WorldWideScience

Sample records for superior voice timbre

  1. Superior voice timbre processing in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Jean-Pierre; Belin, Pascal

    2006-09-25

    After several years of exposure to musical instrument practice, musicians acquire a great expertise in processing auditory features like tonal pitch or timbre. Here we compared the performance of musicians and non-musicians in two timbre discrimination tasks: one using instrumental timbres, the other using voices. Both accuracy (d-prime) and reaction time measures were obtained. The results indicate that the musicians performed better than the non-musicians at both tasks. The musicians also took more time to respond at both tasks. One interpretation of this result is that the expertise musicians acquired with instrumental timbres during their training transferred to timbres of voice. The musician participants may also have used different cognitive strategies during the experiment. Higher response times found in musicians can be explained by a longer verbal-auditory memory and the use of a strategy to further process auditory features.

  2. Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainka, Alexander; Poznyakovskiy, Anton; Platzek, Ivan; Fleischer, Mario; Sundberg, Johan; Mürbe, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The vocal tract shape is crucial to voice production. Its lower part seems particularly relevant for voice timbre. This study analyzes the detailed morphology of parts of the epilaryngeal tube and the hypopharynx for the sustained German vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ by thirteen male singer subjects who were at the beginning of their academic singing studies. Analysis was based on two different phonatory conditions: a natural, speech-like phonation and a singing phonation, like in classical singing. 3D models of the vocal tract were derived from magnetic resonance imaging and compared with long-term average spectrum analysis of audio recordings from the same subjects. Comparison of singing to the speech-like phonation, which served as reference, showed significant adjustments of the lower vocal tract: an average lowering of the larynx by 8 mm and an increase of the hypopharyngeal cross-sectional area (+ 21:9%) and volume (+ 16:8%). Changes in the analyzed epilaryngeal portion of the vocal tract were not significant. Consequently, lower larynx-to-hypopharynx area and volume ratios were found in singing compared to the speech-like phonation. All evaluated measures of the lower vocal tract varied significantly with vowel quality. Acoustically, an increase of high frequency energy in singing correlated with a wider hypopharyngeal area. The findings offer an explanation how classical male singers might succeed in producing a voice timbre with increased high frequency energy, creating a singer`s formant cluster.

  3. Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mainka

    Full Text Available The vocal tract shape is crucial to voice production. Its lower part seems particularly relevant for voice timbre. This study analyzes the detailed morphology of parts of the epilaryngeal tube and the hypopharynx for the sustained German vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ by thirteen male singer subjects who were at the beginning of their academic singing studies. Analysis was based on two different phonatory conditions: a natural, speech-like phonation and a singing phonation, like in classical singing. 3D models of the vocal tract were derived from magnetic resonance imaging and compared with long-term average spectrum analysis of audio recordings from the same subjects. Comparison of singing to the speech-like phonation, which served as reference, showed significant adjustments of the lower vocal tract: an average lowering of the larynx by 8 mm and an increase of the hypopharyngeal cross-sectional area (+ 21:9% and volume (+ 16:8%. Changes in the analyzed epilaryngeal portion of the vocal tract were not significant. Consequently, lower larynx-to-hypopharynx area and volume ratios were found in singing compared to the speech-like phonation. All evaluated measures of the lower vocal tract varied significantly with vowel quality. Acoustically, an increase of high frequency energy in singing correlated with a wider hypopharyngeal area. The findings offer an explanation how classical male singers might succeed in producing a voice timbre with increased high frequency energy, creating a singer`s formant cluster.

  4. The “voice colours”: expressing emotions through the singing voice timbre

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana

    2008-01-01

    A expressão das emoções na voz cantada faz-se segundo um código com vários parâmetros tais como: tempo, vibrato, ritmo, afinação, amplitude e timbre. O objectivo deste estudo é compreender como é que o timbre expressa as emoções do performer. Doze cantores profissionais foram gravados a cantar peças musicais eruditas com um conteúdo emocional específico – Tristeza, Alegria, Raiva e Medo – e um vocalizo (Neutro). Os dados consistiram em 432 vogais extraídas das gravações aceites perceptivament...

  5. Effects of voice timbre and accompaniment on working memory as measured by sequential monosyllabic digit recall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J; Schwartzberg, Edward T

    2014-01-01

    Information is often paired with music in an attempt to facilitate recall and enhance learning. However, there is a lack of basic research investigating how music carrying information might facilitate recall and subsequent learning. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of voice timbre and accompaniment on working memory as measured by recall performance on a sequential digit recall task. Specific research questions were as follows: (a) How might female and male voice timbres affect serial recall? (b) How might piano, guitar, and no accompaniment affect serial recall? (c) Do music majors have enhanced recall accuracy when compared to nonmusic majors? The recall of information paired with six different melodies was tested on 60 university students. Melodies were composed and recorded using female and male voices with three levels of accompaniment: guitar, piano, and no accompaniment. Participants had more accurate recall during the male voice and piano and no accompaniment conditions and least accurate recall during the female voice and guitar accompaniment conditions. As participants had most accurate recall during the male voice and with piano or no accompaniment, clinicians are encouraged to consider using no accompaniment or piano accompaniment when initially teaching social and academic information paired with music for later recall. When possible, vocal timbre (i.e., the potential benefit of male voicing) should also be considered. Implications for clinical practice, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are provided. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The timbre of the voice as perceived by the singer him-/herself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurma, Allan

    2014-04-01

    Fifteen professional singers sang simple vocal exercises at different pitches. The sung excerpts were recorded, and seven modified versions were created from each recording. The modifications were then played to the participant and (s)he had to assess the similarity of these stimuli to the perception of his/her own voice during the act of singing. Participants rated as most similar those stimuli which were modified by the filter whose frequency response most closely resembled a trapezoid, which was created by taking into account 1) the diffracting air conduction component from the mouth of the singer to his ear channel, 2) the bone conduction component, and also 3) the influence of the stapedius reflex on the sensitivity of his/her auditory system.

  7. The timbre model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kristoffer

    2002-11-01

    A timbre model is proposed for use in multiple applications. This model, which encompasses all voiced isolated musical instruments, has an intuitive parameter set, fixed size, and separates the sounds in dimensions akin to the timbre dimensions as proposed in timbre research. The analysis of the model parameters is fully documented, and it proposes, in particular, a method for the estimation of the difficult decay/release split-point. The main parameters of the model are the spectral envelope, the attack/release durations and relative amplitudes, and the inharmonicity and the shimmer and jitter (which provide both for the slow random variations of the frequencies and amplitudes, and also for additive noises). Some of the applications include synthesis, where a real-time application is being developed with an intuitive gui, classification, and search of sounds based on the content of the sounds, and a further understanding of acoustic musical instrument behavior. In order to present the background of the model, this presentation will start with sinusoidal A/S, some timbre perception research, then present the timbre model, show the validity for individual music instrument sounds, and finally introduce some expression additions to the model.

  8. Voice range in superior laryngeal nerve paresis and paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, C A; Sataloff, R T; Hawkshaw, M; Spiegel, J R; Mandel, S

    1998-09-01

    Evaluation of Physiologic Frequency Range (PFR) and Musical Frequency Range (MRP) of Phonation was performed on 56 adults (singers and nonsingers) presenting with superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) paresis or paralysis confirmed by laryngeal electromyography. The most common etiology was neuritis (69.7%), followed by iatrogenic and unknown causes,each accounting for 10.2% of cases, and finally trauma (8.9%). Both female and male singers with SLN paresis or paralysis had significantly higher PFR and MPR than nonsingers. Female classical singers presented PFR and MPR of up to 10 semitones (ST) higher than nonclassical singers and nonsingers. The lowest PFR and musical ranges were found in patients with SLN paresis associated with recurrent laryngeal nerve paresis or paralysis. The authors suggest that voice range measurement is a useful parameter for analyzing the effects of SLN paresis or paralysis on voice and that it may also assist in measuring outcome following voice therapy.

  9. Vibrotactile Discrimination of Musical Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Frank A.; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched…

  10. Neuropsychological studies of musical timbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Séverine

    2003-11-01

    Musical timbre is a multidimensional property of sound that allows one to distinguish musical instruments. In this paper, studies that explore the cerebral substrate underlying the processing of musical timbre are discussed. Perceptual asymmetries measured in normal participants, deficits of musical timbre perception obtained in brain-damaged patients, as well as results obtained with various neuroimaging methods are reviewed. The findings obtained in all of these studies generally support the predominant involvement of right temporal lobe areas, and more specifically of its anterior part, in processing spectral and temporal envelopes of musical timbre. However, controversies still exist about the contribution of the left temporal lobe in timbre perception. The necessity of comparing data obtained with different perceptual paradigms (same-different discrimination and similarity judgment) and various types of stimuli (single tones and melodies) was emphasized by reporting lesion studies carried out in patients with unilateral temporal lobe lesions. The few neuroimaging studies published in this domain provided additional and complementary findings. Unlike lesion studies that allow us to infer the cerebral structures that are essential for timbre perception, the latter investigations implicate a more distributed neural network in timbre processing that extends along the superior temporal gyrus to include not only anterior but also posterior temporal regions and possibly frontal areas as well.

  11. Superior voice recognition in a patient with acquired prosopagnosia and object agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Adria E N; Démonet, Jean-François; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2010-11-01

    Anecdotally, it has been reported that individuals with acquired prosopagnosia compensate for their inability to recognize faces by using other person identity cues such as hair, gait or the voice. Are they therefore superior at the use of non-face cues, specifically voices, to person identity? Here, we empirically measure person and object identity recognition in a patient with acquired prosopagnosia and object agnosia. We quantify person identity (face and voice) and object identity (car and horn) recognition for visual, auditory, and bimodal (visual and auditory) stimuli. The patient is unable to recognize faces or cars, consistent with his prosopagnosia and object agnosia, respectively. He is perfectly able to recognize people's voices and car horns and bimodal stimuli. These data show a reverse shift in the typical weighting of visual over auditory information for audiovisual stimuli in a compromised visual recognition system. Moreover, the patient shows selectively superior voice recognition compared to the controls revealing that two different stimulus domains, persons and objects, may not be equally affected by sensory adaptation effects. This also implies that person and object identity recognition are processed in separate pathways. These data demonstrate that an individual with acquired prosopagnosia and object agnosia can compensate for the visual impairment and become quite skilled at using spared aspects of sensory processing. In the case of acquired prosopagnosia it is advantageous to develop a superior use of voices for person identity recognition in everyday life. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Early development of polyphonic sound encoding and the high voice superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Céline; Trainor, Laurel J

    2014-05-01

    Previous research suggests that when two streams of pitched tones are presented simultaneously, adults process each stream in a separate memory trace, as reflected by mismatch negativity (MMN), a component of the event-related potential (ERP). Furthermore, a superior encoding of the higher tone or voice in polyphonic sounds has been found for 7-month-old infants and both musician and non-musician adults in terms of a larger amplitude MMN in response to pitch deviant stimuli in the higher than the lower voice. These results, in conjunction with modeling work, suggest that the high voice superiority effect might originate in characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. If this is the case, the high voice superiority effect should be present in infants younger than 7 months. In the present study we tested 3-month-old infants as there is no evidence at this age of perceptual narrowing or specialization of musical processing according to the pitch or rhythmic structure of music experienced in the infant׳s environment. We presented two simultaneous streams of tones (high and low) with 50% of trials modified by 1 semitone (up or down), either on the higher or the lower tone, leaving 50% standard trials. Results indicate that like the 7-month-olds, 3-month-old infants process each tone in a separate memory trace and show greater saliency for the higher tone. Although MMN was smaller and later in both voices for the group of sixteen 3-month-olds compared to the group of sixteen 7-month-olds, the size of the difference in MMN for the high compared to low voice was similar across ages. These results support the hypothesis of an innate peripheral origin of the high voice superiority effect.

  13. Leaders' achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea manage

  14. Leaders’ achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea manage

  15. Leaders’ achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea manage

  16. Leaders' achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, Roy B. L.; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea manage

  17. Leaders' achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, Roy B. L.; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea

  18. Leaders’ achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea

  19. Explaining the high voice superiority effect in polyphonic music: evidence from cortical evoked potentials and peripheral auditory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J; Marie, Céline; Bruce, Ian C; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2014-02-01

    Natural auditory environments contain multiple simultaneously-sounding objects and the auditory system must parse the incoming complex sound wave they collectively create into parts that represent each of these individual objects. Music often similarly requires processing of more than one voice or stream at the same time, and behavioral studies demonstrate that human listeners show a systematic perceptual bias in processing the highest voice in multi-voiced music. Here, we review studies utilizing event-related brain potentials (ERPs), which support the notions that (1) separate memory traces are formed for two simultaneous voices (even without conscious awareness) in auditory cortex and (2) adults show more robust encoding (i.e., larger ERP responses) to deviant pitches in the higher than in the lower voice, indicating better encoding of the former. Furthermore, infants also show this high-voice superiority effect, suggesting that the perceptual dominance observed across studies might result from neurophysiological characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Although musically untrained adults show smaller responses in general than musically trained adults, both groups similarly show a more robust cortical representation of the higher than of the lower voice. Finally, years of experience playing a bass-range instrument reduces but does not reverse the high voice superiority effect, indicating that although it can be modified, it is not highly neuroplastic. Results of new modeling experiments examined the possibility that characteristics of middle-ear filtering and cochlear dynamics (e.g., suppression) reflected in auditory nerve firing patterns might account for the higher-voice superiority effect. Simulations show that both place and temporal AN coding schemes well-predict a high-voice superiority across a wide range of interval spacings and registers. Collectively, we infer an innate, peripheral origin for the higher-voice superiority observed in human

  20. Neural correlates of timbre change in harmonic sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, V; Levitin, D J; Smith, B K; Lembke, A; Krasnow, B D; Glazer, D; Glover, G H; McAdams, S

    2002-12-01

    Timbre is a major structuring force in music and one of the most important and ecologically relevant features of auditory events. We used sound stimuli selected on the basis of previous psychophysiological studies to investigate the neural correlates of timbre perception. Our results indicate that both the left and right hemispheres are involved in timbre processing, challenging the conventional notion that the elementary attributes of musical perception are predominantly lateralized to the right hemisphere. Significant timbre-related brain activation was found in well-defined regions of posterior Heschl's gyrus and superior temporal sulcus, extending into the circular insular sulcus. Although the extent of activation was not significantly different between left and right hemispheres, temporal lobe activations were significantly posterior in the left, compared to the right, hemisphere, suggesting a functional asymmetry in their respective contributions to timbre processing. The implications of our findings for music processing in particular and auditory processing in general are discussed.

  1. Mouth and Voice: A Relationship between Visual and Auditory Preference in the Human Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin L; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2017-03-08

    Cortex in and around the human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is known to be critical for speech perception. The pSTS responds to both the visual modality (especially biological motion) and the auditory modality (especially human voices). Using fMRI in single subjects with no spatial smoothing, we show that visual and auditory selectivity are linked. Regions of the pSTS were identified that preferred visually presented moving mouths (presented in isolation or as part of a whole face) or moving eyes. Mouth-preferring regions responded strongly to voices and showed a significant preference for vocal compared with nonvocal sounds. In contrast, eye-preferring regions did not respond to either vocal or nonvocal sounds. The converse was also true: regions of the pSTS that showed a significant response to speech or preferred vocal to nonvocal sounds responded more strongly to visually presented mouths than eyes. These findings can be explained by environmental statistics. In natural environments, humans see visual mouth movements at the same time as they hear voices, while there is no auditory accompaniment to visual eye movements. The strength of a voxel's preference for visual mouth movements was strongly correlated with the magnitude of its auditory speech response and its preference for vocal sounds, suggesting that visual and auditory speech features are coded together in small populations of neurons within the pSTS.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans interacting face to face make use of auditory cues from the talker's voice and visual cues from the talker's mouth to understand speech. The human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a brain region known to be important for speech perception, is complex, with some regions responding to specific visual stimuli and others to specific auditory stimuli. Using BOLD fMRI, we show that the natural statistics of human speech, in which voices co-occur with mouth movements, are reflected in the neural architecture of

  2. An investigation of musical timbre

    OpenAIRE

    Malloch, S.; Campbell, A

    1994-01-01

    Musical timbre is a particularly difficult attribute to measure and quantify. However, Pollard and Janson (1982) [3] have successfully plotted the changing timbre of the starting transient and steady state of a single note. Following on from their work, the changing timbre of an ensemble piece of music is graphed using just two independent parameters, these being derived from Stevens (1971) [4], Mark VII.

  3. Auditory gist: recognition of very short sounds from timbre cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suied, Clara; Agus, Trevor R; Thorpe, Simon J; Mesgarani, Nima; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Sounds such as the voice or musical instruments can be recognized on the basis of timbre alone. Here, sound recognition was investigated with severely reduced timbre cues. Short snippets of naturally recorded sounds were extracted from a large corpus. Listeners were asked to report a target category (e.g., sung voices) among other sounds (e.g., musical instruments). All sound categories covered the same pitch range, so the task had to be solved on timbre cues alone. The minimum duration for which performance was above chance was found to be short, on the order of a few milliseconds, with the best performance for voice targets. Performance was independent of pitch and was maintained when stimuli contained less than a full waveform cycle. Recognition was not generally better when the sound snippets were time-aligned with the sound onset compared to when they were extracted with a random starting time. Finally, performance did not depend on feedback or training, suggesting that the cues used by listeners in the artificial gating task were similar to those relevant for longer, more familiar sounds. The results show that timbre cues for sound recognition are available at a variety of time scales, including very short ones.

  4. An interdisciplinary study of the timbre of the classical guitar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Caroline

    This dissertation proposes an interdisciplinary approach for the study of the timbre of the classical guitar. We start by identifying the static; control parameters of timbre, relating to the structural components of the guitar and the dynamic control parameters of timbre, relating to the gestures applied by the performer on the instrument. From the plucked string physical model (obtained from the transverse wave equation), we derive a digital signal interpretation of the plucking effect which is a comb filtering. Then we investigate how subjective characteristics of sound, like timbre, are related to gesture parameters. The starting point for exploration is an inventory of verbal descriptors commonly used by professional musicians to describe the brightness, the colour, the shape and the texture of the sounds they produce on their instruments. An explanation for the voice-like nature of guitar tones is proposed based on the observation that the maxima of the comb-filter-shaped magnitude spectrum of guitar tones are located at frequencies similar to the formant frequencies of a subset of identifiable vowels. These analogies at the spectral level might account for the origin of some timbre descriptors such as open, oval, round, thin, closed, nasal and hollow, that seem to refer to phonetic gestures. In a experiment conducted to confirm these analogies, participants were asked to associate a consonant to the attack and a vowel to the decay of guitar tones. The results of this study support the idea that some perceptual dimensions of the guitar timbre space can be borrowed from phonetics. Finally, we address the problem of the indirect acquisition of instrumental gesture parameters. Pursuing previous research on the estimation of the plucking position from a recording, we propose a new estimation method based on an iterative weighted least-square algorithm, starting from a first approximation derived from a variant of the autocorrelation function of the signal.

  5. Timbre Dimensions for Musical Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Gregory Roy

    This dissertation addresses the folowing question: Given the technologies to develop and implement any kind of sound generating and controlling device, what will the instrument designer, the composer, and the performer need to know in order to more fully utilize the dimensions of timbre in music and musical performance? This question is approached from the standpoint of music theory. Definitions of timbre and a few examples of related physical and perceptual research are reviewed. Included is a discussion of the essential elements of musical control and of intelligent organization of sound in music. This discussion raises more questions than can be answered simply. It is an attempt to unravel the nature of sound clues and sound qualities as they convey sound identities and musical gesture. A theoretical simplification of sound dimensions for musical use is proposed. Sounds which can be sustained indefinitely consist of steady-state acoustical dimensions. These dimensions rely upon the perceptual phenomenon of simultaneous fusion (synance). Sounds which can not be sustained indefinitely consist of transitions. Transitions may cause successive fusion (sonance). The discussion of steady-state and transition dimensions includes a review of a few informal experiments. This work reveals problems that will influence the musical use of timbre dimensions. It also leads to a theory for the organization and control of timbre dimensions in music. Among the timbre dimensions discussed are: spectral envelope, harmonic content, brightness, phase, inharmonicity, aperiodicity, and temporal transitions. Questions are raised regarding the perception of harmonic content. The effect of register on perception of tones consisting of from two to nine partials is explored and discussed. The size of interval between partials determines a unique quality. This is most apparent with tones consisting of only two or three partials (dions or trions).

  6. Neural and behavioral investigations into timbre perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Michael Town

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Timbre is the attribute that distinguishes sounds of equal pitch, loudness and duration. It contributes to our perception and discrimination of different vowels and consonants in speech, instruments in music and environmental sounds. Here we begin by reviewing human timbre perception and the spectral and temporal acoustic features that give rise to timbre in speech, musical and environmental sounds. We also consider the perception of timbre by animals, both in the case of human vowels and non-human vocalizations. We then explore the neural representation of timbre, first within the peripheral auditory system and later at the level of the auditory cortex. We examine the neural networks that are implicated in timbre perception and the computations that may be performed in auditory cortex to enable listeners to extract information about timbre. We consider whether single neurons in auditory cortex are capable of representing spectral timbre independently of changes in other perceptual attributes and the mechanisms that may shape neural sensitivity to timbre. Finally, we conclude by outlining some of the questions that remain about the role of neural mechanisms in behavior and consider some potentially fruitful avenues for future research.

  7. Neural and behavioral investigations into timbre perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Stephen M; Bizley, Jennifer K

    2013-11-13

    Timbre is the attribute that distinguishes sounds of equal pitch, loudness and duration. It contributes to our perception and discrimination of different vowels and consonants in speech, instruments in music and environmental sounds. Here we begin by reviewing human timbre perception and the spectral and temporal acoustic features that give rise to timbre in speech, musical and environmental sounds. We also consider the perception of timbre by animals, both in the case of human vowels and non-human vocalizations. We then explore the neural representation of timbre, first within the peripheral auditory system and later at the level of the auditory cortex. We examine the neural networks that are implicated in timbre perception and the computations that may be performed in auditory cortex to enable listeners to extract information about timbre. We consider whether single neurons in auditory cortex are capable of representing spectral timbre independently of changes in other perceptual attributes and the mechanisms that may shape neural sensitivity to timbre. Finally, we conclude by outlining some of the questions that remain about the role of neural mechanisms in behavior and consider some potentially fruitful avenues for future research.

  8. Role of the Internal Superior Laryngeal Nerve in the Motor Responses of Vocal Cords and the Related Voice Acoustic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Seifpanahi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repeated efforts by researchers to impose voice changes by laryngeal surface electrical stimulation (SES have come to no avail. This present pre-experimental study employed a novel method for SES application so as to evoke the motor potential of the internal superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN and create voice changes. Methods: Thirty-two normal individuals (22 females and 10 males participated in this study. The subjects were selected from the students of Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Two monopolar active electrodes were placed on the thyrohyoid space at the location of the ISLN entrance to the larynx and 1 dispersive electrode was positioned on the back of the neck. A current with special programmed parameters was applied to stimulate the ISLN via the active electrodes and simultaneously the resultant acoustic changes were evaluated. All the means of the acoustic parameters during SES and rest periods were compared using the paired t-test. Results: The findings indicated significant changes (P=0.00 in most of the acoustic parameters during SES presentation compared to them at rest. The mean of fundamental frequency standard deviation (SD F0 at rest was 1.54 (SD=0.55 versus 4.15 (SD=3.00 for the SES period. The other investigated parameters comprised fundamental frequency (F0, minimum F0, jitter, shimmer, harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR, mean intensity, and minimum intensity. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated significant changes in most of the important acoustic features, suggesting that the stimulation of the ISLN via SES could induce motor changes in the vocal folds. The clinical applicability of the method utilized in the current study in patients with vocal fold paralysis requires further research.

  9. Absolute pitch: effects of timbre on note-naming ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vanzella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Absolute pitch (AP is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names, it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation, which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP.

  10. Absolute pitch: effects of timbre on note-naming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella, Patrícia; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2010-11-11

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP. A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung) voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones) than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices) test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation), which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age. Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP.

  11. Preparation of stimuli for timbre perception studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuschagne, Ilse B; Hanekom, Johan J

    2013-09-01

    Stimuli used in timbre perception studies must be controlled carefully in order to yield meaningful results. During psychoacoustic testing of individual timbre properties, (1) it must be ensured that timbre properties do not co-vary, as timbre properties are often not independent from one another, and (2) the potential influence of loudness, pitch, and perceived duration must be eliminated. A mathematical additive synthesis method is proposed which allows complete control over two spectral parameters, the spectral centroid (corresponding to brightness) and irregularity, and two temporal parameters, log rise-time (LRT) and a parameter characterizing the sustain/decay segment, while controlling for covariation in the spectral centroid and irregularity. Thirteen musical instrument sounds were synthesized. Perceptual data from six listeners indicate that variation in the four timbre properties mainly influences loudness and that perceived duration and pitch are not influenced significantly for the stimuli of longer duration (2 s) used here. Trends across instruments were found to be similar.

