new universe of discovery, innovation, and application opportunities through specific theories, principles, and methods to be implemented in research, education, production, and other societal activities. Using a holistic approach with shared goals, convergence seeks to transcend existing human limitations to achieve improved conditions for work, learning, aging, physical, and cognitive wellness. This paper outlines ten key theories that offer complementary perspectives on this complex dynamic. Principles and methods are proposed to facilitate and enhance science and technology convergence. Several convergence success stories in the first part of the 21st century—including nanotechnology and other emerging technologies—are discussed in parallel with case studies focused on the future. The formulation of relevant theories, principles, and methods aims at establishing the convergence science.
Convergence of the Distorted Wave Born series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacMillan, D.S.
1981-01-01
The aim of this thesis is to begin to understand the idea of reaction mechanisms in nonrelativistic scattering systems. If we have a complete reaction theory of a particular scattering system, then we claim that the theory itself must contain information about important reaction mechanisms in the system. This information can be used to decide what reaction mechanisms should be included in an approximate calculation. To investigate this claim, we studied several solvable models. The primary concept employed in studying our models is the convergence of the multistep series generated by iterating the corresponding scattering integral equation. We known that the eigenvalues of the kernel of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for potential scattering determine the rate of convergence of the Born series. The Born series will converge only if these eigenvalues all life within the unit circle. We extend these results to a study of the distorted wave Born series for inelastic scattering. The convergence criterion tells us when approximations are valid. We learn how the convergence of the distorted wave series depends upon energy, coupling constants, angular momentum, and angular momentum transfer. In one of our models, we look at several possible distorting potentials to see which one gives the best convergence. We have also applied our results to several actual DWBA or coupled channel calculations in the literature. In addition to the study of models of two-body scattering systems, we have considered the case of rearrangement scattering. We have discussed the formulation of (N greater than or equal to 3)-body distorted wave equations in which the interior dynamics have been redistributed by introducing compact N-body distortion potentials
Specialisation and Convergence in European Regions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enrico Marelli
2007-09-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to analyze specialization and convergence of European countries and regions, within the framework of integration in the EU. This is important not only for long-term real convergence processes, but also for a proper functioning of the monetary union (in the line of research on the OCA's criteria, asymmetry of shocks and synchronization of business cycles. The position of new member states is particularly delicate, also considering the forthcoming adoption of the euro by some of them. As indicated by the EU Treaty, economic growth should be balanced with economic and social cohesion that includes a careful consideration of regional disparities. Our empirical investigation focuses on the regions of EU25, further broken up into other relevant groupings (EU15, EMU, and the new members' EU10 group, over the period from 1980 (or 1990 for EU10 to 2005. This paper considers a rather fine regional disaggregation (NUTS-2 level, counting 250 regions. The analysis of different indices of specialisation point to a prevalent increase of homogeneity of sector structures across European regions, although in some cases (especially in the industrial sector and in some services specialisation has increased. For convergence, a sigma convergence's analysis confirms a reduction of disparities, both at a country and regional level. However, a trade-off between fast national growth and internal distribution has emerged in the early stages of development, as in the case of new members. Moreover, beta convergence has also been established - regarding per capita income, employment and productivity - for almost all territorial aggregates (excluding the new members since 1999. The addition of structural variables, following a beta-conditional approach, indicates a positive role for services and a negative impact of agriculture. Finally, some preliminary results have been obtained by the innovative inclusion of specialisation indices within
GLOBAL CONVERGENCE FOR THE XOR BOOLEAN NETWORKS
Ho, Juei-Ling
2009-01-01
Shih and Ho have proved a global convergent theorem for boolean network: if a map from $\\{0,1\\}^{n}$ to itself defines a boolean network has the conditions: (1) each column of the discrete Jacobian matrix of each element of $\\{0,1\\}^{n}$ is either a unit vector or a zero vector; (2) all the boolean eigenvalues of the discrete Jacobian matrix of this map evaluated at each element of $\\{0,1\\}^{n}$ are zero, then it has a unique fixed point and this boolean network is global convergent to the fi...
Convergence of Hybrid Space Mapping Algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Søndergaard, Jacob
2004-01-01
may be poor, or the method may even fail to converge to a stationary point. We consider a convex combination of the space mapping technique with a classical optimization technique. The function to be optimized has the form \\$H \\$\\backslash\\$circ f\\$ where \\$H: \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^m \\$\\backslash......\\$mapsto \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\$ is convex and \\$f: \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^n \\$\\backslash\\$mapsto \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^m\\$ is smooth. Experience indicates that the combined method maintains the initial efficiency of the space mapping technique. We prove that the global convergence property of the classical technique is also...
Lacunary ideal convergence of multiple sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bipan Hazarika
2016-01-01
Full Text Available An ideal I is a family of subsets of N×N which is closed under taking finite unions and subsets of its elements. In this article, the concept of lacunary ideal convergence of double sequences has been introduced. Also the relation between lacunary ideal convergent and lacunary Cauchy double sequences has been established. Furthermore, the notions of lacunary ideal limit point and lacunary ideal cluster points have been introduced and find the relation between these two notions. Finally, we have studied the properties such as solidity, monotonic.
Nanotechnologies, technologies converging and potential biomedical applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capuano, Vincenzo
2005-01-01
The applications of nanotechnology to biology and medicine appear really promising far diagnostics, for various therapeutic approaches and in medical instrumentations. The growing synergism among nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences, their convergence (NBIC) from the nano scale, could involve on next decades great changes in medicine, from a reactive to a predictive and preventive approach. It is expected that NBIC converging technologies could achieve tremendous improvements in human abilities and enhance societal achievements. It appears therefore necessary a careful assessment of related social and ethical implications, in the framework of a constant dialogue between science and society [it
Risk assessment by convergence methodology in RDD scenarios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araujo, Olga Maria Oliveira de; Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Rebello, Wilson Freitas; Silva, Gabriel Fidalgo Queiroz da
2015-01-01
An RDD event occurs by explosion and radioactive material dispersion where particles containing radioactive material can reach great distances from original point of the explosion and generating a plume of contamination. The use of a RDD is regarded as the most likely scenario involving radiological terrorist material. Accurate information on the population and the estimated dose are essential for analysis during the decision process. This work intends to present a proposal for a convergence of methodologies using the computer simulation codes Hotspot Health Physics 3.0 and the statistical model Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) to calculate the approximate dose depending on the distance of the original point of the explosion of an RDD. From those data, the relative risk of developing tumors is estimated, as well as the probability of causation. At a later stage, the proposed combination of actions intended to help the decision-making and employment response personnel in emergency protection measures, such as sheltering and evacuation through the RESRAD-RDD software. The convergence of the proposed methodology can accelerate the process of acquiring information during the first hours of a radiological scenario and provide proper management of medical response and organization of the overall response. (author)
Risk assessment by convergence methodology in RDD scenarios
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Araujo, Olga Maria Oliveira de; Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Rebello, Wilson Freitas; Silva, Gabriel Fidalgo Queiroz da, E-mail: olgafisica2013@hotmail.com, E-mail: fisica.dna@gmail.com, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: profgabriel.fisica@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear
2015-07-01
An RDD event occurs by explosion and radioactive material dispersion where particles containing radioactive material can reach great distances from original point of the explosion and generating a plume of contamination. The use of a RDD is regarded as the most likely scenario involving radiological terrorist material. Accurate information on the population and the estimated dose are essential for analysis during the decision process. This work intends to present a proposal for a convergence of methodologies using the computer simulation codes Hotspot Health Physics 3.0 and the statistical model Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) to calculate the approximate dose depending on the distance of the original point of the explosion of an RDD. From those data, the relative risk of developing tumors is estimated, as well as the probability of causation. At a later stage, the proposed combination of actions intended to help the decision-making and employment response personnel in emergency protection measures, such as sheltering and evacuation through the RESRAD-RDD software. The convergence of the proposed methodology can accelerate the process of acquiring information during the first hours of a radiological scenario and provide proper management of medical response and organization of the overall response. (author)
IS THE TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY CLUSTERING DIPOLE CONVERGENT?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilicki, Maciej; Chodorowski, Michal; Jarrett, Thomas; Mamon, Gary A.
2011-01-01
There is a long-standing controversy about the convergence of the dipole moment of the galaxy angular distribution (the so-called clustering dipole). Is the dipole convergent at all, and if so, what is the scale of the convergence? We study the growth of the clustering dipole of galaxies as a function of the limiting flux of the sample from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Contrary to some earlier claims, we find that the dipole does not converge before the completeness limit of the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog, i.e., up to 13.5 mag in the near-infrared K s band (equivalent to an effective distance of 300 Mpc h -1 ). We compare the observed growth of the dipole with the theoretically expected, conditional one (i.e., given the velocity of the Local Group relative to the cosmic microwave background), for the ΛCDM power spectrum and cosmological parameters constrained by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The observed growth turns out to be within 1σ confidence level of its theoretical counterpart once the proper observational window of the 2MASS flux-limited catalog is included. For a contrast, if the adopted window is a top hat, then the predicted dipole grows significantly faster and converges (within the errors) to its final value for a distance of about 300 Mpc h -1 . By comparing the observational windows, we show that for a given flux limit and a corresponding distance limit, the 2MASS flux-weighted window passes less large-scale signal than the top-hat one. We conclude that the growth of the 2MASS dipole for effective distances greater than 200 Mpc h -1 is only apparent. On the other hand, for a distance of 80 Mpc h -1 (mean depth of the 2MASS Redshift Survey) and the ΛCDM power spectrum, the true dipole is expected to reach only ∼80% of its final value. Eventually, since for the window function of 2MASS the predicted growth is consistent with the observed one, we can compare the two to evaluate β ≡ Ω m 0.55 /b. The result is β = 0.38
On Convergence of the Unscented Kalman-Bucy Filter using Contraction Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maree, J.P.; Imsland, Lars; Jouffroy, Jerome
2016-01-01
Contraction theory entails a theoretical framework in which convergence of a nonlinear system can be analysed differentially in an appropriate contraction metric. This paper is concerned with utilizing stochastic contraction theory to conclude on exponential convergence of the Unscented Kalman......-Bucy Filter. The underlying process and measurement models of interest are Itô-type stochastic differential equations. In particular, statistical linearisation techniques are employed in a virtual-actual systems framework to establish deterministic contraction of the estimated expected mean of process values....... Under mild conditions of bounded process noise, we extend the results on deterministic contraction to stochastic contraction of the estimated expected mean of process state. It follows that for regions of contraction, a result on convergence, and thereby incremental stability, is concluded...
Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in the EU: Legend or reality?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jobert, Thomas; Karanfil, Fatih; Tykhonenko, Anna
2010-01-01
Designing appropriate environmental and energy policies, in order to meet the Kyoto protocol's carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reduction targets in the European Union (EU), requires a detailed examination and thorough understanding of CO 2 emission trends across the EU member states. This paper investigates whether CO 2 emissions have converged across 22 European countries over the 1971 to 2006 period. The Bayesian shrinkage estimation method is employed to do this work and the results reveal the following: first, the hypothesis of absolute convergence in per capita CO 2 emissions is supported and a slight upward convergence is observed; second, the fact that countries differ considerably in both their speed of convergence and volatility in emissions makes it possible to identify different groups of countries; third, the results with respect to convergence do not vary much once the share of industry in GDP is accounted for in a conditional convergence analysis. However, a decreasing share of industry in GDP seems to contribute to a decline in per capita emissions. These findings may carry important implications for both national and EU environmental policies.
Professional Communication and Translation in Convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gnecci, Marusca; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe
2008-01-01
As translation of technical documents becomes commonplace, and as translation becomes more automated, the roles of translator and technical communicator appear to be converging. This paper examines the trend revealed from recent surveys, and it suggests further research to determine if the trend...... is likely to continue. The paper also provides recommendations for academic programs interested in adjusting to the trend....
Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...
Convergent acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Convergent acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants amongst the Enterobacteriaceae isolates of the Mhlathuze River, KwaZulu-Natal (RSA) ... The possibility of transmission of resistant genes between bacteria (especially pathogenic) which invade human and animal populations within this river poses a health risk ...
Culture and Social Psychology: Converging Perspectives
Dimaggio, Paul; Markus, Hazel Rose
2010-01-01
Views of culture in psychology and sociology have converged markedly in the past two decades. Both have rejected what Adams and Markus (2004) refer to as the "entity" conception of culture--the view that culture is coherent, stable, and located in the heads of collectivities' members--in favor of more supple and dynamic constructs. Culture, in…
Evolutionary convergence and biologically embodied cognition
Keijzer, Franciscus
2017-01-01
The study of evolutionary patterns of cognitive convergence would be greatly helped by a clear demarcation of cognition. Cognition is often used as an equivalent of mind, making it difficult to pin down empirically or to apply it confidently beyond the human condition. Recent developments in
Convergence properties of the effective interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, P.J.; Engeland, T.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Holt, A.; Osnes, E.
1994-01-01
The convergence properties of two perturbative schemes to sum the so-called folded diagrams are critically reviewed in this work, with an emphasis on the intruder state problem. The methods we study are the approaches of Kuo and co-workers and Lee and Suzuki. The suitability of the two schemes for shell-model calculations is discussed. ((orig.))
RNA polymerase II collision interrupts convergent transcription
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hobson, David J; Wei, Wu; Steinmetz, Lars M
2012-01-01
Antisense noncoding transcripts, genes-within-genes, and convergent gene pairs are prevalent among eukaryotes. The existence of such transcription units raises the question of what happens when RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) molecules collide head-to-head. Here we use a combination of biochemical...
Professional Communication and Translation in Convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gnecci, Marusca; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe
2008-01-01
As translation of technical documents becomes commonplace, and as translation becomes more automated, the roles of translator and technical communicator appear to be converging. This paper examines the trend revealed from recent surveys, and it suggests further research to determine if the trend...
Strong Statistical Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces
Şençimen, Celaleddin; Pehlivan, Serpil
2008-01-01
In this article, we introduce the concepts of strongly statistically convergent sequence and strong statistically Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong statistical limit points and the strong statistical cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate the relations between these concepts.
Convergence properties of the effective interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, P.J.; Engeland, T.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Holt, A.; Osnes, E.
1993-10-01
The convergence properties of two perturbative schemes to sum the so called folded diagrams are critically reviewed with an emphasis on the intruder state problem. The methods studied are the approaches of Kuo and co-workers and Lee and Suzuki. The suitability of the two schemes for shell-model calculations is discussed. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Another Perspective: A Response to "Toward Convergence"
Regelski, Thomas A.
2013-01-01
This response by Thomas A. Regelski was solicited to complement the lead article in this issue, "Toward Convergence: Adapting Music Education to Contemporary Society and Participatory Culture" by Evan S. Tobias. The author notes that many interesting and vital questions and alternatives that are often studiously ignored, overlooked, or taken for…
Convergence Science in a Nano World
Cady, Nathaniel
2013-01-01
Convergence is a new paradigm that brings together critical advances in the life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. Going beyond traditional “interdisciplinary” studies, “convergence” describes the culmination of truly integrated research and development, yielding revolutionary advances in both scientific research and new technologies. At its core, nanotechnology embodies these elements of convergence science by bringing together multiple disciplines with the goal of creating innovative and groundbreaking technologies. In the biological and biomedical sciences, nanotechnology research has resulted in dramatic improvements in sensors, diagnostics, imaging, and even therapeutics. In particular, there is a current push to examine the interface between the biological world and micro/nano-scale systems. For example, my laboratory is developing novel strategies for spatial patterning of biomolecules, electrical and optical biosensing, nanomaterial delivery systems, cellular patterning techniques, and the study of cellular interactions with nano-structured surfaces. In this seminar, I will give examples of how convergent research is being applied to three major areas of biological research &endash; cancer diagnostics, microbiology, and DNA-based biosensing. These topics will be presented as case studies, showing the benefits (and challenges) of multi-disciplinary, convergent research and development.
Summability of alterations of convergent series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. A. Keagy
1981-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of splitting, rearrangement, and grouping series alterations on the summability of a convergent series by ℓ−ℓ and cs−cs matrix methods is studied. Conditions are determined that guarantee the existence of alterations that are transformed into divergent series and into series with preassigned sums.
International convergence of capital market interest rates.
Fase, M.M.G.; Vlaar, P.J.G.
1997-01-01
This article investigates the extent of capital market interest rate convergence among six EU countries on the one hand, and a group of four countries with floating exchange rates - US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland - on the other. We conclude that interest rate changes within the EU have been and
Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda
2017-01-01
Known graphical conditions for the generic and global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical conditions...
On Investigating GMRES Convergence using Unitary Matrices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Meurant, G.; Sadok, H.; Strakoš, Z.
2014-01-01
Roč. 450, 1 June (2014), s. 83-107 ISSN 0024-3795 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100301201; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1202 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : GMRES convergence * unitary matrices * unitary spectra * normal matrices * Krylov residual subspace * Schur parameters Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014
Exponential rate of convergence in current reservoirs
De Masi, Anna; Presutti, Errico; Tsagkarogiannis, Dimitrios; Vares, Maria Eulalia
2015-01-01
In this paper, we consider a family of interacting particle systems on $[-N,N]$ that arises as a natural model for current reservoirs and Fick's law. We study the exponential rate of convergence to the stationary measure, which we prove to be of the order $N^{-2}$.
Uniform Statistical Convergence on Time Scales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yavuz Altin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We will introduce the concept of m- and (λ,m-uniform density of a set and m- and (λ,m-uniform statistical convergence on an arbitrary time scale. However, we will define m-uniform Cauchy function on a time scale. Furthermore, some relations about these new notions are also obtained.
Impact of fixed-mobile convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pachnicke, Stephan; Andrus, Bogdan-Mihai; Autenrieth, Achim
2016-01-01
Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) is a very trendy concept as it promises integration of the previously separated fixed access network and the mobile network. From this novel approach telecommunication operators expect significant cost savings and performance improvements. FMC can be separated...
Converging technologies: shaping the future of medicine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iraj nabipour
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The miniaturization and virtualization processes drive converging technologies from interactions between the NBIC (Nano, Bio, Info, and Cogno technologies. The converging technologies stimulate innovation, promote research and development in different fields and produce revolutionary progresses in medicine. These technologies enable us to create contacts between brains and machines, the growth in molecular nanotechnology, the construction of respirocytes, chromallocytes, clottocytes, nanorobotic phagocytes, and nanobots. Nanobots would enter the nucleus of a cell and extract all of the genetic material and replace it with a synthetically produced copy of the original that has been manufactured in a laboratory to contain only non-defective base-pairs. It is predicted that “the regenerative medicine”, as a megatrend, will have an enormous effect on medical technologies and clinical sciences. Regenerative medicine is an application field of converging technologies in translational medicine. It attempts to translate the results of tissue engineering to construct 3D tissues and organs. Regenerative medicine is also an exciting field for induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC and promises to bring about a paradigm shift to health care. Accumulating evidence indicates that converging technologies will offer great potentials for regenerative medicine to create innovative treatments for diseases that the traditional therapies have not been effective yet.
A uniform law for convergence to the local times of linear fractional stable motions
Duffy, James A.
2016-01-01
We provide a uniform law for the weak convergence of additive functionals of partial sum processes to the local times of linear fractional stable motions, in a setting sufficiently general for statistical applications. Our results are fundamental to the analysis of the global properties of nonparametric estimators of nonlinear statistical models that involve such processes as covariates.
Wang, Chao; Yang, Chuan-sheng
2017-09-01
In this paper, we present a simplified parsimonious higher-order multivariate Markov chain model with new convergence condition. (TPHOMMCM-NCC). Moreover, estimation method of the parameters in TPHOMMCM-NCC is give. Numerical experiments illustrate the effectiveness of TPHOMMCM-NCC.
Nominal and real price convergence in Romania – Statistical evaluation -
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihai Gheorghe
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The creation of both the Economic and Monetary Union and of the single common market have meant two very important steps in getting a more and more compact Union. The first step regarding EMU lead to the adoption of a single currency and to the elimination of the exchange rates fluctuations, while the second one lead to the elimination of physical, administrative and technical barriers in order to achieve a sustainable economic growth and a stimulation of competition. Romanian authorities set out a new target year for the Euro adoption. Technically, the euro adoption as of 1 January 2019 would imply participation in the ERM II starting 1 January 2016 for the minimum 2-year stay. During this period the EU authorities will assess whether Romania meet the determined criteria for entering the third stage of EMU. The purpose of the paper is to assess the nominal and real convergence of Romanian prices, before and after the admission to the European Union (EU. The paper provides a short presentation of technical consideration of the both indices used to measure the price convergence, namely Harmonized Indices of Consumer Prices (HICP and the price level estimated in the PEC framework. A retrospective analysis since the EU admission show that in Romania, the inflation measured by the harmonized index of consumer prices has been on a downward trend, but is still relatively high, at an average rate of 3,2% in 2013. In Romania the price level is significantly lower as compared to the EU 15 average (46%, most probably this is due to the low per capita income level. In addition, the poor marketing and the low reputation of the domestic goods and services can also be regarded as factors reducing the convergence of prices in Romania and the EU.
