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Sample records for superior yield potential

  1. Biomass and fishing potential yield of demersal resources from the outer shelf and upper slope of southern Brazil Biomasa y rendimiento potencial pesquero de recursos demersales de la plataforma externa y talud superior del sur de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Haimovici

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative abundance and fishing potential of the commercially valuable fishes and cephalopods with marketable size was assessed using two seasonal bottom trawl surveys performed in 2001 and 2002 on the outer shelf and upper slope (100-600 m depth off the coast of southern Brazil. These surveys were part of REVIZEE, a national program designed to assess the fishery potential within the Economic Exclusive Zone. Of the 228 fish and cephalopod species caught during the surveys, only 27 species and genera were considered to be of commercial interest. Commercial-sized individuals of these species made up 52.3% of the total catch. The total biomass was estimated to be 167,193 ton (± 22% and 165,460 ton (± 25% in the winter-spring and summer-autumn surveys, respectively. The most abundant species were the Argentine short-fin squid Illex argentinas, a species with highly variable recruitment, followed by the Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi, the gulf-hake Urophycis mystacea, and the monkfish Lophius gastrophysus. The latter three were intensively fished prior to the surveys, as well as the beardfish Polymixia lowei and silvery John dory Zenopsis conchifera, both relatively abundant but with a very low market value. The potential yield of the demersal fish species, not considering Illex argentinus, estimated with the Gulland equation for a mean natural mortality of M = 0.31, was 20,460 ton. When considering only Merluccius hubbsi, Urophycis mystacea, and Lophius gastrophysus, the potential yield decreased to 6,625 ton. The surveys showed that the fishery potential of the outer shelf and upper slope was substantially lower than that of the inner shelf. Therefore, this environment should be carefully monitored to avoid overfishing and fast depletion.Se evaluó la abundancia relativa y el potencial pesquero de peces y cefalópodos de especies y tamaños de valor comercial en dos muéstreos estacionales con redes de arrastre de fondo realizados en los a

  2. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  3. High-yielding Wheat Varieties Harbour Superior Plant Growth Promoting-Bacterial Endophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehwish Yousaf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the endophytic microbial flora of different wheat varieties to check whether a better yielding variety also harbours superior plant growth promoting bacteria. Such bacteria are helpful in food biotechnology as their application can enhance the yield of the crop.Material and Methods: Three wheat varieties (Seher, Faisalabad and Lasani were selected, Seher being the most superior variety. endophytic bacteria were isolated from the histosphere of the leaves and roots at different growth phases of the plants. The isolates were analyzed for plant growth promoting activities. Isolates giving best results were identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2013. All the experiments were conducted in triplicates.Results and Conclusion: The endophytes of Seher variety showed maximum plant growth promoting abilities. Among the shoot endophytes, the highest auxin production was shown by Seher isolate SHHP1-3 up to 51.9μg ml-1, whereas in the case of root endophytes, the highest auxin was produced by SHHR1-5 up to 36 μg ml-1. The bacteria showing significant plant growth promoting abilities were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Bacillus, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria species were the dominant bacteria showing all the traits of plant growth promotion. It can be concluded that Seher variety harbours superior plant growth promoting endophytes that must be one of the reasons for its better growth and yield as compared to the other two varieties. The investigated results support possible utilization of the selected isolates in wheat growth promotion with respect to increase in agro-productivity. The application of such bacteria could be useful to enhance wheat yield and can help in food biotechnology.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  4. Yield Potential of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the yield potential of fibre hemp in Denmark, defined as seed yield, biomass, stem and fibre production, five cultivars were evaluated in field trials at two sites during 1998-2000. The total dry matter yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre percent, plant height, and seed...

  5. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm with PALMSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.P.; Vera, A.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthur, R.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.; Fisher, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for palm oil can be met by reducing the gap between potential yield and actual yield. Simulation models can quantify potential yield, and therefore indicate the scope for intensification. A relatively simple physiological approach was used to develop PALMSIM, which is a model that

  6. Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

    2014-05-01

    To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water-saving in. Chinese Zone II wheat detected by developed functional markers. Zhenxian Gao, Zhanliang Shi, Aimin Zhang and Jinkao Guo. J. Genet. 94, 35–42. Table 1. Functional markers for high-yield or water-saving genes in wheat and ...

  8. Quantifying potential yield and water-limited yield of summer maize in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingnuo; Liu, Chaoshun; Chen, Maosi

    2017-09-01

    The North China Plain is a major food producing region in China, and climate change could pose a threat to food production in the region. Based on China Meteorological Forcing Dataset, simulating the growth of summer maize in North China Plain from 1979 to 2015 with the regional implementation of crop growth model WOFOST. The results showed that the model can reflect the potential yield and water-limited yield of Summer Maize in North China Plain through the calibration and validation of WOFOST model. After the regional implementation of model, combined with the reanalysis data, the model can better reproduce the regional history of summer maize yield in the North China Plain. The yield gap in Southeastern Beijing, southern Tianjin, southern Hebei province, Northwestern Shandong province is significant, these means the water condition is the main factor to summer maize yield in these regions.

  9. Economics and yields of energy plantations: Status and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, W.A.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L.

    1992-01-01

    A study was carried out to: determine the factors affecting the cost of energy conversion feedstocks in short rotation intensive culture plantations of trees; determine the factors influencing biomass yield; identify interrelationships between the previous two objectives; present estimates of potential biomass yields and associated economics; and to identify gaps in the knowledge of the economics and yields of biomass production and their interrelationships. Reported costs for most aspects had a wide range. Currently, yields of 10-15 dry Mg/hectare/y are readily achievable. Using the cost and yield data, and assuming a biomass price of $40/dry Mg, a series of cash flow analyses were performed. For the low cost inputs, all scenarios were marginally profitable. For the high cost inputs, none of the scenarios were profitable. A current scenario, using figures for contract farming, was not profitable, however this system would break even with a yield of 23.3 dry Mg/hectare/y, within the range of some production clones. A future scenario using farm labour with increased productivity, product values, and machinery efficiencies yielded a profit-making situation. The addition of incentives increased profitability. There is great potential for the production of woody biomass in Canada as a feedstock for energy and other products. Continued and more intensive breeding and selection to develop high yielding stress tolerant clones, cost efficient harvesting systems, continued research into optimization of planting density, rotation length and cultural techniques, and characterization of promising clones with respect to nutrient-use efficiency, site requirements and pest/disease resistance are important areas for further work. 81 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs

  10. Evaluation of polycross sweetpotato seedlings for root yield potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at determining the root yield potential of the sweetpotato seedlings, the variation in storage root flesh colour and response of the storage roots to major pests and diseases attacking sweetpotato in the field .The experiment was carried out in the screen house and at the Eastern experimental field of National ...

  11. Potential for yield in red clover (Trifolium pratense L. varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Red clover (Trifolium pratense L. is botanically a perennial, although it often behaves as a biennial. The crop usually lives 2 to 3 seasons in most clover-growing regions of the world and is generally conceded to be lacking in persistence. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the production potential and persistence of domestic and imported red clover varieties. Experiments were conducted at Rimski Šančevi Experiment Field during the period 2004-2006. The experimental materials were six varieties (K-17, Kolubara, Una, Viola, Start, Nike which were analyzed for the most important production characteristics: yield of green mass, dry matter yield and persistence. .

  12. Zero tillage: A potential technology to improve cotton yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hafiz Ghazanfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zero tillage technology revealed with no use of any soil inverting technique to grow crops. The crop plant seed is planted in the soil directly after irrigation to make the soil soft without any replenishing in soil layers. A study was conducted to evaluate cotton genotypes FH-114 and FH-142 for the consecutive three years of growing seasons from 2013-15. The seed of both genotypes was sown with two date of sowing, 1 March and 1 May of each three years of sowing under three tillage treatments (zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage in triplicate completely randomized split-split plot design. It was found from results that significant differences were recorded for tillage treatments, date of sowing, genotypes and their interactions. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the yield and it attributed traits for potential of FH-114 and FH-142 cotton genotypes. The genotype FH-142 was found with higher and batter performance as compared to FH-114 under zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage techniques. The traits bolls per plant, boll weight, fibre fineness, fibre strength, plant height, cotton yield per plant and sympodial branches per plant were found as most contributing traits towards cotton yield and production. It was also found that FH-142 gives higher output in terms of economic gain under zero tillage with 54% increase as compared to conventional tillage technique. It was suggested that zero tillage technology should be adopted to improve cotton yield and quality. It was also recommended that further study to evaluate zero tillage as potential technology should be performed with different regions, climate and timing throughout the world.

  13. Effect of nitrogen and water deficit type on the yield gap between the potential and attainable wheat yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit and N fertilizer are the two primary limiting factors for wheat yield in the North China plain, the most important winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production area in China. Analyzing the yield gap between the potential yield and the attainable yield can quantify the potential for increasing wheat production and exploring the limiting factors to yield gap in the high-yielding farming region of North China Plain. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT model was used to identify methods to increase the grain yield and decrease the gap. In order to explore the impact of N and cultivars on wheat yield in the different drought types, the climate conditions during 1981 to 2011 growing seasons was categorized into low, moderate, and severe water deficit classes according to the anomaly percentage of the water deficit rate during the entire wheat growing season. There are differences (P < 0.0001 in the variations of the potential yields among three cultivars over 30 yr. For all three water deficit types, the more recent cultivars Jimai22 and Shijiazhuang8 had higher yields compared to the older 'Jinan17'. As the N fertilizer rate increased, the yield gap decreased more substantially during the low water deficit years because of the significant increase in attainable yield. Overall, the yield gaps were smaller with less water stress. Replacement of cultivars and appropriate N fertilizer application based on the forecasted drought types can narrow the yield gap effectively.

  14. Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Blank

    Full Text Available Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields, and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes.

  15. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence in relation to the superior petrosal sinus: a potential cause of pulsatile tinnitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; Bi, W.; Li, J.; Li, Q.; Dong, C.; Zhao, P.; Lv, H.; Wang, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine the association between superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) and pulsatile tinnitus (PT). Materials and methods: Two SSCD groups included 408 unilateral persistent PT patients, and 511 controls undergoing head and neck dual-phase contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DP-CECT) for reasons other than PT. The prevalence of type I (no the superior petrosal sinus running through the dehiscence) and type II (superior semicircular canal dehiscence in relation to the superior petrosal sinus) SSCD was analysed using chi-square test. Results: SSCD was identified in 5.1% (21/408) of PT ears, significantly different from 2% (8/408) of non-PT ears and 0.7% (7/1022) of controls. There was no significant difference in SSCD prevalence between non-PT ears in the PT group and controls. In the PT group, 15/21 ears were type II SSCD; 6/21 ears were type I. Fifteen combined non-PT and control ears with SSCD included two type II and 13 type I SSCD. The prevalence of type II SSCD in PT ears was significantly higher than that of non-PT ears in both groups, and the prevalence of type I SSCD in PT ears was similar to that of non-PT ears in both groups. Conclusion: Compared with type I SSCD, there may be a causal relationship between type II SSCD and PT. -- Highlights: •The prevalence of type II SSCD in PT ears was significantly higher than that in non-PT ears in both the PT group and controls. •The prevalence of type I SSCD was similar among the PT ears and non-PT ears. •The superior petrosal sinus running through the dehiscence may be essential for SSCD to induce PT. •Venous phase CT images with bone window settings is the modality method to differentiate type II from type I SSCD

  16. Studies on seed yield potential of some selected kenaf (Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-11

    Jun 11, 2014 ... Kenaf seed yield depends on morpho-physiological traits between varieties, .... separated using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% ... Mean squares derived from combined analysis of variance for seed yield and yield components in 20 .... environment interaction and yield stability in winter wheat.

  17. Seed yield components and their potential interaction in grasses - to what extend does seed weigth influence yield?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, B; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

     In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though...... the number of reproductive tillers and floret site utilization (FSU) were unaffected by the treatments. Seed yield is affected by several yield components and reflects the interaction between the seed yield potential (e.g. number of reproductive tillers, number of spikelets and florets/spikelet per...... reproductive tiller), the utilization of the potential (e.g. seed set, seed weight) and the realization of the seed yield potential, defined as the number of florets forming a saleable seed. The realization of the seed yield potential is affected by seed retention, seed weight and other traits associated...

  18. Yield potential of a radiation induced early-dwarf mutant in linseed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, G.G.

    1975-01-01

    An early maturing dwarf mutant, TL-1 was isolated in the high yielding linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) wariety Neelum following seed irradiation with 50 kR gamma rays. The yield components of the mutant have been evaluated for its productivity in the M 7 generation. TL-1 is compact and significantly short in height (41.8 +- 2.71 cm) as compared to Neelum (79.2 +- 3.08 cm). In flowering the mutant is 30 days earlier than the parent under Trombay conditions. TL-1 and Neelum did not differ significantly in their mean number of primary branches. Although the mean seed yield per plant is lower, in 1000 seed weight the mutant is markedly superior to the parent. The oil content in TL-1 is significantly higher by 3.5 percent points than Neelum and its oil is lighter in colour. By growing more plants per unit area with reduced spacing, the yield potential of TL-1 was considerably increased. The productivity of oil per hectare per day of TL-1 was higher than Neelum. (author)

  19. Local durian (Durio zibethinus murr.) exploration for potentially superior tree as parents in Ngrambe District, Ngawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniastuti, E.; Anggita, A.; Nandariyah; Sukaya

    2018-03-01

    The characteristics durian based on specific area gives a wide diversity of phenotype. This research objective was to build an inventory of the local durian of Ngrambe as well as to obtain potentially superior local durian as prospective parent trees. The research was conducted in Ngrambe sub-district, on October 2015 until April 2016 using the explorative descriptive method. The determination of sample point used the non-probability method of snowball sampling type. Primary data include the morphology of plant characters, trunks, leaves, flower, fruits and seeds and their superiority. The data of the research were analyzed using SIMQUAL (Similarity for Qualitative) function based on the DICE coefficient on NTSYS v.2.02. The data cluster and dendrogram analyses were determined by Unweighted Pair-Group Arithmetic Average (UPGMA) method. The result of DICE coefficient analyses of 58 local durian accession based on the phenotypic character of vegetative organs ranged from 0.84-1.0. The phenotypic character of the vegetative and generative organ from 3 local durian accession superior potential ranged from 0.7 to 0.8. In conclusion, the accession of local durian which were Miyem and Rusmiyati have advantage and potential as prospective parent trees.

  20. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y.; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25–30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11–18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  1. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  2. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson eBarcelos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfil the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step towards this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  3. Studies on seed yield potential of some selected kenaf ( Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenaf seed yield depends on morpho-physiological traits between varieties, and the interaction between genotype and the environment. Studies were conducted in Ibadan, Ilora and Kisi stations of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&T), Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Oyo State, ...

  4. Potential of multiseeded mutant (msd) to boost sorghum grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed number per plant is an important determinant of the grain yield in cereal and other crops. We have isolated a class of multiseeded (msd) sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) mutants that are capable of producing three times the seed number and twice the seed weight per panicle as compared with t...

  5. Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on the FMs related to yield and water saving in wheat. Till date, six loci ..... Hu Y., Moiwo J. P., Yang Y., Han S. and Yang Y. 2010 Agricul- tural water-saving ... Lyu L., Hu Y., Li Y. and Wang P. 2007 Effect of irrigation treatment on water use ... Zhang Y. J., Fan P. S., Zhang X., Chen C. J. and Zhou M. G. 2009. Quantification of ...

  6. Potential dependent superiority of gold nanoparticles in comparison to iodinated contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Price A.; Rahman, Wan Nordiana W. Abd.; Wong, Christopher J.; Ackerly, Trevor; Geso, Moshi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the benefits in image contrast enhancement using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) compared to conventional iodinated contrast media. Materials and methods: Gold nanoparticles and iodinated contrast media were evaluated for contrast enhancement at various X-ray tube potentials in an imaging phantom. Iopromide and AuNP suspension were equalized according to molar concentration of radiopaque element (0.5077 Mol/L). Contrast-to-noise ratio is used to quantify contrast enhancement. Both projectional radiographic (40-80 kVp) and computed tomography (CT) (80-140kVp) imaging modalities were examined. Results and conclusions: Findings indicate 89% improvement in CNR at low energies near the mammographic range (40 kVp). However, as expected no significant difference in enhancement was observed at potentials commonly used for angiography (around 80 kVp) probably due to the k-edge influence for iodine. At the highest energies typically available in computed tomography, significant improvement in contrast enhancement using gold nanoparticles is obtained, 114% greater CNR than that produced by iodine at 140 kVp. Experimental findings for 70-120 kVp spectra correlate well with the theoretical calculations based on linear attenuation coefficients. Superior attenuation of gold nanoparticles at low and high kVp potentials support their further (pre)clinical evaluation.

  7. Morphological and radiological study of ossified superior transverse scapular ligament as potential risk factor of suprascapular nerve entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polguj, Michał; Sibiński, Marcin; Grzegorzewski, Andrzej; Waszczykowski, Michał; Majos, Agata; Topol, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    The suprascapular notch is covered superiorly by the superior transverse scapular ligament. This region is the most common place of suprascapular nerve entrapment formation. The study was performed on 812 specimens: 86 dry scapulae, 104 formalin-fixed cadaveric shoulders, and 622 computer topography scans of scapulae. In the cases with completely ossified superior transverse scapular ligament, the following measurements were performed: proximal and distal width of the bony bridge, middle transverse and vertical diameter of the suprascapular foramen, and area of the suprascapular foramen. An ossified superior transverse scapular ligament was observed more often in men and in the right scapula. The mean age of the subjects with a completely ossified superior transverse scapular ligament was found to be similar than in those without ossification. The ossified band-shaped type of superior transverse scapular ligament was more common than the fan-shaped type and reduced the space below the ligament to a significantly greater degree. The ossified band-shaped type should be taken into consideration as a potential risk factor in the formation of suprascapular nerve entrapment. It could explain the comparable frequency of neuropathy in various populations throughout the world despite the significant differences between them in occurrence of ossified superior transverse scapular ligament.

  8. Event-related potential effects of superior action anticipation in professional badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Xu, Guiping; Zhang, John X; Gao, Hongwei; Ye, Zuoer; Wang, Pin; Lin, Huiyan; Mo, Lei; Lin, Chong-De

    2011-04-04

    The ability to predict the trajectory of a ball based on the opponent's body kinematics has been shown to be critical to high-performing athletes in many sports. However, little is known about the neural correlates underlying such superior ability in action anticipation. The present event-related potential study compared brain responses from professional badminton players and non-player controls when they watched video clips of badminton games and predicted a ball's landing position. Replicating literature findings, the players made significantly more accurate judgments than the controls and showed better action anticipation. Correspondingly, they showed enlarged amplitudes of two ERP components, a P300 peaking around 350ms post-stimulus with a parietal scalp distribution and a P2 peaking around 250ms with a posterior-occipital distribution. The P300 effect was interpreted to reflect primed access and/or directing of attention to game-related memory representations in the players facilitating their online judgment of related actions. The P2 effect was suggested to reflect some generic learning effects. The results identify clear neural responses that differentiate between different levels of action anticipation associated with sports expertise. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential well yields from unconsolidated deposits in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolcott, Stephen W.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive groundwater protection plan, developed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in 1985, identified the need to delineate significant aquifers within the state. A map of the unconsolidated aquifers in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins was compiled from available data on the surficial geology and well yields. It delineates the significant unconsolidated aquifers and indicates the potential yield of wells that tap these aquifers. The potential well yield is categorized into three ranges: 100 gal/min. No yield range is given for till, but some large diameter or dug wells in till may yield up 10 gal/min. (Lantz-PTT)

  10. Frontal Fibers Connecting the Superior Frontal Gyrus to Broca Area: A Corticocortical Evoked Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ookawa, Satoshi; Enatsu, Rei; Kanno, Aya; Ochi, Satoko; Akiyama, Yukinori; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Yamao, Yukihiro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Riki; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2017-11-01

    The frontal aslant tract is a deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) to Broca area. This fiber is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. The aim of this study was to electrophysiologically investigate this network using corticocortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). This study enrolled 8 patients with brain tumors or medically intractable focal epilepsies who underwent frontal craniotomy over the language-dominant side. All patients underwent CCEP recordings during tumor resection or during invasive evaluation for epilepsy surgery. Alternating 1-Hz electrical stimuli were delivered to pars opercularis (pO) and pars triangularis (pT), corresponding to Broca area, and SFG via the subdural grid electrodes with intensity of 10 mA. Electrocorticograms from SFG and pO/pT time-locked to 50 stimuli were averaged in each trial to obtain CCEP responses. In all patients, stimulation of pO/pT induced CCEP responses in SFG. CCEP responses were recorded in lateral SFG in 5 patients and in supplementary motor areas in 4 patients. Reciprocality was observed in 7 patients in the stimulation of SFG. CCEP responses were significantly faster at SFG from pO/pT than at pO/pT from SFG (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.028). The present study demonstrated a corticocortical network connecting Broca areas and SFG in a reciprocal manner. Our findings might provide new insight into language and motor integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Do soil organic carbon levels affect potential yields and nitrogen use efficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Markussen, Bo; Knudsen, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is broadly recognised as an important parameter affecting soil quality, and can therefore contribute to improving a number of soil properties that influence crop yield. Previous research generally indicates that soil organic carbon has positive effects on crop yields......, the yield with no fertiliser N application and the N use efficiency would be positively affected by SOC level. A statistical model was developed to explore relationships between SOC and potential yield, yields at zero N application and N use efficiency (NUE). The model included a variety of variables...

  12. Improving carbon dioxide yields and cell efficiencies for ethanol oxidation by potential scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2014-12-01

    An ethanol electrolysis cell with aqueous ethanol supplied to the anode and nitrogen at the cathode has been operated under potential cycling conditions in order to increase the yield of carbon dioxide and thereby increase cell efficiency relative to operation at a fixed potential. At ambient temperature, faradaic yields of CO2 as high as 26% have been achieved, while only transient CO2 production was observed at constant potential. Yields increased substantially at higher temperatures, with maximum values at Pt anodes reaching 45% at constant potential and 65% under potential cycling conditions. Use of a PtRu anode increased the cell efficiency by decreasing the anode potential, but this was offset by decreased CO2 yields. Nonetheless, cycling increased the efficiency relative to constant potential. The maximum yields at PtRu and 80 °C were 13% at constant potential and 32% under potential cycling. The increased yields under cycling conditions have been attributed to periodic oxidative stripping of adsorbed CO, which occurs at lower potentials on PtRu than on Pt. These results will be important in the optimization of operating conditions for direct ethanol fuel cells and for the electrolysis of ethanol to produce clean hydrogen.

  13. [Spatial-temporal variations of spring maize potential yields in a changing climate in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi Juan; Yang, Xiao Guang; Lyu, Shuo; Wang, Jing; Lin, Xiao Mao

    2018-01-01

    Based on meteorological data, agro-meteorological observations, and agricultural statistical data in Northeast China (NEC), by using the validated Agricultural Production System sIMulator (APSIM-maize), the potential, attainable, potential farmers' and actual farmers' yields of spring maize during the period 1961 to 2015 were analyzed, and the effects of climate variation on maize potential yield in NEC were quantified. Results indicated that the potential yield of spring maize was 12.2 t·hm -2 during the period 1961 to 2015, with those in northeast being lower than southwest within the study region. The attainable yield of spring maize was 11.3 t·hm -2 , and showed a similar spatial distribution with potential yield. Under the current farmers' management practices, mean simulated potential and actual farmers' yields were 6.5 and 4.5 t·hm -2 , respectively. Assuming there were no changes in cultivars and management practices in NEC, the mean potential, attainable, and potential farmers' yields of spring maize would decrease by 0.34, 0.25 and 0.10 t·hm -2 per decade in NEC. However, the actual farmers' yields increased with the value of 1.27 t·hm -2 per decade averaged over NEC. Due to climate variation, year-to-year variations of spring maize potential, attainable, and potential farmers' yields were significant, ranging from 10.0 to 14.4, 9.8 to 13.3, 4.4 to 8.5 t·hm -2 , respectively.

  14. A short proof that the Coulomb-gauge potentials yield the retarded fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, Jose A, E-mail: herasgomez@gmail.co [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa, Mexico D. F. 02200 (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    A short demonstration that the potentials in the Coulomb gauge yield the retarded electric and magnetic fields is presented. This demonstration is relatively simple and can be presented in an advanced undergraduate course of electromagnetic theory.

  15. A short proof that the Coulomb-gauge potentials yield the retarded fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras, Jose A

    2011-01-01

    A short demonstration that the potentials in the Coulomb gauge yield the retarded electric and magnetic fields is presented. This demonstration is relatively simple and can be presented in an advanced undergraduate course of electromagnetic theory.

  16. HIGH YIELD GENETICALLY MODIFIED WHEAT IN GERMANY: SOCIO ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF ITS POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Wree, Philipp; Sauer, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    High Yield Genetically Modified Wheat (HOSUT) HOSUT lines are an innovation in wheat breeding based on biotechnology with an incremental yield potential of ca. 28% compared to conventional wheat varieties. We apply the real option concept of Maximum Incremental Social Tolerable Irreversible Costs (MISTICs) to do an ex-ante assessment of the socioeconomic potential of HOSUT lines for Germany. We analyze the cost and benefits to farmer and society within two scenarios. Our results of our scenar...

  17. Potential yields of wells in unconsolidated aquifers in upstate New York-- Niagara sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    1988-01-01

    This map depicts the locations and potential well yields of unconsolidated aquifers in western New York at a scale of 1:250 ,000. It also delineates segments of aquifers that are used for public water supplies and designated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation as ' Primary Water Supply Aquifers. ' The map also lists published reports that give detailed information on each area. Most aquifers were deposited in low areas, such as valleys and plains, during deglaciation of the region. Thick, permeable, well-sorted sand and gravel units yield large quantities of water - more than 100 gal/min - to properly constructed wells. Thin sand units and sand and gravel units and thicker gravel units that have a large content of silt and fine sand yield moderate amounts of water, 10 to 100 gal/min. Dug wells that tap till or lacustrine deposits yield less than 5 gal/min. Well yields from bedrock are not indicated. (USGS)

  18. Explaining the high voice superiority effect in polyphonic music: evidence from cortical evoked potentials and peripheral auditory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J; Marie, Céline; Bruce, Ian C; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2014-02-01

    Natural auditory environments contain multiple simultaneously-sounding objects and the auditory system must parse the incoming complex sound wave they collectively create into parts that represent each of these individual objects. Music often similarly requires processing of more than one voice or stream at the same time, and behavioral studies demonstrate that human listeners show a systematic perceptual bias in processing the highest voice in multi-voiced music. Here, we review studies utilizing event-related brain potentials (ERPs), which support the notions that (1) separate memory traces are formed for two simultaneous voices (even without conscious awareness) in auditory cortex and (2) adults show more robust encoding (i.e., larger ERP responses) to deviant pitches in the higher than in the lower voice, indicating better encoding of the former. Furthermore, infants also show this high-voice superiority effect, suggesting that the perceptual dominance observed across studies might result from neurophysiological characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Although musically untrained adults show smaller responses in general than musically trained adults, both groups similarly show a more robust cortical representation of the higher than of the lower voice. Finally, years of experience playing a bass-range instrument reduces but does not reverse the high voice superiority effect, indicating that although it can be modified, it is not highly neuroplastic. Results of new modeling experiments examined the possibility that characteristics of middle-ear filtering and cochlear dynamics (e.g., suppression) reflected in auditory nerve firing patterns might account for the higher-voice superiority effect. Simulations show that both place and temporal AN coding schemes well-predict a high-voice superiority across a wide range of interval spacings and registers. Collectively, we infer an innate, peripheral origin for the higher-voice superiority observed in human

  19. Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improving carbon dioxide yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2014-12-01

    A direct ethanol fuel cell has been operated under sinusoidal (AC) potential cycling conditions in order to increase the yield of carbon dioxide and thereby increase cell efficiency relative to operation at a fixed potential. At 80 °C, faradaic yields of CO2 as high as 25% have been achieved with a PtRu anode catalyst, while the maximum CO2 production at constant potential was 13%. The increased yields under cycling conditions have been attributed to periodic oxidative stripping of adsorbed CO. These results will be important in the optimization of operating conditions for direct ethanol fuel cells, where the benefits of potential cycling are projected to increase as catalysts that produce CO2 more efficiently are implemented.

  20. Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: yield potential, soil quality, and precision agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassman, K G

    1999-05-25

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) provide about two-thirds of all energy in human diets, and four major cropping systems in which these cereals are grown represent the foundation of human food supply. Yield per unit time and land has increased markedly during the past 30 years in these systems, a result of intensified crop management involving improved germplasm, greater inputs of fertilizer, production of two or more crops per year on the same piece of land, and irrigation. Meeting future food demand while minimizing expansion of cultivated area primarily will depend on continued intensification of these same four systems. The manner in which further intensification is achieved, however, will differ markedly from the past because the exploitable gap between average farm yields and genetic yield potential is closing. At present, the rate of increase in yield potential is much less than the expected increase in demand. Hence, average farm yields must reach 70-80% of the yield potential ceiling within 30 years in each of these major cereal systems. Achieving consistent production at these high levels without causing environmental damage requires improvements in soil quality and precise management of all production factors in time and space. The scope of the scientific challenge related to these objectives is discussed. It is concluded that major scientific breakthroughs must occur in basic plant physiology, ecophysiology, agroecology, and soil science to achieve the ecological intensification that is needed to meet the expected increase in food demand.

  1. Meeting the global food demand of the future by engineering crop photosynthesis and yield potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Stephen P; Marshall-Colon, Amy; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2015-03-26

    Increase in demand for our primary foodstuffs is outstripping increase in yields, an expanding gap that indicates large potential food shortages by mid-century. This comes at a time when yield improvements are slowing or stagnating as the approaches of the Green Revolution reach their biological limits. Photosynthesis, which has been improved little in crops and falls far short of its biological limit, emerges as the key remaining route to increase the genetic yield potential of our major crops. Thus, there is a timely need to accelerate our understanding of the photosynthetic process in crops to allow informed and guided improvements via in-silico-assisted genetic engineering. Potential and emerging approaches to improving crop photosynthetic efficiency are discussed, and the new tools needed to realize these changes are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Palatal approach of anterior superior alveolar injection technique may not be potentially useful in periodontal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pragathi Raghavendra; Acharya, Anirudh Balakrishna; Thakur, Srinath Lakshman

    2016-01-01

    The palatal approach of anterior superior alveolar (P-ASA) using WAND injection was reported to effectively provide a profound bilateral maxillary anesthesia of the soft tissue of anterior one-third of the palate and facial gingivae extending from canine to canine which lasted for more than an hour thus making it ideal for scaling root planing and minor periodontal procedures in the anterior maxilla. Our study suggests that the conventional P-ASA injection is of very short duration and the extent of anesthesia was not profound and consistent. This has not been reported earlier in the literature. Thirty-five cases (20 males and 15 females), who underwent scaling, root planing and minor periodontal surgical procedures such as abscess drainage, gingivectomy, and frenectomy in the maxillary anterior region in the age range of 19-45 years was assessed for the efficacy of the P-ASA injection. After the administration of the P-ASA injection, the subjective and the objective symptoms were used to evaluate the extent and duration of the anesthesia at 10, 15, and 20 min. This study suggests that the conventional P-ASA injection technique does not provide anesthesia for more than 20 min. Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used to compare the effect of anesthesia at the different time intervals and the results were found to be statistically significant ( P periodontal surgery of the anterior maxilla.

  3. Palatal approach of anterior superior alveolar injection technique may not be potentially useful in periodontal procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragathi Raghavendra Bhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The palatal approach of anterior superior alveolar (P-ASA using WAND injection was reported to effectively provide a profound bilateral maxillary anesthesia of the soft tissue of anterior one-third of the palate and facial gingivae extending from canine to canine which lasted for more than an hour thus making it ideal for scaling root planing and minor periodontal procedures in the anterior maxilla. Our study suggests that the conventional P-ASA injection is of very short duration and the extent of anesthesia was not profound and consistent. This has not been reported earlier in the literature. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five cases (20 males and 15 females, who underwent scaling, root planing and minor periodontal surgical procedures such as abscess drainage, gingivectomy, and frenectomy in the maxillary anterior region in the age range of 19–45 years was assessed for the efficacy of the P-ASA injection. After the administration of the P-ASA injection, the subjective and the objective symptoms were used to evaluate the extent and duration of the anesthesia at 10, 15, and 20 min. Results: This study suggests that the conventional P-ASA injection technique does not provide anesthesia for more than 20 min. Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used to compare the effect of anesthesia at the different time intervals and the results were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The conventional P-ASA injection technique is of very short duration and does not demonstrate effectiveness in periodontal surgery of the anterior maxilla.

  4. Potential yields of wells in unconsolidated aquifers in upstate New York--Hudson-Mohawk sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugliosi, Edward F.; Trudell, Ruth A.; Casey, George D.

    1988-01-01

    This map shows the location and potential well yields of unconsolidated aquifers in the Hudson-Mohawk region at a scale of 1:250,000. It also delineates segments of aquifers that are heavily used by community water systems and designated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation as ' Primary Water Supply ' aquifers, and cites published reports that give detailed information on each area. Most aquifers were deposited in low-lying areas such as valleys or plains during deglaciations of the region. Thick, permeable, well-sorted sand and gravel deposits generally yield large quantities of water, greater than 100 gal/min. Thin sand, sand and gravel deposits, or thicker gravel units that have a large content of silt and fine sand, yield moderate amounts of water, 10 to 100 gal/min. Wells dug in till and those drilled in bedrock commonly yield less than 10 gal/min. (USGS)

  5. Potential yields of wells in unconsolidated aquifers in upstate New York--lower Hudson sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugliosi, Edward F.; Trudell, Ruth A.

    1988-01-01

    This map shows the location and potential well yields from unconsolidated aquifers in the lower-Hudson region at a 1:250 ,000 scale. It also delineates segments of aquifers that are heavily used by community water systems and designated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation as ' Primary water supply ' aquifers and cites published reports that give detailed information on each area. Most aquifers were deposited in low-lying areas such as valleys or plains during deglaciation of the region. Thick, permeable, well-sorted sand and gravel deposits generally yield large quantities of water, more than 100 gal/min. Thin sand, sand and gravel deposits, or thicker gravel units that have a large content of silt and fine sand, yield moderate amounts of water, 10 to 100 gal/min. Wells dug in till and those drilled in bedrock commonly yield less than 10 gal/min. (USGS)

  6. Potential yields of wells in unconsolidated aquifers in upstate New York-- Adirondack sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugliosi, Edward F.; Trudell, Ruth A.; Casey, George D.

    1988-01-01

    This map shows the location and potential well yield from unconsolidated aquifers in the Adirondack region at a 1:250,000 scale. It also delineates segments of aquifers that are heavily used by community water systems and designated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation as ' Primary Water Supply ' aquifers and cites published reports that give detailed information on each area. Most aquifers were deposited in low-lying areas such as valleys or plains during deglaciation of the region. Thick, permeable, well-sorted sand and gravel deposits generally yield large quantities of water, greater than 100 gal/min. Thin sand, sand and gravel deposits, or thicker gravel units have a large content of silt and fine sand, yield moderate amounts of water, 10 to 100 gal/min. Wells dug in till and those drilled in bedrock commonly yield less than 10 gal/min. (USGS)

  7. Stability of rust resistance and yield potential of some icarda bread wheat lines in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.J.A.; Khan, A.J.; Azam, F.; Mirza, J.I.; Atiq-ur-Rehman

    2003-01-01

    Thirty bread wheat lines resistant to Yellow rust (Yr) were selected after careful screening from two ICARDA nurseries during 1998 - 1999, Rabi season at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab, Peshawar under severe disease pressure. In the following crop cycle, these selections were again field evaluated for stability and effectiveness of Yr resistance at multilocations while their yield potential was ascertained at Tarnab in two different trials with Tatara as commercial check. Results revealed that uniformity was found in the potential behavior of 23 lines (77%) in both the cropping seasons against Yr. This included some high yielding (up to 7067 kg/ ha) and low yielding lines (up to 4333 kg / ha) when compared with the check (6089 kg / ha). Yield potential of some high yielding lines with stable Yr resistance should be further evaluated over sites and seasons for wide adaptability, under national uniform testing in order to select and deploy future varieties to combat Yr for acquiring food security in Pakistan.(author)

  8. Predicting spring barley yield from variety-specific yield potential, disease resistance and straw length, and from environment-specific disease loads and weed pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Kristensen, Kristian; Pinnschmidt, Hans O.

    2008-01-01

    For low-input crop production, well-characterised varieties increase the possibilities of managing diseases and weeds. This analysis aims at developing a framework for analyzing grain yield using external varietal information about disease resistance, weed competitiveness and yield potential and ...... growth habit. Higher grain yield was thus predicted for taller plants under weed pressure. The results are discussed in relation to the model framework, impact of the considered traits and use of information from conventional variety testing in organic cropping systems....

  9. Potentials of flora species on the yield of honey in Dakka Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the potentials of flora on the yield of honey in Bali Local Government Area of Taraba State. Floral resources that could accommodate possible apicultural industry have not been examined in the study area. Data on plant species (trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants) utilized by honeybees were obtained ...

  10. Economics and yields of energy plantations: Status and potential, 1992-1993 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambles, R.L.; Kenney, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    An update is presented of a study carried out to: determine the factors affecting the cost of energy conversion feedstocks in short rotation intensive culture plantations of trees; determine the factors influencing biomass yield; identify interrelationships between the previous two objectives; present estimates of potential biomass yields and associated economics; and to identify gaps in the knowledge of the economics and yields of biomass production and their interrelationships. Developments in economics and yields in short rotation intensive silviculture for the production of biomass energy since 1991 are documented. The most substantial changes have been: the introduction of new clones in Sweden with a 20% increase in yield; illustrating the potential genetic gains achievable through selection and breeding; and halving of harvesting costs with new machinery. Harvesting costs with chipping incorporated have fallen to $51.21/dry tonne. The twin row ESM and Frobbester harvesters have lower estimated costs of $36.62 and $ 33.69 respectively. Agricultural based machines have further reduced costs to $19.42 and $26.12/dry tonne. Using these new data, three new scenarios were developed for cost of production analysis, using contract labour, farm labour or farm labour plus a subsidy. A contracted operation is now viable with an annual equivalent net value (AENV) of $35/ha. With the use of farm labour for most operations and omitting land rent, profitability increased to $127/ha. With a subsidy of $75/ha, the AENV increases to $205/ha. 25 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. The potential of satellite-observed crop phenology to enhance yield gap assessments in smallholder landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M A Duncan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of the undernourished people on the planet obtain their entitlements to food via agricultural-based livelihood strategies, often on underperforming croplands and smallholdings. In this context, expanding cropland extent is not a viable strategy for smallholders to meet their food needs. Therefore, attention must shift to increasing productivity on existing plots and ensuring yield gaps do not widen. Thus, supporting smallholder farmers to sustainably increase the productivity of their lands is one part of a complex solution to realising universal food security. However, the information (e.g. location and causes of cropland underperformance required to support measures to close yield gaps in smallholder landscapes are often not available. This paper reviews the potential of crop phenology, observed from satellites carrying remote sensing sensors, to fill this information gap. It is suggested that on a theoretical level phenological approaches can reveal greater intra-cropland thematic detail, and increase the accuracy of crop extent maps and crop yield estimates. However, on a practical level the spatial mismatch between the resolution at which crop phenology can be estimated from satellite remote sensing data and the scale of yield variability in smallholder croplands inhibits its use in this context. Similarly, the spatial coverage of remote sensing-derived phenology offers potential for integration with ancillary spatial datasets to identify causes of yield gaps. To reflect the complexity of smallholder cropping systems requires ancillary datasets at fine spatial resolutions which, often, are not available. This further precludes the use of crop phenology in attempts to unpick the causes of yield gaps. Research agendas should focus on generating fine spatial resolution crop phenology, either via data fusion or through new sensors (e.g. Sentinel-2 in smallholder croplands. This has potential to transform the applied use of remote sensing

  12. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) with PALMSIM: Model description, evaluation and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.; Castaneda Vera, A.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthür, T.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the gap between water-limited potential yield and actual yield in oil palm production systems through intensification is seen as an important option for sustainably increasing palm oil production. Simulation models can play an important role in quantifying water-limited potential yield, and

  13. Simulating the potential yield and yield gaps of sugar beet due to water and nitrogen limitations in Khorasan province using SUCROS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Deihimfard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Crop productivity is highly constrained by water and nitrogen limitations in many areas of the world (Kalra et al., 2007. Therefore, there is a need to investigate more on nitrogen and water management to achieve higher production as well as quality. Irrigated sugar beet in the cropping systems of Khorasan province in northeastern of Iran accounts for about 34% of the land area under sugar beet production (~115,000 ha with an average yield of around 36 t.ha-1 (Anonymous, 2009. However, there is a huge yield gap (the difference between potential and water and nitrogen-limited yield mainly due to biotic and abiotic factors causing major reduction in farmers’ yield. Accordingly, yield gap analysis should be carried out to reduce the yield reduction and reach the farmer’s yield to the potential yield. The current study aimed to simulate potential yield as well as yield gap related to water and nitrogen shortage in the major sugar beet-growing areas of Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and methods This study was carried out in 6 locations across Khorasan province, which is located in the northeast of Iran. Long term weather data for 1986 to 2009 were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization for 6 selected locations. The weather data included daily sunshine hours (h, daily maximum and minimum temperatures (◦C, and daily rainfall (mm. Daily solar radiation was estimated using the Goudriaan (1993 method. The validated SUCROSBEET model (Deihimfard, 2011; Deihimfard et al., 2011 was then used to estimate potential, water and nitrogen-limited yield and yield gap of sugar beet for 6 selected locations across the Khorasan province in the northeast of Iran. This model simulates the impacts of weather, genotype and management factors on crop growth and development, soil water and nitrogen balance on a daily basis and finally it predicts crop yield. The model requires input data, including local weather and soil conditions, cultivar

  14. Estimating national crop yield potential and the relevance of weather data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wart, Justin

    2011-12-01

    To determine where, when, and how to increase yields, researchers often analyze the yield gap (Yg), the difference between actual current farm yields and crop yield potential. Crop yield potential (Yp) is the yield of a crop cultivar grown under specific management limited only by temperature and solar radiation and also by precipitation for water limited yield potential (Yw). Yp and Yw are critical components of Yg estimations, but are very difficult to quantify, especially at larger scales because management data and especially daily weather data are scarce. A protocol was developed to estimate Yp and Yw at national scales using site-specific weather, soils and management data. Protocol procedures and inputs were evaluated to determine how to improve accuracy of Yp, Yw and Yg estimates. The protocol was also used to evaluate raw, site-specific and gridded weather database sources for use in simulations of Yp or Yw. The protocol was applied to estimate crop Yp in US irrigated maize and Chinese irrigated rice and Yw in US rainfed maize and German rainfed wheat. These crops and countries account for >20% of global cereal production. The results have significant implications for past and future studies of Yp, Yw and Yg. Accuracy of national long-term average Yp and Yw estimates was significantly improved if (i) > 7 years of simulations were performed for irrigated and > 15 years for rainfed sites, (ii) > 40% of nationally harvested area was within 100 km of all simulation sites, (iii) observed weather data coupled with satellite derived solar radiation data were used in simulations, and (iv) planting and harvesting dates were specified within +/- 7 days of farmers actual practices. These are much higher standards than have been applied in national estimates of Yp and Yw and this protocol is a substantial step in making such estimates more transparent, robust, and straightforward. Finally, this protocol may be a useful tool for understanding yield trends and directing

  15. Potential limitations for potato yields in raised soil field systems near Lake Titicaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozada Diego Sánchez de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, various non-governmental organizations have strongly encouraged Bolivian farmers in the Altiplano region near Lake Titicaca to resume the ancestral agricultural practice of constructing raised fields. In addition to improved drainage and possibilities this practice affords for sub-irrigation, advocated benefits of this system traditionally include frost mitigation and high crop yields. Until recently, reliable data to assess the extent of these benefits were unfortunately lacking. In this context, field experiments on raised fields were designed and carried out at two locations in the Bolivian Altiplano to obtain reliable potato yield and temperature data. Observed yields ranged from 2.73 to 10.80 t ha-1 at the first site, where salinity caused significant yield variability (R² = 0.79. At the second site, yields per raised platform varied between 8.25 and 33.45 t ha-1. However, comparable yields were obtained in flat control plots in spite of a mid-season frost, and the minimum temperatures differed only by 1ºC in the conventional plots relative to the raised fields. These results suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the potential benefits of raised fields in terms of frost mitigation or increased yields might only be observable in exceptionally bad years, when extreme frosts wipe out entire potato crops on conventional fields. Nevertheless, it is argued that in spite of these marginally supportive observations, raised-field agriculture may still be a viable option for farmers to consider if the water-filled channels between the raised fields are managed for fish and fertilizer production.

  16. Improving yield potential in crops under elevated CO(2): Integrating the photosynthetic and nitrogen utilization efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya; Seneweera, Saman; Rodin, Joakim; Materne, Michael; Burch, David; Rothstein, Steven J; Spangenberg, German

    2012-01-01

    Increasing crop productivity to meet burgeoning human food demand is challenging under changing environmental conditions. Since industrial revolution atmospheric CO(2) levels have linearly increased. Developing crop varieties with increased utilization of CO(2) for photosynthesis is an urgent requirement to cope with the irreversible rise of atmospheric CO(2) and achieve higher food production. The primary effects of elevated CO(2) levels in most crop plants, particularly C(3) plants, include increased biomass accumulation, although initial stimulation of net photosynthesis rate is only temporal and plants fail to sustain the maximal stimulation, a phenomenon known as photosynthesis acclimation. Despite this acclimation, grain yield is known to marginally increase under elevated CO(2). The yield potential of C(3) crops is limited by their capacity to exploit sufficient carbon. The "C fertilization" through elevated CO(2) levels could potentially be used for substantial yield increase. Rubisco is the rate-limiting enzyme in photosynthesis and its activity is largely affected by atmospheric CO(2) and nitrogen availability. In addition, maintenance of the C/N ratio is pivotal for various growth and development processes in plants governing yield and seed quality. For maximizing the benefits of elevated CO(2), raising plant nitrogen pools will be necessary as part of maintaining an optimal C/N balance. In this review, we discuss potential causes for the stagnation in yield increases under elevated CO(2) levels and explore possibilities to overcome this limitation by improved photosynthetic capacity and enhanced nitrogen use efficiency. Opportunities of engineering nitrogen uptake, assimilatory, and responsive genes are also discussed that could ensure optimal nitrogen allocation toward expanding source and sink tissues. This might avert photosynthetic acclimation partially or completely and drive for improved crop production under elevated CO(2) levels.

  17. Improving yield potential in crops under elevated CO2: Integrating the photosynthetic and nitrogen utilization efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya; Seneweera, Saman; Rodin, Joakim; Materne, Michael; Burch, David; Rothstein, Steven J.; Spangenberg, German

    2012-01-01

    Increasing crop productivity to meet burgeoning human food demand is challenging under changing environmental conditions. Since industrial revolution atmospheric CO2 levels have linearly increased. Developing crop varieties with increased utilization of CO2 for photosynthesis is an urgent requirement to cope with the irreversible rise of atmospheric CO2 and achieve higher food production. The primary effects of elevated CO2 levels in most crop plants, particularly C3 plants, include increased biomass accumulation, although initial stimulation of net photosynthesis rate is only temporal and plants fail to sustain the maximal stimulation, a phenomenon known as photosynthesis acclimation. Despite this acclimation, grain yield is known to marginally increase under elevated CO2. The yield potential of C3 crops is limited by their capacity to exploit sufficient carbon. The “C fertilization” through elevated CO2 levels could potentially be used for substantial yield increase. Rubisco is the rate-limiting enzyme in photosynthesis and its activity is largely affected by atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen availability. In addition, maintenance of the C/N ratio is pivotal for various growth and development processes in plants governing yield and seed quality. For maximizing the benefits of elevated CO2, raising plant nitrogen pools will be necessary as part of maintaining an optimal C/N balance. In this review, we discuss potential causes for the stagnation in yield increases under elevated CO2 levels and explore possibilities to overcome this limitation by improved photosynthetic capacity and enhanced nitrogen use efficiency. Opportunities of engineering nitrogen uptake, assimilatory, and responsive genes are also discussed that could ensure optimal nitrogen allocation toward expanding source and sink tissues. This might avert photosynthetic acclimation partially or completely and drive for improved crop production under elevated CO2 levels. PMID:22833749

  18. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4(+) permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4(+) conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunge, Kosala; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Gidda, Satinder; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4(+)). The NH4(+) uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4(+) transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4(+) uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4(+) assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4(+) permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4(+) content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4(+) fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4(+) contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4(+) levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  19. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4 + permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4 + conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4 +). The NH4 + uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4 + transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4 + uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4 + assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4 + permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4 + content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4 + fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4 + contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4 + levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions. PMID:24420570

  20. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to vertex low frequency vibration as a diagnostic test for superior canal dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrecchia, Luca; Westin, Magnus; Duan, Maoli; Brantberg, Krister

    2016-04-01

    To explore ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) to low-frequency vertex vibration (125 Hz) as a diagnostic test for superior canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome. The oVEMP using 125 Hz single cycle bone-conducted vertex vibration were tested in 15 patients with unilateral superior canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome, 15 healthy controls and in 20 patients with unilateral vestibular loss due to vestibular neuritis. Amplitude, amplitude asymmetry ratio, latency and interaural latency difference were parameters of interest. The oVEMP amplitude was significantly larger in SCD patients when affected sides (53 μVolts) were compared to non-affected (17.2 μVolts) or compared to healthy controls (13.6 μVolts). Amplitude larger than 33.8 μVolts separates effectively the SCD ears from the healthy ones with sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 93%. The other three parameters showed an overlap between affected SCD ears and non-affected as well as between SCD ears and those in the two control groups. oVEMP amplitude distinguishes SCD ears from healthy ones using low-frequency vibration stimuli at vertex. Amplitude analysis of oVEMP evoked by low-frequency vertex bone vibration stimulation is an additional indicator of SCD syndrome and might serve for diagnosing SCD patients with coexistent conductive middle ear problems. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethanol yield and energy potential of stems from a spectrum of sorghum biomass types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBee, G.G.; Creelman, R.A.; Miller, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Sorghum biomass is a renewable resource that offers significant potential for energy utilization. Six sorghum cultivars, representing an array of stem types, were evaluated for ethanol yield. Ethanol production was individually obtained for both the total stem and the pith of each type by anaerobic yeast fermentation. Value of the energy contained in the rind was determined by calorimetry. The highest yield of ethanol from total stem fermentation was 3418.3 liters ha/sup -1/ produced from Rio. Fermentation of Rio pith to ethanol and combustion of the rind resulted in the highest total energy value of the cultivars. The least and greatest energy values were 6.3 and 44.3 x 10/sup 6/ kcal ha/sup -1/ for SC0056-14 and Rio, respectively. Conversion ratios of potentially fermentable carbohydrates (within the vegetative biomass) to ethanol produced, averaged 0.438 for the pith and 0.406 for total stems.

  2. Estimation of best parents parents and superior cross combinations for yield and fiber quality related traits in upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaukat, S.; Khan, T.M.; Ijaz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Combining ability was studied for identification of potential cultivars and hybrids in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in a 6x6 set of diallel crosses among six genotypes of cotton, i.e., VH-232, CRS-2007, SB-149, GR-156, FH-207, and MARVI carried out on fiber length, fiber fineness, fiber elongation, fiber strength, ginning out tern (GOT) and seed cotton yield. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p < 0.01) differences among the genotypes for all traits. Combining ability studies showed that the mean squares, due to general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal effects were highly significant in F1 generation. Genetic components, due to GCA and SCA, revealed that traits, such as, fiber length, strength and fineness, showed high proportion of additive type of gene action in F1 generation because of greater GCA variances were greater than SCA variance. GR-156 was the best combiner for lint percentage and fiber length. FH-207 was the best combiner for fiber fineness. FH-207, MARVI and SB-149 were the best general combiners for fiber character and were suggested to be used in future breeding programme to improve fiber quality traits. CRS-2007 x GR-156, CRS-2007 x MARVI, SB-149 x MARVI and VH-232 x SB-149 had higher specific combining ability and reciprocal effects and they can be used for future breeding programme to improve fiber quality. (author)

  3. Rosemary Aromatization of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Process Optimization Including Antioxidant Potential and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Karacabey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatization of olive oil especially by spices and herbs has been widely used technique throughout the ages in Mediterranean diets. The present study was focused on aromatization of olive oil by rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. Aromatization process was optimized by response surface methodology as a function of malaxation’s conditions (temperature and time. According to authors’ best knowledge it was first time for examination of oil yield performance with antioxidant potential and pigments under effect of aromatization parameters. For all oil samples, values of the free acidity, peroxide, K232 and K270 as quality parameters fell within the ranges established for the highest quality category “extra virgin oil”. Oil yield (mL oil/kg olive paste changed from 158 to 208 with respect to design parameters. Total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity as antioxidant potential of olive oil samples were varied in the range of 182.44 – 348.65 mg gallic acid equivalent/kg oil and 28.91 – 88.75 % inhibition of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-(DPPH•, respectively. Total contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll and pheophytin a as pigments in oil samples were found to be in between 0.09 – 0.48 mg carotenoid/kg oil, 0.11 – 0.96 mg chlorophyll/kg oil, 0.15 – 4.44 mg pheo α/kg oil, respectively. The proposed models for yield, pigments and antioxidant potential responses were found to be good enough for successful prediction of experimental results. Total phenolics, carotenoids and free radical scavenging activity of aromatized olive oil and oil yield were maximized to gather and optimal conditions were determined as 25°C, 84 min, and 2 % (Rosemary/olive paste; w/w.