  12. The dependency of timbre on fundamental frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozeau, Jeremy; de Cheveigné, Alain; McAdams, Stephen; Winsberg, Suzanne

    2003-11-01

    The dependency of the timbre of musical sounds on their fundamental frequency (F0) was examined in three experiments. In experiment I subjects compared the timbres of stimuli produced by a set of 12 musical instruments with equal F0, duration, and loudness. There were three sessions, each at a different F0. In experiment II the same stimuli were rearranged in pairs, each with the same difference in F0, and subjects had to ignore the constant difference in pitch. In experiment III, instruments were paired both with and without an F0 difference within the same session, and subjects had to ignore the variable differences in pitch. Experiment I yielded dissimilarity matrices that were similar at different F0's, suggesting that instruments kept their relative positions within timbre space. Experiment II found that subjects were able to ignore the salient pitch difference while rating timbre dissimilarity. Dissimilarity matrices were symmetrical, suggesting further that the absolute displacement of the set of instruments within timbre space was small. Experiment III extended this result to the case where the pitch difference varied from trial to trial. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) of dissimilarity scores produced solutions (timbre spaces) that varied little across conditions and experiments. MDS solutions were used to test the validity of signal-based predictors of timbre, and in particular their stability as a function of F0. Taken together, the results suggest that timbre differences are perceived independently from differences of pitch, at least for F0 differences smaller than an octave. Timbre differences can be measured between stimuli with different F0's.

  13. Infants' Discrimination of Female Singing Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Davila, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    There's extensive research on infant's discrimination of speaking voices but few studies have focused on infant's discrimination of singing voices. Most investigations on infants' perception of timbre in music have been based on instrumental sounds. We completed an experiment with 7-and 13-month-olds (n = 16 and n = 17…

  14. Timbre perception and object separation with normal and impaired hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Emiroglu, Suzan Selma

    2007-01-01

    Timbre is a combination of all auditory object attributes other than pitch, loudness and duration. A timbre distortion caused by a sensorineural hearing loss not only affects music perception, but may also influence object recognition in general. In order to quantify differences in object segregation and timbre discrimination between normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners with a sensorineural hearing loss, a new method for studying timbre perception was developed, which uses cross-fade...

  15. Pitch and Timbre Determination of the Angklung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd R.M. Zainal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the pitch and timbre determination of the angklung, a musical instrument made entirely out of bamboo. An angklung has two main parts: the frame and the rattle tubes. The pitch of the rattle tubes can be determined using a formula that takes into consideration the length and diameter of the air resonator. This is compared with the results obtained using sound analysis with the fast Fourier transform as well as with measured results. The coupling effects of having two rattles on the pitch and timbre are investigated. It is found that the pitch of the angklung is closely related to the fundamental frequency of air resonance in the bamboo tubes of the angklung rattles. Therefore, the pitch of an angklung can be estimated by calculating that fundamental frequency using information from the length and diameter of the closed cylinder air column of each rattle. The timbre of the angklung is also determined to be a mix of the sound output from each of its individual rattles. The timbre has an identifying characteristic of having two prominent peaks with each one corresponding to the pitch of each rattle.

  16. Spectral timbre perception in ferrets; discrimination of artificial vowels under different listening conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizley, Jennifer K; Walker, Kerry MM; King, Andrew J; Schnupp, Jan WH

    2013-01-01

    Spectral timbre is an acoustic feature that enables human listeners to determine the identity of a spoken vowel. Despite its importance to sound perception, little is known about the neural representation of sound timbre and few psychophysical studies have investigated timbre discrimination in non-human species. In this study, ferrets were positively conditioned to discriminate artificial vowel sounds in a two-alternative-forced-choice paradigm. Animals quickly learned to discriminate the vowel sound /u/ from /ε/, and were immediately able to generalize across a range of voice pitches. They were further tested in a series of experiments designed to assess how well they could discriminate these vowel sounds under different listening conditions. First, a series of morphed vowels was created by systematically shifting the location of the first and second formant frequencies. Second, the ferrets were tested with single formant stimuli designed to assess which spectral cues they could be using to make their decisions. Finally, vowel discrimination thresholds were derived in the presence of noise maskers presented from either the same or a different spatial location. These data indicate that ferrets show robust vowel discrimination behavior across a range of listening conditions and that this ability shares many similarities with human listeners. PMID:23297909

  17. Between location and place: A view of timbre through auditory models and sonopoietic space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterbaugh, John David

    1999-10-01

    The following work addresses problems of definitional vagueness surrounding timbre as well as reviewing previous research done in quantifying qualitative aspects of sound (e.g. speech pathology, psychology, psychophysics, voice conversion). In particular, the relationship between phase and timbre (monaural phase perception) is studied. Whereas previous research in monaural phase perception has only used synthetic stimuli, this study proposes a method of controlling the phase of instrumental tones. An auditory model of timbre is presented that demonstrates monaural phase effects similar to those exhibited by listeners. It is argued that a spectro-temporal auditory model, as opposed to a spectral (place code) model, must be used as the basis for a complete timbre model. McAulay and Quatieri's (1986) sinusoidal system provides a method for stimulus generation in which the phases, amplitudes, and frequencies of the spectral components can be individually controlled. Two types of stimuli were generated from instrumental tones-one with random quadratic phase (RQP) and another with measured cubic phase (MCP). The first of two pilot studies indicated that, as the fundamental frequency of the stimuli increases, the listener's ability to discriminate RQP from MCP decreases. The second pilot study demonstrated that a spectro-temporal auditory model can be used to predict monaural phase effects. As the fundamental frequency increased, the distance between the RQP and the MCP decreased. The concept of sonopoietic spaces is introduced in contrast to timbre spaces. Timbre spaces (e.g., produced by multidimensional scaling studies) are premised on generality. This generality comes from attempting to represent many listeners' pair-wise judgements of the similarity between musical tones. Sonopoietic space on the other hand is the space of listening constructed by a listener's interaction with a sonic event (e.g. natural sounds or musical compositions). Sonopoietic images articulate

  18. When speech enhances Spatial Musical Association of Response Codes: Joint spatial associations of pitch and timbre in nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Tina; Estner, Barbara; Lachmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the effect of the Spatial Musical Association of Response Codes (SMARC) depends on various features, such as task conditions (whether pitch height is implicit or explicit), response dimension (horizontal vs. vertical), presence or absence of a reference tone, and former musical training of the participants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of pitch range and timbre: in particular, how timbre (piano vs. vocal) contributes to the horizontal and vertical SMARC effect in nonmusicians under varied pitch range conditions. Nonmusicians performed a timbre judgement task in which the pitch range was either small (6 or 8 semitone steps) or large (9 or 12 semitone steps) in a horizontal and a vertical response setting. For piano sounds, SMARC effects were observed in all conditions. For the vocal sounds, in contrast, SMARC effects depended on pitch range. We concluded that the occurrence of the SMARC effect, especially in horizontal response settings, depends on the interaction of the timbre (vocal and piano) and pitch range if vocal and instrumental sounds are combined in one experiment: the human voice enhances the attention, both to the vocal and the instrumental sounds.

  19. Timbre-independent extraction of pitch in newborn infants

    OpenAIRE

    HÁDEN, GÁBOR P.; STEFANICS, GÁBOR; Vestergaard, Martin D.; Denham, Susan L.; Sziller, István; Winkler, István

    2008-01-01

    The ability to separate pitch from other spectral sound features, such as timbre, is an important prerequisite of veridical auditory perception underlying speech acquisition and music cognition. The current study investigated whether or not newborn infants generalize pitch across different timbres. Perceived resonator size is an aspect of timbre that informs the listener about the size of the sound source, a cue that may be important already at birth. Therefore, detection of infrequent pitch ...

  20. Consistency of timbre patterns in expressive music performance

    OpenAIRE

    Barthet, Mathieu; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Ystad, Solvi

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Musical interpretation is an intricate process due to the inter- action of the musician's gesture and the physical possibilities of the instrument. From a perceptual point of view, these elements induce variations in rhythm, acoustical energy and timbre. This study aims at showing the importance of timbre variations as an important attribute of musical interpretation. For this purpose, a general protocol aiming at emphasizing specific timbre patterns from the analysis o...

  1. Towards automatic musical instrument timbre recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Hong

    This dissertation is comprised of two parts---focus on issues concerning research and development of an artificial system for automatic musical instrument timbre recognition and musical compositions. The technical part of the essay includes a detailed record of developed and implemented algorithms for feature extraction and pattern recognition. A review of existing literature introducing historical aspects surrounding timbre research, problems associated with a number of timbre definitions, and highlights of selected research activities that have had significant impact in this field are also included. The developed timbre recognition system follows a bottom-up, data-driven model that includes a pre-processing module, feature extraction module, and a RBF/EBF (Radial/Elliptical Basis Function) neural network-based pattern recognition module. 829 monophonic samples from 12 instruments have been chosen from the Peter Siedlaczek library (Best Service) and other samples from the Internet and personal collections. Significant emphasis has been put on feature extraction development and testing to achieve robust and consistent feature vectors that are eventually passed to the neural network module. In order to avoid a garbage-in-garbage-out (GIGO) trap and improve generality, extra care was taken in designing and testing the developed algorithms using various dynamics, different playing techniques, and a variety of pitches for each instrument with inclusion of attack and steady-state portions of a signal. Most of the research and development was conducted in Matlab. The compositional part of the essay includes brief introductions to "A d'Ess Are ," "Aboji," "48 13 N, 16 20 O," and "pH-SQ." A general outline pertaining to the ideas and concepts behind the architectural designs of the pieces including formal structures, time structures, orchestration methods, and pitch structures are also presented.

  2. Spectron: Graphical Model for Interacting With Timbre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gómez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The algorithms for creating and manipulating sound by electronic or digital means have grown in number and complexity since the creation of the first analog synthesizers. The techniques for visualizing these synthesis models have not increasingly grown with synthesizers, neither in hardware nor in software. In this paper, the possibilities to graphically represent and control timbre are presented, based on displaying the parameters involved in its synthesis model. A very simple data set was extracted from a commercial subtractive synthesizer and analyzed in two different approaches, dimensionality reduction and abstract data visualization. The results of these two different approaches were used as leads to design a synthesizer prototype: the Spectron synthesizer. This prototype uses an Amplitude vs. Frequency graphic as it´s main interface to give information about the timbre and to interact with it, it´s control offers a simplification in the amount of variables of a classic oscillator and expands its possibilities to generate additional timbre.

  3. Audiovisual correspondence between musical timbre and visual shapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eAdeli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the cross-modal correspondences between musical timbre and shapes. Previously, such features as pitch, loudness, light intensity, visual size, and color characteristics have mostly been used in studies of audio-visual correspondences. Moreover, in most studies, simple stimuli e.g. simple tones have been utilized. In this experiment, 23 musical sounds varying in fundamental frequency and timbre but fixed in loudness were used. Each sound was presented once against colored shapes and once against grayscale shapes. Subjects had to select the visual equivalent of a given sound i.e. its shape, color (or grayscale and vertical position. This scenario permitted studying the associations between normalized timbre and visual shapes as well as some of the previous findings for more complex stimuli. 119 subjects (31 females and 88 males participated in the online experiment. Subjects included 36 claimed professional musicians, 47 claimed amateur musicians and 36 claimed non-musicians. 31 subjects have also claimed to have synesthesia-like experiences. A strong association between timbre of envelope normalized sounds and visual shapes was observed. Subjects have strongly associated soft timbres with blue, green or light gray rounded shapes, harsh timbres with red, yellow or dark gray sharp angular shapes and timbres having elements of softness and harshness together with a mixture of the two previous shapes. Color or grayscale had no effect on timbre-shape associations. Fundamental frequency was not associated with height, grayscale or color. The significant correspondence between timbre and shape revealed by the present work allows designing substitution systems which might help the blind to perceive shapes through timbre.

  4. Audiovisual correspondence between musical timbre and visual shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Mohammad; Rouat, Jean; Molotchnikoff, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the cross-modal correspondences between musical timbre and shapes. Previously, such features as pitch, loudness, light intensity, visual size, and color characteristics have mostly been used in studies of audio-visual correspondences. Moreover, in most studies, simple stimuli e.g., simple tones have been utilized. In this experiment, 23 musical sounds varying in fundamental frequency and timbre but fixed in loudness were used. Each sound was presented once against colored shapes and once against grayscale shapes. Subjects had to select the visual equivalent of a given sound i.e., its shape, color (or grayscale) and vertical position. This scenario permitted studying the associations between normalized timbre and visual shapes as well as some of the previous findings for more complex stimuli. One hundred and nineteen subjects (31 females and 88 males) participated in the online experiment. Subjects included 36 claimed professional musicians, 47 claimed amateur musicians, and 36 claimed non-musicians. Thirty-one subjects have also claimed to have synesthesia-like experiences. A strong association between timbre of envelope normalized sounds and visual shapes was observed. Subjects have strongly associated soft timbres with blue, green or light gray rounded shapes, harsh timbres with red, yellow or dark gray sharp angular shapes and timbres having elements of softness and harshness together with a mixture of the two previous shapes. Color or grayscale had no effect on timbre-shape associations. Fundamental frequency was not associated with height, grayscale or color. The significant correspondence between timbre and shape revealed by the present work allows designing substitution systems which might help the blind to perceive shapes through timbre.

  5. The Effect of Timbre and Vibrato on Vocal Pitch Matching Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuru, Sirisha

    Research has shown that singers are better able to match pitch when the target stimulus has a timbre close to their own voice. This study seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Do classically trained female singers more accurately match pitch when the target stimulus is more similar to their own timbre? (2) Does the ability to match pitch vary with increasing pitch? (3) Does the ability to match pitch differ depending on whether the target stimulus is produced with or without vibrato? (4) Are mezzo sopranos less accurate than sopranos? Stimuli. Source signals were synthesized with a source slope of -12dB/octave using vibrato and without vibrato at each of the frequencies, C4, B4 and F5. These source signals were filtered using 5 formant patterns (A-E) of vowel /a/ constituting a total of 30 stimuli (5 formant patterns*3pitches*2 vibrato conditions). Procedure. Ten sopranos and 10 mezzo-sopranos with at least 3 years of individual voice training were recruited from the University Of Tennessee School Of Music and the Knoxville Opera Company. Each singer attempted to vocally match the pitch of all 30 stimuli presented twice in a random order. Analysis and results. Pitch matching accuracy was measured in terms of the difference in cents between the target and the experimental productions at two locations, (1) pre-phonatory set (2) mid-point of the vowel. Accuracy of pitch matching was compared across vibrato and non-vibrato conditions. Results indicated that there was no significant effect of formant pattern on pitch matching accuracy. With increasing pitch from C4 to F5, pitch matching accuracy increased in mid-point of the vowel condition but not in pre-phonatory set condition. Mezzo-sopranos moved towards being in tune from pre-phonatory to mid-point of the vowel. However, sopranos at C4, sang closer to being in tune at pre-phonatory, but lowered the pitch at the mid-point of the vowel. Presence or absence of vibrato did not affect the pitch matching accuracy

  6. Behavioral and neural correlates of perceived and imagined musical timbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Andrea R; Zatorre, Robert J; Bouffard, Marc; Johnson, Jennifer A

    2004-01-01

    The generality of findings implicating secondary auditory areas in auditory imagery was tested by using a timbre imagery task with fMRI. Another aim was to test whether activity in supplementary motor area (SMA) seen in prior studies might have been related to subvocalization. Participants with moderate musical background were scanned while making similarity judgments about the timbre of heard or imagined musical instrument sounds. The critical control condition was a visual imagery task. The pattern of judgments in perceived and imagined conditions was similar, suggesting that perception and imagery access similar cognitive representations of timbre. As expected, judgments of heard timbres, relative to the visual imagery control, activated primary and secondary auditory areas with some right-sided asymmetry. Timbre imagery also activated secondary auditory areas relative to the visual imagery control, although less strongly, in accord with previous data. Significant overlap was observed in these regions between perceptual and imagery conditions. Because the visual control task resulted in deactivation of auditory areas relative to a silent baseline, we interpret the timbre imagery effect as a reversal of that deactivation. Despite the lack of an obvious subvocalization component to timbre imagery, some activity in SMA was observed, suggesting that SMA may have a more general role in imagery beyond any motor component.

  7. Working memory for pitch, timbre, and words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to further our understanding of fundamental mechanisms of auditory working memory (WM), the present study compared performance for three auditory materials (words, tones, timbres). In a forward recognition task (Experiment 1) participants indicated whether the order of the items in the second sequence was the same as in the first sequence. In a backward recognition task (Experiment 2) participants indicated whether the items of the second sequence were played in the correct backward order. In Experiment 3 participants performed an articulatory suppression task during the retention delay of the backward task. To investigate potential length effects the number of items per sequence was manipulated. Overall findings underline the benefit of a cross-material experimental approach and suggest that human auditory WM is not a unitary system. Whereas WM processes for timbres differed from those for tones and words, similarities and differences were observed for words and tones: Both types of stimuli appear to rely on rehearsal mechanisms, but might differ in the involved sensorimotor codes. PMID:23116413

  8. 合唱艺术中的音色问题%The Timbre in Chorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜勇

    2011-01-01

    The art of Chorus is a kind of vocal music manifestation which uses voice to express music works, and a kind of "vocal symphonic music" genre which has very rich expressive capacity. Chorus is a collective music performance and music of multi - vocal - parts. What it emphasizes are balance, harmony, and general character. The present form of chorus focuses on "four mixed vocal parts", requiring that each part has different characteristics, different timbre. The timbre plays an important role in chorus and cannot be neglected.%合唱艺术是用人声来表现音乐作品的声乐表现形式,也是一种表现力极为丰富的“声乐交响”音乐体裁。合唱是集体音乐的表演,是多声部的音乐,强调的是均衡、和谐、共性。现在的合唱形式普遍以“混声四部”合唱为主,要求每个声部都有不同的特点,不同的音色,音色在合唱中起着重要的作用,是不能忽视的。

  9. Timbre-independent extraction of pitch in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Háden, Gábor P; Stefanics, Gábor; Vestergaard, Martin D; Denham, Susan L; Sziller, István; Winkler, István

    2009-01-01

    The ability to separate pitch from other spectral sound features, such as timbre, is an important prerequisite of veridical auditory perception underlying speech acquisition and music cognition. The current study investigated whether or not newborn infants generalize pitch across different timbres. Perceived resonator size is an aspect of timbre that informs the listener about the size of the sound source, a cue that may be important already at birth. Therefore, detection of infrequent pitch changes was tested by recording event-related brain potentials in healthy newborn infants to frequent standard and infrequent pitch-deviant sounds while the perceived resonator size of all sounds was randomly varied. The elicitation of an early negative and a later positive discriminative response by deviant sounds demonstrated that the neonate auditory system represents pitch separately from timbre, thus showing advanced pitch processing capabilities.

  10. Effects of timbre and tempo change on memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Andrea R; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the effects of different encoding tasks and of manipulations of two supposedly surface parameters of music on implicit and explicit memory for tunes. In two experiments, participants were first asked to either categorize instrument or judge familiarity of 40 unfamiliar short tunes. Subsequently, participants were asked to give explicit and implicit memory ratings for a list of 80 tunes, which included 40 previously heard. Half of the 40 previously heard tunes differed in timbre (Experiment 1) or tempo (Experiment 2) in comparison with the first exposure. A third experiment compared similarity ratings of the tunes that varied in timbre or tempo. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results suggest first that the encoding task made no difference for either memory mode. Secondly, timbre and tempo change both impaired explicit memory, whereas tempo change additionally made implicit tune recognition worse. Results are discussed in the context of implicit memory for nonsemantic materials and the possible differences in timbre and tempo in musical representations.

  11. Audiovisual correspondence between musical timbre and visual shapes

    OpenAIRE

    Adeli, Mohammad; Rouat, Jean; Molotchnikoff, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the cross-modal correspondences between musical timbre and shapes. Previously, such features as pitch, loudness, light intensity, visual size, and color characteristics have mostly been used in studies of audio-visual correspondences. Moreover, in most studies, simple stimuli e.g., simple tones have been utilized. In this experiment, 23 musical sounds varying in fundamental frequency and timbre but fixed in loudness were used. Each sound was presented once against co...

  12. Multiple scale music segmentation using rhythm, timbre and harmony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2007-01-01

    The segmentation of music into intro-chorus-verse-outro, and similar segments, is a difficult topic. A method for performing automatic segmentation based on features related to rhythm, timbre, and harmony is presented, and compared, between the features and between the features and manual...... segmentation of a database of 48 songs. Standard information retrieval performance measures are used in the comparison, and it is shown that the timbre-related feature performs best....

  13. Multiple Scale Music Segmentation Using Rhythm, Timbre, and Harmony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kristoffer

    2006-12-01

    The segmentation of music into intro-chorus-verse-outro, and similar segments, is a difficult topic. A method for performing automatic segmentation based on features related to rhythm, timbre, and harmony is presented, and compared, between the features and between the features and manual segmentation of a database of 48 songs. Standard information retrieval performance measures are used in the comparison, and it is shown that the timbre-related feature performs best.

  14. Remembering the melody and timbre, forgetting the key and tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Habashi, Peter

    2015-10-01

    The identity of a melody is independent of surface features such as key (pitch level), tempo (speed), and timbre (musical instrument). We examined the duration of memory for melodies (tunes) and whether such memory is affected by changes in key, tempo, or timbre. After listening to previously unfamiliar melodies twice, participants provided recognition ratings for the same (old) melodies as well as for an equal number of new melodies. The delay between initial exposure and test was 10 min, 1 day, or 1 week. In Experiment 1, half of the old melodies were transposed by six semitones or shifted in tempo by 64 beats per minute. In Experiment 2, half of the old melodies were changed in timbre (piano to saxophone, or vice versa). In both experiments, listeners remembered the melodies, and there was no forgetting over the course of a week. Changing the key or tempo from exposure to test had a detrimental impact on recognition after 10 min and 1 day, but not after 1 week. Changing the timbre affected recognition negatively after all three delays. Mental representations of unfamiliar melodies appear to be consolidated after only two presentations. These representations include surface information unrelated to a melody's identity, although information about key and tempo fades at a faster rate than information about timbre.

  15. Beyond the Score: Timbre Analysis in Avant-garde Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Baroni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines perceptual aspects of timbre within the context of avant-garde XX century music. An excerpt from a work by Luciano Berio was taken into account. We recorded it on 8 separate channels each of them devoted to small groups of homogeneous sounds, in order to obtain a global result that we could modify by subtracting one or more of the recorded groups. We prepared four different excerpts: one with the original version and three with modified versions. 50 participants (25 experts, 25 non-experts were invited to fill in a semantic differential bipolar scale made of 12 adjectives, 6 concerning emotional and 6 sensorial aspects of perception. We interpreted the subjects’ responses with the help of a spectrographic analysis and of studies on timbre verbalization. The main aim of our research was to explore the possibilities of timbre analysis, a field that so far has no solid scientific background. The research obtained promising responses from expert listeners, while non-experts manifested a sort of aesthetic refusal of this genre of music. Positive results were obtained also in the critical observations of possibilities and limits of spectrographic analysis and verbalizations of timbre. We hope that our initial data can be useful for future studies on timbre perception.

  16. Commentary on "Timbre as an Elusive Component of Imagery for Music," by Freya Bailes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Halpern

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of musical timbre by Bailes (2007 raises important questions concerning the relative ease of imaging complex perceptual attributes such as timbre, compared to more unidimensional attributes. I also raise the issue of individual differences in auditory imagery ability, especially for timbre.

  17. A Study of the Characteristics of the Instrument Timbre Preference Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Edwin E.

    1991-01-01

    Reports results of a study of the musical timbre preferences of fifth grade students and of the effectiveness of the Instrument Timbre Preference Test. Concludes that results support the test's practical validity, particularly in terms of longitudinal prediction. Suggests that timbre preference investigations could affect aspects of music…

  18. On the timbre of chaotic algorithmic sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Dimitrios A.; Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.; Sotiropoulos, Vaggelis D.

    Chaotic sound waveforms generated algorithmically are considered to study their timbre characteristics of harmonic and inharmonic overtones, loudness and onset time. Algorithms employed in the present work come from different first order iterative maps with parameters that generate chaotic sound waveforms. The generated chaotic sounds are compared with each other in respect of their waveforms' energy over the same time interval. Interest is focused in the logistic, double logistic and elliptic iterative maps. For these maps, the energy of the algorithmically synthesized sounds is obtained numerically in the chaotic region. The results show that for a specific parameter value in the chaotic region for each one of the first two maps, the calculated sound energy is the same. The energy, though, produced by the elliptic iterative map is higher than that of the other two maps everywhere in the chaotic region. Under the criterion of equal energy, the discrete Fourier transform is employed to compute for the logistic and double logistic iterative maps, a) the generated chaotic sound's power spectral density over frequency revealing the location (frequency) and relative loudness of the overtones which can be associated with fundamental frequencies of musical notes, and b) the generated chaotic sound's frequency dependent phase, which together with the overtones' frequency, yields the overtones' onset time. It is found that the synthesized overtones' loudness, frequency and onset time are totally different for the two generating algorithms (iterative maps) even though the sound's total generated power is equal. It is also demonstrated that, within each one of the iterative maps considered, the overtone characteristics are strongly affected by the choice of initial loudness.

  19. Perception of Timbre and Rhythm Similarity in Electronic Dance Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honingh, A.; Panteli, M.; Brockmeier, T.; López Mejía, D.I.; Sadakata, M.

    2015-01-01

    Music similarity is known to be a multi-dimensional concept, depending among others on rhythm similarity and timbre similarity. The present study aims to investigate whether such sub-dimensions of similarity can be assessed independently and how they relate to general similarity. To this end, we per

  20. Symmetric interactions and interference between pitch and timbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Emily J; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Variations in the spectral shape of harmonic tone complexes are perceived as timbre changes and can lead to poorer fundamental frequency (F0) or pitch discrimination. Less is known about the effects of F0 variations on spectral shape discrimination. The aims of the study were to determine whether the interactions between pitch and timbre are symmetric, and to test whether musical training affects listeners' ability to ignore variations in irrelevant perceptual dimensions. Difference limens (DLs) for F0 were measured with and without random, concurrent, variations in spectral centroid, and vice versa. Additionally, sensitivity was measured as the target parameter and the interfering parameter varied by the same amount, in terms of individual DLs. Results showed significant and similar interference between pitch (F0) and timbre (spectral centroid) dimensions, with upward spectral motion often confused for upward F0 motion, and vice versa. Musicians had better F0DLs than non-musicians on average, but similar spectral centroid DLs. Both groups showed similar interference effects, in terms of decreased sensitivity, in both dimensions. Results reveal symmetry in the interference effects between pitch and timbre, once differences in sensitivity between dimensions and subjects are controlled. Musical training does not reliably help to overcome these effects.