DOES THE MAASTRICHT CONVERGENCE CRITERIA WORK?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karsai ZoltÃ¡n-KrisztiÃ¡n
2012-12-01
Full Text Available During its 13 year history, the euro area experienced the most severe economic downturn in the late 2000s as a result of the 2007 financial-economic crisis stemming from the US banking sector. The crisis in the monetary union, besides posting a significant economic and social cost, revealed several weaknesses not just of the currency block as a whole, but also of its constituting members, which were masked by the prosperous economic environment characteristic for the 2000s. These conditions have put to the test the solidarity among the euro zone members, or in other words the existence of the currency block. One important problem of the currency block is the lack of harmony between the fiscal and economic policies of the member states, creating several and occasionally very divergent parts of the currency block. The aim of this research is to enhance the Maastricht convergence criteriaâ€™s and the Stability and Growth Pactâ€™s role as a monitoring mechanism, allowing them to become more informative tools for the policy makers. For this, based on the relevant literature, we propose new potential explanatory variables which could enhance the role of the Maastricht convergence criteria and the Stability and Growth Pact. Some of the studied variables, like indebtedness of the private sector, capital flow compared to the size of the economy, government revenue compared to total public debt and current account balance help in enforcing the nominal convergence, while others (real labour productivity contribute to the real convergence. The explanatory power of the proposed variables are investigated in the case of France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain for the period comprised between 2000Q1-2011Q4. Results of the research show that with the exception of government revenue compared to total public debt, all proposed variables have significant explanatory power regarding the evolution of the state of the economy in all
On convergence of nuclear and correlation operators in Hilbert space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubrusly, C.S.
1985-01-01
The convergence of sequences of nuclear operators on a separable Hilbert space is studied. Emphasis is given to trace-norm convergence, which is a basic property in stochastic systems theory. Obviously trace-norm convergence implies uniform convergence. The central theme of the paper focus the opposite way, by investigating when convergence in a weaker topology turns out to imply convergence in a stronger topology. The analysis carried out here is exhaustive in the following sense. All possible implications within a selected set of asymptotic properties for sequences of nuclear operators are established. The special case of correlation operators is also considered in detail. (Author) [pt
Cagnetti, Filippo
2013-11-01
We consider a numerical scheme for the one dimensional time dependent Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the periodic setting. This scheme consists in a semi-discretization using monotone approximations of the Hamiltonian in the spacial variable. From classical viscosity solution theory, these schemes are known to converge. In this paper we present a new approach to the study of the rate of convergence of the approximations based on the nonlinear adjoint method recently introduced by L.C. Evans. We estimate the rate of convergence for convex Hamiltonians and recover the O(h) convergence rate in terms of the L∞ norm and O(h) in terms of the L1 norm, where h is the size of the spacial grid. We discuss also possible generalizations to higher dimensional problems and present several other additional estimates. The special case of quadratic Hamiltonians is considered in detail in the end of the paper. © 2013 IMACS.
Cagnetti, Filippo; Gomes, Diogo A.; Tran, Hung Vinh
2013-01-01
We consider a numerical scheme for the one dimensional time dependent Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the periodic setting. This scheme consists in a semi-discretization using monotone approximations of the Hamiltonian in the spacial variable. From classical viscosity solution theory, these schemes are known to converge. In this paper we present a new approach to the study of the rate of convergence of the approximations based on the nonlinear adjoint method recently introduced by L.C. Evans. We estimate the rate of convergence for convex Hamiltonians and recover the O(h) convergence rate in terms of the L∞ norm and O(h) in terms of the L1 norm, where h is the size of the spacial grid. We discuss also possible generalizations to higher dimensional problems and present several other additional estimates. The special case of quadratic Hamiltonians is considered in detail in the end of the paper. © 2013 IMACS.
Normative data for near point of convergence, accommodation, and phoria
Abraham, Neethu G.; Srinivasan, Krithica; Thomas, Jyothi
2015-01-01
Background: Measurement of for near point of convergence (NPC), amplitude of accommodation (AA) and phoria are important components of diagnosing nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies. There is a huge variation in the normative data established for orthoptic parameters because of the variation in measurement technique. There are only limited studies for normative data based on nonclinical population in Indian population. Therefore, we aim estimate the normative values for NPC, AA, and phoria measurement in Indian population using techniques, which has good repeatability and reliability. Materials and Methods: Subjects between the age group 10-35 years participated in this prospective cross-sectional study. A self-administered symptom questionnaire was used to exclude patients with asthenopic symptoms. Clinical techniques which have good repeatability and reliability were used. NPC was measured using pen light red, green glass test. AA was measured using minus lens technique. Horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near was measured using modified Thorington method. Results: One hundred and fifty subjects participated in the study. We found that NPC receded with age, which could because of the increase in horizontal phoria at near with age. The mean normative value for objective NPC, break and recovery of subjective NPC, monocular and binocular AA, horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near for the three age groups are reported in the study. Conclusion: The data presented in this study can be used as a cut-off by eye care practitioners while diagnosing convergence, accommodation related anomalies in Indian population. PMID:25709268
Automatic fission source convergence criteria for Monte Carlo criticality calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Chang Hyo
2005-01-01
The Monte Carlo criticality calculations for the multiplication factor and the power distribution in a nuclear system require knowledge of stationary or fundamental-mode fission source distribution (FSD) in the system. Because it is a priori unknown, so-called inactive cycle Monte Carlo (MC) runs are performed to determine it. The inactive cycle MC runs should be continued until the FSD converges to the stationary FSD. Obviously, if one stops them prematurely, the MC calculation results may have biases because the followup active cycles may be run with the non-stationary FSD. Conversely, if one performs the inactive cycle MC runs more than necessary, one is apt to waste computing time because inactive cycle MC runs are used to elicit the fundamental-mode FSD only. In the absence of suitable criteria for terminating the inactive cycle MC runs, one cannot but rely on empiricism in deciding how many inactive cycles one should conduct for a given problem. Depending on the problem, this may introduce biases into Monte Carlo estimates of the parameters one tries to calculate. The purpose of this paper is to present new fission source convergence criteria designed for the automatic termination of inactive cycle MC runs
Convergence Rates of AFEM with H −1 Data
Cohen, Albert
2012-06-29
This paper studies adaptive finite element methods (AFEMs), based on piecewise linear elements and newest vertex bisection, for solving second order elliptic equations with piecewise constant coefficients on a polygonal domain Ω⊂ℝ2. The main contribution is to build algorithms that hold for a general right-hand side f∈H-1(Ω). Prior work assumes almost exclusively that f∈L2(Ω). New data indicators based on local H-1 norms are introduced, and then the AFEMs are based on a standard bulk chasing strategy (or Dörfler marking) combined with a procedure that adapts the mesh to reduce these new indicators. An analysis of our AFEM is given which establishes a contraction property and optimal convergence rates N-s with 0estimator, but rather that this is automatically guaranteed by the approximability assumptions on the solution by adaptive meshes, without further assumptions on f; the borderline case s=1/2 yields an additional factor logN. Computable surrogates for the data indicators are introduced and shown to also yield optimal convergence rates N-s with s≤1/2. © 2012 SFoCM.
Zipf rank approach and cross-country convergence of incomes
Shao, Jia; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Urošević, Branko; Stanley, H. Eugene; Podobnik, Boris
2011-05-01
We employ a concept popular in physics —the Zipf rank approach— in order to estimate the number of years that EU members would need in order to achieve "convergence" of their per capita incomes. Assuming that trends in the past twenty years continue to hold in the future, we find that after t≈30 years both developing and developed EU countries indexed by i will have comparable values of their per capita gross domestic product {\\cal G}_{i,t} . Besides the traditional Zipf rank approach we also propose a weighted Zipf rank method. In contrast to the EU block, on the world level the Zipf rank approach shows that, between 1960 and 2009, cross-country income differences increased over time. For a brief period during the 2007-2008 global economic crisis, at world level the {\\cal G}_{i,t} of richer countries declined more rapidly than the {\\cal G}_{i,t} of poorer countries, in contrast to EU where the {\\cal G}_{i,t} of developing EU countries declined faster than the {\\cal G}_{i,t} of developed EU countries, indicating that the recession interrupted the convergence between EU members. We propose a simple model of GDP evolution that accounts for the scaling we observe in the data.
Computed tomography findings in convergent strabismus fixus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohta, Michitaka; Iwashige, Hiroyasu; Hayashi, Takao; Maruo, Toshio
1995-01-01
X-ray computed tomography (CT) of the eyeball and orbit revealed the cause of eye movement disorder in convergent strabismus fixus. The findings suggest that the disease can be diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Twelve cases of progressive esotropia with high myopia and 20 cases with normal visual acuity served as subjects in this study. The CT slice was parallel to the German horizontal plane, and the lens and medial and lateral rectus muscles were scanned. The average axial length of the affected eyes was significantly longer than in normal eyes. In progressive esotropia, the characteristic CT findings are an elongated eyeball, mechanical contact between the eyeball and lateral wall of the orbit, and a downward displacement of the lateral rectus muscle. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that eye movement disorder in convergent strabismus fixus results from weakness of the lateral rectus muscle which has been displaced downward due to compression of the eyeball against the orbital wall. (author)
Generalized functions, convergence structures, and their applications
Pap, Endre; Pilipović, Stevan; Vladimirov, Vasilij; International Conference "Generalized functions, convergence structures and their applications" (GFCA-87)
1988-01-01
This Proceedings consists of a collection of papers presented at the International Conference "Generalized functions, convergence structures and their applications" held from June 23-27, 1987 in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia (GFCA-87): 71 participants from 21 countr~es from allover the world took part in the Conference. Proceedings reflects the work of the Conference. Plenary lectures of J. Burzyk, J. F. Colombeau, W. Gahler, H. Keiter, H. Komatsu, B. Stankovic, H. G. Tillman, V. S. Vladimirov provide an up-to-date account of the cur rent state of the subject. All these lectures, except H. G. Tillman's, are published in this volume. The published communications give the contemporary problems and achievements in the theory of generalized functions, in the theory of convergence structures and in their applications, specially in the theory of partial differential equations and in the mathematical physics. New approaches to the theory of generalized functions are presented, moti vated by concrete problems of applicat...
Molecular mechanisms involved in convergent crop domestication.
Lenser, Teresa; Theißen, Günter
2013-12-01
Domestication has helped to understand evolution. We argue that, vice versa, novel insights into evolutionary principles could provide deeper insights into domestication. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that convergent phenotypic evolution is often based on molecular changes in orthologous genes or pathways. Recent studies have revealed that during plant domestication the causal mutations for convergent changes in key traits are likely to be located in particular genes. These insights may contribute to defining candidate genes for genetic improvement during the domestication of new plant species. Such efforts may help to increase the range of arable crops available, thus increasing crop biodiversity and food security to help meet the predicted demands of the continually growing global population under rapidly changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Flow over convergent and divergent wall riblets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koeltzsch, K.; Dinkelacker, A.; Grundmann, R. [Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 36460 Merkers (Germany)
2002-08-01
Fast swimming sharks have small riblets on their skin, which are assumed to improve the swimming performance of the fish. Fluid dynamic experiments in water as well as in air confirm this assumption. With riblet surfaces as compared to smooth surfaces, drag reductions up to about 10% were measured. The overall riblet pattern on sharks shows parallel riblets directed from head to tail, but besides this overall pattern fast swimming sharks have also small areas with converging riblets and others with diverging riblets. In the present study the velocity field over convergent and divergent riblet patterns is investigated by hot-wire measurements in turbulent pipe flow. Significant changes in the near wall velocity field were found. (orig.)
Service Creation and Deployment in Converged Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soler, José
for these experiences is the transition of telecommunication (telephony) networks from circuit switched based systems towards packet based ones. The text of this monograph proceeds, unaltered for the most, from the author’s PhD thesis “Framework for Deployment of Advanced Telecommunication Services in Current......This monograph (Early Experiences related to Service Creation & Deployment in Converged Networks) presents different experiences related to architectures and mechanisms for deployment of telephony services, understood as especial features complementing the basic voice service. The context...... and Future Converged Networks”, carried out at the Technical University of Denmark in the period [April 2002-April 2005]. Even though the technologies presented in the text have evolved from that period until now, the presented scenarios and setups are still valid as interesting initial steps in the realm....
Convergent functional genomics of psychiatric disorders.
Niculescu, Alexander B
2013-10-01
Genetic and gene expression studies, in humans and animal models of psychiatric and other medical disorders, are becoming increasingly integrated. Particularly for genomics, the convergence and integration of data across species, experimental modalities and technical platforms is providing a fit-to-disease way of extracting reproducible and biologically important signal, in contrast to the fit-to-cohort effect and limited reproducibility of human genetic analyses alone. With the advent of whole-genome sequencing and the realization that a major portion of the non-coding genome may contain regulatory variants, Convergent Functional Genomics (CFG) approaches are going to be essential to identify disease-relevant signal from the tremendous polymorphic variation present in the general population. Such work in psychiatry can provide an example of how to address other genetically complex disorders, and in turn will benefit by incorporating concepts from other areas, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Stochastic convergence of persistence landscapes and silhouettes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frédéric Chazal
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Persistent homology is a widely used tool in Topological Data Analysis that encodes multi-scale topological information as a multiset of points in the plane called a persistence diagram. It is difficult to apply statistical theory directly to a random sample of diagrams. Instead, we summarize persistent homology with a persistence landscape, introduced by Bubenik, which converts a diagram into a well-behaved real-valued function. We investigate the statistical properties of landscapes, such as weak convergence of the average landscapes and convergence of the bootstrap. In addition, we introduce an alternate functional summary of persistent homology, which we call the silhouette, and derive an analogous statistical theory.
Emotional convergence between people over time.
Anderson, Cameron; Keltner, Dacher; John, Oliver P
2003-05-01
The authors propose that people in relationships become emotionally similar over time--as this similarity would help coordinate the thoughts and behaviors of the relationship partners, increase their mutual understanding, and foster their social cohesion. Using laboratory procedures to induce and assess emotional response, the authors found that dating partners (Study 1) and college roommates (Studies 2 and 3) became more similar in their emotional responses over the course of a year. Further, relationship partners with less power made more of the change necessary for convergence to occur. Consistent with the proposed benefits of emotional similarity, relationships whose partners were more emotionally similar were more cohesive and less likely to dissolve. Discussion focuses on implications of emotional convergence and on potential mechanisms.
Electricity wholesale market prices in Europe: Convergence?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zachmann, Georg
2008-01-01
This paper tests the hypothesis that the ongoing restructuring process in the European electricity sector has led to a common European market for electricity. Based on a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of wholesale electricity prices in 2002-2006, we reject the assumption of full market integration. For several pairs of countries, the weaker hypothesis of (bilateral) convergence is accepted based on unit root tests (KPSS and ADF) and a convergence test based on filtered pairwise price relations. This indicates that the efforts to develop a single European market for electricity were so far only partially successful. We show that the daily auction prices of scarce cross-border transmission capacities are insufficient to explain the persistence of international price differentials. Empirically, our findings confirm the insufficiency of explicit capacity auctions as stated in the theoretical literature. (author)
Convergence of carbon dioxide emissions in different sectors in China
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Juan; Zhang, Kezhong
2014-01-01
In this paper, we analyze differences in per capita carbon dioxide emissions from 1996 to 2010 in six sectors across 28 provinces in China and examine the σ-convergence, stochastic convergence and β-convergence of these emissions. We also investigate the factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector. The results show that per capita carbon dioxide emissions in all sectors converged across provinces from 1996 to 2010. Factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector vary: GDP (gross domestic product) per capita, industrialization process and population density impact convergence in the Industry sector, while GDP per capita and population density impact convergence in the Transportation, Storage, Postal, and Telecommunications Services sector. Aside from GDP per capita and population density, trade openness also impacts convergence in the Wholesale, Retail, Trade, and Catering Service sector. Population density is the only factor that impacts convergence in the Residential Consumption sector. - Highlights: • Analyze differences in CO 2 emissions in six sectors among 28 provinces in China. • Examine the convergence of CO 2 emissions in six sectors. • Investigate factors impact on convergence of CO 2 emissions in each sector. • Factors impact on convergence of per capita CO 2 emissions in each sector vary
Numerical convergence for a sewage disposal problem
Alvarez-Vázquez, L.J.; Martínez, A.; Rodríguez, C.; Vázquez-Méndez, M.E.
2001-01-01
The management of sewage disposal and the design of wastewater treatment systems can be formulated as a constrained pointwise optimal control problem. In this paper we study the convergence of the numerical resolution for the corresponding state system by means of a characteristics Galerkin method. The main difficulty of the problem is due to the existence of Radon measures in the right-hand side of the state system. Finally, we present numerical results for a realistic problem posed in a ria...
COMPARATIVE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. CONVERGENCE VERSUS DIVERGENCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolae ECOBICI
2010-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper I compared the Romanian financial statements with the US GAAP financial statements in terms of two criteria: first the reference period and secondly the shape, structure and content of financial statements. Nowadays the two accounting systems, the French and Anglo-Saxon, tend to harmonize. I will present the convergences and the divergences between the financial statements of Romania, subject to OMFP 3055/2009, in parallel with the Anglo-Saxon accounting system.
Convolutional Dictionary Learning: Acceleration and Convergence
Chun, Il Yong; Fessler, Jeffrey A.
2018-04-01
Convolutional dictionary learning (CDL or sparsifying CDL) has many applications in image processing and computer vision. There has been growing interest in developing efficient algorithms for CDL, mostly relying on the augmented Lagrangian (AL) method or the variant alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). When their parameters are properly tuned, AL methods have shown fast convergence in CDL. However, the parameter tuning process is not trivial due to its data dependence and, in practice, the convergence of AL methods depends on the AL parameters for nonconvex CDL problems. To moderate these problems, this paper proposes a new practically feasible and convergent Block Proximal Gradient method using a Majorizer (BPG-M) for CDL. The BPG-M-based CDL is investigated with different block updating schemes and majorization matrix designs, and further accelerated by incorporating some momentum coefficient formulas and restarting techniques. All of the methods investigated incorporate a boundary artifacts removal (or, more generally, sampling) operator in the learning model. Numerical experiments show that, without needing any parameter tuning process, the proposed BPG-M approach converges more stably to desirable solutions of lower objective values than the existing state-of-the-art ADMM algorithm and its memory-efficient variant do. Compared to the ADMM approaches, the BPG-M method using a multi-block updating scheme is particularly useful in single-threaded CDL algorithm handling large datasets, due to its lower memory requirement and no polynomial computational complexity. Image denoising experiments show that, for relatively strong additive white Gaussian noise, the filters learned by BPG-M-based CDL outperform those trained by the ADMM approach.
Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olson R.E.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The NIF convergent ablation tuning effort is underway. In the early experiments, we have discovered that the design code simulations over-predict the capsule implosion velocity and shock flash ρr, but under-predict the hohlraum x-ray flux measurements. The apparent inconsistency between the x-ray flux and radiography data implies that there are important unexplained aspects of the hohlraum and/or capsule behavior.
Arieti and Bowlby: convergence and direct influence.
Bacciagaluppi, Marco
2015-09-01
Arieti was a great specialist of schizophrenia and Bowlby was the initiator of attachment theory. Working independently on the two sides of the Atlantic, they converged on a range of topics, such as evolutionary theory, mourning, trauma, violence, and therapy as art and science. Later, Bowlby exerted a direct influence on Arieti, which Arieti acknowledged in his Love Can Be Found. Finally, the two authors cooperated in the second edition of the American Handbook of Psychiatry.
ON STATISTICALLY CONVERGENT IN FINITE DIMENSIONAL SPACES
GÜNCAN, Ayşe Nur
2009-01-01
Abstract: In this paper, the notion of statistical convergence, which was introduced by Steinhaus (1951), was studied in Rm ; and some concepts and theorems, whose statistical correspondence for the real number sequences were given, were carried to Rm . In addition, the concepts of the statistical limit point and the statistical cluster point were given and it was mentioned that these two concepts were'nt equal in Fridy's study in 1993. These concepts were given in Rm and the i...
Innovation diffusion, technological convergence and economic growth
R. Andergassen; F. Nardini; M. Ricottilli
2013-01-01
The paper investigates the mechanics through which novel technological principles are developed and diffused throughout an economy consisting of a technologically heterogeneous ensemble of firms. In the model entrepreneurs invest in the discovery and in the diffusion of a technological principle and their profit flow depends on how many firms adopt the innovation and on how long it takes other entrepreneurs to improve it. We show that technological convergence emerges from the competition amo...
Convergence theorems for quasi-contractive mappings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chidume, C.E.
1992-01-01
It is proved that each of two well known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly, without any compactness assumption on the domain of the map, to the unique fixed point of a quasi-contractive map in real Banach spacers with property (U, α, m+1, m). These Banach spaces include the L p (or l p ) spaces, p ≥ 2. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 29 refs
On the convergence in female participation rates
Abe, Yukiko
2016-01-01
Large regional differences exist in female participation across regions within Japan. This paper uses two datasets to show that a significant convergence in female participation took place from 1940 to 2010. Historically, urban areas have had low participation, whereas non-urban areas have had high participation. The participation rate rose steadily and significantly in urban areas and, to a lesser extent in non-urban areas, and as a result, regional differences shrank over time. The microdat...
Gas-Electricity Convergence and foreclosure market
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barquin Gil, J.
2007-01-01
Gas-electricity convergence is a relatively recent industrial trend. It can significantly increase energy sector efficiency. However, it also raises the possibility on anti-competitive behaviours. One of these problems is the so-called input foreclosure. It happens when a natural gas dominant firm restricts its access to its electricity sector competitors. This paper intends to briefly introduce the issue, with special focus in aspects relevant for the Spanish case. (Author)
Bagci, Hakan
2014-11-11
We study sweeping preconditioners for symmetric and positive definite block tridiagonal systems of linear equations. The algorithm provides an approximate inverse that can be used directly or in a preconditioned iterative scheme. These algorithms are based on replacing the Schur complements appearing in a block Gaussian elimination direct solve by hierarchical matrix approximations with reduced off-diagonal ranks. This involves developing low rank hierarchical approximations to inverses. We first provide a convergence analysis for the algorithm for reduced rank hierarchical inverse approximation. These results are then used to prove convergence and preconditioning estimates for the resulting sweeping preconditioner.
Income Convergence and the Flow out of Poverty in India, 1994-2005
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos; Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Datta Gupta, Nabanita
This paper explores the dynamics of income and poverty of rural Indian households, 1994-2005. The estimation strategy consists of convergence analysis to test whether poor households are catching-up in terms of income, followed by transition analysis to test whether poor households are more likely...... to exit poverty than to remain poor. The identification strategy explicitly addresses issues pertaining to the potential endogeneity and measurement error of initial income and poverty. We find evidence of income convergence and a higher probability of exiting poverty than of remaining poor. The key...