  4. Potential impacts of agricultural drought on crop yield variability under a changing climate in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Leng, G.; Huang, M.; Sheffield, J.; Zhao, G.; Gao, H.

    2017-12-01

    Texas has the largest farm area in the U.S, and its revenue from crop production ranks third overall. With the changing climate, hydrological extremes such as droughts are becoming more frequent and intensified, causing significant yield reduction in rainfed agricultural systems. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential impacts of agricultural drought on crop yields (corn, sorghum, and wheat) under a changing climate in Texas. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which is calibrated and validated over 10 major Texas river basins during the historical period, is employed in this study.The model is forced by a set of statistically downscaled climate projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model ensembles at a spatial resolution of 1/8°. The CMIP5 projections contain four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) that represent different greenhouse gas concentration (4.5 and 8.5 w/m2 are selected in this study). To carry out the analysis, VIC simulations from 1950 to 2099 are first analyzed to investigate how the frequency and severity of agricultural droughts will be altered in Texas (under a changing climate). Second, future crop yields are projected using a statistical crop model. Third, the effects of agricultural drought on crop yields are quantitatively analyzed. The results are expected to contribute to future water resources planning, with a goal of mitigating the negative impacts of future droughts on agricultural production in Texas.

  5. Yield Potential of Ten Peanut Introgression Lines derived from Crosses between Arachis cardenassii and A. hypogaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD RIDUAN

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Diploid species of peanut (Arachis cardenasii showed no symptoms of PStV infection when mechanically inoculated with PStV. Some introgression lines derived from A. cardenasii and A. hypogaea hybridization have been introduced to Indonesia. Evaluation of their adaptability and yield potential were necessary before pursuing further utilization of these introgression lines. The objectives of this research were to determine yield potential of the introgression lines of peanut in green house and field conditions and to evaluate incidence of PStV infection in the field. Peanut plants were grown in the green house and in the field according to standard procedures for raising peanut. Results of the experiments showed that growth and developmental characters of the tested lines were similar between field and green house grown plants. The introgression lines generally exhibited higher secondary branches and longer to flower and harvest as compared to peanut cv. Gajah and Kelinci. The NC-CS30 line was identfied as having higher yield and bigger seed size as compared to standard peanut cultivars (Gajah and Kelinci. Therefore, NC-CS30 germplasm may be further developed as commercial peanut cultivar or be used as donor for peanut breeding in Indonesia.

  6. Modeling the yield potential of dryland canola under current and future climates in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, N.; Kaffka, S.; Beeck, C.; Bucaram, S.; Zhang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Models predict that the climate of California will become hotter, drier and more variable under future climate change scenarios. This will lead to both increased irrigation demand and reduced irrigation water availability. In addition, it is predicted that most common Californian crops will suffer a concomitant decline in productivity. To remain productive and economically viable, future agricultural systems will need to have greater water use efficiency, tolerance of high temperatures, and tolerance of more erratic temperature and rainfall patterns. Canola (Brassica napus) is the third most important oilseed globally, supporting large and well-established agricultural industries in Canada, Europe and Australia. It is an agronomically useful and economically valuable crop, with multiple end markets, that can be grown in California as a dryland winter rotation with little to no irrigation demand. This gives canola great potential as a new crop for Californian farmers both now and as the climate changes. Given practical and financial limitations it is not always possible to immediately or widely evaluate a crop in a new region. Crop production models are therefore valuable tools for assessing the potential of new crops, better targeting further field research, and refining research questions. APSIM is a modular modeling framework developed by the Agricultural Production Systems Research Unit in Australia, it combines biophysical and management modules to simulate cropping systems. This study was undertaken to examine the yield potential of Australian canola varieties having different water requirements and maturity classes in California using APSIM. The objective of the work was to identify the agricultural regions of California most ideally suited to the production of Australian cultivars of canola and to simulate the production of canola in these regions to estimate yield-potential. This will establish whether the introduction and in-field evaluation of better

  7. Estimating the potential intensification of global grazing systems based on climate adjusted yield gap analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    We report here a first-of-its-kind analysis of the potential for intensification of global grazing systems. Intensification is calculated using the statistical yield gap methodology developed previously by others (Mueller et al 2012 and Licker et al 2010) for global crop systems. Yield gaps are estimated by binning global pasture land area into 100 equal area sized bins of similar climate (defined by ranges of rainfall and growing degree days). Within each bin, grid cells of pastureland are ranked from lowest to highest productivity. The global intensification potential is defined as the sum of global production across all bins at a given percentile ranking (e.g. performance at the 90th percentile) divided by the total current global production. The previous yield gap studies focused on crop systems because productivity data on these systems is readily available. Nevertheless, global crop land represents only one-third of total global agricultural land, while pasture systems account for the remaining two-thirds. Thus, it is critical to conduct the same kind of analysis on what is the largest human use of land on the planet—pasture systems. In 2013, Herrero et al announced the completion of a geospatial data set that augmented the animal census data with data and modeling about production systems and overall food productivity (Herrero et al, PNAS 2013). With this data set, it is now possible to apply yield gap analysis to global pasture systems. We used the Herrero et al data set to evaluate yield gaps for meat and milk production from pasture based systems for cattle, sheep and goats. The figure included with this abstract shows the intensification potential for kcal per hectare per year of meat and milk from global cattle, sheep and goats as a function of increasing levels of performance. Performance is measured as the productivity achieved at a given ranked percentile within each bin.We find that if all pasture land were raised to their 90th percentile of

  8. Biomass yield potential of short-rotation hardwoods in the Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, W A [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (USA). Dept. of Forestry

    1989-01-01

    Wood for fuel has increased in importance. Its primary use in the world is for energy, increasingly coming from wood wastes and new biomass sources. One solution to the potential problem of using high-quality trees for fuel could be woody biomass grown under a short-rotation intensive culture system. Species, size, age and spacing are factors that affect biomass production of broadleafed trees. Trials of several species grown at close spacing (0.3 m x 0.3 m) and cut at various ages are described and related to the growth and yield of more conventionally spaced plantings on an alluvial site in eastern Kansas. (author).

  9. Disease Impact on Wheat Yield Potential and Prospects of Genetic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravi P.; Singh, Pawan K.; Rutkoski, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is grown worldwide in diverse geographical regions, environments, and production systems. Although many diseases and pests are known to reduce grain yield potential and quality, the three rusts and powdery mildew fungi have historically caused major crop losses and continue to remain...... economically important despite the widespread use of host resistance and fungicides. The evolution and fast spread of virulent and more aggressive race lineages of rust fungi have only worsened the situation. Fusarium head blight, leaf spotting diseases, and, more recently, wheat blast (in South America...... for most diseases; their selection through phenotyping reinforced with molecular strategies offers great promise in achieving more durable resistance and enhancing global wheat productivity....

  10. Aging memory for pictures: Using high-density event-related potentials to understand the effect of aging on the picture superiority effect

    OpenAIRE

    Ally, Brandon A.; Waring, Jill D.; Beth, Ellen H.; McKeever, Joshua D.; Milberg, William P.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2007-01-01

    High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to understand the effect of aging on the neural correlates of the picture superiority effect. Pictures and words were systematically varied at study and test while ERPs were recorded at retrieval. Here, the results of the word-word and picture-picture study-test conditions are presented. Behavioral results showed that older adults demonstrated the picture superiority effect to a greater extent than younger adults. The ERP data helped to e...

  11. Raising yield potential of wheat. III. Optimizing partitioning to grain while maintaining lodging resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, M John; Slafer, Gustavo A; Davies, William J; Berry, Pete M; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Martre, Pierre; Calderini, Daniel F; Griffiths, Simon; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    A substantial increase in grain yield potential is required, along with better use of water and fertilizer, to ensure food security and environmental protection in future decades. For improvements in photosynthetic capacity to result in additional wheat yield, extra assimilates must be partitioned to developing spikes and grains and/or potential grain weight increased to accommodate the extra assimilates. At the same time, improvement in dry matter partitioning to spikes should ensure that it does not increase stem or root lodging. It is therefore crucial that improvements in structural and reproductive aspects of growth accompany increases in photosynthesis to enhance the net agronomic benefits of genetic modifications. In this article, six complementary approaches are proposed, namely: (i) optimizing developmental pattern to maximize spike fertility and grain number, (ii) optimizing spike growth to maximize grain number and dry matter harvest index, (iii) improving spike fertility through desensitizing floret abortion to environmental cues, (iv) improving potential grain size and grain filling, and (v) improving lodging resistance. Since many of the traits tackled in these approaches interact strongly, an integrative modelling approach is also proposed, to (vi) identify any trade-offs between key traits, hence to define target ideotypes in quantitative terms. The potential for genetic dissection of key traits via quantitative trait loci analysis is discussed for the efficient deployment of existing variation in breeding programmes. These proposals should maximize returns in food production from investments in increased crop biomass by increasing spike fertility, grain number per unit area and harvest index whilst optimizing the trade-offs with potential grain weight and lodging resistance.

  12. Characterizing ammonia emissions from swine farms in eastern North Carolina: part 2--potential environmentally superior technologies for waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P; Arya, S Pal; Rumsey, Ian C; Kim, D-S; Bajwa, K; Arkinson, H L; Semunegus, H; Dickey, D A; Stefanski, L A; Todd, L; Mottus, K; Robarge, W P; Williams, C M

    2008-09-01

    The need for developing environmentally superior and sustainable solutions for managing the animal waste at commercial swine farms in eastern North Carolina has been recognized in recent years. Program OPEN (Odor, Pathogens, and Emissions of Nitrogen), funded by the North Carolina State University Animal and Poultry Waste Management Center (APWMC), was initiated and charged with the evaluation of potential environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) that have been developed and implemented at selected swine farms or facilities. The OPEN program has demonstrated the effectiveness of a new paradigm for policy-relevant environmental research related to North Carolina's animal waste management programs. This new paradigm is based on a commitment to improve scientific understanding associated with a wide array of environmental issues (i.e., issues related to the movement of N from animal waste into air, water, and soil media; the transmission of odor and odorants; disease-transmitting vectors; and airborne pathogens). The primary focus of this paper is on emissions of ammonia (NH3) from some potential ESTs that were being evaluated at full-scale swine facilities. During 2-week-long periods in two different seasons (warm and cold), NH3 fluxes from water-holding structures and NH3 emissions from animal houses or barns were measured at six potential EST sites: (1) Barham farm--in-ground ambient temperature anaerobic digester/energy recovery/greenhouse vegetable production system; (2) BOC #93 farm--upflow biofiltration system--EKOKAN; (3) Carrolls farm--aerobic blanket system--ISSUES-ABS; (4) Corbett #1 farm--solids separation/ gasification for energy and ash recovery centralized system--BEST; (5) Corbett #2 farm--solid separation/ reciprocating water technology--ReCip; and (6) Vestal farm--Recycling of Nutrient, Energy and Water System--ISSUES-RENEW. The ESTs were compared with similar measurements made at two conventional lagoon and spray technology (LST) farms (Moore

  13. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part Two: Yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of Chenopodium quinoa cultivation effects in Poland has been compared with European research results. It was found that the conditions in Europe are favorable to Chenopodium quinoa cultivation. Poland has the mean length of the vegetation period. The maximum value of this trait was found in Sweden. The conditions in Bydgoszcz (Poland are very favorable to the cultivation for green matter and favorable as far as the seed yield is concerned. The most favorable seed yield was recorded in Greece.

  14. Safe handling of potential peroxide forming compounds and their corresponding peroxide yielded derivatives.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; Boyle, Timothy J.; Dean, Christopher J.

    2013-06-01

    This report addresses recent developments concerning the identification and handling of potential peroxide forming (PPF) and peroxide yielded derivative (PYD) chemicals. PPF chemicals are described in terms of labeling, shelf lives, and safe handling requirements as required at SNL. The general peroxide chemistry concerning formation, prevention, and identification is cursorily presented to give some perspective to the generation of peroxides. The procedure for determining peroxide concentrations and the proper disposal methods established by the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility are also provided. Techniques such as neutralization and dilution are provided for the safe handling of any PYD chemicals to allow for safe handling. The appendices are a collection of all available SNL documentation pertaining to PPF/PYD chemicals to serve as a single reference.

  15. Effect of Climate and Management Factors on Potential and Gap of Wheat Yield in Iran with Using WOFOST Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Human diets strongly rely on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Its production has increased dramatically during the past 50 years, partly due to area extension and new varieties but mainly as a consequence of intensified land management and introduction of new technologies. For the future, a continuous strong increase in the demand for agricultural products is expected. It is highly unlikely that this increasing demand will be satisfied by area expansion because productive land is scarce and also increasingly demanded by non-agricultural uses. The role of agricultural intensification as key to increasing actual crop yields and food supply has been discussed in several studies. However, in many regions, increases in grain yields have been declining Inefficient management of agricultural land may cause deviations of actual from potential crop yields: the yield gap. At the global scale little information is available on the spatial distribution of agricultural yield gaps and the potential for agricultural intensification. Actual yield is mostly lower than potential yield due to inefficient management and technological that difference between these yields is considered as yield gap. Understanding of relative share of every management factors in yield gap could be as one of the important keys to reduce gap and close actual yield to potential yield. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the amount of wheat yield gap and also relative share of management and technological variables in yield gap, frontier production function was used which is a multi-variable regression. The frontier production function to be estimated is a Cobb-Douglas function as proposed by Coelli et al. (2005. Cobb-Douglas functions are extensively used in agricultural production studies to explain returns to scale. We propose a methodology to explain the spatial variation of the potential for intensification and identifying the nature of the constraints for further

  16. Simulated potential and water-limited yields of cocoa under different agro-ecological zones in Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabawi, A.G.M.; Gerritsma, W.

    2009-01-01

    The yield of cocoa under potential and water-limited production levels in different agro-ecological zones was simulated using cocoa model CASE2. For both production levels, the yield was simulated using five years of elirnatic data (1991-1995) and plant data of three-year-old plant. The results

  17. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trognitz, Bodo; Cros, Emile; Assemat, Sophie; Davrieux, Fabrice; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Ayestas, Eusebio; Kuant, Aldo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hermann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes) representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG), grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS). The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation), individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C) ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open pollination. Fast and

  18. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Trognitz

    Full Text Available The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG, grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS. The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation, individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open

  19. Diversity of Cacao Trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: Associations between Genotype Spectra, Product Quality and Yield Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trognitz, Bodo; Cros, Emile; Assemat, Sophie; Davrieux, Fabrice; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Ayestas, Eusebio; Kuant, Aldo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hermann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes) representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG), grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS). The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation), individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C) ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open pollination. Fast and

  20. Impact of NDF degradability of corn silage on the milk yield potential of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Spanghero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability of corn silage samples, measured in vitro (ivNDFd by a filter bag system, was used to examine (i the relationship between the ivNDFd and that calculated from acid detergent lignin (L content (NDFd and (ii the impact of ivNDFd variations on the predicted milk yield (MY of dairy cows fed corn silage based diets. A total of 173 samples of corn silage were collected during a period of three years (2001-03 in different dairy farms of the Po Valley (Northern Italy. Each sample was analysed for chemical composition and was also tested in triplicate for the ivNDFd using the DaisyII incubator (Ankom, Tech. Co., Fairport, NY, USA with incubation time of 48hs. Moreover, the NDFd of samples was calculated from the L contents, while the measured ivNDFd values were used to estimate the NEl, the potential dry matter intakes (DMI and to predict the MY of cows. Corn silage samples of the three years were similar for NDF and starch contents (44.2 and 30.7% DM, on average, respectively while samples from 2003, in comparison with 2001 and 2002, had lower crude protein (6.9 vs 8.3-8.4% DM, P<0.01 and L contents (3.3 vs 3.6-3.9% DM, P<0.01 and higher ivNDFd values (53.3 vs 45.6-47.8%, P<0.01. The relationship between ivNDFd and NDFd was weak (R2=0.09, not significant. The MY predicted from the NEl content and DMI of corn silage (5.5 MJ/kg DM and 8.9 kg/d minus the maintenance energy costs, was 11.5 kg/d on average (coefficient of variation 20%. Our simulations indicate that a variation of ivNDFd by +1.0% changes the NEl of corn silage to have an expected variation in milk yield of +0.15 kg/d. If the ivNDFd is also used to predict the corn silage DMI then a +1.0% variation in ivNDFd of corn silage produces an overall +0.23 kg/d MY variation. The present results indicate that ivNDFd is highly variable in corn silage populations and differences in this nutritional parameter have an appreciable impact on the predicted milk

  1. Using Satellite Data to Identify the Causes of and Potential Solutions for Yield Gaps in India's Wheat Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Singh, B.; Srivastava, A.; Malik, R. K.; McDonald, A.; Lobell, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    Food security will be increasingly challenged by climate change, natural resource degradation, and population growth. Wheat yields, in particular, have already stagnated in many regions and will be further affected by warming temperatures. Despite these challenges, wheat yields can be increased by improving management practices in regions with existing yield gaps. We present two studies that are using satellite data to better understand the factors contributing to yield gaps and potential interventions to close yield gaps in India's main wheat belt, the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). To identify the magnitude and causes of current yield gaps, we produced 30 meter resolution yield maps from 2001 to 2015 using Landsat sallite data and a new method that translates satellite vegetation indices to yield estimates using crop model simulations, bypassing the need for ground calibration data. This is one of the first attempts to apply this method to a smallholder agriculture system, where ground calibration data are rarely available. We find that yields can be increased by 11% on average and up to 32% in the eastern IGP by improving management to current best practices within a given district. Additionally, if current best practices from the highest-yielding state of Punjab are implemented in the eastern IGP, yields could increase by almost 110%. Considering the factors that most influence yields, later sow dates and warmer temperatures are most associated with low yields across the IGP. This suggests that strategies to reduce the negative effects of heat stress, like earlier sowing and planting heat-tolerant wheat varieties, are critical to increasing wheat yields in this globally-important agricultural region. We also apply this method to high-resolution micro-satellite data (impacts of a new fertilizer spreader technology and identify whether satellite data can be used to appropriately target this intervention.

  2. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Barrios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7  populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL, ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines, was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08 and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions, winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m. Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall.

  3. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, A.; Aparicio, T.; Rodríguez, M.J.; Pérez de la Vega, M.; Caminero, C.

    2016-11-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris) is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing) on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta) was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7 populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL), ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines) and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines), was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08) and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions), winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m). Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall. (Author)

  4. Assessments of Future Maize Yield Potential Changes in the Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Crop Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Lim, C. H.; Kim, J.; Lee, W. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula has unique agricultural environment due to the differences of political and socio-economical system between Republic of Korea (SK, hereafter) and Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (NK, hereafter). NK has been suffering lack of food supplies caused by natural disasters, land degradation and political failure. The neighboring developed country SK has better agricultural system but very low food self-sufficiency rate. Maize is an important crop in both countries since it is staple food for NK and SK is No. 2 maize importing country in the world after Japan. Therefore, evaluating maize yield potential (Yp) in the two distinct regions is essential to assess food security under climate change and variability. In this study, we utilized multiple process-based crop models, having ability of regional scale assessment, to evaluate maize Yp and assess the model uncertainties -EPIC, GEPIC, DSSAT, and APSIM model that has capability of regional scale expansion (apsimRegions). First we evaluated each crop model for 3 years from 2012 to 2014 using reanalysis data (RDAPS; Regional Data Assimilation and Prediction System produced by Korea Meteorological Agency) and observed yield data. Each model performances were compared over the different regions in the Korean Peninsula having different local climate characteristics. To quantify of the major influence of at each climate variables, we also conducted sensitivity test using 20 years of climatology in historical period from 1981 to 2000. Lastly, the multi-crop model ensemble analysis was performed for future period from 2031 to 2050. The required weather variables projected for mid-century were employed from COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX) East Asia. The high-resolution climate data were obtained from multiple regional climate models (RCM) driven by multiple climate scenarios projected from multiple global climate models (GCMs) in conjunction with multiple greenhouse gas

  5. Variation of Potential Yield of Hybrid Population of Robusta coffee (Coffea canepor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Pranata Erdiansyah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The low yield of Robusta coffee in Indonesia may be due to the use of planting materials derived from seeds. The research objective was to determine the variation of Robusta coffee yield wich local propagated by using seeds. The study was conducted in Kaliwining experimental Station of ICCRI (Indonesian Coffee andCocoa Research Institute. There were two populations observed. Number of progeny used in this study were 186 genotypes consisting of two groups from crossesBP 409 x Q 121 with 89 progenies and BP 961 x BP 409 with 81 progenies. The results showed that planting materials from seeds exhibit properties mixed results.Progeny that have the best results (yield more than 2 ton/ha not more than 5% of the total population. In both populations there is a big difference between the progenythat has high and low yield. Highest yield B population could reach 2,500 kg/ha and the C population reached 2,200 kg/ha. The lowest yield can only produce coffee270 kg/ha in populations B and 120 kg/ha in population C.Key words: Coffea canephora, hybrid, variation, yield

  6. Assessments of Maize Yield Potential in the Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Crop Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Myoung, B.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, S. G.; Lee, W. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Peninsular has unique agricultural environments due to the differences in the political and socio-economical systems between the Republic of Korea (SK, hereafter) and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (NK, hereafter). NK has been suffering from the lack of food supplies caused by natural disasters, land degradation and failed political system. The neighboring developed country SK has a better agricultural system but very low food self-sufficiency rate (around 1% of maize). Maize is an important crop in both countries since it is staple food for NK and SK is No. 2 maize importing country in the world after Japan. Therefore evaluating maize yield potential (Yp) in the two distinct regions is essential to assess food security under climate change and variability. In this study, we have utilized multiple process-based crop models capable of regional-scale assessments to evaluate maize Yp over the Korean Peninsula - the GIS version of EPIC model (GEPIC) and APSIM model that can be expanded to regional scales (APSIM regions). First we evaluated model performance and skill for 20 years from 1991 to 2010 using reanalysis data (Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System (LDAPS); 1.5km resolution) and observed data. Each model's performances were compared over different regions within the Korean Peninsula of different regional climate characteristics. To quantify the major influence of individual climate variables, we also conducted a sensitivity test using 20 years of climatology. Lastly, a multi-model ensemble analysis was performed to reduce crop model uncertainties. The results will provide valuable information for estimating the climate change or variability impacts on Yp over the Korean Peninsula.

  7. Effects of land cover change on moisture availability and potential crop yield in the world’s breadbaskets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, Justin E; Desai, Ankur R; Dirmeyer, Paul A; Foley, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    The majority of the world’s food production capability is inextricably tied to global precipitation patterns. Changes in moisture availability—whether from changes in climate from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or those induced by land cover change (LCC)—can have profound impacts on food production. In this study, we examined the patterns of evaporative sources that contribute to moisture availability over five major global food producing regions (breadbaskets), and the potential for land cover change to influence these moisture sources by altering surface evapotranspiration. For a range of LCC scenarios we estimated the impact of altered surface fluxes on crop moisture availability and potential yield using a simplified linear hydrologic model and a state-of-the-art ecosystem and crop model. All the breadbasket regions were found to be susceptible to reductions in moisture owing to perturbations in evaporative source (ES) from LCC, with reductions in moisture availability ranging from 7 to 17% leading to potential crop yield reductions of 1–17%, which are magnitudes comparable to the changes anticipated with greenhouse warming. The sensitivity of these reductions in potential crop yield to varying magnitudes of LCC was not consistent among regions. Two variables explained most of these differences: the first was the magnitude of the potential moisture availability change, with regions exhibiting greater reductions in moisture availability also tending to exhibit greater changes in potential yield; the second was the soil moisture within crop root zones. Regions with mean growing season soil moisture fractions of saturation >0.5 typically had reduced impacts on potential crop yield. Our results indicate the existence of LCC thresholds that have the capability to create moisture shortages adversely affecting crop yields in major food producing regions, which could lead to future food supply disruptions in the absence of increased irrigation or other

  8. Sensitivity of commercial pumpkin yield to potential decline among different groups of pollinating bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerter, Philipp W.; Schirmel, Jens; Cresswell, James E.; Entling, Martin H.

    2017-01-01

    The yield of animal-pollinated crops is threatened by bee declines, but its precise sensitivity is poorly known. We therefore determined the yield dependence of Hokkaido pumpkin in Germany on insect pollination by quantifying: (i) the relationship between pollen receipt and fruit set and (ii) the cumulative pollen deposition of each pollinator group. We found that approximately 2500 pollen grains per flower were needed to maximize fruit set. At the measured rates of flower visitation, we estimated that bumblebees (21 visits/flower lifetime, 864 grains/visit) or honeybees (123 visits, 260 grains) could individually achieve maximum crop yield, whereas halictid bees are ineffective (11 visits, 16 grains). The pollinator fauna was capable of delivering 20 times the necessary amount of pollen. We therefore estimate that pumpkin yield was not pollination-limited in our study region and that it is currently fairly resilient to single declines of honeybees or wild bumblebees. PMID:28573019

  9. Sensitivity of commercial pumpkin yield to potential decline among different groups of pollinating bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Sonja C; Eckerter, Philipp W; Schirmel, Jens; Cresswell, James E; Entling, Martin H

    2017-05-01

    The yield of animal-pollinated crops is threatened by bee declines, but its precise sensitivity is poorly known. We therefore determined the yield dependence of Hokkaido pumpkin in Germany on insect pollination by quantifying: (i) the relationship between pollen receipt and fruit set and (ii) the cumulative pollen deposition of each pollinator group. We found that approximately 2500 pollen grains per flower were needed to maximize fruit set. At the measured rates of flower visitation, we estimated that bumblebees (21 visits/flower lifetime, 864 grains/visit) or honeybees (123 visits, 260 grains) could individually achieve maximum crop yield, whereas halictid bees are ineffective (11 visits, 16 grains). The pollinator fauna was capable of delivering 20 times the necessary amount of pollen. We therefore estimate that pumpkin yield was not pollination-limited in our study region and that it is currently fairly resilient to single declines of honeybees or wild bumblebees.

  10. An assessment of irrigation needs and crop yield for the United States under potential climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbelow, Kelly; Georgakakos, Aris P.

    2000-01-01

    Past assessments of climate change on U.S. agriculture have mostly focused on changes in crop yield. Few studies have included the entire conterminous U.S., and few studies have assessed changing irrigation requirements. None have included the effects of changing soil moisture characteristics as determined by changing climatic forcing. This study assesses changes in irrigation requirements and crop yields for five crops in the areas of the U.S. where they have traditionally been grown. Physiologically-based crop models are used to incorporate inputs of climate, soils, agricultural management, and drought stress tolerance. Soil moisture values from a macroscale hydrologic model run under a future climate scenario are used to initialize soil moisture content at the beginning of each growing season. Historical crop yield data is used to calibrate model parameters and determine locally acceptable drought stress as a management parameter. Changes in irrigation demand and crop yield are assessed for both means and extremes by comparing results for atmospheric forcing close to the present climate with those for a future climate scenario. Assessments using the Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis General Circulation Model (CGCM1) indicate greater irrigation demands in the southern U.S. and decreased irrigation demands in the northern and western U.S. Crop yields typically increase except for winter wheat in the southern U.S. and corn. Variability in both irrigation demands and crop yields increases in most cases. Assessment results for the CGCM1 climate scenario are compared to those for the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research GCM (HadCM2) scenario for southwestern Georgia. The comparison shows significant differences in irrigation and yield trends, both in magnitude and direction. The differences reflect the high forecast uncertainty of current GCMs. Nonetheless, both GCMs indicate higher variability in future climatic forcing and, consequently

  11. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  12. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26–141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture. - Highlights: ► Global energy crop potentials in 2050 are calculated with a biophysical biomass-balance model. ► The study is focused on dedicated energy crops, forestry and residues are excluded. ► Depending on food-system change, global energy crop potentials range from 26–141 EJ/yr. ► Exclusion of protected areas and failed states may reduce the potential up to 45%. ► The bioenergy potential may be 26% lower or 45% higher, depending on energy crop yields.

  13. Seed yield response to N fertilization and potential of proximal sensing in Italian ryegrass seed crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vleugels, Tim; Rijckaert, Georges; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) seed crops are often routinely fertilized with a predetermined amount of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in spring. However, nitrate leaching and increasing N fertilizer prices require rationalized fertilizer applications without compromises in seed yield....... The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the seed yield response to N fertilization, and (2) to evaluate if NDVI values can reliably predict the N status in Italian ryegrass seed crops. During eight years, field trials were conducted with two cultivars ‘Melclips’ and ‘Melquatro’, and seven N strategies...... applied after the forage cut as single or split application: 0, 60, 60 + 30, 90, 90 + 30, 120 and 150 kg N ha−1. NDVI values were obtained with a ‘GreenSeeker’ optical sensor. Maximum seed yield was attained at 141 kg N ha−1 total available N (92 kg N ha−1 fertilized). Higher fertilizations only increased...

  14. Modern maize hybrids in Northeast China exhibit increased yield potential and resource use efficiency despite adverse climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochao; Chen, Fanjun; Chen, Yanling; Gao, Qiang; Yang, Xiaoli; Yuan, Lixing; Zhang, Fusuo; Mi, Guohua

    2013-03-01

    The impact of global changes on food security is of serious concern. Breeding novel crop cultivars adaptable to climate change is one potential solution, but this approach requires an understanding of complex adaptive traits for climate-change conditions. In this study, plant growth, nitrogen (N) uptake, and yield in relation to climatic resource use efficiency of nine representative maize cultivars released between 1973 and 2000 in China were investigated in a 2-year field experiment under three N applications. The Hybrid-Maize model was used to simulate maize yield potential in the period from 1973 to 2011. During the past four decades, the total thermal time (growing degree days) increased whereas the total precipitation and sunshine hours decreased. This climate change led to a reduction of maize potential yield by an average of 12.9% across different hybrids. However, the potential yield of individual hybrids increased by 118.5 kg ha(-1)  yr(-1) with increasing year of release. From 1973 to 2000, the use efficiency of sunshine hours, thermal time, and precipitation resources increased by 37%, 40%, and 41%, respectively. The late developed hybrids showed less reduction in yield potential in current climate conditions than old cultivars, indicating some adaptation to new conditions. Since the mid-1990s, however, the yield impact of climate change exhibited little change, and even a slight worsening for new cultivars. Modern breeding increased ear fertility and grain-filling rate, and delayed leaf senescence without modification in net photosynthetic rate. The trade-off associated with delayed leaf senescence was decreased grain N concentration rather than increased plant N uptake, therefore N agronomic efficiency increased simultaneously. It is concluded that modern maize hybrids tolerate the climatic changes mainly by constitutively optimizing plant productivity. Maize breeding programs in the future should pay more attention to cope with the limiting

  15. Quantifying the potential for reservoirs to secure future surface water yields in the world’s largest river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Parkinson, Simon; Gidden, Matthew; Byers, Edward; Satoh, Yusuke; Riahi, Keywan; Forman, Barton

    2018-04-01

    Surface water reservoirs provide us with reliable water supply, hydropower generation, flood control and recreation services. Yet reservoirs also cause flow fragmentation in rivers and lead to flooding of upstream areas, thereby displacing existing land-use activities and ecosystems. Anticipated population growth and development coupled with climate change in many regions of the globe suggests a critical need to assess the potential for future reservoir capacity to help balance rising water demands with long-term water availability. Here, we assess the potential of large-scale reservoirs to provide reliable surface water yields while also considering environmental flows within 235 of the world’s largest river basins. Maps of existing cropland and habitat conservation zones are integrated with spatially-explicit population and urbanization projections from the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways to identify regions unsuitable for increasing water supply by exploiting new reservoir storage. Results show that even when maximizing the global reservoir storage to its potential limit (∼4.3–4.8 times the current capacity), firm yields would only increase by about 50% over current levels. However, there exist large disparities across different basins. The majority of river basins in North America are found to gain relatively little firm yield by increasing storage capacity, whereas basins in Southeast Asia display greater potential for expansion as well as proportional gains in firm yield under multiple uncertainties. Parts of Europe, the United States and South America show relatively low reliability of maintaining current firm yields under future climate change, whereas most of Asia and higher latitude regions display comparatively high reliability. Findings from this study highlight the importance of incorporating different factors, including human development, land-use activities, and climate change, over a time span of multiple decades and across a range of different

  16. Effects of climate change on yield potential of wheat and maize crops in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Diepen, van C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Yields of winter wheat, silage maize and grain maize in the main arable areas of the European Union (EU) were calculated with a simulation model, WOFOST, using historical weather data and average soil characteristics. The sensitivity of the model to individual weather variables was determined.

  17. Potential of commodity chemicals to become bio-based according to maximum yields and petrochemical prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straathof, Adrie J.J.; Bampouli, A.

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates are the prevailing biomass components available for bio-based production. The most direct way to convert carbohydrates into commodity chemicals is by one-step conversion at maximum theoretical yield, such as by anaerobic fermentation without side product formation. Considering these

  18. Genetic potential and heritability estimates of yield traits in F3 segregating populations of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soshma Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment comprising of 24 wheat genotypes was undertaken during 2011-12, at New Developmental Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, to elucidate information on the nature and magnitude of genetic variability, index of transmissibility and assessing the level of genetic improvement of the quantitative characters. The experimental material comprising 19 F3 populations along with their 5 parents of bread wheat were evaluated in randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Analysis of variance exhibited highly significant (P ≤ 0.01 differences among genotypes for all the traits studied. F3 population Ghaznavi-98 x Pirsabak-05 showed maximum mean value for 1000-grain weight (47.3 g and biological yield (11474.9 kg ha-1, whereas, maximum values for grain yield (4027.3 kg ha-1, and harvest index (48.1% were observed for Pirsabak-05 x AUP-4006. Moreover, maximum spike length (11 cm was recorded for cross combination Pirsabak-05 x Pirsabak-04 and Janbaz x Pirsabak-05, respectively. In addition, Pirsabak-04 showed maximum value for number of grains spike-1 (55.0. Genetic variances were of greater magnitude than environmental variances for all the traits except for spike length and 1000-grain weight. Heritability estimates were of higher magnitude ranged from 0.64 to 0.92 for harvest index, biological yield, grain yield, and grains spike-1. Moderate to low heritability (0.40-0.46 was observed for 1000-grain weight, and spike length, respectively. Genetic gain was for spike length (0.48 cm, grains spike-1 (8.57, 1000-grain weight (2.93 g, grain yield (639.87 kg ha-1, biological yield (1790.03 kg ha-1, and harvest index (5.32 %. From high values of heritability and genetic advance, it could be concluded that selection for traits like grains spike-1 suggested good selection criteria and could be effective for future breeding programs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12630 International Journal of Environment

  19. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26-141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture.

  20. Biomass and biomass and biogas yielding potential of sorghum as affected by planting density, sowing time and cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, A.; Hussain, A.; Shahzad, A. N.; Honermeier, B.

    2015-01-01

    Biogas from biomass is a promising renewable energy source whose importance is increasing in European as well as in other countries. A field experiment at one location (Experimental Station Giessen, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany) over two years was designed to study the effect of altering sowing time (ST), planting density and cultivar on the biomass yield and chemical composition of biomass sorghum, and its potential for methane production. Of the two cultivars tested, cv. Goliath (intraspecific hybrid) was more productive with respect to biomass yield than cv. Bovital (S. bicolor x S. sudanense hybrid). ST also influenced biomass yield and most of the quality parameters measured. Delayed sowing was in general advantageous. The choice of cultivar had a marked effect on biogas and methane yield. The highest biogas and methane yields were produced by late sown cv. Bovital. Sub-optimal planting densities limited biomass accumulation of the crop, however neither the chemical composition nor the methane yield was affected by planting density. (author)

  1. Biochar potential in intensive cultivation of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper): crop yield and plant protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Elad, Yigal; Tsechansky, Ludmila; Abrol, Vikas; Lew, Beni; Offenbach, Rivka; Graber, Ellen R

    2018-01-01

    The influence of various biochars on crop yield and disease resistance of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper) under modern, high input, intensive net house cultivation was tested over the course of 2011-2014 in the Arava desert region of Israel. A pot experiment with Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) grown in the absence of fertilizer employed the 3-year-old field trial soils to determine if biochar treatments contributed to soil intrinsic fertility. Biochar amendments resulted in a significant increase in the number and weight of pepper fruits over 3 years. Concomitant with the increased yield, biochar significantly decreased the severity of powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) disease and broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) pest infestation. Biochar additions resulted in increased soil organic matter but did not influence the pH, electrical conductivity or soil or plant mineral nutrients. Intrinsic fertility experiments with lettuce showed that two of the four biochar-treated field soils had significant positive impacts on lettuce fresh weight and total chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents. Biochar-based soil management can enhance the functioning of intensive, commercial, net house production of peppers under the tested conditions, resulting in increased crop yield and plant resistance to disease over several years. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Land Use, Yield and Quality Changes of Minor Field Crops: Is There Superseded Potential to Be Reinvented in Northern Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Lehtonen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Diversification of agriculture was one of the strengthened aims of the greening payment of European Agricultural Policy (CAP) as diversification provides numerous ecosystems services compared to cereal-intensive crop rotations. This study focuses on current minor crops in Finland that have potential for expanded production and considers changes in their cropping areas, yield trends, breeding gains, roles in crop rotations and potential for improving resilience. Long-term datasets of Natural Resources Institute Finland and farmers' land use data from the Agency of Rural Affairs were used to analyze the above-mentioned trends and changes. The role of minor crops in rotations declined when early and late CAP periods were compared and that of cereal monocultures strengthened. Genetic yield potentials of minor crops have increased as also genetic improvements in quality traits, although some typical trade-offs with improved yields have also appeared. However, the gap between potential and attained yields has expanded, depending on the minor crop, as national yield trends have either stagnated or declined. When comparing genetic improvements of minor crops to those of the emerging major crop, spring wheat, breeding achievements in minor crops were lower. It was evident that the current agricultural policies in the prevailing market and the price environment have not encouraged cultivation of minor crops but further strengthened the role of cereal monocultures. We suggest optimization of agricultural land use, which is a core element of sustainable intensification, as a future means to couple long-term environmental sustainability with better success in economic profitability and social acceptability. This calls for development of effective policy instruments to support farmer's diversification actions.

  3. Biochemical methane potential, biodegradability, alkali treatment and influence of chemical composition on methane yield of yard wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Victor Nallathambi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the biochemical CH4 potential, rate, biodegradability, NaOH treatment and the influence of chemical composition on CH4 yield of yard wastes generated from seven trees were examined. All the plant parts were sampled for their chemical composition and subjected to the biochemical CH4 potential assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in biochemical CH4 potential, which was reflected in their ultimate CH4 yields that ranged from 109 to 382 ml g(-1) volatile solids added and their rate constants that ranged from 0.042 to 0.173 d(-1). The biodegradability of the yard wastes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86. Variation in the biochemical CH4 potential of the yard wastes could be attributed to variation in the chemical composition of the different fractions. In the Thespesia yellow withered leaf, Tamarindus fruit pericarp and Albizia pod husk, NaOH treatment enhanced the ultimate CH4 yields by 17%, 77% and 63%, respectively, and biodegradability by 15%, 77% and 61%, respectively, compared with the untreated samples. The effectiveness of NaOH treatment varied for different yard wastes, depending on the amounts of acid detergent fibre content. Gliricidia petals, Prosopis leaf, inflorescence and immature pod, Tamarindus seeds, Albizia seeds, Cassia seeds and Delonix seeds exhibited CH4 yields higher than 300 ml g(-1) volatile solids added. Multiple linear regression models for predicting the ultimate CH4 yield and biodegradability of yard wastes were designed from the results of this work. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Expressão do potencial de rendimento de cultivares de soja Yield potential expression of soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Motta Navarro Júnior

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A soja possui alto potencial de rendimento de grãos, mas em virtude da interação genótipo vs. ambiente esse potencial não é verificado em sua totalidade. Utilizando-se seis genótipos de soja de diferentes ciclos, objetivou-se estudar a expressão do potencial de rendimento de grãos e quantificá-lo durante a ontogenia. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola 1996/97 na Estação Experimental Agronômica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Eldorado do Sul, RS. As avaliações foram realizadas em plantas individuais e se estenderam desde o estádio de floração até o de maturação. Os resultados obtidos indicam que alto potencial de rendimento não necessariamente identifica uma planta eficiente na retenção das estruturas reprodutivas. Os potenciais de rendimento estimados na floração e no início do enchimento de grãos não se mantêm até a maturação. Genótipos com alto potencial de rendimento de grãos em R8 não apresentam os maiores potenciais de rendimento de grãos em R2 e em R5, porém, são os que apresentam as menores diferenças entre o potencial estimado em R5 e o estimado em R2.Soybean has high yield potential, which is not totally expressed due to genotype vs. environment interaction. Six soybean genotypes of different maturity groups were used with the objective of studying their yield potential expression and quantifying it during ontogeny. The experiment was conducted during the 1996/97 growing season in the Agronomic Experimental Station of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Plants were evaluated individually from flowering until maturity. Results obtained indicate that high yield potential does not necessarily mean an efficient plant in reproductive structure retention. Yield potential estimated in the flowering and beginning of grain filling stages are not maintained until maturity. Genotypes with high yield potential in the R8 stage do not present the

  5. Lipids of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32 with biodiesel potential: Oil yield, fatty acid profile, fuel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, Mahesh; Ghosh, Debashish

    2017-04-01

    This study analyzes the single cell oil (SCO), fatty acid profile, and biodiesel fuel properties of the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32 grown on the pentose fraction of acid pre-treated sugarcane bagasse as a carbon source. The yeast biomass from nitrogen limiting culture conditions (15.3 g L -1 ) was able to give the SCO yield of 0.17 g g -1 of xylose consumed. Acid digestion, cryo-pulverization, direct in situ transesterification, and microwave assisted techniques were evaluated in comparison to the Soxhlet extraction for the total intracellular yeast lipid recovery. The significant differences were observed among the SCO yield of different methods and the in situ transesterification stood out most for effective yeast lipid recovery generating 97.23 mg lipid as FAME per gram dry biomass. The method was fast and consumed lesser solvent with greater FAME yield while accessing most cellular fatty acids present. The yeast lipids showed the major presence of monounsaturated fatty esters (35-55%; 18:1, 16:1) suitable for better ignition quality, oxidative stability, and cold-flow properties of the biodiesel. Analyzed fuel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number) of the yeast oil were in good agreement with international biodiesel standards. The sugarcane bagasse-derived xylose and the consolidated comparative assessment of lab scale SCO recovery methods highlight the necessity for careful substrate choice and validation of analytical method in yeast oil research. The use of less toxic co-solvents together with solvent recovery and recycling would help improve process economics for sustainable production of biodiesel from the hemicellulosic fraction of cheap renewable sources. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Potential design modifications for the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) reaction chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.R.; Monsler, M.J.; Powell, E.G.; Walker, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Generation of electric power from inertial confinement fusion requires a reaction chamber. One promising type, the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) chamber, includes a falling array of liquid lithium jets. These jets act as: (1) a renewable first wall and blanket to shield metal components from x-ray and neutron exposure, (2) a tritium breeder to replace tritium burned during the fusion process, and (3) an absorber and transfer medium for fusion energy. Over 90% of the energy produced in the reaction chamber is absorbed in the lithium jet fall. Design aspects are included

  7. Nasogastric feeding tubes from a neonatal department yield high concentrations of potentially pathogenic bacteria- even 1 d after insertion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinich Petersen, Sandra; Greisen, Gorm; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    probiotic administration through the tube. RESULTS: Out of the 94 NG-tubes, 89% yielded more than 1,000 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml bacteria, and 55% yielded the potentially pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Staphylococcus aureus. The mean concentration in the yield was 5.3 (SD: 2.1, maximum 9.4) log10......BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are vulnerable to pathogens and at risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or sepsis. Nasogastric feeding tubes (NG-tubes) might contaminate feeds given through them due to biofilm formation. We wanted to determine if there is a rationale in replacing NG......-tubes more often to reduce contamination. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of used NG-tubes from a tertiary neonatal department. After removal, we flushed a 1-ml saline solution through the tube, determined the density of bacteria by culture, and related it to the duration of use and any...

  8. Energy Yield Potential Estimation Using Marine Current Turbine Simulations for the Bosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazicioglu, Hasan; Tunc, K. M. Murat; Ozbek, Muammer

    2017-01-01

    . The differences in elevation and salinity ratios between these two seas cause strong underwater currents. Depending on the morphology of the canal the speed of the flow varies and at some specific locations the energy intensity reaches to sufficient levels where electricity generation by marine current turbines...... becomes economically feasible. In this study, several simulations are performed for a 10 MW marine turbine farm/ cluster whose location is selected by taking into account several factors such as the canal morphology, current speed and passage of vessels. 360 different simulations are performed for 15...... within the selected region, the analyses are performed for three different flow speeds corresponding to 10 % increase and decrease in the average value. For each simulation the annual energy yield and cluster efficiency are calculated....

  9. A Piston-Rotaxane with Two Potential Stripes: Force Transitions and Yield Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith M. Sevick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine a rod piston-rotaxane system, where the positions of several mobile rings on the axle are controlled by an external force acting on one of the rings. This allows us to access the translational entropy of the rings. For a simple rotaxane molecule with an axle that has uniform ring-axle interactions along its length, the molecule behaves like a miniature piston filled with a one-dimensional ideal gas. We then examine the effect of two stripes on the axle, having different ring-axle interactions with the mobile rings, so that one section is of high energy (repulsive for the rings and another section is of lower energy (or attractive. This kind of rotaxane can exhibit rapid changes in displacement or force, and in particular, this molecule can exhibit a yield stress in which the piston suddenly compresses under a small increase in the applied force.

  10. Shifts in North Sea forage fish productivity and potential fisheries yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe Clausen, Lotte; Rindorf, Anna; van Deurs, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    productivity. Furthermore, from an ecosystem-based fisheries management perspective, a link between functional complementarity and productivity, indicates that ecosystem resilience may decline with productivity. Based on this, we advise that system productivity, perhaps monitored as forage fish growth, becomes......1. Forage fish populations support large scale fisheries and are key components of marine ecosystems across the world, linking secondary production to higher trophic levels. While climate-induced changes in the North Sea zooplankton community are described and documented in literature......, the associated bottom-up effects and consequences for fisheries remain largely unidentified. 2. We investigated the temporal development in forage fish productivity and the associated influence on fisheries yield of herring, sprat, Norway pout and sandeel in the North Sea. Using principal component analysis, we...

  11. Superior prebiotic and physicochemical properties of novel dextran from Weissella cibaria JAG8 for potential food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingirikari, Jagan Mohan Rao; Kothari, Damini; Goyal, Arun

    2014-09-01

    The dextran produced by dextransucrase from Weissella cibaria JAG8 was subjected to physicochemical characterization and assessment of its prebiotic potential. Dextran displayed a solubility of 24.5% and a water holding capacity of 352%. The emulsion and flocculation activity of dextran were 89% and 92%, respectively. The degradation temperature (Td) of dextran was 353 °C. Dextran exhibited 33- and 12-fold less hydrolysis than inulin, in simulated gastric juice (pH 1.0) and α-amylase (pH 7.0), respectively. Dextran stimulated the growth of probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis, Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly and was comparable to that of commercial inulin. However, the growth of E. coli was not enhanced by dextran or inulin. The dextran used in this study can be used as a potential prebiotic for health benefits.

  12. A GIS-based model of potential groundwater yield zonation for a sandstone aquifer in the Juye Coalfield, Shangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huiyong; Shi, Yongli; Niu, Huigong; Xie, Daolei; Wei, Jiuchuan; Lefticariu, Liliana; Xu, Shuanxiang

    2018-02-01

    Resolving the potential groundwater yield zonation of sandstone aquifers occurring at depths of several hundred meters has been an important and challenging objective of the hydrogeological research focused on preventing flood hazards in coal mines. Using accessible geological exploration data we put forward a method of predicting the spatial distribution of groundwater storage potential in sandstone aquifers from Permian-age coal deposits in Juye Coalfield, Shangdong, China. A Geological, Tectonic and Lithological Composition Index (GTLCI) model was created using the following parameters: sandstone depth and thickness, faults length density (FaLD), faults density (FaD), fault frequency density (FaFD), fault scale density (FaSD), variation coefficient of the slope (VCS) of the coal seam, intensity index of folds in horizontal direction (IIFoH), and lithological composition index (LCI). Each of these factors was subsequently divided into 5 classes. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and trapezoidal fuzzy number (TFN) method was applied to calculate the weight of the conditioning factor and their respective sub-classes. Groundwater yield potential contour map, which was initially constructed using the GTLCI values revealed four groundwater abundance zones. The map was further refined by taking into account hydrogeologic data collected during mining activities. The GTLCI model predictive success rate of 80% was explained by the limited number of boreholes available for validation. It is considered that the GTLCI model is effective at predicting zonation of groundwater yield in the sandstone aquifers from Permian- age coal deposits in Juye Coalfield, China.

  13. Yield-scaled global warming potential of two irrigation management systems in a highly productive rice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Tarlera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water management impacts both methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from rice paddy fields. Although controlled irrigation is one of the most important tools for reducing CH4emission in rice production systems it can also increase N2O emissions and reduce crop yields. Over three years, CH4 and N2O emissions were measured in a rice field in Uruguay under two different irrigation management systems, using static closed chambers: conventional water management (continuous flooding after 30 days of emergence, CF30; and an alternative system (controlled deficit irrigation allowing for wetting and drying, AWDI. AWDI showed mean cumulative CH4 emission values of 98.4 kg CH4 ha−1, 55 % lower compared to CF30, while no differences in nitrous oxide emissions were observed between treatments ( p > 0.05. No yield differences between irrigation systems were observed in two of the rice seasons ( p > 0.05 while AWDI promoted yield reduction in one of the seasons ( p< 0.05. When rice yield and greenhouse gases (GHG emissions were considered together, the AWDI irrigation system allowed for lower yield-scaled total global warming potential (GWP. Higher irrigation water productivity was achieved under AWDI in two of the three rice seasons. These findings suggest that AWDI could be an option for reducing GHG emissions and increasing irrigation water productivity. However, AWDI may compromise grain yield in certain years, reflecting the importance of the need for fine tuning of this irrigation strategy and an assessment of the overall tradeoff between relationships in order to promote its adoption by farmers.

  14. Determination of Dacarbazine Φ-Order Photokinetics, Quantum Yields, and Potential for Actinometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maafi, Mounir; Lee, Lok-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of drugs' photodegradation kinetics is more accurately achieved by means of the recently developed Φ-order kinetics than by the zero-, first-, and/or second-order classical treatments. The photodegradation of anti-cancer dacarbazine (DBZ) in ethanol has been investigated and found to obey Φ-order kinetics when subjected to continuous and monochromatic irradiation of various wavelengths. Its photochemical efficiency was proven to be wavelength dependent in the 220-350 nm range, undergoing a 50-fold increase. Albeit this variation was well defined by a sigmoid pattern, the overall photoreactivity of DBZ was proven to depend also on the contributions of reactants and experimental attributes. The usefulness of DBZ to serve as a drug-actinometer has been investigated using the mathematical framework of Φ-order kinetics. It has been shown that DBZ in ethanol can represent a good candidate for reliable actinometry in the range 270-350 nm. A detailed and easy-to-implement procedure has been proposed for DBZ actinometry. This procedure could advantageously be implemented prior to the determination of the photodegradation quantum yields. This approach might be found useful for the development of many drug actinometers as alternatives to quinine hydrochloride. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  15. The potential of medium-pore zeolites for improved propene yields from catalytic cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bager, F.; Salas, N.; Ernst, S. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry, Chemical Technology

    2011-07-01

    The medium-pore zeolites ZSM-5 (MFI), ZSM-22 (TON), ZSM-23 (MTT), and EU-1 (EUO) were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and modified by ion exchange to obtain the Broensted-acid forms. The activity and selectivity of these catalysts in catalytic cracking of a model compound, viz. n-octane, was studied in a fixed-bed flow-type reactor. The catalytic results clearly reflect the differences in the pore architectures of the tested zeolites on n-octane conversion and on the product selectivities. Over the zeolites with one-dimensional pore systems and without large intracrystalline cavities, a remarkable increase of the contribution of the monomolecular cracking mechanism could be observed as compared to the standard catalyst zeolite ZSM-5. This is indicated by a high selectivity for unsaturated products and, hence, increasing yields of propene. Large cavities in the pore system, viz. in the case of zeolite EU-1, increase the conversion in particular at lower temperatures. However, the large cavities also favor the formation of large transition states required for the classical bimolecular cracking mechanism, resulting in decreased selectivities for unsaturated products, increased selectivities for aromatics formation and faster deactivation. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of Wind Data, Calculation of Energy Yield Potential, and Micrositing Application with WAsP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Topaloğlu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The parameters required for building a wind power plant have been calculated using the fuzzy logic method by means of Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP in this study. Overall objectives of the program include analysis of raw data, evaluation of wind and climate, construction of a wind atlas, and estimation of wind power potential. With the analysis performed in the application, the average wind velocity, average power density, energy potential from micrositing, capacity factor, unit cost price, and period of redemption have been calculated, which are needed by the project developer during the decision-making stage and intended to be used as the input unit in the fuzzy logic-based system designed. It is aimed at processing the parameters calculated by the designed fuzzy logic-based decision-making system at the rule base and generating a compatibility factor that will allow for making the final decision in building wind power plants.

  17. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating...... in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production...