  1. Application of musical timbre discrimination features to active sonar classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Victor W.; Hines, Paul C.; Pecknold, Sean

    2005-04-01

    In musical acoustics significant effort has been devoted to uncovering the physical basis of timbre perception. Most investigations into timbre rely on multidimensional scaling (MDS), in which different musical sounds are arranged as points in multidimensional space. The Euclidean distance between points corresponds to the perceptual distance between sounds and the multidimensional axes are linked to measurable properties of the sounds. MDS has identified numerous temporal and spectral features believed to be important to timbre perception. There is reason to believe that some of these features may have wider application in the disparate field of underwater acoustics, since anecdotal evidence suggests active sonar returns from metallic objects sound different than natural clutter returns when auralized by human operators. This is particularly encouraging since attempts to develop robust automatic classifiers capable of target-clutter discrimination over a wide range of operational conditions have met with limited success. Spectral features relevant to target-clutter discrimination are believed to include click-pitch and envelope irregularity; relevant temporal features are believed to include duration, sub-band attack/decay time, and time separation pitch. Preliminary results from an investigation into the role of these timbre features in target-clutter discrimination will be presented. [Work supported by NSERC and GDC.

  2. The Relationship of Musical Instrument Preference to Timbre Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Joseph J.; Stafford, Richard E.

    1972-01-01

    It was hypothesized that individuals who can easily detect differences in the timbre of tone would be more likely to appreciate musical instruments with more complex sound waves, and that the degree of this tendency would be directly proportional to the length of time one has played the instrument. (Authors)

  3. Cortical encoding of timbre changes in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fawen; Benson, Chelsea; Cahn, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Most cochlear implant (CI) users describe music as a noise-like and unpleasant sound. Using behavioral tests, most prior studies have shown that perception of pitch-based melody and timbre is poor in CI users. This article will focus on cortical encoding of timbre changes in CI users, which may allow us to find solutions to further improve CI benefits. Furthermore, the value of using objective measures to reveal neural encoding of timbre changes may be reflected in this study. A case-control study of the mismatch negativity (MMN) using electrophysiological technique was conducted. To derive MMNs, three randomly arranged oddball paradigms consisting of standard/deviant instrumental pairs: saxophone/piano, cello/trombone, and flute/French horn, respectively, were presented. Ten CI users and ten normal-hearing (NH) listeners participated in this study. After filtering, epoching, and baseline correction, independent component analysis (ICA) was performed to remove artifacts. The averaged waveforms in response to the standard stimuli (STANDARD waveform) and the deviant stimuli (DEVIANT waveform) in each condition were separately derived. The responses from nine electrodes in the fronto-central area were averaged to form one waveform. The STANDARD waveform was subtracted from the DEVIANT waveform to derive the difference waveform, for which the MMN was judged to be present or absent. The measures used to evaluate the MMN included the MMN peak latency and amplitude as well as MMN duration. The MMN, which reflects the ability to automatically detect acoustic changes, was present in all NH listeners but only approximately half of CI users. In CI users with present MMNs, the MMN peak amplitude and duration were significantly smaller and shorter compared to those in NH listeners. Our electrophysiological results were consistent with prior behavioral results that CI users' performance in timbre perception was significantly poorer than that in NH listeners. Our results may

  4. Contribution of Fluid Dynamics to Woodwind Instruments Investigations of Timbre and Pitch of Bassoon Bocals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roger GRUNDMANN; Johannes BAUMGART; Andreas RICHTER; Hans KR(U)GER

    2005-01-01

    The discussed topic of isolating certain parameters which describe the timbre in connection with bocals of ain parameters which describe the timbre in connection with bocals of bassoons is of major interest for manufacturers and artist likewise since a reduction in the overall shear stress of ful but not sufficient. The timbre seen from the side of the musician has to be the same. Up to now two criteria have been isolated which have a deep influence on the easier blowing of the bassoon and on the comparable due to geometrical reasons. If the geometrical outer contour is designed carefully, it is possible to modify the shape and preserve the timbre.lysis.

  5. Laterality in the perception of temporal cues of musical timbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancucci, A; San Martini, P

    1999-12-01

    Laterality in the perception of non-stationary aspects of musical timbre was investigated in 54 right-handed non-musicians. Timbre differences were produced by altering the amplitude envelope of a steady-state complex tone. Two single-choice tests with attention directed to one ear were used--a dichotic test and a monaural test with contralateral white noise. Dependent variables were reaction time and accuracy. Both tests showed a significant left ear advantage for reaction time. For the accuracy variable, a significant left ear advantage was found only in the monaural test. Results are briefly discussed in terms of their compatibility with the generally accepted notion that spectral and temporal integrations of sounds are primarily functions of the right and left hemisphere, respectively.

  6. A Segmental Spectro-Temporal Model of Musical Timbre

    OpenAIRE

    Burred, Juan Jose; Roebel, Axel

    2010-01-01

    cote interne IRCAM: Burred10b; None / None; National audience; We propose a new statistical model of musical timbre that han- dles the different segments of the temporal envelope (attack, sus- tain and release) separately in order to account for their differ- ent spectral and temporal behaviors. The model is based on a reduced-dimensionality representation of the spectro-temporal en- velope. Temporal coefficients corresponding to the attack and re- lease segments are subjected to explicit tra...

  7. Wavelets in music analysis and synthesis: timbre analysis and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Faria, Regis R.; Ruschioni, Ruggero A.; Zuffo, Joao A.

    1996-10-01

    Music is a vital element in the process of comprehending the world where we live and interact with. Frequency it exerts a subtle but expressive influence over a society's evolution line. Analysis and synthesis of music and musical instruments has always been associated with forefront technologies available at each period of human history, and there is no surprise in witnessing now the use of digital technologies and sophisticated mathematical tools supporting its development. Fourier techniques have been employed for years as a tool to analyze timbres' spectral characteristics, and re-synthesize them from these extracted parameters. Recently many modern implementations, based on spectral modeling techniques, have been leading to the development of new generations of music synthesizers, capable of reproducing natural sounds with high fidelity, and producing novel timbres as well. Wavelets are a promising tool on the development of new generations of music synthesizers, counting on its advantages over the Fourier techniques in representing non-periodic and transient signals, with complex fine textures, as found in music. In this paper we propose and introduce the use of wavelets addressing its perspectives towards musical applications. The central idea is to investigate the capacities of wavelets in analyzing, extracting features and altering fine timbre components in a multiresolution time- scale, so as to produce high quality synthesized musical sounds.

  8. Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voice is the sound made by air passing from your lungs through your larynx, or voice box. In your larynx are your vocal cords, ... to make sound. For most of us, our voices play a big part in who we are, ...

  9. Every Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Penny

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the author develops an approach that allows her students, who are part of the marginalized population, to learn the power of their own voices--not just their writing voices, but their oral voices as well. The author calls it "TWIST": Thoughts, Writing folder, Inquiring mind, Supplies, and Teamwork. It is where…

  10. Every Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Penny

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the author develops an approach that allows her students, who are part of the marginalized population, to learn the power of their own voices--not just their writing voices, but their oral voices as well. The author calls it "TWIST": Thoughts, Writing folder, Inquiring mind, Supplies, and Teamwork. It is where…

  11. Voice restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgers, F.J.M.; Balm, A.J.M.; van den Brekel, M.W.M.; Tan, I.B.; Remacle, M.; Eckel, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Surgical prosthetic voice restoration is the best possible option for patients to regain oral communication after total laryngectomy. It is considered to be the present "gold standard" for voice rehabilitation of laryngectomized individuals. Surgical prosthetic voice restoration, in essence, is alwa

  12. Implicit Learning of Musical Timbre Sequences: Statistical Regularities Confronted With Acoustical (Dis)Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; McAdams, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of acoustical characteristics on the implicit learning of statistical regularities (transition probabilities) in sequences of musical timbres. The sequences were constructed in such a way that the acoustical dissimilarities between timbres potentially created segmentations that either supported (S1) or…

  13. Effect of Timbre and Register Modifications of Musical Stimuli on Young Children's Identification of Chord Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research related to children's musical development. Reports on a study of 125 kindergarten and first-grade students on the impact of modification of timbre and register of musical stimuli. Finds that timbre modification helped children recognize chord changes with first graders identifying more changes than did kindergartners. (CFR)

  14. Implicit Learning of Musical Timbre Sequences: Statistical Regularities Confronted With Acoustical (Dis)Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; McAdams, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of acoustical characteristics on the implicit learning of statistical regularities (transition probabilities) in sequences of musical timbres. The sequences were constructed in such a way that the acoustical dissimilarities between timbres potentially created segmentations that either supported (S1) or…

  15. The Effect of Different Musical Timbres on Students' Identification of Melodic Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Dallas E.

    For this study, five hypotheses were formulated stating that ability to identify melodic intervals during music dictation is not affected by (1) the differences in timbre, (2) the use of familiar or unfamiliar timbres (MAJOR), (3) formal ear training experience (FETE), or (4) playing/performing experience on an instrument (PPEM), and (5) that…

  16. Effects of Stimulus Octave and Timbre on the Tuning Accuracy of Advanced College Instrumentalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byo, James L.; Schlegel, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of octave and timbre on advanced college musicians' (N = 63) ability to tune their instruments. We asked: "Are there differences in tuning accuracy due to octave (B-flat 2, B-flat 4) and stimulus timbre (oboe, clarinet, electronic tuner, tuba)?" and "To what extent do participants'…

  17. Temporal and Spectral Cues for Musical Timbre Perception in Electric Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Mullangi, Ala; Marozeau, Jeremy; Epstein, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate musical timbre perception in cochlear-implant (CI) listeners using a multidimensional scaling technique to derive a timbre space. Methods: Sixteen stimuli that synthesized western musical instruments were used (McAdams, Winsberg, Donnadieu, De Soete, & Krimphoff, 1995). Eight CI listeners and…

  18. "Wer wagt hier Theorie zu fordern": aspects théoriques du timbre chez Arnold Schönberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric de Buzon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Schönberg’s Harmonielehre finishes on the evocation of the melody of timbre (Klangfarbenmelodie. The aim of this article is to analyse the function of timbre in relation to musical theory by establishing a parallel between the positions expressed by Schönberg and preceding classical positions, namely Jean-Jaques Rousseau’s definition of timbre and Leibniz’s concept of “clear and confused” ideas. Operating in this context, what will be shown is that timbre, according to Leibniz’s description, is a distinguishing, yet undistinguished, quality and that, precisely for this reason, timbre has a limited function in composition.

  19. Temporal voice areas exist in autism spectrum disorder but are dysfunctional for voice identity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiak, Kamila; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The ability to recognise the identity of others is a key requirement for successful communication. Brain regions that respond selectively to voices exist in humans from early infancy on. Currently, it is unclear whether dysfunction of these voice-sensitive regions can explain voice identity recognition impairments. Here, we used two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to investigate voice processing in a population that has been reported to have no voice-sensitive regions: autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our results refute the earlier report that individuals with ASD have no responses in voice-sensitive regions: Passive listening to vocal, compared to non-vocal, sounds elicited typical responses in voice-sensitive regions in the high-functioning ASD group and controls. In contrast, the ASD group had a dysfunction in voice-sensitive regions during voice identity but not speech recognition in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/STG)—a region implicated in processing complex spectrotemporal voice features and unfamiliar voices. The right anterior STS/STG correlated with voice identity recognition performance in controls but not in the ASD group. The findings suggest that right STS/STG dysfunction is critical for explaining voice recognition impairments in high-functioning ASD and show that ASD is not characterised by a general lack of voice-sensitive responses. PMID:27369067

  20. Cortical plasticity in 4-month-old infants: specific effects of experience with musical timbres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J; Lee, Kathleen; Bosnyak, Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Animal models suggest that the brain is particularly neuroplastic early in development, but previous studies have not systematically controlled the auditory environment in human infants and observed the effects on auditory cortical representations. We exposed 4-month-old infants to melodies in either guitar or marimba timbre (infants were randomly assigned to exposure group) for a total of ~160 min over the course of a week, after which we measured electroencephalogram (EEG) responses to guitar and marimba tones at pitches not previously heard during the exposure phase. A frontally negative response with a topography consistent with generation in auditory areas, peaking around 450 ms, was significantly larger for guitar than marimba tones in the guitar-exposed group but significantly larger for marimba than guitar tones in the marimba-exposed group. This indicates that experience with tones in a particular timbre affects representations for that timbre, and that this effect generalizes to tones not previously experienced during exposure. Furthermore, mismatch responses to occasional small 3% changes in pitch were larger for tones in guitar than marimba timbre only for infants exposed to guitar tones. Together these results indicate that a relatively small amount of passive exposure to a particular timbre in infancy enhances representations of that timbre and leads to more precise pitch processing for that timbre.

  1. Multiclass MTS for saxophone timbre quality inspection using waveform-shape-based features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Hsiang; Su, Chao-Ton

    2009-06-01

    Under the highly developed automation today, the manufacture of saxophone is still a nonautomatic process and much relies on highly skilled technicians. In order to insure the timbre quality, the sound of finished saxophone must be tested in the final inspection stage. The evaluation of timbre quality mainly depends on the professional musicians' hearing judgment; however, the sensitivity of human perception can be influenced by many factors. To improve the reliability of saxophone timbre quality inspection, an automatic multiclass timbre classification system (AMTCS) is developed and used to assist in the inspection work. The AMTCS is composed of our proposed waveform-shape-based feature extraction method in parameterization phase and multiclass Mahalanobis-Taguchi system in classification phase. The numerical experiments show that the musical instrument classification accuracy obtained by our proposed AMTCS is satisfactory. Through employing the AMTCS, strong assistance was provided to the inspection of saxophone timbre quality, and a perfect identification rate on the saxophones with different timbre quality levels is achieved. Moreover, the significant tones having impact on saxophone timbre quality can also be easily identified by AMTCS.

  2. Impaired perception of temporal fine structure and musical timbre in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Joseph; Cantarero, Gabriela; Elhilali, Mounya; Limb, Charles J

    2011-10-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users demonstrate severe limitations in perceiving musical timbre, a psychoacoustic feature of sound responsible for 'tone color' and one's ability to identify a musical instrument. The reasons for this limitation remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to examine the relative contributions of temporal envelope and fine structure for timbre judgments, in light of the fact that speech processing strategies employed by CI systems typically employ envelope extraction algorithms. We synthesized "instrumental chimeras" that systematically combined variable amounts of envelope and fine structure in 25% increments from two different source instruments with either sustained or percussive envelopes. CI users and normal hearing (NH) subjects were presented with 150 chimeras and asked to determine which instrument the chimera more closely resembled in a single-interval two-alternative forced choice task. By combining instruments with similar and dissimilar envelopes, we controlled the valence of envelope for timbre identification and compensated for envelope reconstruction from fine structure information. Our results show that NH subjects utilize envelope and fine structure interchangeably, whereas CI subjects demonstrate overwhelming reliance on temporal envelope. When chimeras were created from dissimilar envelope instrument pairs, NH subjects utilized a combination of envelope (p = 0.008) and fine structure information (p = 0.009) to make timbre judgments. In contrast, CI users utilized envelope information almost exclusively to make timbre judgments (p timbre judgments (p musical timbre in CI users.

  3. The Effect of Dynamic Acoustical Features on Musical Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajda, John M.

    Timbre has been an important concept for scientific exploration of music at least since the time of Helmholtz ([1877] 1954). Since Helmholtz's time, a number of studies have defined and investigated acoustical features of musical instrument tones to determine their perceptual importance, or salience (e.g., Grey, 1975, 1977; Kendall, 1986; Kendall et al., 1999; Luce and Clark, 1965; McAdams et al., 1995, 1999; Saldanha and Corso, 1964; Wedin and Goude, 1972). Most of these studies have considered only nonpercussive, or continuant, tones of Western orchestral instruments (or emulations thereof). In the past few years, advances in computing power and programming have made possible and affordable the definition and control of new acoustical variables. This chapter gives an overview of past and current research, with a special emphasis on the time-variant aspects of musical timbre. According to common observation, "music is made of tones in time" (Spaeth, 1933). We will also consider the fact that music is made of "time in tones."

  4. Influence of pitch, timbre and timing cues on melodic contour identification with a competing masker (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meimei; Chen, Bing; Galvin, John J; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2011-12-01

    Pitch, timbre, and/or timing cues may be used to stream and segregate competing musical melodies and instruments. In this study, melodic contour identification was measured in cochlear implant (CI) and normal-hearing (NH) listeners, with and without a competing masker; timing, pitch, and timbre cues were varied between the masker and target contour. NH performance was near-perfect across different conditions. CI performance was significantly poorer than that of NH listeners. While some CI subjects were able to use or combine timing, pitch and/or timbre cues, most were not, reflecting poor segregation due to poor spectral resolution.

  5. Ups and Downs in Auditory Development: Preschoolers' Sensitivity to Pitch Contour and Timbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C

    2016-03-01

    Much research has explored developing sound representations in language, but less work addresses developing representations of other sound patterns. This study examined preschool children's musical representations using two different tasks: discrimination and sound-picture association. Melodic contour--a musically relevant property--and instrumental timbre, which is (arguably) less musically relevant, were tested. In Experiment 1, children failed to associate cartoon characters to melodies with maximally different pitch contours, with no advantage for melody preexposure. Experiment 2 also used different-contour melodies and found good discrimination, whereas association was at chance. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 2, but with a large timbre change instead of a contour change. Here, discrimination and association were both excellent. Preschool-aged children may have stronger or more durable representations of timbre than contour, particularly in more difficult tasks. Reasons for weaker association of contour than timbre information are discussed, along with implications for auditory development. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Marie-Pierre Lassus, Gaston Bachelard musicien. Une philosophie des silences et des timbres

    OpenAIRE

    Marida Rizzuti

    2012-01-01

    Marie-Pierre Lassus, Gaston Bachelard musicien. Une philosophie des silences et des timbres (Villeneuve d’Ascq, Presses Universitaires du Septentrion, 2010, 268 pp. ISBN: 978-275-740-1613) di     Marida Rizzuti

  7. Absolute pitch and pupillary response: effects of timbre and key color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemmer, Kathrin B; Kulke, Franziska; Kuchinke, Lars; Van Der Meer, Elke

    2005-07-01

    The pitch identification performance of absolute pitch possessors has previously been shown to depend on pitch range, key color, and timbre of presented tones. In the present study, the dependence of pitch identification performance on key color and timbre of musical tones was examined by analyzing hit rates, reaction times, and pupillary responses of absolute pitch possessors (n = 9) and nonpossessors (n = 12) during a pitch identification task. Results revealed a significant dependence of pitch identification hit rate but not reaction time on timbre and key color in both groups. Among absolute pitch possessors, peak dilation of the pupil was significantly dependent on key color whereas the effect of timbre was marginally significant. Peak dilation of the pupil differed significantly between absolute pitch possessors and nonpossessors. The observed effects point to the importance of learning factors in the acquisition of absolute pitch.

  8. Music in our ears: the biological bases of musical timbre perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Patil

    Full Text Available Timbre is the attribute of sound that allows humans and other animals to distinguish among different sound sources. Studies based on psychophysical judgments of musical timbre, ecological analyses of sound's physical characteristics as well as machine learning approaches have all suggested that timbre is a multifaceted attribute that invokes both spectral and temporal sound features. Here, we explored the neural underpinnings of musical timbre. We used a neuro-computational framework based on spectro-temporal receptive fields, recorded from over a thousand neurons in the mammalian primary auditory cortex as well as from simulated cortical neurons, augmented with a nonlinear classifier. The model was able to perform robust instrument classification irrespective of pitch and playing style, with an accuracy of 98.7%. Using the same front end, the model was also able to reproduce perceptual distance judgments between timbres as perceived by human listeners. The study demonstrates that joint spectro-temporal features, such as those observed in the mammalian primary auditory cortex, are critical to provide the rich-enough representation necessary to account for perceptual judgments of timbre by human listeners, as well as recognition of musical instruments.

  9. The effects of timbre on melody recognition are mediated by familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, J. Devin; Ayala, Chris

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments examined the role of timbre in music recognition. In both experiments, participants rated the familiarity of a set of novel and well-known musical excerpts during a study phase and then were given a surprise old/new recognition test after a retention interval. The recognition test was comprised of the target melodies and an equal number of distractors; participants were instructed to respond yes to the targets and no to the distractors. In experiment 1, the timbre of the melodies was held constant throughout the study and then either stayed the same or switched to a different instrument sound during the test. In experiment 2, timbre varied randomly from trial to trial between the same two instruments used in experiment 1, yielding target melodies that were either mismatched or matched in their timbre. Switching timbre between study and test in experiment 1 was found to hurt the recognition of the novel melodies, but not the familiar melodies. The mediating effect of familiarity was eliminated in experiment 2 when timbre varied randomly from trial to trial rather than remaining constant. Possible reasons for the difference between studies will be discussed.

  10. Acoustic and categorical dissimilarity of musical timbre: Evidence from asymmetriesbetween acoustic and chimeric sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eSiedenburg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of acoustic and categorical information in timbre dissimilarity ratings. Using a Gammatone-filterbank-based sound transformation, we created tones that were rated as less familiar than recorded tones from orchestral instruments and that were harder to associate with an unambiguous sound source (Exp. 1. A subset of transformed tones, a set of orchestral recordings, and a mixed set were then rated on pairwise dissimilarity (Exp. 2A. We observed that recorded instrument timbres clustered into subsets that distinguished timbres according to acoustic and categorical properties. For the subset of cross-category comparisons in the mixed set, we observed asymmetries in the distribution of ratings, as well as a stark decay of inter-rater agreement. These effects were replicated in a more robust within-subjects design (Exp. 2B and cannot be explained by acoustic factors alone. We finally introduced a novel model of timbre dissimilarity based on partial least-squares regression that compared the contributions of both acoustic and categorical timbre descriptors. The best model fit (R^2 = .88 was achieved when both types of descriptors were taken into account. These findings are interpreted as evidence for an interplay of acoustic and categorical information in timbre dissimilarity perception.

  11. Music in our ears: the biological bases of musical timbre perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kailash; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Shamma, Shihab; Elhilali, Mounya

    2012-01-01

    Timbre is the attribute of sound that allows humans and other animals to distinguish among different sound sources. Studies based on psychophysical judgments of musical timbre, ecological analyses of sound's physical characteristics as well as machine learning approaches have all suggested that timbre is a multifaceted attribute that invokes both spectral and temporal sound features. Here, we explored the neural underpinnings of musical timbre. We used a neuro-computational framework based on spectro-temporal receptive fields, recorded from over a thousand neurons in the mammalian primary auditory cortex as well as from simulated cortical neurons, augmented with a nonlinear classifier. The model was able to perform robust instrument classification irrespective of pitch and playing style, with an accuracy of 98.7%. Using the same front end, the model was also able to reproduce perceptual distance judgments between timbres as perceived by human listeners. The study demonstrates that joint spectro-temporal features, such as those observed in the mammalian primary auditory cortex, are critical to provide the rich-enough representation necessary to account for perceptual judgments of timbre by human listeners, as well as recognition of musical instruments.

  12. Acoustic and Categorical Dissimilarity of Musical Timbre: Evidence from Asymmetries Between Acoustic and Chimeric Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, Kai; Jones-Mollerup, Kiray; McAdams, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of acoustic and categorical information in timbre dissimilarity ratings. Using a Gammatone-filterbank-based sound transformation, we created tones that were rated as less familiar than recorded tones from orchestral instruments and that were harder to associate with an unambiguous sound source (Experiment 1). A subset of transformed tones, a set of orchestral recordings, and a mixed set were then rated on pairwise dissimilarity (Experiment 2A). We observed that recorded instrument timbres clustered into subsets that distinguished timbres according to acoustic and categorical properties. For the subset of cross-category comparisons in the mixed set, we observed asymmetries in the distribution of ratings, as well as a stark decay of inter-rater agreement. These effects were replicated in a more robust within-subjects design (Experiment 2B) and cannot be explained by acoustic factors alone. We finally introduced a novel model of timbre dissimilarity based on partial least-squares regression that compared the contributions of both acoustic and categorical timbre descriptors. The best model fit (R (2) = 0.88) was achieved when both types of descriptors were taken into account. These findings are interpreted as evidence for an interplay of acoustic and categorical information in timbre dissimilarity perception.

  13. Trained Musical Performers' and Musically Untrained College Students' Ability to Discriminate Music Instrument Timbre as a Function of Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dennis Alan

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of trained musicians and musically untrained college students to discriminate music instrument timbre as a function of duration. Specific factors investigated were the thresholds for timbre discrimination as a function of duration, musical ensemble participation as training, and the relative discrimination abilities of vocalists and instrumentalists. The subjects (N = 126) were volunteer college students from intact classes from various disciplines separated into musically untrained college students (N = 43) who had not participated in musical ensembles and trained musicians (N = 83) who had. The musicians were further divided into instrumentalists (N = 51) and vocalists (N = 32). The Method of Constant Stimuli, using a same-different response procedure with 120 randomized, counterbalanced timbre pairs comprised of trumpet, clarinet, or violin, presented in durations of 20 to 100 milliseconds in a sequence of pitches, in two blocks was used for data collection. Complete, complex musical timbres were recorded digitally and presented in a sequence of changing pitches to more closely approximate an actual music listening experience. Under the conditions of this study, it can be concluded that the threshold for timbre discrimination as a function of duration is at or below 20 ms. Even though trained musicians tended to discriminate timbre better than musically untrained college students, musicians cannot discriminate timbre significantly better then those subjects who have not participated in musical ensembles. Additionally, instrumentalists tended to discriminate timbre better than vocalists, but the discrimination is not significantly different. Recommendations for further research include suggestions for a timbre discrimination measurement tool that takes into consideration the multidimensionality of timbre and the relationship of timbre discrimination to timbre source, duration, pitch, and loudness.