Impact du pacte de convergence, de stabilité et de croissance sur la ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
Utilisateur Windows
27 nov. 2009 ... Bêta-convergence (régression en panel) ε θ μ λ ρ α β ti t i ti titi ti ti ti x yn n y y. ,. ,. 1,. ,. ,. 1,. ,. )1(. +. +. +. +. +. +. +. = -. -. => Spécifications des équations de la bêta convergence. => Techniques d'estimation. - Within (effets fixes). - GMM en système (correction de biais d'endogénéité) ε θ μ λ β ti t i ti ti ti.
Bagci, Hakan; Pasciak, Joseph E.; Sirenko, Kostyantyn
2014-01-01
We study sweeping preconditioners for symmetric and positive definite block tridiagonal systems of linear equations. The algorithm provides an approximate inverse that can be used directly or in a preconditioned iterative scheme. These algorithms are based on replacing the Schur complements appearing in a block Gaussian elimination direct solve by hierarchical matrix approximations with reduced off-diagonal ranks. This involves developing low rank hierarchical approximations to inverses. We first provide a convergence analysis for the algorithm for reduced rank hierarchical inverse approximation. These results are then used to prove convergence and preconditioning estimates for the resulting sweeping preconditioner.
Real Convergence, Steps from Adherence to Integration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihail Busu
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The macroeconomic model Solow-Swan shows that the marginal rates of capital, technology and labor force, with positive values, have the capacity to stimulate the economic growth of the emergent economies, as in the case of Romania, for the 2005-2014 period, facilitating the determination of specific correlations between macroeconomic indicators to analyze the convergence towards the average European Union (EU. The economic theory, highlighted in particular by the Solow-Swan model, was applied in the current paper, to determine the potential of real convergence. Moreover, the statistics for the period 2005-2014 facilitated the analysis of the growth and recession factors specific to economies of Central and Eastern Europe and placed Romania amongst the EU countries with emergent economies and potential of economic growth. The European Commission’s reports regarding the macroeconomic imbalance procedure draw attention on the same indicators presented in the article to address proper recommendations and support corrective measures. Making a step from nominal to real convergence, the latter derives naturally from the need to recoup the gaps in comparison with developed economies amongst countries of the Euro Area.
Particle Acceleration in Two Converging Shocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Xin; Wang, Na; Shan, Hao [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Giacalone, Joe [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Yan, Yihua [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing 100012 (China); Ding, Mingde, E-mail: wangxin@xao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics (Nanjing University) Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2017-06-20
Observations by spacecraft such as ACE , STEREO , and others show that there are proton spectral “breaks” with energy E {sub br} at 1–10 MeV in some large CME-driven shocks. Generally, a single shock with the diffusive acceleration mechanism would not predict the “broken” energy spectrum. The present paper focuses on two converging shocks to identify this energy spectral feature. In this case, the converging shocks comprise one forward CME-driven shock on 2006 December 13 and another backward Earth bow shock. We simulate the detailed particle acceleration processes in the region of the converging shocks using the Monte Carlo method. As a result, we not only obtain an extended energy spectrum with an energy “tail” up to a few 10 MeV higher than that in previous single shock model, but also we find an energy spectral “break” occurring on ∼5.5 MeV. The predicted energy spectral shape is consistent with observations from multiple spacecraft. The spectral “break,” then, in this case is caused by the interaction between the CME shock and Earth’s bow shock, and otherwise would not be present if Earth were not in the path of the CME.
The Mackey convergence condition for spaces with webs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas E. Gilsdorf
1988-01-01
Full Text Available If each sequence converging to 0 in a locally convex space is also Mackey convergent to 0, that space is said to satisfy the Mackey convergence condition. The problem of characterizing those locally convex spaces with this property is still open. In this paper, spaces with compatible webs are used to construct both a necessary and a sufficient condition for a locally convex space to satisfy the Mackey convergence condition.
Numerical Simulation of Polynomial-Speed Convergence Phenomenon
Li, Yao; Xu, Hui
2017-11-01
We provide a hybrid method that captures the polynomial speed of convergence and polynomial speed of mixing for Markov processes. The hybrid method that we introduce is based on the coupling technique and renewal theory. We propose to replace some estimates in classical results about the ergodicity of Markov processes by numerical simulations when the corresponding analytical proof is difficult. After that, all remaining conclusions can be derived from rigorous analysis. Then we apply our results to seek numerical justification for the ergodicity of two 1D microscopic heat conduction models. The mixing rate of these two models are expected to be polynomial but very difficult to prove. In both examples, our numerical results match the expected polynomial mixing rate well.
Complete convergence for weighted sums of arrays of random elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Lee Taylor
1983-01-01
Full Text Available Let {Xnk:k,n=1,2,…} be an array of row-wise independent random elements in a separable Banach space. Let {ank:k,n=1,2,…} be an array of real numbers such that ∑k=1∞|ank|≤1 and ∑n=1∞exp(−α/An<∞ for each α ϵ R+ where An=∑k=1∞ank2. The complete convergence of ∑k=1∞ankXnk is obtained under varying moment and distribution conditions on the random elements. In particular, laws of large numbers follow for triangular arrays of random elements, and consistency of the kernel density estimates is obtained from these results.
Convergence and attractivity of memristor-based cellular neural networks with time delays.
Qin, Sitian; Wang, Jun; Xue, Xiaoping
2015-03-01
This paper presents theoretical results on the convergence and attractivity of memristor-based cellular neural networks (MCNNs) with time delays. Based on a realistic memristor model, an MCNN is modeled using a differential inclusion. The essential boundedness of its global solutions is proven. The state of MCNNs is further proven to be convergent to a critical-point set located in saturated region of the activation function, when the initial state locates in a saturated region. It is shown that the state convergence time period is finite and can be quantitatively estimated using given parameters. Furthermore, the positive invariance and attractivity of state in non-saturated regions are also proven. The simulation results of several numerical examples are provided to substantiate the results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The convergence of lattice solutions of linearised Regge calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrett, J.W.; Williams, R.M.
1988-01-01
Sequences of configurations of linearised Regge calculus converging to plane wave solutions are constructed to illustrate an earlier result on convergence. It is shown that, for these examples, the convergence criterion filters out the solutions which do not satisfy Einstein's equations from those which do. (author)
Rates of convergence of Brezier net over triangles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Yuyu.
1986-12-01
It is well known (Farin, 1979) that the sequence of Bezier nets f-circumflex n (x) associated with Bernstein-Bezier surface over a triangle converges to the surface uniformly as n goes to infinity. In this paper the precise rates of convergence are given. The pointwise convergence result and saturation theorem are presented. (author). 7 refs
Convergent and Divergent Thinking in the Context of Narrative Mysteries
Wenzel, William G.; Gerrig, Richard J.
2015-01-01
This project demonstrates how narrative mysteries provide a context in which readers engage in creative cognition. Drawing on the concepts of convergent and divergent thinking, we wrote stories that had either convergent or divergent outcomes. For example, one story had a character give his girlfriend a ring (a convergent outcome), whereas the…
Modelling Convergence of Finite Element Analysis of Cantilever Beam
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Convergence studies are carried out by investigating the convergence of numerical results as the number of elements is increased. If convergence is not obtained, the engineer using the finite element method has absolutely no indication whether the results are indicative of a meaningful approximation to the correct solution ...
An Ensemble Approach in Converging Contents of LMS and KMS
Sabitha, A. Sai; Mehrotra, Deepti; Bansal, Abhay
2017-01-01
Currently the challenges in e-Learning are converging the learning content from various sources and managing them within e-learning practices. Data mining learning algorithms can be used and the contents can be converged based on the Metadata of the objects. Ensemble methods use multiple learning algorithms and it can be used to converge the…
Equation of motion for estimation fidelity of monitored oscillating qubits
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Bassa, H
2017-08-01
Full Text Available We study the convergence properties of state estimates of an oscillating qubit being monitored by a sequence of discrete, unsharp measurements. Our method derives a differential equation determining the evolution of the estimation fidelity from a...
Convergence analysis of household expenditures using the absolute β-convergence method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anto Domazet
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the convergence of household expenditures, in terms of a possible usage of the standardized, rather than consumer-tailored marketing, mainly on a regional level. Objectives: The main goal of this research is to study the existence of consumption expenditure convergence in the EU-27 countries, in the period between 2000 and 2007. Methods/Approach: The analysis used the absolute β-convergence method, in order to investigate the existence of a negative correlation between the growth over time in the overall consumption expenditure in EU member- countries for each individual product and service category and the initial expenditure level. Results: According to the obtained results, in the period between 2000 and 2007, the EU-27 countries reached a high level of consumer expenditure convergence, which provides a basis for developing a regional concept of the standardized international marketing for these countries’ markets. Conclusions: The results provide an empirical contribution to claims on consumer convergence in the countries included into economic integrations. Also, the obtained results can be used to create a basis for defining and applying the regional marketing concept for companies focusing on the EU-27 countries’ market.
Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ronteltap, Amber; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Tobi, Hilde
2011-01-01
Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate societal response. This paper systematically reviews the current state of convergence in societal response research by first sketching the predominant approaches to previous new technologies, followed by an analysis of current research into societal response to nanotechnology. A set of 107 papers on previous new technologies shows that rational actor models have played an important role in the study of societal response to technology, in particular in the field of information technology and the geographic region of Asia. Biotechnology and nuclear power have, in contrast, more often been investigated through risk perception and other affective determinants, particularly in Europe and the USA. A set of 42 papers on societal response to nanotechnology shows similarities to research in biotechnology, as it also builds on affective variables such as risk perception. Although there is a tendency to extend the rational models with affective variables, convergence in social science approaches to response to new technologies still has a long way to go. The challenge for researchers of societal response to technologies is to converge to some shared principles by taking up the best parts from the rational actor models dominant in information technology, whilst integrating non-rational constructs from biotechnology research. The introduction of nanotechnology gives a unique opportunity to do so.
Lyu, Haomin; He, Ziwen; Wu, Chung-I; Shi, Suhua
2018-01-01
Several clades of mangrove trees independently invade the interface between land and sea at the margin of woody plant distribution. As phenotypic convergence among mangroves is common, the possibility of convergent adaptation in their genomes is quite intriguing. To study this molecular convergence, we sequenced multiple mangrove genomes. In this study, we focused on the evolution of transposable elements (TEs) in relation to the genome size evolution. TEs, generally considered genomic parasites, are the most common components of woody plant genomes. Analyzing the long terminal repeat-retrotransposon (LTR-RT) type of TE, we estimated their death rates by counting solo-LTRs and truncated elements. We found that all lineages of mangroves massively and convergently reduce TE loads in comparison to their nonmangrove relatives; as a consequence, genome size reduction happens independently in all six mangrove lineages; TE load reduction in mangroves can be attributed to the paucity of young elements; the rarity of young LTR-RTs is a consequence of fewer births rather than access death. In conclusion, mangrove genomes employ a convergent strategy of TE load reduction by suppressing element origination in their independent adaptation to a new environment. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.
Kolbe, Jason J; Revell, Liam J; Szekely, Brian; Brodie, Edmund D; Losos, Jonathan B
2011-12-01
The adaptive landscape and the G-matrix are keys concepts for understanding how quantitative characters evolve during adaptive radiation. In particular, whether the adaptive landscape can drive convergence of phenotypic integration (i.e., the pattern of phenotypic variation and covariation summarized in the P-matrix) is not well studied. We estimated and compared P for 19 morphological traits in eight species of Caribbean Anolis lizards, finding that similarity in P among species was not correlated with phylogenetic distance. However, greater similarity in P among ecologically similar Anolis species (i.e., the trunk-ground ecomorph) suggests the role of convergent natural selection. Despite this convergence and relatively deep phylogenetic divergence, a large portion of eigenstructure of P is retained among our eight focal species. We also analyzed P as an approximation of G to test for correspondence with the pattern of phenotypic divergence in 21 Caribbean Anolis species. These patterns of covariation were coincident, suggesting that either genetic constraint has influenced the pattern of among-species divergence or, alternatively, that the adaptive landscape has influenced both G and the pattern of phenotypic divergence among species. We provide evidence for convergent evolution of phenotypic integration for one class of Anolis ecomorph, revealing yet another important dimension of evolutionary convergence in this group. No Claim to original U.S. government works.
van der Boon, A.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Rezaeian, M.; Gürer, D.; Honarmand, M.; Pastor-Galán, D.; Krijgsman, W.; Langereis, C. G.
2018-01-01
Since the late Eocene, convergence and subsequent collision between Arabia and Eurasia was accommodated both in the overriding Eurasian plate forming the Greater Caucasus orogen and the Iranian plateau, and by subduction and accretion of the Neotethys and Arabian margin forming the East Anatolian plateau and the Zagros. To quantify how much Arabia-Eurasia convergence was accommodated in the Greater Caucasus region, we here provide new paleomagnetic results from 97 volcanic sites (∼500 samples) in the Talysh Mountains of NW Iran, that show ∼15° net clockwise rotation relative to Eurasia since the Eocene. We apply a first-order kinematic restoration of the northward convex orocline that formed to the south of the Greater Caucasus, integrating our new data with previously published constraints on rotations of the Eastern Pontides and Lesser Caucasus. This suggests that north of the Talysh ∼120 km of convergence must have been accommodated. North of the Eastern Pontides and Lesser Caucasus this is significantly more: 200-280 km. Our reconstruction independently confirms previous Caucasus convergence estimates. Moreover, we show for the first time a sharp contrast of convergence between the Lesser Caucasus and the Talysh. This implies that the ancient Paleozoic-Mesozoic transform plate boundary, preserved between the Iranian and East-Anatolian plateaus, was likely reactivated as a right-lateral transform fault since late Eocene time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camarero, Mariam; Picazo-Tadeo, Andres J.; Tamarit, Cecilio
2008-01-01
In this paper, we test for convergence in the environmental performance of a sample of OECD countries, with data ranging from 1971 to 2002. First, we use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to compute two environmental performance indicators (EPIs) in the production theory framework. Second, we propose the use of a sequential multivariate approach to test for convergence in environmental performance. These tests allow us to reconcile the time series literature with the cross-sectional dimension, which is basic when testing for convergence in regional blocs. The SURE technique is used, which allows for the existence of correlations across the series without imposing a common speed of mean reversion. The empirical results show that the group of countries as a whole, as well as the majority of countries considered on an individual basis (results for some countries vary between EPIs), are catching-up with Switzerland (the benchmark country). (author)
Bainbridge, William; Tonn, Bruce; Whitesides, George
2013-01-01
Convergence of knowledge and technology for the benefit of society (CKTS) is the core opportunity for progress in the 21st century, based on five principles: (1) the interdependence of all components of nature and society, (2) enhancement of creativity and innovation through evolutionary processes of convergence that combine existing principles, and divergence that generates new ones, (3) decision analysis for research and development based on system-logic deduction, (4) higher-level cross-domain languages to generate new solutions and support transfer of new knowledge, and (5) vision-inspired basic research embodied in grand challenges. Solutions are outlined for key societal challenges, including creating new industries and jobs, improving lifelong wellness and human potential, achieving personalized and integrated healthcare and education, and securing a sustainable quality of life for all. This report provides a ten-year “NBIC2” vision within a longer-term framework for converging technology and human...
A Globally Convergent Matrix-Free Method for Constrained Equations and Its Linear Convergence Rate
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Min Sun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A matrix-free method for constrained equations is proposed, which is a combination of the well-known PRP (Polak-Ribière-Polyak conjugate gradient method and the famous hyperplane projection method. The new method is not only derivative-free, but also completely matrix-free, and consequently, it can be applied to solve large-scale constrained equations. We obtain global convergence of the new method without any differentiability requirement on the constrained equations. Compared with the existing gradient methods for solving such problem, the new method possesses linear convergence rate under standard conditions, and a relax factor γ is attached in the update step to accelerate convergence. Preliminary numerical results show that it is promising in practice.
Convergence criteria for systems of nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, R.K.
1986-01-01
This thesis deals with convergence criteria for a special system of nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations. A fixed-point algorithm is used, which iteratively solves one linearized elliptic partial differential equation at a time. Conditions are established that help foresee the convergence of the algorithm. Under reasonable hypotheses it is proved that the algorithm converges for such nonlinear elliptic systems. Extensive experimental results are reported and they show the algorithm converges in a wide variety of cases and the convergence is well correlated with the theoretical conditions introduced in this thesis
Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α
Altınok, Hıfsı; Et, Mikail; Işık, Mahmut
2018-01-01
The purpose of this work is to introduce the concepts of Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α and lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-convergence of order α. We establish some connections between lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-convergence of order α and Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α. It is shown that if a sequence is lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-summable of order α then it is Δim-lacunary statistically convergent of order α.
Convergence in energy consumption per capita among ASEAN countries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishra, Vinod; Smyth, Russell
2014-01-01
We test for convergence in energy consumption per capita among ASEAN countries over the period 1971 to 2011 using the panel KPSS stationarity test and panel Lagrange multiplier (LM) unit root test. The results for the panel stationarity and unit root tests with structural breaks find support for energy convergence in ASEAN. - Highlights: • We test for convergence in energy consumption per capita among the ASEAN nations. • Univariate conventional unit root tests provide mixed evidence of convergence. • Panel unit root tests with structural breaks support convergence hypothesis
Convergence theorems for Banach space valued integrable multifunctions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou
1987-01-01
Full Text Available In this work we generalize a result of Kato on the pointwise behavior of a weakly convergent sequence in the Lebesgue-Bochner spaces LXP(Ω (1≤p≤∞. Then we use that result to prove Fatou's type lemmata and dominated convergence theorems for the Aumann integral of Banach space valued measurable multifunctions. Analogous convergence results are also proved for the sets of integrable selectors of those multifunctions. In the process of proving those convergence theorems we make some useful observations concerning the Kuratowski-Mosco convergence of sets.
Weak convergence and uniform normalization in infinitary rewriting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Jakob Grue
2010-01-01
the starkly surprising result that for any orthogonal system with finitely many rules, the system is weakly normalizing under weak convergence if{f} it is strongly normalizing under weak convergence if{f} it is weakly normalizing under strong convergence if{f} it is strongly normalizing under strong...... convergence. As further corollaries, we derive a number of new results for weakly convergent rewriting: Systems with finitely many rules enjoy unique normal forms, and acyclic orthogonal systems are confluent. Our results suggest that it may be possible to recover some of the positive results for strongly...
The convergent LEP and SPS control systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altaber, J.
1987-01-01
The major design contraint of the control system for LEP is the compatibility with the existing SPS control system. The first reason for this compatibility is to allow a long term convergence of the SPS control system towards the LEP one. The second reason is to operate both LEP and SPS machines from a unique main control room. The distributed architecture of LEP and the existing SPS control systems are described. The design of the equipment interface for both machines is explained. Finally, the infrastructure of the common main control room for LEP and SPS is described
Towards a convergence of world gas markets?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Legros, E.
2002-01-01
This 7. summit of the world natural gas industry leaders was jointly organized by Petrostrategies, IFP-ENSPM (French institute of petroleum and national upper school of petroleum and engines), and SPTEC consulting. Three themes were debated: the natural gas market in Europe at the eve of the second directive (while the first directive has not been fully enforced), the world development of LNG market, the gas-electric power convergence and the effects of a growing up interdependence between both energy sources. (J.S.)
Convergence as Organization: Blockupy against the ECB
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harrison, Yannick Nehemiah Antonio; Risager, Bjarke Skærlund
2016-01-01
of organization: the Blockupy coalition, the participating formal and informal organizations, and the activist subject. This narrative explicates the mode of organization as a “convergence space” (cf. Routledge, 2003), with different “roots” and “routes” of organization (cf. Davies, 2012). Originality....../value – Thus, through an analysis of the modes of organization constituting this mass protest event, this paper restates the relevance of the concept of organization, which have recently been ignored or understated in favour of master-narratives of networks or the dichotomy of horizontalism and verticality...
The converged Sn algorithm for nuclear criticality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganapol, B. D.; Hadad, K.
2009-01-01
A new discrete ordinates algorithm to determine the multiplication factor of a 1D nuclear reactor, based on Bengt Carlson's S n method, is presented. The algorithm applies the Romberg and Wynn-epsilon accelerators to accelerate a 1D, one-group S n solution to its asymptotic limit. We demonstrate the feasibility of the Converged Sn (CSn) solution on several one-group criticality benchmark compilations. The new formulation is especially convenient since it enables highly accurate critical fluxes and eigenvalues using the most fundamental transport algorithm. (authors)
Blind image deconvolution methods and convergence
Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Rameshan, Renu
2014-01-01
Blind deconvolution is a classical image processing problem which has been investigated by a large number of researchers over the last four decades. The purpose of this monograph is not to propose yet another method for blind image restoration. Rather the basic issue of deconvolvability has been explored from a theoretical view point. Some authors claim very good results while quite a few claim that blind restoration does not work. The authors clearly detail when such methods are expected to work and when they will not. In order to avoid the assumptions needed for convergence analysis in the
Multimedia reviews: multimedia convergence for clinicians.
Taintor, Zebulon
2003-12-01
Introduction by the column editor: In this final column of the year, Dr. Taintor provides an overview of exciting technological developments via his report on the 2003 annual meeting of the American Association for Technology in Psychiatry (AATP). Advances-and convergences-in technology are providing clinicians with increasingly useful tools to enhance the effectiveness of their treatments, increase access to care, reduce errors, and save time. As Dr. Taintor notes, AATP's meeting is traditionally held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association (APA). I hope that his report will encourage APA's members to attend some of next year's informative sessions.