  18. Expansion of Adult Human Pancreatic Tissue Yields Organoids Harboring Progenitor Cells with Endocrine Differentiation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy J.M. Loomans

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Generating an unlimited source of human insulin-producing cells is a prerequisite to advance β cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Here, we describe a 3D culture system that supports the expansion of adult human pancreatic tissue and the generation of a cell subpopulation with progenitor characteristics. These cells display high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhi, express pancreatic progenitors markers (PDX1, PTF1A, CPA1, and MYC, and can form new organoids in contrast to ALDHlo cells. Interestingly, gene expression profiling revealed that ALDHhi cells are closer to human fetal pancreatic tissue compared with adult pancreatic tissue. Endocrine lineage markers were detected upon in vitro differentiation. Engrafted organoids differentiated toward insulin-positive (INS+ cells, and circulating human C-peptide was detected upon glucose challenge 1 month after transplantation. Engrafted ALDHhi cells formed INS+ cells. We conclude that adult human pancreatic tissue has potential for expansion into 3D structures harboring progenitor cells with endocrine differentiation potential. : In the context of β cell replacement therapy for diabetes, de Koning and colleagues describe a 3D culture platform that supports ex vivo expansion of human pancreatic tissue as organoids. These organoids harbor a subpopulation of ALDHhi cells that display proliferative capacity and can differentiate to an endocrine fate. Keywords: pancreas, organoid, human, ALDH, endocrine differentiation, beta cells, insulin, progenitor, fetal, diabetes

  19. Aging memory for pictures: using high-density event-related potentials to understand the effect of aging on the picture superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Brandon A; Waring, Jill D; Beth, Ellen H; McKeever, Joshua D; Milberg, William P; Budson, Andrew E

    2008-01-31

    High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to understand the effect of aging on the neural correlates of the picture superiority effect. Pictures and words were systematically varied at study and test while ERPs were recorded at retrieval. Here, the results of the word-word and picture-picture study-test conditions are presented. Behavioral results showed that older adults demonstrated the picture superiority effect to a greater extent than younger adults. The ERP data helped to explain these findings. The early frontal effect, parietal effect, and late frontal effect were all indistinguishable between older and younger adults for pictures. In contrast, for words, the early frontal and parietal effects were significantly diminished for the older adults compared to the younger adults. These two old/new effects have been linked to familiarity and recollection, respectively, and the authors speculate that these processes are impaired for word-based memory in the course of healthy aging. The findings of this study suggest that pictures allow older adults to compensate for their impaired memorial processes, and may allow these memorial components to function more effectively in older adults.

  20. Energy Balance for a Sonoluminescence Bubble Yields a Measure of Ionization Potential Lowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, B.; Bataller, A.; Putterman, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Application of energy conservation between input sound and the microplasma which forms at the moment of sonoluminescence places bounds on the process, whereby the gas is ionized. Detailed pulsed Mie scattering measurements of the radius versus time for a xenon bubble in sulfuric acid provide a complete characterization of the hydrodynamics and minimum radius. For a range of emission intensities, the blackbody spectrum emitted during collapse matches the minimum bubble radius, implying opaque conditions are attained. This requires a degree of ionization >36%. Analysis reveals only 2.1±0.6eV/atom of energy available during light emission. In order to unbind enough charge, collective processes must therefore reduce the ionization potential by at least 75%. We interpret this as evidence that a phase transition to a highly ionized plasma is occurring during sonoluminescence.

  1. Genomics approaches to unlock the high yield potential of cassava, a tropical model plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengkui ZHANG,Ping'an MA,Haiyan WANG,Cheng LU,Xin CHEN,Zhiqiang XIA,Meiling ZOU,Xinchen ZHOU,Wenquan WANG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava, a tropical food, feed and biofuel crop, has great capacity for biomass accumulation and an extraordinary efficiency in water use and mineral nutrition, which makes it highly suitable as a model plant for tropical crops. However, the understanding of the metabolism and genomics of this important crop is limited. The recent breakthroughs in the genomics of cassava, including whole-genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis, as well as advances in the biology of photosynthesis, starch biosynthesis, adaptation to drought and high temperature, and resistance to virus and bacterial diseases, are reviewed here. Many of the new developments have come from comparative analyses between a wild ancestor and existing cultivars. Finally, the current challenges and future potential of cassava as a model plant are discussed.

  2. Local conditions for the Pauli potential in order to yield self-consistent electron densities exhibiting proper atomic shell structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finzel, Kati, E-mail: kati.finzel@liu.se [Linköpings University, IFM Department of Physics, 58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2016-01-21

    The local conditions for the Pauli potential that are necessary in order to yield self-consistent electron densities from orbital-free calculations are investigated for approximations that are expressed with the help of a local position variable. It is shown that those local conditions also apply when the Pauli potential is given in terms of the electron density. An explicit formula for the Ne atom is given, preserving the local conditions during the iterative procedure. The resulting orbital-free electron density exhibits proper shell structure behavior and is in close agreement with the Kohn-Sham electron density. This study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain self-consistent orbital-free electron densities with proper atomic shell structure from simple one-point approximations for the Pauli potential at local density level.

  3. Maximizing Amazonia's Ecosystem Services: Juggling the potential for carbon storage, agricultural yield and biodiversity in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C. S.; Foley, J. A.; Gerber, J. S.; Polasky, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the next forty years it will continue to experience pressure from an urbanizing and increasingly affluent populace: under a business-as-usual scenario, global cropland, pasture and biofuels systems will carry on expanding, while the Amazon's carbon storage potential will likely become another viable revenue source under REDD+. Balancing those competing land use pressures ought also take into account Amazonia's high - but heterogeneous - biodiversity. Knowing where Amazonia has opportunities to make efficient or optimal trade offs between carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity can allow policymakers to direct or influence LUC drivers. This analysis uses a spatially-explicit model that takes climate and management into account to quantify the potential agricultural yield of both the Amazon's most important agricultural commodities - sugar, soy and maize - as well as several that are going to come into increasing prominence, including palm oil. In addition, it maps the potential for carbon to be stored in forest biomass and relative species richness across Amazonia. We then compare carbon storage, agricultural yield and species richness and identify areas where efficient trade offs occur between food, carbon, and biodiversity - three critical ecosystem goods and services provided by the world's largest tropical forest.

  4. The dependence of maize (Zea mays hybrids yielding potential on the water amounts reaching the soil surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresović Branka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to observe the response of maize hybrids under rainfed and irrigation conditions of the soil in order to establish the dependence of yielding potential on the water amounts reaching the soil surface during the growing season. The four-replicate trail was set up according to the randomised complete-block design on chernozem. Pre-watering soil moisture was approximately 70% of field water capacity, and soil moisture was established thermogravimetrically. During the five-year studies, the following differences in yields could be as follows: 12.68 t ha-1 (ZP 341; 12.76 t ha-1 (ZP 434; 13.17 t ha-1 (ZP 578; 14.03 t ha-1 (ZP 684 and 13.75 t ha-1 (ZP 704 under conditions of 440 mm, 440 mm, 424 mm, 457 mm and 466 mm of water, respectively. The hybrid ZP 341, i.e. ZP 578 expressed the highest, i.e. the lowest tolerance in dry relative seasons, respectively. The reduction of the water amount for every 10 mm decreased the yield by 119.4 kg ha-1 (ZP 341, 156.7 kg ha-1 (ZP 434, 172.3 kg ha-1 (ZP 578, 148.9 kg ha-1 (ZP 684 and 151.1 kg ha-1 (ZP 704. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31037

  5. Soil salinity and matric potential interaction on water use, water use efficiency and yield response factor of bean and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataar, Mahnaz; Mohhamadi, Mohammad Hossien; Shabani, Farzin

    2018-02-08

    We studied the effects of soil matric potential and salinity on the water use (WU), water use efficiency (WUE) and yield response factor (Ky), for wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Mahdavi) and bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris cv. COS16) in sandy loam and clay loam soils under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that aeration porosity is the predominant factor controlling WU, WUE, Ky and shoot biomass (Bs) at high soil water potentials. As matric potential was decreased, soil aeration improved, with Bs, WU and Ky reaching maximum value at -6 to -10 kPa, under all salinities. Wheat WUE remained almost unchanged by reduction of matric potential under low salinities (EC ≤ 8 dSm -1 ), but increased under higher salinities (EC ≥ 8 dSm -1 ), as did bean WUE at all salinities, as matric potential decreased to -33 kPa. Wheat WUE exceeds that of bean in both sandy loam and clay loam soils. WUE of both plants increased with higher shoot/root ratio and a high correlation coefficient exists between them. Results showed that salinity decreases all parameters, particularly at high potentials (h = -2 kPa), and amplifies the effects of waterlogging. Further, we observed a strong relationship between transpiration (T) and root respiration (Rr) for all experiments.

  6. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Gaiser, Thomas; Liu, Junguo; Wang, Xiuying; Williams, Jimmy; Schulin, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields

  7. Assessment of Potential Climate Change Effects on the Rice Yield and Water Footprint in the Nanliujiang Catchment, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhi Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nanliujiang catchment is one of major rice production bases of South China. Irrigation districts play an important role in rice production which requires a large quantity of water. There are potential risks on future climate change in response to rice production, agricultural irrigation water use and pollution control locally. The SWAT model was used to quantify the yield and water footprint (WF of rice in this catchment. A combined method of automatic and manual sub-basin delineation was used for the model setup in this work to reflect the differences between irrigation districts in yield and water use of rice. We validated our simulations against observed leaf area index, biomass and yield of rice, evapotranspiration and runoff. The outputs of three GCMs (GFDL-ESM2M, IPSL-CM5A-LR and HadGEM2-ES under three RCPs (RCP2.6, 4.5, 8.5 were fed to the SWAT model. The results showed that: (a the SWAT model is an ideal tool to simulate rice development as well as hydrology; (b there would be increases in rice yield ranged from +1.4 to +10.6% under climate projections of GFDL-ESM2M and IPSL-CM5A-LR but slight decreases ranged from −3.5 to −0.8% under that of HadGEM2-ES; (c the yield and WFs of rice displayed clear differences in the catchment, with a characteristic that high in the south and low in the north, mainly due to the differences in climatic conditions, soil quality and fertilization amount; (d there would be a decrease by 45.5% in blue WF with an increase by 88.1% in green WF, which could provide favorable conditions to enlarge irrigated areas and take technical measures for improving green water use efficiency of irrigation districts; (e a clear rise in future grey WF would present enormous challenges for the protection of water resources and environmental pollution control in this catchment. So it should be to improved nutrient management strategies for the agricultural non-point source pollution control in irrigation districts

  8. Kv2 Channel Regulation of Action Potential Repolarization and Firing Patterns in Superior Cervical Ganglion Neurons and Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin W.

    2014-01-01

    Kv2 family “delayed-rectifier” potassium channels are widely expressed in mammalian neurons. Kv2 channels activate relatively slowly and their contribution to action potential repolarization under physiological conditions has been unclear. We explored the function of Kv2 channels using a Kv2-selective blocker, Guangxitoxin-1E (GxTX-1E). Using acutely isolated neurons, mixed voltage-clamp and current-clamp experiments were done at 37°C to study the physiological kinetics of channel gating and action potentials. In both rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons and mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, 100 nm GxTX-1E produced near-saturating block of a component of current typically constituting ∼60–80% of the total delayed-rectifier current. GxTX-1E also reduced A-type potassium current (IA), but much more weakly. In SCG neurons, 100 nm GxTX-1E broadened spikes and voltage clamp experiments using action potential waveforms showed that Kv2 channels carry ∼55% of the total outward current during action potential repolarization despite activating relatively late in the spike. In CA1 neurons, 100 nm GxTX-1E broadened spikes evoked from −70 mV, but not −80 mV, likely reflecting a greater role of Kv2 when other potassium channels were partially inactivated at −70 mV. In both CA1 and SCG neurons, inhibition of Kv2 channels produced dramatic depolarization of interspike voltages during repetitive firing. In CA1 neurons and some SCG neurons, this was associated with increased initial firing frequency. In all neurons, inhibition of Kv2 channels depressed maintained firing because neurons entered depolarization block more readily. Therefore, Kv2 channels can either decrease or increase neuronal excitability depending on the time scale of excitation. PMID:24695716

  9. Establishment, Growth, and Yield Potential of the Perennial Grass Miscanthus × Giganteus on Degraded Coal Mine Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Jeżowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Miscanthus × giganteus is a giant C4 grass native to Asia. Unlike most C4 species, it is relatively cold tolerant due to adaptations across a wide range of altitudes. These grasses are characterized by high productivity and low input requirements, making them excellent candidates for bioenergy feedstock production. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for growing Miscanthus on extremely marginal soils, degraded by open lignite (brown coal mining. Field experiments were established within three blocks situated on waste heaps originating from the lignite mine. Analyses were conducted over the first 3 years following Miscanthus cultivation, focusing on the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on crop growth, development and yield in this extreme environment. The following levels of fertilization were implemented between the blocks: the control plot with no fertilization (D0, a plot with sewage sludge (D1, a plot with an identical amount of sewage sludge plus one dose of mineral fertilizer (D2 and a plot with an identical amount of sewage sludge plus a double dose of mineral fertilizer (D3. Crop development and characteristics (plant height, tillering, and biomass yield [dry matter] were measured throughout the study period and analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Significant differences were apparent between plant development and 3rd year biomass production over the course of the study (0.964 kg plant-1 for DO compared to 1.503 kg plant-1 for D1. Soil analyses conducted over the course of the experiment showed that organic carbon levels within the soil increased significantly following the cultivation of Miscanthus, and overall, pH decreased. With the exception of iron, macronutrient concentrations remained stable throughout. The promising yields and positive effects of Miscanthus on the degraded soil suggests that long term plantations on land otherwise unsuitable for agriculture may prove to be of great

  10. Global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in rice agriculture driven by high yields and nitrogen use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xu, Xin; Liu, Yinglie; Wang, Jinyang; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of how global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) is affected by management practices aimed at food security with respect to rice agriculture remains limited. In the present study, a field experiment was conducted in China to evaluate the effects of integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM) on GWP and GHGI after accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent emissions from all sources, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, agrochemical inputs and farm operations and sinks (i.e., soil organic carbon sequestration). The ISSM mainly consisted of different nitrogen (N) fertilization rates and split, manure, Zn and Na2SiO3 fertilization and planting density for the improvement of rice yield and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Four ISSM scenarios consisting of different chemical N rates relative to the local farmers' practice (FP) rate were carried out, namely, ISSM-N1 (25 % reduction), ISSM-N2 (10 % reduction), ISSM-N3 (FP rate) and ISSM-N4 (25 % increase). The results showed that compared with the FP, the four ISSM scenarios significantly increased the rice yields by 10, 16, 28 and 41 % and the agronomic NUE by 75, 67, 35 and 40 %, respectively. In addition, compared with the FP, the ISSM-N1 and ISSM-N2 scenarios significantly reduced the GHGI by 14 and 18 %, respectively, despite similar GWPs. The ISSM-N3 and ISSM-N4 scenarios remarkably increased the GWP and GHGI by an average of 69 and 39 %, respectively. In conclusion, the ISSM strategies are promising for both food security and environmental protection, and the ISSM scenario of ISSM-N2 is the optimal strategy to realize high yields and high NUE together with low environmental impacts for this agricultural rice field.

  11. Phenotyping Drought Tolerance and Yield Potential of Warm-Season Legumes Through Field- and Airborne-Based Hyperspectral VSWIR Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D.; Berny-Mier y Teran, J. C.; Dutta, D.; Gepts, P.

    2017-12-01

    Hyperspectral sensing in the visible through shortwave infrared (VSWIR) portion of the spectrum has been demonstrated to provide significant information on the structural and functional properties of vegetation, resulting in powerful techniques to discern species differences, characterize crop nutrient or water stress, and quantify the density of foliage in agricultural fields. Modern machine-learning techniques allow for the entire set of spectral bands, on the order of hundreds with modern field and airborne spectrometers, to be used to develop models that can simultaneously retrieve a variety of foliar chemical compounds and hydrological and structural states. The application of these techniques, in the context of leaf-level measurements of VSWIR reflectance, or more complicated remote airborne surveys, has the potential to revolutionize high-throughput methods to phenotype germplasm that optimizes yield, resource-use efficiencies, or alternate objectives related to disease resistance or biomass accumulation, for example. Here we focus on breeding trials for a set of warm-season legumes, conducted in both greenhouse and field settings, and spanning a set of diverse genotypes providing a range of adaptation to drought and yield potential in the context of the semi-arid climate cultivation. At the leaf-level, a large set of spectral reflectance measurements spanning 400-2500 nanometers were made for plants across various growth stages in field experiments that induced severe drought, along with sampling for relevant trait values. Here we will discuss the development and performance of algorithms for a range of leaf traits related to gas exchange, leaf structure, hydrological status, nutrient contents and stable isotope discrimination, along with their relationships to drought resistance and yield. We likewise discuss the effectiveness of quantifying relevant foliar and canopy traits through airborne imaging spectroscopy from small unmanned vehicles (sUAVs), and

  12. Construct 3D porous hollow Co3O4 micro-sphere: A potential oxidizer of nano-energetic materials with superior reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zheng, Bo; Qiao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhang, Long; Li, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Xingquan; Yang, Guangcheng

    2018-06-01

    High energy density and rapid reactivity are the future trend for nano-energetic materials. Energetic performance of nano-energetic materials depends on the interfacial diffusion and mass transfer during the reacted process. However, the development of desired structure to significantly enhance reactivity still remains challenging. Here we focused on the design and preparation of 3D porous hollow Co3O4 micro-spheres, in which gas-blowing agents (air) and maximize interfacial interactions were introduced to enhance mass transport and reduce the diffusion distance between the oxidizer and fuel (Aluminum). The 3D hierarchical Co3O4/Al based nano-energetic materials show a low-onset decomposition temperature (423 °C), and high heat output (3118 J g-1) resulting from porous and hollow nano-structure of Co3O4 micro-spheres. Furthermore, 3D hierarchical Co3O4/Al arrays were directly fabricated on the silicon substrate, which was fully compatible with silicon-based microelectromechanical systems to achieve functional nanoenergetics-on-a-chip. This approach provides a simple and efficient way to fabricate 3D ordered nano-energetic arrays with superior reactivity and the potential on the application in micro-energetic devices.

  13. Visual search for emotional expressions: Effect of stimulus set on anger and happiness superiority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Ruth A; Becker, Stefanie I; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2016-01-01

    Prior reports of preferential detection of emotional expressions in visual search have yielded inconsistent results, even for face stimuli that avoid obvious expression-related perceptual confounds. The current study investigated inconsistent reports of anger and happiness superiority effects using face stimuli drawn from the same database. Experiment 1 excluded procedural differences as a potential factor, replicating a happiness superiority effect in a procedure that previously yielded an anger superiority effect. Experiments 2a and 2b confirmed that image colour or poser gender did not account for prior inconsistent findings. Experiments 3a and 3b identified stimulus set as the critical variable, revealing happiness or anger superiority effects for two partially overlapping sets of face stimuli. The current results highlight the critical role of stimulus selection for the observation of happiness or anger superiority effects in visual search even for face stimuli that avoid obvious expression related perceptual confounds and are drawn from a single database.

  14. The influence of zeta potential and yield stress on the filtration characteristics of a magnesium hydroxide simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, Simon; Nabi, Rafiq; Poole, Colin; Patel, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    In the UK, irradiated fuels from Magnox reactors are often stored in water-filled ponds under alkaline conditions, so as to minimise corrosion of fuel cladding. This is important to prevent or reduce leakage of soluble fission products and actinides to the pond water. A variety of intermediate level wastes derived from Magnox materials are stored at power stations. Under these alkaline conditions, various species of magnesium are formed, of which magnesium hydroxide is the dominant material. The particle-fluid interactions are significant for the design and operation of facilities for hydraulic retrieval, filtration, dewatering and ion exchange treatment of fuel storage pond water and stored wet Magnox wastes. Here we describe a study of particulate properties and filtration characteristics of oxide particle simulants under laboratory conditions. Cake and medium resistance data were correlated across a range of pH conditions with electro-acoustic zeta potential and shear yield stress measurements, as a function of particle volume fractions. The influence of zeta potential on filtration properties arises directly from the interaction of particles within the sediment cake. (authors)

  15. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Suspended Sediment Yield in NW Spain: A Case Study on the Corbeira Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Luz Rodríguez-Blanco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil losses and the subsequent sediment delivery constitute significant environmental threats. Climate change is likely to have an impact on the availability of water and therefore on sediment yield in catchments. In this context, quantifying the sediment response to an increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change is of utmost importance to the proper management of rural catchments. However, quantitative assessment of climate change impact remains a complex task. In this study, the potential medium (2031–2060 and long-term (2069–2098 impacts of projected changes of temperature, rainfall and CO2 concentration on sediment yield in a small rural catchment located in NW Spain were evaluated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model. Climate change scenarios were created using future climate data projected by regional climate models from the ENSEMBLES project and two CO2 concentration scenarios (550 and 660 ppm. The results showed that climate change would have a noticeable impact on suspended sediment if the forecast temperature, rainfall and CO2 concentration changes included in this study were met. Overall, suspended sediment is expected to decrease (2031–2060: −11%, 2069–2098: −8% compared to the baseline period (1981–2010, mainly due to decreased streamflow. However, an increase in sediment transport in winter is predicted, possibly associated with increased erosion in cultivated areas (11%–17%, suggesting that, at this time of the year, the effect of soil detachment prevails over sediment transport capacity. Consequently, management practices aimed at reducing soil erosion in cultivated areas should be carried out, because these are the main source of sediment in the study area.

  16. Modelling predicts that tolerance to drought during reproductive development will be required for high yield potential and stability of wheat in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Mikhail A.; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Paul, Matthew J.

    2017-04-01

    Short periods of extreme weather, such as a spell of high temperature or drought during a sensitive stage of development, could result in substantial yield losses due to reduction in grain number and grain size. In a modelling study (Stratonovitch & Semenov 2015), heat tolerance around flowering in wheat was identified as a key trait for increased yield potential in Europe under climate change. Ji et all (Ji et al. 2010) demonstrated cultivar specific responses of yield to drought stress around flowering in wheat. They hypothesised that carbohydrate supply to anthers may be the key in maintaining pollen fertility and grain number in wheat. It was shown in (Nuccio et al. 2015) that genetically modified varieties of maize that increase the concentration of sucrose in ear spikelets, performed better under non-drought and drought conditions in field experiments. The objective of this modelling study was to assess potential benefits of tolerance to drought during reproductive development for wheat yield potential and yield stability across Europe. We used the Sirius wheat model to optimise wheat ideotypes for 2050 (HadGEM2, RCP8.5) climate scenarios at selected European sites. Eight cultivar parameters were optimised to maximise mean yields, including parameters controlling phenology, canopy growth and water limitation. At those sites where water could be limited, ideotypes sensitive to drought produced substantially lower mean yields and higher yield variability compare with tolerant ideotypes. Therefore, tolerance to drought during reproductive development is likely to be required for wheat cultivars optimised for the future climate in Europe in order to achieve high yield potential and yield stability.

  17. Using satellite data to identify the causes of and potential solutions for yield gaps in India’s Wheat Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Singh, Balwinder; Srivastava, A. A. K.; Malik, R. K.; McDonald, A. J.; Lobell, D. B.

    2017-09-01

    Food security will be increasingly challenged by climate change, natural resource degradation, and population growth. Wheat yields, in particular, have already stagnated in many regions and will be further affected by warming temperatures. Despite these challenges, wheat yields can be increased by improving management practices in regions with existing yield gaps. To identify the magnitude and causes of current yield gaps in India, one of the largest wheat producers globally, we produced 30 meter resolution yield maps from 2001 to 2015 across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), the nation’s main wheat belt. Yield maps were derived using a new method that translates satellite vegetation indices to yield estimates using crop model simulations, bypassing the need for ground calibration data. This is one of the first attempts to apply this method to a smallholder agriculture system, where ground calibration data are rarely available. We find that yields can be increased by 11% on average and up to 32% in the eastern IGP by improving management to current best practices within a given district. Additionally, if current best practices from the highest-yielding state of Punjab are implemented in the eastern IGP, yields could increase by almost 110%. Considering the factors that most influence yields, later sow dates and warmer temperatures are most associated with low yields across the IGP. This suggests that strategies to reduce the negative effects of heat stress, like earlier sowing and planting heat-tolerant wheat varieties, are critical to increasing wheat yields in this globally-important agricultural region.

  18. Study of the Higgs boson discovery potential in the process pp{yields}Hqq, H{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, Manfred

    2009-04-27

    The subject of this work is the evaluation of the discovery potential of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider for the Standard Model Higgs boson in vector-boson fusion production and a subsequent decay into a {tau}-lepton pair. This is one of the most promising discovery channels of the Higgs boson in the low mass range, which is the mass range favored from precision measurements of the electroweak interaction. The decay modes where both {tau} leptons decay leptonically and where one {tau} lepton decays leptonically and the other one hadronically are studied in this thesis. The main objective was to investigate possible improvements upon earlier cut-based analyses by using additional discriminating variables as well as by applying multivariate analysis methods which take into account correlations between the variables. The variables are carefully selected in order to avoid correlations with the reconstructed invariant {tau}{tau} mass. In an intermediate step, the sequential signal selection cuts have been optimized for maximum signal significance. With this strategy, one can expect to discover the Higgs boson with {>=}5{sigma} significance in the mass range 115 GeV{<=} m{sub H}{<=}135 GeV with an integrated luminosity of 30 fb{sup -1} corresponding to the first three years of ATLAS operation. The maximum signal significance of 5.9{sigma} is obtained for a Higgs mass of 120 GeV. Significant further improvement was found with multivariate selection methods. The best results are obtained with an Artificial Neural Network algorithm. The mass range for the {>=}5{sigma} Higgs discovery with 30 fb{sup -1} is extended to 110 GeV with a maximum signal significance of 6.5 {sigma} at m{sub H}=125 GeV. Systematic uncertainties are studied in detail for both methods and are included in the above predictions of the signal significance. The largest uncertainty is due to the jet energy scale. In the case of using only Monte Carlo simulations for estimating the

  19. Regional annual water yield from forest lands and its response to potential deforestation across the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steve G. McNulty; J. Lu; Devendra M. Amatya; Y. Liang; R.K. Kolka

    2005-01-01

    Regional water yield at a meso-scale can be estimated as the difference between precipitation input and evapotranspiration output. Forest water yield from the southeastern US varies greatly both in space and time. Because of the hot climate and high evapotranspiration, less than half of the annual precipitation that falls on forest lands is available for stream flow...

  20. [Comparison of potential yield and resource utilization efficiency of main food crops in three provinces of Northeast China under climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-yu; Yang, Xiao-guang; Sun, Shuang; Xie, Wen-juan

    2015-10-01

    Based on the daily data of 65 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2010 and the crop phenology data in the potential cultivation zones of thermophilic and chimonophilous crops in Northeast China, the crop potential yields were calculated through step-by-step correction method. The spatio-temporal distribution of the crop potential yields at different levels was analyzed. And then we quantified the limitations of temperature and precipitation on the crop potential yields and compared the differences in the climatic resource utilization efficiency. The results showed that the thermal potential yields of six crops (including maize, rice, spring wheat, sorghum, millet and soybean) during the period 1961-2010 deceased from west to east. The climatic potential yields of the five crops (spring wheat not included) were higher in the south than in the north. The potential yield loss rate due to temperature limitations of the six crops presented a spatial distribution pattern and was higher in the east than in the west. Among the six main crops, the yield potential loss rate due to temperature limitation of the soybean was the highest (51%), and those of the other crops fluctuated within the range of 33%-41%. The potential yield loss rate due to water limitation had an obvious regional difference, and was high in Songnen Plain and Changbai Mountains. The potential yield loss rate of spring wheat was the highest (50%), and those of the other four rainfed crops fluctuated within the range of 8%-10%. The solar energy utilization efficiency of the six main crops ranged from 0.9% to 2.7%, in the order of maize> sorghum>rice>millet>spring wheat>soybean. The precipitation utilization efficiency of the maize, sorghum, spring wheat, millet and soybean under rainfed conditions ranged from 8 to 35 kg . hm-2 . mm-1, in the order of maize>sorghum>spring wheat>millet>soybean. In those areas with lower efficiency of solar energy utilization and precipitation utilization, such as Changbai

  1. On-farm yield potential of local seed watermelon landraces under heat- and drought-prone conditions in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantoume, Aminata Dolo; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog; Andersen, Sven Bode

    2012-01-01

    On-farm yield experiments were carried out in the Tombouctou region of Mali in 2009/10 under heat- and drought-prone desert conditions with three local landraces of seed-type watermelons. The landraces, named Fombou, Kaneye and Musa Musa by the farmers, exhibited distinct characteristics for fruit...... responsive. The yields obtained suggest that these local landraces of watermelon are valuable plant genetic resources for securing food supply in arid, heat- and drought-prone areas....

  2. Effect of sea salt irrigation on plant growth, yield potential and some biochemical attributes of carissa carandas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyab, A.

    2016-01-01

    Carissa carandas (varn. Karonda) is an edible and medicinal plant having ability to grow in saline and water deficit conditions, however, little is known about its salinity tolerance. Therefore, the effect of salinity on vegetative (height and volume), reproductive (number of flowers and number, size and weight of fruits) and some biochemical parameters (leaf pigments, ions, soluble sugars, proteins, and phenols) of C. carandas were studied. Plants were grown in drum pot culture and irrigated with non-saline or saline water of 0.6% and 0.8% sea salt concentrations, for a period of 30 months. Results showed that, plant height, and canopy volume decreased with increasing salinity. The chlorophyll contents and chlorophyll a/b ratio followed the similar trend as for growth, however, carotenoids increased at 0.6% sea salt and subsequently decreased in higher salinity. Unchanged soluble sugar and protein content at 0.6% sea salt, as compared to control, could be attributed to leaf osmotic adjustments which decreased with further increase in salinity. Linear increase in soluble phenols and carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio indicating a protective strategy of C. carandas to minimize photo-damage. Besides increasing Na+ and decreasing K+ contents, plant seemed to maintain K+/Na+ ratio (above 1), especially at 0.6 sea salt, which disturbed at higher salinity. Salinity adversely affected reproductive growth of C. carandas where, production of flowers, and fruits were significantly reduced. In addition, fresh and dry weights of fruits decreased with increasing salinity, but salinity did not affect fruit length and diameter. Present study provides basic information related to plant growth, fruit yield and some biochemical attributes, which suggest that C. carandas is moderately salt tolerant plant. This plant showed potential to grow on saline marginal lands using brackish water irrigation and provide biomass for edible and medicinal purposes. However, in-depth analysis of field and

  3. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  4. Will C3 crops enhanced with the C4 CO2-concentrating mechanism live up to their full potential (yield)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Kromdijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainably feeding the world’s growing population in future is a great challenge and can be achieved only by increasing yield per unit land surface. Efficiency of light interception and biomass partitioning into harvestable parts (harvest index) has been improved substantially via plant breeding in

  5. Spatial and harvesting influence on growth, yield, quality and economic potential of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Wall Ex. Nees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata, commonly known as Kalmegh, is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines because of its immunological, antibacterial and hepatoprotective properties. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of four harvesting times (120,135,150 days after planting and at seed maturity and four planting distances (30×15, 30×10, 20×15 and 20×10 cm on growth, dry herbage biomass, seed yield and quality traits of Andrographis paniculata at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India in the two years 2005 and 2006. The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. The maximum values for dry herbage biomass yield (5.14 t ha^(-1, net returns (760.00 EUR ha^(-1, B:C ratio (2.59, andrographolide content (2.63% and total yield (135.00 kg ha^(-1 were detected 135 days after planting with an optimum planting distance of 30×15 cm. However, the maximum iron content was estimated 120 days after planting. The highest dry herbage (4.58 t ha^(-1 and maximum seed yield (19.7 kg ha^(-1 were registered at plants that were lined out with a distance of 20×10 cm.

  6. Identification of cocoa trees combining high yield potential and resistance to diseases in segregating progenies In Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and low yielding planting material are the main factors limiting production of “fine” or “flavour” cocoa in Ecuador. This makes it necessary to develop modern varieties capable of overcoming these limitations. During the 1960s and 1970s INIAP tested several progenies from selected crosses...

  7. Potential of deficit irrigation, irrigation cut-offs, and crop thinning to maintain yield and fruit quality with less water in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought and mandatory water restrictions are limiting the availability of irrigation water in many important blueberry growing regions, including Oregon, Washington, and California. New strategies are needed to maintain yield and fruit quality with less water. Three potential options, including defi...

  8. Quality of white cabbage yield and potential risk of ground water nitrogen pollution, as affected by nitrogen fertilisation and irrigation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maršić, Nina Kacjan; Sturm, Martina; Zupanc, Vesna; Lojen, Sonja; Pintar, Marina

    2012-01-15

    The effect of different fertilisation (broadcast solid NPK application and fertigation with water-soluble fertiliser) and irrigation practices (sprinkler and drip irrigation) on yield, the nitrate content in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and the cabbage N uptake was detected, in order to assess the potential risk for N losses, by cultivation on sandy-loam soil. The N rate applied on the plots was 200 kg N ha(-1). The highest yield (93 t ha(-1)) and nitrate content (1256 mg kg(-1) DW) were found with treatments using broadcast fertilisation and sprinkler irrigation. On those plots the negative N balance (-30 kg N ha(-1)) was recorded, which comes mainly from the highest crop N uptake (234 kg N ha(-1)) indicating the lowest potential for N losses. In terms of yield quality and the potential risk for N losses, broadcast fertilisation combined with sprinkler irrigation proved to be the most effective combination among the tested practices under the given experimental conditions. The importance of adequate irrigation is also evident, namely in plots on which 50% drip irrigation was applied, the lowest yield was detected and according to the positive N balance, a higher potential for N losses is expected. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Corrigendum to "Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improving carbon dioxide yields" [J. Power Sources 268 (5 December 2014) 439-442

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The authors regret that Equation (5) is incorrect and has resulted in errors in Fig. 4 and the efficiencies stated on p. 442. The corrected equation, figure and text are presented below. In addition, the title should be 'Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improve carbon dioxide yields', and the reversible cell potential quoted on p. 441 should be 1.14 V. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  10. Calculation of total free energy yield as an alternative approach for predicting the importance of potential chemolithotrophic reactions in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; McDonald, Austin I; Hedlund, Brian P

    2012-08-01

    To inform hypotheses regarding the relative importance of chemolithotrophic metabolisms in geothermal environments, we calculated free energy yields of 26 chemical reactions potentially supporting chemolithotrophy in two US Great Basin hot springs, taking into account the effects of changing reactant and product activities on the Gibbs free energy as each reaction progressed. Results ranged from 1.2 × 10(-5) to 3.6 J kg(-1) spring water, or 3.7 × 10(-5) to 11.5 J s(-1) based on measured flow rates, with aerobic oxidation of CH(4) or NH4 + giving the highest average yields. Energy yields calculated without constraining pH were similar to those at constant pH except for reactions where H(+) was consumed, which often had significantly lower yields when pH was unconstrained. In contrast to the commonly used normalization of reaction chemical affinities per mole of electrons transferred, reaction energy yields for a given oxidant varied by several orders of magnitude and were more sensitive to differences in the activities of products and reactants. The high energy yield of aerobic ammonia oxidation is consistent with previous observations of significant ammonia oxidation rates and abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea in sediments of these springs. This approach offers an additional lens through which to view the thermodynamic landscape of geothermal springs. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Potencial produtivo de videiras cultivadas sob cobertura de plástico Yield potential of grapevine cultivated under plastic cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do uso de cobertura de plástico sobre os componentes do rendimento da videira (Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Moscato Giallo. O experimento foi realizado nas safras 2005/2006 e 2006/2007, em Flores da Cunha, RS, em duas áreas de vinhedo, uma com cobertura de plástico impermeável e outra sem cobertura (controle. O microclima foi avaliado quanto à temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, radiação fotossinteticamente ativa e velocidade do vento próximo ao dossel vegetativo e a os cachos. A avaliação dos componentes de rendimento ocorreu em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, e foram identificadas dez plantas marcadas aleatoriamente em cada área. Avaliaram-se a produção por planta e por hectare, o número de cachos por planta e por metro quadrado, o número de sarmentos por metro quadrado, a massa e comprimento de cacho, a massa de engaço, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro transversal de bagas e a relação entre massa de película e massa de polpa. Acobertura de plástico possibilita aumento na produtividade, não afeta a relação entre massa de casca e massa de polpa das bagas e favorece a estabilidade de produção, independentemente das condições meteorológicas no ciclo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of plastic cover on the yield components of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Moscato Giallo. The experiment was carried out in 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 crop seasons, in Flores da Cunha, RS, Brazil, in two vineyard areas, one covered with an impermeable plastic film and other without covering (control. The microclimate was evaluated in terms of air temperature, air relative humidity, photosynthetically active radiation and wind speed above canopy and close to clusters. The yield components were evaluated in a completely randomized design, in ten plants randomly selected in each area. Measures were made for production per plant, yield per

  12. Boosting biomethane yield and production rate with graphene: The potential of direct interspecies electron transfer in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Jiabei; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa; Murphy, Jerry D

    2017-09-01

    Interspecies electron transfer between bacteria and archaea plays a vital role in enhancing energy efficiency of anaerobic digestion (AD). Conductive carbon materials (i.e. graphene nanomaterial and activated charcoal) were assessed to enhance AD of ethanol (a key intermediate product after acidogenesis of algae). The addition of graphene (1.0g/L) resulted in the highest biomethane yield (695.0±9.1mL/g) and production rate (95.7±7.6mL/g/d), corresponding to an enhancement of 25.0% in biomethane yield and 19.5% in production rate. The ethanol degradation constant was accordingly improved by 29.1% in the presence of graphene. Microbial analyses revealed that electrogenic bacteria of Geobacter and Pseudomonas along with archaea Methanobacterium and Methanospirillum might participate in direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET). Theoretical calculations provided evidence that graphene-based DIET can sustained a much higher electron transfer flux than conventional hydrogen transfer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth, reproductive phenology and yield responses of a potential biofuel plant, Jatropha curcas grown under projected 2050 levels of elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Chaitanya, Bharatula S K; Ghatty, Sreenivas; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is a non-edible oil producing plant which is being advocated as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal requirements of essential agronomical inputs compared with other oilseed crops makes it viable for cost-effective advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) (550 ppm) on the growth, reproductive development, source-sink relationships, fruit and seed yield of J. curcas. We report, for the first time that elevated CO(2) significantly influences reproductive characteristics of Jatropha and improve its fruit and seed yields. Net photosynthetic rate of Jatropha was 50% higher in plants grown in elevated CO(2) compared with field and ambient CO(2) -grown plants. The study also revealed that elevated CO(2) atmosphere significantly increased female to male flower ratio, above ground biomass and carbon sequestration potential in Jatropha (24 kg carbon per tree) after 1 year. Our data demonstrate that J. curcas was able to sustain enhanced rate of photosynthesis in elevated CO(2) conditions as it had sufficient sink strength to balance the increased biomass yields. Our study also elucidates that the economically important traits including fruit and seed yield in elevated CO(2) conditions were significantly high in J. curcas that holds great promise as a potential biofuel tree species for the future high CO(2) world. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Yield potential and fruit quality of scallop squash (Cucurbita pepo L. var. patissonina Greb. f. radiata Nois. cultivars grown for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Kołota

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scallop squash fruits may be harvested at different stages of development. Small size fruits, intended both for the fresh market and the food industry, have the highest biological value. This study was conducted to determine the yield potential of scallop squash cultivars (‘Polo F1’, ‘Disco’, ‘Gagat’, ‘Okra’, ‘Sunny Delight F1’ grown on mulched (black polyethylene foil or black agrotextile or unmulched soil, and harvested when fruits reached a diameter of 3–6 cm. Based on 3-year average data, the highest marketable and early yield was produced by ‘Sunny Delight F1’. This cultivar is also appreciated by consumers for its yellow colored skin of fruits. Another advantage of this cultivar was its high nutritional value expressed by the highest content of dry matter, vitamin C, polyphenols and minerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, with limited tendency to nitrate accumulation. Among the other cultivars tested, ‘Okra’ showed high yield potential, ‘Gagat’ was a rich source of carotenoids, and ‘Disco’ – polyphenols. Black polyethylene foil and black agrotextile appeared to be equally effective mulching materials. The benefit from the application of mulch was a significant increase in yield without any change in the chemical composition of the fruit.

  15. CERES-Maize model-based simulation of climate change impacts on maize yields and potential adaptive measures in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yumei; Wu, Wenxiang; Ge, Quansheng

    2015-11-01

    Climate change would cause negative impacts on future agricultural production and food security. Adaptive measures should be taken to mitigate the adverse effects. The objectives of this study were to simulate the potential effects of climate change on maize yields in Heilongjiang Province and to evaluate two selected typical household-level autonomous adaptive measures (cultivar changes and planting time adjustments) for mitigating the risks of climate change based on the CERES-Maize model. The results showed that flowering duration and maturity duration of maize would be shortened in the future climate and thus maize yield would reduce by 11-46% during 2011-2099 relative to 1981-2010. Increased CO2 concentration would not benefit maize production significantly. However, substituting local cultivars with later-maturing ones and delaying the planting date could increase yields as the climate changes. The results provide insight regarding the likely impacts of climate change on maize yields and the efficacy of selected adaptive measures by presenting evidence-based implications and mitigation strategies for the potential negative impacts of future climate change. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Métodos para a estimativa do potencial de rendimento da soja durante a ontogenia Methods for estimating the soybean potential yield during ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Leonardo Fernandes Pires

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar métodos para a estimativa do potencial de rendimento da soja durante a ontogenia. Os experimentos foram realizados em Eldorado do Sul, RS, durante as safras de 1996/1997, 1999/2000 e 2000/2001. Os tratamentos constaram de cinco cultivares de soja, FT-Saray, IAS 5, IAS 4, FT-Abyara e FEPAGRO RS-10. Cinco métodos foram utilizados para estimar o rendimento que seria obtido se todas as estruturas reprodutivas presentes no florescimento e no início do enchimento de grãos, produzissem grãos na maturação. O potencial de rendimento no florescimento e no enchimento de grãos, apresentou alta correlação com o número de flores e estruturas reprodutivas, respectivamente. Verificou-se, também, correspondência entre os métodos. Não houve, na maioria das vezes, correlações significativas entre o potencial, no florescimento e enchimento de grãos, e o rendimento de grãos na maturação. Os métodos estudados constituem ferramentas importantes para o manejo, quando utilizados para comparar o potencial de rendimento durante a ontogenia.The objective of this work was to study methods to estimate the soybean potential yield during ontogeny. The experiments were performed in Eldorado do Sul, RS, during the growing seasons of 1996/1997, 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. The treatments consisted of five soybean cultivars, FT-Saray, IAS 5, IAS 4, FT-Abyara and FEPAGRO RS-10. It was calculated the potential yield of each cultivar, by five methods, in order to estimate the yield that would be obtained if all the reproductive structures during flowering and beginning of pod filling produced grains at the maturity. Potential yield (during flowering and pod filling presented a high correlation with the number of flowers and reproductive structures, respectively. It was also found a correspondence among the methods. Most of the time, it did not occurred significant correlations between potential (during flowering and pod filling

  17. Potential link between fruit yield, quality parameters and phytohormonal changes in preharvest UV-C treated strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqun; Charles, Marie Thérèse; Luo, Zisheng; Roussel, Dominique; Rolland, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Preharvest ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment of strawberry is a very new approach, and little information is available on the effect of this treatment on plant growth regulators. In this study, the effect of preharvest UV-C irradiations at three different doses on strawberry yield, fruit quality parameters and endogenous phytohormones was investigated simultaneously. The overall marketable yield of strawberry was not affected by the preharvest UV-C treatments, although more aborted and misshapen fruits were found in UV-C treated groups than in the untreated control. The fruits in the high dose group were firmer and had approximately 20% higher sucrose content and 15% higher ascorbic acid content than the control, while fruits from the middle and low dose groups showed no significant changes in these parameters. The lower abscisic acid (ABA) content found in the fruits in the high UV-C group may be associated with those quality changes. The citric acid content decreased only in the low dose group (reduction of 5.8%), with a concomitant 37% reduction in jasmonic acid (JA) content, compared to the control. The antioxidant status of fruits that received preharvest UV-C treatment was considered enhanced based on their oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. In terms of aroma, three volatile alcohols differed significantly among the various treatments with obvious activation of alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) activity. The observed synchronous influence on physiological indexes and related phytohormones suggests that preharvest UV-C might affect fruit quality via the action of plant hormones. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Peracetic acid as a superior oxidant for preparation of [123I]IBZM: a potential dopamine D-2 receptor imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, Meiping; Kung, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    Various oxidizing agents: chloramine-T, hydrogen peroxide, sodium persulfate, m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid and peracetic acid were examined as the oxidant for preparing radioiodinated IBZM ((S)-(-)-3-iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]benzami de), which is a useful dopamine D-2 receptor imaging agent. Of all the oxidizing agents tested, peracetic acid appears to be the best agent for no-carrier added radioiodination. The advantages of using peracetic acid as the oxidant for the preparation of [ 125 I] or [ 123 I] IBZM include: high radiochemical yield, high radiochemical purity, and short reaction time at room temperature. (Author)

  19. Study of the Higgs boson discovery potential in the process pp{yields}H/A{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}/{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedes, Georgios

    2008-04-22

    In this thesis, the discovery potential of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN for the heavy neutral Higgs bosons H/A of theMinimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model of particle physics (MSSM) in the decay channels H/A{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}{yields}e/{mu}+X and H/A{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} has been studied. The ATLAS detector is designed to study the full spectrum of the physics phenomena occuring in the proton-proton collisions at 14 TeV center-of-mass energy and to provide answers to the question of the origin of particle masses and of electroweak symmetry breaking. For the studies, the ATLAS muon spectrometer plays an important role. The spectrometer allows for a precise muon momentum measurement independently of other ATLAS subdetectors. The performance of the muon spectrometer depends strongly on the performance of the muon tracking detectors, the Monitored Drift Tube Chambers (MDT). Computer programs have been developed in order to test and verify the ATLAS muon spectrometer simulation, an essential ingredient for data analysis. In addition, dedicated programs for the monitoring of the quality of the data collected by the muon spectrometer have been developed and tested with data from cosmic ray muons. High-quality cosmic ray muon data have been used for the calibration of the MDT-chambers. A new calibration method, called analytical autocalibration, has been tested. The proposed method achieved the required accuracy of 20 {mu}m in the determination of the space-to-drift-time relationship of the drift tubes of the MDT chambers with only 2000 muon tracks per chamber. Reliable muon detector simulation and calibration are essential for the study of the MSSM Higgs boson decays H/A{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}{yields}e/{mu}+X and H/A{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and of the corresponding background processes. The signal selection and background rejection requirements have been optimized for maximum signal

  20. Potential Hydrogen Yields from Ultramafic Rocks of the Coast Range Ophiolite and Zambales Ophiolite: Inferences from Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stander, A.; Nelms, M.; Wilkinson, K.; Dyar, M. D.; Cardace, D.

    2013-12-01

    The reduced status of mantle rocks is a possible controller and indicator of deep life habitat, due to interactions between water and ultramafic (Fe, Mg-rich) minerals, which, under reducing conditions, can yield copious free hydrogen, which is an energy source for rock-hosted chemosynthetic life. In this work, Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to parameterize the redox status of Fe in altering peridotites of the Coast Range Ophiolite (CRO) in California, USA and Zambales Ophiolite (ZO) in the Philippines. Fe-bearing minerals were identified and data were collected for the percentages of Fe(III)and Fe(II)and bulk Fe concentration. Thin section analysis shows that relict primary olivines and spinels generally constitute a small percentage of the ZO and CRO rock, and given satisfactory estimates of the volume of the ultramafic units of the ZO and CRO, a stoichiometric H2 production can be estimated. In addition, ZO serpentinites are ~63,000 ppm Fe in bulk samples; they contain ~41-58% Fe(III)and ~23-34% Fe(II) in serpentine and relict minerals along with ~8-30% of the total Fe as magnetite. CRO serpentinites are ~42,000 ppm Fe in bulk samples; they contain ~15-50% Fe(III), ~22-88% Fe(II) in serpentine and relict minerals, and ~0-52% of total Fe is in magnetite (Fe(II)Fe(III)2O4). Assuming stoichiometric production of H2, and given the following representation of serpentinization 2(FeO)rock + H2O → (Fe2O3)rock +H2, we calculated the maximum quantity of hydrogen released and yet to be released through the oxidation of Fe(II). Given that relatively high Fe(III)/Fetotal values can imply higher water:rock ratios during rock alteration (Andreani et al., 2013), we can deduce that ZO ultramafics in this study have experienced a net higher water:rock ratio than CRO ultramafics. We compare possible H2 yields and contrast the tectonic and alteration histories of the selected ultramafic units. (M. Andreani, M. Muñoz, C. Marcaillou, A. Delacour, 2013, μXANES study of iron

  1. Development of crossbreeding high-yield-potential strains for commercial cultivation in the medicinal mushroom Wolfiporia cocos (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaozhao; Wang, Xiaoxia; Bian, Yinbing; Xu, Zhangyi

    2016-07-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is a well-known medicinal mushroom, and its dried sclerotia has been widely used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Asian countries for centuries. However, long-term asexual reproduction of the breeding system in W. cocos results in a current universal degeneration of cultivated strains. To develop a W. cocos breeding program that will benefit commercial cultivation, we previously developed an optimum method for indoor induction of W. cocos fruiting bodies and clarified the nature of preponderant binuclear sexual basidiospores. In this paper, we first show that the majority of W. cocos single-spore isolates cannot form sclerotium in field cultivation. We then investigated the possibility of breeding new strains by crossbreeding. Three types of mating reactions were observed in both intra-strain pairings and inter-strain pairings, and a total of fifty-five hybrids were selected by antagonistic testing and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Field cultivation of hybrids demonstrated that some hybrids can form sclerotium via two cultivated methods. Two new high-yield strains were identified. This report will stimulate new thinking on W. cocos and promote further extensive studies on crossbreeding in W. cocos, a new topic related to the development of more efficient protocols for the discrimination of hybrids in W. cocos.

  2. Impact of Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) on damage, yield and quality of lesquerella (Physaria fendleri), a potential new oil-seed crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Dierig, David A

    2011-10-01

    Lesquerella, Physaria fendleri (A. Gray) S. Watson, is a mustard native to the western United States and is currently being developed as a commercial source of valuable hydroxy fatty acids that can be used in a number of industrial applications, including biolubricants, biofuel additives, motor oils, resins, waxes, nylons, plastics, corrosion inhibitors, cosmetics, and coatings. The plant is cultivated as a winter-spring annual and in the desert southwest it harbors large populations of arthropods, several of which could be significant pests once production expands. Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) are common in lesquerella and are known pests of a number of agronomic and horticultural crops where they feed primarily on reproductive tissues. A 4-yr replicated plot study was undertaken to evaluate the probable impact of Lygus spp. on production of this potential new crop. Plant damage and subsequent seed yield and quality were examined relative to variable and representative densities of Lygus spp. (0.3-4.9 insects per sweep net) resulting from variable frequency and timing of insecticide applications. Increasing damage to various fruiting structures (flowers [0.9-13.9%], buds [1.2-7.1%], and seed pods [19.4-42.5%]) was significantly associated with increasing pest abundance, particularly the abundance of nymphs, in all years. This damage, however, did not consistently translate into reductions in seed yield (481-1,336 kg/ha), individual seed weight (0.5-0.7 g per 1,000 seed), or seed oil content (21.8-30.4%), and pest abundance generally explained relatively little of the variation in crop yield and quality. Negative effects on yield were not sensitive to the timing of pest damage (early versus late season) but were more pronounced during years when potential yields were lower due to weed competition and other agronomic factors. Results suggest that if the crop is established and managed in a more optimal fashion, Lygus spp. may not significantly limit yield

  3. Effect of Collection Technique on Yield of Bovine Oocytes and the Development Potential of Oocytes from Different Grades of Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G Sianturi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte collection technique is important to obtain a maximum number of oocytes to be employed on in vitro production of embryos. In this study, immature bovine oocytes were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries by two techniques: aspiration of 2- to 6-mm follicles and slicing. Following collection, oocyte qualities were classified into four categories (A, B, C, and D on the basis of cumulus attachment. Oocytes of each category were matured in vitro in CO2 incubator for 22-24 hours and cumulus expansion and maturation rates were observed. The total number of oocytes (group A+B+C+D and yield of good quality oocytes (only group A and B recovered per ovary by aspiration were 12.02 and 8.21, and by slicing were 29.38 and 19.65 (P<0.01, respectively. The total cumulus cells expansion rates of A, B, C and D oocytes were 97.1%, 88.3%, 6.0% and 20.6% respectively. Maturation rates for A, B and C categories of oocytes were 91.4%, 82.3% and 35.0% respectively while no matured oocyte was observed for group D oocytes. Maturation rates were significantly different between group A and C and also between B and C but not between A and B (P<0.05. In conclusion, slicing technique recovered more oocytes per ovary (2.4 times than that of aspiration and the best maturation rate was observed from category A oocytes which surrounded by more than 3 layers of cumulus cells. However oocytes of category A and B can be considered as good quality oocytes.