  14. Keeping Your Voice Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Keeping Your Voice Healthy Keeping Your Voice Healthy Patient Health Information ... heavily voice-related. Key Steps for Keeping Your Voice Healthy Drink plenty of water. Moisture is good ...

  15. Discrimination of timbre in early auditory responses of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeho Seol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issue of how differences in timbre are represented in the neural response still has not been well addressed, particularly with regard to the relevant brain mechanisms. Here we employ phasing and clipping of tones to produce auditory stimuli differing to describe the multidimensional nature of timbre. We investigated the auditory response and sensory gating as well, using by magnetoencephalography (MEG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty-five healthy subjects without hearing deficit participated in the experiments. Two different or same tones in timbre were presented through conditioning (S1-testing (S2 paradigm as a pair with an interval of 500 ms. As a result, the magnitudes of auditory M50 and M100 responses were different with timbre in both hemispheres. This result might support that timbre, at least by phasing and clipping, is discriminated in the auditory early processing. The second response in a pair affected by S1 in the consecutive stimuli occurred in M100 of the left hemisphere, whereas both M50 and M100 responses to S2 only in the right hemisphere reflected whether two stimuli in a pair were the same or not. Both M50 and M100 magnitudes were different with the presenting order (S1 vs. S2 for both same and different conditions in the both hemispheres. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCES: Our results demonstrate that the auditory response depends on timbre characteristics. Moreover, it was revealed that the auditory sensory gating is determined not by the stimulus that directly evokes the response, but rather by whether or not the two stimuli are identical in timbre.

  16. Timbre discrimination in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners under different noise conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroglu, Suzan; Kollmeier, Birger

    2008-07-18

    In an attempt to quantify differences in object separation and timbre discrimination between normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners with a moderate sensorineural hearing loss of two different configurations, psychoacoustic measurements were performed with a total of 50 listeners. The experiments determined just noticeable differences (JND) of timbre in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects along continua of "morphed" musical instruments and investigated the variance of JND in silence and different background noise conditions and on different sound levels. The results show that timbre JNDs of subjects with a steep hearing loss are significantly higher than of normal-hearing subjects, both in silence and noise, whereas timbre JNDs of flat/diagonal hearing-impaired subjects are similar to JNDs of normal-hearing subjects for signal levels above 55 dB (plus appropriate amplification for hearing-impaired). In noise (SNR=+10 dB) timbre JNDs of all subject groups are significantly higher than in silence. In the condition testing, transferability from silence to noise (i.e., the ability to imagine how the stimulus heard in silence would sound in noise), no significant JND differences across listener groups were found. The results can be explained by primary factors involved in sensorineural hearing loss and contradict the hypothesis that hearing-impaired people generally have more problems in object discrimination than normal-hearing people.

  17. Instrument classification in polyphonic music based on timbre analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong

    2001-07-01

    While most previous work on musical instrument recognition is focused on the classification of single notes in monophonic music, a scheme is proposed in this paper for the distinction of instruments in continuous music pieces which may contain one or more kinds of instruments. Highlights of the system include music segmentation into notes, harmonic partial estimation in polyphonic sound, note feature calculation and normalization, note classification using a set of neural networks, and music piece categorization with fuzzy logic principles. Example outputs of the system are `the music piece is 100% guitar (with 90% likelihood)' and `the music piece is 60% violin and 40% piano, thus a violin/piano duet'. The system has been tested with twelve kinds of musical instruments, and very promising experimental results have been obtained. An accuracy of about 80% is achieved, and the number can be raised to 90% if misindexings within the same instrument family are tolerated (e.g. cello, viola and violin). A demonstration system for musical instrument classification and music timbre retrieval is also presented.

  18. Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Burkhard; Dommerich, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Cannulas and voice prostheses are mechanical aids for patients who had to undergo tracheotomy or laryngectomy for different reasons. For better understanding of the function of those artificial devices, first the indications and particularities of the previous surgical intervention are described in the context of this review. Despite the established procedure of percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy e.g. in intensive care units, the application of epithelised tracheostomas has its own position, especially when airway obstruction is persistent (e.g. caused by traumata, inflammations, or tumors) and a longer artificial ventilation or special care of the patient are required. In order to keep the airways open after tracheotomy, tracheostomy cannulas of different materials with different functions are available. For each patient the most appropriate type of cannula must be found. Voice prostheses are meanwhile the device of choice for rapid and efficient voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy. Individual sizes and materials allow adaptation of the voice prostheses to the individual anatomical situation of the patients. The combined application of voice prostheses with HME (Head and Moisture Exchanger) allows a good vocal as well as pulmonary rehabilitation. Precondition for efficient voice prosthesis is the observation of certain surgical principles during laryngectomy. The duration of the prosthesis mainly depends on material properties and biofilms, mostly consisting of funguses and bacteries. The quality of voice with valve prosthesis is clearly superior to esophagus prosthesis or electro-laryngeal voice. Whenever possible, tracheostoma valves for free-hand speech should be applied. Physicians taking care of patients with speech prostheses after laryngectomy should know exactly what to do in case the device fails or gets lost.

  19. Temporal and Spectral Cues for Musical Timbre Perception in Electric Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Mullangi, Ala; Marozeau, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    , & Krimphoff, 1995). Eight CI listeners and 15 normalhearing (NH) listeners participated. Each listener made judgments of dissimilarity between stimulus pairs. Acoustical analyses that characterized the temporal and spectral characteristics of each stimulus were performed to examine the psychophysical nature...... of each perceptual dimension. For NH listeners, the timbre space was best represented in three dimensions, one correlated with the temporal envelope (log-attack time) of the stimuli, one correlated with the spectral envelope (spectral centroid), and one correlated with the spectral fine structure...... (spectral irregularity) of the stimuli. The timbre space from CI listeners, however, was best represented by two dimensions, one correlated with temporal envelope features and the other weakly correlated with spectral envelope features of the stimuli. Temporal envelope was a dominant cue for timbre...

  20. Experience-induced malleability in neural encoding of pitch, timbre, and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Skoe, Erika; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Ashley, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Speech and music are highly complex signals that have many shared acoustic features. Pitch, Timbre, and Timing can be used as overarching perceptual categories for describing these shared properties. The acoustic cues contributing to these percepts also have distinct subcortical representations which can be selectively enhanced or degraded in different populations. Musically trained subjects are found to have enhanced subcortical representations of pitch, timbre, and timing. The effects of musical experience on subcortical auditory processing are pervasive and extend beyond music to the domains of language and emotion. The sensory malleability of the neural encoding of pitch, timbre, and timing can be affected by lifelong experience and short-term training. This conceptual framework and supporting data can be applied to consider sensory learning of speech and music through a hearing aid or cochlear implant.

  1. Judging the pleasantness of contour-rhythm-pitch-timbre musical combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Ioannis; Mullet, Etienne

    2003-01-01

    The way people with various degrees of musical training integrate timbre, melodic contour, rhythm, and pitch information in an overall pleasantness judgment for musical excerpts was investigated. The theoretical and methodological framework of the study was the functional theory of cognition. In 2 experiments, participants were asked to attribute an overall pleasantness value to combinations of these factors. In Experiment 1, timbre, contour, rhythm, and overall pitch were manipulated. In Experiment 2, timbre and theme (a pattern of pitch and rhythm) were manipulated. Both experiments showed that in judging the pleasantness of musical combinations, participants apply a simple, additive rule in which the weight attributed to one element does not depend of the value of the other elements. Very few differences in regard to the combination rule were observed between participants with and without musical training. These results are discussed in reference to the controversy over pitch and rhythm interaction.

  2. Influence of pitch, loudness, and timbre on the perception of instrument dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Marco; Friberg, Anders

    2011-10-01

    The effect of variations in pitch, loudness, and timbre on the perception of the dynamics of isolated instrumental tones is investigated. A full factorial design was used in a listening experiment. The subjects were asked to indicate the perceived dynamics of each stimulus on a scale from pianissimo to fortissimo. Statistical analysis showed that for the instruments included (i.e., clarinet, flute, piano, trumpet, and violin) timbre and loudness had equally large effects, while pitch was relevant mostly for the first three. The results confirmed our hypothesis that loudness alone is not a reliable estimate of the dynamics of musical tones.

  3. Timbre Brownfield Prioritization Tool to support effective brownfield regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzol, Lisa; Zabeo, Alex; Klusáček, Petr; Giubilato, Elisa; Critto, Andrea; Frantál, Bohumil; Martinát, Standa; Kunc, Josef; Osman, Robert; Bartke, Stephan

    2016-01-15

    In the last decade, the regeneration of derelict or underused sites, fully or partly located in urban areas (or so called "brownfields"), has become more common, since free developable land (or so called "greenfields") has more and more become a scare and, hence, more expensive resource, especially in densely populated areas. Although the regeneration of brownfield sites can offer development potentials, the complexity of these sites requires considerable efforts to successfully complete their revitalization projects and the proper selection of promising sites is a pre-requisite to efficiently allocate the limited financial resources. The identification and analysis of success factors for brownfield sites regeneration can support investors and decision makers in selecting those sites which are the most advantageous for successful regeneration. The objective of this paper is to present the Timbre Brownfield Prioritization Tool (TBPT), developed as a web-based solution to assist stakeholders responsible for wider territories or clusters of brownfield sites (portfolios) to identify which brownfield sites should be preferably considered for redevelopment or further investigation. The prioritization approach is based on a set of success factors properly identified through a systematic stakeholder engagement procedure. Within the TBPT these success factors are integrated by means of a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methodology, which includes stakeholders' requalification objectives and perspectives related to the brownfield regeneration process and takes into account the three pillars of sustainability (economic, social and environmental dimensions). The tool has been applied to the South Moravia case study (Czech Republic), considering two different requalification objectives identified by local stakeholders, namely the selection of suitable locations for the development of a shopping centre and a solar power plant, respectively. The application of the TBPT to

  4. Voice processing in monkey and human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sophie K

    2008-09-01

    Studies in humans have indicated that the anterior superior temporal sulcus has an important role in the processing of information about human voices, especially the identification of talkers from their voice. A new study using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with macaques provides strong evidence that anterior auditory fields, part of the auditory 'what' pathway, preferentially respond to changes in the identity of conspecifics, rather than specific vocalizations from the same individual.

  5. Perception of musical timbre in congenital amusia: categorization, discrimination and short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M; Gingras, Bruno; Stewart, Lauren

    2012-02-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized primarily by difficulties in the pitch domain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the perception of musical timbre in a group of individuals with congenital amusia by probing discrimination and short-term memory for real-world timbral stimuli as well as examining the ability of these individuals to sort instrumental tones according to their timbral similarity. Thirteen amusic individuals were matched with thirteen non-amusic controls on a range of background variables. The discrimination task included stimuli of two different durations and pairings of instrumental tones that reflected varying distances in a perceptual timbre space. Performance in the discrimination task was at ceiling for both groups. In contrast, amusic individuals scored lower than controls on the short-term timbral memory task. Amusic individuals also performed worse than controls on the sorting task, suggesting differences in the higher-order representation of musical timbre. These findings add to the emerging picture of amusia as a disorder that has consequences for the perception and memory of musical timbre, as well as pitch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Stimulus Octave and Timbre on the Tuning Accuracy of Secondary School Instrumentalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byo, James L.; Schlegel, Amanda L.; Clark, N. Alan

    2011-01-01

    To test the effects of octave and timbre on tuning accuracy, four stimuli--B-flat 4 sounded by flute, oboe, and clarinet and B-flat 2 sounded by tuba--functioned as reference pitches for high school wind players (N = 72). The two stimulus octaves combined with participants' assigned tuning notes created soprano, tenor, and bass tuning groups. All…

  7. Long-Term Memory for Music: Infants Remember Tempo and Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J.; Wu, Luann; Tsang, Christine D.

    2004-01-01

    We show that infants' long-term memory representations for melodies are not just reduced to the structural features of relative pitches and durations, but contain surface or performance tempo- and timbre-specific information. Using a head turn preference procedure, we found that after a one week exposure to an old English folk song, infants…

  8. Speaking and Nonspeaking Voice Professionals: Who Has the Better Voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitguppi, Chandala; Raj, Anoop; Meher, Ravi; Rathore, P K

    2017-04-18

    Voice professionals can be classified into two major subgroups: the primarily speaking and the primarily nonspeaking voice professionals. Nonspeaking voice professionals mainly include singers, whereas speaking voice professionals include the rest of the voice professionals. Although both of these groups have high vocal demands, it is currently unknown whether both groups show similar voice changes after their daily voice use. Comparison of these two subgroups of voice professionals has never been done before. This study aimed to compare the speaking voice of speaking and nonspeaking voice professionals with no obvious vocal fold pathology or voice-related complaints on the day of assessment. After obtaining relevant voice-related history, voice analysis and videostroboscopy were performed in 50 speaking and 50 nonspeaking voice professionals. Speaking voice professionals showed significantly higher incidence of voice-related complaints as compared with nonspeaking voice professionals. Voice analysis revealed that most acoustic parameters including fundamental frequency, jitter percent, and harmonic-to-noise ratio were significantly higher in speaking voice professionals, whereas videostroboscopy did not show any significant difference between the two groups. This is the first study of its kind to analyze the effect of daily voice use in the two subgroups of voice professionals with no obvious vocal fold pathology. We conclude that voice professionals should not be considered as a homogeneous group. The detrimental effects of excessive voice use were observed to occur more significantly in speaking voice professionals than in nonspeaking voice professionals. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Leveraging voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    researchers improve our practices and how could digital online video help offer more positive stories about research and higher education? How can academics in higher education be better to tell about our research, thereby reclaiming and leveraging our voice in a post-factual era? As higher education......This paper speculates on how researchers share research without diluting our credibility and how to make strategies for the future. It also calls for consideration of new traditions and practices for communicating knowledge to a wider audience across multiple media platforms. How might we...... continues to engage with digital and networked technologies it becomes increasingly relevant to question why and how academics could (re) position research knowledge in the digital and online media landscape of today and the future. The paper highlights methodological issues that arise in relation...

  10. Feeling voices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ammirante

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated deaf individuals' ability to discriminate between same-sex talkers based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Nineteen participants made same/different judgments on pairs of utterances presented to the lower back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination of stimuli matched for F0, duration, and perceived magnitude was successful for pairs of spoken sentences in Experiment 1 (median percent correct = 83% and pairs of vowel utterances in Experiment 2 (median percent correct = 75%. Greater difference in spectral tilt between "different" pairs strongly predicted their discriminability in both experiments. The current findings support the hypothesis that discrimination of complex vibrotactile stimuli involves the cortical integration of spectral information filtered through frequency-tuned skin receptors.

  11. 'Inner voices': the cerebral representation of emotional voice cues described in literary texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Gößling-Arnold, Christina; Wertheimer, Jürgen; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    While non-verbal affective voice cues are generally recognized as a crucial behavioral guide in any day-to-day conversation their role as a powerful source of information may extend well beyond close-up personal interactions and include other modes of communication such as written discourse or literature as well. Building on the assumption that similarities between the different 'modes' of voice cues may not only be limited to their functional role but may also include cerebral mechanisms engaged in the decoding process, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at exploring brain responses associated with processing emotional voice signals described in literary texts. Emphasis was placed on evaluating 'voice' sensitive as well as task- and emotion-related modulations of brain activation frequently associated with the decoding of acoustic vocal cues. Obtained findings suggest that several similarities emerge with respect to the perception of acoustic voice signals: results identify the superior temporal, lateral and medial frontal cortex as well as the posterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum to contribute to the decoding process, with similarities to acoustic voice perception reflected in a 'voice'-cue preference of temporal voice areas as well as an emotion-related modulation of the medial frontal cortex and a task-modulated response of the lateral frontal cortex.

  12. Behavioural evidence of a dissociation between voice gender categorization and phoneme categorization using auditory morphed stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril R Pernet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both voice gender and speech perception rely on neuronal populations located in the peri-sylvian areas. However, whilst functional imaging studies suggest a left versus right hemisphere and anterior versus posterior dissociation between voice and speech categorization, psycholinguistic studies on talker variability suggest that these two processes (voice and speech categorization share common mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the categorical perception of voice gender (male vs. female and phonemes (/pa/ vs. /ta/ using the same stimulus continua generated by morphing. This allowed the investigation of behavioural differences while controlling acoustic characteristics, since the same stimuli were used in both tasks. Despite a higher acoustic dissimilarity between items during the phoneme categorization task (a male and female voice producing the same phonemes than the gender task (the same person producing 2 phonemes, results showed that speech information is being processed much faster than voice information. In addition, f0 or timbre equalization did not affect RT, which disagrees with the classical psycholinguistic models in which voice information is stripped away or normalized to access phonetic content. Also, despite similar response (percentages and perceptual (d’ curves, a reverse correlation analysis on acoustic features revealed, as expected, that the formant frequencies of the consonant distinguished stimuli in the phoneme task, but that only the vowel formant frequencies distinguish stimuli in the gender task. The 2nd set of results thus also disagrees with models postulating that the same acoustic information is used for voice and speech. Altogether these results suggest that voice gender categorization and phoneme categorization are dissociated at an early stage on the basis of different enhanced acoustic features that are diagnostic to the task at hand.

  13. A Method of Timbre-Shape Synthesis Based On Summation of Spherical Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putnam, Lance Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that there is a rich correspondence between sound and visual curves, perhaps most widely explored through direct input of sound into an oscilloscope. However, there have been relatively few proposals on how to translate sound into three-dimensional curves. We present a novel meth...... from sine waves and thus provide a basic language for exploring timbre-shape relationships....

  14. Sex differences in memory for timbre: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantz, E C; Marvin, E W; Kreilick, K G; Chapman, R M

    1996-10-01

    Although female/male cognitive differences have been studied for some time, little is known about such differences relative to music. Highly-trained musicians (15 females and 15 males) performed a memory task for musical timbre modeled after the missing-displaced visual object test known to favor female performance. Subjects were tested on memory for a timbre missing from a previously presented set of synthesized instrumental timbres, and a control series of white noise bursts at two different intensity levels. Subjects were given the missing-displaced visual object test and ERPs were recorded from three midline sites and two lateral sites. Waveforms were subjected to a principal component analysis and analysis of variance. Females and males performed equally well on both of the auditory series and the visual object test. Both auditory series elicited several ERP components: a strong early peak to the white noise, and both early (P3a) and late (P3b) peaks to the timbre series. PCA factor, maximum at 675 ms (P3b), showed a main effect for sex across both series with males > females. PCA factor, maximum at 336 ms (P3a), showed larger Fz to Pz differential for females than males for both auditory series. Females show a greater differentiation between targets and nontargets in the white noise series, suggesting greater sensitivity to changes in intensity. Interactions involving absolute pitch also appeared in the sensory processing time frames. Although the behavioral measures did not show significant sex differences, the ERP measures did show reliable task-related sex differences.

  15. Dimensionality in voice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2007-05-01

    This study concerns speaking voice quality in a group of male teachers (n = 35) and male actors (n = 36), as the purpose was to investigate normal and supranormal voices. The goal was the development of a method of valid perceptual evaluation for normal to supranormal and resonant voices. The voices (text reading at two loudness levels) had been evaluated by 10 listeners, for 15 vocal characteristics using VA scales. In this investigation, the results of an exploratory factor analysis of the vocal characteristics used in this method are presented, reflecting four dimensions of major importance for normal and supranormal voices. Special emphasis is placed on the effects on voice quality of a change in the loudness variable, as two loudness levels are studied. Furthermore, the vocal characteristics Sonority and Ringing voice quality are paid special attention, as the essence of the term "resonant voice" was a basic issue throughout a doctoral dissertation where this study was included.

  16. Voice box (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larynx, or voice box, is located in the neck and performs several important functions in the body. The larynx is involved in swallowing, breathing, and voice production. Sound is produced when the air which ...

  17. Voice and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dramatic voice changes are those during childhood and adolescence. The larynx (or voice box) and vocal cord tissues do not fully mature until late teenage years. Hormone-related changes during adolescence are ...

  18. Voice and endocrinology

    OpenAIRE

    KVS Hari Kumar; Anurag Garg; Ajai Chandra, N. S.; Singh, S. P.; Rakesh Datta

    2016-01-01

    Voice is one of the advanced features of natural evolution that differentiates human beings from other primates. The human voice is capable of conveying the thoughts into spoken words along with a subtle emotion to the tone. This extraordinary character of the voice in expressing multiple emotions is the gift of God to the human beings and helps in effective interpersonal communication. Voice generation involves close interaction between cerebral signals and the peripheral apparatus consistin...

  19. DLMS Voice Data Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    between operator and computer displayed on ADM-3A 20c A-I Possible Hardware Configuration for a Multistation Cartographic VDES ...this program a Voice Recognition System (VRS) which can be used to explore the use of voice data entry ( VDE ) in the DIMS or other cartographic data...Multi-Station Cartographic Voice Data Entry System An engineering development model voice data entry system ( VDES ) could be most efficiently

  20. Writing with Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Ted

    2012-01-01

    In this Teaching Tips article, the author argues for a dialogic conception of voice, based in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin. He demonstrates a dialogic view of voice in action, using two writing examples about the same topic from his daughter, a fifth-grade student. He then provides five practical tips for teaching a dialogic conception of voice in…

  1. Tips for Healthy Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social interaction as well as for most people’s occupation. Proper care and use of your voice will give you the best chance for having a healthy voice for your entire lifetime. Hoarseness or roughness in your voice is often ...

  2. Timbre-induced pitch shift from the perspective of Signal Detection Theory: the impact of musical expertise, silence interval, and pitch region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurma, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The paradigm of Signal Detection Theory (SDT) was used to analyze the ability of professional pianists (N = 16) and string players (N = 15) to discriminate small F0 differences between consecutive musical tones, presented in pairs, with identical and with different (bright and dull) timbres. The sensitivity (d') and response bias (c) were heavily dependent on the timbral arrangement of the pairs of tones (the "comparable tones"), which can be interpreted as the influence of timbre-induced pitch shift on F0 discrimination. The participants were somewhat biased to "miss" signals when comparable tones had identical timbres and to make "false alarms" when the tones had different timbres. The d' was lowest when the tones with a lower F0 in those stimulus-pairs containing tones with different timbres had a brighter timber, and highest when both tones had bright timbre. On average, the string players had a somewhat higher d' and their perception was slightly less influenced by timbre-induced pitch shift when compared to the pianists. Nevertheless, the dependence of d' and c on the timbral arrangement of the tones was registered in the case of all the participants at all the investigated pitch regions around D#3, D4, and C#5. Furthermore, the presence of a silence of 3.5 s-a silence interval-between the tones to be compared had an impact on both d'- and c-values as well as on the degree of vulnerability to timbre-induced pitch shift.

  3. Voice handicap in singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Thomas; Zschommler, Anne; Prokop, Jan

    2009-05-01

    The study aimed to determine the differences in responses to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10) between singers and nonsingers and to evaluate the ranked order differences of the VHI-10 statements for both groups. The VHI-10 was modified to include statements related to the singing voice for comparison to the original VHI-10. Thirty-five nonsingers with documented voice disorders responded to the VHI-10. A second group, consisting of 35 singers with voice complaints, responded to the VHI-10 with three statements added specifically addressing the singing voice. Data from both groups were analyzed in terms of overall subject self-rating of voice handicap and the rank order of statements from least to most important. The difference between the mean VHI-10 for the singers and nonsingers was not statistically significant, thus, supporting the validity of the VHI-10. However, the 10 statements were ranked differently in terms of their importance by both groups. In addition, when three statements related specifically to the singing voice were substituted in the original VHI-10, the singers judged their voice problem to be more severe than when using the original VHI-10. The type of statements used to assess self-perception of voice handicap may be related to the subject population. Singers with voice problems do not rate their voices to be more handicapped than nonsingers unless statements related specifically to singing are included.

  4. Deficits of musical timbre perception after unilateral temporal-lobe lesion revealed with multidimensional scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Séverine; Zatorre, Robert J; Ramsay, James O

    2002-03-01

    Thirty patients with unilateral temporal lobe excisions and 15 normal control subjects were tested in a task involving judgements of timbre dissimilarity in single tone and melodic conditions. Perceptual correlates of spectral and temporal parameters resulting from changing the number of harmonics and rise-time duration, respectively, were investigated by using a multidimensional scaling technique. The results of subjects with left temporal lobe lesion suggest that they were able to use the spectral and temporal envelopes of tones independently in making perceptual judgements of single tones. In the melodic condition, their results were significantly different from those of normal control subjects, suggesting that left temporal lesions do affect subtle aspects of timbre perception, despite these patients' preserved ability to make discrimination judgements using traditional paradigms. The major finding of this study concerns perceptual ratings obtained by subjects with right temporal lobe lesion, which revealed a disturbed perceptual space in both conditions. The most distorted results were obtained with single tones, in which the temporal parameter was less prominent. Tones were grouped according to their spectral content, but the results did not reflect a coherent underlying perceptual dimension. In general, the data from both patient groups (left lesions and right lesions) showed that the extraction of temporal cues was easier in the melodic than in the single tone condition, suggesting that the different durations and frequencies heard in a musical phrase enhance the importance of certain physical parameters. The findings of the present study replicate and extend previous results showing that timbre perception depends mainly upon the integrity of right neocortical structures, although a contribution of left temporal regions is also apparent. These data also demonstrate that multidimensional techniques are sensitive to more subtle perceptual disturbances that

  5. Neural circuits underlying mother's voice perception predict social communication abilities in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A; Chen, Tianwen; Odriozola, Paola; Cheng, Katherine M; Baker, Amanda E; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Ryali, Srikanth; Kochalka, John; Feinstein, Carl; Menon, Vinod

    2016-05-31

    The human voice is a critical social cue, and listeners are extremely sensitive to the voices in their environment. One of the most salient voices in a child's life is mother's voice: Infants discriminate their mother's voice from the first days of life, and this stimulus is associated with guiding emotional and social function during development. Little is known regarding the functional circuits that are selectively engaged in children by biologically salient voices such as mother's voice or whether this brain activity is related to children's social communication abilities. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 24 healthy children (mean age, 10.2 y) while they attended to brief (social function. Compared to female control voices, mother's voice elicited greater activity in primary auditory regions in the midbrain and cortex; voice-selective superior temporal sulcus (STS); the amygdala, which is crucial for processing of affect; nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex of the reward circuit; anterior insula and cingulate of the salience network; and a subregion of fusiform gyrus associated with face perception. The strength of brain connectivity between voice-selective STS and reward, affective, salience, memory, and face-processing regions during mother's voice perception predicted social communication skills. Our findings provide a novel neurobiological template for investigation of typical social development as well as clinical disorders, such as autism, in which perception of biologically and socially salient voices may be impaired.