Can evolutionary convergence be tested on Europa?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chela-Flores, Julian [Instituto de Estudios Avanzados, Caracas (Venezuela); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: chelaf@ictp.trieste.it
2002-09-01
A major objective in solar system exploration has to be the insertion of appropriate biology-oriented experiments in future missions. We discuss various reasons for suggesting that this type of research be considered a high priority for feasibility studies and, subsequently, for technological development of appropriate melters and submersibles. With the assumption that Darwin's theory is valid for the evolution of life anywhere in the universe, various degrees of convergent phenomena argue in favor of the conjecture that universal evolution of intelligent behavior is just a matter of time and preservation of steady planetary conditions. A preliminary test of this conjecture is feasible with experiments involving evolutionary biosignatures on Europa. (author)
Exponentially Convergent Algorithms for Abstract Differential Equations
Gavrilyuk, Ivan; Vasylyk, Vitalii
2011-01-01
This book presents new accurate and efficient exponentially convergent methods for abstract differential equations with unbounded operator coefficients in Banach space. These methods are highly relevant for the practical scientific computing since the equations under consideration can be seen as the meta-models of systems of ordinary differential equations (ODE) as well as the partial differential equations (PDEs) describing various applied problems. The framework of functional analysis allows one to obtain very general but at the same time transparent algorithms and mathematical results which
Is the 2MASS dipole convergent?
Chodorowski, Michał; Bilicki, Maciej; Mamon, Gary A.; Jarrett, Thomas
2010-01-01
We study the growth of the clustering dipole of galaxies from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). We find that the dipole does not converge before the completeness limit of the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog, i.e. up to about 300 Mpc/h. We compare the observed growth of the dipole with the theoretically expected, conditional growth for the LambdaCDM power spectrum and cosmological parameters constrained by WMAP. The observed growth turns out to be within 1-sigma confidence level of the theo...
Reble, a radially converging electron beam accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramirez, J.J.; Prestwich, K.R.
1976-01-01
The Reble accelerator at Sandia Laboratories is described. This accelerator was developed to provide an experimental source for studying the relevant diode physics, beam propagation, beam energy deposition in a gas using a radially converging e-beam. The nominal parameters for Reble are 1 MV, 200 kA, 20 ns e-beam pulse. The anode and cathode are concentric cylinders with the anode as the inner cylinder. The radial beam can be propagated through the thin foil anode into the laser gas volume. The design and performance of the various components of the accelerator are presented
Cubature on Wiener Space: Pathwise Convergence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayer, Christian; Friz, Peter K.
2013-01-01
Cubature on Wiener space (Lyons and Victoir in Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 460(2041):169–198, 2004) provides a powerful alternative to Monte Carlo simulation for the integration of certain functionals on Wiener space. More specifically, and in the language of mathematical finance, cubature allows for fast computation of European option prices in generic diffusion models.We give a random walk interpretation of cubature and similar (e.g. the Ninomiya–Victoir) weak approximation schemes. By using rough path analysis, we are able to establish weak convergence for general path-dependent option prices.
Morphological convergence in ‘river dolphin’ skulls
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Charlotte E. Page
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Convergent evolution can provide insights into the predictability of, and constraints on, the evolution of biodiversity. One striking example of convergence is seen in the ‘river dolphins’. The four dolphin genera that make up the ‘river dolphins’ (Inia geoffrensis, Pontoporia blainvillei, Platanista gangetica and Lipotes vexillifer do not represent a single monophyletic group, despite being very similar in morphology. This has led many to using the ‘river dolphins’ as an example of convergent evolution. We investigate whether the skulls of the four ‘river dolphin’ genera are convergent when compared to other toothed dolphin taxa in addition to identifying convergent cranial and mandibular features. We use geometric morphometrics to uncover shape variation in the skulls of the ‘river dolphins’ and then apply a number of phylogenetic techniques to test for convergence. We find significant convergence in the skull morphology of the ‘river dolphins’. The four genera seem to have evolved similar skull shapes, leading to a convergent morphotype characterised by elongation of skull features. The cause of this morphological convergence remains unclear. However, the features we uncover as convergent, in particular elongation of the rostrum, support hypotheses of shared feeding mode or diet and thus provide the foundation for future work into convergence within the Odontoceti.
OpenMC In Situ Source Convergence Detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aldrich, Garrett Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Dutta, Soumya [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Woodring, Jonathan Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-05-07
We designed and implemented an in situ version of particle source convergence for the OpenMC particle transport simulator. OpenMC is a Monte Carlo based-particle simulator for neutron criticality calculations. For the transport simulation to be accurate, source particles must converge on a spatial distribution. Typically, convergence is obtained by iterating the simulation by a user-settable, fixed number of steps, and it is assumed that convergence is achieved. We instead implement a method to detect convergence, using the stochastic oscillator for identifying convergence of source particles based on their accumulated Shannon Entropy. Using our in situ convergence detection, we are able to detect and begin tallying results for the full simulation once the proper source distribution has been confirmed. Our method ensures that the simulation is not started too early, by a user setting too optimistic parameters, or too late, by setting too conservative a parameter.
Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals
Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A.
2015-01-01
Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare.
Converging social classes through humanized urban edges
Abuan, M. V.; Galingan, Z. D.
2017-10-01
Urban open spaces are created to be used by people. It is a place of convergence and social activity. However, these places have transformed into places of divergence. When spaces become dehumanized, it separates social classes. As a result, underused spaces contribute to urban decay. Particularly an urban edge, the JP Rizal Makati Waterfront Area is the center of this paper. The JP Rizal Makati Waterfront Area is a waterfront development situated along the banks of one of Metro Manila’s major water thoroughfare --- Pasig River. The park and its physical form, urban design and landscape tend to deteriorate over time --- creating a further division of social convergence. Social hostility, crime, negligent maintenance and poor urban design are contributing factors to this sprawling decay in what used to be spaces of bringing people together. Amidst attempts to beautify and renew this portion of Makati City’s edge, the urban area still remains misspent.This paper attempts to re-humanize the waterfront development. It uses the responsive environment design principles to be able to achieve this goal.
CONVERGENCE IN THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL POLICY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariana Iovitu
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The European Union has developed a series of strategies that aim to limit the consequences of non-employment (due to the continuing crisis. These strategies aim by the objectives and mechanisms specific to the eco-social area, to improve the access to employment, social services, professional education and a more efficient European fund management. All this are subordinated to the coupling policy public-private in terms of partnerships both at a national level and European level. The problem is related to differences manifested between the social objectives at the national level and those imposed by the European context. The differences come from different degrees of economic development of the member states, economic development which is reflected on the living standards. The convergence between the social policies is based on the economic convergence, which represents the only way to ameliorate the discrepancies between the united nations of Europe. Social Europe dream or certainty? The answer can be found in the words of Jean Monnet: â€œwe are not bringing together states, we are uniting peopleâ€. The efforts to define the four types of actions regarding the free movement of labor force and the correlation of the social security schemes, ensuring equal opportunities, respecting labor rights and the fight against discrimination can be found in the results obtained on these priorities.
Convergences in the diversification of bats
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Brock FENTON
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Twenty-five characters or suites of characters from bats are considered in light of changes in bat classification. The characters include some associated with flower-visiting (two, echolocation (12, roosting (six, reproduction (two and three are of unknown adaptive function. In both the 1998 and 2006 classifications of bats into suborders (Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera versus Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, respectively, some convergences between suborders are the same (e.g., foliage roosting, tent building, but others associated with echolocation differ substantially. In the 1998 phylogeny convergences associated with echolocation (high duty cycle echolocation, nasal emission of echolocation calls occurred among the Microchiroptera. In the 2006 phylogeny, they occur between Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera. While some traits apparently arose independently in two suborders (e.g., foliage-roosting, tent building, low intensity echolocation calls, noseleafs, nasal emission of echolocation calls, high duty cycle echolocation behaviour, others appear to have been ancestral (roosting in narrow spaces, laryngeal echolocation, stylohyal-tympanic contact, oral emission of echolocation calls, and small litter size. A narrow profile through the chest is typical of bats reflecting the thoracic skeleton. This feature suggests that the ancestors of bats spent the day in small crevices. Features associated with laryngeal echolocation appear to be ancestral, suggesting that echolocation evolved early in bats but was subsequently lost in one yinpterochiropteran lineage [Current Zoology 56 (4: 454–468, 2010].
Regional Convergence of Income: Spatial Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vera Ivanovna Ivanova
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Russia has a huge territory and a strong interregional heterogeneity, so we can assume that geographical factors have a significant impact on the pace of economic growth in Russian regions. Therefore the article is focused on the following issues: 1 correlation between comparative advantages of geographical location and differences in growth rates; 2 impact of more developed regions on their neighbors and 3 correlation between economic growth of regions and their spatial interaction. The article is devoted to the empirical analysis of regional per capita incomes from 1996 to 2012 and explores the dynamics of the spatial autocorrelation of regional development indicator. It is shown that there is a problem of measuring the intensity of spatial dependence: factor value of Moran’s index varies greatly depending on the choice of the matrix of distances. In addition, with the help of spatial econometrics the author tests the following hypotheses: 1 there is convergence between regions for a specified period; 2 the process of beta convergence is explained by the spatial arrangement of regions and 3 there is positive impact of market size on regional growth. The author empirically confirmed all three hypotheses
The convergence theory for vitiligo: A reappraisal.
Kundu, Roopal V; Mhlaba, Julia M; Rangel, Stephanie M; Le Poole, I Caroline
2018-04-28
Vitiligo is characterized by progressive loss of skin pigmentation. The search for etiologic factors has led to the biochemical, the neurologic and the autoimmune theory. The convergence theory was then proposed several years ago to incorporate existing theories of vitiligo development into a single overview of vitiligo etiology. The viewpoint that vitiligo is not caused only by predisposing mutations, or only by melanocytes responding to chemical/radiation exposure, or only by hyperreactive T cells, but rather results from a combination of etiologic factors that impact melanocyte viability, has certainly stood the test of time. New findings have since informed the description of progressive depigmentation. Understanding the relative importance of such etiologic factors combined with a careful selection of the most targetable pathways will continue to drive the next phase in vitiligo research: the development of effective therapeutics. In that arena it is likewise important to acknowledge that pathways affected in some patients may not be altered in others. Taken together, the convergence theory continues to provide a comprehensive viewpoint of vitiligo etiology. The theory serves to intertwine etiologic pathways and will help to define pathways amenable to disease intervention in individual patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Symbolic convergence and the hydrogen economy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Brossmann, Brent
2010-01-01
This article documents that the hydrogen economy continues to attract significant attention among politicians, the media, and some academics. We believe that an explanation lies in the way that the hydrogen economy fulfills psychological and cultural needs related to a future world where energy is abundant, cheap, and pollution-free, a 'fantasy' that manifests itself with the idea that society can continue to operate without limits imposed by population growth and the destruction of the environment. The article begins by explaining its research methodology consisting of two literature reviews, research interviews of energy experts, and the application of symbolic convergence theory, a general communications theory about the construction of rhetorical fantasies. We then identify a host of socio-technical challenges to explain why the creation of a hydrogen economy would present immense (and possibly intractable) obstacles, an argument supplemented by our research interviews. Next, we employ symbolic convergence theory to identify five prevalent fantasy themes and rhetorical visions-independence, patriotism, progress, democratization, and inevitability-in academic and public discussions in favor of the hydrogen economy. We conclude by offering implications for scholarship relating to energy policy more broadly.
Convergence almost everywhere of multidimensional vectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Berdan, Kassem; Zeineddine, Hassan
2000-01-01
Let X be a reflexive Banach space, Ω a measure space, T 1 ,...,T d be linear not commuting operators on L 1 (Ω,X)=L 1 (X) which are strictly contracting in L 1 (X) (i.e. there exist αjbelong to ]0,1[ such that ||T j f||≤αj||f|| for all j=1....,d and f belong to L 1 (X), and contracting in L ∞ (X). We prove a maximal equality for the averages: A n (T 1 ,...,T d )f= n d /1 i1=0 Σ n-1 ... id=0 Σ n-1 T 1 i1 ...T d id f and the convergence almost everywhere of it for all f in L 1 (X). This result generalizes Chacon's theorem (Chacon 19620 to the multidimensional case for this operators class. Finally, we give two operators which are strictly contracting in L 1 (X) and contracting in L ∞ (X) such that the convergence of the averages is not trivial. (author)
Impact of selected troposphere models on Precise Point Positioning convergence
Kalita, Jakub; Rzepecka, Zofia
2016-04-01
The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) absolute method is currently intensively investigated in order to reach fast convergence time. Among various sources that influence the convergence of the PPP, the tropospheric delay is one of the most important. Numerous models of tropospheric delay are developed and applied to PPP processing. However, with rare exceptions, the quality of those models does not allow fixing the zenith path delay tropospheric parameter, leaving difference between nominal and final value to the estimation process. Here we present comparison of several PPP result sets, each of which based on different troposphere model. The respective nominal values are adopted from models: VMF1, GPT2w, MOPS and ZERO-WET. The PPP solution admitted as reference is based on the final troposphere product from the International GNSS Service (IGS). The VMF1 mapping function was used for all processing variants in order to provide capability to compare impact of applied nominal values. The worst case initiates zenith wet delay with zero value (ZERO-WET). Impact from all possible models for tropospheric nominal values should fit inside both IGS and ZERO-WET border variants. The analysis is based on data from seven IGS stations located in mid-latitude European region from year 2014. For the purpose of this study several days with the most active troposphere were selected for each of the station. All the PPP solutions were determined using gLAB open-source software, with the Kalman filter implemented independently by the authors of this work. The processing was performed on 1 hour slices of observation data. In addition to the analysis of the output processing files, the presented study contains detailed analysis of the tropospheric conditions for the selected data. The overall results show that for the height component the VMF1 model outperforms GPT2w and MOPS by 35-40% and ZERO-WET variant by 150%. In most of the cases all solutions converge to the same values during first
Prevalence of Convergence Insufficiency-Type Symptomatology in Parkinson's Disease.
Law, Caroline; Chriqui, Estefania; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Leclerc, Bernard-Simon; Panisset, Michel; Irving, Elizabeth L; Postuma, Ronald B; Chouinard, Sylvain; Kergoat, Hélène
2017-09-01
Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) often present with visual symptoms (e.g., difficulty in reading, double vision) that can also be found in convergence insufficiency (CI). Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of CI-type visual symptomatology in individuals with PD, in comparison with controls. Participants ≥50 years with (n=300) and without (n=300) PD were recruited. They were administered the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS-15) over the phone. A score of ≥21 on the CISS-15, considered positive for CI-type symptomatology, served as the cutoff. Data from individuals (n=87 with, n=94 without PD) who were approached but who reported having a known oculovisual condition were analysed separately. Student's t test and chi-square at the 0.05 level were employed for statistical significance. A total of 29.3% of participants with versus 7.3% without PD presented with a score of ≥21 on the CISS-15 (p=0.001). Of the participants having a known oculovisual condition, 39.1% with versus 19.1% without PD presented with a score of ≥21 on the CISS-15 (p=0.01). The prevalence of CI-type visual symptoms is higher in individuals with versus without PD whether or not they have a coexisting oculovisual condition. These results suggest that PD per se places individuals with the disease at greater risk of visual symptomatology. These results further underline the importance of providing regular eye exams for individuals with PD.
Electricity and gas : market and price convergence : fundamentals of restructuring and convergence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heintz, H.; Spragins, R.
2000-07-01
One of the results of the transition from regulation to competition in the Canadian and American natural gas and electricity industries is convergence of the two industries. Convergence is occurring in the areas of corporate structuring activities (mergers and acquisitions), natural gas and electricity prices, products and services, and on a geographic basis. This study examines the restructuring and convergence from the perspective of industry stakeholders, consumers, competitors and regulators. The trend to deregulate to establish competitive markets has been driven by the assumption that lower prices and more choices will result. Deregulation has been made easier by technological developments and innovations in the area of conventional generation, distributed generation, information management and analysis, as well as mass communication channels such as the Internet. These changes have made it possible to measure and monitor energy use in real-time. Technological changes will continue to influence the energy industry. The use of different restructuring rules and regulations in jurisdictions that are implementing change may be one of the primary factors that could limit the extent of convergence. Successful competition by energy service providers in converged retail energy markets will depend on several factors, the first of which is the ability to control the customer interface through retail cycle services such as metering and billing. The second is the successful branding of corporate identities, products and services. These will ensure customer loyalty and facilitate the marketing of new products. Another factor would be the effective management of information regarding natural gas and electricity consumption patterns and the establishment of low cost operations through the use of conventional generation technologies. The final factor for successful competition is the effective use of low cost communication technologies such as the Internet. The transition
Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Bobier, William R
2014-07-01
Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a developmental visual anomaly defined clinically by a reduced near point of convergence, a reduced capacity to view through base-out prisms (fusional convergence); coupled with asthenopic symptoms typically blur and diplopia. Experimental studies show reduced vergence parameters and tonic adaptation. Based upon current models of accommodation and vergence, we hypothesize that the reduced vergence adaptation in CI leads to excessive amounts of convergence accommodation (CA). Eleven CI participants (mean age=17.4±2.3 years) were recruited with reduced capacity to view through increasing magnitudes of base out (BO) prisms (mean fusional convergence at 40 cm=12±0.9Δ). Testing followed our previous experimental design for (n=11) binocularly normal adults. Binocular fixation of a difference of Gaussian (DoG) target (0.2 cpd) elicited CA responses during vergence adaptation to a 12Δ BO. Vergence and CA responses were obtained at 3 min intervals over a 15 min period and time course were quantified using exponential decay functions. Results were compared to previously published data on eleven binocular normals. Eight participants completed the study. CI's showed significantly reduced magnitude of vergence adaptation (CI: 2.9Δ vs. normals: 6.6Δ; p=0.01) and CA reduction (CI=0.21 D, Normals=0.55 D; p=0.03). However, the decay time constants for adaptation and CA responses were not significantly different. CA changes were not confounded by changes in tonic accommodation (Change in TA=0.01±0.2D; p=0.8). The reduced magnitude of vergence adaptation found in CI patients resulting in higher levels of CA may potentially explain their clinical findings of reduced positive fusional vergence (PFV) and the common symptom of blur. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Electricity and gas : market and price convergence : fundamentals of restructuring and convergence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heintz, H.; Spragins, R.
2000-01-01
One of the results of the transition from regulation to competition in the Canadian and American natural gas and electricity industries is convergence of the two industries. Convergence is occurring in the areas of corporate structuring activities (mergers and acquisitions), natural gas and electricity prices, products and services, and on a geographic basis. This study examines the restructuring and convergence from the perspective of industry stakeholders, consumers, competitors and regulators. The trend to deregulate to establish competitive markets has been driven by the assumption that lower prices and more choices will result. Deregulation has been made easier by technological developments and innovations in the area of conventional generation, distributed generation, information management and analysis, as well as mass communication channels such as the Internet. These changes have made it possible to measure and monitor energy use in real-time. Technological changes will continue to influence the energy industry. The use of different restructuring rules and regulations in jurisdictions that are implementing change may be one of the primary factors that could limit the extent of convergence. Successful competition by energy service providers in converged retail energy markets will depend on several factors, the first of which is the ability to control the customer interface through retail cycle services such as metering and billing. The second is the successful branding of corporate identities, products and services. These will ensure customer loyalty and facilitate the marketing of new products. Another factor would be the effective management of information regarding natural gas and electricity consumption patterns and the establishment of low cost operations through the use of conventional generation technologies. The final factor for successful competition is the effective use of low cost communication technologies such as the Internet. The transition
On Convergence of Extended Dynamic Mode Decomposition to the Koopman Operator
Korda, Milan; Mezić, Igor
2018-04-01
Extended dynamic mode decomposition (EDMD) (Williams et al. in J Nonlinear Sci 25(6):1307-1346, 2015) is an algorithm that approximates the action of the Koopman operator on an N-dimensional subspace of the space of observables by sampling at M points in the state space. Assuming that the samples are drawn either independently or ergodically from some measure μ , it was shown in Klus et al. (J Comput Dyn 3(1):51-79, 2016) that, in the limit as M→ ∞, the EDMD operator K_{N,M} converges to K_N, where K_N is the L_2(μ )-orthogonal projection of the action of the Koopman operator on the finite-dimensional subspace of observables. We show that, as N → ∞, the operator K_N converges in the strong operator topology to the Koopman operator. This in particular implies convergence of the predictions of future values of a given observable over any finite time horizon, a fact important for practical applications such as forecasting, estimation and control. In addition, we show that accumulation points of the spectra of K_N correspond to the eigenvalues of the Koopman operator with the associated eigenfunctions converging weakly to an eigenfunction of the Koopman operator, provided that the weak limit of the eigenfunctions is nonzero. As a by-product, we propose an analytic version of the EDMD algorithm which, under some assumptions, allows one to construct K_N directly, without the use of sampling. Finally, under additional assumptions, we analyze convergence of K_{N,N} (i.e., M=N), proving convergence, along a subsequence, to weak eigenfunctions (or eigendistributions) related to the eigenmeasures of the Perron-Frobenius operator. No assumptions on the observables belonging to a finite-dimensional invariant subspace of the Koopman operator are required throughout.