  4. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  5. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  6. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  7. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  8. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  9. The effect of NaOH catalyst concentration and extraction time on the yield and properties of Citrullus vulgaris seed oil as a potential biodiesel feed stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Efavi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, oil was extracted from Citrullus vulgaris (watermelon seeds for potential feedstock in biodiesel production. The results showed that, the oil content from Citrullus vulgaris seeds oil during extraction reached an average yield of 50%. Biodiesel was produced via transesterification using NaOH as catalyst. The effect of NaOH on the yield of the biodiesel was investigated at three different concentrations; 0.13, 0.15 and 0.18 g and oil to methanol ratio of 5:1 under different reaction times; 90, 120 and 150 min at 60 °C. The yield of biodiesel from NaOH concentration of 0.13 g was found to be 70% as compared to those of concentrations, 0.15 g and 0.18 g which were 53% and 49% respectively.Gas chromatography was used to identify the methyl ester groups present in the biodiesel and the results revealed both concentration and time-dependent increase in oil yield. The physicochemical properties of the watermelon seed oil such as flash point (141.3 ± 0.4–143.4 ± 0.2, density (0.86 ± 0.04–0.91 ± 0.01 g/cm3, kinematic viscosity (30.50 ± 0.1–31.20 ± 0.04 mm2/s and acid value (mg KOH/g are similar to conventional vegetable oils. This work therefore, highlights the potential utility of water melon seeds for biodiesel production. Keywords: Citrullus vulgaris, Gas chromatography, Catalyst

  10. Root yield and reserpine content of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. on media under the plant with potential allelopathic effect by nutrient addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULANDJARI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The root of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth (pule pandak contains more than 50 kinds of alkaloid which is useful to treat many kinds of diseases and reserpine is ones to treat of hypertension. Eucalyptus deglupta and Acacia mangium have become release an allelochemy to ecosystem that are can reduce the growth of the plant association. The purpose of this research is to know about the influence of nutrient and media under the plant with potential allelopathic effect to root yield and reserpine content. The research was arranged in Complete Random Block Design. Nutrient was nested on media. Media are: under Tectona grandis, A. mangium, and E. deglupta. Nutrient is 30 t ha-1 organic fertilizers, 200 ha-1 inorganic (NPK fertilizers and control. Polybag with 30 cmx30 cm plant densities and 20% of shading. The result are that beside under the T. grandis, pule pandak was capable to growth under the A. mangium and E. deglupta. Thirty ton per hectare organic fertilizers was increased of growth and yield more than 200 ha-1 inorganic (NPK fertilizers. Allelocemy from A. mangium and E. deglupta was decreased dry root yield but was not effect to reserpine content.

  11. Mapping the Lisbon Potential Foodshed in Ribatejo e Oeste: A Suitability and Yield Model for Assessing the Potential for Localized Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Saavedra Cardoso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on food planning has been recently proposed in North American and European planning to account for how cities might change their food provision to respond to the rising demands for a more sustainable and ethical food system. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the agro-ecological potential of the Lisbon city region, Ribatejo e Oeste, to increase its Regional Food Self-Reliance (RFSR, through adopting demand restraint and food system relocalization approaches to food system sustainability. Three new diet scenarios were considered: meat-based, plant-based and strict vegetarian, defined in accordance with healthy dietary patterns. We used agro-climatic and agro-edaphic agricultural suitability models to evaluate the agro-ecological potential for RFSR, and proposed the use of Foodshed Landscape Plans within a landscape planning methodology. Results showed the extent of local food production that could improve food self-reliance, with 72%, 76%, 84% of total food needs in the meat-based, plant-based, and strict vegetarian scenarios, respectively. Thus, food system transformation by means of relocalization, is therefore ecologically feasible and would ensure the sustainable use of the ecological basis of food security. Additionally, a dietary transition would imply significant land sparing, which strengthens the demand restraint perspective for a transition to food system sustainability.

  12. Potential forcing of CO2, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F; Ferreira, W P M

    2009-01-01

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO 2 concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO 2 fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO 2 fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  13. Potential forcing of CO{sub 2}, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, PH Rolfs S/N, Vicosa, MG, 36570 000 (Brazil); Ferreira, W P M [Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Rodovia MG 424, km 45, Caixa Postal 285, CEP 35701-970 Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: fjustino@ufv.br

    2009-01-15

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO{sub 2} fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO{sub 2} fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  14. Recycling as a strategy against rare earth element criticality: a systemic evaluation of the potential yield of NdFeB magnet recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Jelle H; Kleijn, René; Yang, Yongxiang

    2013-09-17

    End-of-life recycling is promoted by OECD countries as a promising strategy in the current global supply crisis surrounding rare earth elements (REEs) so that dependence on China, the dominant supplier, can be decreased. So far the feasibility and potential yield of REE recycling has not been systematically evaluated. This paper estimates the annual waste flows of neodymium and dysprosium from permanent magnets, the main deployment of these critical REEs, during the 2011-2030 period. The estimates focus on three key permanent magnet waste flows: wind turbines, hybrid and electric vehicles, and hard disk drives (HDDs) in personal computers (PCs). This is a good indication of the end-of-life recycling of neodymium and dysprosium maximum potential yield. Results show that for some time to come, waste flows from permanent magnets will remain small relative to the rapidly growing global REE demand. Policymakers therefore need to be aware that during the next decade recycling is unlikely to substantially contribute to global REE supply security. In the long term, waste flows will increase sharply and will meet a substantial part of the total demand for these metals. Future REE recycling efforts should, therefore, focus on the development of recycling technology and infrastructure.

  15. Collagen type I from bovine bone. Effect of animal age, bone anatomy and drying methodology on extraction yield, self-assembly, thermal behaviour and electrokinetic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Gaillard-Martinie, Brigitte; Sayd, Thierry; Chambon, Christophe; Anton, Marc; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2017-04-01

    Natural collagen is easily available from animal tissues such as bones. Main limitations reported in the use of natural collagen are heterogeneity and loss of integrity during recovery. However, its natural complexity, functionality and bioactivity still remain to be achieved through synthetic and recombinant ways. Variability of physicochemical properties of collagen extracted from bovine bone by acetic acid was then investigated taking into account endogenous and exogenous factors. Endogenous: bovine's bones age (4 and 7 years) and anatomy (femur and tibia); exogenous: thermal treatments (spray-drying and lyophilisation). Scanning electron microscopy, spectroscopy (EDS, FTIR, UV/Vis and CD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), centesimal composition, mass spectrometry, amino acids and zeta-potential analysis were used for the purpose. Age correlated negatively with yield of recovery and positively with minerals and proteoglycans content. Comparing the anatomy, higher yields were found for tibias, and higher stability of tibias collagen in solution was noticed. Whatever the age and the anatomy, collagens were able to renature and to self-assemble into tri-dimensional structures. Nonetheless thermal stability and kinetics of renaturation were different. Variability of natural collagen with bone age and anatomy, and drying methodology, may be a crucial advantage to conceive tailor-made applications in either the biological or technical sector. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomass yielding potential of naturally regenerated Prosopis juliflora tree stands at three varied ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, K; Chandrasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Fuel energy demand is of great concern in recent times due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biomass serves as widely available primary renewable energy source. Hence, a study was performed to assess the above-ground biomass yielding capability of fuel wood tree Prosopis juliflora in three varied ecosystems viz., coastal, fallow land and riparian ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that the biomass production potential and above-ground net primary productivity of P. juliflora depend on the age of the tree stands and the nature of ecosystem. A higher biomass yield was observed for P. juliflora trees with 5 to 10 years old when compared to less than 5 years of their age. Among the three ecosystems, the maximum biomass production was recorded in riparian ecosystem. The stands with less than 5-year-old P. juliflora trees gave 1.40 t/ha, and 5- to 10-year-old tree stands produced 27.69 t/ha in riparian ecosystem. Above-ground net primary productivity of both the age groups was high in fallow land ecosystem. In riparian ecosystem, the wood showed high density and low sulphur content than the other two ecosystems. Hence, P. juliflora biomass can serve as an environmentally and economically feasible fuel as well as their utilization proffers an effective means to control its invasiveness.

  17. Potential of Genomic Selection in Mass Selection Breeding of an Allogamous Crop: An Empirical Study to Increase Yield of Common Buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiori Yabe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the potential of genomic selection (GS, a selection experiment with GS and phenotypic selection (PS was performed in an allogamous crop, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. To indirectly select for seed yield per unit area, which cannot be measured on a single-plant basis, a selection index was constructed from seven agro-morphological traits measurable on a single plant basis. Over 3 years, we performed two GS and one PS cycles per year for improvement in the selection index. In GS, a prediction model was updated every year on the basis of genotypes of 14,598–50,000 markers and phenotypes. Plants grown from seeds derived from a series of generations of GS and PS populations were evaluated for the traits in the selection index and other yield-related traits. GS resulted in a 20.9% increase and PS in a 15.0% increase in the selection index in comparison with the initial population. Although the level of linkage disequilibrium in the breeding population was low, the target trait was improved with GS. Traits with higher weights in the selection index were improved more than those with lower weights, especially when prediction accuracy was high. No trait changed in an unintended direction in either GS or PS. The accuracy of genomic prediction models built in the first cycle decreased in the later cycles because the genetic bottleneck through the selection cycles changed linkage disequilibrium patterns in the breeding population. The present study emphasizes the importance of updating models in GS and demonstrates the potential of GS in mass selection of allogamous crop species, and provided a pilot example of successful application of GS to plant breeding.

  18. Potential of Genomic Selection in Mass Selection Breeding of an Allogamous Crop: An Empirical Study to Increase Yield of Common Buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of genomic selection (GS), a selection experiment with GS and phenotypic selection (PS) was performed in an allogamous crop, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). To indirectly select for seed yield per unit area, which cannot be measured on a single-plant basis, a selection index was constructed from seven agro-morphological traits measurable on a single plant basis. Over 3 years, we performed two GS and one PS cycles per year for improvement in the selection index. In GS, a prediction model was updated every year on the basis of genotypes of 14,598-50,000 markers and phenotypes. Plants grown from seeds derived from a series of generations of GS and PS populations were evaluated for the traits in the selection index and other yield-related traits. GS resulted in a 20.9% increase and PS in a 15.0% increase in the selection index in comparison with the initial population. Although the level of linkage disequilibrium in the breeding population was low, the target trait was improved with GS. Traits with higher weights in the selection index were improved more than those with lower weights, especially when prediction accuracy was high. No trait changed in an unintended direction in either GS or PS. The accuracy of genomic prediction models built in the first cycle decreased in the later cycles because the genetic bottleneck through the selection cycles changed linkage disequilibrium patterns in the breeding population. The present study emphasizes the importance of updating models in GS and demonstrates the potential of GS in mass selection of allogamous crop species, and provided a pilot example of successful application of GS to plant breeding.

  19. Self and Superior Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    model of the self-evaluation process as it differs from the evaluation process used by superiors. Symbolic Interactionism One view of self assessment is...supplied by the symbolic interactionists (Cooley, 1902; Head, 1934), who state that self perceptions are generated largely from individuals...disagreements remained even immediately after an appraisal interview in which a great deal of feedback was given. Research on the symbolic interactionist

  20. Superior facet syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-01-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L 5 or/and S 1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively, Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L 5 roots and 11 S 1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L 5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome. (author)

  1. Biochar and flyash inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria act as potential biofertilizer for luxuriant growth and yield of tomato plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripti; Kumar, Adarsh; Usmani, Zeba; Kumar, Vipin; Anshumali

    2017-04-01

    Overuse of agrochemical fertilizers alarmingly causes deterioration in soil health and soil-flora. Persistence of these agrochemicals exerts detrimental effects on environment, potentially inducing toxic effects on human health, thus pronouncing an urgent need for a safer substitute. The present study investigates the potential use of agricultural and industrial wastes as carrier materials, viz. biochar and flyash, respectively, for preparation of bioformulations (or biofertilizers) using two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, Bacillus sp. strain A30 and Burkholderia sp. strain L2, and its effect on growth of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato). The viability of strains was determined based on colony forming units (cfu) count of each bioformulation at an interval of 60 days for a period of 240 days. Seeds were coated with different carrier based bioformulations and pot experiment(s) were carried out to access its effects on plant growth parameters. Biochar based bioformulations showed higher cfu count and maximum viability for strain L2 (10 7  cfu g -1 ) at 240 days of storage. Maximum percentage of seed germination was also observed in biochar inoculated with strain L2. Significant (p < 0.05) increase in plant growth parameters (dry and fresh biomass, length, number of flowers) were ascertained from the pot experiment and amongst all bioformulations, biochar inoculated with strain L2 performed consistently thriving results for tomato yield. Furthermore, post-harvest study of this bioformulation treated soil improved physico-chemical properties and dehydrogenase activity as compared to pre-plantation soil status. Overall, we show that prepared biochar based bioformulation using Burkholderia sp. L2 as inoculum can tremendously enhance the productivity of tomato, soil fertility, and can also act as a sustainable substitute for chemical fertilizers. In addition, mixture of biochar and flyash inoculated with strain L2 also showed noteworthy results for the

  2. Information Superiority through Data Warehousing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warner, Neil

    2001-01-01

    .... A precursor to a knowledge edge is Information Superiority. Within most current Command Support Systems minimal integration and fusion of data is undertaken to provide the basis of information superiority...

  3. Identification of Potential Metabolic Markers for the Selection of a High-Yield Clone of Quercus acutissima in Clonal Seed Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Won Kang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Quercus acutissima Carruth. is one of the most economically important deciduous tree species in Korea. The acorns of Q. acutissima are used for both food and medicinal purposes in Korea and China. In this study, we analyzed plant hormones and metabolite profiles to identify their correlation with the yield production of Q. acutissima. The contents of sucrose and inositol in the leaves of high-yield clones were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than those of low-yield clones. In addition, high-yield clones have a higher content of phosphoric acid, succinic acid, malic acid, and butane-1,3-diol in stems compared with low-yield clones. Among the identified metabolites, zeatin-9-glucoside showed highly significant negative correlations with tree height, crown volume, and acorn production. It is considered that these metabolites could be useful metabolic markers for the selection of a high yield clone of Q. acutissima.

  4. Potential nitrous oxide yield of AOA vs. AOB and utilization of carbon and nitrogen in the ammonia oxidizing process in the Pearl River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L.; Dai, M.; Tan, S.; Xia, X.; Liu, H.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas, is a by-product during ammonia oxidation process, the production of which is often stimulated under low dissolved oxygen (DO) in the estuarine environment. The potential yield of N2O has been considered to be driven by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) of Betaproteobacteria & Gammaproteobacteria and/or ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of Thaumarchaeota. In order to examine the relative importance of AOA and AOB in producing N2O and in modulating the potential N2O yield, arch-amoA, beta-amoA, gamma-amoA encoding for the alpha subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) are used as biomarkers to identify the distributions and bioactivities of AOA and AOB in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). Size fractionation experiments were conducted to distinguish AOA and AOB on particles in different size-fractions of > 3 μm, 0.45-3 μm, and 0.22-0.45 μm. Pure culture of N. maritimusSCM1 was studied as a model organism to identify the organic carbon production during ammonia oxidation by SCM1 strains. Our results show that AOA distributes largely in the free-living state and could adapt to very limited ammonia substrate and low saturation of DO; AOB mainly distributes at the particle-attached state under relative richer ammonia and high DO conditions; however, the RNA/DNA ratio of AOB was higher than that of AOA under the same conditions suggesting AOB is relatively more actively expressed. In the upper reach of PRE, the dominant microorganism in the water column was AOB and the in situ N2O/NH3 therein ranged 0.73-3.74 ‰. In the lower PRE, AOA was dominated, and the in situ N2O/NH3 was of 1.17- 7.32‰. At selected sites, we estimated isotope effect (e) of AOA (eDIC/bulk) as -23.94‰ and AOB (eDIC/bulk) as -56.6‰ to -44.8‰, which is consistent with the studies of pure cultures. The coefficient of C sequestration "k", defined as (C biomass / DIC in situ) / (N biomass / ammonia in situ) to differ the utilization of carbon and nitrogen, of

  5. Modified crop model estimation of depleted and potential soybean yield=Modelo modificado de estimação da produtividade deplecionada e potencial da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Augusto Manfron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great importance of soybeans in Brazil, there have been few applications of soybean crop modeling on Brazilian conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to use modified crop models to estimate the depleted and potential soybean crop yield in Brazil. The climatic variable data used in the modified simulation of the soybean crop models were temperature, insolation and rainfall. The data set was taken from 33 counties (28 Sao Paulo state counties, and 5 counties from other states that neighbor São Paulo. Among the models, modifications in the estimation of the leaf area of the soybean crop, which includes corrections for the temperature, shading, senescence, CO2, and biomass partition were proposed; also, the methods of input for the model’s simulation of the climatic variables were reconsidered. The depleted yields were estimated through a water balance, from which the depletion coefficient was estimated. It can be concluded that the adaptation soybean growth crop model might be used to predict the results of the depleted and potential yield of soybeans, and it can also be used to indicate better locations and periods of tillage.Aplicações de modelos de previsão de produtividade na cultura da soja são muito raros. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar a estimação da produtividade deplecionada e potencial da cultura de soja, usando modelos de previsão modificados. Os dados climáticos utilizados nos modelos de simulação foram a temperatura, precipitação e insolação. Os dados foram proveniente de 33 municípios (28 do estado de São Paulo, e cinco municípios de estados vizinhos. Dentre os modelos propostos modificados está a estimação da área foliar da soja, com correções para temperatura, sombreamento, senescência, CO2, partição de biomassa, bem como os métodos de simulação das variávies climáticas do “input” para o modelo. As produções deplecionadas foram estimadas através do balan

  6. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  7. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part one: accomodation of Chenopodium quinoa (Willd. to different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evaluation of selected varieties of Chenopodium quinoa, their requirements were identified; it was shown which varieties demonstrated the best effects in what conditions. It was found that the best varieties for Europe's conditions were E-DK-4-PQCIP and RU-5-PQCIP. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety showed the best effects under the conditions of cluster II which included e.g. Bydgoszcz (Poland and cluster IV which included Southern European countries (Greece and Italy, while the best effects found in RU-5-PQCIP variety were identified in cluster I which included Sweden. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety in cluster II showed a very high yield of green matter and a mean seed yield, and in cluster IV - a very high seed yield and a high yield of green matter.

  8. Is Reduction in Yield Potential of Some Brassicaceous Species Due to Aphid Infestation Associated with the Changes in Stomatal Factors of Photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razaq, M.; Farooq, M.; Abbas, G.; Rehman, H. M.; Iqbal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aphids cause heavy yield losses to Brassicaceous species by affecting various physiological and biochemical processes including photosynthesis. In the present study, seasonal activity of aphid population and its impact on some brassicaceous species was assessed. Three brassicaceous species (Brassica campestris, Brassica carinata, Eruca sativa) were grown in field following standard agricultural practices. Plants of control plots retained aphid free by insecticide spray, whereas treatment plots were freely allowed for aphid infestation. There was also intermediate treatment of partial aphid infestation where insecticidal spray was applied two times. Peak populations of both aphid species were observed in the 2nd week of March during which plant photosynthetic attributes were recorded. At the time of maturity, yield attributes were also recorded. From the results, it is obvious that application of insecticide significantly reduced the aphid populations on the three brassicaceous species and enhanced the crop yield. Yield losses due to aphid infestation were maximal in Brassica campestris followed by B. carinata whereas it was minimal in Eruca sativa. Yield losses in Brassica campestris and B. carinata were due to reduction in number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and size of seeds, whereas yield losses due to aphid infestation in Eruca sativa was mainly attributed to reduction in number of pods per plant. Although insecticidal spray reduced the aphid population and increased growth and productivity of all brassicaceous species, it did not change photosynthetic capacity of all plants except in Eruca sativa. Moreover, growth and yield reduction was not associated with stomatal factors of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll contents measured as SPAD values were reduced due to aphid infestation which is positively associated with yield reduction. Insecticidal spray increased chlorophyll contents in these three brassicaceous species by reducing aphid population

  9. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are quantified, yield gaps evaluated by crop experts, current yield progress by breeding estimated, and different yield projections compared. Results show decreasing yield growth for wheat and rice, but ...

  10. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Noomhorm, Athapol

    2014-10-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts' yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave method gave higher extraction yield from banana peel than ultrasonic method. The phenolic contents of cinnamon bark and banana peel extracts were 467 and 35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The flavonoid content found in banana peel and cinnamon bark extracts were 196 and 428 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. In addition, it was found that cinnamon bark gave higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1 picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by measuring the peroxide and p-anisidine values after oxidation of fish oils, stored for a month (30 days) at 25 °C and showed lesser peroxide and p-anisidine values in the fish oils containing the sample extracts in comparison to the fish oil without containing any extract. The banana peel and cinnamon extracts had shown the ability as antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of fish oil and might be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidant.

  11. Evaluation of yield and identifying potential regions for Saffron (Crocus sativus L. cultivation in Khorasan Razavi province according to temperature parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein Tosan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is cultivated in most part of Iran, because of low water requirement and well adaptation to diverse environmental condition. In recent years, for many reasons such as low water requirement, saffron cultivation areas has been increased especially in Khorasan Razavi province. Temperature is one of the most important factors in saffron flowering phenomena. The aim of this research was to evaluate the response of saffron to temperature in Khorasan Razavi province counties (Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Gonabad, Nishabour, Sabzevar and Ghoochan. Climatic data (monthly minimum, average, maximum temperatures and diurnal temperature range and saffron yield data were collected for past 20 years period. The stepwise regression methods were used to remove extra parameters and only keep the most important ones. By using these equations and ArcGIS software zoning, Spline method was find the best for saffron crop zoning. The results of linear regression in Gonabad showed that minimum, maximum and average temperature and also diurnal temperature range in March and April months had the greatest impact on saffron yield. For each of the four indices (the minimum, maximum and average temperature and also diurnal temperature range the best area for saffron cultivation was the southern part of the province (particularly Gonabad; so by increasing distance from this area to north areas (such as Kashmar, Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Sabzevar, Nishabour, Mashhad and finally Ghoochan saffron yield reduced by 30 to 50 percent. Therefore, the northern areas of the province had relatively low saffron yield. According to result of this research, saffron yield in Khorasan Razavi province was significantly influenced by temperature parameters. Flowering which basically is the most important stage of plant growth, is directly setting up with temperature.

  12. Profundidade do solo e micro-relevo em bananais irrigados: impactos na nutrição mineral e potencial produtivo Soil depth and microrelief in irrigated banana plantation: impacts on mineral nutrition and yield potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Cristina Gomes Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o papel da profundidade do solo e da microtopografia em aspectos nutricionais e produtivos de bananais irrigados. O estudo foi conduzido na Chapada do Apodi (CE, em área com variações na profundidade do solo. Os tratamentos foram sítios (locais em diferentes classes de micro-relevo (côncavo, convexo e retilíneo que abrangeram quatro profundidades de solo: A 0,92 m; B 0,77 m; C 0,65 m; D 0,52 m. Foram avaliados: altura da planta mãe (APM, altura da planta filha (APF, diâmetro do pseudocaule da planta mãe (DPPM, massa de folhas frescas (MFF e secas (MFS, teores de fósforo (P, potássio (K, cálcio (Ca, enxofre (S e sódio (Na no tecido vegetal e massa dos cachos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições para avaliações de crescimento e cinco repetições para avaliações referentes à massa de folhas, estado nutricional e produção. A análise estatística foi feita pela ANOVA e DMS a 5% de significância. APM e DPPM foram maiores em A e C, enquanto que menores médias ocorreram no solo mais raso (D. MFF e MFS foram superiores em A e D que também apresentaram maior acúmulo de nutrientes nas folhas. Entretanto, maiores teores foliares e níveis adequados de P ocorreram em A, que também apresentou maior massa de cachos em relação aos solos mais rasos. Isto mostra que a profundidade efetiva do solo e o micro-relevo influenciam a absorção de nutrientes, o crescimento e o potencial produtivo de bananeiras irrigadas na Chapada do Apodi.The aim of this research was to verify whether soil depth affects aspects of mineral nutrition and yield potential of irrigated banana plantations. The study was carried out at Apodi Plateau (CE, Brazil, in an area characterized by soil depth variations. The treatments were sites in different microrelief classes (concave, convex and retilinea with four different soil depths: A 0.92 m; B 0.77 m; C 0.6 5m; D 0.52 m. The

  13. Dry-grind processing using amylase corn and superior yeast to reduce the exogenous enzyme requirements in bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Conventional corn dry-grind ethanol production process requires exogenous alpha and glucoamylases enzymes to breakdown starch into glucose, which is fermented to ethanol by yeast. This study evaluates the potential use of new genetically engineered corn and yeast, which can eliminate or minimize the use of these external enzymes, improve the economics and process efficiencies, and simplify the process. An approach of in situ ethanol removal during fermentation was also investigated for its potential to improve the efficiency of high-solid fermentation, which can significantly reduce the downstream ethanol and co-product recovery cost. The fermentation of amylase corn (producing endogenous α-amylase) using conventional yeast and no addition of exogenous α-amylase resulted in ethanol concentration of 4.1 % higher compared to control treatment (conventional corn using exogenous α-amylase). Conventional corn processed with exogenous α-amylase and superior yeast (producing glucoamylase or GA) with no exogenous glucoamylase addition resulted in ethanol concentration similar to control treatment (conventional yeast with exogenous glucoamylase addition). Combination of amylase corn and superior yeast required only 25 % of recommended glucoamylase dose to complete fermentation and achieve ethanol concentration and yield similar to control treatment (conventional corn with exogenous α-amylase, conventional yeast with exogenous glucoamylase). Use of superior yeast with 50 % GA addition resulted in similar increases in yield for conventional or amylase corn of approximately 7 % compared to that of control treatment. Combination of amylase corn, superior yeast, and in situ ethanol removal resulted in a process that allowed complete fermentation of 40 % slurry solids with only 50 % of exogenous GA enzyme requirements and 64.6 % higher ethanol yield compared to that of conventional process. Use of amylase corn and superior yeast in the dry-grind processing industry

  14. The value of different vegetative indices (NDVI, GAI for the assessment of yield potential of pea (Pisum sativum L. at different growth stages and under varying management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index and GAI (green area index in order to indicate the productivity and developmental effects of Rhizobium inoculants and microelement foliar fertilizer on pea crops. Two inoculants, Nitragina (a commercial inoculant and IUNG (a noncommercial inoculant gel and a foliar fertilizer (Photrel were studied over a 4-year period, 2009–2012. The cultivars chosen for the studies were characterized by different foliage types, namely a semileafless pea ‘Tarchalska’ and one with regular foliage, ‘Klif’. Foliar fertilizer significantly increased the length of the generative shoots and the number of fruiting nodes in comparison to the control, which in turn had a negative impact on the harvest index. Pea seed yield was highly dependent on the interaction between the years of growth and the microbial inoculant, and was greater for ‘Tarchalska’ (4.33 t ha−1. Presowing inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization resulted in a significantly higher value of GAI at the flowering (3.91 and 3.81, respectively and maturity stages (4.82 and 4.77, respectively, whereas the value of NDVI was higher for these treatments only at the maturity stage (0.67 and 0.79, respectively. A significantly greater yield (5.0–5.4 t ha−1 was obtained after inoculation with IUNG during the dry years.

  15. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  16. Sowing time on Soybean yield potential in Uberlândia-MGÉpoca de semeadura no Potencial produtivo de Soja em Uberlândia-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Divina Lemes Hamawaki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was done in Uberlândia (MG to evaluate the performance of seven soybeans cultivars sowed in four different times: October 30th, November 15th, December 14th and 31st during the 2001/2002 season. The cultivars utilized were: DM-118 early-maturing, DM-247, DM-Victoria, DM-339, medium late cycle and DM-309, DM-98C81 and DM-Noble cycle Late. The statistical design was a randomized blocks in a factorial scheme (7 cultivars x 4 times with three replications. The evaluated characteristics were: yield, number of days for flowering, number of days for maturing, plant height, first bean height and plant laying. For the most evaluated cultivars, sowing beyond December 14th in Uberlandia region presented yield losses for earlier cultivars as DM-118 as well for the later ones as DM Vitória, compared to sowing in 30th October. The time for flowering and maturing and plant height had effect on the yield.O trabalho foi feito em Uberlândia, com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de sete cultivares de soja em quatro épocas distintas de semeadura: 30 de Outubro, 15 de Novembro, 14 e 31 de Dezembro, na safra 2001/02. As cultivares utilizadas foram: DM-118 de ciclo precoce, DM-247, DM-Vitória, DM-339, de ciclo semitardio e DM-309, DM-98C81 e DM-Nobre de ciclo tardio. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (7 cultivares x 4 épocas com três repetições. As características avaliadas foram: produtividade, número de dias para floração e maturação, altura de plantas na maturação, inserção da primeira vagem e acamamento. Para a maioria das cultivares, a semeadura realizada a partir de 14 de dezembro na região de Uberlândia provocou queda na produtividade, tanto para as cultivares mais precoces quanto para mais tardia, DM Vitória, quando comparada a semeadura em 30 de outubro. O período para o florescimento, maturação e a altura de plantas interferiram na produtividade. Há decréscimo de altura de

  17. Evaluation of chickpea and groundnut for N2 fixation and yield in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, M.A.; Podder, A.K.; Das, M.L.; Shaikh, M.A.Q.; Danso, S.K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Field experiments on chickpea and groundnut were variously carried out at four locations in Bangladesh. Generally consistent trends were obtained in terms of positive effects of inoculation with rhizobia, and genotypic diversity for components of N 2 fixation and yield. Inoculation of groundnut increased average nodule number by 77% at Rajshahi, 99% at Mymensingh and 148% at Jamalput. The increases in nodule dry weight, plant dry weight, pod and stover yields due to inoculation ranged from 93 to 146%, 55 to 77%, 43 to 50% and 29 to 80%, respectively. At all three locations, significant differences were found amongst the genotypes for nodulation, dry matter production and yield. Mutant genotype 62-30 was superior for most components, and statistically better than the present variety Dacca-1 for all characteristics investigated. Inoculant application to chickpea resulted in at least a doubling of nodule number at Ishurdi and Mymensingh; on average, there was a three-fold increase in nodule mass as a result of inoculation. Seed-yield increases due to inoculation ranged from 24 to 50%. Inoculated cv. G-97 recorded a seed yield of about 1.5 t/ha at Ishurdi, 47% higher than that produced by Nabin, a variety widely cultivated in Bangladesh. Total-N yield and the amount of N fixed by G-97 with inoculant were also higher than for Hyprosola, which is known for high yield and protein content. In a screening trial at Mymensingh the commercial chickpea Nabin and Hyprosola were consistently inferior to advanced lines produced by mutation breeding. Of 12 mutant groundnut genotypes tested, D1-15KR/62-30 maintained superiority for almost all components. Most of the mutants performed better than the commercial variety Dacca-1. The data show the potential for increasing chickpea and groundnut yields in Bangladesh by improving N 2 fixation via selection of superior genotype in conjunction with compatible rhizobia

  18. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are

  19. Divergent Hd1, Ghd7, and DTH7 Alleles Control Heading Date and Yield Potential of Japonica Rice in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Niu, Xiaojun; Yang, Yaolong; Wang, Shan; Xu, Qun; Yuan, Xiaoping; Yu, Hanyong; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Shu; Feng, Yue; Wei, Xinghua

    2018-01-01

    The heading date is a vital factor in achieving a full rice yield. Cultivars with particular flowering behaviors have been artificially selected to survive in the long-day and low-temperature conditions of Northeast China. To dissect the genetic mechanism responsible for heading date in rice populations from Northeast China, association mapping was performed to identify major controlling loci. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified three genetic loci, Hd1 , Ghd7 , and DTH7 , using general and mixed linear models. The three genes were sequenced to analyze natural variations and identify their functions. Loss-of-function alleles of these genes contributed to early rice heading dates in the northern regions of Northeast China, while functional alleles promoted late rice heading dates in the southern regions of Northeast China. Selecting environmentally appropriate allele combinations in new varieties is recommended during breeding. Introducing the early indica rice's genetic background into Northeast japonica rice is a reasonable strategy for improving genetic diversity.

  20. Do phase-shift analyses and nucleon-nucleon potential models yield the wrong 3Pj phase shifts at low energies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Witala, H.; Kievsky, A.

    1998-01-01

    The 4 P J waves in nucleon-deuteron scattering were analyzed using proton-deuteron and neutron-deuteron data at E N =3 MeV. New sets of nucleon-nucleon 3 P j phase shifts were obtained that may lead to a better understanding of the long-standing A y (θ) puzzle in nucleon-deuteron elastic scattering. However, these sets of 3 P j phase shifts are quite different from the ones determined from both global phase-shift analyses of nucleon-nucleon data and nucleon-nucleon potential models. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  1. Permanently Hypoxic Cell Culture Yields Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells with Higher Therapeutic Potential in the Treatment of Chronic Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mismatch between traditional in vitro cell culture conditions and targeted chronic hypoxic myocardial tissue could potentially hamper the therapeutic effects of implanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs. This study sought to address (i the extent of change to BMSC biological characteristics in different in vitro culture conditions and (ii the effectiveness of permanent hypoxic culture for cell therapy in treating chronic myocardial infarction (MI in rats. Methods: rat BMSCs were harvested and cultured in normoxic (21% O2, n=27 or hypoxic conditions (5% O2, n=27 until Passage 4 (P4. Cell growth tests, flow cytometry, and Bio-Plex assays were conducted to explore variations in the cell proliferation, phenotype, and cytokine expression, respectively. In the in vivo set-up, P3-BMSCs cultured in normoxia (n=6 or hypoxia (n=6 were intramyocardially injected into rat hearts that had previously experienced 1-month-old MI. The impact of cell therapy on cardiac segmental viability and hemodynamic performance was assessed 1 month later by 2-Deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET imaging and pressure-volume catheter, respectively. Additional histomorphological examinations were conducted to evaluate inflammation, fibrosis, and neovascularization. Results: Hypoxic preconditioning significantly enhanced rat BMSC clonogenic potential and proliferation without altering the multipotency. Different profiles of inflammatory, fibrotic, and angiogenic cytokine secretion were also documented, with a marked correlation observed between in vitro and in vivo proangiogenic cytokine expression and tissue neovessels. Hypoxic-preconditioned cells presented a beneficial effect on the myocardial viability of infarct segments and intrinsic contractility. Conclusion: Hypoxic-preconditioned BMSCs were able to benefit myocardial perfusion and contractility, probably by modulating the inflammation and promoting

  2. Permanently Hypoxic Cell Culture Yields Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells with Higher Therapeutic Potential in the Treatment of Chronic Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Yang, Xiaoxi; Maureira, Pablo; Falanga, Aude; Marie, Vanessa; Gauchotte, Guillaume; Poussier, Sylvain; Groubatch, Frederique; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Tran, Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    The mismatch between traditional in vitro cell culture conditions and targeted chronic hypoxic myocardial tissue could potentially hamper the therapeutic effects of implanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). This study sought to address (i) the extent of change to BMSC biological characteristics in different in vitro culture conditions and (ii) the effectiveness of permanent hypoxic culture for cell therapy in treating chronic myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. rat BMSCs were harvested and cultured in normoxic (21% O2, n=27) or hypoxic conditions (5% O2, n=27) until Passage 4 (P4). Cell growth tests, flow cytometry, and Bio-Plex assays were conducted to explore variations in the cell proliferation, phenotype, and cytokine expression, respectively. In the in vivo set-up, P3-BMSCs cultured in normoxia (n=6) or hypoxia (n=6) were intramyocardially injected into rat hearts that had previously experienced 1-month-old MI. The impact of cell therapy on cardiac segmental viability and hemodynamic performance was assessed 1 month later by 2-Deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and pressure-volume catheter, respectively. Additional histomorphological examinations were conducted to evaluate inflammation, fibrosis, and neovascularization. Hypoxic preconditioning significantly enhanced rat BMSC clonogenic potential and proliferation without altering the multipotency. Different profiles of inflammatory, fibrotic, and angiogenic cytokine secretion were also documented, with a marked correlation observed between in vitro and in vivo proangiogenic cytokine expression and tissue neovessels. Hypoxic-preconditioned cells presented a beneficial effect on the myocardial viability of infarct segments and intrinsic contractility. Hypoxic-preconditioned BMSCs were able to benefit myocardial perfusion and contractility, probably by modulating the inflammation and promoting angiogenesis. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG

  3. Cottonseed oil and yield assessment via economic heterosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-11-01

    Nov 1, 2010 ... ISSN 1684–5315 ©2010 Academic Journals. Full Length ... Key words: Hybrid vigor, inbreeding depression, cottonseed traits, cottonseed oil, Gossypium hirsutum. ... in yield and superior performance than well-adapted.

  4. Estimation of Potential Shale Gas Yield Amount and Land Degradation in China by Landcover Distribution regarding Water-Food-Energy and Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N.; Heo, S.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    Shale gas is gain attention due to the tremendous reserves beneath the earth. The two known high reservoirs are located in United States and China. According to U.S Energy Information Administration China have estimated 7,299 trillion cubic feet of recoverable shale gas and placed as world first reservoir. United States had 665 trillion cubic feet for the shale gas reservoir and placed fourth. Unlike the traditional fossil fuel, spatial distribution of shale gas is considered to be widely spread and the reserved amount and location make the resource as energy source for the next generation. United States dramatically increased the shale gas production. For instance, shale gas production composes more than 50% of total natural gas production whereas China and Canada shale gas produce very small amount of the shale gas. According to U.S Energy Information Administration's report, in 2014 United States produced shale gas almost 40 billion cubic feet per day but China only produced 0.25 billion cubic feet per day. Recently, China's policy had changed to decrease the coal powerplants to reduce the air pollution and the energy stress in China is keep increasing. Shale gas produce less air pollution while producing energy and considered to be clean energy source. Considering the situation of China and characteristics of shale gas, soon the demand of shale gas will increase in China. United States invested 71.7 billion dollars in 2013 but it Chinese government is only proceeding fundamental investment due to land degradation, limited water resources, geological location of the reservoirs.In this study, firstly we reviewed the current system and technology of shale gas extraction such as hydraulic Fracturing. Secondly, listed the possible environmental damages, land degradations, and resource demands for the shale gas extraction. Thirdly, invested the potential shale gas extraction amount in China based on the location of shale gas reservoirs and limited resources for the

  5. The potential of non-invasive pre- and post-mortem carcass measurements to predict the contribution of carcass components to slaughter yield of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Lida; Sánchez-Macías, Davinia; Barba, Iván; Rodríguez, Nibaldo

    2018-06-01

    Guinea pig meat consumption is increasing exponentially worldwide. The evaluation of the contribution of carcass components to carcass quality potentially can allow for the estimation of the value added to food animal origin and make research in guinea pigs more practicable. The aim of this study was to propose a methodology for modelling the contribution of different carcass components to the overall carcass quality of guinea pigs by using non-invasive pre- and post mortem carcass measurements. The selection of predictors was developed through correlation analysis and statistical significance; whereas the prediction models were based on Multiple Linear Regression. The prediction results showed higher accuracy in the prediction of carcass component contribution expressed in grams, compared to when expressed as a percentage of carcass quality components. The proposed prediction models can be useful for the guinea pig meat industry and research institutions by using non-invasive and time- and cost-efficient carcass component measuring techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Writing superiority in cued recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eFueller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001. In other memory retrieval paradigms, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005. In a series of four experiments using a paired associate (PA learning paradigm we tested (a whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b whether a possible superiority for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c whether the performance in PA word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory task. We found better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a PA learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written versus spoken recall cannot be (solely explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory

  7. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  8. Double elevator weakening for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy with ipsilateral superior rectus contracture and lax superior oblique tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif O

    2012-06-01

    In unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy, a large hypertropia is sometimes associated with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle and apparent overaction of the contralateral superior oblique. Ipsilateral double elevator weakening is one surgical approach; however, this procedure could compromise supraduction. We report a series of three consecutive patients who underwent ipsilateral superior rectus and inferior oblique recessions for unilateral superior oblique palsy. Intraoperatively, all three patients were found to have a lax ipsilateral superior oblique tendon. Postoperatively, all three patients had satisfactory correction of the hypertropia and abnormal head position with minimal supraduction defect. This procedure seems to be an acceptable initial surgical option for treating congenital superior oblique muscle palsy with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle, even when the ipsilateral superior oblique tendon is lax. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization through neuron network of the potentiality of Higgs discovery in the CMS detector via H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 4e{sup {+-}}, and study of the triggering primitives of the electromagnetic calorimeter; Optimisation par reseaux de neurones du potentiel de decouverte du boson de Higgs dans le canal H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 4e{sup {+-}} sur le detecteur CMS, et etude des primitives de declenchement du calorimetre electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bimbot, St

    2006-10-15

    The first chapter presents the theoretical background on which the Higgs mechanism is based within the framework of the standard model. The second chapter reviews the past and present attempts aiming at the discovery of the Higgs boson. The specific features of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and of one of its detector: the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) detector are given in the third chapter. The author details the track detector and the ECAL electronic calorimeter that are key components of CMS in the detection of the Higgs boson via the following decay channel: H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 2e{sup +}2e{sup -} (where Z and Z{sup *} represents the Z{sup O} boson in a real state and in a virtual state respectively). The chapters 4 and 5 are dedicated to the calibration of the ECAL calorimeter via the use of an electron beam and to the triggering system. The data analysis that will lead to the reconstruction of the events detected by CMS is presented in the chapter 6. The last chapter is devoted to the optimization of the extraction of the Higgs boson signal from an abundant background noise. (A.C.)

  10. Effects of Cropping System and Cowpea Variety on Symbiotic Potential and Yields of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoumana Kouyaté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cowpea varieties (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp have been proposed by research in Mali. None of these varieties were investigated for their symbiotic potential in terms of root nodulation and mycorrhizal infection. An experiment was conducted at Cinzana Research Station, from 2007 to 2009 with an objective to identify a cowpea variety with high symbiotic potential which may improve millet/cowpea cropping global production. Randomized complete block (RCBD design with a factorial combination of 3 cowpea varieties (IT89KD-374, CZ1-94-23-1, and CZ11-94-5C and 2 cropping systems (millet/cowpea intercropping and cowpea-millet rotation was used. On farm test was conducted to evaluate CZ11-94-5C and IT89KD-374 nodulation performance. Cowpea variety CZ11-94-5-C had the highest nodule number and nodule weight. Millet/cowpea alternate rows intercropping (1/1, only, had a significant influence on cowpea root infection rates by mycorrhizae, on the 45th day after emergence. IT89KD-374 gave the best cowpea grain yield (1540 kg ha−1 in sole crop. The highest millet grain yield (1650 kg ha−1 was obtained under CZ11-94-5C-millet rotation. Farmers' fields assessments results confirmed CZ11-94-5C performance on research station. The CZ11-94-5C cowpea variety needs to be more characterized.

  11. Potential Dimension Yields From Direct Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjie Lin; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1994-01-01

    As the price of timber increases and environmental leigslation limits harvestable log volumes, the process of converting logs directly into dimension parts needs further exploration. Direct processing converts logs directly into rough green dimension parts without the intermediate steps of lumber manufacturing, grading, trading, shipping and drying. A major attraction...

  12. Modelo para estimativa do potencial produtivo em trigo e cevada por meio do sensor GreenSeeker Model for yield potential estimation in wheat and barley using the GreenSeeker sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Grohs

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Áreas com diferentes potenciais de rendimento dentro de uma lavoura necessitam ser manejadas separadamente, para fins de aplicação da adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. O equipamento baseado em sensoriamento remoto terrestre (GreenSeeker é um dos instrumentos utilizados para separar diferentes zonas de manejo. Para fazer isso, o sensor permite a definição de classes para estimar o potencial produtivo de forma ágil, precisa e em tempo real. Com o instrumento, foi desenvolvido um modelo para estimativa do potencial produtivo em trigo e cevada, correlacionando o Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada (NDVI com a biomassa seca acumulada na parte aérea, por ocasião da emissão da sexta folha do colmo principal. A base do modelo foi a formação de classes de potencial produtivo correspondentes a zonas específicas de manejo da lavoura. Essas classes não necessitam ser específicas para diferentes cultivares e/ou espécies, visto que não se detectaram diferenças que justificassem a formação de grupos para elas. As superfícies de fundo (resíduos de restevas de soja e milho tiveram efeitos significativos nas leituras do sensor. O modelo continua válido mesmo se as leituras de NDVI forem feitas antes ou após o período recomendado para tal, podendo ser ajustado com sub ou superestimação. As análises de variabilidade espacial, futuramente, podem avaliar se, as zonas de potencial produtivo estimadas pelas classes de NDVI propostas pelo modelo, correspondem à flutuação espacial da biomassa, doses de N aplicadas e rendimento de grãos.Areas with different yield potential within a field need to be managed separately as for nitrogen application in small grain cereals. Terrestrial remote sensing-based equipment such as the GreenSeeker sensor is one of the tools available to handle different management zones. To do this, the sensor allows the definition of classes to estimate yield potential. A model which correlated the

  13. Genetic disparity and relationship among quantitatively inherited yield related traits in diallel crosses of upland cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibi, M.; Khan, N.U.; Mohammad, F.; Gul, R.; Idrees, M.; Sayal, O.U.; Khakwani, A.A.; Khan, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    In quantitative genetics, development of high yielding genotypes from parental cultivars of same ancestry is some what confusing as compared to genetically diverse parents. However, sufficient recombinations through allelic variations in mating of closely-related populations result in superior agronomic performance. Development of improved cotton genotypes is one of the prime objectives of any cotton breeding programmes. Genetic divergence and yield potential of parental cotton genotypes versus their diallel hybrids, relationship of yield with various morpho-yield traits and their heritability were studied in 8 X 8 F/sub 1/ diallel hybrids and their parental cultivars in Gossypium hirsutum L. during 2008-09 at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. Highly significant (p less than or equal to 0.01) differences were observed among parental genotypes and F/sub 1/ populations for all the traits. Results revealed that F/sub 1/ hybrids i.e., CIM-506 X CIM-554, CIM-473 X CIM-554, CIM-446 X CIM-496 and CIM-446 X CIM-554 produced significantly higher number of sympodia, bolls per populations showed incredible performance for plant height, locules per boll and seeds plant and seed cotton yield. Some F/sub 1/ per locule. Seed cotton yield manifested positive association with morpho-yield traits which also accounted for greater genetic variations to yield being dependent trait. Heritabilities (broad sense) were moderate to high in magnitude for all populations with larger genetic potential, positive relationship between yield and yield traits. Results revealed that F1 contributing traits and moderate to high heritability can guide intensive selection and improvement per se in segregating populations. (author)

  14. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  15. Ultrastable green fluorescence carbon dots with a high quantum yield for bioimaging and use as theranostic carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chuanxu; Thomsen, Rasmus Peter; Ogaki, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    to widely used semiconductor quantum dots. However, it remains a great challenge to prepare highly stable, water-soluble green luminescent Cdots with a high quantum yield. Herein we report a new synthesis route for green luminescent Cdots imbuing these desirable properties and demonstrate their potential...... in biomedical applications. Oligoethylenimine (OEI)–β-cyclodextrin (βCD) Cdots were synthesised using a simple and fast heating method in phosphoric acid. The synthesised Cdots showed strong green fluorescence under UV excitation with a 30% quantum yield and exhibited superior stability over a wide pH range. We...

  16. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: Recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Gonzalez, L.; Colturato, L.F.; Font, X.; Vicent, T.

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 o C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5 L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38 ± 0.02 L g VS feed -1 to 0.55 ± 0.05 L g VS feed -1 as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

  17. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome Affecting 3 Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Katherine D; Kileny, Paul R; Ahmed, Sameer; El-Kashlan, Hussam K; Melendez, Tori L; Basura, Gregory J; Lesperance, Marci M

    2017-07-01

    Superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is an increasingly recognized cause of hearing loss and vestibular symptoms, but the etiology of this condition remains unknown. To describe 7 cases of SCDS across 3 families. This retrospective case series included 7 patients from 3 different families treated at a neurotology clinic at a tertiary academic medical center from 2010 to 2014. Patients were referred by other otolaryngologists or were self-referred. Each patient demonstrated unilateral or bilateral SCDS or near dehiscence. Clinical evaluation involved body mass index calculation, audiometry, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing, electrocochleography, and multiplanar computed tomographic (CT) scan of the temporal bones. Zygosity testing was performed on twin siblings. The diagnosis of SCDS was made if bone was absent over the superior semicircular canal on 2 consecutive CT images, in addition to 1 physiologic sign consistent with labyrinthine dehiscence. Near dehiscence was defined as absent bone on only 1 CT image but with symptoms and at least 1 physiologic sign of labyrinthine dehiscence. A total of 7 patients (5 female and 2 male; age range, 8-49 years) from 3 families underwent evaluation. Family A consisted of 3 adult first-degree relatives, of whom 2 were diagnosed with SCDS and 1 with near dehiscence. Family B included a mother and her child, both of whom were diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. Family C consisted of adult monozygotic twins, each of whom was diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. For all cases, dehiscence was located at the arcuate eminence. Obesity alone did not explain the occurrence of SCDS because 5 of the 7 cases had a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) less than 30.0. Superior canal dehiscence syndrome is a rare, often unrecognized condition. This report of 3 multiplex families with SCDS provides evidence in support of a potential genetic contribution to the etiology

  18. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  19. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as

  20. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  1. Microencapsulation of β-Carotene Based on Casein/Guar Gum Blend Using Zeta Potential-Yield Stress Phenomenon: an Approach to Enhance Photo-stability and Retention of Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Deepika; Jain, Ashay; Ghoshal, Gargi; Shivhare, U S; Katare, O P

    2017-07-01

    β-Carotene, abundant majorly in carrot, pink guava yams, spinach, kale, sweet potato, and palm oil, is an important nutrient for human health due to its scavenging action upon reactive free radicals wherever produced in the body. Inclusion of liposoluble β-carotene in foods and food ingredients is a challenging aspect due to its labile nature and low absorption from natural sources. This fact has led to the application of encapsulation of β-carotene to improve stability and bioavailability. The present work was aimed to fabricate microcapsules (MCs) of β-carotene oily dispersion using the complex coacervation technique with casein (CA) and guar gum (GG) blend. The ratio of CA:GG was found to be 1:0.5 (w/v) when optimized on the basis of zeta potential-yield stress phenomenon. These possessed a higher percentage yield (71.34 ± 0.55%), lower particle size (176.47 ± 4.65 μm), higher encapsulation efficiency (65.95 ± 5.33%), and in general, a uniform surface morphology was observed with particles showing optimized release behavior. Prepared MCs manifested effective and controlled release (up to 98%) following zero-order kinetics which was adequately explained by the Korseymer-Peppas model. The stability of the freeze-dried MCs was established in simulated gastrointestinal fluids (SGF, SIF) for 8 h. Antioxidant activity of the MCs was studied and revealed the retention of the functional architecture of β-carotene in freeze-dried MCs. Minimal photolytic degradation upon encapsulation of β-carotene addressed the challenge regarding photo-stability of β-carotene as confirmed via mass spectroscopy.

  2. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  3. Redefining yield gaps at various spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, K.; Fishman, R.; Norstrom, A. V.; Diekert, F. K.; Engstrom, G.; Gars, J.; McCarney, G. R.; Sjostedt, M.

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has highlighted the prevalence of 'yield gaps' around the world and the importance of closing them for global food security. However, the traditional concept of yield gap -defined as the difference between observed and optimal yield under biophysical conditions - omit relevant socio-economic and ecological constraints and thus offer limited guidance on potential policy interventions. This paper proposes alternative definitions of yield gaps by incorporating rich, high resolution, national and sub-national agricultural datasets. We examine feasible efforts to 'close yield gaps' at various spatial scales and across different socio-economic and ecological domains.

  4. Measurements of fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    After some historical introductory remarks on the discovery of nuclear fission and early fission yield determinations, the present status of knowledge on fission yields is briefly reviewed. Practical and fundamental reasons motivating the pursuit of fission yield measurements in the coming century are pointed out. Recent results and novel techniques are described that promise to provide new interesting insights into the fission process during the next century. (author)

  5. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  6. Fission product yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, V.; Hep, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summed up necessary for determining the yields of individual fission products from different fissionable nuclides. Fractional independent yields, cumulative and isobaric yields are presented here for the thermal fission of 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu and for fast fission (approximately 1 MeV) of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu; these values are included into the 5th version of the YIELDS library, supplementing the BIBFP library. A comparison is made of experimental data and possible improvements of calculational methods are suggested. (author)

  7. Anthropogenic climate change has altered primary productivity in Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, M D; Werne, J P; Hecky, R E; Johnson, T C; Katsev, S; Reavie, E D

    2017-06-09

    Anthropogenic climate change has the potential to alter many facets of Earth's freshwater resources, especially lacustrine ecosystems. The effects of anthropogenic changes in Lake Superior, which is Earth's largest freshwater lake by area, are not well documented (spatially or temporally) and predicted future states in response to climate change vary. Here we show that Lake Superior experienced a slow, steady increase in production throughout the Holocene using (paleo)productivity proxies in lacustrine sediments to reconstruct past changes in primary production. Furthermore, data from the last century indicate a rapid increase in primary production, which we attribute to increasing surface water temperatures and longer seasonal stratification related to longer ice-free periods in Lake Superior due to anthropogenic climate warming. These observations demonstrate that anthropogenic effects have become a prominent influence on one of Earth's largest, most pristine lacustrine ecosystems.

  8. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  9. Paso superior en una ladera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, O.

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available The Redwood highway, through the Californian forest, runs on a viaduct, as it crosses a mountain slope of about 45° inclination. The firm ground is fairly deep, and as an additional constructional difficulty, it was necessary to respect the natural beauty of the countryside. A structure of portal frames were built, forming a number of short spans. These spans were bridged with metal girders, on which a 19 m wide deck was placed. The columns are hollow and have a transversal cross beam, to join each pair. There was difficulty in excavating the foundations for the columns, as it was necessary to dig through the soft top soil, and also prevent this soil from hurting the trunks of the forest trees. Another significant difficulty in the construction of this viaduct was the access to the working site, since there were no suitable platforms from which to operate the appropriate machinery. This made it necessary to do a lot of the work by manual operation. As one of the edges of the deck is very close to the mountain side, a supporting beam was erected on this side. It was made of concrete, on metal piles. The formwork for the deck structure was placed on the concrete stems of the supporting piles.La autopista denominada Redwood (California salva, con un paso superior, la ladera de un bosque cuya pendiente es del 1/1. El terreno firme se halla a bastante profundidad, añadiéndose, a los naturales problemas de la construcción, el imperativo de respetar la belleza agreste del paraje. La solución adoptada consiste en una estructura porticada, con varios tramos de pequeñas luces, salvados con vigas metálicas, sobre los que se coloca la losa del tablero, de 19 m de anchura total. Los soportes están constituidos por pórticos de dos montantes huecos (con bases de hormigón en masa por debajo del suelo, hasta el firme coronados por un cabezal. La perforación de pozos para el hormigonado de los montantes presentaba la dificultad de atravesar el terreno

  10. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Self-Determination Act (Pub. L. 110-343) and in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The purpose of the meeting is to orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles... following business will be conducted: Overview of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource...