  6. O estatuto conotativo do timbre em semiótica da canção

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objetivo discutir o papel do timbre no edifício teórico da Semiótica da Canção, entendida aqui como a vertente teórica da semiótica francesa desenvolvida principalmente por A. J. Greimas mas também por demais integrantes da assim chamada Escola de Paris voltada para o estudo da canção popular brasileira. Preconizada pelo semioticista Luiz Tatit, essa linha de estudos vem se consolidando gradativamente como um instrumental analítico especializado no estudo da can...

  7. Singing voice outcomes following singing voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastolfo-Hromack, Christina; Thomas, Tracey L; Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe singing voice therapy (SVT), describe referred patient characteristics, and document the outcomes of SVT. Retrospective. Records of patients receiving SVT between June 2008 and June 2013 were reviewed (n = 51). All diagnoses were included. Demographic information, number of SVT sessions, and symptom severity were retrieved from the medical record. Symptom severity was measured via the 10-item Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI-10). Treatment outcome was analyzed by diagnosis, history of previous training, and SVHI-10. SVHI-10 scores decreased following SVT (mean change = 11, 40% decrease) (P singing lessons (n = 10) also completed an average of three SVT sessions. Primary muscle tension dysphonia (MTD1) and benign vocal fold lesion (lesion) were the most common diagnoses. Most patients (60%) had previous vocal training. SVHI-10 decrease was not significantly different between MTD and lesion. This is the first outcome-based study of SVT in a disordered population. Diagnosis of MTD or lesion did not influence treatment outcomes. Duration of SVT was short (approximately three sessions). Voice care providers are encouraged to partner with a singing voice therapist to provide optimal care for the singing voice. This study supports the use of SVT as a tool for the treatment of singing voice disorders. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2546-2551, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. 计算机音乐制作中电子合成音色的应用探析%Application of Electronic Synth Timbre in Computer Music Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小宁

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous improvement of technological processing means,electronic synth timbre to create infinite variations of voice modulation and more significantly,creating a unique sound characteristics.The unique sound characteristics,largely led synthesizer sounds and acoustic instrument sounds obvious differences in the production process orchestration and musical works in.This paper describes the characteristics of the electronic tone and timbre of sound constitution,naming and classification,and then analyzes the electronic tones in the musical texture at all levels in the application,and then summed up the uniqueness and the primary means of electronic tone editing,electronic tones in modern music production to provide a reference.%随着科技处理手段的不断改进,电子合成音色创造的无限性和声音调制的变化性越发的显著,造就了音响特征的独特性。而音响特征的独特性,很大程度地导致了电子合成音色和声学乐器音色在音乐作品的配器和制作过程中具有明显的差异性。首先介绍了电子音色的音响特征和音色构成、命名和分类,接着分析了电子音色在音乐织体各层次中的应用,进而总结了电子音色编辑的独特性及主要手段,为电子音色在现代音乐中的制作提供一定的参考。

  9. Clinical Voices - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Weed, Ethan

    Anomalous aspects of speech and voice, including pitch, fluency, and voice quality, are reported to characterise many mental disorders. However, it has proven difficult to quantify and explain this oddness of speech by employing traditional statistical methods. In this talk we will show how the t...... the temporal dynamics of the voice in Asperger's patients enable us to automatically reconstruct the diagnosis, and assess the Autism quotient score. We then generalise the findings to Danish and American children with autism....

  10. Effects of Medications on Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENT Doctor Near You Effects of Medications on Voice Effects of Medications on Voice Patient Health Information ... entnet.org . Could Your Medication Be Affecting Your Voice? Some medications including prescription, over-the-counter, and ...

  11. Influences of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features on characteristics of music-induced movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta eBurger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants’ movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics.

  12. Influences of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features on characteristics of music-induced movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Birgitta; Thompson, Marc R; Luck, Geoff; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants' movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics.

  13. A Neural Substrate for Rapid Timbre Recognition? Neural and Behavioral Discrimination of Very Brief Acoustic Vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, F; Suied, C; Pressnitzer, D; Edeline, J-M; Gourévitch, B

    2016-06-01

    The timbre of a sound plays an important role in our ability to discriminate between behaviorally relevant auditory categories, such as different vowels in speech. Here, we investigated, in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of anesthetized guinea pigs, the neural representation of vowels with impoverished timbre cues. Five different vowels were presented with durations ranging from 2 to 128 ms. A psychophysical experiment involving human listeners showed that identification performance was near ceiling for the longer durations and degraded close to chance level for the shortest durations. This was likely due to spectral splatter, which reduced the contrast between the spectral profiles of the vowels at short durations. Effects of vowel duration on cortical responses were well predicted by the linear frequency responses of A1 neurons. Using mutual information, we found that auditory cortical neurons in the guinea pig could be used to reliably identify several vowels for all durations. Information carried by each cortical site was low on average, but the population code was accurate even for durations where human behavioral performance was poor. These results suggest that a place population code is available at the level of A1 to encode spectral profile cues for even very short sounds.

  14. Age Estimation from Faces and Voices: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Moyse

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Age estimation is a skill that we use in everyday life and that is also important in more specific settings such as police testimony. Researchers investigated age estimation either from faces or voices but a direct comparison between voices and faces was rather infrequently performed. This paper reviews the literature on age estimation from faces and voices and highlights some similarities and differences. Data from a series of experiments suggest that age estimation from faces and voices can be fairly accurate, but in some cases, a superiority of faces is observed. The age of participants and stimuli both seem to affect age estimation from faces and voices in the same way: (1 age estimation is more accurate for young stimuli than for older stimuli, (2 younger participants are more accurate than older participants irrespective of the age of stimuli, and (3 an own-age bias affects age estimation. By contrast, the influence of ethnicity and gender has been less documented. Available data support that ethnicity influence age estimation from faces but not clearly age estimation from voices. Regarding the effect of stimuli gender, results were opposite: in age estimation from faces, an advantage for male faces was reported whereas in age estimation from voices, the advantage is in favor of female voices.

  15. Early specialization for voice and emotion processing in the infant brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasi, A.; Mercure, E.; Lloyd-Fox, S.; Thomson, A.; Brammer, M.; Sauter, D.; Deeley, Q.; Barker, G.J.; Renvall, V.; Deoni, S.; Gasston, D.; Williams, S.C.R.; Johnson, M.H.; Simmons, A.; Murphy, D.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Human voices play a fundamental role in social communication, and areas of the adult "social brain" show specialization for processing voices and their emotional content (superior temporal sulcus, inferior prefrontal cortex, premotor cortical regions, amygdala, and insula) [ [1], [2], [3], [4], [5],

  16. Voiced Reading and Rhythm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹艳萍

    2007-01-01

    Since voiced reading is an important way in learning English,rhythm is the most critical factor that enables to read beautifully.This article illustrates the relationship between rhythm and voiced reading,the importance of rhythm,and the methods to develop the sense of rhythm.

  17. Clinical Voices - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Weed, Ethan

    Anomalous aspects of speech and voice, including pitch, fluency, and voice quality, are reported to characterise many mental disorders. However, it has proven difficult to quantify and explain this oddness of speech by employing traditional statistical methods. In this talk we will show how...

  18. Borderline Space for Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Being on the borderline as a student in higher education is not always negative, to do with marginalisation, exclusion and having a voice that is vulnerable. Paradoxically, being on the edge also has positive connections with integration, inclusion and having a voice that is strong. Alternative understandings of the concept of borderline space can…

  19. Voice and endocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KVS Hari Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voice is one of the advanced features of natural evolution that differentiates human beings from other primates. The human voice is capable of conveying the thoughts into spoken words along with a subtle emotion to the tone. This extraordinary character of the voice in expressing multiple emotions is the gift of God to the human beings and helps in effective interpersonal communication. Voice generation involves close interaction between cerebral signals and the peripheral apparatus consisting of the larynx, vocal cords, and trachea. The human voice is susceptible to the hormonal changes throughout life right from the puberty until senescence. Thyroid, gonadal and growth hormones have tremendous impact on the structure and function of the vocal apparatus. The alteration of voice is observed even in physiological states such as puberty and menstruation. Astute clinical observers make out the changes in the voice and refer the patients for endocrine evaluation. In this review, we shall discuss the hormonal influence on the voice apparatus in normal and endocrine disorders.

  20. Face the voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    will be based on a reception aesthetic and phenomenological approach, the latter as presented by Don Ihde in his book Listening and Voice. Phenomenologies of Sound , and my analytical sketches will be related to theoretical statements concerning the understanding of voice and media (Cavarero, Dolar, La...

  1. Voice integrated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, P. Mike

    1977-01-01

    The program at Naval Air Development Center was initiated to determine the desirability of interactive voice systems for use in airborne weapon systems crew stations. A voice recognition and synthesis system (VRAS) was developed and incorporated into a human centrifuge. The speech recognition aspect of VRAS was developed using a voice command system (VCS) developed by Scope Electronics. The speech synthesis capability was supplied by a Votrax, VS-5, speech synthesis unit built by Vocal Interface. The effects of simulated flight on automatic speech recognition were determined by repeated trials in the VRAS-equipped centrifuge. The relationship of vibration, G, O2 mask, mission duration, and cockpit temperature and voice quality was determined. The results showed that: (1) voice quality degrades after 0.5 hours with an O2 mask; (2) voice quality degrades under high vibration; and (3) voice quality degrades under high levels of G. The voice quality studies are summarized. These results were obtained with a baseline of 80 percent recognition accuracy with VCS.

  2. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  3. EasyVoice: Integrating voice synthesis with Skype

    CERN Document Server

    Condado, Paulo A

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents EasyVoice, a system that integrates voice synthesis with Skype. EasyVoice allows a person with voice disabilities to talk with another person located anywhere in the world, removing an important obstacle that affect these people during a phone or VoIP-based conversation.

  4. Voice Savers for Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookman, Starr

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers are in a class all their own when it comes to voice use. These elite vocal athletes require stamina, strength, and flexibility from their voices day in, day out for hours at a time. Voice rehabilitation clinics and research show that music education ranks high among the professionals most commonly affected by voice problems.…

  5. Neural mechanisms for voice recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andics, A.V.; McQueen, J.M.; Petersson, K.M.; Gal, V.; Rudas, G.; Vidnyanszky, Z.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated neural mechanisms that support voice recognition in a training paradigm with fMRI. The same listeners were trained on different weeks to categorize the mid-regions of voice-morph continua as an individual's voice. Stimuli implicitly defined a voice-acoustics space, and training expli

  6. The ASTRA (Ancient instruments Sound/Timbre Reconstruction Application) Project brings history to life!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzo, Salvatore; Barbera, Roberto; de Mattia, Francesco; Rocca, Giuseppe La; Sorrentino, Mariapaola; Vicinanza, Domenico

    ASTRA (Ancient instruments Sound/Timbre Reconstruction Application) is a project coordinated at Conservatory of Music of Parma which aims to bring history to life. Ancient musical instruments can now be heard for the first time in hundreds of years, thanks to the successful synergy between art/humanities and science. The Epigonion, an instrument of the past, has been digitally recreated using gLite, an advanced middleware developed in the context of the EGEE project and research networks such as GÉANT2 in Europe and EUMEDCONNECT2 in the Mediterranean region. GÉANT2 and EUMEDCONNECT2, by connecting enormous and heterogeneous computing resources, provided the needed infrastructures to speed up the overall computation time and enable the computer-intensive modeling of musical sounds. This paper summarizes the most recent outcomes of the project underlining how the Grid aspect of the computation can support the Cultural Heritage community.

  7. Timbre-induced pitch shift from the perspective of Signal Detection Theory: the impact of musical expertise, silence interval, and pitch region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurma, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The paradigm of Signal Detection Theory (SDT) was used to analyze the ability of professional pianists (N = 16) and string players (N = 15) to discriminate small F0 differences between consecutive musical tones, presented in pairs, with identical and with different (bright and dull) timbres. The sensitivity (d′) and response bias (c) were heavily dependent on the timbral arrangement of the pairs of tones (the “comparable tones”), which can be interpreted as the influence of timbre-induced pitch shift on F0 discrimination. The participants were somewhat biased to “miss” signals when comparable tones had identical timbres and to make “false alarms” when the tones had different timbres. The d′ was lowest when the tones with a lower F0 in those stimulus-pairs containing tones with different timbres had a brighter timber, and highest when both tones had bright timbre. On average, the string players had a somewhat higher d′ and their perception was slightly less influenced by timbre-induced pitch shift when compared to the pianists. Nevertheless, the dependence of d′ and c on the timbral arrangement of the tones was registered in the case of all the participants at all the investigated pitch regions around D#3, D4, and C#5. Furthermore, the presence of a silence of 3.5 s—a silence interval—between the tones to be compared had an impact on both d′- and c-values as well as on the degree of vulnerability to timbre-induced pitch shift. PMID:24550867

  8. Timbre-induced pitch shift from the perspective of Signal Detection Theory: the impact of musical expertise, silence interval and pitch region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan eVurma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of Signal Detection Theory was used to analyze the ability of professional pianists (N = 16 and string players (N = 15 to discriminate small F0 differences between consecutive musical tones, presented in pairs, with identical and with different (bright and dull timbres. The sensitivity (d’ and response bias (c were heavily dependent on the timbral arrangement of the pairs of tones (the comparable tones, which can be interpreted as the influence of timbre-induced pitch shift on F0 discrimination. The participants were somewhat biased to ‘miss’ signals when comparable tones had identical timbres and to make ‘false alarms’ when the tones had different timbres. The d’ was lowest when the tones with a lower F0 in those stimulus-pairs containing tones with different timbres had a brighter timber, and highest when both tones had bright timbre. On average, the string players had a somewhat higher d’ and their perception was slightly less influenced by timbre-induced pitch shift when compared to the pianists. Nevertheless, the dependence of d’ and c on the timbral arrangement of the tones was registered in the case of all the participants at all the investigated pitch regions around D#3, D4 and C#5. Furthermore, the presence of a silence of 3.5 seconds – a silence interval – between the tones to be compared had an impact on both d’ and c values as well as on the degree of vulnerability to timbre-induced pitch shift.

  9. SARON DEMUNG’S TIMBRE AND SONOGRAM OF GAMELANS GUNTURMADU FROM KERATON NGAYOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kuswanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari spectrum warna bunyi (timbre dan sonogram dari Saron Demung Gamelan Gunturmadu dari Keraton Ngayogyakarta. Suara setiap wilahan direkam dengan bantuan pengolah suara yang ada pada komputer.  Akurasi frekuensi yang dapat diperoleh dengan pengolah ini adalah 1 Hz. Frekuensi dasar dari saron demung gamelan Gunturmadu untuk setiap wilahan #1 sampai dengan #7 masing-masing adalah 197, 207, 221, 261, 285, 304, 326 Hz. Lokasi frekuensi harmonik  tidak berturutan akan tetapi disisipi dengan frekuensi tak harmonis. Jumlah frekuensi harmonis dan tak harmonis yang membentuk warna bunyi untuk setiap wilahan berbeda. Ketebalan garis frekuensi dasar pada sonogram bertahan lebih lama dibandingkan dengan frekuensi lain pada suatu wilahan.The aim of this research is to study the timbre spectrums of Saron Demung instruments of gamelans Gunturmadu of Keraton Ngayogyakarta. This gamelan, as a set of traditional Javanese ensemble, are a pelog scale, seven scale in one octave. Sound of Saron Demung instruments are recorded by sound software. This software can display waveform in time domain and spectrum in frequency domain. The fundamental frequency is shown directly by software.  Other peak frequencies can be traced by shifting the cursor on top of it. The accuracy of frequency that can be produced is 1 Hz. Fundamentals frequencies of  Saron Demung  keys  #1 to #7 of gamelan Gunturmadu are 197, 207, 221, 261, 285, 304, 326 Hz respectively. The location of the harmonic frequencies are not always consecutive, but sometimes punctuated by another frequency. The numbers of harmonics and inharmonic frequencies of each keys are different. The thick lines of the fundamental frequency in sonogram exist in longer time than the other.

  10. Dominant Voice in Hamlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹

    2015-01-01

    <正>The Tragedy of Hamlet dramatizes the revenge Prince Hamlet exacts on his uncle Claudius for murdering King Hamlet,Claudius’s brother and Prince Hamlet’s father,and then succeeding to the throne and taking as his wife Gertrude,the old king’s widow and Prince Hamlet’s mother.This paper will discuss something about dominant voice in the play.Dominant voice is the major voice in the country,the society,or the whole world.Those people who have the power or

  11. Ethnographic Voice Memo Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Apollo; Conradsen, Maria Bosse

    1800-01-01

    -based technique which actively involves actors in producing ethnography-based data concerning their everyday practice. With the help from smartphone technology it is possible to complement ethnography-based research methods when involving the actors and having them create small voice memo narratives. The voice...... memos create insights of actors‟ everyday practice, without the direct presence of a researcher and could be considered a step towards meeting the dilemmas of research in complex fieldwork settings....

  12. The role of long-term familiarity and attentional maintenance in short-term memory for timbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, Kai; McAdams, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    We study short-term recognition of timbre using familiar recorded tones from acoustic instruments and unfamiliar transformed tones that do not readily evoke sound-source categories. Participants indicated whether the timbre of a probe sound matched with one of three previously presented sounds (item recognition). In Exp. 1, musicians better recognised familiar acoustic compared to unfamiliar synthetic sounds, and this advantage was particularly large in the medial serial position. There was a strong correlation between correct rejection rate and the mean perceptual dissimilarity of the probe to the tones from the sequence. Exp. 2 compared musicians' and non-musicians' performance with concurrent articulatory suppression, visual interference, and with a silent control condition. Both suppression tasks disrupted performance by a similar margin, regardless of musical training of participants or type of sounds. Our results suggest that familiarity with sound source categories and attention play important roles in short-term memory for timbre, which rules out accounts solely based on sensory persistence.

  13. Effects of a three-week vocal exercise program using the Finnish Kuukka exercises on the speaking voice of Norwegian broadcast journalism students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Sipilä, Laura

    2010-12-01

    Nine broadcast journalism students attended 10 hours in Kuukka vocal exercises, which aims at producing a ringing vocal quality. Nine control subjects received no training. A text was read at habitual loudness before and after the course. Five speech specialists evaluated the text samples for perceptual voice quality and analyzed mean fundamental frequency (F0), equivalent sound level (Leq), and long-term average spectrum (LTAS). For the Training Group, voice quality improved and correlated negatively with firmness and timbre (less firm and darker qualities being considered more desirable), and F0 increased slightly. Leq increased significantly in both groups. The results show positive and perceivable differences after the course. However, the aimed ring was not reached, may be due to too short time.

  14. Voice Matching Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of Genetic Algorithm (GA for voice recognition is described. The practical application of Genetic Algorithm (GA to the solution of engineering problem is a rapidly emerging approach in the field of control engineering and signal processing. Genetic algorithms are useful for searching a space in multi-directional way from large spaces and poorly defined space. Voice is a signal of infinite information. Digital processing of voice signal is very important for automatic voice recognition technology. Nowadays, voice processing is very much important in security mechanism due to mimicry characteristic. So studying the voice feature extraction in voice processing is very necessary in military, hospital, telephone system, investigation bureau and etc. In order to extract valuable information from the voice signal, make decisions on the process, and obtain results, the data needs to be manipulated and analyzed. In this paper, if the instant voice is not matched with same person’s reference voices in the database, then Genetic Algorithm (GA is applied between two randomly chosen reference voices. Again the instant voice is compared with the result of Genetic Algorithm (GA which is used, including its three main steps: selection, crossover and mutation. We illustrate our approach with different sample of voices from human in our institution.

  15. Voice Therapy Practices and Techniques: A Survey of Voice Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Peter B.; Larson, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Eighty-three voice disorder therapists' ratings of statements regarding voice therapy practices indicated that vocal nodules are the most frequent disorder treated; vocal abuse and hard glottal attack elimination, counseling, and relaxation were preferred treatment approaches; and voice therapy is more effective with adults than with children.…

  16. Voice in early glottic cancer compared to benign voice pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gogh, C. D. L.; Mahieu, H. F.; Kuik, D. J.; Rinkel, R. N. P. M.; Langendijk, J. A.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare (Dutch) Voice Handicap Index (VHIvumc) scores from a selected group of patients with voice problems after treatment for early glottic cancer with patients with benign voice disorders and subjects from the normal population. The study included a group of 35 pat

  17. The inner voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony James Ridgway

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The inner voice- we all know what it is because we all have it and use it when we are thinking or reading, for example. Little work has been done on it in our field, with the notable exception of Brian Tomlinson, but presumably it must be a cognitive phenomenon which is of great importance in thinking, language learning, and reading in a foreign language. The inner voice will be discussed as a cognitive psychological phenomenon associated with short-term memory, and distinguished from the inner ear. The process of speech recoding will be examined (the process of converting written language into the inner voice and the importance of developing the inner voice, as a means of both facilitating the production of a new language and enhancing the comprehension of a text in a foreign language, will be emphasized. Finally, ways of developing the inner voice in beginning and intermediate readers of a foreign language will be explored and recommended.

  18. Smartphone App for Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Smartphone App for Voice Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2013 ... developed a mobile monitoring device that relies on smartphone technology to gather a week's worth of talking, ...

  19. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover......, Pragmatist and Status Seeker. Expedient use of the voices in creating design strategies is discussed, thus contributing directly to the practice of high level design managers. The main academic contribution of this paper is demonstrating how applied anthropology can be used to generate insights...... into disruptive emergence of product service systems, where quantitative user analyses rely on historical continuation....

  20. VoiceRelay: voice key operation using visual basic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Lise; Jennings, David T

    2004-11-01

    Using a voice key is a popular method for recording vocal response times in a variety of language production tasks. This article describes a class module called VoiceRelay that can be easily utilized in Visual Basic programs for voice key operation. This software-based voice key offers the precision of traditional voice keys (although accuracy is system dependent), as well as the flexibility of volume and sensitivity control. However, VoiceRelay is a considerably less expensive alternative for recording vocal response times because it operates with existing PC hardware and does not require the purchase of external response boxes or additional experiment-generation software. A sample project demonstrating implementation of the VoiceRelay class module may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society Web archive, www.psychonomic.org/archive.

  1. Voice application development for Android

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book will give beginners an introduction to building voice-based applications on Android. It will begin by covering the basic concepts and will build up to creating a voice-based personal assistant. By the end of this book, you should be in a position to create your own voice-based applications on Android from scratch in next to no time.Voice Application Development for Android is for all those who are interested in speech technology and for those who, as owners of Android devices, are keen to experiment with developing voice apps for their devices. It will also be useful as a starting po

  2. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover...

  3. Voices of courage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraida Abdullah Karim

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 the Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children1 presented its annual Voices of Courage awards to three displaced people who have dedicated their lives to promoting economic opportunities for refugee and displaced women and youth. These are their (edited testimonies.

  4. Listen to a voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2001-01-01

    Listen to the voice of a young girl Lonnie, who was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at 16. Imagine that she is deeply involved in the social security system. She lives with her mother and two siblings in a working class part of a small town. She is at a special school for problematic youth, and he...

  5. Political animal voices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.R.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, I develop a theory of political animal voices. The first part of the thesis focuses on non-human animal languages and forming interspecies worlds. I first investigate the relation between viewing language as exclusively human and seeing humans as categorically different from other

  6. Finding a Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Schools have struggled for decades to provide expensive augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) resources for autistic students with communication challenges. Clunky voice output devices, often included in students' individualized education plans, cost about $8,000, a difficult expense to cover in hard times. However, mobile technology is…

  7. the Voice of Tomorrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlanBurdick

    2003-01-01

    Have you heard Mide? Coule be.Mike is a professional reader,and he's everywhere these days. On MapQuest, the Web-based map service,he'll read aloud whatever directions you ask for. If you like to have AOL or Yahoo! e-mail read aloud to you over the phone, that's Mike's voice you 're hearing. Soon

  8. What the voice reveals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, Sei Jin

    2007-01-01

    Given that the voice is our main form of communication, we know surprisingly little about how it impacts judgment and behavior. Furthermore, the modern advancement in telecommunication systems, such as cellular phones, has meant that a large proportion of our everyday interactions are conducted voca

  9. The Inner Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Anthony James

    2009-01-01

    The inner voice- we all know what it is because we all have it and use it when we are thinking or reading, for example. Little work has been done on it in our field, with the notable exception of Brian Tomlinson, but presumably it must be a cognitive phenomenon which is of great importance in thinking, language learning, and reading in a foreign…

  10. Moving beyond Youth Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serido, Joyce; Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    This study combines research documenting the benefits of positive relationships between youth and caring adults on a young person's positive development with studies on youth voice to examine the mechanisms through which participation in youth programs contributes to positive developmental outcomes. Specifically, the study explores whether youth's…

  11. Bodies and Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A wide-ranging collection of essays centred on readings of the body in contemporary literary and socio-anthropological discourse, from slavery and rape to female genital mutilation, from clothing, ocular pornography, voice, deformation and transmutation to the imprisoned, dismembered, remembered...