Panosetti, Davide; Schlemmer, Linda; Schär, Christoph
2018-05-01
Convection-resolving models (CRMs) can explicitly simulate deep convection and resolve interactions between convective updrafts. They are thus increasingly used in numerous weather and climate applications. However, the truncation of the continuous energy cascade at scales of O (1 km) poses a serious challenge, as in kilometer-scale simulations the size and properties of the simulated convective cells are often determined by the horizontal grid spacing (Δ x ).In this study, idealized simulations of deep moist convection over land are performed to assess the convergence behavior of a CRM at Δ x = 8, 4, 2, 1 km and 500 m. Two types of convergence estimates are investigated: bulk convergence addressing domain-averaged and integrated variables related to the water and energy budgets, and structural convergence addressing the statistics and scales of individual clouds and updrafts. Results show that bulk convergence generally begins at Δ x =4 km, while structural convergence is not yet fully achieved at the kilometer scale, despite some evidence that the resolution sensitivity of updraft velocities and convective mass fluxes decreases at finer resolution. In particular, at finer grid spacings the maximum updraft velocity generally increases, and the size of the smallest clouds is mostly determined by Δ x . A number of different experiments are conducted, and it is found that the presence of orography and environmental vertical wind shear yields more energetic structures at scales much larger than Δ x , sometimes reducing the resolution sensitivity. Overall the results lend support to the use of kilometer-scale resolutions in CRMs, despite the inability of these models to fully resolve the associated cloud field.
Generalized hybrid Monte Carlo - CMFD methods for fission source convergence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolters, Emily R.; Larsen, Edward W.; Martin, William R.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we generalize the recently published 'CMFD-Accelerated Monte Carlo' method and present two new methods that reduce the statistical error in CMFD-Accelerated Monte Carlo. The CMFD-Accelerated Monte Carlo method uses Monte Carlo to estimate nonlinear functionals used in low-order CMFD equations for the eigenfunction and eigenvalue. The Monte Carlo fission source is then modified to match the resulting CMFD fission source in a 'feedback' procedure. The two proposed methods differ from CMFD-Accelerated Monte Carlo in the definition of the required nonlinear functionals, but they have identical CMFD equations. The proposed methods are compared with CMFD-Accelerated Monte Carlo on a high dominance ratio test problem. All hybrid methods converge the Monte Carlo fission source almost immediately, leading to a large reduction in the number of inactive cycles required. The proposed methods stabilize the fission source more efficiently than CMFD-Accelerated Monte Carlo, leading to a reduction in the number of active cycles required. Finally, as in CMFD-Accelerated Monte Carlo, the apparent variance of the eigenfunction is approximately equal to the real variance, so the real error is well-estimated from a single calculation. This is an advantage over standard Monte Carlo, in which the real error can be underestimated due to inter-cycle correlation. (author)
Biomedical engineering frontier research and converging technologies
Jun, Ho-Wook; Shin, Jennifer; Lee, SangHoon
2016-01-01
This book provides readers with an integrative overview of the latest research and developments in the broad field of biomedical engineering. Each of the chapters offers a timely review written by leading biomedical engineers and aims at showing how the convergence of scientific and engineering fields with medicine has created a new basis for practically solving problems concerning human health, wellbeing and disease. While some of the latest frontiers of biomedicine, such as neuroscience and regenerative medicine, are becoming increasingly dependent on new ideas and tools from other disciplines, the paradigm shift caused by technological innovations in the fields of information science, nanotechnology, and robotics is opening new opportunities in healthcare, besides dramatically changing the ways we actually practice science. At the same time, a new generation of engineers, fluent in many different scientific “languages,” is creating entirely new fields of research that approach the “old” questions f...
TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE AND THE NEW JOURNALIST
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Renault
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Beginning in the 1990s, Brazilian means of communication have experienced a (still ongoing transformation process in the treadmill of technological advances, which have allowed for broad media convergence and for a single journalistic group to offer diverse products across various digital platforms. These transformations have impacted profoundly the routines of journalistic newsrooms and their professionals, from whom more and more agility is expected in order to meet the demands of the new era. This study seeks to demonstrate how the new reality affects the routines of newsrooms and journalists at the Brasilia offices of four of the most prominent newspaper groups in the country: O Estado de S. Paulo, Folha de S. Paulo, Valor Econômico and O Globo.
Converging intracranial markers of conscious access.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raphaël Gaillard
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We compared conscious and nonconscious processing of briefly flashed words using a visual masking procedure while recording intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG in ten patients. Nonconscious processing of masked words was observed in multiple cortical areas, mostly within an early time window (<300 ms, accompanied by induced gamma-band activity, but without coherent long-distance neural activity, suggesting a quickly dissipating feedforward wave. In contrast, conscious processing of unmasked words was characterized by the convergence of four distinct neurophysiological markers: sustained voltage changes, particularly in prefrontal cortex, large increases in spectral power in the gamma band, increases in long-distance phase synchrony in the beta range, and increases in long-range Granger causality. We argue that all of those measures provide distinct windows into the same distributed state of conscious processing. These results have a direct impact on current theoretical discussions concerning the neural correlates of conscious access.
Exploring Media Convergence: Evidence from Italy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Debora Bettiga
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The evolution of media and devices is enabling the ubiquitous and multi-device access to media and information, so that a media mutual contamination is in play. New forms of user interactions with media, in which different devices are used simultaneously in different contexts, have emerged. These new interactions are significantly impacting on users’ attitudes towards the media and their way of searching and generating content. Such a change, called “media convergence”, has a strong potential impact on marketing and communication processes, but as yet has not been deeply analysed in the literature. This paper presents the outcomes of several studies aimed at exploring media convergence on the demand-side to advance possible implications for marketers and managers.
Cylindrically converging blast waves in air
Matsuo, H.; Nakamura, Y.
1981-07-01
Cylindrically converging shock waves are produced by utilizing the detonation of cylindrical explosive shells. The production and the propagation of shock waves are observed by framing and streak camera photographs, and the trajectory of shock propagations is determined by using an electrical ionization probing system. The effect of the quantity of explosives on the stability, or the axial symmetry, of shock fronts and on the strength of shocks produced is investigated. It has been shown that, for practical purposes, the approximation of shock trajectories by Guderley's formulas would be sufficiently acceptable in an unexpectedly wide region near the implosion center, and that the axial symmetry of the shock front is improved by increasing the quantity of explosives, and thus, strong shocks are produced by merely increasing the quantity of explosives. The reflected diverging shock seems to be very stable. Piezoelectric elements have also been used to detect reflected diverging waves.
Bricolage and Parody in Convergence culture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier MORAL MARTÍN
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In Convergence culture, collaborative practices have been commonly understood as exercises located between the amateur and the professional. This characterization involves an implicit underestimation of amateurism because, in a single organization hierarchy, is considered as a preliminary step to the professional world and, therefore, a more imperfect activity. However, if we draw on the categories of bricolage analyzed by Levi Strauss, amateurism and professionalism are constituted as elements of a semantic axis. This shift in the analysis perspective has important consequences: on the one hand, it makes it possible to assess how many of these practices can alter the productive and textual dynamics of professional audiovisual practices and, on the other hand, it helps to better understand the textual specificity of collaborative practices, especially the great dialogical category of parody, an essential genre in the bottom-up dynamics which exist in our audiovisual universe.
Current neutralization of converging ion beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosher, D.
1978-01-01
It is desired to consider the problem of current neutralization of heavy ion beams traversing gas backgrounds in which the conductivity changes due to beam heating and beam convergence. The procedure is to determine Green's-function solutions to the magnetic-diffusion equation derived from Maxwell's equations and an assumed scaler-plasma conductivity sigma for the background-electron current density j/sub e/. The present calculation is more general than some previously carried out in that arbitrary time variations for the beam current j/sub b/ and conductivity are allowed and the calculation is valid for both weak and strong neutralization. Results presented here must be combined with an appropriate energy-balance equation for the heated background in order to obtain the neutralization self-consistently
Rapidly converging path integral formalism. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bender, I.; Gromes, D.; Marquard, U.
1990-01-01
The action to be used in the path integral formalism is expanded in a systematic way in powers of the time spacing ε in order to optimize the convergence to the continuum limit. This modifies and extends the usual formalism in a transparent way. The path integral approximation to the Green function obtained by this method approaches the continuum Green function with a higher power of ε than the usual one. The general theoretical derivations are exemplified analytically for the harmonic oscillator and by Monte Carlo methods for the anharmonic oscillator. We also show how curvilinear coordinates and curved spaces can naturally be treated within this formalism. Work on field theory is in progress. (orig.)
Divergence and Convergence in Education and Work
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
of institutions the central issue concerns the relation between learning environments. What is the coherence between school-based education and learning in the work-place, and how can they connect? Finally at the third level of the learners and their identities the focus is on the role of vocational educational......Are the educational systems in Europe becoming more similar or more different? This book deals with the issue ofdivergence and convergence in relation to systems, learning environments, and learners in vocational educational training (VET). 18 VET researchers from eight countries contribute...... training in the formation of biographies and identities.The book thus covers the central issues on the agenda in relation to future vocational education....
Cooperative target convergence using multiple agents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.
1997-01-01
This work considers the problem of causing multiple (100''s) autonomous mobile robots to converge to a target and provides a follow-the-leader approach to the problem. Each robot has only a limited-range sensor for sending the target and also larger but also limited-range robot-to-robot communication capability. Because of the small amount of information available to the robots, a practical approach to improve convergence to the target is to have a robot follow the robot with the best quality of information. Specifically, each robot emits a signal that informs in-range robots what its status is. A robot has a status value of 0 if it is itself in range of the target. A robot has a status of 1 if it is not in range of the target but is in communication range of a robot that is in range of the target. A robot has a status of 2 if it is not in range of the target but is within range of another robot that has status 1, and so on. Of all the mobile robots that any given robot is in range of, it follows the one with the best status. The emergent behavior is the ant-like trails of robots following each other toward the target. If the robot is not in range of another robot that is either in range of the target or following another robot, the robot will assign-1 to its quality-of-information, and will execute an exhaustive search. The exhaustive search will continue until it encounters either the target or another robot with a nonnegative quality-of-information. The quality of information approach was extended to the case where each robot only has two-bit signals informing it of distance to in-range robots
Cooperative target convergence using multiple agents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.
1997-10-01
This work considers the problem of causing multiple (100`s) autonomous mobile robots to converge to a target and provides a follow-the-leader approach to the problem. Each robot has only a limited-range sensor for sending the target and also larger but also limited-range robot-to-robot communication capability. Because of the small amount of information available to the robots, a practical approach to improve convergence to the target is to have a robot follow the robot with the best quality of information. Specifically, each robot emits a signal that informs in-range robots what its status is. A robot has a status value of 0 if it is itself in range of the target. A robot has a status of 1 if it is not in range of the target but is in communication range of a robot that is in range of the target. A robot has a status of 2 if it is not in range of the target but is within range of another robot that has status 1, and so on. Of all the mobile robots that any given robot is in range of, it follows the one with the best status. The emergent behavior is the ant-like trails of robots following each other toward the target. If the robot is not in range of another robot that is either in range of the target or following another robot, the robot will assign-1 to its quality-of-information, and will execute an exhaustive search. The exhaustive search will continue until it encounters either the target or another robot with a nonnegative quality-of-information. The quality of information approach was extended to the case where each robot only has two-bit signals informing it of distance to in-range robots.
Statistical convergence of double sequences in intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mursaleen, M.; Mohiuddine, S.A.
2009-01-01
Recently, the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces was introduced by Saadati and Park [Saadati R, Park JH. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;27:331-44]. Karakus et al. [Karakus S, Demirci K, Duman O. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2008;35:763-69] have quite recently studied the notion of statistical convergence for single sequences in intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces. In this paper, we study the concept of statistically convergent and statistically Cauchy double sequences in intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces. Furthermore, we construct an example of a double sequence to show that in IFNS statistical convergence does not imply convergence and our method of convergence even for double sequences is stronger than the usual convergence in intuitionistic fuzzy normed space.
Convergence testing for MCNP5 Monte Carlo eigenvalue calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, F.; Nease, B.; Cheatham, J.
2007-01-01
Determining convergence of Monte Carlo criticality problems is complicated by the statistical noise inherent in the random, walks of the neutrons in each generation. The latest version of MCNP5 incorporates an important new tool for assessing convergence: the Shannon entropy of the fission source distribution, H src . Shannon entropy is a well-known concept from information theory and provides a single number for each iteration to help characterize convergence trends for the fission source distribution. MCNP5 computes H src for each iteration, and these values may be plotted to examine convergence trends. Convergence testing should include both k eff and H src , since the fission distribution will converge more slowly than k eff , especially when the dominance ratio is close to 1.0. (authors)
Fourier convergence analysis applied to neutron diffusion Eigenvalue problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man; Joo, Hyung Kook
2004-01-01
Fourier error analysis has been a standard technique for the stability and convergence analysis of linear and nonlinear iterative methods. Though the methods can be applied to Eigenvalue problems too, all the Fourier convergence analyses have been performed only for fixed source problems and a Fourier convergence analysis for Eigenvalue problem has never been reported. Lee et al proposed new 2-D/1-D coupling methods and they showed that the new ones are unconditionally stable while one of the two existing ones is unstable at a small mesh size and that the new ones are better than the existing ones in terms of the convergence rate. In this paper the convergence of method A in reference 4 for the diffusion Eigenvalue problem was analyzed by the Fourier analysis. The Fourier convergence analysis presented in this paper is the first one applied to a neutronics eigenvalue problem to the best of our knowledge
Efficient, Differentially Private Point Estimators
Smith, Adam
2008-01-01
Differential privacy is a recent notion of privacy for statistical databases that provides rigorous, meaningful confidentiality guarantees, even in the presence of an attacker with access to arbitrary side information. We show that for a large class of parametric probability models, one can construct a differentially private estimator whose distribution converges to that of the maximum likelihood estimator. In particular, it is efficient and asymptotically unbiased. This result provides (furt...
Adaptive Convergence Rates of a Dirichlet Process Mixture of Multivariate Normals
Tokdar, Surya T.
2011-01-01
It is shown that a simple Dirichlet process mixture of multivariate normals offers Bayesian density estimation with adaptive posterior convergence rates. Toward this, a novel sieve for non-parametric mixture densities is explored, and its rate adaptability to various smoothness classes of densities in arbitrary dimension is demonstrated. This sieve construction is expected to offer a substantial technical advancement in studying Bayesian non-parametric mixture models based on stick-breaking p...
Research proposal: Industry convergence - Driving forces, factors and consequences
Weaver, Benjamin
2007-01-01
Industry convergence – the merger of hitherto separate industries – is a phenomenon that has had a profound effect on several industries and received considerable interest among practitioners and business press over the past decades. Despite this, industry con- vergence has only received limited attention from the academic management field, al- though an emergent discussion on convergence can be identified. Prior research is limited by a lack of coherent theoretical definitions of convergence...
Disparity and convergence: Chinese provincial government health expenditures.
Pan, Jay; Wang, Peng; Qin, Xuezheng; Zhang, Shufang
2013-01-01
The huge regional disparity in government health expenditures (GHE) is a major policy concern in China. This paper addresses whether provincial GHE converges in China from 1997 to 2009 using the economic convergence framework based on neoclassical economic growth theory. Our empirical investigation provides compelling evidence of long-term convergence in provincial GHE within China, but not in short-term. Policy implications of these empirical results are discussed.
Disparity and convergence: Chinese provincial government health expenditures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jay Pan
Full Text Available The huge regional disparity in government health expenditures (GHE is a major policy concern in China. This paper addresses whether provincial GHE converges in China from 1997 to 2009 using the economic convergence framework based on neoclassical economic growth theory. Our empirical investigation provides compelling evidence of long-term convergence in provincial GHE within China, but not in short-term. Policy implications of these empirical results are discussed.
Monetary policy rules for convergence to the Euro
Orlowski, Lucjan T.
2008-01-01
This paper aims to devise a monetary policy instrument rule that is suitable for open economies undergoing monetary convergence to a common currency area. The open-economy convergence-consistent Taylor rule is forward-looking, consistent with monetary framework based on inflation targeting, containing input variables that are relative to the corresponding variables in the common currency area. The policy rule is tested empirically for three inflation targeting countries converging to the euro...
Geometric convergence of some two-point Pade approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nemeth, G.
1983-01-01
The geometric convergences of some two-point Pade approximations are investigated on the real positive axis and on certain infinite sets of the complex plane. Some theorems concerning the geometric convergence of Pade approximations are proved, and bounds on geometric convergence rates are given. The results may be interesting considering the applications both in numerical computations and in approximation theory. As a specific case, the numerical calculations connected with the plasma dispersion function may be performed. (D.Gy.)
Growth Convergence and Spending Efficiency among Filipino Households
Erniel B. Barrios
2007-01-01
A growth model is used in the context of Sala-i-Martin’s definition of conditional convergence to assess the household income dynamics in segmented groups at the provincial level in the Philippines. There is a direct relationship between spending efficiency and income growth convergence across income groups. The lower income convergence rate among low income households can be attributed to their relatively less efficient access to the factors of production. The study provides tools in identif...
On the convergence of nonconvex minimization methods for image recovery.
Xiao, Jin; Ng, Michael Kwok-Po; Yang, Yu-Fei
2015-05-01
Nonconvex nonsmooth regularization method has been shown to be effective for restoring images with neat edges. Fast alternating minimization schemes have also been proposed and developed to solve the nonconvex nonsmooth minimization problem. The main contribution of this paper is to show the convergence of these alternating minimization schemes, based on the Kurdyka-Łojasiewicz property. In particular, we show that the iterates generated by the alternating minimization scheme, converges to a critical point of this nonconvex nonsmooth objective function. We also extend the analysis to nonconvex nonsmooth regularization model with box constraints, and obtain similar convergence results of the related minimization algorithm. Numerical examples are given to illustrate our convergence analysis.
Text experiments of disk chopper with supermirror converging system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aizawa, K.; Soyama, K.; Matsubayashi, M.; Suzuki, J.; Watanabe, N.
2001-01-01
We measured transportation property of neutron pulsed by disk chopper with three kinds of setting of supermirror guide at JRR-3M, JAERI. We confirmed a gain of supermirror converging system to narrow straight supermirror system. The gain is approximately same as the ratio of entrance width of converging guide to width of narrow straight guide. On the other hand, we did not get a gain of supermirror converging system to wide straight supermirror system which has a same width to entrance width of converging guide and we will plan more precisely experiment. (author)
Convergence Performance of Adaptive Algorithms of L-Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Hudec
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with convergence parameters determination of adaptive algorithms, which are used in adaptive L-filters design. Firstly the stability of adaptation process, convergence rate or adaptation time, and behaviour of convergence curve belong among basic properties of adaptive algorithms. L-filters with variety of adaptive algorithms were used to their determination. Convergence performances finding of adaptive filters is important mainly for their hardware applications, where filtration in real time or adaptation of coefficient filter with low capacity of input data are required.
Fractal aspects and convergence of Newton`s method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drexler, M. [Oxford Univ. Computing Lab. (United Kingdom)
1996-12-31
Newton`s Method is a widely established iterative algorithm for solving non-linear systems. Its appeal lies in its great simplicity, easy generalization to multiple dimensions and a quadratic local convergence rate. Despite these features, little is known about its global behavior. In this paper, we will explain a seemingly random global convergence pattern using fractal concepts and show that the behavior of the residual is entirely explicable. We will also establish quantitative results for the convergence rates. Knowing the mechanism of fractal generation, we present a stabilization to the orthodox Newton method that remedies the fractal behavior and improves convergence.
Ito, Kazufumi
1987-01-01
The linear quadratic optimal control problem on infinite time interval for linear time-invariant systems defined on Hilbert spaces is considered. The optimal control is given by a feedback form in terms of solution pi to the associated algebraic Riccati equation (ARE). A Ritz type approximation is used to obtain a sequence pi sup N of finite dimensional approximations of the solution to ARE. A sufficient condition that shows pi sup N converges strongly to pi is obtained. Under this condition, a formula is derived which can be used to obtain a rate of convergence of pi sup N to pi. The results of the Galerkin approximation is demonstrated and applied for parabolic systems and the averaging approximation for hereditary differential systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Ser Gi; Lee, Young Ouk; Song, Jae Seung
2009-01-01
This paper analyzes the convergence of the rebalance iteration methods for the discrete ordinates transport equation in the multiplying finite slab problem. The finite slab is assumed to be homogeneous and it has the periodic boundary conditions. A general formulation is used to include three well-known rebalance methods of the linearized form in a unified way. The rebalance iteration methods considered in this paper are the CMR (Coarse-Mesh Rebalance), the CMFD (Coarse-Mesh Finite Difference), and p-CMFD (Partial Current-Based Coarse Mesh Finite Difference) methods which have been popularly used in the reactor physics. The convergence analysis is performed with the well-known Fourier analysis through a linearization. The analyses are applied for one-group problems. The theoretical analysis shows that there are one fundamental mode and N-1 Eigen-modes which determine the convergence if the finite slab is divided into N uniform meshes. The numerical tests show that the Fourier convergence analysis provides the reasonable estimate of the numerical spectral radii for the model problems and the spectral radius for the finite slab approaches the one for the infinite slab as the thickness of the slab increases. (author)
Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, R.
2014-01-01
We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ 0 /p 0 ) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ 0 is the permeability, and p 0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field
Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics
Pullin, D. I.
2014-09-01
We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R = √μ0/p0 I/(2π) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then
A convergent reformulation of perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alves, R.J.G.