  11. Alumina Yield in the Bayer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hond, R.

    The alumina industry has historically been able to reduce alumina production costs, by increasing the liquor alumina yield. To know the potential for further yield increases, the phase diagram of the ternary system Na2O-Al2O -H2O at various temperature levels was analysed. It was found that the maximum theorical precipitation alumina yield is 160 g/l, while that for digestion was calculated to be 675 g/l.

  12. Soviet test yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, Eileen S.

    Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk test site, in Kazakhstan, central Asia [Bocharov et al., 1989]. With the exception of releasing news about some of their peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) the Soviets have never before published such a body of information.To estimate the seismic yield of a nuclear explosion it is necessary to obtain a calibrated magnitude-yield relationship based on events with known yields and with a consistent set of seismic magnitudes. U.S. estimation of Soviet test yields has been done through application of relationships to the Soviet sites based on the U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), making some correction for differences due to attenuation and near-source coupling of seismic waves.

  13. Superiority in value and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    superiority does not amount to a radical value difference at all. I then spell out the consequences of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest.......James Griffin has considered a weak form of superiority in value a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this paper, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into a stronger form of superiority. And in a context where value is non-additive, weak...

  14. Superior Educational Attainment and Strategies of Land Inheritance in Post-Famine Ireland: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillas, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    To date no major study exists on the impact of the Great Famine on patterns of participation in superior education in Ireland, or on the impact of superior education on the life courses and inheritance potential of boys from small farming families. This paper provides a historical analysis and interpretation of patterns of participation in…

  15. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome causing growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and lifethreateningclinical condition caused by the compressionof the third portion of the duodenum between the aortaand the superior mesenteric artery’s proximal part. Thiscompression may lead to chronic intermittent, acute totalor partial obstruction. Sudden weight-loss and the relateddecrease in the fat tissue are considered to be the etiologicalreason of acute stenosis. Weight-loss accompaniedby nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, andbloating are the leading complaints. Barium radiographs,computerized tomography, conventional angiography,tomographic and magnetic resonance angiography areused in the diagnosis. There are medical and surgical approachesto treatment. We hereby present the case ofa patient with superior mesenteric artery syndrome withdelayed diagnosis.Key words: superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nausea-vomiting, anorexia

  16. Superior Gas Sensing Properties of Monolayer PtSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Sajjad, Muhammad

    2016-12-15

    First-principles calculations of the structural and electronic properties of monolayer 1T-PtSe2 with adsorbed (a) NO2, (b) NO, (c) NH3, (d) H2O, (e) CO2, and (f) CO molecules are discussed. The results point to great potential of the material in gas sensor applications. Superior sensitivity is demonstrated by transport calculations using the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method.

  17. Evaluation of the Superior Gluteal Nerve During Proximal Femoral Nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sonmez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The superior gluteal nerve may be compromised during hip surgery. We retrospectively evaluated the patients who underwent proximal femoral nailing for unstable trochanteric fractures in order to investigate the presence of superior gluteal nerve injury and its clinical findings. Material and Method: Twenty five patients (14 women, 11 men were included in the study who had femoral nailing between January 2004 and March 2010 at Hamidiye Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital Department of Orthopaedics. Two different types of nails which have similar designs and surgical techniques were used for fracture fixation. Patients who had a history of cerebrovascular disease, electromyography findings of polyneuropathy, or degenerative vertebral disease were excluded from the study. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically. Findings related to acute denervation in the gluteus medius muscle and motor unit action potential changes were accepted as signs of superior gluteal nerve injury. Results: Eight patients were using support during walking and three of these patients had positive Trendelenburg sign, but only one patient had acute denervation signs of the superior gluteal nerve. Discussion: Based on the present study the incidence of iatrogenic nerve injury is a rare complication of proximal femoral nailing. Elderly patients, regardless of whether they have nerve injury, may limp and need to use a walking support.

  18. Enhancement of HHG yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrat, C.; Biegert, J.

    2011-01-01

    A static electric field periodically distributed in space controls and enhances the yield in high harmonic generation. The method is relatively simple to implement and allows tuning from the extreme-ultraviolet to soft X-ray. The radiation yield is selectively enhanced due to symmetry breaking induced by a static electric field on the interaction between the driving laser and the medium. The enhanced spectral region is tuned by varying the periodicity of the static electric field. Simulations predict an increase of more than two orders of magnitude for harmonics in the water window spectral range.

  19. Will energy crop yields meet expectations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, Stephanie Y.; Malins, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Expectations are high for energy crops. Government policies in the United States and Europe are increasingly supporting biofuel and heat and power from cellulose, and biomass is touted as a partial solution to energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation. Here, we review the literature for yields of 5 major potential energy crops: Miscanthus spp., Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Populus spp. (poplar), Salix spp. (willow), and Eucalyptus spp. Very high yields have been achieved for each of these types of energy crops, up to 40 t ha −1  y −1 in small, intensively managed trials. But yields are significantly lower in semi-commercial scale trials, due to biomass losses with drying, harvesting inefficiency under real world conditions, and edge effects in small plots. To avoid competition with food, energy crops should be grown on non-agricultural land, which also lowers yields. While there is potential for yield improvement for each of these crops through further research and breeding programs, for several reasons the rate of yield increase is likely to be slower than historically has been achieved for cereals; these include relatively low investment, long breeding periods, low yield response of perennial grasses to fertilizer, and inapplicability of manipulating the harvest index. Miscanthus × giganteus faces particular challenges as it is a sterile hybrid. Moderate and realistic expectations for the current and future performance of energy crops are vital to understanding the likely cost and the potential of large-scale production. - Highlights: • This review covers Miscanthus, switchgrass, poplar, willow, and Eucalyptus. • High yields of energy crops are typically from small experimental plots. • Field scale yields are lower due to real world harvesting losses and edge effects. • The potential for yield improvement of energy crops is relatively limited. • Expectations must be realistic for successful policies and commercial production

  20. Yield gap analysis of Chickpea under semi-arid conditions: A simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    seyed Reza Amiri Deh ahmadi; mehdi parsa; mohammad bannayan aval; mahdi nassiri mahallati

    2016-01-01

    Yield gap analysis provides an essential framework to prioritize research and policy efforts aimed at reducing yield constraints. To identify options for increasing chickpea yield, the SSM-chickpea model was parameterized and evaluated to analyze yield potentials, water limited yields and yield gaps for nine regions representing major chickpea-growing areas of Razavi Khorasan province. The average potential yield of chickpea for the locations was 2251 kg ha-1, while the water limited yield wa...

  1. Superior versus inferior Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, Mohammad; Yazdani, Shahin; Shahabi, Camelia; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2009-02-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) (New World Medical Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) implantation in the superior versus inferior quadrants. Prospective parallel cohort study. A total of 106 eyes of 106 patients with refractory glaucoma. Consecutive patients with refractory glaucoma underwent AGV implantation in the superior or inferior quadrants. Main outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP) and rate of complications. Other outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of glaucoma medications, and success rate (defined as at least 30% IOP reduction and 5glaucoma surgery, phthisis bulbi, or loss of light perception. Of a total of 106 eyes, 58 and 48 eyes underwent AGV implantation in the superior and inferior quadrants, respectively. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the study groups, except for preoperative IOP, which was higher in the superior group (P = 0.01). Patients were followed for a mean period of 10.6+/-8.49 months and 10.58+/-6.75 months in the superior and inferior groups, respectively (P = 0.477). BCVA was comparable between the groups at all postoperative visits (P>0.122). After 1 year, statistically significant but comparable IOP reduction from baseline (Pglaucoma medications was comparable after 1 year (1.3+/-1.2 vs. 1.9+/-0.8 for superior and inferior implants, respectively, P = 0.256). Success rates were also similar at 1 year: 27 eyes (81.8%) versus 20 eyes (95.2%) for superior and inferior implants, respectively (P = 0.227). However, the overall rate of complications, such as implant exposure necessitating removal, cosmetically unappealing appearance, and endophthalmitis, was higher in the inferior group: 12 eyes (25%) versus 3 eyes (5.2%) for superior and inferior groups, respectively, (P = 0.004). Superior and inferior AGV implants have similar intermediate efficacy in terms of IOP reduction, decrease in number of glaucoma medications, and preservation of vision. However

  2. Physiological analysis of leaf senescence of two rice cultivars with different yield potential Análise fisiológica da senescência foliar de duas cultivares de arroz com diferentes potenciais de produtividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antelmo Ralph Falqueto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological changes that occur in different leaves during the early and late grain-filling stages of two rice genotypes (Oryza sativa subsp. indica , BRS Pelota cultivar, and O. sativa subsp. japonica , BRS Firmeza cultivar, which present differences in grain yield potential. The plants were cultivated in greenhouse. Pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, electron transport and oxygen evolution rate were determined in the grain-filling stage, from the first to the forth leaf (top to bottom. Pigment content, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II and electron transport decreased significantly according to the position of leaves in 'BRS Pelota'. The BRS Firmeza cultivar shows higher pigment content and higher activity of the photosynthetic apparatus in comparison to 'BRS Pelota' during the grain-filling stage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as mudanças fisiológicas que ocorrem em diferentes folhas durante o início e o final do estádio de enchimento de grãos em dois genótipos de arroz (Oryza sativa subsp. indica cultivar BRS Pelota e O. sativa subsp. japonica cultivar BRS Firmeza que apresentam diferenças no potencial de produção de grãos. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação. Os teores de pigmentos, a fluorescência da clorofila e a taxa de liberação de oxigênio foram determinados no estádio de enchimento de grão da primeira à quarta folha (do topo à base. O teor de pigmentos, a eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II e o transporte de elétrons decresceram significativamente de acordo com a posição das folhas na cultivar BRS Pelota. A cultivar BRS Firmeza apresentou maior teor de pigmentos e maior atividade do aparato fotossintético em comparação à 'BRS Pelota' durante o estádio de enchimento de grão.

  3. Physiological models of the lateral superior olive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Ashida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In computational biology, modeling is a fundamental tool for formulating, analyzing and predicting complex phenomena. Most neuron models, however, are designed to reproduce certain small sets of empirical data. Hence their outcome is usually not compatible or comparable with other models or datasets, making it unclear how widely applicable such models are. In this study, we investigate these aspects of modeling, namely credibility and generalizability, with a specific focus on auditory neurons involved in the localization of sound sources. The primary cues for binaural sound localization are comprised of interaural time and level differences (ITD/ILD, which are the timing and intensity differences of the sound waves arriving at the two ears. The lateral superior olive (LSO in the auditory brainstem is one of the locations where such acoustic information is first computed. An LSO neuron receives temporally structured excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs that are driven by ipsi- and contralateral sound stimuli, respectively, and changes its spike rate according to binaural acoustic differences. Here we examine seven contemporary models of LSO neurons with different levels of biophysical complexity, from predominantly functional ones ('shot-noise' models to those with more detailed physiological components (variations of integrate-and-fire and Hodgkin-Huxley-type. These models, calibrated to reproduce known monaural and binaural characteristics of LSO, generate largely similar results to each other in simulating ITD and ILD coding. Our comparisons of physiological detail, computational efficiency, predictive performances, and further expandability of the models demonstrate (1 that the simplistic, functional LSO models are suitable for applications where low computational costs and mathematical transparency are needed, (2 that more complex models with detailed membrane potential dynamics are necessary for simulation studies where sub

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of singlet oxygen in Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Britt M; McNally, Ann M; Cory, Rose M; Thoemke, John D; Cotner, James B; McNeill, Kristopher

    2012-07-03

    A multiyear field study was undertaken on Lake Superior to investigate singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) photoproduction. Specifically, trends within the lake were examined, along with an assessment of whether correlations existed between chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) characteristics and (1)O(2) production rates and quantum yields. Quantum yield values were determined and used to estimate noontime surface (1)O(2) steady-state concentrations ([(1)O(2)](ss)). Samples were subdivided into three categories based on their absorbance properties (a300): riverine, river-impacted, or open lake sites. Using calculated surface [(1)O(2)](ss), photochemical half-lives under continuous summer sunlight were calculated for cimetidine, a pharmaceutical whose reaction with (1)O(2) has been established, to be on the order of hours, days, and a week for the riverine, river-impacted, and open lake waters, respectively. Of the CDOM properties investigated, it was found that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and a300 were the best parameters for predicting production rates of [(1)O(2)](ss). For example, given the correlations found, one could predict [(1)O(2)](ss) within a factor of 4 using a300 alone. Changes in the quantum efficiency of (1)O(2) production upon dilution of river water samples with lake water samples demonstrated that the CDOM found in the open lake is not simply diluted riverine organic matter. The open lake pool was characterized by low absorption coefficient, low fluorescence, and low DOC, but more highly efficient (1)O(2) production and predominates the Lake Superior system spatially. This study establishes that parameters that reflect the quantity of CDOM (e.g., a300 and DOC) correlate with (1)O(2) production rates, while parameters that characterize the absorbance spectrum (e.g., spectral slope coefficient and E2:E3) correlate with (1)O(2) production quantum yields.

  5. Willow yield is highly dependent on clone and site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Use of high-yielding genotypes is one of the means to achieve high yield and profitability in willow (Salix spp.) short rotation coppice. This study investigated the performance of eight willow clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) on five Danish sites......, differing considerably in soil type, climatic conditions and management. Compared to the best clone, the yield was up to 36 % lower for other clones across sites and up to 51 % lower within sites. Tordis was superior to other clones with dry matter yields between 5.2 and 10.2 Mg ha−1 year−1 during the first...... 3-year harvest rotation, and it consistently ranked as the highest yielding clone on four of the five sites and not significantly lower than the highest yielding clone on the fifth site. The ranking of the other clones was more dependent on site with significant interaction between clone and site...

  6. Grain yield stability of early maize genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Bahadur Kunwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate grain yield stability of early maize genotypes. Five early maize genotypes namely Pool-17, Arun1EV, Arun-4, Arun-2 and Farmer’s variety were evaluated using Randomized Complete Block Design along with three replications at four different locations namely Rampur, Rajahar, Pakhribas and Kabre districts of Nepal during summer seasons of three consecutive years from 2010 to 2012 under farmer’s fields. Genotype and genotype × environment (GGE biplot was used to identify superior genotype for grain yield and stability pattern. The genotypes Arun-1 EV and Arun-4 were better adapted for Kabre and Pakhribas where as pool-17 for Rajahar environments. The overall findings showed that Arun-1EV was more stable followed by Arun-2 therefore these two varieties can be recommended to farmers for cultivation in both environments.

  7. Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calingacion, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice

    Mariafe N. Calingacion

    Most rice breeding programs have focused on improving agronomic traits such as yield, while enhancing grain quality traits

  8. A Comparison of Surgical Treatments for Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziylan, F.; Kinaci, A.; Beynon, A.J.; Kunst, H.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigate the postoperative subjective and objective outcomes of different surgical treatments for superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD): vestibular signs, auditory signs, vestibular evoked myogenic potential test, pure tone audiogram, speech audiogram, or

  9. Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava: image findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Junior, Cyrillo Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Fraguas Filho, Sergio Roberto; Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Jacob, Beatriz Mahmud; Machado, Marcio Martins; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos; Ximenes, Carlos Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava absent right superior vena cava is a rare anomaly, with less than 150 cases reported in the literature. Congenitally persistent left superior vena cava is the most common variant of systemic venous return to the heart, resulting embryologically from failure of the left anterior cardinal vein to become obliterated. Its incidence varies from 0.3% in patients with otherwise normal heart to 4.3% in patients with congenital heart disease. In the majority of the patients, a right superior vena cava is present as well, but rarely the right anterior cardinal vein degenerates resulting in the absence of the normal right superior vena cava. The blood from the right side is carried by the persistent left superior vena cava to the right atrium through the coronary sinus. We report the case of a patient with a persistent left superior vena cava and absence of right superior vena cava identified by chance during a chest radiograph and computed tomography examination for investigation of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease. The patient had no congenital heart disease and the blood from the right side was drained by the persistent left superior vena cava into the right atrium through the coronary sinus. (author)

  10. Brazilian Soybean Yields and Yield Gaps Vary with Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, G. R.; Cohn, A.; Griffin, T. S.; Bragança, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the farm size-specific characteristics of crop yields and yield gaps may help to improve yields by enabling better targeting of technical assistance and agricultural development programs. Linking remote sensing-based yield estimates with property boundaries provides a novel view of the relationship between farm size and yield structure (yield magnitude, gaps, and stability over time). A growing literature documents variations in yield gaps, but largely ignores the role of farm size as a factor shaping yield structure. Research on the inverse farm size-productivity relationship (IR) theory - that small farms are more productive than large ones all else equal - has documented that yield magnitude may vary by farm size, but has not considered other yield structure characteristics. We examined farm size - yield structure relationships for soybeans in Brazil for years 2001-2015. Using out-of-sample soybean yield predictions from a statistical model, we documented 1) gaps between the 95th percentile of attained yields and mean yields within counties and individual fields, and 2) yield stability defined as the standard deviation of time-detrended yields at given locations. We found a direct relationship between soy yields and farm size at the national level, while the strength and the sign of the relationship varied by region. Soybean yield gaps were found to be inversely related to farm size metrics, even when yields were only compared to farms of similar size. The relationship between farm size and yield stability was nonlinear, with mid-sized farms having the most stable yields. The work suggests that farm size is an important factor in understanding yield structure and that opportunities for improving soy yields in Brazil are greatest among smaller farms.

  11. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  12. Mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery after septic embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.; Dinkel, H.P.

    2002-01-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the aorta and the visceral arteries are life-threatening diseases, due to potential rupture and organ or limb ischemia. They occur in endocarditis, immunodeficiency, bacteremia and fungemia, and have a poor prognosis.We report on a case of a 54-year-old male patient suffering from abdominal angina after mitral valve replacement for septic mycotic endocarditis. In presence of a mycotic-embolic occlusion of the left popliteal artery and multiple septic organ infarctions a mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery was found in abdominal spiral-CT.Based on sequential spiral-CT examinations, this case demonstrates the development of a septic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery. (orig.) [de

  13. The picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, William E

    2008-10-01

    The picture superiority effect has been well documented in tests of item recognition and recall. The present study shows that the picture superiority effect extends to associative recognition. In three experiments, students studied lists consisting of random pairs of concrete words and pairs of line drawings; then they discriminated between intact (old) and rearranged (new) pairs of words and pictures at test. The discrimination advantage for pictures over words was seen in a greater hit rate for intact picture pairs, but there was no difference in the false alarm rates for the two types of stimuli. That is, there was no mirror effect. The same pattern of results was found when the test pairs consisted of the verbal labels of the pictures shown at study (Experiment 4), indicating that the hit rate advantage for picture pairs represents an encoding benefit. The results have implications for theories of the picture superiority effect and models of associative recognition.

  14. High yielding rice mutants for West Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, A.R.; Sen, S.

    1980-01-01

    Four high yielding mutants with specific genetic corrections of the simply inherited characters were developed from IR-8 through X-irradiation. Recurrent selections of the promising isolates were made under diverse agro-climatic conditions in Winter and Summer seasons of West Bengal. The isolates CNM 6 and CNM 25 belonging to early maturity group and CNM 20 and CNM 31, to mid-early maturity group were finally selected at X 5 generation on the basis of their resistance qualities, maturity period and grain yield. They were evaluated upto X 10 qeneration at multi-locations as Pre-release and Minikit Varieties at State level. They were also placed at the National Screening Nursery (NSN) for screening against multiple diseases and pests at the National level. CNM 6 is reported to be promising in IRTP nurseries. It is reported that CNM 25 (IET 5646) ranked 2nd on the basis of average grain yield, CNM 20 (IET 5937) and CNM 31 (IET 5936) were resistant to diseases and with yield comparable to Jaya. These four productive mutants of superior types are widely accepted. CNM 6 is recommended for cultivation in Bankura and Birbhum districts and CNM 25 and CNM 31 in the different agro-climatic zones of West Bengal. (author)

  15. Improvement of crop yield in dry environments: benchmarks, levels of organisation and the role of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadras, V O; Richards, R A

    2014-05-01

    Crop yield in dry environments can be improved with complementary approaches including selecting for yield in the target environments, selecting for yield potential, and using indirect, trait- or genomic-based methods. This paper (i) outlines the achievements of direct selection for yield in improving drought adaptation, (ii) discusses the limitations of indirect approaches in the context of levels of organization, and (iii) emphasizes trade-offs and synergies between nitrogen nutrition and drought adaptation. Selection for yield in the water- and nitrogen-scarce environments of Australia improved wheat yield per unit transpiration at a rate of 0.12kg ha(-1) mm(-1) yr(-1); for indirect methods to be justified, they must return superior rates of improvement, achieve the same rate at lower cost or provide other cost-effective benefits, such as expanding the genetic basis for selection. Slow improvement of crop adaptation to water stress using indirect methods is partially related to issues of scale. Traits are thus classified into three broad groups: those that generally scale up from low levels of organization to the crop level (e.g. herbicide resistance), those that do not (e.g. grain yield), and traits that might scale up provided they are considered in a integrated manner with scientifically sound scaling assumptions, appropriate growing conditions, and screening techniques (e.g. stay green). Predicting the scalability of traits may help to set priorities in the investment of research efforts. Primary productivity in arid and semi-arid environments is simultaneously limited by water and nitrogen, but few attempts are made to target adaptation to water and nitrogen stress simultaneously. Case studies in wheat and soybean highlight biological links between improved nitrogen nutrition and drought adaptation.

  16. Vena cava superior syndrome associated with sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, K.; Walz, M.; Reidemeister, J.C.; Donhuijsen, K.

    1988-01-01

    We report the first observation of clinical manifestations of vena cava superior syndrome (VCSS) associated with sarcoidosis. Twenty-four years after the first signs of the disease had been noted, mediastinal lymphomas penetrating the wall of the vena cava superior caused complete obstruction. It is most unusual for the vessel wall to be destroyed in this way, which explains why VCSS is often missed in sarcoidosis. The obstructed vessel was resected and successfully replaced by a Gore-Tex prosthesis. The importance of VCSS for the differential diagnosis is pointed out. Two further peculiarities are the simultaneous occurrence of elevated intraocular pressure and VCSS, and the familial incidence. (orig.) [de

  17. Potencial de rendimento da soja durante a ontogenia em razão da irrigação e arranjo de plantas Potential yield of soybean during the ontogeny according to water availability and plant arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Roberto Maehler

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimativas do potencial de rendimento (PR da soja podem ser feitas durante a ontogenia pela quantificação das estruturas reprodutivas, de modo a avaliar o efeito de fatores ambientais e práticas de manejo na produção e fixação dessas estruturas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da disponibilidade hídrica e arranjo de plantas no PR e seus componentes, durante a ontogenia de duas cultivares de soja. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de dois regimes hídricos (irrigado e não irrigado, duas cultivares (BRS 137 e BRS 138 e três espaçamentos entre linhas (20 cm, 40 cm e 20 e 40 cm em linhas pareadas. O PR médio foi de 15.295 kg ha-1 no estádio de florescimento; 12.325 kg ha-1 na formação de legumes; 5.508 kg ha-1 no início do enchimento de grãos e 4.315 kg ha-1 na maturação. O tratamento irrigado apresentou PR mais elevado em razão da maior produção e fixação de estruturas reprodutivas, mais grãos por legume e grãos mais pesados do que o tratamento não irrigado. Não houve diferença significativa entre espaçamentos. O PR da cultivar BRS 137 é mais elevado do que o da BRS 138, em virtude da menor abscisão de flores, grãos mais pesados e maior número de grãos por legume.The quantification of reproductive structures during the ontogeny allows to estimate soybean yield potential (YP, making possible to quantify the effect of environmental factors and management practices on the production and fixation of these structures. This work aimed to determine the effect of water availability and plant arrangement on the YP and its components, during ontogeny of two soybean cultivars. Treatments were two water availability (irrigated and non irrigated, two cultivars (BRS 137 and BRS 138, and three row spacings (20 cm, 40 cm and 20 and 40 cm in skip row. The average YP obtained was of 15,295 kg ha-1 at blooming; 12,325 kg ha-1 during legume formation; 5,508 kg ha-1 at the beginning of grain filling and 4,315 kg ha-1

  18. Accelerated yield learning in agressive lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Ashkenaz, Scott M.; Chen, Xing; Lord, Patrick J.; Merrill, Mark A.; Quattrini, Rich; Wiley, James N.

    2000-06-01

    As exposure wavelengths decrease from 248 nm to 193, 157, and even 13 nm (EUV), small process defects can cause collapse of the lithographic process window near the limits of resolution, particularly for the gate and contact structures in high- performance devices. Such sensitivity poses a challenge for lithography process module control. In this work, we show that yield loss can be caused by a combination of macro, micro, CD, and overlay defects. A defect is defined as any yield- affecting process variation. Each defect, regardless of cause, is assumed to have a specific 'kill potential.' The accuracy of the lithographic yield model can be improved by identifying those defects with the highest kill potential or, more importantly, those that pose the highest economic risk. Such economic considerations have led us to develop a simple heuristic model for understanding sampling strategies in defect metrology and for linking metrology capability to yield and profitability.

  19. Superior oblique luxation and trochlear luxation as new concepts in superior oblique muscle weakening surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombaerts, I.; Koornneef, L.; Everhard-Halm, Y. S.; Hughes, D. S.; Maillette de Buy Wenniger-Prick, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    We used superior oblique luxation and trochlear luxation as new surgical procedures to treat acquired Brown's syndrome and superior oblique muscle overaction. We studied nine patients (11 eyes) who underwent trochlear surgery between 1988 and 1993. Four patients had acquired Brown's syndrome and

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of meniscoid superior labrum: normal variant or superior labral tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Novelino Simão

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of a "meniscoid" superior labrum. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 582 magnetic resonance imaging examinations of shoulders. Of those 582 examinations, 110 were excluded, for a variety of reasons, and the final analysis therefore included 472 cases. Consensus readings were performed by three musculoskeletal radiologists using specific criteria to diagnose meniscoid labra. Results: A meniscoid superior labrum was identified in 48 (10.2% of the 472 cases evaluated. Arthroscopic proof was available in 21 cases (43.8%. In 10 (47.6% of those 21 cases, the operative report did not include the mention a superior labral tear, thus suggesting the presence of a meniscoid labrum. In only one of those cases were there specific comments about a mobile superior labrum (i.e., meniscoid labrum. In the remaining 11 (52.4%, surgical correlation demonstrated superior labral tears. Conclusion: A meniscoid superior labrum is not an infrequent finding. Depending upon assumptions and the requirement of surgical proof, the prevalence of a meniscoid superior labrum in this study was between 2.1% (surgically proven and 4.8% (projected. However, superior labral tears are just as common and are often confused with meniscoid labra.

  1. Yield Mapping in Salix; Skoerdekartering av salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christoffer; Gilbertsson, Mikael; Rogstrand, Gustav; Thylen, Lars

    2004-09-01

    The most common species for energy forest production is willow. Willow is able to produce a large amount of biomass in a short period of time. Growing willow has a potential to render a good financial result for the farmer if cultivated on fields with the right conditions and plenty of water. Under the right conditions growing willow can give the farmer a net income of 3,000 SEK (about 430 USD) per hectare and year, which is something that common cereal crops cannot compete with. However, this is not the common case since willow is often grown as a substitute crop on fields where cereal crop yield is low. The aim of this study was to reveal if it is possible to measure yield variability in willow, and if it is possible to describe the reasons for yield variation both within the field but also between different fields. Yield mapping has been used in conventional farming for about a decade. The principles for yield mapping are to continuously measure the yield while registering location by the use of GPS when harvesting the field. The collected data is then used to search for spatial variations within the field, and to try to understand the reasons for this variation. Since there is currently no commercial equipment for yield mapping in willow, a yield mapping system had to be developed within this project. The new system was installed on a Claas Jaguar harvester. The principle for yield mapping on the Claas Jaguar harvester is to measure the distance between the feeding rollers. This distance is correlated to the flow through the harvester. The speed and position of the machine was registered using GPS. Knowing the working width of the harvester this information was used to calculate the yield. All collected data was stored on a PDA computer. Soil samples were also collected from the yield mapped fields. This was to be able to test yield against both physical and chemical soil parameters. The result shows that it is possible to measure spatial variations of yield in

  2. Exclusive nonleptonic B{yields}VV decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N [Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar-751004 (India); Naimuddin, Sk [Department of Physics, Maharishi College of Natural Law, Bhubaneswar-751007 (India); Dash, P C [Department of Physics, Prananath Autonomous College, Khurda-752057 (India); Kar, Susmita [Department of Physics, North Orissa University, Baripada-757003 (India)

    2009-07-01

    The exclusive two-body nonleptonic B{yields}VV decays are investigated, within the factorization approximation, in the relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. The branching ratios and the longitudinal polarization fraction (R{sub L}) are calculated yielding the model predictions in agreement with experiment. Our predicted CP-odd fraction (R{sub perpendicular}) for B{yields}D*D{sub (s)}* decays are in general agreement with other model predictions and within the existing experimental limit.

  3. Yield gap analysis of Chickpea under semi-arid conditions: A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Reza Amiri Deh ahmadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yield gap analysis provides an essential framework to prioritize research and policy efforts aimed at reducing yield constraints. To identify options for increasing chickpea yield, the SSM-chickpea model was parameterized and evaluated to analyze yield potentials, water limited yields and yield gaps for nine regions representing major chickpea-growing areas of Razavi Khorasan province. The average potential yield of chickpea for the locations was 2251 kg ha-1, while the water limited yield was 1026 kg ha-1 indicating a 54% reduction in yield due to adverse soil moisture conditions. Also, the average irrigated and rainfed actual yields were respectively 64% and 79% less than simulated potential and water limited yields. Maximum and minimum yield gap between potential yield and actual yield were observed in Quchan and Torbat-jam respectively. Generally, yield gap showed an increasing trend from the north (including Nishabur, Mashhad, Quchan and Daregaz regions to the south of the province (Torbat- Jam and Gonabad. In addition, yield gap between simulated water limited potential yield and rainfed actual yield were very low because both simulated water limiting potential and average rainfed actual yields were low in these regions. Yield gap analysis provides an essential framework to prioritize research and policy efforts aimed at reducing yield constraints. To identify options for increasing chickpea yield, the SSM-chickpea model was parameterized and evaluated to analyze yield potentials, water limited yields and yield gaps for nine regions representing major chickpea-growing areas of Razavi Khorasan province. The average potential yield of chickpea for the locations was 2251 kg ha-1, while the water limited yield was 1026 kg ha-1 indicating a 54% reduction in yield due to adverse soil moisture conditions. Also, the average irrigated and rainfed actual yields were respectively 64% and 79% less than simulated potential and water limited yields

  4. STRUCTURE, SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND SEED YIELD FOR ANDIROBA (Carapa guianensis Aubl. IN SOUTH RORAIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir R. Ruschel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Andiroba is one of the Amazon species with great potential of exploration for timber and non-timberforest products (NFTPs. This work was carried out with the objective of studying the population structure,spatial distribution and seed yield in a native forest of andiroba in the south of Roraima state. A permanentsample plot of 300 x 300 m (9 ha was installed and all the trees with DBH equal or superior to 10 cm wereidentified, mapped and measured. In each tree, the light climate, crown form and lianas load were appraised.To identify the spatial distribution, the medium variance/average rate and the Morisita’s Index were used.The seed yield data were obtained by the seed weighing, being 145 trees monitored during 2006. Thepopulation presented a diametric distribution of the j inverted type, and a seed yield of 65,4 kg.ha-1 withaverage of 8,3 kg.tree-1 was observed. DBH ≥ 30 cm was considered as borderline for commercial seed yield,allowing stratifying the population in juveniles (DBH ≤ 30 cm and adults (DBH > 30 cm. The spatialdistribution analysis showed that adult individuals presented random distribution and the juveniles tendencyof grouping.

  5. STRUCTURE, SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND SEED YIELD FOR ANDIROBA (Carapa guianensis Aubl. IN SOUTH RORAIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tonini

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Andiroba is one of the Amazon species with great potential of exploration for timber and non-timber forest products (NFTPs. This work was carried out with the objective of studying the population structure, spatial distribution and seed yield in a native forest of andiroba in the south of Roraima state. A permanent sample plot of 300 x 300 m (9 ha was installed and all the trees with DBH equal or superior to 10 cm were identified, mapped and measured. In each tree, the light climate, crown form and lianas load were appraised. To identify the spatial distribution, the medium variance/average rate and the Morisita’s Index were used. The seed yield data were obtained by the seed weighing, being 145 trees monitored during 2006. The population presented a diametric distribution of the j inverted type, and a seed yield of 65,4 kg.ha-1 with average of 8,3 kg.tree-1 was observed. DBH ≥ 30 cm was considered as borderline for commercial seed yield, allowing stratifying the population in juveniles (DBH ≤ 30 cm and adults (DBH > 30 cm. The spatial distribution analysis showed that adult individuals presented random distribution and the juveniles tendency of grouping.

  6. Superior intellectual ability in schizophrenia: neuropsychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCabe, James H; Brébion, Gildas; Reichenberg, Abraham; Ganguly, Taposhri; McKenna, Peter J; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that neurocognitive impairment is a core deficit in schizophrenia. However, it appears that some patients with schizophrenia have intelligence quotients (IQs) in the superior range. In this study, we sought out schizophrenia patients with an estimated premorbid Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of at least 115 and studied their neuropsychological profile. Thirty-four patients meeting diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV), with mean estimated premorbid IQ of 120, were recruited and divided into two subgroups, according to whether or not their IQ had declined by at least 10 points from their premorbid estimate. Their performance on an extensive neuropsychological battery was compared with that of 19 IQ-matched healthy controls and a group of 16 "typical" schizophrenia patients with estimated premorbid IQ Schizophrenia patients whose estimated premorbid and current IQ both lay in the superior range were statistically indistinguishable from IQ-matched healthy controls on all neurocognitive tests. However, their profile of relative performance in subtests was similar to that of typical schizophrenia patients. Patients with superior premorbid IQ and evidence of intellectual deterioration had intermediate scores. Our results confirm the existence of patients meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia who have markedly superior premorbid intellectual level and appear to be free of gross neuropsychological deficits. We discuss the implications of these findings for the primacy of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  7. The Picture Superiority Effect and Biological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…

  8. Mammographic varicosities indicative of a superior mediastinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, an abnormal calibre of the superficial veins can reflect not only underrying breast pathology, but a collateral venous return resulting from an upper mediastinal obstruction. A case mammographically demonstrating mammary varicosities resulting from a superior mediastinal syndrome is described. S. Afr. Med.

  9. COSEE Superior Creates Passion for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    COSEE was a transformative educational experience that has changed the way I teach. In July, I participated in the COSEE Lake Superior Shipboard and Shoreline Science program. I spent a week on the US EPA’s R/V Lake Guardian with 14 other teachers and a crew of sailors and scient...

  10. Perturbation resilience and superiorization of iterative algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Censor, Y; Davidi, R; Herman, G T

    2010-01-01

    Iterative algorithms aimed at solving some problems are discussed. For certain problems, such as finding a common point in the intersection of a finite number of convex sets, there often exist iterative algorithms that impose very little demand on computer resources. For other problems, such as finding that point in the intersection at which the value of a given function is optimal, algorithms tend to need more computer memory and longer execution time. A methodology is presented whose aim is to produce automatically for an iterative algorithm of the first kind a 'superiorized version' of it that retains its computational efficiency but nevertheless goes a long way toward solving an optimization problem. This is possible to do if the original algorithm is 'perturbation resilient', which is shown to be the case for various projection algorithms for solving the consistent convex feasibility problem. The superiorized versions of such algorithms use perturbations that steer the process in the direction of a superior feasible point, which is not necessarily optimal, with respect to the given function. After presenting these intuitive ideas in a precise mathematical form, they are illustrated in image reconstruction from projections for two different projection algorithms superiorized for the function whose value is the total variation of the image

  11. Human Superior Temporal Gyrus Organization of Spectrotemporal Modulation Tuning Derived from Speech Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullett, Patrick W; Hamilton, Liberty S; Mesgarani, Nima; Schreiner, Christoph E; Chang, Edward F

    2016-02-10

    The human superior temporal gyrus (STG) is critical for speech perception, yet the organization of spectrotemporal processing of speech within the STG is not well understood. Here, to characterize the spatial organization of spectrotemporal processing of speech across human STG, we use high-density cortical surface field potential recordings while participants listened to natural continuous speech. While synthetic broad-band stimuli did not yield sustained activation of the STG, spectrotemporal receptive fields could be reconstructed from vigorous responses to speech stimuli. We find that the human STG displays a robust anterior-posterior spatial distribution of spectrotemporal tuning in which the posterior STG is tuned for temporally fast varying speech sounds that have relatively constant energy across the frequency axis (low spectral modulation) while the anterior STG is tuned for temporally slow varying speech sounds that have a high degree of spectral variation across the frequency axis (high spectral modulation). This work illustrates organization of spectrotemporal processing in the human STG, and illuminates processing of ethologically relevant speech signals in a region of the brain specialized for speech perception. Considerable evidence has implicated the human superior temporal gyrus (STG) in speech processing. However, the gross organization of spectrotemporal processing of speech within the STG is not well characterized. Here we use natural speech stimuli and advanced receptive field characterization methods to show that spectrotemporal features within speech are well organized along the posterior-to-anterior axis of the human STG. These findings demonstrate robust functional organization based on spectrotemporal modulation content, and illustrate that much of the encoded information in the STG represents the physical acoustic properties of speech stimuli. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362014-13$15.00/0.

  12. An auditory analog of the picture superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Robert J; Beer, Jenay M

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that pictures (e.g., a picture of an elephant) are remembered better than words (e.g., the word "elephant"), an empirical finding called the picture superiority effect (Paivio & Csapo. Cognitive Psychology 5(2):176-206, 1973). However, very little research has investigated such memory differences for other types of sensory stimuli (e.g. sounds or odors) and their verbal labels. Four experiments compared recall of environmental sounds (e.g., ringing) and spoken verbal labels of those sounds (e.g., "ringing"). In contrast to earlier studies that have shown no difference in recall of sounds and spoken verbal labels (Philipchalk & Rowe. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91(2):341-343, 1971; Paivio, Philipchalk, & Rowe. Memory & Cognition 3(6):586-590, 1975), the experiments reported here yielded clear evidence for an auditory analog of the picture superiority effect. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that sounds were recalled better than the verbal labels of those sounds. Experiment 2 also showed that verbal labels are recalled as well as sounds when participants imagine the sound that the word labels. Experiments 3 and 4 extended these findings to incidental-processing task paradigms and showed that the advantage of sounds over words is enhanced when participants are induced to label the sounds.

  13. Status of fission yield measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeck, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Fission yield measurement and yield compilation activities in the major laboratories of the world are reviewed. In addition to a general review of the effort of each laboratory, a brief summary of yield measurement activities by fissioning nuclide is presented. A new fast reactor fission yield measurement program being conducted in the US is described

  14. Superior metallic alloys through rapid solidification processing (RSP) by design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flinn, J.E. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Rapid solidification processing using powder atomization methods and the control of minor elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon can provide metallic alloys with superior properties and performance compared to conventionally processing alloys. Previous studies on nickel- and iron-base superalloys have provided the baseline information to properly couple RSP with alloy composition, and, therefore, enable alloys to be designed for performance improvements. The RSP approach produces powders, which need to be consolidated into suitable monolithic forms. This normally involves canning, consolidation, and decanning of the powders. Canning/decanning is expensive and raises the fabrication cost significantly above that of conventional, ingot metallurgy production methods. The cost differential can be offset by the superior performance of the RSP metallic alloys. However, without the performance database, it is difficult to convince potential users to adopt the RSP approach. Spray casting of the atomized molten droplets into suitable preforms for subsequent fabrication can be cost competitive with conventional processing. If the fine and stable microstructural features observed for the RSP approach are preserved during spray casing, a cost competitive product can be obtained that has superior properties and performance that cannot be obtained by conventional methods.

  15. Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics Information management and especially geoscience information delivery is a very delicate task. If it is carried out successfully, geoscientific data will provide the main foundation of Information Superiority. However, improper implementation of geodata generation, assimilation, distribution or storage will not only waste valuable resources like manpower or money, but could also give rise to crucial deficiency in knowledge and might lead to potentially extremely harmful disasters or wrong decisions. Comprehensive Approach, Effect Based Operations and Network Enabled Capabilities are the current buzz terms in the security regime. However, they also apply to various interdisciplinary tasks like catastrophe relief missions, civil task operations or even in day to day business operations where geo-science data is used. Based on experience in the application of geoscience data for defence applications the following procedure or tool box for generating geodata should lead to the desired information superiority: 1. Understand and analyse the mission, the task and the environment for which the geodata is needed 2. Carry out a Information Exchange Requirement between the user or customer and the geodata provider 3. Implementation of current interoperability standards and a coherent metadata structure 4. Execute innovative data generation, data provision, data assimilation and data storage 5. Apply a cost-effective and reasonable data life cycle 6. Implement IT security by focusing of the three pillar concepts Integrity, Availability and Confidentiality of the critical data 7. Draft and execute a service level agreement or a memorandum of understanding between the involved parties 8. Execute a Continuous Improvement Cycle These ideas from the IT world should be transferred into the geoscience community and applied in a wide set of scenarios. A standardized approach of how to generate, provide

  16. Sedimentation rates and depositional processes in Lake Superior from 210Pb geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.E.; Johnson, T.C.; Alexander, E.C. Jr.; Lively, R.S.; Eisenreich, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Sedimentation rates range from 0.01 to 0.32 cm/yr in 17 sediment box cores from Lake Superior, as determined by 210 Pb geochronology. Shoreline erosion and resuspension of nearshore sediments causes moderate to high (0.05-0.11 cm/yr) sedimentation rates in the western arm of Lake Superior. Sedimentation rates are very high (> 0.15 cm/yr) in marginal bays adjoining Lake Superior; and moderate to very high (0.07-0.19 cm/yr) in open lake regions adjacent to marginal bays. Resuspension of nearshore and shoal top sediments in southern and southeastern Lake Superior by storms is responsible for depositional anomalies in 210 Pb profiles corresponding to 1905, 1916-1918, and 1940 storms. Sedimentation rates are very low (0.01-0.03 cm/yr) in the central basins due to isolation from sediment sources. These data indicate that sedimentation rates and processes vary significantly in different regions of Lake Superior. The sedimentation rates provided by this study, in conjunction with previously-reported sedimentation rates, yield a better understanding of the Lake Superior depositional environment

  17. The minimum yield in channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uguzzoni, A.; Gaertner, K.; Lulli, G.; Andersen, J.U.

    2000-01-01

    A first estimate of the minimum yield was obtained from Lindhard's theory, with the assumption of a statistical equilibrium in the transverse phase-space of channeled particles guided by a continuum axial potential. However, computer simulations have shown that this estimate should be corrected by a fairly large factor, C (approximately equal to 2.5), called the Barrett factor. We have shown earlier that the concept of a statistical equilibrium can be applied to understand this result, with the introduction of a constraint in phase-space due to planar channeling of axially channeled particles. Here we present an extended test of these ideas on the basis of computer simulation of the trajectories of 2 MeV α particles in Si. In particular, the gradual trend towards a full statistical equilibrium is studied. We also discuss the introduction of this modification of standard channeling theory into descriptions of the multiple scattering of channeled particles (dechanneling) by a master equation and show that the calculated minimum yields are in very good agreement with the results of a full computer simulation

  18. Extreme premature with persistent left superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboitiz-Rivera, Carlos Manuel; Blachman-Braun, Ruben; Parra-Pérez, Mariana Yazmin

    2017-10-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a congenital anomaly, that results when there is an absence of the normal regression of the left common precardinal vein during embryogenesis. Usually, this anomaly remains asymptomatic, however, when the PLSVC drains into the left atrium this could lead to a right-to-left shunt. Additionally, this can result in inadvertent delivery of air or thrombus into the systemic circulation with potential neurologic, cardiac and renal complications. In this article, we present a case of an extreme premature Mexican newborn in which the diagnosis was made after placement of a percutaneous central venues catheter.

  19. Quantifying yield gaps in wheat production in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Prishchepov, Alexander V; Koch, Friedrich J; Müller, Daniel; Faramarzi, Monireh

    2014-01-01

    Crop yields must increase substantially to meet the increasing demands for agricultural products. Crop yield increases are particularly important for Russia because low crop yields prevail across Russia’s widespread and fertile land resources. However, reliable data are lacking regarding the spatial distribution of potential yields in Russia, which can be used to determine yield gaps. We used a crop growth model to determine the yield potentials and yield gaps of winter and spring wheat at the provincial level across European Russia. We modeled the annual yield potentials from 1995 to 2006 with optimal nitrogen supplies for both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Overall, the results suggest yield gaps of 1.51–2.10 t ha −1 , or 44–52% of the yield potential under rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions, yield gaps of 3.14–3.30 t ha −1 , or 62–63% of the yield potential, were observed. However, recurring droughts cause large fluctuations in yield potentials under rainfed conditions, even when the nitrogen supply is optimal, particularly in the highly fertile black soil areas of southern European Russia. The highest yield gaps (up to 4 t ha −1 ) under irrigated conditions were detected in the steppe areas in southeastern European Russia along the border of Kazakhstan. Improving the nutrient and water supply and using crop breeds that are adapted to the frequent drought conditions are important for reducing yield gaps in European Russia. Our regional assessment helps inform policy and agricultural investors and prioritize research that aims to increase crop production in this important region for global agricultural markets. (letter)

  20. Aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, A

    1984-11-01

    This is a report about 4 patients with aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery of arteriosclerotic, mycotic and probably congenital etiology together with a review of the literature as to the etiology, diagnostic possibilities and therapy. Arteriography is the method of choice even though a diagnosis may be possible by sonography or CT in special cases. Even though an aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery is rare, it has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of persisting abdominal problems of unknown origin. This is especially true for patients with a predisposing history such as previous or existing endocarditis, sepsis, arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Because of the possibility of rupture followed by life threating bleeding an adequate diagnostic step such as arteriography has to be considered finally.

  1. Aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebauer, A.

    1984-01-01

    This is a report about 4 patients with aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery of arteriosclerotic, mycotic and probably congenital etiology together with a review of the literature as to the etiology, diagnostic possibilities and therapy. Arteriography is the method of choice even though a diagnosis may be possible by sonography or CT in special cases. Even though an aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery is rare, it has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of persisting abdominal problems of unknown origin. This is especially true for patients with a predisposing history such as previous or existing endocarditis, sepsis, arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Because of the possibility of rupture followed by life threating bleeding an adequate diagnostic step such as arteriography has to be considered finally. (orig.) [de

  2. Superior cold recycling : The score project

    OpenAIRE

    LESUEUR, D; POTTI, JJ; SOUTHWELL, C; WALTER, J; CRUZ, M; DELFOSSE, F; ECKMANN, B; FIEDLER, J; RACEK, I; SIMONSSON, B; PLACIN, F; SERRANO, J; RUIZ, A; KALAAJI, A; ATTANE, P

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop Environmentally Friendly Construction Technologies (EFCT) and as part of the 5th Framework Program of Research and Development, the European Community has decided to finance a research project on cold recycling, entitled SCORE "Superior COld REcycling based on benefits of bituminous microemulsions and foamed bitumen. A EFCT system for the rehabilitation and the maintenance of roads". This research project gathers organizations from all over Europe, from industrial partners...

  3. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  4. [Neuromolecular mechanism of the superiority illusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    The majority of individuals evaluate themselves as above average. This is a cognitive bias called "the superiority illusion". This illusory self-evaluation helps us to have hopes for the future, and has been central to the process of human evolution. Possessing this illusion is also important for mental health, as depressed people appear to have a more realistic perception of themselves, dubbed "depressive realism". Our recent study revealed the spontaneous brain activity and central dopaminergic neurotransmission that generate this illusion, using resting-state fMRI and PET. A functional connectivity between the frontal cortex and striatum, regulated by inhibitory dopaminergic neurotransmission, determines individual levels of the superiority illusion. We further revealed that blocking the dopamine transporter, which enhanced the level of dopamine, increased the degree of the superiority illusion. These findings suggest that dopamine acts on striatal dopamine receptors to suppress fronto-striatal functional connectivity, leading to disinhibited, heuristic, approaches to positive self-evaluation. These findings help us to understand how this key aspect of the human mind is biologically determined, and will suggest treatments for depressive symptoms by targeting specific molecules and neural circuits.

  5. Eutrophication monitoring for Lake Superior's Chequamegon ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A priority for the Lake Superior CSMI was to identify susceptible nearshore eutrophication areas. We developed an integrated sampling design to collect baseline data for Lake Superior’s Chequamegon Bay to understand how nearshore physical processes and tributary loading relate to observed chlorophyll concentrations. Sampling included ship-based water samples combined with vertical CTD casts, continuous in situ towing and data collected from an autonomous underwater glider. Sampling was conducted during June, July and September. The glider collected regional data as part of three extended missions in Lake Superior over the same periods. During the study, two significant storm events impacted the western end of Lake Superior; the first occurred during July 11-12, with 8-10 inches of rain in 24hrs, and the second on July 21 with winds in excess of 161 km/h. Using GIS software, we organized these diverse temporal data sets along a continuous time line with temporally coincident Modis Satellite data to visualize surface sediment plumes in relation to water quality measurements. Preliminary results suggest that both events impacted regional water quality, and that nearshore physical forces (upwelling and currents) influenced the spatial variability. Results comparing in situ measures with remotely sensed images will be discussed. not applicable

  6. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia involving the superior rectus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Hellman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We present the first reported case of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia in the right superior rectus causing diplopia. Observations: A 72-year-old man with a 6-month history of untreated asymptomatic Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia presented with 2 years of diagonal binocular diplopia that was previously thought to be due to ocular myasthenia gravis. Examination showed mild right proptosis and right hypotropia, and MRI revealed a focal lesion of the right superior rectus muscle. Orbital biopsy was performed, and histopathology showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration among the skeletal muscle fibers of the rectus muscle. Immunostaining confirmed a B-cell preponderance, along with more extensive staining for IgM than IgG, and in situ hybridization confirmed lambda restriction. These findings corresponded with those of his previous bone marrow biopsy, confirming Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia as the etiology for the extraocular muscle mass. Conclusions and Importance: Lymphoma of an extraocular muscle is a rare manifestation of orbital lymphoma, and the tumors are usually mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas (i.e. extranodal marginal zone lymphomas. There are 4 previous reports of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma of an extraocular muscle; however this is the first reported case of such a lesion in a patient with concurrent Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia at the time of diagnosis. Keywords: Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, Lymphoma, Superior rectus, Diplopia

  7. Yield, quality and longevity of stems of Photinia fraseri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Nara Ciotta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The greens understand cutting the shoots of the plant without the flower, but with ornamental feature to the composition of arrangements. In Sierra of Santa Catarina a species that has emerged is the Photinia fraseri, known by the common name of fotinia, which features distinctive color of its leaves. The aim of this study was to assess the yield of stems and durability of this species in solutions containing sucrose and temperature. Were collected during two periods, 10 stems in each of the cutting heights (10, 30 and 50cm, classified by size, (CL1 greater than or equal to 60cm, (CL2 and between 60 and 45cm (CL3 less than 45cm and quantified. To test the durability stems greater than 60cm were subjected to aqueous solutions of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% sucrose for 24h at two temperatures and evaluated according to the stage of senescence (I, or II. The largest increase in number of stems at harvest was held in march in relation to november. The stems are longer, obtained after the long period of growth, harvest months of march and let the merchant handle best to use them in floral arrangements. This species has great potential in post-harvest, since the longevity of the stems with maintaining your ornamental quality is far superior to most plants grown as cut foliage.

  8. Superior Vena Cava Syndrome in a Patient with Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Brzezniak; Bryan Oronsky; Corey A. Carter; Bennett Thilagar; Scott Caroen; Karen Zeman

    2017-01-01

    Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome, a potential oncologic emergency, is closely associated with malignancy and right-sided lung cancer in particular. A case of SVC syndrome presenting with facial swelling, neck distension, and enlarged veins of the upper chest, which developed over a period of 5 weeks in a 46-year-old patient on a clinical trial with small-cell lung cancer, is reported. Computed tomography scan of the chest revealed slight enlargement of a superior conglomerate mediastinal lym...

  9. Burlington Northern Taconite Transshipment Facility, Duluth-Superior Harbor, Superior Wisconsin. Environmental Assessment Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    the Federal Government declared the Duluth- Superior area to be economically depressed . The reason given was the "consistant and chronic unemployment...include dogwood, sumac, arrowwood, blueberry, highbush cranberry , elderberry, wild grape, buttonbrush, snowberry and partridgeberry. Aquatic and...water for the proposed greenbelt areas and as dust sup- pression spray. 10.003 The depressed economy of the Duluth-Superior area would benefit by the

  10. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Yield and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Declining soil fertility is one of the major problems causing yield reduction of barley ... (VC) with inorganic NP on growth, yield and yield components of food barley. ... The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with ...

  11. Teleseismic Lg of Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Explosions Recorded by the GRF (Gräfenberg) Array: Comparison with Regional Lg (BRV) and their Potential for Accurate Yield Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlittenhardt, J.