  12. Voices for Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Edwin G.; Kapadia, Madhu

    Listed in this annotated bibliography are 502 cassette tapes of value to career exploration for Grade 7 through the adult level, whether as individualized instruction, small group study, or total class activity. Available to New Jersey educators at no charge, this Voices for Careers System is also available for duplication on request from the New…

  13. What the voice reveals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, Sei Jin

    2007-01-01

    Given that the voice is our main form of communication, we know surprisingly little about how it impacts judgment and behavior. Furthermore, the modern advancement in telecommunication systems, such as cellular phones, has meant that a large proportion of our everyday interactions are conducted voca

  14. Bodies and Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A wide-ranging collection of essays centred on readings of the body in contemporary literary and socio-anthropological discourse, from slavery and rape to female genital mutilation, from clothing, ocular pornography, voice, deformation and transmutation to the imprisoned, dismembered, remembered...

  15. Earlier timbre processing of instrumental tones compared to equally complex spectrally rotated sounds as revealed by the mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, Corinna A; Lachmann, Thomas; Berti, Stefan

    2014-10-03

    Harmonically rich sounds have been shown to be processed more efficiently by the human brain compared to single sinusoidal tones. To control for stimulus complexity as a potentially confounding factor, tones and equally complex spectrally rotated sounds, have been used in the present study to investigate the role of the overtone series in sensory auditory processing in non-musicians. Timbre differences in instrumental tones with equal pitch elicited a MMN which was earlier compared to that elicited by the spectrally rotated sounds, indicating that harmonically rich tones are processed faster compared to non-musical sounds without an overtone series, even when pitch is not the relevant information.

  16. April 16th : The World Voice Day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, Jan G.; Behlau, Mara

    2007-01-01

    Although the voice is used as an everyday basis of speech, most people realize its importance only when a voice problem arises. Increasing public awareness of the importance of the voice and alertness to voice problems are the main goals of the World Voice Day, which is celebrated yearly on April 16

  17. Risk factors for voice problems in teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P. G. C.; de Jong, F. I. C. R. S.; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.; Donders, R.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H. K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints

  18. You're a What? Voice Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  19. Risk factors for voice problems in teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P. G. C.; de Jong, F. I. C. R. S.; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.; Donders, R.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H. K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints

  20. Risk factors for voice problems in teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P.G.C.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.J.; Donders, A.R.T.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H.K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints

  1. Multi-Frame Rate Based Multiple-Model Training for Robust Speaker Identification of Disguised Voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Swati; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Speaker identification systems are prone to attack when voice disguise is adopted by the user. To address this issue,our paper studies the effect of using different frame rates on the accuracy of the speaker identification system for disguised voice.In addition, a multi-frame rate based multiple-......-model training method is proposed. The experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed method compared to the commonly used single frame rate method for three types of disguised voice taken from the CHAINS corpus....

  2. Multi-Frame Rate Based Multiple-Model Training for Robust Speaker Identification of Disguised Voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Swati; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Speaker identification systems are prone to attack when voice disguise is adopted by the user. To address this issue,our paper studies the effect of using different frame rates on the accuracy of the speaker identification system for disguised voice.In addition, a multi-frame rate based multiple......-model training method is proposed. The experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed method compared to the commonly used single frame rate method for three types of disguised voice taken from the CHAINS corpus....

  3. The voices of seduction: cross-gender effects in processing of erotic prosody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethofer, Thomas; Wiethoff, Sarah; Anders, Silke; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Grodd, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Gender specific differences in cognitive functions have been widely discussed. Considering social cognition such as emotion perception conveyed by non-verbal cues, generally a female advantage is assumed. In the present study, however, we revealed a cross-gender interaction with increasing responses to the voice of opposite sex in male and female subjects. This effect was confined to erotic tone of speech in behavioural data and haemodynamic responses within voice sensitive brain areas (right middle superior temporal gyrus). The observed response pattern, thus, indicates a particular sensitivity to emotional voices that have a high behavioural relevance for the listener. PMID:18985138

  4. Emotional expressions in voice and music: same code, same effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffier, Nicolas; Zhong, Jidan; Schirmer, Annett; Qiu, Anqi

    2013-08-01

    Scholars have documented similarities in the way voice and music convey emotions. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we explored whether these similarities imply overlapping processing substrates. We asked participants to trace changes in either the emotion or pitch of vocalizations and music using a joystick. Compared to music, vocalizations more strongly activated superior and middle temporal cortex, cuneus, and precuneus. However, despite these differences, overlapping rather than differing regions emerged when comparing emotion with pitch tracing for music and vocalizations, respectively. Relative to pitch tracing, emotion tracing activated medial superior frontal and anterior cingulate cortex regardless of stimulus type. Additionally, we observed emotion specific effects in primary and secondary auditory cortex as well as in medial frontal cortex that were comparable for voice and music. Together these results indicate that similar mechanisms support emotional inferences from vocalizations and music and that these mechanisms tap on a general system involved in social cognition.

  5. Keyboard With Voice Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Voice synthesizer tells what key is about to be depressed. Verbal feedback useful for blind operators or where dim light prevents sighted operator from seeing keyboard. Also used where operator is busy observing other things while keying data into control system. Used as training aid for touch typing, and to train blind operators to use both standard and braille keyboards. Concept adapted to such equipment as typewriters, computers, calculators, telephones, cash registers, and on/off controls.

  6. Why Is My Voice Changing? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Why Is My Voice Changing? KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Is My Voice ... deeper than a girl's, though. What Causes My Voice to Change? At puberty, guys' bodies begin producing ...

  7. Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... near you Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice Patient ... that traditionally accompany gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Voice Misuse and Overuse Speaking is a physical task ...

  8. Voice and silence in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaşa, H.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike previous research on voice and silence, this article breaksthe distance between the two and declines to treat them as opposites. Voice and silence are interrelated and intertwined strategic forms ofcommunication which presuppose each other in such a way that the absence of one would minimize completely the other’s presence. Social actors are not voice, or silence. Social actors can have voice or silence, they can do both because they operate at multiple levels and deal with multiple issues at different moments in time.

  9. VOICE REHABILITATION FOLLOWING TOTAL LARYNGECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite continuing advances in surgical management of laryngeal malignancy, total laryngectomy is still the treatment of choice in advanced laryngeal malignancies. Considering the longevity of the patient following total laryngectomy, various measures have been adopted in order to provide voice function to the patient. Significant advancements have taken place in voice rehabilitation of post laryngectomy patients. Advancements in oncological surgical techniques and irradiation techniques have literally cured laryngeal malignancies. Among the various voice rehabilitation techniques available TEP (Tracheo oesophageal puncture is considered to be the gold standard. This article attempts to explore the various voice rehabilitation technique available with primary focus on TEP.

  10. Pedagogical efficiency of melodic contour mapping technology as it relates to vocal timbre in singers of classical music repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Burroughs, Kathryn; Anderson, Edward E; Hughes, Thomas; Lan, William Y; Dent, Karl; Arnold, Sue; Dolter, Gerald; McNeil, Kathy

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain the pedagogical viability of computer-generated melodic contour mapping systems in the classical singing studio, as perceived by their resulting effect (if any) on vocal timbre when a singer's head and neck remained in a normal singing posture. The evaluation of data gathered during the course of the study indicates that the development of consistent vocal timbre produced by the classical singing student may be enhanced through visual/kinesthetic response to melodic contour inversion mapping, as it balances the singer's perception of melodic intervals in standard musical notation. Unexpectedly, it was discovered that the system, in its natural melodic contour mode, may also be useful for teaching a student to sing a consistent legato line. The results of the study also suggest that the continued development of this new technology for the general teaching studio, designed to address standard musical notation and a singer's visual/kinesthetic response to it, may indeed be useful.

  11. The impact of voice on speech realization

    OpenAIRE

    Jelka Breznik

    2014-01-01

    The study discusses spoken literary language and the impact of voice on speech realization. The voice consists of a sound made by a human being using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, crying, screaming… The human voice is specifically the part of human sound production in which the vocal folds (vocal cords) are the primary sound source. Our voice is our instrument and identity card. How does the voice (voice tone) affect others and how do they respond, positively or negatively? ...

  12. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  13. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  14. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  15. The Voice Handicap Index with Post-Laryngectomy Male Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Eryl; Carding, Paul; Drinnan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Surgical treatment for advanced laryngeal cancer involves complete removal of the larynx ("laryngectomy") and initial total loss of voice. Post-laryngectomy rehabilitation involves implementation of different means of "voicing" for these patients wherever possible. There is little information about laryngectomees'…

  16. Pedagogic Voice: Student Voice in Teaching and Engagement Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutsis, Aspa; McGregor, Glenda; Mills, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the notion of "pedagogic voice" as it relates to the presence of student "voice" in teaching, learning and curriculum matters at an alternative, or second chance, school in Australia. This school draws upon many of the principles of democratic schooling via its utilisation of student voice…

  17. 论巴洛克时期德国管风琴的形制及音栓音色特点%On the Structure and Stops Timbre Features of German Organ in Baroque Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段颖

    2015-01-01

    巴洛克时期德国管风琴的形制及音栓音色与当时管风琴音乐风格的形成密切相关且相互作用。巴赫将意大利三重奏奏鸣曲式中两个高声部与数字低音的作曲形式运用到了管风琴上,即把脚踏键提升到与左右两手完全平等的地位。巴赫六首三重奏鸣曲( BWV525⁃530)是德国管风琴创作领域的杰作和代表,其中第四首作品( BWV528)从音栓配置上再现了巴洛克时期德国管风琴的乐器形制特点及其音乐风格。%The structure and stops timbre of German organ were closely related to the formation of organ music style in Baroque period and were interacted. Bach applies the composition form of two loud voice and continuo in Italian trio sonata form to the pipe organ, which promote the foot pad to a complete equal status with both hands. Bach’ s six trio sonata ( BWV525⁃530) for organ is masterpiece and representatives of German organ, while the fourth piece ( BWV528) recreates the structure characteristics and music style of German organ in baroque period from stops con⁃figuration.

  18. Voice and Speech after Laryngectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Musura, Maja; Globlek, Dubravka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to compare voice and speech quality in alaryngeal patients using esophageal speech (ESOP, eight subjects), electroacoustical speech aid (EACA, six subjects) and tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis (TEVP, three subjects). The subjects reading a short story were recorded in the sound-proof booth and the speech samples…

  19. Voice Quality of Psychological Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Antonio; Nunes, Ana; Coimbra, Rosa Lidia; Lima, Rosa; Moutinho, Lurdes

    2008-01-01

    Variations in voice quality are essentially related to modifications of the glottal source parameters, such as: F[subscript 0], jitter, and shimmer. Voice quality is affected by prosody, emotional state, and vocal pathologies. Psychogenic vocal pathology is particularly interesting. In the present case study, the speaker naturally presented a…

  20. Voice handicap index in Swedish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Dotevall, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a Swedish version of the voice handicap index questionnaire (Sw-VHI). A total of 57 adult, dysphonic patients and 15 healthy controls completed the Sw-VHI and rated the degree of vocal fatigue and hoarseness on visual analogue scales. A perceptual voice evaluation was also performed. Test-retest reliability was analyzed in 38 subjects without voice complaints. Sw-VHI distinguished between dysphonic subjects and controls (P 0.84) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75) were good. Only moderate or weak correlations were found between Sw-VHI and the subjective and perceptual voice ratings. The data indicate that a difference above 13 points for the total Sw-VHI score and above 6 points for the Sw-VHI subscales is significant for an individual when comparing two different occasions. In conclusion, the Sw-VHI appears to be a robust instrument for assessment of the psycho-social impact of a voice disorder. However, Sw-VHI seems to, at least partly, capture different aspects of voice function to the subjective voice ratings and the perceptual voice evaluation.

  1. Enhancing Author's Voice through Scripting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase J.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest using scripting as a strategy to mentor and enhance author's voice in writing. Through gradual release, students use authentic literature as a model for writing with voice. The authors also propose possible extensions for independent practice, integration across content areas, and tips for evaluation.

  2. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  3. Voices in History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Leudar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of “hearing voices” nowadays usually count as verbal hallucinations and they indicate serious mental illness. Some are first rank symptoms of schizophrenia, and the mass media, at least in Britain, tend to present them as antecedents of impulsive violence. They are, however, also found in other psychiatric conditions and epidemiological surveys reveal that even individuals with no need of psychiatric help can hear voices, sometimes following bereavement or abuse, but sometimes for no discernible reason. So do these experiences necessarily mean insanity and violence, and must they be thought of as pathogenic hallucinations; or are there other ways to understand them and live with them, and with what consequences?One way to make our thinking more flexible is to turn to history. We find that hearing voices was always an enigmatic experience, and the people who had it were rare. The gallery of voice hearers is, though, distinguished and it includes Galilei, Bunyan and St Teresa. Socrates heard a daemon who guided his actions, but in his time this did not signify madness, nor was it described as a hallucination. Yet in 19th century French psychological medicine the daemon became a hallucination and Socrates was retrospectively diagnosed as mentally ill. This paper examines the controversies which surrounded the experience at different points in history as well as the practice of retrospective psychiatry. The conclusion reached on the basis of the historical materials is that the experience and the ontological status it is ascribed are not trans-cultural or trans-historic but situated both in history and in the contemporary conflicts.

  4. On the definition and interpretation of voice selective activation in the temporal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eBethmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Regions along the superior temporal sulci and in the anterior temporal lobes have been found to be involved in voice processing. It has even been argued that parts of the temporal cortices serve as voice-selective areas. Yet, evidence for voice-selective activation in the strict sense is still missing. The current fMRI study aimed at assessing the degree of voice-specific processing in different parts of the superior and middle temporal cortices. To this end, voices of famous persons were contrasted with widely different categories, which were sounds of animals and musical instruments. The argumentation was that only brain regions with statistically proven absence of activation by the control stimuli may be considered as candidates for voice-selective areas. Neural activity was found to be stronger in response to human voices in all analyzed parts of the temporal lobes except for the middle and posterior STG. More importantly, the activation differences between voices and the other environmental sounds increased continuously from the mid-posterior STG to the anterior MTG. Here, only voices but not the control stimuli excited an increase of the BOLD response above a resting baseline level. The findings are discussed with reference to the function of the anterior temporal lobes in person recognition and the general question on how to define selectivity of brain regions for a specific class of stimuli or tasks. In addition, our results corroborate recent assumptions about the hierarchical organization of auditory processing building on a processing stream from the primary auditory cortices to anterior portions of the temporal lobes.

  5. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audienc......´s interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  6. Voice over IP Security

    CERN Document Server

    Keromytis, Angelos D

    2011-01-01

    Voice over IP (VoIP) and Internet Multimedia Subsystem technologies (IMS) are rapidly being adopted by consumers, enterprises, governments and militaries. These technologies offer higher flexibility and more features than traditional telephony (PSTN) infrastructures, as well as the potential for lower cost through equipment consolidation and, for the consumer market, new business models. However, VoIP systems also represent a higher complexity in terms of architecture, protocols and implementation, with a corresponding increase in the potential for misuse. In this book, the authors examine the

  7. Effects on vocal range and voice quality of singing voice training: the classically trained female voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Peter; Stallinga, Rob; Södersten, Maria; Ternström, Sten

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was performed on the acoustical effects of singing voice training under a given study program, using the voice range profile (VRP). Pretraining and posttraining recordings were made of students who participated in a 3-year bachelor singing study program. A questionnaire that included questions on optimal range, register use, classification, vocal health and hygiene, mixing technique, and training goals was used to rate and categorize self-assessed voice changes. Based on the responses, a subgroup of 10 classically trained female voices was selected, which was homogeneous enough for effects of training to be identified. The VRP perimeter contour was analyzed for effects of voice training. Also, a mapping within the VRP of voice quality, as expressed by the crest factor, was used to indicate the register boundaries and to monitor the acoustical consequences of the newly learned vocal technique of "mixed voice." VRPs were averaged across subjects. Findings were compared with the self-assessed vocal changes. Pre/post comparison of the average VRPs showed, in the midrange, (1) a decrease in the VRP area that was associated with the loud chest voice, (2) a reduction of the crest factor values, and (3) a reduction of maximum sound pressure level values. The students' self-evaluations of the voice changes appeared in some cases to contradict the VRP findings. VRPs of individual voices were seen to change over the course of a singing education. These changes were manifest also in the average group. High-resolution computerized recording, complemented with an acoustic register marker, allows a meaningful assessment of some effects of training, on an individual basis and for groups that comprise singers of a specific genre. It is argued that this kind of investigation is possible only within a focused training program, given by a faculty who has agreed on the goals. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Questioning Photovoice Research: Whose Voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S

    2016-07-01

    Photovoice is an important participatory research tool for advancing health equity. Our purpose is to critically review how participant voice is promoted through the photovoice process of taking and discussing photos and adding text/captions. PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched from the years 2008 to 2014 using the keywords photovoice, photonovella, photovoice and social justice, and photovoice and participatory action research. Research articles were reviewed for how participant voice was (a) analyzed, (b) exhibited in community forums, and (c) disseminated through published manuscripts. Of 21 studies, 13 described participant voice in the data analysis, 14 described participants' control over exhibiting photo-texts, seven manuscripts included a comprehensive set of photo-texts, and none described participant input on choice of manuscript photo-texts. Photovoice designs vary in the advancement of participant voice, with the least advancement occurring in manuscript publication. Future photovoice researchers should expand approaches to advancing participant voice.

  9. Voice quality of psychological origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Antonio; Nunes, Ana; Coimbra, Rosa Lídia; Lima, Rosa; Moutinho, Lurdes

    2008-01-01

    Variations in voice quality are essentially related to modifications of the glottal source parameters, such as: F0, jitter, and shimmer. Voice quality is affected by prosody, emotional state, and vocal pathologies. Psychogenic vocal pathology is particularly interesting. In the present case study, the speaker naturally presented a ventricular band voice whereas in a controlled production he was able to use a more normal phonation process. A small corpus was recorded which included sustained vowels and short sentences in both registers. A normal speaker was also recorded in similar tasks. Annotation and extraction of parameters were made using Praat's voice report function. Application of the Hoarseness Diagram to sustained productions situates this case in the pseudo-glottic phonation region. Analysis of several different parameters related to F0, jitter, shimmer, and harmonicity revealed that the speaker with psychogenic voice was capable of controlling certain parameters (e.g. F0 maximum) but was unable to correct others such as shimmer.

  10. Muscular tension and body posture in relation to voice handicap and voice quality in teachers with persistent voice complaints.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P.G.C.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Oudes, M.J.; Huinck, W.J.; Acht, H. van; Graamans, K.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between extrinsic laryngeal muscular hypertonicity and deviant body posture on the one hand and voice handicap and voice quality on the other hand in teachers with persistent voice complaints and a history of voice-related absenteeism. The st

  11. PERSISTENT LEFT SUPERIOR VENACAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A Persistent Left Superior Venacava (PLSVC is the most common variation of the thoracic venous system and rare congenital vascular anomaly and is prevalent in 0.3% of the population. It may be associated with other cardiovascular abnormalities including atrial septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of aorta, coronary sinus ostial atresia, and cor triatriatum. Incidental rotation of a dilated coronary sinus on echocardiography should raise the suspicion of PLSVC. The diagnosis should be confirmed by saline contrast echocardiography. Condition is usually asymptomatic. Here we present a rare case of persistent left superior vena cava presented in OPD with dyspnoea & palpitations.

  12. Bodies, Spaces, Voices, Silences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Mazzoleni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A good architecture should not only allow functional, formal and technical quality for urban spaces, but also let the voice of the city be perceived, listened, enjoyed. Every city has got its specific sound identity, or “ISO” (R. O. Benenzon, made up of a complex texture of background noises and fluctuation of sound figures emerging and disappearing in a game of continuous fadings. For instance, the ISO of Naples is characterized by a spread need of hearing the sound return of one’s/others voices, by a hate of silence. Cities may fall ill: illness from noise, within super-crowded neighbourhoods, or illness from silence, in the forced isolation of peripheries. The proposal of an urban music therapy denotes an unpublished and innovative enlarged interdisciplinary research path, where architecture, music, medicine, psychology, communication science may converge, in order to work for rebalancing spaces and relation life of the urban collectivity, through the care of body and sound dimensions.

  13. Crossing Cultures with Multi-Voiced Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styslinger, Mary E.; Whisenant, Alison

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the benefits of using multi-voiced journals as a teaching strategy in reading instruction. Multi-voiced journals, an adaptation of dual-voiced journals, encourage responses to reading in varied, cultured voices of characters. It is similar to reading journals in that they prod students to connect to the lives…

  14. Timbre Superiority and Composition Principle of Computer Music%电脑音乐的音色优势与创编理念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭

    2008-01-01

    电脑音乐的明显优势在于音色的丰富多彩.虽然严格意义上说来,电脑音乐系统所有硬件音源和软件音源所提供的音色都是电子声音,但是依据电子储存制造波形采样的不同,产生的音色实际上可以分为管弦乐队乐器音色、民族乐队乐器音色、模拟音色、电声乐队乐器音色以及电子合成音色.充分发挥电脑音乐音色异彩纷呈的特点,以传统管弦乐队编制的乐器音色和管弦乐编配的技术规范为基础,以民族乐队乐器音色为色彩、以模拟音色、电声乐队乐器和电子合成声音色为辅助的绚丽多姿的音乐创作编配方式,是电脑音乐创作编配的崭新理念.

  15. Lexical frequency and voice assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernestus, Mirjam; Lahey, Mybeth; Verhees, Femke; Baayen, R Harald

    2006-08-01

    Acoustic duration and degree of vowel reduction are known to correlate with a word's frequency of occurrence. The present study broadens the research on the role of frequency in speech production to voice assimilation. The test case was regressive voice assimilation in Dutch. Clusters from a corpus of read speech were more often perceived as unassimilated in lower-frequency words and as either completely voiced (regressive assimilation) or, unexpectedly, as completely voiceless (progressive assimilation) in higher-frequency words. Frequency did not predict the voice classifications over and above important acoustic cues to voicing, suggesting that the frequency effects on the classifications were carried exclusively by the acoustic signal. The duration of the cluster and the period of glottal vibration during the cluster decreased while the duration of the release noises increased with frequency. This indicates that speakers reduce articulatory effort for higher-frequency words, with some acoustic cues signaling more voicing and others less voicing. A higher frequency leads not only to acoustic reduction but also to more assimilation.

  16. 读书机器人变声系统的研制%A Voice Modification System for Book Reading Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓杰; 房宁; 赵群飞

    2012-01-01

    为了增加读书机器人(JoyTon)朗读声音的多样性,设计了一种基于单一语音库的声音变换系统.将读书机嚣TTS(textto speech)合成出的初始声音分解成声音激励信号和声道滤波嚣信号,并转换到频域进行修改.利用短时傅立叶幅度谱重构激励信号的方法以及通过修改声道滤波器参数的方法来变换音速、音调和音色.修改后的声音激励信号和声道滤波嚣信号被重新合成产生新的声音信号.该变声系统能在不增加语音库容量的情况下使读书机嚣人用丰富多彩的感情和声调朗读.%Voice modification based on single speech database is proposed in order to increase the voice diversity of the book reading robot (JoyTon). The original sounds synthesized by book reading robot's TTS engine are broken down into excitation and vocal tract filter. Both excitation and vocal tract filter are modified in the frequency domain. Excitation reconstruction through short-time Fourier transform magnitude and parameters modification of vocal tract filter are used to achieve tempo, pitch and timbre modification. Modified excitation and modified vocal tract filter are synthesized back to generate new voice signals. This voice modification system makes book reading robot a text with a variety of emotions and tones without extra memory for speech library.

  17. LA TRANSFORMACIÓN DEL TIMBRE DEL PIANO: DESDE SU EVOLUCIÓN MECÁNICA HASTA LAS TÉCNICAS EXTENDIDAS, MEDIANTE ELEMENTOS INTERNOS, EXTERNOS Y ELECTRÓNICOS

    OpenAIRE

    PÉREZ HERNÁNDEZ, PATRICIA

    2016-01-01

    [EN] SUMMARY (English) THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE TIMBRE OF PIANO: SINCE ITS MECHANICAL EVOLUTION TO EXTENDED TECHNIQUES, THROUGH INTERNAL, EXTERNAL AND ELECTRONIC ELEMENTS. This research deals with the study of piano timbre throughout its historical evolution from organological, artistic, social and technological perspectives. Since its genesis, the piano has been of interest to musicians, fans, artists, artistic movements, etc., who in one way or another have shaped the instrument and ...