2000-10-01
We present and explore a new formulation of perturbative QCD based not on the renormalised coupling but on the dimensional transmutation parameter of the theory and the property of asymptotic scaling. The approach yields a continued function, the iterated function being that involved in the solution of the two-loop β-function equation. In the so-called large-b limit the continued function reduces to a continued fraction and the successive approximants are diagonal Pade approximants. We investigate numerically the convergence of successive approximants using the leading-b approximation, motivated by renormalons, to model the all-orders result. We consider the Adler D-function of vacuum polarisation, the Polarised Bjorken and Gross-LIewellyn Smith sum rules, the (unpolarised) Bjorken sum rule, and the Minkowskian quantities R τ and the R-ratio of e + e - annihilation. In contrast to diagonal Pade approximants the truncated continued function method gives remarkably stable large-order approximants in cases where infrared renormalon effects are important. We also use the new approach to determine the QCD fundamental parameters from the R τ and the R-ratio measurements, where we find Λ-tilde (3)/MS = 516 ± 48 MeV (which yields α s (μ = m τ ) = 0.360 -0.020 +0.021 ), and Λ-tilde (5)/MS = 299 -7 +6 MeV (which yields α s (μ = m z 0 ) = 0.1218 ± 0.0004), respectively. The evolution of the former value to the m z 0 energy results in α s (μ = m z 0 ) = 0.123 ± 0.002. These values are in line with other determinations available in the literature. We implement the Complete Renormalisation Group Improvement (CORGI) scheme throughout all the calculations. We report on how the mathematical concept of Stieltjes series can be used to assess the convergence of Pade approximants of perturbative series. We find that the combinations of UV renormalons which occur in perturbative QCD may or may not be Stieltjes series depending on the renormalisation scheme used. (author)
Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics
Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, Ravi
2014-01-01
We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R = √μ0/p0 I/(2π) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then
Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pullin, D. I. [Graduate Aerospace Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V. [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Samtaney, R. [Mechanical Engineering, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)
2014-09-15
We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ{sub 0}/p{sub 0}) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ{sub 0} is the permeability, and p{sub 0} is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The
Parameter and State Estimator for State Space Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruifeng Ding
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a parameter and state estimator for canonical state space systems from measured input-output data. The key is to solve the system state from the state equation and to substitute it into the output equation, eliminating the state variables, and the resulting equation contains only the system inputs and outputs, and to derive a least squares parameter identification algorithm. Furthermore, the system states are computed from the estimated parameters and the input-output data. Convergence analysis using the martingale convergence theorem indicates that the parameter estimates converge to their true values. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to show that the proposed algorithm is effective.
Method-independent, Computationally Frugal Convergence Testing for Sensitivity Analysis Techniques
Mai, J.; Tolson, B.
2017-12-01
The increasing complexity and runtime of environmental models lead to the current situation that the calibration of all model parameters or the estimation of all of their uncertainty is often computationally infeasible. Hence, techniques to determine the sensitivity of model parameters are used to identify most important parameters. All subsequent model calibrations or uncertainty estimation procedures focus then only on these subsets of parameters and are hence less computational demanding. While the examination of the convergence of calibration and uncertainty methods is state-of-the-art, the convergence of the sensitivity methods is usually not checked. If any, bootstrapping of the sensitivity results is used to determine the reliability of the estimated indexes. Bootstrapping, however, might as well become computationally expensive in case of large model outputs and a high number of bootstraps. We, therefore, present a Model Variable Augmentation (MVA) approach to check the convergence of sensitivity indexes without performing any additional model run. This technique is method- and model-independent. It can be applied either during the sensitivity analysis (SA) or afterwards. The latter case enables the checking of already processed sensitivity indexes. To demonstrate the method's independency of the convergence testing method, we applied it to two widely used, global SA methods: the screening method known as Morris method or Elementary Effects (Morris 1991) and the variance-based Sobol' method (Solbol' 1993). The new convergence testing method is first scrutinized using 12 analytical benchmark functions (Cuntz & Mai et al. 2015) where the true indexes of aforementioned three methods are known. This proof of principle shows that the method reliably determines the uncertainty of the SA results when different budgets are used for the SA. The results show that the new frugal method is able to test the convergence and therefore the reliability of SA results in an
Value Creation Through Integrated Networks and Convergence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Martini, Paul; Taft, Jeffrey D.
2015-04-01
Customer adoption of distributed energy resources and public policies are driving changes in the uses of the distribution system. A system originally designed and built for one-way energy flows from central generating facilities to end-use customers is now experiencing injections of energy from customers anywhere on the grid and frequent reversals in the direction of energy flow. In response, regulators and utilities are re-thinking the design and operations of the grid to create more open and transactive electric networks. This evolution has the opportunity to unlock significant value for customers and utilities. Alternatively, failure to seize this potential may instead lead to an erosion of value if customers seek to defect and disconnect from the system. This paper will discuss how current grid modernization investments may be leveraged to create open networks that increase value through the interaction of intelligent devices on the grid and prosumerization of customers. Moreover, even greater value can be realized through the synergistic effects of convergence of multiple networks. This paper will highlight examples of the emerging nexus of non-electric networks with electricity.
5G: The Convergence of Wireless Communications.
Chávez-Santiago, Raúl; Szydełko, Michał; Kliks, Adrian; Foukalas, Fotis; Haddad, Yoram; Nolan, Keith E; Kelly, Mark Y; Masonta, Moshe T; Balasingham, Ilangko
As the rollout of 4G mobile communication networks takes place, representatives of industry and academia have started to look into the technological developments toward the next generation (5G). Several research projects involving key international mobile network operators, infrastructure manufacturers, and academic institutions, have been launched recently to set the technological foundations of 5G. However, the architecture of future 5G systems, their performance, and mobile services to be provided have not been clearly defined. In this paper, we put forth the vision for 5G as the convergence of evolved versions of current cellular networks with other complementary radio access technologies. Therefore, 5G may not be a single radio access interface but rather a "network of networks". Evidently, the seamless integration of a variety of air interfaces, protocols, and frequency bands, requires paradigm shifts in the way networks cooperate and complement each other to deliver data rates of several Gigabits per second with end-to-end latency of a few milliseconds. We provide an overview of the key radio technologies that will play a key role in the realization of this vision for the next generation of mobile communication networks. We also introduce some of the research challenges that need to be addressed.
Convergence of Corporate and Public Governance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gérard Hirigoyen
2013-06-01
Full Text Available By analyzing the differences between the corporate and public governance, theoretical and empirical research seems to indicate that the two domains of governance are far too different to share any common aspect. However, in this particular research, it has been argued that public governance is an application of corporate governance. Thus, the research question entails the description and analysis of this possible convergence of the two. Extensive research from literature on corporate governance has been undertaken to establish a relationship between the boards process and the roles that acts as a framework to bridge the gap separating corporate governance from public governance. Corporate governance, at a global level, exists in the for-profit as well as nonprofit organizations. Thus, the definition of this concept needs to be viewed from “an innovative” eye, considering the relationship between the process of the board and roles as characteristic of the public organization and private ones. As the private as well as public organizations are an application of corporate governance, the difference between the two gets narrowed. For the purpose of this research, the case of the French hospitals’ board has been taken into consideration. The members of the public board have been considered for the board process to perform their roles.
East Asian Capital Markets: Integration and Convergence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yana Valeryevna Dyomina
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The article examines the interdependence of East Asian stock and bond markets. Hierarchical cluster analysis of bond markets of ten regional countries shows that the most similar ones are the following: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore. In 2006-2009 Thailand also belonged with this group, however, since 2010 it is a separate cluster. The second cluster includes Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea and China, the third one - Japan, the fourth one - Vietnam. As for regional equity markets, the study shows that regional stock indices respond to the dynamics of American ones to a greater extent than to the dynamics of each other. In addition, Asian indices’ interconnection is chiefly negative. To assess stock indices’ convergence the author employs cluster analysis which divides 16 studied stock exchanges in 7 different groups. According to the obtained results, the author concludes that integration of regional capital markets is the long-term goal. Besides, markets’ integration will be easier and faster within clusters; inter-cluster mergers will be the next step. The basic problem here arises from the Japanese market, which, in the case of forced or ill-conceived program of events, will absorb all other markets or end up outside the integration processes
Conformal mapping and convergence of Krylov iterations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Driscoll, T.A.; Trefethen, L.N. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
1994-12-31
Connections between conformal mapping and matrix iterations have been known for many years. The idea underlying these connections is as follows. Suppose the spectrum of a matrix or operator A is contained in a Jordan region E in the complex plane with 0 not an element of E. Let {phi}(z) denote a conformal map of the exterior of E onto the exterior of the unit disk, with {phi}{infinity} = {infinity}. Then 1/{vert_bar}{phi}(0){vert_bar} is an upper bound for the optimal asymptotic convergence factor of any Krylov subspace iteration. This idea can be made precise in various ways, depending on the matrix iterations, on whether A is finite or infinite dimensional, and on what bounds are assumed on the non-normality of A. This paper explores these connections for a variety of matrix examples, making use of a new MATLAB Schwarz-Christoffel Mapping Toolbox developed by the first author. Unlike the earlier Fortran Schwarz-Christoffel package SCPACK, the new toolbox computes exterior as well as interior Schwarz-Christoffel maps, making it easy to experiment with spectra that are not necessarily symmetric about an axis.
Converging from branching to linear metrics on Markov chains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bacci, Giorgio; Bacci, Giovanni; Larsen, Kim G.
2017-01-01
-approximant is computable in polynomial time in the size of the MC. The upper-approximants are bisimilarity-like pseudometrics (hence, branching-time distances) that converge point-wise to the linear-time metrics. This convergence is interesting in itself, because it reveals a nontrivial relation between branching...
Converging from Branching to Linear Metrics on Markov Chains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bacci, Giorgio; Bacci, Giovanni; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2015-01-01
time in the size of the MC. The upper-approximants are Kantorovich-like pseudometrics, i.e. branching-time distances, that converge point-wise to the linear-time metrics. This convergence is interesting in itself, since it reveals a nontrivial relation between branching and linear-time metric...
On the convergence of linear passive complementarity systems
Camlibel, M. Kanat; Wouw, Nathan van de
2007-01-01
The notion of convergent systems is a powerful tool both in the analysis and synthesis of nonlinear systems. Sufficient conditions for convergence have been under investigation for smooth systems and for classes of non-smooth switching systems in the literature. In this paper, we look at a very
Confidence building on euro convergence : Evidence from currency options
Driessen, J.J.A.G.; Perotti, E.
2011-01-01
We study the evolution of investor confidence in 1992–1998 over the chance of individual currencies to converge to the Euro, using data on currency option prices. Convergence risk, which may reflect uncertainty over policy commitment as well as exogenous fundamentals, induces a level of implied
Confidence building on Euro convergence: evidence from currency options
Driessen, J.; Perotti, E.
2011-01-01
We study the evolution of investor confidence in 1992-1998 over the chance of individual currencies to converge to the Euro, using data on currency option prices. Convergence risk, which may reflect uncertainty over policy commitment as well as exogenous fundamentals, induces a level of implied
Presentation of Topic 1: Economic Convergence and Poverty ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
4 nov. 2010 ... Please find below in PDF format all submitted presentations during the first session on Tuesday 8 December : Economic Convergence and Poverty ReductionNote de cadrage (Scope of study):1 - Economic Convergence and Poverty Reduction – M. Diery SECK, Director of CREPOLScientific ...
Thermal and mechanical modelling of convergent plate margins
van den Beukel, P.J.
1990-01-01
In this thesis, the thermal and mechanical structure of convergent plate margins will be investigated by means of numerical modelling. In addition, we will discuss the implications of modelling results for geological processes such as metamorphism or the break-up of a plate at a convergent plate
Note: interpreting iterative methods convergence with diffusion point of view
Hong, Dohy
2013-01-01
In this paper, we explain the convergence speed of different iteration schemes with the fluid diffusion view when solving a linear fixed point problem. This interpretation allows one to better understand why power iteration or Jacobi iteration may converge faster or slower than Gauss-Seidel iteration.
A survey of Strong Convergent Schemes for the Simulation of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We considered strong convergent stochastic schemes for the simulation of stochastic differential equations. The stochastic Taylor's expansion, which is the main tool used for the derivation of strong convergent schemes; the Euler Maruyama, Milstein scheme, stochastic multistep schemes, Implicit and Explicit schemes were ...
Moment Convergence Rates in the Law of the Logarithm for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 119; Issue 3. Moment Convergence Rates in the Law of the Logarithm for Dependent Sequences. Ke-Ang Fu Xiao-Rong Yang ... Keywords. The law of the logarithm; Chung-type law of the logarithm; negative association; moment convergence; tail probability.
Exponential convergence on a continuous Monte Carlo transport problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Booth, T.E.
1997-01-01
For more than a decade, it has been known that exponential convergence on discrete transport problems was possible using adaptive Monte Carlo techniques. An adaptive Monte Carlo method that empirically produces exponential convergence on a simple continuous transport problem is described
Some New Lacunary Strong Convergent Vector-Valued Sequence Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Mursaleen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce some vector-valued sequence spaces defined by a Musielak-Orlicz function and the concepts of lacunary convergence and strong (A-convergence, where A=(aik is an infinite matrix of complex numbers. We also make an effort to study some topological properties and some inclusion relations between these spaces.
Some New Lacunary Strong Convergent Vector-Valued Sequence Spaces
Mursaleen, M.; Alotaibi, A.; Sharma, Sunil K.
2014-01-01
We introduce some vector-valued sequence spaces defined by a Musielak-Orlicz function and the concepts of lacunary convergence and strong ( $A$ )-convergence, where $A=({a}_{ik})$ is an infinite matrix of complex numbers. We also make an effort to study some topological properties and some inclusion relations between these spaces.
Development of the Scale for "Convergence Thinking" in Engineering
Park, Sungmi
2016-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to define the concept of "convergence thinking" as a trading zone for knowledge fusion in the engineering field, and develops its measuring scale. Design/ Methodology/Approach: Based on results from literature review, this study clarifies a theoretical ground for "convergence thinking."…
Sigma-convergence of stationary Navier-Stokes type equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel Nguetseng
2009-06-01
Full Text Available In the framework of homogenization theory, the Sigma-convergence method is carried out on stationary Navier-Stokes type equations on a fixed domain. Our main tools are the two-scale convergence concept and the so-called homogenization algebras.
Ideal Convergence of k-Positive Linear Operators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akif Gadjiev
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We study some ideal convergence results of k-positive linear operators defined on an appropriate subspace of the space of all analytic functions on a bounded simply connected domain in the complex plane. We also show that our approximation results with respect to ideal convergence are more general than the classical ones.
Convergence of p-series revisited with applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elom K. Abalo
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We construct two adjacent sequences that converge to the sum of a given convergent p-series. In case of a divergent p-series, lower and upper bounds of the (knth partial sum are constructed. In either case, we extend the results obtained by Hansheng and Lu (2005 to any integer k≥2. Some numerical examples are given.
On the premature convergence of particle swarm optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Rie B.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Lassen, Benny
2016-01-01
This paper discusses convergence issues of the basic particle swarm optimization algorithm for different pa- rameters. For the one-dimensional case, it is shown that, for a specific range of parameters, the particles will converge prematurely, i.e. away from the actual minimum of the objective...
Convergence of Crowdsourcing Ideas: A Cognitive Load perspective
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fu, Shixuan; de Vreede, Gert-Jan; Cheng, Xusen
2017-01-01
and satisfaction with the convergence process and outcomes. We propose an experimental study that adopts Cognitive Load Theory as its theoretical lens to investigate the effects of task complexity, idea presentation, and instructional guidance on convergence quality and satisfaction. This study has the potential...
Vector-valued almost convergence and classical properties in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
So, Banach limits are legitimate extensions of the limit function on c. In. [14], Lorentz made use of the concept of Banach limit to introduce the notion of 'almost convergence'. DEFINITION 1.2 [14]. A bounded sequence (xn)n∈N ∈ l∞ is called almost convergent exactly when there exists a number y ∈ R (called the almost ...
Strategic Vision on Convergence of Wired and Wireless Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prasad, Ramjee; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Saarnio, Juha
2006-01-01
In this paper we provide an overview of how convergence will play an important role in future generation networks. We discuss how the technology today will eventually converge towards an all-IP based platform, while the commonly used layered software structure, will eventually merge into a layer ...... aspect, namely security and privacy issues within future generationnetworks....
Are codes fostering convergence in corporate governance? An institutional perspective
Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Rasheed, A.A.; Yoshikawa, T.
2012-01-01
This chapter discusses the role of corporate governance codes in the context of pressures for corporate governance convergence across countries. We show that there is a diverging convergence as corporate governance practices continually evolve. Further, given that codes are non-mandatory in most
Convergent evolution as natural experiment: the tape of life reconsidered.
Powell, Russell; Mariscal, Carlos
2015-12-06
Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the 'tape of life' would result in radically different evolutionary outcomes. Recently, biologists and philosophers of science have paid increasing attention to the theoretical importance of convergent evolution-the independent origination of similar biological forms and functions-which many interpret as evidence against Gould's thesis. In this paper, we examine the evidentiary relevance of convergent evolution for the radical contingency debate. We show that under the right conditions, episodes of convergent evolution can constitute valid natural experiments that support inferences regarding the deep counterfactual stability of macroevolutionary outcomes. However, we argue that proponents of convergence have problematically lumped causally heterogeneous phenomena into a single evidentiary basket, in effect treating all convergent events as if they are of equivalent theoretical import. As a result, the 'critique from convergent evolution' fails to engage with key claims of the radical contingency thesis. To remedy this, we develop ways to break down the heterogeneous set of convergent events based on the nature of the generalizations they support. Adopting this more nuanced approach to convergent evolution allows us to differentiate iterated evolutionary outcomes that are probably common among alternative evolutionary histories and subject to law-like generalizations, from those that do little to undermine and may even support, the Gouldian view of life.
Convergence of shock waves between conical and parabolic boundaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yanuka, D.; Zinowits, H. E.; Antonov, O.; Efimov, S.; Virozub, A.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)
2016-07-15
Convergence of shock waves, generated by underwater electrical explosions of cylindrical wire arrays, between either parabolic or conical bounding walls is investigated. A high-current pulse with a peak of ∼550 kA and rise time of ∼300 ns was applied for the wire array explosion. Strong self-emission from an optical fiber placed at the origin of the implosion was used for estimating the time of flight of the shock wave. 2D hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper showed that the pressure obtained in the vicinity of the implosion is ∼7 times higher in the case of parabolic walls. However, comparison with a spherical wire array explosion showed that the pressure in the implosion vicinity in that case is higher than the pressure in the current experiment with parabolic bounding walls because of strong shock wave reflections from the walls. It is shown that this drawback of the bounding walls can be significantly minimized by optimization of the wire array geometry.
Converging xenon shock waves driven by megagauss magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shearer, J.W.; Steinberg, D.J.
1986-07-01
We attempted to implode a conducting metal linear at high velocity, and our failure to do so led to switching, or rapidly transferring the field from pushing an aluminum conductor to snow-plowing a half-atmosphere of xenon gas. We successfully initiated convergent xenon gas shocks with the use of a magnetohydrodynamic switch and coaxial high-explosive, flux-compression generators. Principal diagnostics used to study the imploding xenon gas were 133 Xe radioactive tracers, continuous x-ray absorption, and neutron output. We compressed the xenon gas about five to sixfold at a velocity of 10 cm/μs at a radius of 4 cm. The snowplow efficiency was good; going from 13- to 4-cm radius, we lost only about 20% of the mass. The temperature of the imploded sheath was determined by mixing deuterium with the xenon and measuring the neutron output. Using reasonable assumptions about the amount, density, and uniformity of the compressed gas, we estimate that we reached temperatures as high as 155 eV. Energy-loss mechanisms that we encountered included wall ablation and Taylor instabilities of the back surface
OPE convergence in non-relativistic conformal field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldberger, Walter D.; Khandker, Zuhair University; Prabhu, Siddharth [Department of Physics, Yale University,New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Physics Department, Boston University,Boston, MA 02215 (United States)
2015-12-09
Motivated by applications to the study of ultracold atomic gases near the unitarity limit, we investigate the structure of the operator product expansion (OPE) in non-relativistic conformal field theories (NRCFTs). The main tool used in our analysis is the representation theory of charged (i.e. non-zero particle number) operators in the NRCFT, in particular the mapping between operators and states in a non-relativistic “radial quantization” Hilbert space. Our results include: a determination of the OPE coefficients of descendant operators in terms of those of the underlying primary state, a demonstration of convergence of the (imaginary time) OPE in certain kinematic limits, and an estimate of the decay rate of the OPE tail inside matrix elements which, as in relativistic CFTs, depends exponentially on operator dimensions. To illustrate our results we consider several examples, including a strongly interacting field theory of bosons tuned to the unitarity limit, as well as a class of holographic models. Given the similarity with known statements about the OPE in SO(2,d) invariant field theories, our results suggest the existence of a bootstrap approach to constraining NRCFTs, with applications to bound state spectra and interactions. We briefly comment on a possible implementation of this non-relativistic conformal bootstrap program.
DRIVERS OF LONG-TERM CONVERGENCE. FOCUS ON ROMANIA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MANUELA UNGURU
2014-11-01
Full Text Available With initial low levels of income per capita, a declining population and relatively modest economic growth rates, there are little prospects of diminishing the gap between Romania and the EU countries. Nevertheless, in the long term, convergence is expected. The question then arises, “What are the drivers and their likely potential to boost economic growth and the catching-up process?”. This paper presents shortly the theoretical background of economic convergence and then focuses on the assessment of possible paths of Romania’s convergence towards the EU. Based on the existing long-term macroeconomic projections and the assessment of the possible future developments of the drivers of economic growth, we have built three scenarios of economic convergence, highlighting the possible timespan of convergence. We have employed growth accounting methods to decompose output growth rate into production factors’ contributions (capital and labour and total factor productivity.
Convergence of Romanian accounting regulations with IFRS. A longitudinal analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioana PĂLĂRIE
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the evolution in the level of convergence of the Romanian accounting regulations with IFRS in the last decade. We focus our study on the accounting topics covered by IAS16, IAS17, IAS 41 and SIC15. We find that in 2005 the regulations exhibit a good level of convergence for property, plant and equipment, a medium level of convergence for lease accounting and divergence for accounting for the agricultural activity. The overall convergence level improved over time for all the topics analysed. These results indicate that the companies with dual reporting may incur lower costs in applying IFRS. Moreover, the national regulations offer the opportunity for a higher level of comparability in Romania of the financial statements prepared under IFRS with those prepared under national regulations. However, we underline that the institutional factors (such as the tax influence over accounting might negatively affect the convergence of practices.