    - A comparison of regional and teleseismic log rms (root-mean-square) Lg amplitude measurements have been made for 14 underground nuclear explosions from the East Kazakh test site recorded both by the BRV (Borovoye) station in Kazakhstan and the GRF (Gräfenberg) array in Germany. The log rms Lg amplitudes observed at the BRV regional station at a distance of 690km and at the teleseismic GRF array at a distance exceeding 4700km show very similar relative values (standard deviation 0.048 magnitude units) for underground explosions of different sizes at the Shagan River test site. This result as well as the comparison of BRV rms Lg magnitudes (which were calculated from the log rms amplitudes using an appropriate calibration) with magnitude determinations for P waves of global seismic networks (standard deviation 0.054 magnitude units) point to a high precision in estimating the relative source sizes of explosions from Lg-based single station data. Similar results were also obtained by other investigators (Patton, 1988; Ringdaletal., 1992) using Lg data from different stations at different distances.Additionally, GRF log rms Lg and P-coda amplitude measurements were made for a larger data set from Novaya Zemlya and East Kazakh explosions, which were supplemented with mb(Lg) amplitude measurements using a modified version of Nuttli's (1973, 1986a) method. From this test of the relative performance of the three different magnitude scales, it was found that the Lg and P-coda based magnitudes performed equally well, whereas the modified Nuttli mb(Lg) magnitudes show greater scatter when compared to the worldwide mb reference magnitudes. Whether this result indicates that the rms amplitude measurements are superior to the zero-to-peak amplitude measurement of a single cycle used for the modified Nuttli method, however, cannot be finally assessed, since the calculated mb(Lg) magnitudes are only preliminary until appropriate attenuation corrections are available for the

  12. Development of high yielding mutants in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.; Sarwar, G.; Siddiqui, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) locally known as Masoor, is the second most important rabi pulse crop, after chickpea, in Pakistan. It is cultivated on an area of over 63,400 ha, which constitutes about 4.83% of the total area under pulses. The annual production of the crop is 28,200 tones with an average yield of 445 kg/ha. Yield at the national level is very low, about one-half of the world's yield, which is mainly due to non-availability of high yield potential genotypes. Keeping in view the importance of mutants in developing a large number of new varieties, an induced mutations programme was initiated at AEARC, Tandojam during 1987-88, to develop high yielding varieties in lentil. For this, seeds of two lentil varieties, 'Masoor-85' and 'ICARDA-8' had been irradiated with gamma-rays ranging from 100-600 Gy in NIAB, Faisalabad during 1990. Selections were made in M2 on the basis of earliness, plant height, branches/plant and 100 grain weight. After confirming these mutants in M3 they were promoted in station yield trials and studied continuously for three consecutive years (1993- 1995). Overall results revealed that these mutants have consistent improvement of earliness in flowering and maturity. Plant height also increased in all mutant lines except AEL 23/40/91 where reduction in this attribute was observed as compared to parent variety. Mutant lines AEL 49/20/91 and AEL 13/30/91 showed improvement in 100 grain weight. The improvement of some agronomic characters enhanced the yield of mutant lines in comparison to parent varieties (Masoor-85 and ICARDA-8). The diversity in yield over the respective parents was computed from 6.94 to 60.12%. From these encouraging results it is hoped that mutant lines like AEL 12/30/91 and AEL 49/20/91 may serve as potential lentil genotypes in future. (author)

  13. Large-Scale Selection and Breeding To Generate Industrial Yeasts with Superior Aroma Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Jan; Meersman, Esther; Snoek, Tim; Saels, Veerle

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations and relative ratios of various aroma compounds produced by fermenting yeast cells are essential for the sensory quality of many fermented foods, including beer, bread, wine, and sake. Since the production of these aroma-active compounds varies highly among different yeast strains, careful selection of variants with optimal aromatic profiles is of crucial importance for a high-quality end product. This study evaluates the production of different aroma-active compounds in 301 different Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces paradoxus, and Saccharomyces pastorianus yeast strains. Our results show that the production of key aroma compounds like isoamyl acetate and ethyl acetate varies by an order of magnitude between natural yeasts, with the concentrations of some compounds showing significant positive correlation, whereas others vary independently. Targeted hybridization of some of the best aroma-producing strains yielded 46 intraspecific hybrids, of which some show a distinct heterosis (hybrid vigor) effect and produce up to 45% more isoamyl acetate than the best parental strains while retaining their overall fermentation performance. Together, our results demonstrate the potential of large-scale outbreeding to obtain superior industrial yeasts that are directly applicable for commercial use. PMID:25192996

  14. Superior mesenteric artery compression syndrome - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rocha França Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is an entity generally caused by the loss of the intervening mesenteric fat pad, resulting in compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery. This article reports the case of a patient with irremovable metastatic adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon, that evolved with intense vomiting. Intestinal transit was carried out, which showed important gastric dilation extended until the third portion of the duodenum, compatible with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Considering the patient's nutritional condition, the medical team opted for the conservative treatment. Four months after the surgery and conservative measures, the patient did not present vomiting after eating, maintaining previous weight. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is uncommon and can have unspecific symptoms. Thus, high suspicion is required for the appropriate clinical adjustment. A barium examination is required to make the diagnosis. The treatment can initially require gastric decompression and hydration, besides reversal of weight loss through adequate nutrition. Surgery should be adopted only in case of clinical treatment failure.A síndrome da artéria mesentérica superior é uma entidade clínica causada geralmente pela perda do tecido adiposo mesentérico, resultando na compressão da terceira porção do duodeno pela artéria mesentérica superior. Esse artigo relata o caso clínico de uma paciente portadora de adenocarcinoma de cólon sigmoide metastático irressecável, que evoluiu com vômitos incoercíveis. Realizou-se, então, trânsito intestinal que evidenciou dilatação gástrica importante, que se prolongava até a terceira porção duodenal, quadro radiológico compatível com pinçamento da artéria mesentérica superior. Diante da condição nutricional da paciente, foi optado por iniciar medidas conservadoras (porções alimentares pequenas e mais frequentes, além de dec

  15. Development of technology for fuel alcohol. ; Searching and breeding of superior bacteria. Nenryoyo alcohol gijutsu kaihatsu. ; Yushukin no kensakuter dot ikushu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    In order to develop superior ethanol fermenting bacteria which would directly transform fibers into ethanol, which would lead to the utilization of unused waste industrial agricultural and forestry products, separation of potential strains from extensive collections of microbe resources from in and out of this country and adding of salt resistance, alcohol resistance, cellulose digestion properties using bio-technology were conducted. In searching for superior bacteria, some cells used in the sugar test plant showed no decrease in fermentation yields in 0.4% CaCl{sub 2}, 0.25 MgCl{sub 2} cultures, and some showed no decrease even with 1% KCl. In the breeding of superior bacteria, zymomonus with 4 times CMCase (a component enzyme of a cellulose degrading enzyme) activity, zymomonus which could grow in maltose cultures, zymomonus which had xylose isomerase genes linked to pyruvate carboxylase promoters, zymomonus resistant to 7% ethanol and 1% KCl, thermophilic and anaerobic cellulose degrading bacteria were developed. 1 tab.

  16. Benefits of seasonal forecasts of crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, G.; Okada, M.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Major factors behind recent fluctuations in food prices include increased biofuel production and oil price fluctuations. In addition, several extreme climate events that reduced worldwide food production coincided with upward spikes in food prices. The stabilization of crop yields is one of the most important tasks to stabilize food prices and thereby enhance food security. Recent development of technologies related to crop modeling and seasonal weather forecasting has made it possible to forecast future crop yields for maize and soybean. However, the effective use of these technologies remains limited. Here we present the potential benefits of seasonal crop-yield forecasts on a global scale for choice of planting day. For this purpose, we used a model (PRYSBI-2) that can well replicate past crop yields both for maize and soybean. This model system uses a Bayesian statistical approach to estimate the parameters of a basic process-based model of crop growth. The spatial variability of model parameters was considered by estimating the posterior distribution of the parameters from historical yield data by using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method with a resolution of 1.125° × 1.125°. The posterior distributions of model parameters were estimated for each spatial grid with 30 000 MCMC steps of 10 chains each. By using this model and the estimated parameter distributions, we were able to estimate not only crop yield but also levels of associated uncertainty. We found that the global average crop yield increased about 30% as the result of the optimal selection of planting day and that the seasonal forecast of crop yield had a large benefit in and near the eastern part of Brazil and India for maize and the northern area of China for soybean. In these countries, the effects of El Niño and Indian Ocean dipole are large. The results highlight the importance of developing a system to forecast global crop yields.

  17. Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, David

    2005-11-01

    This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV

  18. A note on hypoplastic yielding

    OpenAIRE

    Nader, José Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This note discusses briefly the definition of yield surface in hypoplasticity in connection with the physical notion of yielding. The relation of yielding with the vanishing of the material time derivative of the stress tensor and the vanishing of the corotational stress rate is investigated.

  19. Dimension yields from yellow-poplar lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Gilmore; J. D. Danielson

    1984-01-01

    The available supply of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), its potential for new uses, and its continuing importance to the furniture industry have created a need to accumulate additional information about this species. As an aid to better utilization of this species, charts for determining cutting stock yields from yellow poplar lumber are presented for each...

  20. Review of yield gap explaining factors and opportunities for alternative data collection approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beza, E.A.; Vasco Silva, João; Kooistra, Lammert; Reidsma, Pytrik

    2017-01-01

    Yield gap analysis is gaining increased scientific attention, as estimating and explaining yield gaps shows the potential for sustainable intensification of agricultural systems. Explaining yield gaps requires detailed information about the biophysical environment, crop management as well as

  1. Superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Jonathan C; Omid, Reza

    2012-12-01

    The patient was a 25-year-old male college student with a chief complaint of right shoulder pain. The patient was initially diagnosed with bicipital tendinitis by his physician and had been treated for 4 weeks by a physical therapist. However, his symptoms did not improve and he was unable to return to his preinjury activity levels, so he sought the services of another physical therapist for a second opinion. Due to concern for a labrum tear, the physical therapist referred the patient to an orthopaedic surgeon. Magnetic resonance arthrography revealed findings consistent with a superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

  2. Ultrasound Detection of Superior Vena Cava Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Birch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Superior vena cava (SVC syndrome is most commonly the insidious result of decreased vascular flow through the SVC due to malignancy, spontaneous thrombus, infections, and iatrogenic etiologies. Clinical suspicion usually leads to computed tomography to confirm the diagnosis. However, when a patient in respiratory distress requires emergent airway management, travel outside the emergency department is not ideal. With the growing implementation of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS, clinicians may make critical diagnoses rapidly and safely. We present a case of SVC syndrome due to extensive thrombosis of the deep venous system cephalad to the SVC diagnosed by POCUS. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6:715-718

  3. Superior Venacava Thrombus-A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay Sah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior venacava (SVC thrombus is a condition requiring immediate diagnosis and treatment. SVC thrombus causes obstruction of blood flow through the SVC resulting in severe decrease in venous return from the head, neck and upper extremity to the heart. The presenting symptoms of SVC obstruction include headache, hoarseness of voice, dyspnea, and laryngeal edema, dizziness, swelling of face, neck, and upper extremity. We hereby present a case of SVC thrombus who presented to the casualty department of COMS-TH with features of SVC syndrome which was diagnosed and managed promptly.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(1:33-5.

  4. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  5. Effect of sowing dates on yield and yield components on mutant-cum-hybrid lines of bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sial, M.A.; Arain, M.A.; Dahot, M.U.; Laghari, K.A.; Naqvi, M.H.; Markhand, G.S.; Mangrio, S.M.; Mirbahar, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-one stable wheat mutant lines along with four check varieties viz., Sarsabz, Kiran-95, T.J.83 and Khirman were evaluated under normal and late sowing dates. The observations were recorded on phenological, morphological and meteorological parameters. Higher yield and improvement in various yield components were recorded at normal sowing as compared to late sowing. Six mutant lines showed superiority in yield than check varieties at normal sowings while three mutants produced more yield than check varieties except Sarsabz at late sowings. At normal sowing eleven mutant lines matured earlier than all check varieties including short duration variety T.J-83 whereas two mutant lines were earlier than Sarsabz and Kiran-95 and thirteen than T.J-83 and Khirman. (author)

  6. Genetic superiority of exotic clones over indigenous clones for quantitative and qualitative traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.A.; Khatri, A.; Ahmad, M.; Siddiqui, N.A.; Dahar, M.H.; Khanzada, M.H.; Nizamani, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    Seventeen exotic sugar cane clones along with two local checks (BL4 and L116) were planted for three consecutive years (1989-90 to 1991-92) and evaluated for cane yield, yield components (plant height, cane girth, stalks per stool, stool weight), fibre, sucrose and sugar yield. Two exotic clones AEC82-1026 and AEC86-329 proved to be significantly (p< 0.05) superior in cane yield (130.62 and 114.87 t/ha respectively) and sugar yield 18.10 and 19.33 t/ha respectively) to both checks, cane and sugar yield of BL4 were 100.73 and 12.69 t/ha and that of L116 were 74.19 11.03 t/ha respectively. Cane and sugar yields were positively (P<0.01) correlated with plant height, cane girth and weight per stool. These promising clones would be subjected to extensive studies for cane yield in different parts of Sindh province. (author)

  7. Uso da vinhaça no abacaxizeiro em solo de baixo potencial de produção Stillage application for pineapple in soil with low potential of yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miralda Bueno de Paula

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a vinhaça como fonte de K para o abacaxizeiro (Ananas Comosus L., em substituição ao KCl, e seus efeitos sobre as características químicas do solo. O experimento foi instalado em um LV, textura argilosa, utilizando a cv. Smooth Cayenne. Os tratamentos constaram de quatro doses de vinhaça (0 - 100 - 200 - 400 m³/ha, mais um tratamento adicional: 12 g/planta K2O (KCl. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Verificou-se efeito significativo da vinhaça e do KCl sobre a produção. Com 400 m³/ha de vinhaça e 20,5 g/planta de KCl , os rendimentos tiveram um acréscimo de 70% e 73%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. O fornecimento de K elevou a porcentagem de acidez titulável total e sólidos solúveis totais nos frutos, porém não houve diferença significativa entre as fontes. Os teores foliares de K foram aumentados significativamente pela aplicação de vinhaça e de KCl, e os teores de Mg decresceram. A aplicação de vinhaça contribuiu para aumento, no solo, dos teores dos cátions K, Ca, Mg e para a lixiviação de K. Vinhaça e KCl elevaram a níveis adequados, para cultura, a porcentagem de K na soma de bases.An experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the stillage as K source for pineapple (Ananas Comosus L. in comparison with KCl, and the effects on chemical soil characteristics. The experiment was assessed in a Red Yellow Latosol with Smooth Cayenne cultivar. The treatments consisted of four application doses of stillage (0 - 100 - 200 - 400 m³/ha and of an additional treatment (12 g/plant K2O KCl. The design of the trial was in randomized blocks with three replications. Yields statistically responded to stillage and KCl and yields obtained with 400 m³/ha of stillage and 20.5 g of KCl per plant were 70% and 73%, respectivelly, over the control. Addition of K increased the content of tritratable acidity and total

  8. Bioremediation potential, growth and biomass yield of the green seaweed, Ulva lactuca in an integrated marine aquaculture system at the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia at different stocking densities and effluent flow rates

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.; Alam, Aftab; Buschmann, Alejandro H.

    2014-01-01

    Growth, production and biofiltration rates of seaweed, Ulva lactuca were investigated at two stocking densities (3 kg and 6 kg m-2) and two effluent flow rates (5.4 and 10.8 m3 day-1) to optimize an integrated mariculture system at Saudi Red Sea coast. effluents from fish-rearing tank, stocked with 200 kg fish (Oreochromis spilurus), fed to six seaweed tanks via sedimentation tank. Fish growth (weight gain 1.75 g fish day-1), net production (NP, 10.16 kg m-3) and survival (94.24%) were within acceptable limits. Ulva showed significantly higher (F = 62.62, d.f. 3, 35; P < 0.0001) specific growth rates at lower density compared with higher density and under high flow versus low flow (SGR = 5.78% vs. 2.55% at lower flow and 10.60% vs. 6.26% at higher flow). Biomass yield of Ulva at low- and high-stocking densities (111.11 and 83.2 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at low flow and (267.44 and 244.19 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at high flow show that high flow rate and lower density favoured growth. Removal rates of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) (0.26-0.31 g m-2 day-1) and phosphate phosphorus (0.32-0.41 g m-2 day-1) by U. lactuca were not significantly different (F = 1.9, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.1394 for TAN and F = 0.29, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.8324 for phosphates) at both the flow rates and stocking densities. Results show that the effluent flow rate has significant impact over the performance of the seaweed than stocking density.

  9. Bioremediation potential, growth and biomass yield of the green seaweed, Ulva lactuca in an integrated marine aquaculture system at the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia at different stocking densities and effluent flow rates

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.

    2014-03-19

    Growth, production and biofiltration rates of seaweed, Ulva lactuca were investigated at two stocking densities (3 kg and 6 kg m-2) and two effluent flow rates (5.4 and 10.8 m3 day-1) to optimize an integrated mariculture system at Saudi Red Sea coast. effluents from fish-rearing tank, stocked with 200 kg fish (Oreochromis spilurus), fed to six seaweed tanks via sedimentation tank. Fish growth (weight gain 1.75 g fish day-1), net production (NP, 10.16 kg m-3) and survival (94.24%) were within acceptable limits. Ulva showed significantly higher (F = 62.62, d.f. 3, 35; P < 0.0001) specific growth rates at lower density compared with higher density and under high flow versus low flow (SGR = 5.78% vs. 2.55% at lower flow and 10.60% vs. 6.26% at higher flow). Biomass yield of Ulva at low- and high-stocking densities (111.11 and 83.2 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at low flow and (267.44 and 244.19 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at high flow show that high flow rate and lower density favoured growth. Removal rates of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) (0.26-0.31 g m-2 day-1) and phosphate phosphorus (0.32-0.41 g m-2 day-1) by U. lactuca were not significantly different (F = 1.9, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.1394 for TAN and F = 0.29, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.8324 for phosphates) at both the flow rates and stocking densities. Results show that the effluent flow rate has significant impact over the performance of the seaweed than stocking density.

  10. Acute Bilateral Superior Branch Vestibular Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Yacovino

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid onset of a bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH is often attributed to vestibular ototoxicity. However, without any prior exposure to ototoxins, the idiopathic form of BVH is most common. Although sequential bilateral vestibular neuritis (VN is described as a cause of BVH, clinical evidence for simultaneous and acute onset bilateral VN is unknown. We describe a patient with an acute onset of severe gait ataxia and oscillopsia with features compatible with acute BVH putatively due to a bilateral VN, which we serially evaluated with clinical and laboratory vestibular function testing over the course of 1 year. Initially, bilateral superior and horizontal semicircular canals and bilateral utricles were impaired, consistent with damage to both superior branches of each vestibular nerve. Hearing was spared. Only modest results were obtained following 6 months of vestibular rehabilitation. At a 1-year follow-up, only the utricular function of one side recovered. This case is the first evidence supporting an acute presentation of bilateral VN as a cause for BVH, which would not have been observed without critical assessment of each of the 10 vestibular end organs.

  11. Premissas para o Ensino Superior do Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Marques da Silveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a temática da Educação Superior e objetivo identificar premissas para o Ensino em Design no Brasil. Para tanto, efetua um estudo dos conteúdos das comunicações da área em periódicos e livros quanto ao assunto. O método de investigação utilizado foi a análise de conteúdo e observou as seguintes etapas de investigação: registro de dados, interpretação inferencial e categorização. Num primeiro momento, identifica a frequência do aparecimento de índices lexicais quanto ao relato de problemas no processo de Ensino-aprendizagem do Design e as proposições para o seu enfrentamento. Procede uma interpretação inferencial destes dados e, por fim, propõe como resultado, um conjunto de doze premissas que devem ser observadas quanto ao Ensino Superior em Design, a saber: 1 Incentivar o empreendedorismo; 2 Nivelar a Formação; 3 Desenvolver estrategistas; 4 Pensar a ética na atuação profissional; 5 Educar para o social; 6 Valorizar os ideias humanistas; 7 Repensar as estruturas acadêmicas; 8 Focar na aprendizagem baseada em problemas; 9 Aceitar os novos paradigmas; 10 Fomentar o pensamento crítico reflexivo; 11 Estimular a transdisciplinaridade; 12 Focar nas economias emergentes.

  12. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIELD CROPS YIELD IN TEISANI AREA HOUSEHOLDS, PRAHOVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena ANGELESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to analyze the technological performance of the field crops on luvisoils in Teisani area, Prahova County, where corn and potato are cultivated for personal consumption and beet for animal nutrition. The cultivation of wheat and fodder plants has been an exception. Studies conducted have firstly referred to the introduction of crops in rotation system, through cooperation and exchange between households and within their own household for those with larger surfaces. To compare the productivity of crops, the yield energy value has been used as a measure unit, which facilitates the comparison. The yields was reduced up to the lower limit of crop potential because of monocultures and the lack of appropriate technologies, even for small farming machinery. The results showed that using improved technologies, in 2013 and 2014, the yields were significantly superior, the highest ones, for potatoes and alfalfa, the last one as jumper field. Introducing alfalfa in the crop rotation system has led to the potato yield doubling, but also of those of wheat, corn and beet. Using manure and organic material available and degradable in the form of compost made in their own household, to which are added small amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, there were obtained average yields by 40% higher than the average of the experience and by 139%, i.e. 2.4 times higher than the unfertilized variant, very much used in the area. Therefore, it was demonstrated, that there are huge resources to produce agricultural products and primary food in the Teisani rural area. Small peasant households should be encouraged and financially supported to participate to food production both for their own consumption, but also for the market.

  13. Tratamento da síndrome da veia cava superior Treatment of superior vena cava syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Inaco Cirino

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A veia cava superior é formada pela união das duas veias inominadas, direita e esquerda, e localiza-se no mediastino médio, à direita da artéria aorta e anteriormente à traquéia. A síndrome da veia cava superior representa um conjunto de sinais (dilatação das veias do pescoço, pletora facial, edema de membros superiores, cianose e sintomas (cefaléia, dispnéia, tosse, edema de membro superior, ortopnéia e disfagia decorrentes da obstrução do fluxo sanguíneo através da veia cava superior em direção ao átrio direito. A obstrução pode ser causada por compressão extrínseca, invasão tumoral, trombose ou por dificuldade do retorno venoso ao coração secundária a doenças intra-atriais ou intraluminais. Aproximadamente 73% a 97% dos casos de síndrome da veia cava superior ocorrem durante a evolução de processos malignos intratorácicos. A maioria dos pacientes com a síndrome secundária a neoplasias malignas é tratada sem necessidade de cirurgia, através de radioterapia ou quimioterapia, ou através da colocação de stents endoluminais. Quando a síndrome é de etiologia benigna, o tratamento é feito através de medidas clínicas (anticoagulação, elevação da cabeça, etc. ou, em casos refratários, através de angioplastia, colocação de stents endoluminais e cirurgia.The superior vena cava is formed by the union of the right and left brachiocephalic veins. It is located in the middle mediastinum, to the right of the aorta and anterior to the trachea. Superior vena cava syndrome consists of a group of signs (dilation of the veins in the neck, facial swelling, edema of the upper limbs, and cyanosis and symptoms (headache, dyspnea, cough, orthopnea and dysphagia caused by the obstruction of blood flow through the superior vena cava to the right atrium. This obstruction can be caused by extrinsic compression, tumor invasion or thrombosis. Such obstruction may also occur as a result of insufficient venous return

  14. Enlarged right superior temporal gyrus in children and adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Roger J; Minshew, Nancy J; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Vitale, Matthew P; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2010-11-11

    The superior temporal gyrus has been implicated in language processing and social perception. Therefore, anatomical abnormalities of this structure may underlie some of the deficits observed in autism, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication. In this study, volumes of the left and right superior temporal gyri were measured using magnetic resonance imaging obtained from 18 boys with high-functioning autism (mean age=13.5±3.4years; full-scale IQ=103.6±13.4) and 19 healthy controls (mean age=13.7±3.0years; full-scale IQ=103.9±10.5), group-matched on age, gender, and handedness. When compared to the control group, right superior temporal gyral volumes was significantly increased in the autism group after controlling for age and total brain volume. There was no significant difference in the volume of the left superior temporal gyrus. Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant increase of the right posterior superior temporal gyral volume in the autism group, before and after controlling for age and total brain volume. Examination of the symmetry index for the superior temporal gyral volumes did not yield statistically significant between-group differences. Findings from this preliminary investigation suggest the existence of volumetric alterations in the right superior temporal gyrus in children and adolescents with autism, providing support for a neuroanatomical basis of the social perceptual deficits characterizing this severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An adapted yield criterion for the evolution of subsequent yield surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsters, N.; Brosius, A.

    2017-09-01

    In numerical analysis of sheet metal forming processes, the anisotropic material behaviour is often modelled with isotropic work hardening and an average Lankford coefficient. In contrast, experimental observations show an evolution of the Lankford coefficients, which can be associated with a yield surface change due to kinematic and distortional hardening. Commonly, extensive efforts are carried out to describe these phenomena. In this paper an isotropic material model based on the Yld2000-2d criterion is adapted with an evolving yield exponent in order to change the yield surface shape. The yield exponent is linked to the accumulative plastic strain. This change has the effect of a rotating yield surface normal. As the normal is directly related to the Lankford coefficient, the change can be used to model the evolution of the Lankford coefficient during yielding. The paper will focus on the numerical implementation of the adapted material model for the FE-code LS-Dyna, mpi-version R7.1.2-d. A recently introduced identification scheme [1] is used to obtain the parameters for the evolving yield surface and will be briefly described for the proposed model. The suitability for numerical analysis will be discussed for deep drawing processes in general. Efforts for material characterization and modelling will be compared to other common yield surface descriptions. Besides experimental efforts and achieved accuracy, the potential of flexibility in material models and the risk of ambiguity during identification are of major interest in this paper.

  16. Air Power's First Among Equals: Why Air Superiority Still Matters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slawson, Andrew T

    2008-01-01

    .... History is replete with examples of successful or failed air superiority campaigns. This paper details air superiority's role in both the Battle of Britain, and the 1967 Six Day War's Operation MOKED...

  17. Visual sensitivity of deepwater fishes in Lake Superior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Harrington

    Full Text Available The predator-prey interactions in the offshore food web of Lake Superior have been well documented, but the sensory systems mediating these interactions remain unknown. The deepwater sculpin, (Myoxocephalus thompsoni, siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet, and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi inhabit low light level environments. To investigate the potential role of vision in predator-prey interactions, electroretinography was used to determine visual sensitivity for each species. Spectral sensitivity curves revealed peak sensitivity at 525 nm for each species which closely corresponds to the prevalent downwelling light spectrum at depth. To determine if sufficient light was available to mediate predator-prey interactions, visual sensitivity was correlated with the intensity of downwelling light in Lake Superior to construct visual depth profiles for each species. Sufficient daytime irradiance exists for visual interactions to approximately 325 m for siscowet and kiyi and 355 m for the deepwater sculpin during summer months. Under full moon conditions, sufficient irradiance exists to elicit ERG response to light available at approximately 30 m for the siscowet and kiyi and 45 m for the deepwater sculpin. Visual interactions are therefore possible at the depths and times when these organisms overlap in the water column indicating that vision may play a far greater role at depth in deep freshwater lakes than had been previously documented.

  18. Spontaneous Superior Mesenteric Artery Branch Pseudoaneurysm: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Guirgis

    Full Text Available : Background: Visceral arterial pseudoaneurysms (VAPAs are rare vascular entities with serious consequences. Traditionally, they are associated with trauma, infection, and inflammatory disease, or they can arise as a post-operative complication. Report: An 87 year old man presented with abdominal pain and was found to have a spontaneous VAPA on a computed tomography angiogram. Serial imaging 4 months previously had demonstrated no aneurysm. Between scans, warfarin was changed to apixaban for aortic valve replacement, but he had no other changes to any other medications. He required urgent endovascular coiling of the pseudoaneurysm, with satisfactory recovery and outcome. Discussion: VAPAs are extremely rare, with splenic artery VAPAs the most commonly reported. Regardless, fewer than 250 cases of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm have been reported. Superior mesenteric artery (SMA pseudoaneurysms are the rarest type of VAPAs. Early identification and urgent treatment are warranted because of the associated high mortality risk, with a 50% risk of rupture in any given VAPA. Treatment options range from open operation to endoscopic and endovascular procedures. Apixaban has been proposed to contribute to pseudoaneurysm formation by slow and continuous bleeding that results in the formation of the pseudoaneurysm. Conclusions: Spontaneous VAPAs are extremely rare and this is the first time a VAPA has been associated with the novel oral anticoagulant “apixaban”. Urgent management of any VAPAs is important because of the high risk of rupture and potential life threatening haemorrhage. Keywords: Visceral arterial pseudoaneurysm, Superior mesenteric artery, Apixaban, Coils

  19. Superior and ICG - is there a good side to this?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, S.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of whether the proposed merger between Superior Propane and ICG is in the best interest of the consumer was discussed. Petro-Canada, one of Canada's largest integrated oil and gas companies owns ICG. Norcen, a Canadian producer now owned by Union Pacific Resources, used to own Superior Propane. The merger of the two operations, which was driven by a rush to decrease competition, represents a total Canadian market share of 70 per cent or almost 2.5 billion litres of propane per year. Proponents of the merger argue that increased buying power will mean better prices at the plant gate, which will benefit the consumer. Opponents, on the other hand, argue that with low margins to combat, any savings realized will stay in the hands of the newly merged company. The bright side is that despite a huge market share of the newly merged company, there is still a potential to create small companies which understand their local market and which can provide customers with the kind of service they want

  20. Happy Face Superiority Effect in Change Detection Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Švegar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate which affective component guides cognitive processing of emotional facial expressions. According to the threat hypothesis, processing of angry faces is prioritized by the human cognitive system, because rapid detection of threat has a large adaptive value. The negativity hypothesis presumes that distressing emotional experiences of other people attract attention, regardless of whether they represent danger or not. The emotionality hypothesis proposes that positive emotional facial expressions can capture attention as effective as negative ones, while the happy face superiority hypothesis predicts that happy faces are prioritized. In the present study, which was conducted on 24 participants, change detection paradigm was used, because that procedure enables insight into the later stage of information processing. The results obtained show that happy facial expressions are heavily prioritized by the human cognitive system. In explanation of these results, that clearly support the happy face superiority hypothesis, we propose that angry expressions are initially prioritized by our cognitive system, because we benefit from early detection of potential threat in the environment, but in later cognitive processing, happy expressions are given the priority, because smiling is a valuable mechanism for forming and maintaining cooperative relationships. Besides the theoretical relevance, the present study is also valuable methodologically, because we demonstrated that change detection paradigm can be efficiently used for the research of emotional facial expressions processing.

  1. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  2. VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN “EGUSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    Estimate of expected genetic advance in seed yield plant-1 ranged between. 25.90-48.40%. ..... values in fruit and seed yield characters have been reported in culinary melon, ... and Khund, A. 2004. Extent of heterosis and heritability in some.

  3. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis Tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial budget analysis also indicates that applications of 46 kg. N ha-1 and 10 kg P ha-1 are ..... (1994) indicated that where the grain yield response is negative, yield reduction is primarily caused by a .... An Economic Training. Manual.

  4. On yield gaps and yield gains in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gou, Fang; Yin, Wen; Hong, Yu; Werf, van der Wopke; Chai, Qiang; Heerink, Nico; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat-maize relay intercropping has been widely used by farmers in northwest China, and based on field experiments agronomists report it has a higher productivity than sole crops. However, the yields from farmers’ fields have not been investigated yet. Yield gap analysis provides a framework to

  5. 7755 EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON FRUIT YIELD AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... peasant farmers in Nigeria. With the increased ... did not significantly (p=0.05) increase the fruit yield nor the seed yield. Key words: NPK fertilizer, Fruit ..... SAS (Statistical Analysis System) Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, ...

  6. SLIFER measurement for explosive yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.C.; Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.; Breding, D.R.

    1976-04-01

    This report describes the shorted location indicator by frequency of electrical resonance (SLIFER) system used at Sandia Laboratories for determination of explosive yield of under ground nuclear tests

  7. Radiotherapy of superior vena cava syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanami, Shoko; Imada, Hajime; Terashima, Hiromi; Nakata, Hajime

    1996-01-01

    The records of 38 patients with superior vena cava syndrome (SVC syndrome) due to malignancy and who received radiation therapy were retrospectively reviewed. The majority were lung cancers, constituting 28 of the 38 cases (73.7%). All patients were treated with conventional radiation doses ranging from 20 to 70 Gy and good symptomatic response was observed in 31 cases (81.6% ). The response appeared within 1.7±0.9 weeks on average (3 days-4 weeks;, and performance status also improved in 50% of the patients. The median survival was 6.6 months. Long term survivors were seen mostly in patients with thymoma, and only one patient ever showed a recurrence of SVC syndrome. We conclude that radiotherapy can be an effective therapeutic modality for SVC syndrome and that it improves the quality of life in most patients. (author)

  8. CT findings of superior vena cava syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jun; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Since early 1980's high resolution CT has been used for detection of intrathoracic pathologic condition such as superior vena cava syndrome. Authors retrospectively analysed CT findings of 18 cases of proven SVC syndrome. The results were as follows: 1. The mean age was 50-year-old, and 14 cases were male. 2. Of 18 cases of SVC syndrome, 8 cases had confirmed to be lung cancers, malignant thymoma and teratoma were respectively each 2 cases, and malignant lymphoma, mediastinal abscess, thyroid adenoma and metastatic tumor were 1 case. 3. CT findings were A. Abnormal SVC consisted of compression with displacement (44.4%), intraluminal thrombus (27.8%), and encasement (27.8%). B. The collateral pathways were the azygos-homozygous (88.8%), vertebral (50%), internal mammary (44.4%), and lateral thoracic route (33.3%)

  9. CT findings of superior vena cava syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jun; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    Since early 1980's high resolution CT has been used for detection of intrathoracic pathologic condition such as superior vena cava syndrome. Authors retrospectively analysed CT findings of 18 cases of proven SVC syndrome. The results were as follows: 1. The mean age was 50-year-old, and 14 cases were male. 2. Of 18 cases of SVC syndrome, 8 cases had confirmed to be lung cancers, malignant thymoma and teratoma were respectively each 2 cases, and malignant lymphoma, mediastinal abscess, thyroid adenoma and metastatic tumor were 1 case. 3. CT findings were A. Abnormal SVC consisted of compression with displacement (44.4%), intraluminal thrombus (27.8%), and encasement (27.8%). B. The collateral pathways were the azygos-homozygous (88.8%), vertebral (50%), internal mammary (44.4%), and lateral thoracic route (33.3%).

  10. Have the Guests Perceived Superior Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levyda Levyda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe guests’ perceived value by using a multidimensional approach. From previous research, guests’ perceived value consisted of some functional value, emotional value, and social value. Based on guest experience, and functional value consisted of physical evidence, guest room, food and beverage, hotel staff, and price. This research was conducted in four-star hotels in Jakarta. The respondents were the guests who had stayed in four-star hotels. The number of the respondent was 405. The data were obtained by using self-administered questionnaires. This research shows that guests have not perceived superior value. Some of the values and the necessary efforts need to be improved.

  11. Superiority: China Mobile in the competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The market share between China Mobile and China Unicom has stabilized since 2002.It is found that China Mobile has the superiority in the competition, for example, the scissors movement between its revenue and cost indicates that it has a strong profit generating ability and there is enough room for it to reduce the price.The ratio between its price (marginal income) and marginal cost indicates that there is a very distant limit for it to reduce the price.Its demand is obviously flexible with the price, but it does not use the price weapon abundantly.The reason for the stabilization of the market is that China Mobile withdrew from the competition.

  12. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome or Wilkie Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano Llano, Rodrigo; Chams Anturi, Abraham; Arango Vargas, Paula

    2009-01-01

    We described three cases of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome, also known as Wilkie's syndrome, chronic duodenal ileus, or cast syndrome. This syndrome occurs when the third portion of the duodenum is compressed between the SMA and the aorta. The major risk factors for development of SMA syndrome are rapid weight loss and surgical correction of spinal deformities. The clinical presentation of SMA syndrome is variable and nonspecific, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and weight loss. The diagnosis is based on endoscopic, radiographic and tomographic findings of duodenal compression by the SMA. The treatment of SMA syndrome is aimed at the precipitating factor, which usually is related to weight loss. Therefore, conservative therapy with nutritional supplementation is the initial approach, and surgery is reserved for those who do not respond to nutritional therapy.

  13. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold for perc...... simultaneously we find a different pattern: In a whole report experiment with six stimuli (letters or words), letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity....... for perception of words, or a higher speed of processing for words than letters. We have investigated the WSE using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention. In an experiment using single stimuli (words or letters) presented centrally, we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual...

  14. Superior vena thrombosis with peripartum dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, R.; Hussain, S.; Kayani, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A 30 years multiparous female with history of emergency caesarean section 10 days back was referred to us with cough, severe breathlessness at rest, orthopnea with pain in neck and arms. Clinical examination revealed signs of heart failure. Echocardiography showed ejection fraction of 15%, with no right ventricular strain. A diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy was made. Doppler ultrasound of neck veins showed bilateral internal jugular vein thrombosis. Subsequent multislice CT examination showed thrombosis of superior vena cava and both internal jugular veins (with collateral formation) and pulmonary embolism. There were no mediastinal abnormalities on the CT scan. Her thrombophilia screen and CT scan brain was normal. She was managed in collaboration with cardiologist. Following treatment with subcutaneous enoxaparin therapy and warfarin her symptoms of upper limb pain improved. She responded very well to medical therapy for heart failure with marked improvement of NYHA functional class. (author)

  15. Superior vena cava syndrome in hemodialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeb Molhem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstruction of blood flow in the superior vena cava (SVC results in symptoms and signs of SVC syndrome. SVC obstruction can be caused either by invasion or external compression of the SVC by contagious pathologic processes involving the right lung, lymph nodes, and other mediastinal structures, or by thrombosis of blood within the SVC. Occasionally, both mechanisms co-exist. We hereby report a case of a 28-year-old male, Saudi patient who was diagnosed with end-stage renal disease and was maintained on regular hemodiaysis via right jugular vein dual lumen catheter for ten months. Three years later, the patient presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of SVC obstruction that was successfully managed with SVC stenting.

  16. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  17. Drought tolerance indices and their correlation with yield in exotic wheat genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Subhani, G.M.; Ahmad, J.; Hussain, M.; Munir, M.

    2011-01-01

    Performance of nineteen exotic genotypes along with local check variety was studied during 2009-10 at Wheat Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The experiment was conducted under two field conditions i.e., stress and irrigated conditions. In case of water stress experiment, only soaking irrigation was applied for seed bed preparation and no further irrigation was applied up to maturity. While, four irrigations were applied at critical growth stages to the second experiment (irrigated). At maturity, grain yield was recorded in both experiments (stress Y/sub s/ and irrigated Y/sub p/). From grain yield data, some drought tolerance/resistance indices such as tolerance index (TOL), mean productivity (MP), harmonic mean (HM), stress susceptibility index (SSI), geometric mean productivity (GMP), stress tolerance index (STI), yield index (YI), yield stability index (YSI) and modified stress tolerance index (k/sub 1/STI and k/sub 2/STI) were calculated. Genotypic correlation, genetic components and heritability were also calculated for grain yield and all indices. Significant differences among genotypes were observed for Y/sub p/, Y/sub s/ and all other drought tolerance indices. Moderate to high heritability and genetic advance were observed for Y/sub p/, Y/sub s/ and all drought tolerance indices. Grain yield under irrigated environment (Y/sub p/) was positively and significantly correlated with MP, HM, GMP, STI and k/sub 1/STI. Similarly, positive and significant association has also been observed between grain yield under stress condition (Y/sub s/) and MP, HM, GMP, STI, YI and k/sub 2/STI so they were the better predictor of potential yield Y/sub p/ and Y/sub s/ than TOL, SSI and YSI. According to Fernandez model; genotypes No. 2, 4, 6, 7, 9 and 13 have uniform superiority under both conditions (stress and irrigated). Genotypes No. 1, 11, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 were recommended for irrigated conditions. Genotypes No. 3 and 5 were identified suitable for

  18. Weed-crop competition effects on growth and yield of sugarcane planted using two methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, M.; Tanveer, A.; Cheema, Z.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2010-01-01

    Effect of planting techniques and weed-crop competition periods on yield potential of spring planted sugarcane variety HSF-240 was studied at the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with a split-plot arrangement, with four replications and net plot size of 3.6m x 10m. In the experiment, two planting techniques viz., 60 cm apart rows in flat sowing technique and 120 cm apart rows in trench sowing technique were randomized in main plots. Seven weed-crop competition periods viz., Zero (weed free), weed-crop competition for 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 days after sowing (DAS) and weedy check (full season weed-crop competition) were randomized in sub-plots. Sugarcane sown by trench method exhibited more leaf area index (LAI), average crop growth rate (ACGR) and yield contributing attributes. Trench sowing by yielding 72.22 and 75.08 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields, significantly showed superiority over the flat sowing, which gave 64.13 and 66.04 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields in 2005-06 and 2006- 07, respectively. Generally, there was an increase in weed population and biomass but decrease in leaf area index, crop growth rate and yield components with an increase in weed-crop competition period. A decrease of 10.06, 17.90, 22.42, 28.65, 37.64 and 56.89% in stripped cane yield was observed for weed-crop competition periods of 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 DAS and weedy check as compared with zero competition in 2005-06, respectively. In 2006-07, the respective decrease in stripped cane yield was 9.84, 18.76, 22.92, 27.98, 38.75, and 54.98%. Trench sowing at 1.2 m row spacing proved better sowing technique and 45 DAS was the critical period of weed-crop competition. (author)

  19. Superiority of Bessel function over Zernicke polynomial as base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Here we describe the superiority of Bessel function as base function for radial expan- sion over Zernicke polynomial in the tomographic reconstruction technique. The causes for the superiority have been described in detail. The superiority has been shown both with simulated data for Kadomtsev's model for ...

  20. The processing and characterization of animal-derived bone to yield materials with biomedical applications. Part II: milled bone powders, reprecipitated hydroxyapatite and the potential uses of these materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G S; Mucalo, M R; Lorier, M A; Gieland, U; Mucha, H

    2000-11-01

    Further studies on the processing and use of animal-bone-derived calcium phosphate materials in biomedical applications are presented. Bone powders sourced either from the direct crushing and milling of bovine, ovine and cervine bone or after being subjected to defatting and acid digestion/NaOH reprecipitation and sodium hypochlorite hydrogen peroxide treatment of animal bones were characterized using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, 13C solid state magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, atomic absorption (AA) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometric techniques. Bone powders were trialled for their potential use as a substrate for phosphine coupling and enzyme immobilization as well as a feedstock powder for plasma spraying on titanium metal substrates. Results indicated that enzyme immobilization by phosphine coupling could be successfully achieved on milled cervine bone with the immobilized enzyme retaining some activity. It was found that the presence of impurities normally carried down with the processing of the bone materials (viz., fat and collagen) played an important role in influencing the adsorbency and reactivity of the powders. Plasma spraying studies using reprecipitated bovine-derived powders produced highly adherent coatings on titanium metal, the composition of which was mostly hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) with low levels of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-Ca3(PO4)2) and tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4P2O9) also detected. In general, animal derived calcium phosphate materials constitute a potentially cheaper source of calcium phosphate materials for biomedical applications and make use of a largely under-utilized resource from abattoir wastes. Copyright 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  1. Superior glenoid inclination and rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Peter N; Beck, Lindsay; Granger, Erin; Henninger, Heath; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2018-03-23

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether glenoid inclination (1) could be measured accurately on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using computed tomography (CT) as a gold standard, (2) could be measured reliably on MRI, and (3) whether it differed between patients with rotator cuff tears and age-matched controls without evidence of rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral osteoarthritis. In this comparative retrospective radiographic study, we measured glenoid inclination on T1 coronal MRI corrected into the plane of the scapula. We determined accuracy by comparison with CT and inter-rater reliability. We compared glenoid inclination between patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears and patients aged >50 years without evidence of a rotator cuff tear or glenohumeral arthritis. An a priori power analysis determined adequate power to detect a 2° difference in glenoid inclination. (1) In a validation cohort of 37 patients with MRI and CT, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.877, with a mean difference of 0° (95% confidence interval, -1° to 1°). (2) For MRI inclination, the inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.911. (3) Superior glenoid inclination was 2° higher (range, 1°-4°, P rotator cuff tear group of 192 patients than in the control cohort of 107 patients. Glenoid inclination can be accurately and reliably measured on MRI. Although superior glenoid inclination is statistically greater in those with rotator cuff tears than in patients of similar age without rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral arthritis, the difference is likely below clinical significance. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Kompetisi Stasiun Televisi Swasta Nasional Berdasarkan Superiority Direction dan Superiority Magnitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Winanti Riesardhy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Uses and gratification theory is employed particularly as the teoritical frame of the research to examine the extent to which ten national television stations compete to satisfy Indonesian audiences. In particular, two main concepts of that theory namely audiences “gratification sought and gratifications obtained, are broken down and counted based on superiority direction and superiority magnitude. In general, the findings show that those televisions have satisfied their audiences, although in terms of gratifications to dispersal motives, they haven’t satisfied as much as it was expected. Significant competition occurs between TRANSTV and TRANS7, RCTI and SCTV, and TVONE and METROTV. TVONE become the most satisfiyng television station. Abstrak: Teori Uses & Gratification menjadi dasar penelitian ini untuk mengukur bagaimana kompetisi yang terjadi di antara sepuluh stasiun televisi yang bersiaran secara nasional di Indonesia. Aplikasi dari teori tersebut dimunculkan dalam konsep kepuasan yang diharapkan dan kepuasan yang diperoleh ketika menonton acara televisi dan didasarkan pada penghitungan superiority direction dan superiority magnitude. Sepuluh stasiun televisi yang diteliti telah dapat memuaskan audiensnya, meskipun untuk kepuasan atas motif pengalihan masih belum dapat melampaui kepuasan yang diharapkan. Kompetisi yang signifikan terjadi antara TRANSTV dengan TRANS7, RCTI dengan SCTV serta TVONE dengan METROTV. TVONE menjadi stasiun televisi yang menduduki peringkat pertama dalam memberikan kepuasan tertinggi kepada audiens.

  3. Closing yield gaps: perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalan, Ben; Green, Rhys; Balmford, Andrew

    2014-04-05

    Increasing agricultural productivity to 'close yield gaps' creates both perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation. Yield increases often have negative impacts on species within farmland, but at the same time could potentially make it more feasible to minimize further cropland expansion into natural habitats. We combine global data on yield gaps, projected future production of maize, rice and wheat, the distributions of birds and their estimated sensitivity to changes in crop yields to map where it might be most beneficial for bird conservation to close yield gaps as part of a land-sparing strategy, and where doing so might be most damaging. Closing yield gaps to attainable levels to meet projected demand in 2050 could potentially help spare an area equivalent to that of the Indian subcontinent. Increasing yields this much on existing farmland would inevitably reduce its biodiversity, and therefore we advocate efforts both to constrain further increases in global food demand, and to identify the least harmful ways of increasing yields. The land-sparing potential of closing yield gaps will not be realized without specific mechanisms to link yield increases to habitat protection (and restoration), and therefore we suggest that conservationists, farmers, crop scientists and policy-makers collaborate to explore promising mechanisms.

  4. Pictorial Superiority Effects in Oldest-Old People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Katie E.; Hawley, Karri S.; Jackson, Erin M.; Volaufova, Julia; Su, L. Joseph; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we examined memory for pictures and words in middle-age (45-59 years), young-old (60-74 years), old-old (75-89 years) and the oldest-old adults (90-97 years) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Stimulus items were presented and retention was tested in a blocked order where half of the participants studied 16 simple line drawings and the other half studied matching words during acquisition. Free recall and recognition followed. In the next acquisition/test block, a new set of items was used where the stimulus format was changed relative to the first block. Results yielded pictorial superiority effects in both retention measures for all age groups. Follow-up analyses of clustering in free recall revealed a greater number of categories were accessed (which reflects participants' retrieval plan) and more items were recalled per category (which reflects participants' encoding strategy) when pictures served as stimuli compared to words. Cognitive status and working memory span were correlated with picture and word recall. Regression analyses confirmed that these individual difference variables accounted for significant age-related variance in recall. These data strongly suggest that the oldest-old can utilize nonverbal memory codes to support long-term retention as effectively as do younger adults. PMID:18651263

  5. Superior shoulder suspensory complex fracture dislocation case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidgett, T.; Bate, E.; Pittock, L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acromioclavicular joint dislocation can be more complex than it first appears. The presented case had an unusual combination of injuries to the superior shoulder suspensory complex, which yielded some interesting learning points. Case summary: The injuries were sustained after a fall from a push bike and included acromioclavicular dislocation with coracoid process, clavicle and acromion process fractures. These were identified on the initial X-ray examination, which was followed by computed tomography for surgical planning. The injuries were successfully treated by internal fixation. Conclusion: The unexpected complexity of the injuries could have led to subtle but important findings being overlooked. This case highlights the importance of a thorough search strategy, consideration of injury biomechanics and knowledge of associated injuries. - Highlights: • Search for associated fractures in acromioclavicular joint dislocation. • Assess the clavicle, acromion process and coracoid process in particular. • Do not end the shoulder X-ray examination after seeing one injury. • Both axial and cranially angulated anteroposterior projections are beneficial. • Acromioclavicular joint fracture dislocation treatment may require further research.

  6. Characteristics of superior soybean breeding lines tolerance to rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Inayati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi is one of the most important diseases which limits soybean production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of 28 superior soybean lines and their tolerance to rust. The study was conducted at a screen house and arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD; three replications. All genotypes tested were artificially inoculated with P. pachyrhizi, and a set of un-inoculated genotypes was planted as a comparison. Number of pustules was recorded weekly, and resistant criteria was rated based on the International working group on soybean rust IWGSR method. Lesion color (LC, sporulation level (SL, number of uredia (NoU, frequency of pustule which had uredia, and yield were also recorded. Among 28 genotypes tested, only one was categorized as resistant and 2 genotypes were susceptible. Resistant genotypes had few pustules, lower AUDPC values, low disease severity, and Reddish Brown lesion type. Soybean rust affected yield components, i.e. number of intact pods and yield per plant. Yield loses due to rust in this study varied from 5-89%, and the average was 51%. The set of lines from Tanggamus pedigree showed more resistant to rust but less tolerant compared to Sinabung pedigree.How to CiteInayati, A., & Yusnawan, E. (2016. Characteristics of superior soybean breeding lines tolerancet to rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd.. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1, 47-55.

  7. Superior optical nonlinearity of an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Tingchao [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Division of Physics and Applied Physics, Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Yanli [Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Gao, Yang; Grimsdale, Andrew C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lin, Xiaodong, E-mail: linxd@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Sun, Handong, E-mail: linxd@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-03-16

    Strong multiphoton absorption and harmonic generation in organic fluorescent chromophores are, respectively, significant in many fields of research. However, most of fluorescent chromophores fall short of the full potential due to the absence of the combination of such different nonlinear upconversion behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye could exhibit efficient two- and three-photon absorption under the excitation of femtosecond pulses in solution phase. Benefiting from its biocompatibility and strong excited state absorption behavior, in vitro two-photon bioimaging and superior optical limiting have been exploited, respectively. Simultaneously, the chromophore could generate efficient three-photon excited fluorescence and third-harmonic generation (THG) when dispersed into PMMA film, circumventing the limitations of classical fluorescent chromophores. Such chromophore may find application in the production of coherent light sources of higher photon energy. Moreover, the combination of three-photon excited fluorescence and THG can be used in tandem to provide complementary information in biomedical studies.

  8. New and superior adrenal scanning agent, NP-59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.D.; Beierwaltes, W.H.; Ice, R.D.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Hertzel, K.R.; Kennedy, W.P.; Mason, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    The first synthesis of 131 I-19-iodocholesterol had a 10 to 25 percent radiochemical impurity that was not iodide ion. This impurity has been identified as 6β- 131 I-iodomethyl-19-nor cholest-5(10)-en-3β-ol (NP-59) and has been synthesized. Tissue distribution studies with 131 I-NP-59 in rats and dogs revealed a higher adrenal uptake and adrenal-to-tissue ratios compared to 131 I 19-iodocholesterol, probably less in vivo deiodination, and superior adrenal images. A high uptake was seen in the adrenal medulla in addition to that in the cortex. Iodine-131-NP-59 is being evaluated for the early detection of adrenal--cortical disorders and as a potential scanning agent for detecting structural abnormalities of the adrenal medulla

  9. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Gan et al., 2003). Nitrogen increases yield by influencing a variety of agronomic and quality parameters. In general, there was an increase in plant height and dry matter accumulation per plant in soybean (Manral and Saxena, ...

  10. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... density and nitrogen rate increased plant height, lowest pod height, harvest index and seed yield. ... since some combine harvester heads are unable to pick ..... as effected by population density and plant distribution.

  11. Effects of application boron on yields, yield component and oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of five boron (B) doses; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg B ha-1 in B-deficient calcareous soils on yield and some yield components of four sunflower genotypes. Genotypes have shown variations with respect to their responses to B applications. AS-615 and Coban had the ...

  12. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  13. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK). Interventional case series. In this clinical practice case series, the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on SLK were observed. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was performed using a Brymill E tip spray (0.013-inch aperture) with a double freeze-thaw technique. All subjects were outpatients who had local anesthesia with a single drop of topical proparacaine. The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Four female patients (average age, 64 +/- 13 years) and seven eyes with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Resolution of signs and symptoms occurred within two weeks. Disease recurred in two patients and three of seven eyes, although repeat cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. The repeat cryotherapy was performed at three months postoperatively. There were no adverse ocular events. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy appears to be an effective alternative treatment for SLK as all subjects studied achieved long-term cures. Repeat cryotherapy may be necessary in some instances and may be performed three months after the first treatment.