  18. Voice examination in patients with decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Seung Tae; Park, Hyo Sang; Lee, Hyoung Shin; Hong, Jong Chul; Kwon, Soon Bok; Lee, Kang Dae

    2012-06-01

    Decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy due to injury of the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) may be a critical, especially to professional voice users. The author studied the usefulness of VRP (voice range profile) and MDVP (multi-dimensional voice program) to evaluate patients who have decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy. A study was performed with 58 females and 9 males who underwent voice assessment between January 2008 and June 2009. The patients were classified as the group of female with no decreased high pitch (group A, n = 52), decreased high pitch (group B, n = 6) and the group of male with no decreased high pitch (group C, n = 9). VRP and laryngeal electromyogram (EMG) was performed in group B. The preoperative frequency range of group A and B were statistically not different. In Group B, the result of VRP showed that the frequency range was 443.11 ± 83.97, 246.67 ± 49.41, 181.37 ± 80.13 Hz showing significant decrease after the surgery compared to that of the preoperative result. (P VRP revealed no significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative result. VRP is a noninvasive, quick, and practical test to demonstrate decreased frequency range visually and helps to evaluate EBSLN injury in patient with thyroidectomy.

  19. Voice Habits and Behaviors: Voice Care Among Flamenco Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón García, Marina; Muñoz López, Juana; Y Mendoza Lara, Elvira

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the vocal behavior of flamenco singers, as compared with classical music singers, to establish a differential vocal profile of voice habits and behaviors in flamenco music. Bibliographic review was conducted, and the Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire, an experimental tool designed by the authors to gather data regarding hygiene behavior, drinking and smoking habits, type of practice, voice care, and symptomatology perceived in both the singing and the speaking voice, was administered. We interviewed 94 singers, divided into two groups: the flamenco experimental group (FEG, n = 48) and the classical control group (CCG, n = 46). Frequency analysis, a Likert scale, and discriminant and exploratory factor analysis were used to obtain a differential profile for each group. The FEG scored higher than the CCG in speaking voice symptomatology. The FEG scored significantly higher than the CCG in use of "inadequate vocal technique" when singing. Regarding voice habits, the FEG scored higher in "lack of practice and warm-up" and "environmental habits." A total of 92.6% of the subjects classified themselves correctly in each group. The Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire has proven effective in differentiating flamenco and classical singers. Flamenco singers are exposed to numerous vocal risk factors that make them more prone to vocal fatigue, mucosa dehydration, phonotrauma, and muscle stiffness than classical singers. Further research is needed in voice training in flamenco music, as a means to strengthen the voice and enable it to meet the requirements of this musical genre. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Voices of the Unheard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Noomi Christine Linde

    2014-01-01

    . They were in two different classes at both schools, i.e. four classes in total. The families were followed for 18 months. Formal interviews were conducted with mothers and teachers, parent-teacher conferences were recorded, participant observations were conducted in classrooms and playgrounds, afterschool...... is that Somali diaspora parents (and with special focus on mothers as these where the parents who took most responsibility in the four cases of this research) have difficulty expressing their opinions as there are structural, historical and social dynamics that create conditions in which their voices...... are silenced, or at least restricted significantly, resulting in marginalizing consequences. The focus in each article is on here-and-now interactional dynamics but in order to understand these constitutive negotiations, it is argued that the analysis must be situated in a description of the constituted...

  1. Passing on power & voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Vibeke Røn; Nielsen, Cathrine Sand

    2014-01-01

    . The education lasts for 3,5 years and the landmark of the educational model is the continuously shifts between teaching in classroom and teaching in clinical practice. Clinical teaching takes place at approved clinical placement institutions in hospitals and in the social and health care services outside...... intention of gaining knowledge about other possible ways to perform the education. The class, named the E-class, followed what in the field was named ‘an experimental educational model based on experienced-based learning’ (Nielsen et al. 2011). The experiential educational model is argued as an experiment.......aspx Higher degree of student involvement in planning as well as teaching was in the field presented as a part of ‘the overall educational approach’. In the course ‘Acute, Critical Nursing & Terminal, Palliative Care’ this was transferred into an innovative pedagogy with intend to pass on power and voice...

  2. Voice stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Malcolm; Shipp, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    In a study of the validity of eight candidate voice measures (fundamental frequency, amplitude, speech rate, frequency jitter, amplitude shimmer, Psychological Stress Evaluator scores, energy distribution, and the derived measure of the above measures) for determining psychological stress, 17 males age 21 to 35 were subjected to a tracking task on a microcomputer CRT while parameters of vocal production as well as heart rate were measured. Findings confirm those of earlier studies that increases in fundamental frequency, amplitude, and speech rate are found in speakers involved in extreme levels of stress. In addition, it was found that the same changes appear to occur in a regular fashion within a more subtle level of stress that may be characteristic, for example, of routine flying situations. None of the individual speech measures performed as robustly as did heart rate.

  3. Voice over IP

    OpenAIRE

    Mantula, Juha

    2006-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee Voice over Internet Protocol -tekniikkaa ja sen tuomia mahdollisuuksia yrityselämässä. Teoriaosa käsittelee VoIP:n kannalta tärkeitä pro-tokollia ja standardeja, VoIP:n ominaisuuksia sekä esittelee erilaisia puheohjelmia, jotka käyttävät VoIP-tekniikkaa hyväkseen. Empiirinen osuus tutkii Viestintä Ky Pitkärannan Skype-ohjelman käyttöä. Työn tarkoituksena on selvittää VoIP:n hyviä ja huonoja puolia ja sitä kuinka tek-niikkaa voidaan käyttää hyväksi päivittäisessä ...

  4. Detecting Abnormal Word Utterances in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Machine-Learning-Based Voice Analysis Versus Speech Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yasushi; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Matsui, Gakuyo; Yamaoka, Noriko; Takada, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal prosody is often evident in the voice intonations of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. We compared a machine-learning-based voice analysis with human hearing judgments made by 10 speech therapists for classifying children with autism spectrum disorders ( n = 30) and typical development ( n = 51). Using stimuli limited to single-word utterances, machine-learning-based voice analysis was superior to speech therapist judgments. There was a significantly higher true-positive than false-negative rate for machine-learning-based voice analysis but not for speech therapists. Results are discussed in terms of some artificiality of clinician judgments based on single-word utterances, and the objectivity machine-learning-based voice analysis adds to judging abnormal prosody.

  5. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  6. The Importance of Voice in Supervision: A Response to Ellis and Robbins (1993) and Bernstein (1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohey, Denise

    1993-01-01

    Comments two responses to author's article "Listening for the Voices of Care and Justice in Counselor Supervision" (Twohey and Volker, 1993). Responds to Ellis and Robbins (1993) by clarifying perspective on relationship between moral decision making and supervision. Takes issue with Bernstein's (1993) comments about superiority of instrumental…

  7. The Importance of Voice in Supervision: A Response to Ellis and Robbins (1993) and Bernstein (1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohey, Denise

    1993-01-01

    Comments two responses to author's article "Listening for the Voices of Care and Justice in Counselor Supervision" (Twohey and Volker, 1993). Responds to Ellis and Robbins (1993) by clarifying perspective on relationship between moral decision making and supervision. Takes issue with Bernstein's (1993) comments about superiority of instrumental…

  8. Voice and choice by delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Vollaard, Hans; Trappenburg, Margo; Grit, Kor

    2013-02-01

    In many Western countries, options for citizens to influence public services are increased to improve the quality of services and democratize decision making. Possibilities to influence are often cast into Albert Hirschman's taxonomy of exit (choice), voice, and loyalty. In this article we identify delegation as an important addition to this framework. Delegation gives individuals the chance to practice exit/choice or voice without all the hard work that is usually involved in these options. Empirical research shows that not many people use their individual options of exit and voice, which could lead to inequality between users and nonusers. We identify delegation as a possible solution to this problem, using Dutch health care as a case study to explore this option. Notwithstanding various advantages, we show that voice and choice by delegation also entail problems of inequality and representativeness.

  9. The Christian voice in philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Fowler

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Rev. Stuart Fowler outlines a Christian voice in Philosophy and urges the Christian philosopher to investigate his position and his stance with integrity and honesty.

  10. Voice Force tulekul / Tõnu Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Tõnu, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    60. sünnipäeva tähistava Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Akadeemilise Meeskoori juubelihooaja üritusest - a capella pop-gruppide festivalist Voice Force (kontserdid 12. nov. klubis Parlament ja 3. dets. Vene Kultuurikeskuses)

  11. Voice Force tulekul / Tõnu Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Tõnu, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    60. sünnipäeva tähistava Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Akadeemilise Meeskoori juubelihooaja üritusest - a capella pop-gruppide festivalist Voice Force (kontserdid 12. nov. klubis Parlament ja 3. dets. Vene Kultuurikeskuses)

  12. Feature Extraction of Voice Segments Using Cepstral Analysis for Voice Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, P. S.; Baisakhi Chakraborty; Jaya Banerjee

    2015-01-01

    Even though a lot of work has been done on areas of speech to text and vice versa or voice detection or similarity analysis of two voice samples but very less emphasis has be given to voice regeneration. General algorithms for distinct voice checking for two voice sources paved way for our endeavor in reconstructing the voice from the source voice samples provided. By utilizing these algorithms and putting further stress on the feature extraction part we tried to fabricate the source voice wi...

  13. Voice Simulation in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, Britney B; Lee, Heeyoung; Kane, Irene; Mitchell, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to improve prelicensure nursing students' attitudes toward and self-efficacy related to delivering nursing care to patients with auditory hallucinations. Based on the Hearing Voices That Are Distressing curriculum, 87 participants were instructed to complete 3 tasks while wearing headphones delivering distressing voices. Comparing presimulation and postsimulation results, this study suggests that the simulation significantly improved attitudes toward patients with auditory hallucinations; however, self-efficacy related to caring for these patients remained largely unchanged.

  14. Work-related voice disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny; Luciana Tironi Sanson Przysiezny

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia), vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related...

  15. Voice Collection under Different Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the short-time Fourier transform theory and principle of digital filtering, this paper established a mathematical model called collection of voice signal collection at different spectrum. The voice signal was a non-stationary process, while the standard Fourier transform only applied to the periodic signal, transient signals or stationary random signal. Therefore, the standard Fourier transform could not be directly used for the speech signal. By controlling the input different types and parameters, this paper analyzed the collected original voice signal spectrum with the use of MATLAB software platform. At the same time, it realized the extraction, recording and playback of the speech signal at different frequencies. Therefore, the waveforms could be displayed obviously on the graphic user interface and voice effect could be more clearly. Meanwhile, the result was verified by the hardware platforms, which consisted of TMS320VC5509A [1] chip and TLV320AIC23 voice chip. The results showed that the extraction of voice signal under different spectrum model was scientific, rational and effective.

  16. The impact of voice on speech realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelka Breznik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses spoken literary language and the impact of voice on speech realization. The voice consists of a sound made by a human being using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, crying, screaming… The human voice is specifically the part of human sound production in which the vocal folds (vocal cords are the primary sound source. Our voice is our instrument and identity card. How does the voice (voice tone affect others and how do they respond, positively or negatively? How important is voice (voice tone in communication process? The study presents how certain individuals perceive voice. The results of the research on the relationships between the spoken word, excellent speaker, voice and description / definition / identification of specific voices done by experts in the field of speech and voice as well as non-professionals are presented. The study encompasses two focus groups. One consists of amateurs (non-specialists in the field of speech or voice who have no knowledge in this field and the other consists of professionals who work with speech or language or voice. The questions were intensified from general to specific, directly related to the topic. The purpose of such a method of questioning was to create relaxed atmosphere, promote discussion, allow participants to interact, complement, and to set up self-listening and additional comments.

  17. It doesn't matter what you say: FMRI correlates of voice learning and recognition independent of speech content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zäske, Romi; Awwad Shiekh Hasan, Bashar; Belin, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    Listeners can recognize newly learned voices from previously unheard utterances, suggesting the acquisition of high-level speech-invariant voice representations during learning. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we investigated the anatomical basis underlying the acquisition of voice representations for unfamiliar speakers independent of speech, and their subsequent recognition among novel voices. Specifically, listeners studied voices of unfamiliar speakers uttering short sentences and subsequently classified studied and novel voices as "old" or "new" in a recognition test. To investigate "pure" voice learning, i.e., independent of sentence meaning, we presented German sentence stimuli to non-German speaking listeners. To disentangle stimulus-invariant and stimulus-dependent learning, during the test phase we contrasted a "same sentence" condition in which listeners heard speakers repeating the sentences from the preceding study phase, with a "different sentence" condition. Voice recognition performance was above chance in both conditions although, as expected, performance was higher for same than for different sentences. During study phases activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was related to subsequent voice recognition performance and same versus different sentence condition, suggesting an involvement of the left IFG in the interactive processing of speaker and speech information during learning. Importantly, at test reduced activation for voices correctly classified as "old" compared to "new" emerged in a network of brain areas including temporal voice areas (TVAs) of the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), as well as the right inferior/middle frontal gyrus (IFG/MFG), the right medial frontal gyrus, and the left caudate. This effect of voice novelty did not interact with sentence condition, suggesting a role of temporal voice-selective areas and extra-temporal areas in the explicit recognition of learned voice identity

  18. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  19. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  20. Statistics of superior records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistics of records in a sequence of random variables. These identical and independently distributed variables are drawn from the parent distribution ρ. The running record equals the maximum of all elements in the sequence up to a given point. We define a superior sequence as one where all running records are above the average record expected for the parent distribution ρ. We find that the fraction of superior sequences SN decays algebraically with sequence length N, SN˜N-β in the limit N→∞. Interestingly, the decay exponent β is nontrivial, being the root of an integral equation. For example, when ρ is a uniform distribution with compact support, we find β=0.450265. In general, the tail of the parent distribution governs the exponent β. We also consider the dual problem of inferior sequences, where all records are below average, and find that the fraction of inferior sequences IN decays algebraically, albeit with a different decay exponent, IN˜N-α. We use the above statistical measures to analyze earthquake data.

  1. Frenillo labial superior doble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Albornoz López del Castillo

    Full Text Available El frenillo labial superior doble no sindrómico es una anomalía del desarrollo que no hemos encontrado reportada en la revisión bibliográfica realizada. Se presenta una niña de 11 años de edad que fue remitida al servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "Eduardo Agramonte Piña", de Camagüey, por presentar un frenillo labial superior doble de baja inserción. Se describen los síntomas clínicos asociados a esta anomalía y el tratamiento quirúrgico utilizado para su solución: una frenectomía y plastia sobre la banda muscular frénica anormal que provocaba exceso de tejido en la mucosa labial. Consideramos muy interesante la descripción de este caso, por no haber encontrado reporte similar en la literatura revisada.

  2. Mechanics of human voice production and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-01-01

    As the primary means of communication, voice plays an important role in daily life. Voice also conveys personal information such as social status, personal traits, and the emotional state of the speaker. Mechanically, voice production involves complex fluid-structure interaction within the glottis and its control by laryngeal muscle activation. An important goal of voice research is to establish a causal theory linking voice physiology and biomechanics to how speakers use and control voice to communicate meaning and personal information. Establishing such a causal theory has important implications for clinical voice management, voice training, and many speech technology applications. This paper provides a review of voice physiology and biomechanics, the physics of vocal fold vibration and sound production, and laryngeal muscular control of the fundamental frequency of voice, vocal intensity, and voice quality. Current efforts to develop mechanical and computational models of voice production are also critically reviewed. Finally, issues and future challenges in developing a causal theory of voice production and perception are discussed. PMID:27794319

  3. Native voice, self-concept and the moral case for personalized voice technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose (1) To explore the role of native voice and effects of voice loss on self-concept and identity, and survey the state of assistive voice technology; (2) to establish the moral case for developing personalized voice technology. Methods This narrative review examines published literature on the human significance of voice, the impact of voice loss on self-concept and identity, and the strengths and limitations of current voice technology. Based on the impact of voice loss on self and identity, and voice technology limitations, the moral case for personalized voice technology is developed. Results Given the richness of information conveyed by voice, loss of voice constrains expression of the self, but the full impact is poorly understood. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices facilitate communication but, despite advances in this field, voice output cannot yet express the unique nuances of individual voice. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence and equality of opportunity establish the moral responsibility to invest in accessible, cost-effective, personalized voice technology. Conclusions Although further research is needed to elucidate the full effects of voice loss on self-concept, identity and social functioning, current understanding of the profoundly negative impact of voice loss establishes the moral case for developing personalized voice technology. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitation of voice-disordered patients should facilitate self-expression, interpersonal connectedness and social/occupational participation. Proactive questioning about the psychological and social experiences of patients with voice loss is a valuable entry point for rehabilitation planning. Personalized voice technology would enhance sense of self, communicative participation and autonomy and promote shared healthcare decision-making. Further research is needed to identify the best strategies to preserve and strengthen identity and sense of

  4. Children's Voice or Children's Voices? How Educational Research Can Be at the Heart of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Julian

    2015-01-01

    There are problems with considering children and young people in schools as quite separate individuals, and with considering them as members of a single collectivity. The tension is represented in the use of "voice" and "voices" in educational debates. Voices in dialogue, in contrast to "children's voice", are…

  5. Voice complaints, risk factors for voice problems and history of voice problems in relation to puberty in female student teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, G.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate voice complaints, risk factors for voice complaints and history of voice problems in student teachers before they embarked on their professional teaching career. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed among female student teachers. The response rate

  6. Voice complaints, risk factors for voice problems and history of voice problems in relation to puberty in female student teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, G.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate voice complaints, risk factors for voice complaints and history of voice problems in student teachers before they embarked on their professional teaching career. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed among female student teachers. The response rate

  7. Human voice recognition depends on language ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Gabrieli, John D E

    2011-07-29

    The ability to recognize people by their voice is an important social behavior. Individuals differ in how they pronounce words, and listeners may take advantage of language-specific knowledge of speech phonology to facilitate recognizing voices. Impaired phonological processing is characteristic of dyslexia and thought to be a basis for difficulty in learning to read. We tested voice-recognition abilities of dyslexic and control listeners for voices speaking listeners' native language or an unfamiliar language. Individuals with dyslexia exhibited impaired voice-recognition abilities compared with controls only for voices speaking their native language. These results demonstrate the importance of linguistic representations for voice recognition. Humans appear to identify voices by making comparisons between talkers' pronunciations of words and listeners' stored abstract representations of the sounds in those words.

  8. Quick Statistics about Voice, Speech, and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Health Info » Statistics and Epidemiology Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Voice, Speech, Language, and ... no 205. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015. Hoffman HJ, Li C-M, Losonczy K, ...

  9. Introduction: Textual and contextual voices of translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Voices – marks of the tangle of subjectivities involved in textual processes – constitute the very fabric of texts in general and translations in particular. The title of this book, Textual and Contextual Voices of Translation, refers both to textual voices, that is, the voices found within...... the translated texts, and to contextual voices, that is, the voices of those involved in shaping, commenting, or otherwise influencing the textual voices. The latter appear in prefaces, reviews, and other texts that surround the translated texts and provide them with a context. Our main claim is that studying...... both the textual and contextual voices helps us better understand and explain the complexity of both the translation process and the translation product. The dovetailed approach to translation research that is advocated in this book aims at highlighting the diversity of participants, power positions...

  10. Cochlear implant benefits in deafness rehabilitation: PET study of temporal voice Activations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coez, A.; Zilbovicius, M. [CEA, Serv Hosp Frederic Joliot, INSERM, Res Unit Neuroimaging and Psychiat, U797, IFR49, F-91406 Orsay (France); Zilbovicius, M.; Syrota, A.; Samson, Y. [CEA, DSV, DRM, Serv Hosp Frederic Joliot, F-91406 Orsay (France); Bizaguet, E. [Lab Correct Audit, Paris (France); Coez, A. [Univ Paris Sud 11, Paris (France); Ferrary, E.; Bouccara, D.; Mosnier, I.; Sterkers, O. [INSERM, Unit M 867, Paris (France); Ambert-Dahan, E. [Hop Beaujon, Serv ORL Chirurg Cervicofaciale, AP-HP, Clichy (France); Ferrary, E.; Bouccara, D.; Mosnier, I.; Sterkers, O. [Inst Fed Rech Claude Bernard Physiol et Pathol, IFR02, Paris (France); Samson, Y. [Hop La Pitie Salpetriere, Serv Urgences Cerebro-vasc, AP-HP, Paris (France); Samson, Y. [Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Sterkers, O. [Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    Cochlear implants may improve the medical and social prognosis of profound deafness. Nevertheless, some patients have experienced poor results without any clear explanations. One correlate may be an alteration in cortical voice processing. To test this hypothesis, we studied the activation of human temporal voice areas (TVA) using a well-standardized PET paradigm adapted from previous functional MRI (fMRI) studies. Methods: A PET H{sub 2}{sup 15}O activation study was performed on 3 groups of adult volunteers: normal-hearing control subjects (n 6) and cochlear-implanted post-lingually deaf patients with {>=}2 y of cochlear implant experience, with intelligibility scores in the 'Lafon monosyllabic task' {>=}80% (Good group; n 6) or {<=}20% (Poor group; n 6). Relative cerebral blood flow was measured in 3 conditions: rest, passive listening to human voice, and non-voice stimuli. Results: Compared with silence, the activations induced by non-voice stimuli were bilaterally located in the superior temporal regions in all groups. However these activations were significantly and similarly reduced in both cochlear implant groups, whereas control subjects showed supplementary activations. Compared with non-voice, the voice stimuli induced bilateral activation of the TVA along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) in both the control and the Good groups. In contrast, these activations were not detected in the Poor group, which showed only left unilateral middle STS activation. Conclusion: These results suggest that PET is an adequate method to explore cochlear implant benefits and that this benefit could be linked to the activation of the TVA. (authors)

  11. Speaker's voice as a memory cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2015-02-01

    Speaker's voice occupies a central role as the cornerstone of auditory social interaction. Here, we review the evidence suggesting that speaker's voice constitutes an integral context cue in auditory memory. Investigation into the nature of voice representation as a memory cue is essential to understanding auditory memory and the neural correlates which underlie it. Evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological studies suggest that while specific voice reinstatement (i.e., same speaker) often appears to facilitate word memory even without attention to voice at study, the presence of a partial benefit of similar voices between study and test is less clear. In terms of explicit memory experiments utilizing unfamiliar voices, encoding methods appear to play a pivotal role. Voice congruency effects have been found when voice is specifically attended at study (i.e., when relatively shallow, perceptual encoding takes place). These behavioral findings coincide with neural indices of memory performance such as the parietal old/new recollection effect and the late right frontal effect. The former distinguishes between correctly identified old words and correctly identified new words, and reflects voice congruency only when voice is attended at study. Characterization of the latter likely depends upon voice memory, rather than word memory. There is also evidence to suggest that voice effects can be found in implicit memory paradigms. However, the presence of voice effects appears to depend greatly on the task employed. Using a word identification task, perceptual similarity between study and test conditions is, like for explicit memory tests, crucial. In addition, the type of noise employed appears to have a differential effect. While voice effects have been observed when white noise is used at both study and test, using multi-talker babble does not confer the same results. In terms of neuroimaging research modulations, characterization of an implicit memory effect

  12. Voicing Consciousness: The Mind in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce-Kapler, Rebecca; Catlin, Susan; Sumara, Dennis; Kocher, Philomene

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the enduring power of voice as a concept in writing pedagogy. They argue that one can benefit from considering Elbow's assertion that both text and voice be considered as important aspects of written discourse. In particular, voice is a powerful metaphor for the material, social and historical nature of…

  13. Understanding the 'Anorexic Voice' in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Matthew; Waller, Glenn

    2016-07-20

    In common with individuals experiencing a number of disorders, people with anorexia nervosa report experiencing an internal 'voice'. The anorexic voice comments on the individual's eating, weight and shape and instructs the individual to restrict or compensate. However, the core characteristics of the anorexic voice are not known. This study aimed to develop a parsimonious model of the voice characteristics that are related to key features of eating disorder pathology and to determine whether patients with anorexia nervosa fall into groups with different voice experiences. The participants were 49 women with full diagnoses of anorexia nervosa. Each completed validated measures of the power and nature of their voice experience and of their responses to the voice. Different voice characteristics were associated with current body mass index, duration of disorder and eating cognitions. Two subgroups emerged, with 'weaker' and 'stronger' voice experiences. Those with stronger voices were characterized by having more negative eating attitudes, more severe compensatory behaviours, a longer duration of illness and a greater likelihood of having the binge-purge subtype of anorexia nervosa. The findings indicate that the anorexic voice is an important element of the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Addressing the anorexic voice might be helpful in enhancing outcomes of treatments for anorexia nervosa, but that conclusion might apply only to patients with more severe eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Voice and culture: A prospect theory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paddock, E.L.; Ko, Junsu; Cropanzano, R.; Bagger, J.; El Akremi, A.; Camerman, A.; Greguras, G. J.; Mladinic, A.; Moliner, C.; Nam, K.; Törnblom, K.; Van den Bos, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the congruence of individuals' minimum preferred amounts of voice with the prospect theory value function across nine countries. Accounting for previously ignored minimum preferred amounts of voice and actual voice amounts integral to testing the steepness of gain and loss

  15. Finding Voice: Learning about Language and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Christensen discusses why teachers need to teach students "voice" in its social and political context, to show the intersection of voice and power, to encourage students to ask, "Whose voices get heard? Whose are marginalized?" As Christensen writes, "Once students begin to understand that Standard English is one language among many, we can help…

  16. Analyzing the mediated voice - a datasession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna

    Broadcasted voices are technologically manipulated. In order to achieve a certain autencity or sound of “reality” paradoxically the voices are filtered and trained in order to reach the listeners. This “mis-en-scene” is important knowledge when it comes to the development of a consistent method o...... of analysis of the mediated voice...

  17. Analyzing the mediated voice - a datasession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna

    Broadcasted voices are technologically manipulated. In order to achieve a certain autencity or sound of “reality” paradoxically the voices are filtered and trained in order to reach the listeners. This “mis-en-scene” is important knowledge when it comes to the development of a consistent method...... of analysis of the mediated voice...