Convergence of Wachspress coordinates: from polygons to curved domains
Kosinka, Jiří
2014-08-08
Given a smooth, strictly convex planar domain, we investigate point-wise convergence of the sequence of Wachspress coordinates defined over finer and finer inscribed polygonal approximations of the domain. Based on a relation between the discrete Wachspress case and the limit smooth case given by the Wachspress kernel defined by Warren et al., we show that the corresponding sequences of Wachspress interpolants and mappings converge as 𝓞(h2) for a sampling step size h of the boundary curve of the domain as h → 0. Several examples are shown to numerically validate the results and to visualise the behaviour of discrete interpolants and mappings as they converge to their smooth counterparts. Empirically, the same convergence order is observed also for mean value coordinates. Moreover, our numerical tests suggest that the convergence of interpolants and mappings is uniform both in the Wachspress and mean value cases. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Convergence of Wachspress coordinates: from polygons to curved domains
Kosinka, Jiří
2014-01-01
Given a smooth, strictly convex planar domain, we investigate point-wise convergence of the sequence of Wachspress coordinates defined over finer and finer inscribed polygonal approximations of the domain. Based on a relation between the discrete Wachspress case and the limit smooth case given by the Wachspress kernel defined by Warren et al., we show that the corresponding sequences of Wachspress interpolants and mappings converge as 𝓞(h2) for a sampling step size h of the boundary curve of the domain as h → 0. Several examples are shown to numerically validate the results and to visualise the behaviour of discrete interpolants and mappings as they converge to their smooth counterparts. Empirically, the same convergence order is observed also for mean value coordinates. Moreover, our numerical tests suggest that the convergence of interpolants and mappings is uniform both in the Wachspress and mean value cases. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Design of permanent block stopping to resist strata convergence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ray, R.E.
1985-11-01
Conventional concrete block plastered with a cementitious coating is the most common material used in the construction of permanent stoppings to direct airflow in underground mines in the US. All mines experience various degrees of strata convergence depending on depth of overburden, geological conditions, and type of roof support employed. Strata convergence will cause cracks and joint openings in masonry stoppings, resulting in significant air leakage losses. Where strata convergence is severe, complete structural failure of the stopping can ultimately occur. Reconstruction of damaged or destroyed stoppings adds expensive overheads to mining operations, and even greater expenses are incurred from the additional fan horsepower required to overcome leakage losses. Ideally, a stopping should maintain high resistance to airflow while yielding to strata convergence. By properly incorporating a polyisocyanurate rigid foam material within the masonry block structure, stopping service life can be increased in mines experiencing strata convergence problems such as floor heave, roof loading, and lateral rib movement.
Segment-Specific Adhesion as a Driver of Convergent Extension
Vroomans, Renske M. A.; Hogeweg, Paulien; ten Tusscher, Kirsten H. W. J.
2015-01-01
Convergent extension, the simultaneous extension and narrowing of tissues, is a crucial event in the formation of the main body axis during embryonic development. It involves processes on multiple scales: the sub-cellular, cellular and tissue level, which interact via explicit or intrinsic feedback mechanisms. Computational modelling studies play an important role in unravelling the multiscale feedbacks underlying convergent extension. Convergent extension usually operates in tissue which has been patterned or is currently being patterned into distinct domains of gene expression. How such tissue patterns are maintained during the large scale tissue movements of convergent extension has thus far not been investigated. Intriguingly, experimental data indicate that in certain cases these tissue patterns may drive convergent extension rather than requiring safeguarding against convergent extension. Here we use a 2D Cellular Potts Model (CPM) of a tissue prepatterned into segments, to show that convergent extension tends to disrupt this pre-existing segmental pattern. However, when cells preferentially adhere to cells of the same segment type, segment integrity is maintained without any reduction in tissue extension. Strikingly, we demonstrate that this segment-specific adhesion is by itself sufficient to drive convergent extension. Convergent extension is enhanced when we endow our in silico cells with persistence of motion, which in vivo would naturally follow from cytoskeletal dynamics. Finally, we extend our model to confirm the generality of our results. We demonstrate a similar effect of differential adhesion on convergent extension in tissues that can only extend in a single direction (as often occurs due to the inertia of the head region of the embryo), and in tissues prepatterned into a sequence of domains resulting in two opposing adhesive gradients, rather than alternating segments. PMID:25706823
Poole, Gregory B.; Mutch, Simon J.; Croton, Darren J.; Wyithe, Stuart
2017-12-01
We introduce GBPTREES: an algorithm for constructing merger trees from cosmological simulations, designed to identify and correct for pathological cases introduced by errors or ambiguities in the halo finding process. GBPTREES is built upon a halo matching method utilizing pseudo-radial moments constructed from radially sorted particle ID lists (no other information is required) and a scheme for classifying merger tree pathologies from networks of matches made to-and-from haloes across snapshots ranging forward-and-backward in time. Focusing on SUBFIND catalogues for this work, a sweep of parameters influencing our merger tree construction yields the optimal snapshot cadence and scanning range required for converged results. Pathologies proliferate when snapshots are spaced by ≲0.128 dynamical times; conveniently similar to that needed for convergence of semi-analytical modelling, as established by Benson et al. Total merger counts are converged at the level of ∼5 per cent for friends-of-friends (FoF) haloes of size np ≳ 75 across a factor of 512 in mass resolution, but substructure rates converge more slowly with mass resolution, reaching convergence of ∼10 per cent for np ≳ 100 and particle mass mp ≲ 109 M⊙. We present analytic fits to FoF and substructure merger rates across nearly all observed galactic history (z ≤ 8.5). While we find good agreement with the results presented by Fakhouri et al. for FoF haloes, a slightly flatter dependence on merger ratio and increased major merger rates are found, reducing previously reported discrepancies with extended Press-Schechter estimates. When appropriately defined, substructure merger rates show a similar mass ratio dependence as FoF rates, but with stronger mass and redshift dependencies for their normalization.
BRICS: Evolution and Convergence of Powers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vatanyar Saidovich Yagya
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Conducting of foreign policy solely by means of classical diplomacy today seems inefficient. States are supposed to use additional set of tools that have traditionally been at the confluence of soft and hard powers. Convergence of these concepts launched the emergence of such strategies, as smart power and hybrid power that we analyze as a system in relation to such a phenomenon, as BRICS. In the first part of paper we contemplate the concept of power and further expand it to the theoretical ground of each of these strategies along with the existing experience and prospects of their implementation in the BRICS countries. Systematic analysis is taken as the basis of the methodology of this paper, which allowed us to explore this theme separately for each of the BRICS countries and collectively as a system. Feasibility of a number of our provisions is confirmed by relevant case studies and analyses of the most relevant Russian and foreign literature, which results in our main conclusions. Current trends indicate that the BRICS countries are actively expanding its presence in all the key sectors of the global economy and politics. BRICS is at an early stage of implementation of own formats and tools of smart and hybrid powers, the role of which will steadily increase in the international activities of the group, adding value to its arsenal of traditional diplomacy. The potential capacity of soft, smart and hybrid powers of BRICS aims at helping countries to achieve a new level of integration and attractiveness in the eyes of the international community, and will also allow countries to strengthen their positions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Hu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A class of drift-implicit one-step schemes are proposed for the neutral stochastic delay differential equations (NSDDEs driven by Poisson processes. A general framework for mean-square convergence of the methods is provided. It is shown that under certain conditions global error estimates for a method can be inferred from estimates on its local error. The applicability of the mean-square convergence theory is illustrated by the stochastic θ-methods and the balanced implicit methods. It is derived from Theorem 3.1 that the order of the mean-square convergence of both of them for NSDDEs with jumps is 1/2. Numerical experiments illustrate the theoretical results. It is worth noting that the results of mean-square convergence of the stochastic θ-methods and the balanced implicit methods are also new.
Intranational Price Convergence and Price Stickiness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergman, Ulf Michael; Heebøll, Christian; Hansen, Niels Lynggaard
2017-01-01
We show that estimates of the half-life of deviations from LOOP are biased when not taking into account the precision when aggregating over types of goods. Using a comprehensive dataset with monthly price data for 124 homogeneous products across regions in Denmark over the period 1997–2010 we find...... a large positive aggregation bias. On average, we find that the half-life is 8.4 months when taking the bias into account compared to 28.7 months when applying the standard method. The heterogeneity in estimated half-life can be explained by price stickiness, distance between regions and whether the good...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nguyen Khac Minh
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which the effect of FDI on firms’ efficiency and efficiency convergence across industries in Vietnam. Dynamic input output tables are used to construct the linkages between domestic and foreign firms. Stochastic production frontier is used to estimate firms ‘efficiency with a large panel dataset covering manufacturing firms in Vietnam from 2000 to 2011. The analysis shows that, the impact of FDI on domestic firms ‘efficiency score and convergence at firms’ level through the horizontal, backward and supply backward channels are negative and different.
Ground state solutions for diffusion system with superlinear nonlinearity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiming Luo
2015-03-01
where $z=(u,v\\colon\\mathbb{R}\\times\\mathbb{R}^{N}\\rightarrow\\mathbb{R}^{2}$, $b\\in C^{1}(\\mathbb{R}\\times\\mathbb{R}^{N}, \\mathbb{R}^{N}$ and $V(x\\in C(\\mathbb{R}^{N},\\mathbb{R}$. Under suitable assumptions on the nonlinearity, we establish the existence of ground state solutions by the generalized Nehari manifold method developed recently by Szulkin and Weth.
Reliability enhancement of Navier-Stokes codes through convergence acceleration
Merkle, Charles L.; Dulikravich, George S.
1995-01-01
Methods for enhancing the reliability of Navier-Stokes computer codes through improving convergence characteristics are presented. The improving of these characteristics decreases the likelihood of code unreliability and user interventions in a design environment. The problem referred to as a 'stiffness' in the governing equations for propulsion-related flowfields is investigated, particularly in regard to common sources of equation stiffness that lead to convergence degradation of CFD algorithms. Von Neumann stability theory is employed as a tool to study the convergence difficulties involved. Based on the stability results, improved algorithms are devised to ensure efficient convergence in different situations. A number of test cases are considered to confirm a correlation between stability theory and numerical convergence. The examples of turbulent and reacting flow are presented, and a generalized form of the preconditioning matrix is derived to handle these problems, i.e., the problems involving additional differential equations for describing the transport of turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate and chemical species. Algorithms for unsteady computations are considered. The extension of the preconditioning techniques and algorithms derived for Navier-Stokes computations to three-dimensional flow problems is discussed. New methods to accelerate the convergence of iterative schemes for the numerical integration of systems of partial differential equtions are developed, with a special emphasis on the acceleration of convergence on highly clustered grids.
Optimizer convergence and local minima errors and their clinical importance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeraj, Robert; Wu, Chuan; Mackie, Thomas R
2003-01-01
Two of the errors common in the inverse treatment planning optimization have been investigated. The first error is the optimizer convergence error, which appears because of non-perfect convergence to the global or local solution, usually caused by a non-zero stopping criterion. The second error is the local minima error, which occurs when the objective function is not convex and/or the feasible solution space is not convex. The magnitude of the errors, their relative importance in comparison to other errors as well as their clinical significance in terms of tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were investigated. Two inherently different optimizers, a stochastic simulated annealing and deterministic gradient method were compared on a clinical example. It was found that for typical optimization the optimizer convergence errors are rather small, especially compared to other convergence errors, e.g., convergence errors due to inaccuracy of the current dose calculation algorithms. This indicates that stopping criteria could often be relaxed leading into optimization speed-ups. The local minima errors were also found to be relatively small and typically in the range of the dose calculation convergence errors. Even for the cases where significantly higher objective function scores were obtained the local minima errors were not significantly higher. Clinical evaluation of the optimizer convergence error showed good correlation between the convergence of the clinical TCP or NTCP measures and convergence of the physical dose distribution. On the other hand, the local minima errors resulted in significantly different TCP or NTCP values (up to a factor of 2) indicating clinical importance of the local minima produced by physical optimization
Convergence of spectral methods for nonlinear conservation laws. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tadmor, E.
1987-08-01
The convergence of the Fourier method for scalar nonlinear conservation laws which exhibit spontaneous shock discontinuities is discussed. Numerical tests indicate that the convergence may (and in fact in some cases must) fail, with or without post-processing of the numerical solution. Instead, a new kind of spectrally accurate vanishing viscosity is introduced to augment the Fourier approximation of such nonlinear conservation laws. Using compensated compactness arguments, it is shown that this spectral viscosity prevents oscillations, and convergence to the unique entropy solution follows
Towards automated composition of convergent services: A survey
Ordónez, Armando; Alcazar, Vidal; Rendon, Oscar Mauricio Caicedo; Falcarin, Paolo; Corrales, Juan C.; Granville, Lisandro Zambenedetti
2015-01-01
A convergent service is defined as a service that exploits the convergence of\\ud communication networks and at the same time takes advantage of features of\\ud the Web. Nowadays, building up a convergent service is not trivial, because\\ud although there are significant approaches that aim to automate the service\\ud composition at different levels in the Web and Telecom domains, selecting\\ud the most appropriate approach for specific case studies is complex due to\\ud the big amount of involved ...
Convergence of third order correlation energy in atoms and molecules.
Kahn, Kalju; Granovsky, Alex A; Noga, Jozef
2007-01-30
We have investigated the convergence of third order correlation energy within the hierarchies of correlation consistent basis sets for helium, neon, and water, and for three stationary points of hydrogen peroxide. This analysis confirms that singlet pair energies converge much slower than triplet pair energies. In addition, singlet pair energies with (aug)-cc-pVDZ and (aug)-cc-pVTZ basis sets do not follow a converging trend and energies with three basis sets larger than aug-cc-pVTZ are generally required for reliable extrapolations of third order correlation energies, making so the explicitly correlated R12 calculations preferable.
Variable convergence liquid layer implosions on the National Ignition Facility
Zylstra, A. B.; Yi, S. A.; Haines, B. M.; Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Braun, T.; Biener, J.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S. H.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bhandarkar, S.; Bradley, P. A.; Crippen, J.; Farrell, M.; Fittinghoff, D.; Herrmann, H. W.; Huang, H.; Khan, S.; Kong, C.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ma, T.; Meezan, N. B.; Merrill, F.; Nikroo, A.; Peterson, R. R.; Rice, N.; Sater, J. D.; Shah, R. C.; Stadermann, M.; Volegov, P.; Walters, C.; Wilson, D. C.
2018-05-01
Liquid layer implosions using the "wetted foam" technique, where the liquid fuel is wicked into a supporting foam, have been recently conducted on the National Ignition Facility for the first time [Olson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 245001 (2016)]. We report on a series of wetted foam implosions where the convergence ratio was varied between 12 and 20. Reduced nuclear performance is observed as convergence ratio increases. 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations accurately capture the performance at convergence ratios (CR) ˜ 12, but we observe a significant discrepancy at CR ˜ 20. This may be due to suppressed hot-spot formation or an anomalous energy loss mechanism.
Semi-convergence properties of Kaczmarz’s method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elfving, Tommy; Hansen, Per Christian; Nikazad, Touraj
2014-01-01
Kaczmarz’s method—sometimes referred to as the algebraic reconstruction technique—is an iterative method that is widely used in tomographic imaging due to its favorable semi-convergence properties. Specifically, when applied to a problem with noisy data, during the early iterations it converges......-convergence of Kaczmarz’s method as well as its projected counterpart (and their block versions). To do this we study how the data errors propagate into the iteration vectors and we derive upper bounds for this noise propagation. Our bounds are compared with numerical results obtained from tomographic imaging....
Geophysical constraints on geodynamical processes at convergent margins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Shulgin, Alexey
2016-01-01
Convergent margins, being the boundaries between colliding lithospheric plates, form the most disastrous areas in the world due to intensive, strong seismicity and volcanism. We review global geophysical data in order to illustrate the effects of the plate tectonic processes at convergent margins......, at least, one of the plates is oceanic. However, the oldest oceanic plate in the Pacific ocean has the smallest convergence rate. (2) The presence of an oceanic plate is, in general, required for generation of high-magnitude (M>8.0) earthquakes and for generating intermediate and deep seismicity along...... to shallow mantle levels....
On projection methods, convergence and robust formulations in topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Fengwen; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole
2011-01-01
alleviated using various projection methods. In this paper we show that simple projection methods do not ensure local mesh-convergence and propose a modified robust topology optimization formulation based on erosion, intermediate and dilation projections that ensures both global and local mesh-convergence.......Mesh convergence and manufacturability of topology optimized designs have previously mainly been assured using density or sensitivity based filtering techniques. The drawback of these techniques has been gray transition regions between solid and void parts, but this problem has recently been...
Convergent close-coupling calculations of electron-hydrogen scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bray, Igor; Stelbovics, A.T.
1992-04-01
The convergence of the close-coupling formalism is studied by expanding the target states in an orthogonal L 2 Laguerre basis. The theory is without approximation and convergence is established by simply increasing the basis size. The convergent elastic, 2s, and 2p differential cross sections, spin asymmetries, and angular correlation parameters for the 2p excitation at 35, 54.4, and 100 eV are calculated. Integrated and total cross sections as well as T-matrix elements for the first five partial waves are also given. 30 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs
Convergence of the multiple scattering expansion in XAFS and XANES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehr, J.J.
1992-01-01
The convergence of the multiple-scattering expansion of XAFS and XANES by explicit path-bypath calculations. The approach is based on the fast scattering matrix formalism of Rehr and Albers, together with an automated path finder and filters that exclude negligible paths. High-order scattering terms are found to be essential, especially at low energies. Several factors including the magnitude of curved wave scattering amplitudes, inelastic losses and multiple-scattering Debye-Waller factors control convergence of the expansion. The convergence is illustrated explicitly for the case of diatomic molecules
Convergence analysis for column-action methods in image reconstruction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elfving, Tommy; Hansen, Per Christian; Nikazad, Touraj
2016-01-01
Column-oriented versions of algebraic iterative methods are interesting alternatives to their row-version counterparts: they converge to a least squares solution, and they provide a basis for saving computational work by skipping small updates. In this paper we consider the case of noise-free data....... We present a convergence analysis of the column algorithms, we discuss two techniques (loping and flagging) for reducing the work, and we establish some convergence results for methods that utilize these techniques. The performance of the algorithms is illustrated with numerical examples from...
Explaining Spatial Convergence of China's Industrial Productivity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.
2011-01-01
This article investigates the conditions that may auger a reversal of China's increasingly unequal levels of regional industrial productivity during China's first two decades of economic reform. Using international and Chinese firm and industry data over the period 1995–2004, we estimate a produc...... movement towards reversing growth in spatial income inequality.......This article investigates the conditions that may auger a reversal of China's increasingly unequal levels of regional industrial productivity during China's first two decades of economic reform. Using international and Chinese firm and industry data over the period 1995–2004, we estimate...... a productivity growth–technology gap reaction function. We find that as China's coastal industry has closed the technology gap with the international frontier, labour productivity growth in the coastal region has begun to slow in relation to the interior. This may serve as an early indicator of China's initial...
Kaltenbacher, Barbara; Klassen, Andrej
2018-05-01
In this paper we provide a convergence analysis of some variational methods alternative to the classical Tikhonov regularization, namely Ivanov regularization (also called the method of quasi solutions) with some versions of the discrepancy principle for choosing the regularization parameter, and Morozov regularization (also called the method of the residuals). After motivating nonequivalence with Tikhonov regularization by means of an example, we prove well-definedness of the Ivanov and the Morozov method, convergence in the sense of regularization, as well as convergence rates under variational source conditions. Finally, we apply these results to some linear and nonlinear parameter identification problems in elliptic boundary value problems.
Almost everywhere convergence over cubes of multiple trigonometric Fourier series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonov, N Yu
2004-01-01
Under certain conditions on a function φ:[0,+∞)→[0,+∞) we prove a theorem asserting that the convergence almost everywhere of trigonometric Fourier series for all functions of class φ(L) [-π,π) implies the convergence over cubes of the multiple Fourier series and all its conjugates for an arbitrary function f element of φ(L)(log + L) d-1 ) [-π,π) d , d element of N. It follows from this and an earlier result of the author on the convergence almost everywhere of Fourier series of functions of one variable and class L(log + L)(log + log + log + L)) [-π,π) that if f element of L(log + L) d (log + log + log + L)) [-π,π) d , d element of N, then the Fourier series of f and all its conjugates converge over cubes almost everywhere
System convergence in transport models: algorithms efficiency and output uncertainty
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker
2015-01-01
of this paper is to analyse convergence performance for the external loop and to illustrate how an improper linkage between the converging parts can lead to substantial uncertainty in the final output. Although this loop is crucial for the performance of large-scale transport models it has not been analysed...... much in the literature. The paper first investigates several variants of the Method of Successive Averages (MSA) by simulation experiments on a toy-network. It is found that the simulation experiments produce support for a weighted MSA approach. The weighted MSA approach is then analysed on large......-scale in the Danish National Transport Model (DNTM). It is revealed that system convergence requires that either demand or supply is without random noise but not both. In that case, if MSA is applied to the model output with random noise, it will converge effectively as the random effects are gradually dampened...
Heterogeneous Network Convergence with Artificial Mapping for Cognitive Radio Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hang QIN
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The artificial mapping scheme is proposed in this paper for adaptive network collaboration of cognitive radio networks. The superiority of the DHT-based overlay for its link state aggregation property, which establishes global convergence for link state aggregation message among a scalable number of nodes, is considered in the analysis. In addition, the fuzzy logic inference can better handle uncertainty, fuzziness, and incomplete information in node convergence report, which is developed as a novel approach to aggregate wireless node control with affordable message overload. The Artificial Mapping Tree (AMT for the new convergence scheme is verified by the simulation and experimental results. The moderately increased network throughput for convergence validation is demonstrated with the proactive spectrum coordination.
Effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seoung, Youl Hun [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)
2017-06-15
The purpose of study was to analysis on the effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness. The survey objects were students of radiation-counselling convergence education from 12th May to 22th June in 2016. The questionnaires were education satisfactions and radiation awareness (risk, benefit, control) by Likert-type 5 scales. The analysis results revealed that education satisfactions of men students showed a significant higher female students and correlation coefficient of education satisfactions were the best high in the benefit and control of radiation. Finally radiation-counselling convergence education had a significant effect on radiation benefit. This convergence education influenced positive recognition on radiation benefit and it was indicated that radiation-counselors could treat clients on the basis of radiation benefit.
Field convergence between technical writers and technical translators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gnecchi, M.; Maylath, B.; Mousten, Birthe
2011-01-01
As translation of technical documents continues to grow rapidly and translation becomes more automated, the roles of professional communicators and translators appear to be converging. This paper updates preliminary findings first presented at the 2008 International Professional Communication...
Convergence diagnostics for Eigenvalue problems with linear regression model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, Bo; Petrovic, Bojan
2011-01-01
Although the Monte Carlo method has been extensively used for criticality/Eigenvalue problems, a reliable, robust, and efficient convergence diagnostics method is still desired. Most methods are based on integral parameters (multiplication factor, entropy) and either condense the local distribution information into a single value (e.g., entropy) or even disregard it. We propose to employ the detailed cycle-by-cycle local flux evolution obtained by using mesh tally mechanism to assess the source and flux convergence. By applying a linear regression model to each individual mesh in a mesh tally for convergence diagnostics, a global convergence criterion can be obtained. We exemplify this method on two problems and obtain promising diagnostics results. (author)
Safety performance evaluation of converging chevron pavement markings : final report.
2014-12-01
The objectives of this study were (1) to perform a detailed safety analysis of converging chevron : pavement markings, quantifying the potential safety benefits and developing an understanding of the : incident types addressed by the treatment, and (...
Convergent Difference Schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi equations
Duisembay, Serikbolsyn
2018-01-01
In this thesis, we consider second-order fully nonlinear partial differential equations of elliptic type. Our aim is to develop computational methods using convergent difference schemes for stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equations with Dirichlet
L1-convergence of complex double Fourier series
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
-Convergence of ... School of Mathematics and Computer Applications, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Post Box No. 32, Patiala 147 004, India; Department of Mathematics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India ...
Albania and the EU: A path to convergence?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier Lopez-Prol
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the degree of relative convergence achieved by Albania in relation to the EU during the last decade through a descriptive empirical analysis. The paper is divided into three sections related to real and nominal convergence in the fields of economic performance; trade openness and balance; and monetary convergence, according to the Euro criteria established in the art. 140 (1 of the TFEU and the protocol Nº 13 (price stability, public finances, exchange rate, and long-term interest rates. In order to have a wide perspective about convergence-divergence trends inside and outside the EU, the tendencies followed by Germany and Greece are also mentioned, as paradigmatic cases of divergence within the EU. Finally, a summary table is presented reviewing each of the analysed variables regarding the last decade evolution and the current situation.
Convergent engineering techniques for management of nuclear processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carabulea, A.; Popa, I.
1995-01-01
The paper briefly presents the concept of convergent arhemo-systematical engineering, its advantages in comparison with classical methods of research, design, manufacture. The convergent engineering application supposes the usage of the advanced methods, techniques and equipment corresponding to the domain and specific for the corresponding branch of computer science. Starting from the convergent engineering principles and concept, the paper proposes two models applicable for new products and also for improving and optimizing the existing ones. The models are based on two levels of feedback corresponding to two levels of control and they assume the utilization of expert and robot-expert systems. The economical efficiency of the application of the convergent engineering method is evaluated for the case of a nuclear power plant by calculation the main technical and economical indicators. (Author) 2 Figs., 5 Refs
Effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seoung, Youl Hun
2017-01-01
The purpose of study was to analysis on the effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness. The survey objects were students of radiation-counselling convergence education from 12th May to 22th June in 2016. The questionnaires were education satisfactions and radiation awareness (risk, benefit, control) by Likert-type 5 scales. The analysis results revealed that education satisfactions of men students showed a significant higher female students and correlation coefficient of education satisfactions were the best high in the benefit and control of radiation. Finally radiation-counselling convergence education had a significant effect on radiation benefit. This convergence education influenced positive recognition on radiation benefit and it was indicated that radiation-counselors could treat clients on the basis of radiation benefit
Convergence Analysis of a Class of Computational Intelligence Approaches
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junfeng Chen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Computational intelligence approaches is a relatively new interdisciplinary field of research with many promising application areas. Although the computational intelligence approaches have gained huge popularity, it is difficult to analyze the convergence. In this paper, a computational model is built up for a class of computational intelligence approaches represented by the canonical forms of generic algorithms, ant colony optimization, and particle swarm optimization in order to describe the common features of these algorithms. And then, two quantification indices, that is, the variation rate and the progress rate, are defined, respectively, to indicate the variety and the optimality of the solution sets generated in the search process of the model. Moreover, we give four types of probabilistic convergence for the solution set updating sequences, and their relations are discussed. Finally, the sufficient conditions are derived for the almost sure weak convergence and the almost sure strong convergence of the model by introducing the martingale theory into the Markov chain analysis.
Romania's Agriculture and its Role in the Convergence Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CONSTANTIN POSTOIU
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The importance of agriculture in Romania is linked to the fact that 45% of its population is in the rural area, mostly dependent on agricultural activities. This paper aims to determine in what extent agriculture influences the convergence process of Romania with the euro area. The structural convergence index is computed in order to assess the degree in which the structure of the Romanian economy resembles the one of the euro area in terms of both gross value added and employment. Research indicates that Romania has the lowest score in terms of structural convergence with the euro area. The main reason is the oversized agricultural sector which employs almost a third of the active population. The productivity of the Romanian agriculture is then assessed in order to identify its possible effect on the country’s overall competitiveness and on the whole convergence process.
Learning by Investing, Embodiment, and Speed of Convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Groth, Christian; Wendner, Ronald
This paper sets up a dynamic general equilibrium model to study how the composition of technical progress affects the asymptotic speed of convergence. The following questions are addressed: Will endogenizing a fraction of the productivity increases as coming from learning by investing help...... to generate a low asymptotic speed of convergence in accordance with the empirical evidence? Does it matter whether learning originates in gross or net investment? The answers to both questions turn out to be: yes, a lot. The third question addressed is: Does the speed of convergence significantly depend...... on the degree to which learning by investing takes the embodied form rather than the disembodied form? The answer turns out to be: no. These results point to a speed of convergence on the small side of 2% per year and possibly tending to a lower level in the future due to the rising importance of investment...
Challenges and opportunities of convergence in building a knowledge economy
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Jolliffe, B
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Slides include: What is the knowledge economy? Drivers; Will it contribute to development? Development as freedom; Knowledge Economy, ICTs, convergence etc; Ducks to put in a row; Patents and knowledge economy; South Africa? Threat to local...
A convergent overlapping domain decomposition method for total variation minimization
Fornasier, Massimo; Langer, Andreas; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane
2010-01-01
In this paper we are concerned with the analysis of convergent sequential and parallel overlapping domain decomposition methods for the minimization of functionals formed by a discrepancy term with respect to the data and a total variation
Did capital market convergence lower the effectiveness of monetary policy?
Jansen, P.W.
2009-01-01
International capital market convergence reduces the ability for monetary authorities to set domestic monetary conditions. Traditionally, monetary policy transmission is channelled through the short-term interest rate. Savings and investment decisions are effected through the response of the bond
Cosmological constraints from the convergence 1-point probability distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patton, Kenneth [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Blazek, Jonathan [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Versoix (Switzerland); Honscheid, Klaus [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Huff, Eric [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Melchior, Peter [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Ross, Ashley J. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Suchyta, Eric D. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2017-06-29
Here, we examine the cosmological information available from the 1-point probability density function (PDF) of the weak-lensing convergence field, utilizing fast l-picola simulations and a Fisher analysis. We find competitive constraints in the ^{Ω}m–σ8 plane from the convergence PDF with 188 arcmin^{2} pixels compared to the cosmic shear power spectrum with an equivalent number of modes (ℓ < 886). The convergence PDF also partially breaks the degeneracy cosmic shear exhibits in that parameter space. A joint analysis of the convergence PDF and shear 2-point function also reduces the impact of shape measurement systematics, to which the PDF is less susceptible, and improves the total figure of merit by a factor of 2–3, depending on the level of systematics. Finally, we present a correction factor necessary for calculating the unbiased Fisher information from finite differences using a limited number of cosmological simulations.
Heterotic quantum and classical computing on convergence spaces
Patten, D. R.; Jakel, D. W.; Irwin, R. J.; Blair, H. A.
2015-05-01
Category-theoretic characterizations of heterotic models of computation, introduced by Stepney et al., combine computational models such as classical/quantum, digital/analog, synchronous/asynchronous, etc. to obtain increased computational power. A highly informative classical/quantum heterotic model of computation is represented by Abramsky's simple sequential imperative quantum programming language which extends the classical simple imperative programming language to encompass quantum computation. The mathematical (denotational) semantics of this classical language serves as a basic foundation upon which formal verification methods can be developed. We present a more comprehensive heterotic classical/quantum model of computation based on heterotic dynamical systems on convergence spaces. Convergence spaces subsume topological spaces but admit finer structure from which, in prior work, we obtained differential calculi in the cartesian closed category of convergence spaces allowing us to define heterotic dynamical systems, given by coupled systems of first order differential equations whose variables are functions from the reals to convergence spaces.
Arithmetic convergent sequence space defined by modulus function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taja Yaying
2019-10-01
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to introduce the sequence spaces $AC(f$ and $AS(f$ using arithmetic convergence and modulus function, and study algebraic and topological properties of this space, and certain inclusion results.
Convergent landscape. 39 and a half as (multi promotional intertext
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katarzyna Kopecka- Piech
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a broader characterisation of the media convergence strategy applied by producers of the Polish commercial television station (TVN series 39 and a half (39 i pół. In order to examine the convergence strategies of production, distribution, promotion and media usage, this paper analyzes metaphors of landscape, terrain, map and simulacrum. Moreover the concept of convergent (intertext is proposed. In the case study of 39 and a half the author examines three main strategies implemented by the creators: the promotional virtualisation of reality, making virtual reality more real, and multiplied fiction. Transmedial and synergetic brands illustrate the hybridisation of the convergent and integrated media landscape.
Convergence of a residual based artificial viscosity finite element method
Nazarov, Murtazo
2013-01-01
. We prove convergence of the method, applied to a scalar conservation law in two space dimensions, toward an unique entropy solution for implicit time stepping schemes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Properties of estimated characteristic roots
Bent Nielsen; Heino Bohn Nielsen
2008-01-01
Estimated characteristic roots in stationary autoregressions are shown to give rather noisy information about their population equivalents. This is remarkable given the central role of the characteristic roots in the theory of autoregressive processes. In the asymptotic analysis the problems appear when multiple roots are present as this implies a non-differentiablity so the Î´-method does not apply, convergence rates are slow, and the asymptotic distribution is non-normal. In finite samples ...
Effectiveness of vision therapy in school children with symptomatic convergence insufficiency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jung Un Jang
2017-01-01
Conclusion: Among convergence insufficiency symptoms, the following improved in particular: near point of convergence, exophoria, and near positive fusional vergence. These findings suggest that vision therapy is very effective to recover from symptomatic convergence insufficiency.
Time-course window estimator for ordinary differential equations linear in the parameters
Vujacic, Ivan; Dattner, Itai; Gonzalez, Javier; Wit, Ernst
In many applications obtaining ordinary differential equation descriptions of dynamic processes is scientifically important. In both, Bayesian and likelihood approaches for estimating parameters of ordinary differential equations, the speed and the convergence of the estimation procedure may
Convergence of hyperspherical adiabatic expansion for helium-like systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abrashkevich, A.G.; Abrashkevich, D.G.; Pojda, V.Yu.; Vinitskij, S.I.; Kaschiev, M.S.; Puzynin, I.V.
1988-01-01
The convergence of hyperspherical adiabatic expansion has been studied numerically. The spectral problems arising after separation of variables are solved by the finite-difference and finite element methods. The energies of the ground and some doubly excited staes of a hydrogen ion are calculated in the six-channel approximation within the 10 -4 a.u. accuracy. Obtained results demonstrate a rapid convergence of the hyperspherical adiabatic expansion. 14 refs.; 5 tabs
On cylindrically converging shock waves shaped by obstacles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eliasson, V; Henshaw, W D; Appelo, D
2007-07-16
Motivated by recent experiments, numerical simulations were performed of cylindrically converging shock waves. The converging shocks impinged upon a set of zero to sixteen regularly space obstacles. For more than two obstacles the resulting diffracted shock fronts formed polygonal shaped patterns near the point of focus. The maximum pressure and temperature as a function of number of obstacles were studied. The self-similar behavior of cylindrical, triangular and square-shaped shocks were also investigated.
Convergence of Transition Probability Matrix in CLVMarkov Models
Permana, D.; Pasaribu, U. S.; Indratno, S. W.; Suprayogi, S.
2018-04-01
A transition probability matrix is an arrangement of transition probability from one states to another in a Markov chain model (MCM). One of interesting study on the MCM is its behavior for a long time in the future. The behavior is derived from one property of transition probabilty matrix for n steps. This term is called the convergence of the n-step transition matrix for n move to infinity. Mathematically, the convergence of the transition probability matrix is finding the limit of the transition matrix which is powered by n where n moves to infinity. The convergence form of the transition probability matrix is very interesting as it will bring the matrix to its stationary form. This form is useful for predicting the probability of transitions between states in the future. The method usually used to find the convergence of transition probability matrix is through the process of limiting the distribution. In this paper, the convergence of the transition probability matrix is searched using a simple concept of linear algebra that is by diagonalizing the matrix.This method has a higher level of complexity because it has to perform the process of diagonalization in its matrix. But this way has the advantage of obtaining a common form of power n of the transition probability matrix. This form is useful to see transition matrix before stationary. For example cases are taken from CLV model using MCM called Model of CLV-Markov. There are several models taken by its transition probability matrix to find its convergence form. The result is that the convergence of the matrix of transition probability through diagonalization has similarity with convergence with commonly used distribution of probability limiting method.
Convergence of Dynamics and the Perron-Frobenius Operator
Gerlach, Moritz
2016-01-01
We complete the picture how the asymptotic behavior of a dynamical system is reflected by properties of the associated Perron-Frobenius operator. Our main result states that strong convergence of the powers of the Perron-Frobenius operator is equivalent to setwise convergence of the underlying dynamic in the measure algebra. This situation is furthermore characterized by a uniform mixing-like property of the system.
The IASB and FASB Convergence Process: Current Developments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saher Aqel
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The importance of harmonization of accounting atandards is now widely accepted all over the world. The increased international movement of investments has strongly forces the harmonization of the various national accounting standards in a uniform financial reporting system accepted worldwide. Recently the Securities and Exchange Commission has agreed to remove the requirement international firms reporting under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and listed in the U.S to provide reconciliation to U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP. This recent move of the Securities and Exchange Commission indicate that U.S. financial reporting is likely to converge with IFRS in the near future. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB are currently working together so as to converge their existing accounting standards into a common set of international accounting standards. The objective of this paper is to discuss the FASB and IASB convergence process by addressing current developments regarding significant topics that were deemed critical to this convergence. The convergence of GAAP and IFRS seems inevitable. Mixed opinions have been voiced about this convergence process. Many have begun to consider obstacles that is possible to lay ahead as well as the possible costs and benefits of such a move to the IFRS .
Worldwide Growth Convergence in the New Millennium: An Empirical Investigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lawrence J. Gomes
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Economic growth is an important ingredient for reducing poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals proposed by United Nations in 2000. Meeting these goals by the proposed 2015 target data depends on the ability of poor nations to grow their economies and improve their standards of living. Neoclassical and new growth theory suggests that there should be a negative relationship between a nation’s initial income and subsequent growth giving rise to either absolute convergence (income levels of all nations converge over time or conditional convergence (each nation converges to its unique steady-state income level. Using the most recent (2000-2013 World Bank data and cross-country regression techniques, I evaluated whether convergence has been occurring in the world in the last decade. My results showed a robust negative relationship between starting income level and subsequent growth. Savings and education were also associated with growth whereas trade was not. Overall, these results support the notion of convergence which is an encouraging finding as the world approaches the 2015 post-development agenda.
On Lamb and Rayleigh wave convergence in viscoelastic tissues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A; Humphrey, Tye C; Greenleaf, James F, E-mail: Nenadic.Ivan@mayo.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905 (United States)
2011-10-21
Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using a shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry to quantify the mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify the viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ's surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40-500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium.
Convergent approaches to determine an ecosystem's transpiration fraction
Berkelhammer, M.; Noone, D. C.; Wong, T. E.; Burns, S. P.; Knowles, J. F.; Kaushik, A.; Blanken, P. D.; Williams, M. W.
2016-06-01
The transpiration (T) fraction of total terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET), T/ET, can vary across ecosystems between 20-95% with a global average of ˜60%. The wide range may either reflect true heterogeneity between ecosystems and/or uncertainties in the techniques used to derive this property. Here we compared independent approaches to estimate T/ET at two needleleaf forested sites with a factor of 3 difference in leaf area index (LAI). The first method utilized water vapor isotope profiles and the second derived transpiration through its functional relationship with gross primary production. We found strong agreement between T/ET values from these two independent approaches although we noted a discrepancy at low vapor pressure deficits (VPD). We hypothesize that this divergence arises because stomatal conductance is independent of humidity at low VPD. Overall, we document significant synoptic-scale T/ET variability but minimal growing season-scale variability. This result indicates a high sensitivity of T/ET to passing weather but convergence toward a stable mean state, which is set by LAI. While changes in T/ET could emerge from a myriad of processes, including aboveground (LAI) or belowground (rooting depth) changes, there was only minimal interannual variability and no secular trend in our analysis of T/ET from the 15 year eddy covariance time series at Niwot Ridge. If the lack of trend observed here is apparent elsewhere, it suggests that the processes controlling the T and E fluxes are coupled in a way to maintain a stable ratio.
TFP Convergence in German States Since Reunification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista
A quarter-century after reunification, labor productivity in eastern Germany continues to lag systematically behind the West. Denison-Hall-Jones point-in-time estimates point to large gaps in total factor productivity as the proximate cause, and auxiliary measurements which do not rely on capital...... investment and plant and equipment. The best candidates for explaining the stubborn East-West TFP gap are the low concentration of managers in the East and the insufficient R&D expenditure, rather than the concentration of firm headquarters and R&D personnel....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galatolo, Stefano; Monge, Maurizio; Nisoli, Isaia
2016-01-01
We study the problem of the rigorous computation of the stationary measure and of the rate of convergence to equilibrium of an iterated function system described by a stochastic mixture of two or more dynamical systems that are either all uniformly expanding on the interval, either all contracting. In the expanding case, the associated transfer operators satisfy a Lasota–Yorke inequality, we show how to compute a rigorous approximations of the stationary measure in the L "1 norm and an estimate for the rate of convergence. The rigorous computation requires a computer-aided proof of the contraction of the transfer operators for the maps, and we show that this property propagates to the transfer operators of the IFS. In the contracting case we perform a rigorous approximation of the stationary measure in the Wasserstein–Kantorovich distance and rate of convergence, using the same functional analytic approach. We show that a finite computation can produce a realistic computation of all contraction rates for the whole parameter space. We conclude with a description of the implementation and numerical experiments. (paper)
Estimation of stochastic environment force for master–slave robotic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Neelu Nagpal
Subsequently, convergence analysis of error in the estimates is performed. Also, an expression of ... nonlinear and composite adaptive controller [7, 9] and disturbance ... block processing method and acts as an efficient estimator since this estimation ...... 0949-2. [32] Smith L 2006 Sequential Monte Carlo particle filtering for.
Campioli, M.; Malhi, Y.; Vicca, S.; Luyssaert, S.; Papale, D.; Peñuelas, J.; Reichstein, M.; Migliavacca, M.; Arain, M. A.; Janssens, I. A.
2016-01-01
The eddy-covariance (EC) micro-meteorological technique and the ecology-based biometric methods (BM) are the primary methodologies to quantify CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere (net ecosystem production, NEP) and its two components, ecosystem respiration and gross primary production. Here we show that EC and BM provide different estimates of NEP, but comparable ecosystem respiration and gross primary production for forest ecosystems globally. Discrepancies between methods are not related to environmental or stand variables, but are consistently more pronounced for boreal forests where carbon fluxes are smaller. BM estimates are prone to underestimation of net primary production and overestimation of leaf respiration. EC biases are not apparent across sites, suggesting the effectiveness of standard post-processing procedures. Our results increase confidence in EC, show in which conditions EC and BM estimates can be integrated, and which methodological aspects can improve the convergence between EC and BM. PMID:27966534
Campioli, M.; Malhi, Y.; Vicca, S.; Luyssaert, S.; Papale, D.; Peñuelas, J.; Reichstein, M.; Migliavacca, M.; Arain, M. A.; Janssens, I. A.
2016-12-01
The eddy-covariance (EC) micro-meteorological technique and the ecology-based biometric methods (BM) are the primary methodologies to quantify CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere (net ecosystem production, NEP) and its two components, ecosystem respiration and gross primary production. Here we show that EC and BM provide different estimates of NEP, but comparable ecosystem respiration and gross primary production for forest ecosystems globally. Discrepancies between methods are not related to environmental or stand variables, but are consistently more pronounced for boreal forests where carbon fluxes are smaller. BM estimates are prone to underestimation of net primary production and overestimation of leaf respiration. EC biases are not apparent across sites, suggesting the effectiveness of standard post-processing procedures. Our results increase confidence in EC, show in which conditions EC and BM estimates can be integrated, and which methodological aspects can improve the convergence between EC and BM.