  14. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  15. Evaluación y selección preliminar por rendimiento de tubérculo y potencial industrial de 36 clones de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. Preliminary evaluation and selection of yield and industrial potential of 36 potato clones (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perilla C. Alexánder

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 36 clones de papa por calidad para la industria, rendimiento, respuesta a gota y precocidad, utilizando como testigos las variedades cultivadas para procesamiento industrial, Diacol Capiro, Diacol Monserrate e lCA Unica. Las variables evaluadas fueron porcentaje de tiras y hojuelas no quemadas, gravedad específica, rendimiento procesable, peso tamaño 2, área bajo la curva de la severidad de gota y días después de la siembra a maduración. El experimento se realizó en la Estación Experimental San Jorge, municipio de Soacha (Cundinamarca, se analizó bajo una metodología estadística propuesta en el Programa de Fitomejoramiento de
    Papa de la Universidad Nacional, que utiliza la suma de rangos en el análisis de diseños incrementados bajo bloques
    completos al azar para seleccionar clones por varias variables y no por una como el análisis tradicional. Se seleccionaron 19 clones, de los cuales 7 son superiores para el conjunto de las variables: los clones 6.5 y 12.59 recomendables para procesamiento en forma de tiras; 2.14,6.8, 11.35, 12.62 y 12.71 para hojuelas. Entre los 7 clones se destacan el 6.8 y 2.14 por presentar menor susceptibilidad a gota y, el clon 6.5 por tener menor tiempo a maduración de tubérculo (15 días menos que Capiro.
    36 clones ofpotato were evaluated for industrial quality, yield, late blight response and early ripen, using the varieties grew for industrial processing, Diacol Capiro, Diacol Monserrate and lCA Unica. Data consisted of the percentage of french fries and chips than did not burn, specific gravity, useful yield, weight of second tubers, area under the curve for the severity of late blight and days to ripen. The experiment was carried out at San Jorge Experiment Station, at Soacha municipality (Cundinamarca - Colombia, it was analyzed under a new statistic methodology proposed in the Breeding Program of
    the Universidad Nacional of Colombia that uses ranks sum on the

  16. Development of high yielding mutants of Brassica campestris L. cv. Toria selection through gamma rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.A.; Siddiqui, M.A.; Khan, M.K.R.; Khatri, A.; Khan, I.A.; Dahar, N.A.; Khanzada, M.H.; Khan, R.

    2003-01-01

    Homogeneous seeds of Brassica campestris L. cv. Toria selection were treated with different doses of gamma rays (750, 1000 and 1250 Gy) to induce genetic variability for the selection of new genotypes with improved agronomic traits. After passing through different stages of selection, two promising mutants were selected for further studies. Two selected mutants along with 5 other entries including parent variety were evaluated for yield and yield components in yield trials for two consecutive years. The mutant TS96-752 was significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) superior to all other entries in grain yield but at par with FSD 86028-3

  17. Combination of Plant Metabolic Modules Yields Synthetic Synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Fatemeh; Heene, Ernst; Maisch, Jan; Nick, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The great potential of pharmacologically active secondary plant metabolites is often limited by low yield and availability of the producing plant. Chemical synthesis of these complex compounds is often too expensive. Plant cell fermentation offers an alternative strategy to overcome these limitations. However, production in batch cell cultures remains often inefficient. One reason might be the fact that different cell types have to interact for metabolite maturation, which is poorly mimicked in suspension cell lines. Using alkaloid metabolism of tobacco, we explore an alternative strategy, where the metabolic interactions of different cell types in a plant tissue are technically mimicked based on different plant-cell based metabolic modules. In this study, we simulate the interaction found between the nicotine secreting cells of the root and the nicotine-converting cells of the senescent leaf, generating the target compound nornicotine in the model cell line tobacco BY-2. When the nicotine demethylase NtomCYP82E4 was overexpressed in tobacco BY-2 cells, nornicotine synthesis was triggered, but only to a minor extent. However, we show here that we can improve the production of nornicotine in this cell line by feeding the precursor, nicotine. Engineering of another cell line overexpressing the key enzyme NtabMPO1 allows to stimulate accumulation and secretion of this precursor. We show that the nornicotine production of NtomCYP82E4 cells can be significantly stimulated by feeding conditioned medium from NtabMPO1 overexpressors without any negative effect on the physiology of the cells. Co-cultivation of NtomCYP82E4 with NtabMPO1 stimulated nornicotine accumulation even further, demonstrating that the physical presence of cells was superior to just feeding the conditioned medium collected from the same cells. These results provide a proof of concept that combination of different metabolic modules can improve the productivity for target compounds in plant cell

  18. Picture Superiority Doubly Dissociates the ERP Correlates of Recollection and Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Tim; Doyle, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the processes underlying the picture superiority effect on recognition memory. Studied pictures were associated with higher accuracy than studied words, regardless of whether test stimuli were words (Experiment 1) or pictures (Experiment 2). Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded during test suggested that the…

  19. Climatic and technological ceilings for Chinese rice stagnation based on yield gaps and yield trend pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hesong; Li, Yong; Ye, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Climatic or technological ceilings could cause yield stagnation. Thus, identifying the principal reasons for yield stagnation within the context of the local climate and socio-economic conditions are essential for informing regional agricultural policies. In this study, we identified the climatic and technological ceilings for seven rice-production regions in China based on yield gaps and on a yield trend pattern analysis for the period 1980-2010. The results indicate that 54.9% of the counties sampled experienced yield stagnation since the 1980. The potential yield ceilings in northern and eastern China decreased to a greater extent than in other regions due to the accompanying climate effects of increases in temperature and decreases in radiation. This may be associated with yield stagnation and halt occurring in approximately 49.8-57.0% of the sampled counties in these areas. South-western China exhibited a promising scope for yield improvement, showing the greatest yield gap (30.6%), whereas the yields were stagnant in 58.4% of the sampled counties. This finding suggests that efforts to overcome the technological ceiling must be given priority so that the available exploitable yield gap can be achieved. North-eastern China, however, represents a noteworthy exception. In the north-central area of this region, climate change has increased the yield potential ceiling, and this increase has been accompanied by the most rapid increase in actual yield: 1.02 ton ha(-1) per decade. Therefore, north-eastern China shows a great potential for rice production, which is favoured by the current climate conditions and available technology level. Additional environmentally friendly economic incentives might be considered in this region. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M.; Al-Adili, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Simutkin, V.; Solders, A.

    2016-06-01

    The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f) and Th(p,f) have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn) reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  1. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantz M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f and Th(p,f have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  2. Effect of Different Tillage Methods and Cover Crop Types on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sharefee

    2018-05-01

    treatments were applied, seedbed preparation was carried out and wheat Anfarm- 4 (Bam was planted. At the end of the growing season, yield and yield components of wheat were measured. Results and Discussion The results indicated that the maximum grain yield, biological yield, and spike.m-2 of wheat were observed with the no-till and reduced tillage treatments. The wheat spike weight significantly increased in the treatment of no-tillage compared with conventional tillage treatment. It seems that increased crop yield under no-till and reduced till systems might be owing to the enhancement of the soil nutrient status, reduced weed populations, improved physical health of the soil improved soil water status and increased efficiency of nutrient usage in these systems comparing with the conventional tillage systems. The main effect of cover crop type showed that incorporating chickling pea and rocket salad resulted in the greatest grain yield, thousand-kernal weight, spike weight, and biological yield of wheat compared to the control (no cover crop and also chickling pea, rocket salad and barley caused the greatest grain. Spike-1 of wheat compared to the control (no cover crop. Although the use of total cover crops improved yield and yield components in wheat. Chickling pea superiority in many traits was evident in comparison with other cover crops. This superiority could be due to the fact that this plant belongs to the legume family and legumes release higher amounts of nitrogen during decomposition compared to grass species. Grasses produce large amounts of carbon and are slowly decomposed. Although rocket salad does not belong to the legume family, due to having deep roots, it is able to absorb nutrients from the deep soil layers and provide the main plant with these nutrients after its decay. Conclusions The results of this study revealed that employment of conservation tillage systems remarkably affected the yield and yield components of wheat, and the greatest positive

  3. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William

    2015-08-04

    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  4. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2015-06-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond ( Prunus dulcis), pistachio ( Pistacia vera), and walnut ( Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

  5. Synthetic Brassica napus L.: Development and Studies on Morphological Characters, Yield Attributes, and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Malek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus was synthesized by hybridization between its diploid progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea followed by chromosome doubling. Cross with B. rapa as a female parent was only successful. Among three colchicine treatments (0.10, 0.15, and 0.20%, 0.15% gave the highest success (86% of chromosome doubling in the hybrids (AC; 2=19. Synthetic B. napus (AACC, 2=38 was identified with bigger petals, fertile pollens and seed setting. Synthetic B. napus had increased growth over parents and exhibited wider ranges with higher coefficients of variations than parents for morphological and yield contributing characters, and yield per plant. Siliqua length as well as beak length in synthetic B. napus was longer than those of the parents. Number of seeds per siliqua, 1000-seed weight and seed yield per plant in synthetic B. napus were higher than those of the parents. Although flowering time in synthetic B. napus was earlier than both parents, however the days to maturity was little higher over early maturing B. rapa parent. The synthesized B. napus has great potential to produce higher seed yield. Further screening and evaluation is needed for selection of desirable genotypes having improved yield contributing characters and higher seed yield.

  6. Ethiopian Wheat Yield and Yield Gap Estimation: A Spatial Small Area Integrated Data Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, M.; Warner, J.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the collection of routine annual agricultural surveys and significant advances in GIS and remote sensing products, little econometric research has been undertaken in predicting developing nation's agricultural yields. In this paper, we explore the determinants of wheat output per hectare in Ethiopia during the 2011-2013 Meher crop seasons aggregated to the woreda administrative area. Using a panel data approach, combining national agricultural field surveys with relevant GIS and remote sensing products, the model explains nearly 40% of the total variation in wheat output per hectare across the country. The model also identifies specific contributors to wheat yields that include farm management techniques (eg. area planted, improved seed, fertilizer, irrigation), weather (eg. rainfall), water availability (vegetation and moisture deficit indexes) and policy intervention. Our findings suggest that woredas produce between 9.8 and 86.5% of their potential wheat output per hectare given their altitude, weather conditions, terrain, and plant health. At the median, Amhara, Oromiya, SNNP, and Tigray produce 48.6, 51.5, 49.7, and 61.3% of their local attainable yields, respectively. This research has a broad range of applications, especially from a public policy perspective: identifying causes of yield fluctuations, remotely evaluating larger agricultural intervention packages, and analyzing relative yield potential. Overall, the combination of field surveys with spatial data can be used to identify management priorities for improving production at a variety of administrative levels.

  7. Absent right superior caval vein in situs solitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Sundberg, Karin; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In up to 0.07% of the general population, the right anterior cardinal vein obliterates and the left remains open, creating an absent right superior caval vein and a persistent left superior caval vein. Absent right superior caval vein is associated with additional congenital heart...... disease in about half the patients. We wished to study the consequences of absent right superior caval vein as an incidental finding on prenatal ultrasonic malformation screening. Material and methods This is a retrospective case series study of all foetuses diagnosed with absent right superior caval vein...... no postnatal complications. All children were found to have healthy hearts at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In all cases, the findings proved to be a benign condition with no clinical manifestations or complications. Although isolated absent right superior caval vein does not seem to affect the outcome, associated...

  8. Osmotic potential of Zinnia elegans plant material affects the yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To examine whether the growth conditions that determine leaf osmolarity (LO) affect the final %TE, we used three light intensities (50, 70 and 100 μmol.m-2s-1) and three electrical conductivity (EC) levels (EC 2, 4 and 6 dS.m-1 ) in hydroponic systems to induce different osmolarities in leaf materials from two cultivars (cvs) of ...

  9. Yield potential of selected Eucalyptus genetic stock on the sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climatic matching suggests planting of species from West Australia as native habitat introductions, or from seed sources in the Mediterranean region where eucalypt species have been tried successfully, such as Morocco and Israel. Promising growth of eucalypt hybrids on marginal sites in the summer rainfall areas of South ...

  10. Potential water yield reduction due to forestation across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Guoyi Zhou; Zhiqiang Zhang; Xiaohua Wei; Steven G. McNulty; James M. Vose

    2006-01-01

    It is widely recognized that vegetation restoration will have positive effects on watershed health by reducing soil erosion and non-point source pollution, enhancing terrestrial and aquatic habitat, and increasing ecosystem carbon sequestration. However, the hydrologic consequences of forestation on degraded lands are not well studied in the forest hydrology community...

  11. Analysis of growth, yield potential and horticultural performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PTC Lab

    2013-04-03

    Apr 3, 2013 ... Lakadong. Key words: Turmeric, micropropagation, field performance, tissue culture. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... the changes in leaf morphology and colour. ... intervening callus phase (Dirk et al. ,1996; Smith, 1988;.

  12. Osmotic potential of Zinnia elegans plant material affects the yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... The Zinnia elegans cell suspension culture is excellent for ... development and therefore dimensions of TEs in an in vitro .... Electrical conductivity and light intensity effects on ..... cell wall formation in the woody dicot stem.

  13. The CT appearance of the superior intercostal veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, G.

    1982-01-01

    The CT appearance of the superior intercostal veins is described. The veins are more frequently seen on the right side. The right superior intercostal vein should not be misinterpreted as a paraspinal mass when it is large or bulges into the contour of the right lung. A case of stenosis of the left brachiocephalic vein is shown, where the left superior intercostal vein serves as a collateral. (orig.)

  14. Weed biomass and economic yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    154 ... to realize the maximum yield potential of the crop at lower input costs ... only acceptable way for effective weed management in future (Marwat et al., ..... Jarwar AD, Tunio SD, Majeedano HI, Kaisrani MA. (1999). Efficacy.

  15. Small millet farmers increase yields through participatory varietal

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    When farmers adopt a variety along with ones they already ... Increased access to quality seed of promising ... Figure 1: Potential increases in yield of small millet preferred varieties. 0. 200 ... terms of both product (farmers preferred varieties ...

  16. Studies on some morphological characters and yield attributes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flora IDB

    2012-07-17

    Jul 17, 2012 ... 3Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, ... Allopolyploidy plays an important role in plant evolution and confers better ... seed yield potential than its parents, tetraploid wheat ...

  17. Yield stability analysis of pearl millet hybrids in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    .] was ... Genotype x environment interaction was observed, a large component of which was accounted ... The importance of evaluating many potential genotypes .... Pooled analysis of variance for stability of grain yield (t/ha).

  18. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: An Infrequent Complication of Scoliosis Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Keskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare condition that causes a proximal small intestinal obstruction due to contraction of the angle between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta. Scoliosis surgery is one of the 15 reasons for superior mesenteric artery syndrome, which can present with acute or chronic manifestations. Although conservative treatment is usually possible, surgical treatment is required in certain cases that cannot be treated using conservative methods. In this paper, we describe a patient who developed superior mesenteric artery syndrome after scoliosis surgery and was treated with duodenojejunostomy due to failure and complications of conservative treatment.

  19. Information Superiority: Outsourcing an Air Force Core Competency?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McTerman, Hugh

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis explores the perceived relationship between the core competency requirements for information superiority and the tasks defined for the Air Force communication, computer, and information career field...

  20. THE VEGETATION FROM THE SUPERIOR BASIN OF MOLDOVA, SUPPORT FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Petre SPÂNU; Constantin COCERHAN; Carmen NASTASE

    2017-01-01

    Through this study based on specialized documentaries and field research, we are looking for the promotion of the bio geographical potential of the Superior Basin of Moldova in which the forest vegetation prevails. The biodiversity and the exceptional aesthetic ambiance create the favourable premises for the development of ecotourism and the diversification of touristic activities in this area. The valuation of the bio geographical potential has in sight the vulnerability of the vegetation at...

  1. Superiority illusion arises from resting-state brain networks modulated by dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko; Uddin, Lucina Q; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Takahata, Keisuke; Kousa, Ririko; Ikoma, Yoko; Eguchi, Yoko; Takano, Harumasa; Ito, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2013-03-12

    The majority of individuals evaluate themselves as superior to average. This is a cognitive bias known as the "superiority illusion." This illusion helps us to have hope for the future and is deep-rooted in the process of human evolution. In this study, we examined the default states of neural and molecular systems that generate this illusion, using resting-state functional MRI and PET. Resting-state functional connectivity between the frontal cortex and striatum regulated by inhibitory dopaminergic neurotransmission determines individual levels of the superiority illusion. Our findings help elucidate how this key aspect of the human mind is biologically determined, and identify potential molecular and neural targets for treatment for depressive realism.

  2. Diagnosis of superior labral lesions: comparison of noncontrast MRI with indirect MR arthrography in unexercised shoulders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinauer, Philip A.; Flemming, Donald J.; Murphy, Kevin P.; Doukas, William C.

    2007-01-01

    To prospectively compare the accuracy of noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with indirect MR arthrography (I-MRa) of unexercised shoulders for diagnosis of superior glenoid labral lesions. Institutional Review Board approval and patient informed consent were obtained for this prospective study. Superior labral findings on shoulder MRI and unexercised I-MRa studies of 104 patients were correlated with findings at arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed the two sets of MR images while blinded to arthroscopic results. For each radiologist, the McNemar test was used to detect statistically significant differences between techniques. The superior labrum was intact in 24 and abnormal in 80 subjects. For detection of superior labral lesions by each radiologist, I-MRa was more sensitive (84-91%) than MRI (66-85%), with statistically significant improvement in sensitivity for one reader (p = 0.003). However, I-MRa was less specific (58-71%) than MRI (75-83%). Overall, accuracy was slightly improved on I-MRa (78-86%) compared with MRI (70-83%), but this difference was not statistically significant for either reader. Compared with noncontrast MRI, I-MRa was more sensitive for diagnosis of superior glenoid labral lesions. However, the diagnostic value of I-MRa in shoulders remaining at rest is potentially limited by decreased specificity of the technique. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Attributes of Five Sweet Potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0087, and TIS 2532.OP.1.13) were evaluated for yield and agronomic performance in Imo State University Farm, Owerri. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with three replications. The planting density was 33,000 ...

  4. Heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and yield component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ranged from 0 to -13% indicating that the hybrids tend to be earlier in maturity than the parents. The mean squares due to GCA for days to maturity, ear diameter, member of kernels per row, 1000 kernel weight and grain yield were significant, indicating the importance of additive genetic variance in controlling these traits.

  5. Rice yield prediction from yield components and limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, D.; Goudriaan, J.; Catala Former, M.M.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to quantify growth at field level in relation to crop status and soil properties in irrigated direct-seeded rice. Forty fields were selected in the Ebro Delta (Spain). Rice growth was monitored and soil properties measured. Yield was related to soil properties by a deductive

  6. Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three critical growth stages which was imposed by withholding water (at ... November, 5th December, 19th December and 2nd January) laid out in a split ... Simple correlation coefficient ® of different crop parameters and grain yield ... The husk bran and germ are rich sources of ..... heat in 2009/2010 dry season at Fadam a ...

  7. Investigation of Tolerance, Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Cultivars to Salinity of Irrigation Water at Sensitive Stages of Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Saadatian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research in order to study of tolerance ability of wheat cultivates yield and yield components to salinity of irrigation water at sensitive stages of growth, was carried out as a factorial based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at greenhouse of Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2009. Treatments were included wheat cultivars of Alvand, Tous, Sayson and Navid and salinity of irrigation water induced by sodium chloride at five levels of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 dS m-1. The results showed that percentage and rate of emergence, plant height, 1000-grain weight, number of seed per spike, number of spike per pot, biological and grain yield reduced by increasing salinity level. At all stress levels Navid cv. had highest emergence percentage. In non-stress and 4 dS m-1, Alvand cv. and at higher levels of stress, Tous cv. had high height in reproductive phase. At control and 4 dS m-1, Sayson cv. and at 8, 12 and 16 dS m-1, Tous cv. in majority of yield and yield components traits had significant superior than other cultivars. Tolerance index of Sayson cv. at 4 and 8 dS m-1 was more than other cultivars but at 12 and 16 dS m-1, maximum value of this index was belonged to Tous cv. At all salinity levels, Alvand cv. had least tolerance index to stress. Number of spike per pot had maximum direct effect on grain yield of wheat cultivars in stress condition. Also indirect effect of biological yield via number of spike per pot than other its indirect effects, had maximum share in wheat seed yield.

  8. Status of fission yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, T.R.; Blachot, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the current status of the recent US evaluation for 34 fissioning nuclides at one or more neutron incident energies and for spontaneous fission. Currently there are 50 yields sets, and for each we have independent and cumulative yields and uncertainties for approximately 1100 fission products. When finalized the recommended data will become part of Version VI of the US ENDF/B. Other major evaluations in progress that are included in a recently formed IAEA Coordinated Research Program are also summarized. In a second part we review two empirical models in use to estimate independent yields. Comparison of model estimates with measured data is presented, including a comparison with some recent data obtained from Lohengrin (Cf-249 T). 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Comparative effectiveness of different Rhizobium sp. for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Mehboob, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Khalid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last couple of decades, it has been demonstrated that rhizobia can associate with roots of non-legumes also without forming true nodules, and can promote their growth by using one or more of the direct or indirect mechanisms of actions. This work examines the growth and yield responses of maize to inoculation with different species of rhizobia, isolated from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris M. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. in pots and fields. Twenty isolates of rhizobia were isolated from root nodules each of mung bean, lentil and chickpea and were screened under axenic conditions. On the basis of their promising performance under axenic conditions, nine most efficient isolates (three from each legume host were selected, characterized and further evaluated for their growth promoting activities by conducting pot and field experiments. Results of pot experiment revealed that maximum increase in grain yield, 1000 grain weight, N, P and K uptake (up to 47.89, 54.52, 73.46, 84.66 and 59.19% by CRI28, respectively, over un-inoculated control was produced by the isolate of Mesorhizobium ciceri. Whereas, maximum improvement in rest of the parameters was caused by the isolates of Rhizobium phaseoli (i.e. fresh biomass, straw yield and root length up to 36.30% by A18, 25.46% by S6 and 81.89% by A18, respectively over un-inoculated control. Rhizobium leguminosarum isolates came out to be the least effective among the species tested. Similarly, all the selected isolates improved the growth and yield attributing parameters in fields as well but with varying capacity compared with un-inoculated control. The selected isolates of Mesorhizobium ciceri and Rhizobium phaseoli again remained superior compared to the isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum under field conditions. The results of this study imply that rhizobium species had potential to promote growth and yield of maize but this technology should be

  10. Effect of Row Intercropping Patterns on Yield, Yield Components, and Weed Control of Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenumgreacum L. and Anise (Pimpinellaanisum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mardani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to population growth and food shortage agricultural production is on increasing demand. In this order increasing cultivation area and yield per unit area are two ways of obtaining higheragricultural production (20. There is another important way that without incurring additional costs and use of water and fertilizer could result in higher production. This approach is increasing agricultural production per unit area by growing more than one crop in a year. Intercropping will be successful when competition for sources issless than competition within a species. Plants in the mixture can be chosen in a way that a species benefits from environmental changes caused by other species in mixed cultures directly (7, 15. Intercropping inhibits the growth and development of weeds and leads to increased production. Since the system will reduce the pesticide use, environmental pollution will be also less proportionally (37. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the yield, yield components and potential weeds control under intercropping fenugreek and anise, an experiment was carried out based on a randomized complete block design with three replicationsat the Agricultural Research Field of Yasouj University during growing season of 2012-2013. Treatments included pure cultures of fenugreek and anise, single-row, double-row and three-tier intercropping of fenugreek and anise at no weed control and weed control conditions. Results and Discussion The results showed that different intercropping treatments had significant effects on pod number per plant, grain weight and grain and biological yield of fenugreek and also, on number of lateral branches, number of grains per plant and grain and biological yield of anise. There were nosignificant effects on plant height, number of lateral branches, number of grain per pod, harvest index of fenugreek, as well as plant height, number of umbel let per plant, seed weight and harvest index of anise. The

  11. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariya, Patsuda; Yospaiboon, Yosanan; Sinawat, Suthasinee; Sanguansak, Thuss; Bhoomibunchoo, Chavakij; Laovirojjanakul, Wipada

    2016-08-01

    To compare blood culture bottles and conventional media for the vitreous culture in patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Retrospective comparative study at KKU Eye Center, Khon Kaen University. There were 342 patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis participated in the study. The vitreous specimens were inoculated in both blood culture bottles and on conventional culture media (blood agar, MacConkey agar, chocolate agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar and thioglycolate broth). The number of positive culture yields in both blood culture bottles and conventional media. Positive culture yields in both methods were found in 151 eyes (49.5%). There were 136 of 151 eyes (90.1%) with positive culture in blood culture bottles, whereas 99 of 151 eyes (65.6%) yielded positive cultures in conventional media. These findings were different with a statistical significance (P culture bottles and conventional media improved the yield. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture in clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Vitreous culture using blood culture bottles should be recommended as the primary method for microbiological diagnosis. A combination of both methods further improves the positive culture yield. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  12. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: a rare complication of nephrotic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullu M

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A two and half year-old-male child, known case of steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome presented with fever and vomiting of acute onset. He was diagnosed to have superior sagittal sinus thrombosis on a contrast computerised tomographic scan of brain. Recovery was complete without anticoagulant therapy. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is an extremely rare complication of nephrotic syndrome.

  13. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome: case report | Jani | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome (SMAS) is caused by trapping of the third part of the duodenum between Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) and aorta as result of narrowing of the angle between the two vessels due to acute loss of mesenteric fat which is secondary to rapid weight loss. A fifteen year old caucasian ...

  14. Aging and the Picture Superiority Effect in Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Eugene; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect. One experiment found an interaction between age and type of material. In other experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. Performing a semantic-orienting task had no effect on recall. (Author/RC)

  15. Superior dislocation hip with anterior column acetabular fracture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Superior variety of anterior dislocation of the hip is a rare injury. Its occurrence with acetabular fractures has been documented infrequently. We report a case of superior dislocation of the hip with anterior column acetabular fracture. Open reduction of the hip and internal fixation of the fracture was carried out using a twin ...

  16. The Development of the Picture-Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    When pictures and words are presented serially in an explicit memory task, recall of the pictures is superior. While this effect is well established in the adult population, little is known of the development of this picture-superiority effect in typical development. This task was administered to 80 participants from middle childhood to…

  17. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ORGANIZATION STAFF ASSIGNMENTS AND REVIEW OF ACTION UNDER ASSIGNMENTS General Provisions § 385.7 Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... be made, severally, to each such staff member's respective superiors. In accordance with the...

  18. Fatal pericardial tamponade after superior vena cava stenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegmakers, M.J.M.; Rutten, M.J.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a fatal complication of percutaneous superior vena cava (SVC) self-expandable stent placement in a patient with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). The SVCS was caused by a malignant mediastinal mass with total occlusion of the SVC. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, the patient died

  19. Superior vena cava obstruction caused by radiation induced venous fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putten, JWG; Schlosser, NJJ; Vujaskovic, Z; Van der Leest, AHD; Groen, HJM

    Superior vena cava syndrome is most often caused by lung carcinoma. Two cases are described in whom venous obstruction in the superior mediastinum was caused by local vascular fibrosis due to radiotherapy five and seven years earlier. The development of radiation injury to greater vessels is

  20. Yield performance and stability of CMS-based triticale hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühleisen, Jonathan; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Maurer, Hans Peter; Reif, Jochen Christoph

    2015-02-01

    CMS-based triticale hybrids showed only marginal midparent heterosis for grain yield and lower dynamic yield stability compared to inbred lines. Hybrids of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) are expected to possess outstanding yield performance and increased dynamic yield stability. The objectives of the present study were to (1) examine the optimum choice of the biometrical model to compare yield stability of hybrids versus lines, (2) investigate whether hybrids exhibit a more pronounced grain yield performance and yield stability, and (3) study optimal strategies to predict yield stability of hybrids. Thirteen female and seven male parental lines and their 91 factorial hybrids as well as 30 commercial lines were evaluated for grain yield in up to 20 environments. Hybrids were produced using a cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)-inducing cytoplasm that originated from Triticumtimopheevii Zhuk. We found that the choice of the biometrical model can cause contrasting results and concluded that a group-by-environment interaction term should be added to the model when estimating stability variance of hybrids and lines. midparent heterosis for grain yield was on average 3 % with a range from -15.0 to 11.5 %. No hybrid outperformed the best inbred line. Hybrids had, on average, lower dynamic yield stability compared to the inbred lines. Grain yield performance of hybrids could be predicted based on midparent values and general combining ability (GCA)-predicted values. In contrast, stability variance of hybrids could be predicted only based on GCA-predicted values. We speculated that negative effects of the used CMS cytoplasm might be the reason for the low performance and yield stability of the hybrids. For this purpose a detailed study on the reasons for the drawback of the currently existing CMS system in triticale is urgently required comprising also the search of potentially alternative hybridization systems.

  1. NIF total neutron yield diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Gary W.; Ruiz, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen is one in which we calibrate the entire counting system and which we call the ''F factor'' method. In this method, In and/or Cu samples are exposed to known sources of DD and DT neutrons. The activated samples are then counted with an appropriate system: a high purity Ge detector for In and a NaI coincidence system for Cu. We can then calculate a calibration factor, which relates measured activity to total neutron yield. The advantage of this approach is that specific knowledge of such quantities as cross sections and detector efficiencies is not needed. Unless the actual scattering environment of the NIF can be mocked up in the calibration experiment, the F factor will have to be modified using the results of a numerical simulation of the NIF scattering environment. In this article, the calibration factor methodology will be discussed and experimental results for the calibration factors will be presented. Total NIF neutron yields of 10 9 --10 19 can be measured with this method assuming a 50 cm stand-off distance can be employed for the lower yields

  2. Study on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Genotypes under Different Moisture Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mogtader

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study grain yield and yield components of 16 advanced wheat lines under rainfed and supplementary irrigation conditions, this research was conducted in randomized block design with 3 replications at Maragheh Research Station during 2008-09 seasons. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for date to heading, plant height, 1000 kernel weight, tiller number, spike length, seed number per spike, spikelet number per spike, peduncle length, harvest index, leaf, sheath length and grain yield. Results also showed that the lines No. 4 (91-142 a 61/3/F35.70/MO73//1D13.1/MLT and 16 (Azar2 with 1895 and 1878 Kg/ha, lines No. 4 and 7 (YUMAI13/5/NAI60/3/14.53/ODIN//CI13441 with 2132 and 2285 Kg/ha had highest grain yield under rainfed and supplementary irrigated conditions respectively. Based on results these 16 lines and cultivars were grouped in 4 and 3 distinct classes using Ward’s Method of cluster analysis under rainfed and irrigated conditions. Path analysis indicated that vigor at shooting stage, seed number per spike and HI were positive important traits to select lines for high yielding potential in this study. HI and TKW had also positive effects on grain under supplementary irrigation.

  3. Comparing predicted yield and yield stability of willow and Miscanthus across Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren; Jaiswal, Deepak; Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    2016-01-01

    was 12.1 Mg DM ha−1 yr−1 for willow and 10.2 Mg DM ha−1 yr−1 for Miscanthus. Coefficent of variation as a measure for yield stability was poorest on the sandy soils of northern and western Jutland and the year-to-year variation in yield was greatest on these soils. Willow was predicted to outyield...... Miscanthus on poor, sandy soils whereas Miscanthus was higher yielding on clay-rich soils. The major driver of yield in both crops was variation in soil moisture, with radiation and precipitation exerting less influence. This is the first time these two major feedstocks for northern Europe have been compared....... The semi-mechanistic crop model BioCro was used to simulate the production of both short rotation coppice (SRC) willow and Miscanthus across Denmark. Predictions were made from high spatial resolution soil data and weather records across this area for 1990-2010. The potential average, rain-fed mean yield...

  4. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... used different genotypes and the environmental conditions under which their ... and Jinks (1971):. Y = m + aa + βd + a2aa + 2aβad +β2dd … .... /plant, 100-grain weight per plant and Grain yield per plant (g) of six generations in IET6279 X IR70445-146-3-. 3 cross. Traits. Generation. Mean. Standard. Range.

  5. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  6. Path and correlation analysis of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seed yield components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abel, Simon; Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2017-01-01

    Maximum perennial ryegrass seed production potential is substantially greater than harvested yields with harvested yields representing only 20% of calculated potential. Similar to wheat, maize and other agriculturally important crops, seed yield is highly dependent on a number of interacting seed...... yield components. This research was performed to apply and describe path analysis of perennial ryegrass seed yield components in relation to harvested seed yields. Utilising extensive yield components which included subdividing reproductive inflorescences into five size categories, path analysis...... was undertaken assuming a unidirectional causal-admissible relationship between seed yield components and harvested seed yield in six commercial seed production fields. Both spikelets per inflorescence and florets per spikelet had a significant (p seed yield; however, total...

  7. Rice Research to Break Yield Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Kohli, Ajay; Kumar, Prakash P.

    2015-10-01

    The world’s population continues to expand and it is expected to cross 9 billion by 2050. This would significantly amplify the demand for food, which will pose serious threats to global food security. Additional challenges are being imposed due to a gradual decrease in the total arable land and global environmental changes. Hence, it is of utmost importance to review and revise the existing food production strategies by incorporating novel biotechnological approaches that can help to break the crop yield barriers in the near future. In this review, we highlight some of the concerns hampering crop yield enhancements. The review also focuses on modern breeding techniques based on genomics as well as proven biotechnological approaches that enable identification and utilization of candidate genes. Another aspect of discussion is the important area of research, namely hormonal regulation of plant development, which is likely to yield valuable regulatory genes for such crop improvement efforts in the future. These strategies can serve as potential tools for developing elite crop varieties for feeding the growing billions.

  8. Síndrome de Deiscência de Canal Semicircular Superior Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane da Cunha Ferreira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome de Deiscência de Canal Semicircular Superior (SDCSS, primeiramente descrita em 1998 por Minor et al., caracteriza-se por vertigem associada à presença de nistagmo, relacionados à exposição a estímulos sonoros intensos ou a modificações de pressão dentro da orelha média ou intracraniana. Disacusia, em sua maioria de padrão condutivo à audiometria tonal, também pode estar presente. Nesta revisão da literatura objetivou-se abordar a SDCSS, com seus principais sinais e sintomas, achados diagnósticos e tratamento, assim como enfatizar a importância de sua inclusão dentre as causas de vertigem, visto tratar-se de acometimento ainda pouco conhecido até mesmo entre especialistas. O diagnóstico correto, além de possibilitar seu tratamento, impede que abordagens diagnósticas e terapêuticas inapropriadas sejam realizadas.The Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome (SCDS was first reported by Minor at. Al. (1998, and has been characterized by vertigo and vertical-torsional eye movements related to loud sounds or stimuli that change middle ear or intracranial pressure. Hearing loss, for the most part with conductive patterns on audiometry, may be present in this syndrome. We performed a literature survey in order to to present symptoms, signs, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the SCDS, also aiming at stressing the great importance of including this syndrome among the tractable cause of vertigo. We should emphasize that this is a recent issue, still unknown by some specialists. The Correct SCDS diagnosis, besides enabling patient treatment, precludes misdiagnosis and inadequate therapeutic approaches.

  9. Superior piezoelectric composite films: taking advantage of carbon nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Nasser; Araby, Sherif; Meng, Qingshi; Hsu, Hung-Yao; Yan, Cheng; Azari, Sara; Lee, Sang-Heon; Xu, Yanan; Ma, Jun; Yu, Sirong

    2014-01-31

    Piezoelectric composites comprising an active phase of ferroelectric ceramic and a polymer matrix have recently found numerous sensory applications. However, it remains a major challenge to further improve their electromechanical response for advanced applications such as precision control and monitoring systems. We here investigated the incorporation of graphene platelets (GnPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), each with various weight fractions, into PZT (lead zirconate titanate)/epoxy composites to produce three-phase nanocomposites. The nanocomposite films show markedly improved piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical responses (50%) besides an enhancement of ~200% in stiffness. The carbon nanomaterials strengthened the impact of electric field on the PZT particles by appropriately raising the electrical conductivity of the epoxy. GnPs have been proved to be far more promising in improving the poling behavior and dynamic response than MWNTs. The superior dynamic sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite may be caused by the GnPs' high load transfer efficiency arising from their two-dimensional geometry and good compatibility with the matrix. The reduced acoustic impedance mismatch resulting from the improved thermal conductance may also contribute to the higher sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite. This research pointed out the potential of employing GnPs to develop highly sensitive piezoelectric composites for sensing applications.

  10. Superior piezoelectric composite films: taking advantage of carbon nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Nasser; Araby, Sherif; Meng, Qingshi; Hsu, Hung-Yao; Lee, Sang-Heon; Ma, Jun; Yan, Cheng; Xu, Yanan; Azari, Sara; Yu, Sirong

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites comprising an active phase of ferroelectric ceramic and a polymer matrix have recently found numerous sensory applications. However, it remains a major challenge to further improve their electromechanical response for advanced applications such as precision control and monitoring systems. We here investigated the incorporation of graphene platelets (GnPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), each with various weight fractions, into PZT (lead zirconate titanate)/epoxy composites to produce three-phase nanocomposites. The nanocomposite films show markedly improved piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical responses (50%) besides an enhancement of ∼200% in stiffness. The carbon nanomaterials strengthened the impact of electric field on the PZT particles by appropriately raising the electrical conductivity of the epoxy. GnPs have been proved to be far more promising in improving the poling behavior and dynamic response than MWNTs. The superior dynamic sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite may be caused by the GnPs’ high load transfer efficiency arising from their two-dimensional geometry and good compatibility with the matrix. The reduced acoustic impedance mismatch resulting from the improved thermal conductance may also contribute to the higher sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite. This research pointed out the potential of employing GnPs to develop highly sensitive piezoelectric composites for sensing applications. (paper)

  11. Biochar boosts tropical but not temperate crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Simon; Abalos, Diego; Prodana, Marija; Catarina Bastos, Ana; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Hungate, Bruce A.; Verheijen, Frank

    2017-05-01

    Applying biochar to soil is thought to have multiple benefits, from helping mitigate climate change [1, 2], to managing waste [3] to conserving soil [4]. Biochar is also widely assumed to boost crop yield [5, 6], but there is controversy regarding the extent and cause of any yield benefit [7]. Here we use a global-scale meta-analysis to show that biochar has, on average, no effect on crop yield in temperate latitudes, yet elicits a 25% average increase in yield in the tropics. In the tropics, biochar increased yield through liming and fertilization, consistent with the low soil pH, low fertility, and low fertilizer inputs typical of arable tropical soils. We also found that, in tropical soils, high-nutrient biochar inputs stimulated yield substantially more than low-nutrient biochar, further supporting the role of nutrient fertilization in the observed yield stimulation. In contrast, arable soils in temperate regions are moderate in pH, higher in fertility, and generally receive higher fertilizer inputs, leaving little room for additional benefits from biochar. Our findings demonstrate that the yield-stimulating effects of biochar are not universal, but may especially benefit agriculture in low-nutrient, acidic soils in the tropics. Biochar management in temperate zones should focus on potential non-yield benefits such as lime and fertilizer cost savings, greenhouse gas emissions control, and other ecosystem services.

  12. Breeding high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.E.; Wanjari, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    The present communication emphasis the developing of high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutation with disease resistance in these crops. This would help in stabilisation of the higher yield potential

  13. Narrowing Maize Yield Gaps Under Rain-fed conditions in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The wide gap between potential and actual yields of maize in Tanzania, due low productivity is the major constraint to ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research ... for determining maize grain yield followed by water.

  14. Geoelectrical parameter-based multivariate regression borehole yield model for predicting aquifer yield in managing groundwater resource sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Anthony Mogaji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a GIS-based multivariate regression (MVR yield rate prediction model of groundwater resource sustainability in the hard-rock geology terrain of southwestern Nigeria. This model can economically manage the aquifer yield rate potential predictions that are often overlooked in groundwater resources development. The proposed model relates the borehole yield rate inventory of the area to geoelectrically derived parameters. Three sets of borehole yield rate conditioning geoelectrically derived parameters—aquifer unit resistivity (ρ, aquifer unit thickness (D and coefficient of anisotropy (λ—were determined from the acquired and interpreted geophysical data. The extracted borehole yield rate values and the geoelectrically derived parameter values were regressed to develop the MVR relationship model by applying linear regression and GIS techniques. The sensitivity analysis results of the MVR model evaluated at P ⩽ 0.05 for the predictors ρ, D and λ provided values of 2.68 × 10−05, 2 × 10−02 and 2.09 × 10−06, respectively. The accuracy and predictive power tests conducted on the MVR model using the Theil inequality coefficient measurement approach, coupled with the sensitivity analysis results, confirmed the model yield rate estimation and prediction capability. The MVR borehole yield prediction model estimates were processed in a GIS environment to model an aquifer yield potential prediction map of the area. The information on the prediction map can serve as a scientific basis for predicting aquifer yield potential rates relevant in groundwater resources sustainability management. The developed MVR borehole yield rate prediction mode provides a good alternative to other methods used for this purpose.

  15. Predicting paddlefish roe yields using an extension of the Beverton–Holt equilibrium yield-per-recruit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, M.E.; Bettoli, Phillip William; Scholten, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    Equilibrium yield models predict the total biomass removed from an exploited stock; however, traditional yield models must be modified to simulate roe yields because a linear relationship between age (or length) and mature ovary weight does not typically exist. We extended the traditional Beverton-Holt equilibrium yield model to predict roe yields of Paddlefish Polyodon spathula in Kentucky Lake, Tennessee-Kentucky, as a function of varying conditional fishing mortality rates (10-70%), conditional natural mortality rates (cm; 9% and 18%), and four minimum size limits ranging from 864 to 1,016mm eye-to-fork length. These results were then compared to a biomass-based yield assessment. Analysis of roe yields indicated the potential for growth overfishing at lower exploitation rates and smaller minimum length limits than were suggested by the biomass-based assessment. Patterns of biomass and roe yields in relation to exploitation rates were similar regardless of the simulated value of cm, thus indicating that the results were insensitive to changes in cm. Our results also suggested that higher minimum length limits would increase roe yield and reduce the potential for growth overfishing and recruitment overfishing at the simulated cm values. Biomass-based equilibrium yield assessments are commonly used to assess the effects of harvest on other caviar-based fisheries; however, our analysis demonstrates that such assessments likely underestimate the probability and severity of growth overfishing when roe is targeted. Therefore, equilibrium roe yield-per-recruit models should also be considered to guide the management process for caviar-producing fish species.

  16. A preliminary yield trial of some soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratma, Rivaie

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary yield trial of some soybean mutant lines, derived from irradiated Orba variety with dose of 0.40 kGy, were carried out during the wet and dry season in 1979-1982 in Muara and Citayam, Bogor. The result obtained showed that yield potential of mutant lines no. M6/40/10 was higher than that of the control in dry season in 1979 as well as in the wet season of 1979/80 in Muara. Whereas, the yield potential of the mutant lines no. M6/40/8 and no. M6/40/14 were higher than that of the control only in the wet season. The yield potential of semi dwarf mutant lines no. M6/40/68 was highly significant compared to that of the control in dry season in Muara and the wet season in 1981/82 in Citayam. Whereas, the yield potential of the mutant lines no. M6/40/69 was higher yield compared to that of the control in dry season in 1981 in Muara. (author). 10 refs

  17. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Batisse, Alain [Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, Paris (France); Vouhe, Pascal [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Ou, Phalla [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

    2008-08-15

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  18. Ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Seref Corbacioglu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery (SGA is very rare and the most common causes are blunt or penetrating pelvic traumas. Although pseudoaneurysm can be asymptomatic at the time of initial trauma, it can be symptomatic weeks, months, even years after initial trauma. We present a case of a ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock twenty days after a bomb injury in the Syria civil war. In addition, we review the anatomy of the SGA, clinical presentation and pitfalls of pseudoaneurysm, and imaging and treatment options. Keywords: Pseudoaneurysm, Superior gluteal artery, Pitfall, Angiography

  19. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien; Batisse, Alain; Vouhe, Pascal; Ou, Phalla

    2008-01-01

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  20. Novel anammox bacteria and nitrogen loss from Lake Superior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean A.; Treusch, Alexander H.; Forth, Michael

    2017-01-01

    and diversity of anammox bacteria in the world's largest freshwater lake - Lake Superior. We found that anammox performed by previously undiscovered bacteria is an important contributor to sediment N2 production. We observed striking differences in the anammox bacterial populations found at different locations...... within Lake Superior and those described from other locations. Our data thus reveal that novel anammox bacteria underpin N-loss from Lake Superior, and if more broadly distributed across inland waters would play an important role in continental N-cycling and mitigation of fixed nitrogen transfer from...

  1. Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J.

    2017-06-01

    Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  2. Arteriovenous fistula of the superior gluteal artery as a complication of posterior iliac crest bone graft harvesting: 3D-CT angiography and arterial embolization

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Chae-Gwan; Park, Jong-Beom; Won, Yoo-Dong; Riew, K. Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Superior gluteal artery injuries are rare, but potentially serious complications that occur during posterior iliac crest bone graft harvesting. The authors reported an arteriovenous fistula of the superior gluteal artery, which occurred as a complication during posterior iliac crest bone graft harvesting and was diagnosed with 3D-CT angiography, then treated with arterial embolization.

  3. Are GM Crops for Yield and Resilience Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Matthew J; Nuccio, Michael L; Basu, Shib Sankar

    2018-01-01

    Crop yield improvements need to accelerate to avoid future food insecurity. Outside Europe, genetically modified (GM) crops for herbicide- and insect-resistance have been transformative in agriculture; other traits have also come to market. However, GM of yield potential and stress resilience has yet to impact on food security. Genes have been identified for yield such as grain number, size, leaf growth, resource allocation, and signaling for drought tolerance, but there is only one commercialized drought-tolerant GM variety. For GM and genome editing to impact on yield and resilience there is a need to understand yield-determining processes in a cell and developmental context combined with evaluation in the grower environment. We highlight a sugar signaling mechanism as a paradigm for this approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Closing Yield Gaps: How Sustainable Can We Be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajal Pradhan

    Full Text Available Global food production needs to be increased by 60-110% between 2005 and 2050 to meet growing food and feed demand. Intensification and/or expansion of agriculture are the two main options available to meet the growing crop demands. Land conversion to expand cultivated land increases GHG emissions and impacts biodiversity and ecosystem services. Closing yield gaps to attain potential yields may be a viable option to increase the global crop production. Traditional methods of agricultural intensification often have negative externalities. Therefore, there is a need to explore location-specific methods of sustainable agricultural intensification. We identified regions where the achievement of potential crop calorie production on currently cultivated land will meet the present and future food demand based on scenario analyses considering population growth and changes in dietary habits. By closing yield gaps in the current irrigated and rain-fed cultivated land, about 24% and 80% more crop calories can respectively be produced compared to 2000. Most countries will reach food self-sufficiency or improve their current food self-sufficiency levels if potential crop production levels are achieved. As a novel approach, we defined specific input and agricultural management strategies required to achieve the potential production by overcoming biophysical and socioeconomic constraints causing yield gaps. The management strategies include: fertilizers, pesticides, advanced soil management, land improvement, management strategies coping with weather induced yield variability, and improving market accessibility. Finally, we estimated the required fertilizers (N, P2O5, and K2O to attain the potential yields. Globally, N-fertilizer application needs to increase by 45-73%, P2O5-fertilizer by 22-46%, and K2O-fertilizer by 2-3 times compared to the year 2010 to attain potential crop production. The sustainability of such agricultural intensification largely depends

  5. Closing Yield Gaps: How Sustainable Can We Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Fischer, Günther; van Velthuizen, Harrij; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Juergen P.

    2015-01-01

    Global food production needs to be increased by 60–110% between 2005 and 2050 to meet growing food and feed demand. Intensification and/or expansion of agriculture are the two main options available to meet the growing crop demands. Land conversion to expand cultivated land increases GHG emissions and impacts biodiversity and ecosystem services. Closing yield gaps to attain potential yields may be a viable option to increase the global crop production. Traditional methods of agricultural intensification often have negative externalities. Therefore, there is a need to explore location-specific methods of sustainable agricultural intensification. We identified regions where the achievement of potential crop calorie production on currently cultivated land will meet the present and future food demand based on scenario analyses considering population growth and changes in dietary habits. By closing yield gaps in the current irrigated and rain-fed cultivated land, about 24% and 80% more crop calories can respectively be produced compared to 2000. Most countries will reach food self-sufficiency or improve their current food self-sufficiency levels if potential crop production levels are achieved. As a novel approach, we defined specific input and agricultural management strategies required to achieve the potential production by overcoming biophysical and socioeconomic constraints causing yield gaps. The management strategies include: fertilizers, pesticides, advanced soil management, land improvement, management strategies coping with weather induced yield variability, and improving market accessibility. Finally, we estimated the required fertilizers (N, P2O5, and K2O) to attain the potential yields. Globally, N-fertilizer application needs to increase by 45–73%, P2O5-fertilizer by 22–46%, and K2O-fertilizer by 2–3 times compared to the year 2010 to attain potential crop production. The sustainability of such agricultural intensification largely depends on the way

  6. Yield gap analysis in long-term experiments with intensive rice cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureles, E.V.; Correa, T. Jr.; Buresh, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The long-term continuous cropping experiment at IRRI is cultivated with three rice crops in a year, making it the world's most intensively cropped long-term rice experiment. The availability of comprehensive rice production records, compiled weather data, and tested crop models provides a means to evaluate long-term trends in measured and potential yields and yield gaps in this rice production system. Yield trends were assessed using the highest yielding cultivar in each cropping season from 1979 to 2005. Potential yield of the highest yielding cultivar in each season was determined using three rice models (ORYZA, TERM, and CERES) run with the actual transplanting and harvest dates for the cultivar. The yield gap was determined from the difference between the simulated potential grain yield and the measured grain yield. Measured and potential yields and the yield gap varied across seasons and years. Measured yields were higher in the dry season than in the early and late wet seasons. The yield gap tended to be higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Climatic parameters, particularly solar radiation, influenced the performance of rice cultivars. The relatively larger yield gaps in the late wet season than in the dry season were associated with increased spikelet sterility. The cumulative measured yield for the three annual rice crop was near 80 percent of the annual yield potential in years with best practices for fertilizer N and crop management. The long term trends suggest that effective timing and rates of N fertilization and effective control of diseases were critical in achieving 80 percent of the annual yield potential

  7. 2010 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Bathymetric Lidar: Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained in this file contain hydrographic and topographic data collected by the Fugro LADS Mk II system along the Lake Superior coast of Minnessota,...

  8. Sacroiliac joint injection using the posterior superior iliac spines as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limitations in the availability of such image guided techniques in health ... School of Medical Sciences, University of Science and Technology between 2006 and ... The needle position from the posterior superior iliac spine and its angle of ...

  9. Analysis of the Lake Superior Watershed Seasonal Snow Cover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, Steven F; Baldwin, Timothy B; Weyrick, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Daily estimates of the snow water equivalent (SWE) distribution for the period from 1 December through 30 April for each winter season from 1979 80 through 2002 03 were calculated for the entire Lake Superior watershed...

  10. Does gender activism aggravate the superiority of one gender over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Does gender activism aggravate the superiority of one gender over the other? ... findings reveal that firstly, failure to value and embrace diversity by males, perpetuate gender discrimination. ... Keywords: Context, Culture, Structures, Systems ...

  11. Electrocautery Superior to Topical Treatments for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Anal Cancer Treatment Anal Cancer Prevention Research Electrocautery Superior to Topical Treatments for Precancerous Anal Lesions ... randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at ...

  12. Computed tomography imaging for superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobeli, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Superior semicircular canal dehiscence is a newly described syndrome of sound and/or pressure induced vertigo. Computed tomography (CT) imaging plays an important role in confirmation of a defect in the bone overlying the canal. A high resolution CT technique utilising 0.5 mm or thinner slices and multi-planar reconstructions parallel to the superior semicircular canal is required. Placement of a histogram over a suspected defect can assist CT diagnosis

  13. Mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery after septic embolism; Entwicklung eines mykotischen Aneurysmas der A. mesenterica superior nach septischer Embolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.; Dinkel, H.P. [Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Inselspital, Universitaetsklinik Bern (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the aorta and the visceral arteries are life-threatening diseases, due to potential rupture and organ or limb ischemia. They occur in endocarditis, immunodeficiency, bacteremia and fungemia, and have a poor prognosis.We report on a case of a 54-year-old male patient suffering from abdominal angina after mitral valve replacement for septic mycotic endocarditis. In presence of a mycotic-embolic occlusion of the left popliteal artery and multiple septic organ infarctions a mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery was found in abdominal spiral-CT.Based on sequential spiral-CT examinations, this case demonstrates the development of a septic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery. (orig.) [German] Mykotische Aneurysmen der Aorta und ihrer Aeste stellen wegen Rupturgefahr und moeglicher Minderperfusion von Organen und Extremitaeten eine lebensgefaehrliche Erkrankung mit unguenstiger Prognose dar. Beguenstigende Faktoren sind geschwaechte Immunabwehr, Endokarditis, Bakteriaemie und Fungaemie.Wir berichten ueber einen 54-jaehrigen Patienten, der nach einem Mitralklappenersatz bei mykotischer Endokarditis zunehmende abdominelle Beschwerden im Sinne einer Angina abdominalis entwickelte. Die abdominelle Spiralcomputertomographie zeigte ein mykotisches Aneurysma der A. mesenterica superior. Daneben bestanden ein mykotischer Verschluss der linken A. poplitea und multiple septische Organinfarkte.Der Fall demonstriert anhand sequentieller Computertomographien eindrucksvoll die Entwicklung eines septischen Viszeralarterienaneurysmas. (orig.)

  14. A Novel Method for Intraoral Access to the Superior Head of the Human Lateral Pterygoid Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleli Tôrres Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The uncoordinated activity of the superior and inferior parts of the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM has been suggested to be one of the causes of temporomandibular joint (TMJ disc displacement. A therapy for this muscle disorder is the injection of botulinum toxin (BTX, of the LPM. However, there is a potential risk of side effects with the injection guide methods currently available. In addition, they do not permit appropriate differentiation between the two bellies of the muscle. Herein, a novel method is presented to provide intraoral access to the superior head of the human LPM with maximal control and minimal hazards. Methods. Computational tomography along with digital imaging software programs and rapid prototyping techniques were used to create a rapid prototyped guide to orient BTX injections in the superior LPM. Results. The method proved to be feasible and reliable. Furthermore, when tested in one volunteer it allowed precise access to the upper head of LPM, without producing side effects. Conclusions. The prototyped guide presented in this paper is a novel tool that provides intraoral access to the superior head of the LPM. Further studies will be necessary to test the efficacy and validate this method in a larger cohort of subjects.

  15. Superior temporal gyrus volume reduction and P300 in schizophrenia prior to treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayasu, Akira; Hokama, Hiroto; Ogura, Chikara; Ohta, Hirokazu; Arakaki, Hajime; Asato, Naohiko; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro

    1998-01-01

    Authors measured the superior temporal gyrus volume by 3D MRI imaging for the schizophrenics and simultaneously recorded the P300 component during the auditory odd-ball exercise. Subjects were 8 cases of schizophrenics and the sex- and age-matched healthy control adults. In schizophrenics, the superior temporal gyrus volume reduction was found. When the superior temporal gyrus was divided into two parts, the anterior part containing the primary auditory area, and the posterior part containing the planum temporale and the Wernicle speech area, the volume reduction of left side in the posterior part was remarkable. There was no difference in the latent time and the P300 amplitude between schizophrenics and healthy controls, suggesting that the superior temporal gyrus abnormalities will appear prior to P300 abnormalities. We could not find any correlation between findings of MRI and P300 and psychic symptoms. We discuss the possible contribution on the elucidation of the pathogenesis of the schizophrenia by simultaneous recordings of 3D MRI imaging and the event-related potentials. (K.H.)

  16. A Layer-specific Corticofugal Input to the Mouse Superior Colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Hector; Rock, Crystal; Perkins, Jessica; Apicella, Alfonso Junior

    2017-07-05

    In the auditory cortex (AC), corticofugal projections arise from each level of the auditory system and are considered to provide feedback "loops" important to modulate the flow of ascending information. It is well established that the cortex can influence the response of neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) via descending corticofugal projections. However, little is known about the relative contribution of different pyramidal neurons to these projections in the SC. We addressed this question by taking advantage of anterograde and retrograde neuronal tracing to directly examine the laminar distribution, long-range projections, and electrophysiological properties of pyramidal neurons projecting from the AC to the SC of the mouse brain. Here we show that layer 5 cortico-superior-collicular pyramidal neurons act as bandpass filters, resonating with a broad peak at ∼3 Hz, whereas layer 6 neurons act as low-pass filters. The dissimilar subthreshold properties of layer 5 and layer 6 cortico-superior-collicular pyramidal neurons can be described by differences in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation h-current (Ih). Ih also reduced the summation of short trains of artificial excitatory postsynaptic potentials injected at the soma of layer 5, but not layer 6, cortico-superior-collicular pyramidal neurons, indicating a differential dampening effect of Ih on these neurons. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Marketing at Superior: Theory meets application in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, S.

    1992-01-01

    The field marketing practices of Superior Propane in rural Ontario are illustrated. In the Smithville area, Superior's customer base consists of agricultural, industrial, commercial, and residential customers, plus a large market for auto propane. A 6,900 ft 2 showroom presents a representative selection of the wide range of appliances using propane. Superior's Smithville branch is one of the top five in Canada, in terms of volume. To expand business beyond its traditional branch structures, Superior has an Independent Partners Program which is aimed at all phases of business including independent sales agents, conversions, propane fuel stops, appliance installations, and building contractors. In Keswick, located in the summer resort region on the south shore of Lake Simcoe, Superior's base load is 40% commercial and 20% each agricultural, residential, and automotive. A new 4,100 ft 2 showroom was recently constructed with separate display units for each appliance. The new building has brought increases in auto propane and appliance sales. The different branches of Superior Propane are able to tailor their marketing programs according to local needs by choosing the appropriate programs from those available at head office. 5 figs

  18. Hot spots of wheat yield decline with rising temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseng, Senthold; Cammarano, Davide; Basso, Bruno; Chung, Uran; Alderman, Phillip D; Sonder, Kai; Reynolds, Matthew; Lobell, David B

    2017-06-01

    Many of the irrigated spring wheat regions in the world are also regions with high poverty. The impacts of temperature increase on wheat yield in regions of high poverty are uncertain. A grain yield-temperature response function combined with a quantification of model uncertainty was constructed using a multimodel ensemble from two key irrigated spring wheat areas (India and Sudan) and applied to all irrigated spring wheat regions in the world. Southern Indian and southern Pakistani wheat-growing regions with large yield reductions from increasing temperatures coincided with high poverty headcounts, indicating these areas as future food security 'hot spots'. The multimodel simulations produced a linear absolute decline of yields with increasing temperature, with uncertainty varying with reference temperature at a location. As a consequence of the linear absolute yield decline, the relative yield reductions are larger in low-yielding environments (e.g., high reference temperature areas in southern India, southern Pakistan and all Sudan wheat-growing regions) and farmers in these regions will be hit hardest by increasing temperatures. However, as absolute yield declines are about the same in low- and high-yielding regions, the contributed deficit to national production caused by increasing temperatures is higher in high-yielding environments (e.g., northern India) because these environments contribute more to national wheat production. Although Sudan could potentially grow more wheat if irrigation is available, grain yields would be low due to high reference temperatures, with future increases in temperature further limiting production. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Yields of historical exploration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huslende, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper relates to an method of evaluation developed for analysing the yield of historical exploration programs by computerized simulation. The most important elements show in coarse features how the results can be used in the different analyses. The evaluation is to be executed annually for the comparison and sorting of data from different offshore sites. Topics are exploration evaluation study, evaluation process, handling of exploration costs, discovered reserves, development projects, cash flow analysis, analysis of results, finding cost, international comparison. 1 ref., 11 figs

  20. Veia cava superior esquerda anômala com ausência de veia cava superior direita: achados de imagem Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava: image findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrillo Rodrigues de Araújo Júnior

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A persistência da veia cava superior esquerda com ausência da veia cava superior direita é uma anomalia rara, com menos de 150 casos descritos na literatura. A não-obliteração e regressão da veia cardinal anterior esquerda durante o desenvolvimento embriológico promove uma variação sistêmica de retorno venoso ao coração, com persistência da veia cava superior esquerda. Sua incidência varia de 0,3% em pacientes sem alterações cardíacas congênitas concomitantes a 4,3% naqueles com cardiopatias. Na maioria das vezes coexiste a veia cava superior direita, porém se houver regressão e degeneração da veia cardinal anterior direita, implicará a sua ausência e a drenagem venosa para o coração será feita pela veia cava superior esquerda ao átrio direito, através do seio coronariano. Mostramos um caso de um paciente submetido a radiografia de tórax e tomografia computadorizada para avaliação de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, tendo como achado a persistência da veia cava superior esquerda com ausência da direita, sem qualquer cardiopatia associada e com a drenagem cardíaca sendo feita, através do seio coronariano, para o átrio direito.Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava is a rare anomaly, with less than 150 cases reported in the literature. Congenitally persistent left superior vena cava is the most common variant of systemic venous return to the heart, resulting embryologically from failure of the left anterior cardinal vein to become obliterated. Its incidence varies from 0.3% in patients with otherwise normal heart to 4.3% in patients with congenital heart disease. In the majority of the patients, a right superior vena cava is present as well, but rarely the right anterior cardinal vein degenerates resulting in the absence of the normal right superior vena cava. The blood from the right side is carried by the persistent left superior vena cava to the right atrium through the

  1. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyun Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.

  2. Potentialities of the LHCb experiment for the discovery of the physics beyond the standard model in the B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub S}{sup 0} decay; Etude du potentiel de l'experience LHCb pour la decouverte de physique au-dela du modele standard dans la desintegration B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub S}{sup 0}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, B

    2003-10-01

    The Standard Model predicts the same time-dependant CP asymmetry in both B{sub d}{sup 0} -> J/{psi}K{sub S}{sup 0} and B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub S}{sup 0} decays. This asymmetry is proportional to sin(2*{beta}). Any difference between the CP asymmetries measured in these 2 channels would indicate the presence of new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. We study the sensitivity of the LHCb experiment to this effect. To that end, we estimate the statistical error on the measurement of sin(2*{beta}) in the B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub S}{sup 0} channel by LHCb. We do that with the LHCb classic detector, and then with the re-optimized detector. The number of simulated background events is too small with respect to the annual statistics to obtain precise evaluations. We developed several methods to improve these evaluations. In the most optimistic case, we predict that sin(2*{beta}) would be measured in the LHCb classic configuration with a statistical error equal to 0.56. With the re-optimized detector, this error is further improved: 0.29. (author)

  3. Potentialities of the LHCb experiment for the discovery of the physics beyond the standard model in the B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub S}{sup 0} decay; Etude du potentiel de l'experience LHCb pour la decouverte de physique au-dela du modele standard dans la desintegration B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub S}{sup 0}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, B

    2003-10-01

    The Standard Model predicts the same time-dependant CP asymmetry in both B{sub d}{sup 0} -> J/{psi}K{sub S}{sup 0} and B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub S}{sup 0} decays. This asymmetry is proportional to sin(2*{beta}). Any difference between the CP asymmetries measured in these 2 channels would indicate the presence of new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. We study the sensitivity of the LHCb experiment to this effect. To that end, we estimate the statistical error on the measurement of sin(2*{beta}) in the B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub S}{sup 0} channel by LHCb. We do that with the LHCb classic detector, and then with the re-optimized detector. The number of simulated background events is too small with respect to the annual statistics to obtain precise evaluations. We developed several methods to improve these evaluations. In the most optimistic case, we predict that sin(2*{beta}) would be measured in the LHCb classic configuration with a statistical error equal to 0.56. With the re-optimized detector, this error is further improved: 0.29. (author)

  4. MRI appearance of the superior transverse scapular ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeone, F.J.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Chang, Connie Y.; Torriani, Martin; Huang, Ambrose J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL) forms the roof of the suprascapular notch, which is the most common location of entrapment of the suprascapular nerve, a cause of shoulder pain and weakness. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of visualization of the STSL on routine shoulder MRIs, to identify the sequences and imaging planes on which it is visualized most frequently, and to describe its typical MRI appearance, none of which have been previously addressed in the radiologic literature. One hundred twenty-one consecutive shoulder MRIs were reviewed for the presence or absence of the STSL, including the imaging plane and sequence that best depicted the ligament. Dimensions of the ligament were recorded. Fifty four of 121 shoulder MRIs were technically adequate for visualization of the STSL, and it was identified on 51 of these studies (94 %). There was no statistically significant difference between 1.5-T and 3-T systems. The best individual sequence for visualizing the STSL was the sagittal T1-weighted sequence, in which the STSL was visible on 75/80 technically adequate sequences (94 %). The sagittal plane was the best plane for visualizing the STSL, in which it was visible on 65/69 technically adequate studies (94 %). The STSL on average measured 12.8 ± 1.5 mm in transverse dimension. The STSL can be visualized on the majority of shoulder MRIs and is best seen on sagittal T1-weighted images on our imaging protocol. Evaluation of the STSL can potentially help in identifying pathologic conditions affecting the suprascapular nerve. (orig.)

  5. Estimating yield gaps at the cropping system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilpart, Nicolas; Grassini, Patricio; Sadras, Victor O; Timsina, Jagadish; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2017-05-01

    Yield gap analyses of individual crops have been used to estimate opportunities for increasing crop production at local to global scales, thus providing information crucial to food security. However, increases in crop production can also be achieved by improving cropping system yield through modification of spatial and temporal arrangement of individual crops. In this paper we define the cropping system yield potential as the output from the combination of crops that gives the highest energy yield per unit of land and time, and the cropping system yield gap as the difference between actual energy yield of an existing cropping system and the cropping system yield potential. Then, we provide a framework to identify alternative cropping systems which can be evaluated against the current ones. A proof-of-concept is provided with irrigated rice-maize systems at four locations in Bangladesh that represent a range of climatic conditions in that country. The proposed framework identified (i) realistic alternative cropping systems at each location, and (ii) two locations where expected improvements in crop production from changes in cropping intensity (number of crops per year) were 43% to 64% higher than from improving the management of individual crops within the current cropping systems. The proposed framework provides a tool to help assess food production capacity of new systems ( e.g. with increased cropping intensity) arising from climate change, and assess resource requirements (water and N) and associated environmental footprint per unit of land and production of these new systems. By expanding yield gap analysis from individual crops to the cropping system level and applying it to new systems, this framework could also be helpful to bridge the gap between yield gap analysis and cropping/farming system design.

  6. Assessment of sediment yield using RS and GIS at two sub-basins of Dez Watershed, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Noori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a serious threat to soil and water resources in semi-arid regions. Modified Pacific South-west Inter Agency Committee (MPSIAC and Erosion Potential Method (EPM, as two well-known models, have shown their performance in many case studies. The goal of present study is to assess the efficiency of these methods for estimating the sediments yield and erosion intensity within short-term and long-term timeframes over two sub-basins of Dez watershed, west of Iran. The results showed that the study area can be categorized into slight, moderate, high and very high erosion zones. Almost half of the study area is highly susceptible to erosion due to the geological formations and land cover. Moreover, the long-term (i.e. 30 years sediment yield of 387 and 615 (kton y−1 estimated by MPSIAC and EPM models demonstrated the superiority of EPM. Compared to the measured value of 612 (kton y−1, the performance of EPM was astonishing. By splitting the dataset into six periods of five years, the sediment yield was predicted in short-term periods by both aforementioned methods. Such segmentation provides the opportunity to evaluate the impact of extreme flooding events on the models performances. The results showed that both models failed in estimation of sediment load during flood conditions. Nevertheless, the correlation coefficients for estimating the sediment yield were found to be R=0.93 and R=0.85 for EPM and MPSIAC models respectively, for short-term simulations.

  7. La educación superior como eje del desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Afanador Vargas

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Este documento analiza cómo ha sido la interacción entre la política educativa y las estrategiasde desarrollo en Colombia, a lo largo del siglo XX. Se presenta una revisión del estadoactual de la educación en Colombia, tanto a nivel de educación básica y media, como de laeducación superior. Para ello se toman tres criterios básicos que son la cobertura, la calidady la equidad en el acceso a la educación. Para el caso de la educación superior, se comparala oferta de cupos con la demanda existente, se clasifican los distintos segmentos en que sedivide la educación superior y se hace una breve reseña sobre el recurso humano con que secuenta en la educación superior colombiana. Así mismo, se expone una conceptualización delos retos que enfrenta la educación superior, sobretodo para lograr una cohesión de la sociedad,evitando que algunos de sus integrantes sean excluidos y permitiendo que todos losestamentos de la sociedad puedan compartir los mismos ideales y los consideren asequibles.Finalmente, se presentan unas conclusiones que se derivan del estudio y se proponen algunasrecomendaciones de política .

  8. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome: Lessons from the First 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan K. Ward

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome was first reported by Lloyd Minor and colleagues in 1998. Patients with a dehiscence in the bone overlying the superior semicircular canal experience symptoms of pressure or sound-induced vertigo, bone conduction hyperacusis, and pulsatile tinnitus. The initial series of patients were diagnosed based on common symptoms, a physical examination finding of eye movements in the plane of the superior semicircular canal when ear canal pressure or loud tones were applied to the ear, and high-resolution computed tomography imaging demonstrating a dehiscence in the bone over the superior semicircular canal. Research productivity directed at understanding better methods for diagnosing and treating this condition has substantially increased over the last two decades. We now have a sound understanding of the pathophysiology of third mobile window syndromes, higher resolution imaging protocols, and several sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. Furthermore, we have a treatment (surgical occlusion of the superior semicircular canal that has demonstrated efficacy. This review will highlight some of the fundamental insights gained in SCDS, propose diagnostic criteria, and discuss future research directions.

  9. Effects of kernel weight and source-limitation on wheat grain yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRmohammadi

    2012-02-09

    Feb 9, 2012 ... Many regions need wheat cultivars that are capable of high yields when the weather is beneficial but produce stable yields when conditions are adverse. These geno- types should have high yield potential in both favorable and high temperature environments (Yang et al., 2002a;. Ahmed et al., 2011a, b).

  10. Treatment of symptomatic isolated dissection of superior mesenteric artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhihui; Fu, Weiguo; Chen, Bin; Guo, Daqiao; Xu, Xin; Wang, Yuqi

    2013-02-01

    To present the short- to midterm outcomes after management of 14 patients with symptomatic isolated dissection of superior mesenteric artery (SIDSMA) and propose a preliminary treatment algorithm. SIDSMA is a rare but potentially fatal entity. However, most of these reports were isolated case reports, and a consensus treatment protocol remains lacking so far. It would be meaningful to propose a reasonable treatment algorithm for it. Patients with SIDSMA who were treated in our center between July 2007 and June 2011 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Based upon the abdominal pain and signs, the clinical manifestations have been retrospectively classified into grade I (peritonitis absent) and grade II (peritonitis present). Medical treatment mainly included anticoagulation, antiplatelet, and bowel rest. Endovascular stent placement and surgical fenestration with exploratory laparotomy have been selected according to the grade classification. Computed tomographic angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, or duplex scans have been used for diagnosis and follow-up. Fourteen consecutive patients with SIDSMA were collected; among them, 13 cases belonged to grade I and one to grade II. The mean duration from the onset to the admission was 12 ± 12 days (range, 0.5-45 days). The mean distance from the primary tear to the ostium of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was 26 ± 4 mm (range, 15-32 mm). Medical treatment was given for 13 patients of grade I for the first 3 to 5 days after admission, and the abdominal pain remarkably or completely resolved in four patients who received continued medical treatment, whereas the other unresolved nine patients were converted to endovascular stent placement that succeeded in four and failed in five patients. Since these five cases were free from peritoneal signs, medical treatment was given again instead of an immediate surgical intervention, and ultimately achieved complete alleviation of abdominal pain within the

  11. Potencial de utilização do estrato superior do solo laterítico da cidade de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, como material e apoio de aterros sanitários = Utilization potential of the soil layer in the city of Londrina, Parana State, as material and support for landfill solid wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Souza Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma avaliação do potencial de utilização da camada de solo laterítico, do perfil característico, da cidade de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, para o uso como material e apoio de aterros sanitários. Neste sentido fez-se necessária uma brevediscussão conceitual sobre resíduos sólidos, tipos de aterros e interação solo-contaminante. Em seguida foi feita uma descrição da localização da área de estudo e das características da camada do solo investigada. A avaliação do solo foi baseada em critérios geotécnicos a partir das características físicas, químicas e mineralógicas do solo, obtidas em ensaio de laboratório e em resultados publicados, em artigos técnicos, tomando-se por base uma pontuação e uma classificação, feitas a partir de atributos sugeridos por Zuquette (1993. A avaliação final, a respeito da utilização da camada de solo laterítico, para a implantação de um aterro sanitário, foi positiva.This paper shows an evaluation of the utilization potential of laterite soil layer, characteristic of the city of Londrina, Paraná State, as material and support for landfill solid wastes. At first, weprovided a brief definition of the solid residue, types of embankments, soil-contaminating interaction and contaminating processes. Then, we described the study area location and the layer characteristics of the soil under investigation. The soil evaluation was based on geotechnical criteria regarding physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the soil, which were obtained from a laboratory experiment and from results published in technical articles. Grading and classification were done according to the attributes suggested by Zuquette (1993. The final evaluation on the use of the layer of laterite soil for the implantation of the sanitary bank was positive.

  12. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and gamma radiation on the morophological character and yield of flax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.H.; Salman, A.A.; El-Hariri, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    This work was carried out in the field of agriculture college, in split plot design to investigate the influence of different levels of fertilizer and different doses of gamma radiation on the morphological characters and yield of flax. The results could be summarized as follow:1-Plant height and number of basal branches/plant responded significantly to nitrogen. 2-Nitrogen at the rate of 80 and 60 Kg/ha increased both seed yield/donum and capsules yield/plant over control treatment and the superiority a mounted to 18.6 and 10.2 for seed yield while 16 and 36 for capsule yield. 3-Radiation caused stimulating significant effect on a number of capsules and weight of 1000 seeds. 4-Radiation significantly inhibited seed yield/donum and caused insignificant effect on total yield capsules yield and straw yield/plant. 5-Flowering zone length responded signicantly to the interraction of nitrogen and gamma doses and attained its maximum value at 80 Kg N/ha and 60 Kilorad of gamma radiation.(7 tabs., 23 refs.)

  13. iTRAQ-based proteome profile analysis of superior and inferior Spikelets at early grain filling stage in japonica Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Cuicui; Chen, Lin; He, Haibing; Wu, Liquan; Wang, Shaohua; Ding, Yanfeng; Ma, Chuanxi

    2017-06-07

    Large-panicle rice varieties often fail to achieve their yield potential due to poor grain filling of late-flowering inferior spikelets (IS). The physiological and molecular mechanisms of poor IS grain filling, and whether an increase in assimilate supply could regulate protein abundance and consequently improve IS grain filling for japonica rice with large panicles is still partially understood. A field experiment was performed with two spikelet removal treatments at anthesis in the large-panicle japonica rice line W1844, including removal of the top 1/3 of spikelets (T1) and removal of the top 2/3 of spikelets (T2), with no spikelet removal as a control (T0). The size, weight, setting rate, and grain filling rate of IS were significantly increased after spikelet removing. The biological functions of the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between superior and inferior spikelets as well as the response of IS to the removal of superior spikelets (SS) were investigated by using iTRAQ at 10 days post anthesis. A total of 159, 87, and 28 DEPs were identified from group A (T0-SS/T0-IS), group B (T0-SS/T2-IS), and group C (T2-IS/T0-IS), respectively. Among these, 104, 63, and 22 proteins were up-regulated, and 55, 24, and 6 proteins were down-regulated, respectively. Approximately half of these DEPs were involved in carbohydrate metabolism (sucrose-to-starch metabolism and energy metabolism) and protein metabolism (protein synthesis, folding, degradation, and storage). Reduced endosperm cell division and decreased activities of key enzymes associated with sucrose-starch metabolism and nitrogen metabolism are mainly attributed to the poor sink strength of IS. In addition, due to weakened photosynthesis and respiration, IS are unable to obtain a timely supply of materials and energy after fertilization, which might be resulted in the stagnation of IS development. Finally, an increased abundance of 14-3-3 protein in IS could be involved in the inhibition of starch

  14. Evoked responses of the superior olive to amplitude-modulated signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, N G; Lang, T T

    1977-01-01

    Evoked potentials of some auditory centers of Rhinolophidae bats to amplitude-modulated signals were studied. A synchronization response was found in the cochlear nuclei (with respect to the fast component of the response) and in the superior olivary complex (with respect to both fast and slow components of the response) within the range of frequency modulation from 50 to 2000 Hz. In the inferior colliculus a synchronized response was recorded at modulation frequencies below 150 Hz, but in the medial geniculate bodies no such response was found. Evoked responses of the superior olivary complex were investigated in detail. The lowest frequencies of synchronization were recorded within the carrier frequency range of 15-30 and 80-86 kHz. The amplitude of the synchronized response is a function of the frequency and coefficient of modulation and also of the angle of stimulus presentation.

  15. Bereitschaftspotentials recorded from the lateral part of the superior frontal gyrus in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shinji; Ikeda, Akio; Matsuhashi, Masao; Satow, Takeshi; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Baba, Koichi; Mihara, Tadahiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    2006-05-15

    To demonstrate the Bereitschaftspotentials (BPs) over the high lateral convexity in the superior frontal gyrus, movement-related cortical potentials with respect to the middle finger extension were recorded in seven patients with refractory epilepsy who underwent subdural implantation of platinum electrode grids and/or strips covering the high lateral frontal convexity. In two out of the seven patients, BPs were recorded from the electrodes placed on the superior frontal gyrus in the vicinity of the border between the medial and lateral frontal lobes, which were distinct from those recorded from the primary sensorimotor cortex. The results suggest the possible contribution of either the lateral dorsal non-primary motor area or the SMA to the generation of the BPs.

  16. Superior vena cava syndrome after pulsatile bidirectional Glenn shunt procedure: Perioperative implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neema Praveen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional superior cavopulmonary shunt (bidirectional Glenn shunt is generally performed in many congenital cardiac anomalies where complete two ventricle circulations cannot be easily achieved. The advantages of BDG shunt are achieved by partially separating the pulmonary and systemic venous circuits, and include reduced ventricular preload and long-term preservation of myocardium. The benefits of additional pulsatile pulmonary blood flow include the potential growth of pulmonary arteries, possible improvement in arterial oxygen saturation, and possible prevention of development of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. However, increase in the systemic venous pressure after BDG with additional pulsatile blood flow is known. We describe the peri-operative implications of severe flow reversal in the superior vena cava after pulsatile BDG shunt construction in a child who presented for surgical interruption of the main pulmonary artery.

  17. APPEARANCE OF GEMA AND BURANGRANG SUPERIOR SOYBEAN BANTARWARU VILLAGE, GANTAR DISTRICT, INDRAMAYU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Hastini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is one of important food crop useful as feedstock of tofu and tempe, soy souce and other product. Domestic soybean production is still very low compared with the soybean needs. The amount of soybean import volume was greater than domestic production. New varieties implementation is one of the technology to increase production. Gema and Burangrang are soybean new varieties with high yield, however have not known by the farmers. Through farmer demfarm, the two varieties are introduced to the farmers. The cultivation done by no-tillage cultivation technology, certified seed, Rhizobium seed treatment, cow manure application, drainage, and by row spacing 40 cm × 15 cm. The agronomic characters observed are plant height, number of pods per plant, number of filled pods per plant, number of unfilled pod per plant, number of productive branches, yield and productivity of Gema and Burangrang. Data was analyzed using non-parametric statistica Mann-Whitney, and description statistica for yield. The result showed that Burangrang more superior than Gema in number of pod per plant, number of filled pods per plant and productivity.

  18. Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J

    2017-08-06

    Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramendi, José I; Rey, Estibaliz; Hamzeh, Gadah; Crespo, Alejandro; Luis, Maite; Voces, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    We describe the surgical technique of reimplantation of the right superior pulmonary vein into the left atrium in 2 patients with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava without atrial septal defect. A right axillary minithoracotomy is done through the fourth intercostal space. The pulmonary vein is detached from its origin in the superior vena cava. This is sutured with 6-0 reabsorbable polydioxanone suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ). A lateral clamp is applied to the left atrium, and the pulmonary vein is reimplanted. The patient is extubated in the operating room. Neither cardiopulmonary bypass nor blood transfusion was required. It is simple, safe, and reproducible. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Papaya Development Model As A Competitive Local Superior Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Sukmawani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the comparative advantage and papaya competitive and to design its development model by using the approach of local base agriculture development. This research uses survey method. The resulting research shows that papaya is a base commodity that has comparative advantage and competitive. The development papaya in the district of Sukabumi is quite good bases on eight superior creations. But in order to be the main sector in economic development and has a competition, the development of papaya must concern to its influence factors. In supporting papaya development as a competitive local superior commodity, it needs to be done some efforts are as follows: (1 increase a skillful worker; (2 improve business management; (3 increase papaya productivity by using technology and study papaya planted technology in specific local superior commodity; (4 develop the involvement of the business relation; (5 provide market information and information technology network; and (6 improve infrastructures.

  1. Isolated abscess in superior rectus muscle in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushank Ashok Bhalerao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyomyositis is a primary bacterial infection of striated muscles nearly always caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Development of the intramuscular abscess involving the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs remains an extremely rare process. We herein present a case of isolated EOM pyomyositis involving superior rectus muscle in a 2-year male child who was referred with complaints of swelling in left eye (LE and inability to open LE since last 1-month. Orbital computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined, hypo-dense, peripheral rim-enhancing lesion in relation to left superior rectus muscle suggestive of left superior rectus abscess. The abscess was drained through skin approach. We concluded that pyomyositis of EOM should be considered in any patient presenting with acute onset of orbital inflammation and characteristic CT or magnetic resonance imaging features. Management consists of incision and drainage coupled with antibiotic therapy.

  2. Aging and the picture superiority effect in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, E; Smith, A D; Simon, E W

    1982-01-01

    One recurrent theme in the literature on aging and memory is that the decline of memory for nonverbal information is steeper than for verbal information. This research compares verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect, the finding that pictures are remembered better than words. In the first experiment, an interaction was found between age and type of material; younger subjects recalled more pictures than words while older subjects did not. However, the overall effect was small and two further experiments were conducted. In both of these experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. In addition, performing a semantic orienting task had no effect on recall. The finding of a picture superiority effect in older subjects indicates that nonverbal codes can be effectively used by subjects in all age groups to facilitate memory performance.

  3. Status of the shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Michael H.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    The shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) was historically found in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior, but has been extirpated in Lakes Huron and Michigan apparently as the result of commercial overharvest. During 1999-2001, we conducted an assessment of shortjaw cisco abundance in five areas, spanning the U.S. waters of Lake Superior, and compared our results with the abundance measured at those areas in 1921-1922. The shortjaw cisco was found at four of the five areas sampled, but abundances were so low that they were not significantly different from zero. In the four areas where shortjaw ciscoes were found, abundance declined significantly by 99% from the 1920s to the present. To increase populations of this once economically and ecologically important species in Lake Superior, an interagency rehabilitation effort is needed. Population monitoring is recommended to assess population trends and to evaluate success of rehabilitation efforts.

  4. INFORMATION ASSURANCE - INTELLIGENCE - INFORMATION SUPERIORITY RELATIONSHIP WITHIN NATO OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BOARU, Ioan-Mihai ILIEŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a tight relationship between information assurance, the intelligence cycle and information superiority within NATO operations. The intelligence cycle has a discrete architecture and provides on-time and relevant intelligence products to the joint force commanders and to other authorized users in a specifi c joint area of operations. The intelligence cycle must follow the evolution of the operation. A permanent intelligence estimate will be performed during the military decision making process and operations execution. Information superiority is one of the most powerful intelligence cycle achievements. and decisively infuences the success of NATO joint operations. Information superiority must be preserved and enhanced through information assurance. Information assurance is an information operation that must be planned by the military in charge of operation security or by non-military experts, executed by all personnel during the entire intelligence cycle life time and employed during the planning and execution of NATO joint operations.

  5. High Quantum Yield Blue Emission from Lead-Free Inorganic Antimony Halide Perovskite Colloidal Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Yang, Ying; Deng, Hui; Farooq, Umar; Yang, Xiaokun; Khan, Jahangeer; Tang, Jiang; Song, Haisheng

    2017-09-26

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) of lead halide perovskite have recently received great attention owing to their remarkable performances in optoelectronic applications. However, their wide applications are hindered from toxic lead element, which is not environment- and consumer-friendly. Herein, we utilized heterovalent substitution of divalent lead (Pb 2+ ) with trivalent antimony (Sb 3+ ) to synthesize stable and brightly luminescent Cs 3 Sb 2 Br 9 QDs. The lead-free, full-inorganic QDs were fabricated by a modified ligand-assisted reprecipitation strategy. A photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) was determined to be 46% at 410 nm, which was superior to that of other reported halide perovskite QDs. The PL enhancement mechanism was unraveled by surface composition derived quantum-well band structure and their large exciton binding energy. The Br-rich surface and the observed 530 meV exciton binding energy were proposed to guarantee the efficient radiative recombination. In addition, we can also tune the inorganic perovskite QD (Cs 3 Sb 2 X 9 ) emission wavelength from 370 to 560 nm via anion exchange reactions. The developed full-inorganic lead-free Sb-perovskite QDs with high PLQY and stable emission promise great potential for efficient emission candidates.

  6. A higher yielding mutant of black gram with improved nodule formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Dry seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo (L) Hopper) var. T 9 with 12.2% moisture content were irradiated at 10, 20 and 30 krad of gamma rays. This was followed by combined treatment of one set in each dose with freshly prepared 0. 25% EMS in phosphate buffer at 7.0 pH at 30± deg. C for 6 hours. In M 2 population of 20 krad two mutants with pentafoliate instead of trifoliate leaves were found. This character was true breeding in M 3 M 6 generation. Crosses revealed monogenic recessive inheritance of this character. The proposed gene symbol is p5. This mutant has normal maturity period and the plant height is the same as T 9 (ca. 50 cm). Preliminary yield trials indicate superiority of the mutant line over control. The mutant line also shows a significant improvement in number and weight of root nodules, potentially improving green manuring value. Improvement of root nodulation in mungbean mutants was reported before by others

  7. A higher yielding mutant of black gram with improved nodule formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R K; Raghuvanshi, S S [Plant Genetic Unit, Department of Botany, University of Lucknow (India)

    1987-07-01

    Dry seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo (L) Hopper) var. T{sub 9} with 12.2% moisture content were irradiated at 10, 20 and 30 krad of gamma rays. This was followed by combined treatment of one set in each dose with freshly prepared 0. 25% EMS in phosphate buffer at 7.0 pH at 30{+-} deg. C for 6 hours. In M{sub 2} population of 20 krad two mutants with pentafoliate instead of trifoliate leaves were found. This character was true breeding in M{sub 3} M{sub 6} generation. Crosses revealed monogenic recessive inheritance of this character. The proposed gene symbol is p5. This mutant has normal maturity period and the plant height is the same as T{sub 9} (ca. 50 cm). Preliminary yield trials indicate superiority of the mutant line over control. The mutant line also shows a significant improvement in number and weight of root nodules, potentially improving green manuring value. Improvement of root nodulation in mungbean mutants was reported before by others.

  8. Neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eVaskinn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data suggests that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ and superior intelligence can present without specific neurocognitive deficits. However, neurocognitive decrements, defined as worse cognition than expected, have been reported in practically all schizophrenia cases. This study investigated if neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ by comparing the neuropsychological profile of SZ cases with IQ-matched healthy controls (HC across intellectual level. Participants with SZ and HCs were stratified into three IQ-groups; intellectually low (IQ 80-95; SZ n = 65 & HC n = 13, intellectually normal (IQ = 100-115; SZ n = 111 & HC n = 115 and intellectually superior (IQ > 120; SZ n = 20 & HC n = 50. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of co-variance compared performance on eight selected neuropsychological tests across IQ-strata and diagnostic group. Differences in clinical characteristics and social functioning in SZ across IQ-strata were investigated with multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. Intellectually superior SZ participants scored within normal limits, but had neurocognitive decrements compared to superior HCs. Decrements were of the same magnitude as in the low and normal IQ-strata. Levels of functional impairments and clinical characteristics in participants with SZ did not differ significantly across IQ-strata. Results indicate that neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ to the same extent as in intellectually low and intellectually normal SZ, supporting the notion that SZ is a neurocognitive disorder. Similar levels of social functional deficits and clinical symptoms suggest similar disease processes in SZ across intellectual level.

  9. Total variation superiorized conjugate gradient method for image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibetti, Marcelo V. W.; Lin, Chuan; Herman, Gabor T.

    2018-03-01

    The conjugate gradient (CG) method is commonly used for the relatively-rapid solution of least squares problems. In image reconstruction, the problem can be ill-posed and also contaminated by noise; due to this, approaches such as regularization should be utilized. Total variation (TV) is a useful regularization penalty, frequently utilized in image reconstruction for generating images with sharp edges. When a non-quadratic norm is selected for regularization, as is the case for TV, then it is no longer possible to use CG. Non-linear CG is an alternative, but it does not share the efficiency that CG shows with least squares and methods such as fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithms (FISTA) are preferred for problems with TV norm. A different approach to including prior information is superiorization. In this paper it is shown that the conjugate gradient method can be superiorized. Five different CG variants are proposed, including preconditioned CG. The CG methods superiorized by the total variation norm are presented and their performance in image reconstruction is demonstrated. It is illustrated that some of the proposed variants of the superiorized CG method can produce reconstructions of superior quality to those produced by FISTA and in less computational time, due to the speed of the original CG for least squares problems. In the Appendix we examine the behavior of one of the superiorized CG methods (we call it S-CG); one of its input parameters is a positive number ɛ. It is proved that, for any given ɛ that is greater than the half-squared-residual for the least squares solution, S-CG terminates in a finite number of steps with an output for which the half-squared-residual is less than or equal to ɛ. Importantly, it is also the case that the output will have a lower value of TV than what would be provided by unsuperiorized CG for the same value ɛ of the half-squared residual.

  10. Manthar-03: a high-yielding cultivar of wheat released for general cultivation in Southern Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Akhtar, L.H.; Nasim, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report the release of a new wheat variety Manthar-03. 'Manthar-03' is a high yielding and rust resistant variety of bread wheat with erect growth habit. It was released in the year 2003 as a general purpose variety. Manthar-03 is a selection from CIMMYT material (Entry No. 42 of 29 International Bread Wheat Screening Nursery) made at Regional Agricultural Research Institute (RARI), Bahawalpur during 1996-97. This strain has the famous CIMMYT line 'Kauz' in its parentage (KAUZ//ALTAR 84/AOS). Its pedigree is CM11163-6M-20Y-10M- 0M-0B. It is a more adapted and a high yielder. Genetically, this strain differs from existing commercial cultivars of Punjab. Resistance against leaf rust (5MRMS to 10MR), RRI value of 6.7 and 7.6 for leaf rust and ACI values of 3.4 and 0.7 for leaf rust) and high yield potential (6300 kg ha-1 ) are the major attributes of Manthar-03 that make it a superior variety for its target regions. Manthar-03 is tolerant to wheat aphid and Helicoverpa armigera. The thousand seed weight of this variety is 40-44 g. Seed is amber in color and contains 12.97% protein, 8.2% dry gluten and 1.55% ash. It has good chapati making quality. Plant type of Manthar-03 is erect with plant height 94 cm and droopy flag leaves. It is lodging resistant. It completes heading in 98 days and matures in 142 days. Manthar-03 performs better when planted from 15, November to 1, December, keeping 125 kg ha/sup -1/ seed rate and 125-85-50 kg NPK ha/sup -1/ are applied. (author)

  11. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corbellini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  12. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Monotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  13. The pygmy whitefish, Coregonus coulteri, in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.; Bailey, Reeve M.

    1955-01-01

    Bottom trawling by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service motor vessel Cisco in Lake Superior in 1952–1953 revealed a large population of a tiny whitefish, Coregonus (Prosopium) coulteri, which has been reported previously only from northwestern North America. The hiatus in range, from Lake Superior to the Columbia River basin, is the greatest known for a North American freshwater fish. Although minor structural differences characterize the disjunct populations of the pygmy whitefish, these are not deemed worthy of nomenclatorial recognition. Comparisons with related species indicate that the pygmy whitefish is distinctive in the small size, large scales, few vertebrae, few pyloric caeca, and in other characters.

  14. Ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbacioglu, Kerem Seref; Aksel, Gokhan; Yildiz, Altan

    2016-03-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery (SGA) is very rare and the most common causes are blunt or penetrating pelvic traumas. Although pseudoaneurysm can be asymptomatic at the time of initial trauma, it can be symptomatic weeks, months, even years after initial trauma. We present a case of a ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock twenty days after a bomb injury in the Syria civil war. In addition, we review the anatomy of the SGA, clinical presentation and pitfalls of pseudoaneurysm, and imaging and treatment options.

  15. Designing Pareto-superior demand-response rate options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, I.; Woo, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    We explore three voluntary service options-real-time pricing, time-of-use pricing, and curtailable/interruptible service-that a local distribution company might offer its customers in order to encourage them to alter their electricity usage in response to changes in the electricity-spot-market price. These options are simple and practical, and make minimal information demands. We show that each of the options is Pareto-superior ex ante, in that it benefits both the participants and the company offering it, while not affecting the non-participants. The options are shown to be Pareto-superior ex post as well, except under certain exceptional circumstances. (author)

  16. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy via trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathon, Bertrand; Clemenceau, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. The rationale of the selective amygdalohippocampectomy is to spare cerebral tissue not included in the seizure generator. Describe the selective amygdalohippocampectomy through the trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy is performed when the data (semiology, neuroimaging, electroencephalography) point to the mesial temporal structures. The trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach is a minimally invasive and safe technique that allows disconnection of the temporal stem and resection of temporomesial structures.

  17. Síndrome de veia cava superior Superior vena cava syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMUEL ZUÍNGLIO DE BIASI CORDEIRO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A obstrução ao fluxo sanguíneo na VCS e suas manifestações clínicas têm hoje como causa principal o câncer de pulmão. A história relata que no século XVIII a sífilis e a tuberculose eram responsáveis por 40% dos casos conhecidos. O conhecimento das alterações hemodinâmicas compreendidas nesta síndrome assim como a apuração das técnicas de diagnóstico de imagem e de citopatologia permitem hoje que o médico possa tratar de seu paciente com mais segurança e conforto do que há 10 anos. A TC contrastada e a RM auxiliam no diagnóstico de localização da obstrução e técnicas mais antigas como a cavografia puderam ser abandonadas. O diagnóstico de obstrução da VCS e o estudo por Doppler realizado à beira do leito em muito contribuem para a realização de procedimentos de desobstrução como a angioplastia transluminal percutânea nos casos de trombose ou estenose do vaso. Também a utilização de próteses como PTFE é de importância fundamental na condução de casos de lesão traumática da VCS durante cirurgias para câncer pulmonar ou mediastinal. No campo da radioterapia, a técnica de fracionamento permite que altas doses de irradiação sejam administradas aos pacientes portadores de neoplasias malignas, com benefícios em 70% dos casos.Lung cancer is now the main cause of blood flow obstruction in the superior vena cava and of its clinical manifestations. History tells that in the 18th Century, syphilis and tuberculosis were responsible for 40% of the known cases. The knowledge of hemodynamic changes seen in this syndrome and the improvement of diagnostic and cytopathologic techniques allow for a safer and more comfortable treatment of the patient than 10 years ago. Contrast CT and MR added to the identification and location of the obstruction, and older techniques such as cavography could be abandoned. SVC obstruction diagnosis and Doppler studies carried out at the bed of the patient contribute to

  18. Predicted Exoplanet Yields for the HabEx Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Christopher; Mennesson, Bertrand; HabEx STDT

    2018-01-01

    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) is a concept for a flagship mission to directly image and characterize extrasolar planets around nearby stars and to enable a broad range of general astrophysics. The HabEx Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) is currently studying two architectures for HabEx. Here we summarize the exoplanet science yield of Architecture A, a 4 m monolithic off-axis telescope that uses a vortex coronagraph and a 72m external starshade occulter. We summarize the instruments' capabilities, present science goals and observation strategies, and discuss astrophysical assumptions. Using a yield optimization code, we predict the yield of potentially Earth-like extrasolar planets that could be detected, characterized, and searched for signs of habitability and/or life by HabEx. We demonstrate that HabEx could also detect and characterize a wide variety of exoplanets while searching for potentially Earth-like planets.

  19. GDP growth and the yield curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig Vinther

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the forecastability of GDP growth using information from the term structure of yields. In contrast to previous studies, the paper shows that the curvature of the yield curve contributes with much more forecasting power than the slope of yield curve. The yield curvature also...... predicts bond returns, implying a common element to time-variation in expected bond returns and expected GDP growth....

  20. Line tester analysis of yield and yield related attributed in different sunflower genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, S.U.; Khan, M.A.; Usman, K.; Sayal, O.U.

    2014-01-01

    This paper encompasses the study of line * tester analysis to chalk out genetic implications regarding yield and yield relating components in different genotypes of sunflower. Eight parents (four CMS lines and four restorers) along with their sixteen F1 hybrids were considered and planted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated thrice at experimental area of Oilseed Research Program, National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan in 2011. Combining ability for some important morphological traits included days to flower initiation, days to flower completion, days to maturity, plant height, head diameter and seed yield plant-1. In this concern general combining ability (GCA), reciprocals combining ability (RCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for all traits were studied. The GCA and SCA variances due to lines and testers interaction were significant for all the characters. However, the magnitude of GCAs from CMS lines (females) and restorers (pollinators) were higher than the SCA indicating preponderance of additive genes in the expression of all the traits. Among the lines, CMS-HA-54 whereas in testers, RHP-71, by manifesting maximum GCA effects were considered as the best general combiners for almost all the traits indicating the presence of more additive gene effects in these parents, therefore may serve as potential parents for hybridization and to improve the characters studied. Among the F1 hybrids, CMS HA-99 * RHP-76 (1.54, 212.65) and CMS HA-101 * RHP-73 (0.91, 432.73) were found as the best specific combiners for head or capitulum and seed yield. Hence, if farming community and researchers include these hybrids in their selection and hybridization program for the trait under study optimum result may be obtained. (author)

  1. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage.

  2. Fission yield data evaluation system FYDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingjin

    1998-01-01

    Taking account of some features of fission yield data, to do the fission yield data evaluation conveniently, a fission yield data evaluation system FYDES has been developed for last two years. Outline of the system, data retrieval and data table standardization, data correction codes, data averaging code, simultaneous evaluation code and data fit programs were introduced

  3. modelling relationship between rainfall variability and yields

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , S. and ... factors to rice yield. Adebayo and Adebayo (1997) developed double log multiple regression model to predict rice yield in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The general form of .... the second are the crop yield/values for millet and sorghum ...

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Irrigation Levels of Drip Irrigation (Tape on Yield and Yield Components of Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad karimi

    2016-02-01

    efficiency in each of the treatments and limitation of water resources, one row planting pattern with crop density equal to 90000 under drip irrigation at 80% and 120% (If there is no water restrictions of water requirement were suitable. Conclusion: According to the table of variance analysis, it can be seen that the effect of irrigation on corn grain yield was not significant. Research results of Sorensen and Butts (2005 and Azari et al. (2007 have also confirmed this subject. The grain yield in one row planting method was superior compared to two rows planting method. The superiority of one ton per hectare was statistically significant and substantial. Grain yields varied from 5360 to 12873 kg/ha among the treatments: in drip irrigation at a level of 120% water requirement in the two rows planting pattern and crop density equal to 75000 plants per hectare was 12873 kg/ha and the lowest yield was found in drip irrigation at a level of 80% water requirement in the two-row planting pattern and crop density equal to 75000 plants per hectare as 5360 kg/ha. With regard to mean comparisons of grain yield under the effects of interaction, and water use efficiency for each treatments, I1R1D2, I3R1D2, I1R1D1 and I2R2D3 treatments seem better than others.

  5. Memory for Pictorial Information and the Picture Superiority Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisto, Albert A.; Queen, Debbie Elaine

    1992-01-01

    The performance of 53 younger adults (mean age 20.7) and 52 older adults (mean age 68.3) was compared in a memory task involving pictures, words, and pictures-plus-words. Results showed (1) significantly higher recall scores for younger adults; (2) equivalent picture superiority effect for both groups; and (3) decline in older adults' performance…

  6. Temporal versus Superior Limbal Incision: Any difference in visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To compare the visual outcome of a superiorly placed limbal incision with a temporal limbal incision in extracapsular cataract surgery. The main outcome measures are visual acuity and the degree of stigmatism based on refraction. Method: A retrospective non randomized comparative study. Medical records of 40 ...

  7. Morphological evaluation of the superior colliculus of young Wistar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological evaluation of the superior colliculus of young Wistar rats following prenatal exposure to Carica papaya leaf extract. ... 9 and 10 of gestation (Group A); days 16 and 17 (Group B); and on days 9, 10, 16 and 17 (Group C); while Group D represented the control, and received distilled water throughout gestation.

  8. Superior repair: A useful approach for some anatomic variants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    retrospectively reviewed.Three patients had long narrow venous stalk connecting the coronary sinus to venous confl uence; two had the right pulmonary veins draining to superior vena cava (SVC) and left pulmonary veins to left lateral wall of SVC and one had an obstruction at entrance of Pulmonary Vein into venous confl ...

  9. Superiority of legendre polynomials to Chebyshev polynomial in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we proved the superiority of Legendre polynomial to Chebyshev polynomial in solving first order ordinary differential equation with rational coefficient. We generated shifted polynomial of Chebyshev, Legendre and Canonical polynomials which deal with solving differential equation by first choosing Chebyshev ...

  10. Developmental Trends of the Defence of Superior Order: Acritical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developmental Trends of the Defence of Superior Order: Acritical Appraisal of the Statute of the International Criminal Court. Eni E Alobo. Abstract. No Abstract. LWATI: A Journal of Contemporary Research, 9(3), 107-125, 2012. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  11. Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassel, B. van

    1995-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage

  12. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) provides a superior tool for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) provides a superior tool for the diagnosis of Pneumococcal Infection in Burkina Faso. Y Chaibou, M Congo/Ouedraogo, I Sanou, H Somlare, K Ouattara, CM Kienou, H Belem, E Sampo, SA Traore, R Traore/Ouedraogo, C Hatcher, L Mayer, X Wang, L Sangare ...

  13. The Quagga mussel invades the Lake Superior basin - journal article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior studies recognized the presence of a single dreissenid species in Lake Superior--the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. However, taxonomic keys based on traditional shell morphology are not always able to differentiate dreissenid species with confidence. We thus employed ge...

  14. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin; Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization

  15. Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassel, B. van [McKinsey and Co., Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage.

  16. Dynamic ensemble coding of saccades in the monkey superior colliculus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, H.H.L.M.; Opstal, A.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The deeper layers of the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) contain a topographic motor map in which a localized population of cells is recruited for each saccade, but how the brain stem decodes the dynamic SC output is unclear. Here we analyze saccade-related responses in the monkey SC to test a new

  17. Residual symptoms after surgery for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caca, Ihsan; Sahin, Alparslan; Cingu, Abdullah; Ari, Seyhmus; Akbas, Umut

    2012-01-01

    To establish the surgical results and residual symptoms in 48 cases with unilateral congenital superior oblique muscle palsy that had surgical intervention to the vertical muscles alone. Myectomy and concomitant disinsertion of the inferior oblique (IO) muscle was performed in 38 cases and myectomy and concomitant IO disinsertion and recession of the superior rectus muscle in the ipsilateral eye was performed in 10 cases. The preoperative and postoperative vertical deviation values and surgical results were compared. Of the patients who had myectomy and concomitant IO disinsertion, 74% achieved an "excellent" result, 21% a "good" result, and 5% a "poor" result postoperatively. The difference in deviation between preoperative and postoperative values was statistically significant (P < .001). Of the patients who had myectomy and concomitant inferior oblique disinsertion and ipsilateral superior rectus recession, 50% achieved an "excellent" result, 20% a "good" result, and 30% a "poor" result postoperatively. The difference in deviation between preoperative and postoperative values was statistically significant (P < .001). Both procedures are effective and successful in patients with superior oblique muscle palsy, but a secondary surgery may be required. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. High-resolution, time-resolved MRA provides superior definition of lower-extremity arterial segments compared to 2D time-of-flight imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, F J; Du, J; Suleiman, S A; Dieter, R; Tefera, G; Pillai, K R; Korosec, F R; Mistretta, C A; Grist, T M

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate a novel time-resolved contrast-enhanced (CE) projection reconstruction (PR) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) method for identifying potential bypass graft target vessels in patients with Class II-IV peripheral vascular disease. Twenty patients (M:F = 15:5, mean age = 58 years, range = 48-83 years), were recruited from routine MRA referrals. All imaging was performed on a 1.5 T MRI system with fast gradients (Signa LX; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). Images were acquired with a novel technique that combined undersampled PR with a time-resolved acquisition to yield an MRA method with high temporal and spatial resolution. The method is called PR hyper time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (PR-hyperTRICKS). Quantitative and qualitative analyses were used to compare two-dimensional (2D) time-of-flight (TOF) and PR-hyperTRICKS in 13 arterial segments per lower extremity. Statistical analysis was performed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Fifteen percent (77/517) of the vessels were scored as missing or nondiagnostic with 2D TOF, but were scored as diagnostic with PR-hyperTRICKS. Image quality was superior with PR-hyperTRICKS vs. 2D TOF (on a four-point scale, mean rank = 3.3 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.9 +/- 1.2, P < 0.0001). PR-hyperTRICKS produced images with high contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and high spatial and temporal resolution. 2D TOF images were of inferior quality due to moderate spatial resolution, inferior CNR, greater flow-related artifacts, and absence of temporal resolution. PR-hyperTRICKS provides superior preoperative assessment of lower limb ischemia compared to 2D TOF.

  19. A novel subcutaneous site of islet transplantation superior to the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunami, Yohichi; Nakafusa, Yuki; Nitta, Naoyoshi; Nakamura, Masafumi; Goto, Masafumi; Ono, Junko; Taniguchi, Masaru

    2018-03-08

    Islet transplantation is an attractive treatment for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and currently the liver is the favored transplantation site. However, an alternative site is desirable because of the low efficiency of hepatic transplantation, requiring 2-3 donors for a single recipient, and because the transplanted islets cannot be accessed or retrieved. We developed a novel procedure of islet transplantation to the inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (ISWAT) of mice and described functional and morphological characteristics of transplanted syngeneic islets. Also, it was determined whether islet allograft rejection in the ISWAT can be prevented by immunosuppressive agents. Furthermore, it was examined whether human islets function when grafted in this particular site of immune-deficient mice. In this site, transplanted islets are engrafted as clusters and function to reverse STZ-induced diabetes in mice. Importantly, transplanted islets can be visualized by CT and are easily retrievable, and allograft rejection is preventable by blockade of co-stimulatory signals. Of much importance, the efficiency of islet transplantation in this site is superior to the liver, in which hyperglycemia of diabetic recipient mice is ameliorated after transplantation of 200 syngeneic islets (the islet number yielded from 1 mouse pancreas) to the ISWAT but not to the liver. Furthermore, human islets transplanted in this particular site function to reverse diabetes in immune-deficient mice. Thus, the ISWAT is superior to the liver as the site of islet transplantation, which may lead to improved outcome of clinical islet transplantation.

  20. Yield response and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...