  18. Voice and culture: A prospect theory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paddock, E.L.; Ko, Junsu; Cropanzano, R.; Bagger, J.; El Akremi, A.; Camerman, A.; Greguras, G. J.; Mladinic, A.; Moliner, C.; Nam, K.; Törnblom, K.; Van den Bos, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the congruence of individuals' minimum preferred amounts of voice with the prospect theory value function across nine countries. Accounting for previously ignored minimum preferred amounts of voice and actual voice amounts integral to testing the steepness of gain and loss

  19. "Voice Forum" The Human Voice as Primary Instrument in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard; Storm, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    Aspects will be drawn on the human voice as tool for embodying our psychological and physiological state, and attempting integration of feelings. Presentations and dialogues on different methods and techniques in "Therapy related body-and voice work.", as well as the human voice as a tool for non...... for nonverbal orientation and information both to our selves and others. Focus on training on the voice instrument, the effect and impact of the human voice, and listening perspectives...

  20. Voice-Specialized Speech-Language Pathologist's Criteria for Discharge from Voice Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amanda I; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie

    2017-08-07

    No standard protocol exists to determine when a patient is ready and able to be discharged from voice therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine what factors speech-language pathologists (SLPs) deem most important when discharging a patient from voice therapy. A second aim was to determine if responses differed based on years of voice experience. Step 1: Seven voice-specialized SLPs generated a list of items thought to be relevant to voice therapy discharge. Step 2: Fifty voice-specialized SLPs rated each item on the list in terms of importance in determining discharge from voice therapy. Step 1: Four themes emerged-outcome measures, laryngeal appearance, SLP perceptions, and patient factors-as important items when determining discharge from voice therapy. Step 2: The top five most important criteria for discharge readiness were that the patient had to be able to (1) independently use a better voice (transfer), (2) function with his or her new voice production in activities of daily living (transfer), (3) differentiate between good and bad voice, (4) take responsibility for voice, and (5) sound better from baseline. Novice and experienced clinicians agreed between 94% and 97% concerning what was deemed "very important." SLPs agree that a patient's ability to use voice techniques in conversation and real-life situations outside of the therapy room are the most important determinants for voice therapy discharge. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. It's not what you play, it's how you play it: timbre affects perception of emotion in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailstone, Julia C; Omar, Rohani; Henley, Susie M D; Frost, Chris; Kenward, Michael G; Warren, Jason D

    2009-11-01

    Salient sensory experiences often have a strong emotional tone, but the neuropsychological relations between perceptual characteristics of sensory objects and the affective information they convey remain poorly defined. Here we addressed the relationship between sound identity and emotional information using music. In two experiments, we investigated whether perception of emotions is influenced by altering the musical instrument on which the music is played, independently of other musical features. In the first experiment, 40 novel melodies each representing one of four emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, or anger) were each recorded on four different instruments (an electronic synthesizer, a piano, a violin, and a trumpet), controlling for melody, tempo, and loudness between instruments. Healthy participants (23 young adults aged 18-30 years, 24 older adults aged 58-75 years) were asked to select which emotion they thought each musical stimulus represented in a four-alternative forced-choice task. Using a generalized linear mixed model we found a significant interaction between instrument and emotion judgement with a similar pattern in young and older adults (p effect was not attributable to musical expertise. In the second experiment using the same melodies and experimental design, the interaction between timbre and perceived emotion was replicated (p music after controlling for other acoustic, cognitive, and performance factors.

  2. Further investigation of harmonic priming in long contexts using musical timbre as surface marker to control for temporal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, B; Bigand, E

    2004-04-01

    Harmonic priming studies have reported facilitated processing for chords that are harmonically related to the prime context. Responses to the target (the last chord of an 8-chord sequence) were faster and more accurate when the target was strongly related, i.e., a tonic chord, to the preceding prime context than when it was less related, i.e., a subdominant chord. Results have been interpreted in terms of musical expectations and processing speed: the prime allows listeners to develop expectations for future events which lead to facilitated processing of the most strongly expected event. The present experiment investigated an alternative hypothesis suggesting that the harmonic structure of the prime context might create an ambiguity about "when" to respond that is stronger in contexts ending on less related targets than in contexts ending on strongly related targets. A change of musical timbre was used as surface marker indicating without ambiguity the temporal occurrence of the target. Participants made speeded intonation judgments of the target, i.e., judging whether targets are acoustically consonant or dissonant. The findings replicate the previously reported priming effect and rule out that processing differences are solely due to ambiguities about when in time the target will occur.

  3. The development of the Spanish verb ir into auxiliary of voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Thora

    2005-01-01

    spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development......spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development...

  4. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  5. Objective Voice Parameters in Colombian School Workers with Healthy Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Catherine Cantor Cutiva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize the objective voice parameters among school workers, and to identi­fy associated factors of three objective voice parameters, namely fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and maximum phonation time. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 116 Colombian teachers and 20 Colombian non-teachers. After signing the informed consent form, participants filled out a questionnaire. Then, a voice sample was recorded and evaluated perceptually by a speech therapist and by objective voice analysis with praat software. Short-term environmental measurements of sound level, temperature, humi­dity, and reverberation time were conducted during visits at the workplaces, such as classrooms and offices. Linear regression analysis was used to determine associations between individual and work-related factors and objective voice parameters. Results: Compared with men, women had higher fundamental frequency (201 Hz for teachers and 209 for non-teachers vs. 120 Hz for teachers and 127 for non-teachers and sound pressure level (82 dB vs. 80 dB, and shorter maximum phonation time (around 14 seconds vs. around 16 seconds. Female teachers younger than 50 years of age evidenced a significant tendency to speak with lower fundamental frequen­cy and shorter mpt compared with female teachers older than 50 years of age. Female teachers had significantly higher fundamental frequency (66 Hz, higher sound pressure level (2 dB and short phonation time (2 seconds than male teachers. Conclusion: Female teachers younger than 50 years of age had significantly lower F0 and shorter mpt compared with those older than 50 years of age. The multivariate analysis showed that gender was a much more important determinant of variations in F0, spl and mpt than age and teaching occupation. Objectively measured temperature also contributed to the changes on spl among school workers.

  6. Playful Interaction with Voice Sensing Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heesche, Bjarke; MacDonald, Ewen; Fogh, Rune

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a voice sensor, suitable for modular robotic systems, which estimates the energy and fundamental frequency, F0, of the user’s voice. Through a number of example applications and tests with children, we observe how the voice sensor facilitates playful interaction between...... children and two different robot configurations. In future work, we will investigate if such a system can motivate children to improve voice control and explore how to extend the sensor to detect emotions in the user’s voice....

  7. Sensory Processing: Advances in Understanding Structure and Function of Pitch-Shifted Auditory Feedback in Voice Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Larson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The pitch-shift paradigm has become a widely used method for studying the role of voice pitch auditory feedback in voice control. This paradigm introduces small, brief pitch shifts in voice auditory feedback to vocalizing subjects. The perturbations trigger a reflexive mechanism that counteracts the change in pitch. The underlying mechanisms of the vocal responses are thought to reflect a negative feedback control system that is similar to constructs developed to explain other forms of motor control. Another use of this technique requires subjects to voluntarily change the pitch of their voice when they hear a pitch shift stimulus. Under these conditions, short latency responses are produced that change voice pitch to match that of the stimulus. The pitch-shift technique has been used with magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG recordings, and has shown that at vocal onset there is normally a suppression of neural activity related to vocalization. However, if a pitch-shift is also presented at voice onset, there is a cancellation of this suppression, which has been interpreted to mean that one way in which a person distinguishes self-vocalization from vocalization of others is by a comparison of the intended voice and the actual voice. Studies of the pitch shift reflex in the fMRI environment show that the superior temporal gyrus (STG plays an important role in the process of controlling voice F0 based on auditory feedback. Additional studies using fMRI for effective connectivity modeling show that the left and right STG play critical roles in correcting for an error in voice production. While both the left and right STG are involved in this process, a feedback loop develops between left and right STG during perturbations, in which the left to right connection becomes stronger, and a new negative right to left connection emerges along with the emergence of other feedback loops within the cortical network tested.

  8. VOICE QUALITY BEFORE AND AFTER THYROIDECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora CVELBAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Voice disorders are a well-known complication which is often associated with thyroid gland diseases and because voice is still the basic mean of communication it is very important to maintain its quality healthy. Objectives: The aim of this study referred to questions whether there is a statistically significant difference between results of voice self-assessment, perceptual voice assessment and acoustic voice analysis before and after thyroidectomy and whether there are statistically significant correlations between variables of voice self-assessment, perceptual assessment and acoustic analysis before and after thyroidectomy. Methods: This scientific research included 12 participants aged between 41 and 76. Voice self-assessment was conducted with the help of Croatian version of Voice Handicap Index (VHI. Recorded reading samples were used for perceptual assessment and later evaluated by two clinical speech and language therapists. Recorded samples of phonation were used for acoustic analysis which was conducted with the help of acoustic program Praat. All of the data was processed through descriptive statistics and nonparametric statistical methods. Results: Results showed that there are statistically significant differences between results of voice self-assessments and results of acoustic analysis before and after thyroidectomy. Statistically significant correlations were found between variables of perceptual assessment and acoustic analysis. Conclusion: Obtained results indicate the importance of multidimensional, preoperative and postoperative assessment. This kind of assessment allows the clinician to describe all of the voice features and provides appropriate recommendation for further rehabilitation to the patient in order to optimize voice outcomes.

  9. Beyond Insularity: Releasing the Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Maxine

    1993-01-01

    Aspects of English-as-a-Second-Language are discussed from the standpoint of a teacher-educator with a particular interest in philosophy, the arts, and humanities and what they signify for the schools. The idea of giving voice to all viewpoints and sociocultural circumstances is considered for content learning and heterogeneous grouping. (Contains…

  10. A voice and nothing more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mebus, Andreas Nozic Lindgren

    2012-01-01

    Andreas Mebus fokuserer herefter på et helt konkret aspekt af talen, nemlig ”stemmen” i sin artikel ”A voice and nothing more – en filosofisk udredning af stemmen”. Gennem Mladen Dolars teori om stemmen, redegør Mebus for de forskellige aspekter ved stemmen; som bærer af mening, som æstetisk...

  11. Voice, Citizenship, and Civic Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the world has experienced a resurgence in practices of bottom-up communication for social change, a plethora of agency in which claims for voice and citizenship through massive civic action have conquered center stage in the public debate. This resurgence has sparked a series...

  12. FILTWAM and Voice Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the voice emotion recognition part of our framework for improving learning through webcams and microphones (FILTWAM). This framework enables multimodal emotion recognition of learners during game-based learning. The main goal of this study is to validate the use of microphone d

  13. The Performing Voice of Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna

    The ongoing international development of opening media archives for researchers as well as for broader audiences calls for a closer discussion of the mediated voice and how to analyse it. Which parameters can be analysed and which parameters are not covered by the analysis? Furthermore, how do we...

  14. Voice and choice by delegation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bovenkamp, H.; Vollaard, H.; Trappenburg, M.; Grit, K

    2013-01-01

    In many Western countries, options for citizens to influence public services are increased to improve the quality of services and democratize decision making. Possibilities to influence are often cast into Albert Hirschman's taxonomy of exit (choice), voice, and loyalty. In this article we identify

  15. Work-related voice disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia, vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related voice disorder (WRVD.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on WRVD and on the current Brazilian labor legislation.METHODS: This was a review article with bibliographical research conducted on the PubMed and Bireme databases, using the terms "work-related voice disorder", "occupational dysphonia", "dysphonia and labor legislation", and a review of labor and social security relevant laws.CONCLUSION: WRVD is a situation that frequently is listed as a reason for work absenteeism, functional rehabilitation, or for prolonged absence from work. Currently, forensic physicians have no comparative parameters to help with the analysis of vocal disorders. In certain situations WRVD may cause, work disability. This disorder may be labor-related, or be an adjuvant factor to work-related diseases.

  16. The Performing Voice of Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna

    The ongoing international development of opening media archives for researchers as well as for broader audiences calls for a closer discussion of the mediated voice and how to analyse it. Which parameters can be analysed and which parameters are not covered by the analysis? Furthermore, how do we...

  17. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  18. FILTWAM and Voice Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the voice emotion recognition part of our framework for improving learning through webcams and microphones (FILTWAM). This framework enables multimodal emotion recognition of learners during game-based learning. The main goal of this study is to validate the use of microphone

  19. Voicing children's critique and utopias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Lind, Unni

    2016-01-01

    , designed to accommodate children's participation through graphic illustrations of young children's critique and utopias. The study is informed by a commitment to democratic participation and processes (Reason and Bradbury 2001, Gunnarsson et al. 2016). Ethical guidelines implied dialogues and discussions......, children's voice, critique and utopias, pedagogical work...

  20. Women's Voices in Experiential Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen, Ed.

    This book is a collection of feminist analyses of various topics in experiential education, particularly as it applies to outdoors and adventure education, as well as practical examples of how women's experiences can contribute to the field as a whole. Following an introduction, "The Quilt of Women's Voices" (Maya Angelou), the 25…

  1. Superior time perception for lower musical pitch explains why bass-ranged instruments lay down musical rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Michael J; Marie, Céline; Bruce, Ian C; Trainor, Laurel J

    2014-07-15

    The auditory environment typically contains several sound sources that overlap in time, and the auditory system parses the complex sound wave into streams or voices that represent the various sound sources. Music is also often polyphonic. Interestingly, the main melody (spectral/pitch information) is most often carried by the highest-pitched voice, and the rhythm (temporal foundation) is most often laid down by the lowest-pitched voice. Previous work using electroencephalography (EEG) demonstrated that the auditory cortex encodes pitch more robustly in the higher of two simultaneous tones or melodies, and modeling work indicated that this high-voice superiority for pitch originates in the sensory periphery. Here, we investigated the neural basis of carrying rhythmic timing information in lower-pitched voices. We presented simultaneous high-pitched and low-pitched tones in an isochronous stream and occasionally presented either the higher or the lower tone 50 ms earlier than expected, while leaving the other tone at the expected time. EEG recordings revealed that mismatch negativity responses were larger for timing deviants of the lower tones, indicating better timing encoding for lower-pitched compared with higher-pitch tones at the level of auditory cortex. A behavioral motor task revealed that tapping synchronization was more influenced by the lower-pitched stream. Results from a biologically plausible model of the auditory periphery suggest that nonlinear cochlear dynamics contribute to the observed effect. The low-voice superiority effect for encoding timing explains the widespread musical practice of carrying rhythm in bass-ranged instruments and complements previously established high-voice superiority effects for pitch and melody.

  2. On the Influence of Breath on Instrumental Timbre%浅谈气息对器乐音色的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙勇

    2015-01-01

    Breath has always been the most important part and basic skill of playing instrumental music. Correct breath is the precondition and guarantee of beautiful timbre, and also can lay the solid basic skill for the player. In recent years, instrumental music learning is favored by more and more music lovers. But to play beautiful timbre, good breath support is necessary. Playing beautiful timbre is an important guarantee and the first condition for successful performance, and the internal factor of instrumental timbre is the use of breath. In order to better use breath to every wind instruments, make the instrumental music performance more rich and more perfect and make the player show himself better in concert, on the basis of a brief overview of the effect of breath on instrumental timbre, this paper takes the saxophone as an example, analyzes the role of breath, the importance of breath for the timbre and the problems in the breath practice, and on this basis, puts forward the corresponding solutions, and illustrates the ways to control the breath of performer.%气息,一直是器乐演奏中最最重要的一部分,同时也是器乐演奏的基本功。正确的气息是优美音色的前提和保障,也能为演奏者打下坚实的基本功。近年来,器乐学习越来越受到广大音乐爱好者的青睐,尤其是器乐学习。但要演奏出优美得音色,没有好的气息做支撑是不行的。演奏出好的音色是演奏成功的重要保障和首要条件,而影响器乐音色的内在因素最为重要的就是气息的运用。  为了能更好的将气息运用到每一件吹奏乐器中,为了使器乐的表现力更为丰富、更加完善,为了使演奏者在演奏中能更好的展现自己,本文在简要概述气息对器乐音色的影响的基础上,以萨克斯管这个乐器为例,分析气息的作用、气息对音色的重要性以及在气息练习中会遇到的一些问题,并在此基础上,提

  3. Comparing acoustic and perceptual voice parameters in female teachers based on voice complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Faghani Abukeili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Teachers are a large group of professional voice users that several risk factors and voice demands causes various voice complaints among them. As the voice is multidimensional, the aim of this study was acoustic and perceptual measurement of teachers’ voice and comparing the findings between two groups with many and few voice complaints.Methods: Sixty female teachers of high school in Sari, north of Iran, were chosen by available sampling to participate in this cross-sectional study. According to a voice complaints questionnaire, 21 subjects located in few voice complaints and 31 in many voice complaints group. After a working day, subjects completed a voice self-assessment questionnaire. Also, teachers’voice were recorded during three tasks including sustained vowels /a/ and /i/, text reading and conversational speech. Acoustic parameters were analyzed by Praat software and 2 speech-language pathalogists performed auditory-perceptual assessment by GRBAS ( Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain scale. Results: Comparing of the voice self-assessment between the two groups demonstrated statistically significant difference (p<0.05; however results of the acoustic and auditory-perceptual measurement did not show significant diffrence.Conclusion: Despite prevalent voice problems in teachers, there are various conditions in terms of complaints and assessments methods. In this study, only a remarkable deviation documented in the client-based assessments in many voice compliants group in comparison with few voice compliants, which would be probably related to different individual’s perception of voice problem between two groups. These results support paying attention to self-assessments in clinical process of voice problems.

  4. Targeted selection of brownfields from portfolios for sustainable regeneration: User experiences from five cases testing the Timbre Brownfield Prioritization Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartke, Stephan; Martinát, Stanislav; Klusáček, Petr; Pizzol, Lisa; Alexandrescu, Filip; Frantál, Bohumil; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex

    2016-12-15

    Prioritizing brownfields for redevelopment in real estate portfolios can contribute to more sustainable regeneration and land management. Owners of large real estate and brownfield portfolios are challenged to allocate their limited resources to the development of the most critical or promising sites, in terms of time and cost efficiency. Authorities worried about the negative impacts of brownfields - in particular in the case of potential contamination - on the environment and society also need to prioritize their resources to those brownfields that most urgently deserve attention and intervention. Yet, numerous factors have to be considered for prioritizing actions, in particular when adhering to sustainability principles. Several multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approaches and tools have been suggested in order to support these actors in managing their brownfield portfolios. Based on lessons learned from the literature on success factors, sustainability assessment and MCDA approaches, researchers from a recent EU project have developed the web-based Timbre Brownfield Prioritization Tool (TBPT). It facilitates assessment and prioritization of a portfolio of sites on the basis of the probability of successful and sustainable regeneration or according to individually specified objectives. This paper introduces the challenges of brownfield portfolio management in general and reports about the application of the TBPT in five cases: practical test-uses by two large institutional land owners from Germany, a local and a regional administrative body from the Czech Republic, and an expert from a national environmental authority from Romania. Based on literature requirements for sustainability assessment tools and on the end-users' feedbacks from the practical tests, we discuss the TBPT's strengths and weaknesses in order to inform and give recommendations for future development of prioritization tools.

  5. The Role of Occupational Voice Demand and Patient-Rated Impairment in Predicting Voice Therapy Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Barbara; Soni, Resha S; Moran, Kathleen; Lango, Miriam; Devarajan, Karthik; Jamal, Nausheen

    2017-07-11

    Examine the relationship among the severity of patient-perceived voice impairment, perceptual dysphonia severity, occupational voice demand, and voice therapy adherence. Identify clinical predictors of increased risk for therapy nonadherence. A retrospective cohort study of patients presenting with a chief complaint of persistent dysphonia at an interdisciplinary voice center was done. The Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) survey scores, clinician rating of dysphonia severity using the Grade score from the Grade, Roughness Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain scale, occupational voice demand, and patient demographics were tested for associations with therapy adherence, defined as completion of the treatment plan. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was performed to establish thresholds for nonadherence risk. Of 166 patients evaluated, 111 were recommended for voice therapy. The therapy nonadherence rate was 56%. Occupational voice demand category, VHI-10, and V-RQOL scores were the only factors significantly correlated with therapy adherence (P occupational voice demand are significantly more likely to be nonadherent with therapy than those with high occupational voice demand (P 40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting therapy nonadherence (P Occupational voice demand and patient perception of impairment are significantly and independently correlated with therapy adherence. A VHI-10 score of ≤9 or a V-RQOL score of >40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting nonadherence risk. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Perturbation Measures of Voice: A Comparative Study between Multi-Dimensional Voice Program and Praat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maryn, Youri; Corthals, Paul; De Bodt, Marc; Van Cauwenberge, Paul; Deliyski, Dimitar

    2009-01-01

    .... In the present study, perturbation measures provided by two computer systems (a purpose-built professional voice analysis apparatus and a personal computer-based system for acoustic voice assessment...

  7. [The smokers voice self assessment based on Voice Handicap Index (VHI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Wojnowski, Waldemar

    2009-01-01

    Complex voice assessment due to European Laryngeal Society proposals (2000) contains voice self estimation based on the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). This study focuses on the relation between voice handicap and smoking in dysphonic patients, who are using voice professionally. Thirty outpatient (25 female and 5 male, aged 40 to 55 years) voice department attendees suffering from professional dysphonia took part in this study. All patients after phoniatric examination completed the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The questions concern functional, emotional and physical complains due to dysphonia. Most of smokers did not complain of dysphonia related problems comparing to non smokers. Even the scores of functional and emotional scales of VHI in smokers shown better results (less handicap) than in nonsmokers. Smoking does not affect patients handicap due to dysphonia measured in the Voice Handicap Index.

  8. Qos and Voice Over IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian GHENCEA

    Full Text Available As Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP technology matures, companies are increasingly adopting it to cut costs, improve efficiency and enhance customer service. Using the Internet as an existing network for integrating data and telecom systems through intelligent VoIP, a range of benefits results: lower long distance costs, cost cuts in cabling processes and more flexible telephony management. However, as voice over IP services grow in popularity, major threats arise: this rapid growth leads to traffic congestion, security is jeopardizedand the poor quality of calls affects communication. The objective of this article is to present all the elements that can affect voicequality in a VoIP network and to provide methods for solving them. A detailed analysis to minimize the impact of implementation of QoS will be made, and at the end solutions to management strategies will be proposed.

  9. Effect of Religiosity on Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul-Latif; Khneisser, Gebran; Dowli, Alex; Ziade, Georges; Tamim, Hani

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between religiosity and phonatory behavior. A total of 186 participants participated in a survey that included four sections: demographic data, extent of religiosity, history of dysphonia, phonatory behavior and laryngeal manipulation, in addition to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10). There was no significant association between the prevalence of phonatory symptoms and any of the religiosity questions. There was no significant association between phonatory behavior, history of laryngeal manipulation and any of the religiosity questions. There was also no significant association between the score of the Voice Handicap Index and any of the five religiosity questions. There is no association between religiosity and prevalence of phonatory disturbances, phonotraumatic behavior and/or history of laryngeal manipulation.

  10. Voice disorders in mucosal leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. RESULTS: 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81% were male and five (19% female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years. The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%, followed by dysphonia (38.5%, odynophagia (30.8% and dysphagia (26.9%. 23 patients (84.6% presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. CONCLUSION: We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some

  11. WHEEL CHAIR USING VOICE RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Kumar Yadav*; Rajat Kumar; Santosh Yadav; Ravindra Prajapati; Prof. Kshirsagar

    2016-01-01

    The wide spread prevalence of lost limbs and sensing system is of major concern in present day due to wars, accident, age and health problems. This Omni-directional wheelchair was designed for the less able elderly to move more flexibly in narrow spaces, such as elevators or small aisle. The wheelchair is developed to help disabled patients by using speech recognition system to control the movement of wheelchair in different directions by using voice commands and also the simple movement of t...

  12. English Spoken Language & Voice Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Folsberg, Jens; Nielsen, Charlotte; Brusokaite, Giedre; Beinkamp, Line; Bach Jensen, Niels; Aalbæk Jensen, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the way language and accents are depicted in animated features and how linguistic stereotypes can be used in the process of character construction. In order to look into that, examples from four movies, produced by two studios, have been selected; the American Disney studios being represented by The Lion King (1994) and Up (2009), and the Japanese Studio Ghibli being represented by Ponyo (2008) and Howl's Moving Castle (2004). Voice qualities and specific accents ...

  13. Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Cannulas and voice prostheses are mechanical aids for patients who had to undergo tracheotomy or laryngectomy for different reasons. For better understanding of the function of those artificial devices, first the indications and particularities of the previous surgical intervention are described in the context of this review. Despite the established procedure of percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy e.g. in intensive care units, the application of epithelised tracheostomas has its own position,...

  14. The voice of the voiceless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Women’s voice, these are stories of a group of women and their partners who lived part of a particular historical period agriculture during the twentieth century, the hacienda. The present work attempts to reflect their everyday life, reinterpreted from nowadays as a reflection of collective memory, in the big farms where they grew by putting in scene their roles in juxtaposition to the roles of male tradition.

  15. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  16. Voices in (and around the Museum: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Holt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The voice already plays an important role in contemporary art. This introductory paper summarises a series of four sessions in which speakers explored the place of the voice in the museum context. It became clear that the voice not only offered richness in interpretation of and response to other museum artefacts but was itself an artefact meriting conservation  and interpretation.

  17. Speak Up! But don't strain your voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders Speak Up! But don't strain your voice Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Javascript on. A clinical trial at the NIDCD Voice Center gave Sherdina Jones tools to limit voice ...

  18. Familiarity and Voice Representation: From Acoustic-Based Representation to Voice Averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Fontaine

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize an individual from their voice is a widespread ability with a long evolutionary history. Yet, the perceptual representation of familiar voices is ill-defined. In two experiments, we explored the neuropsychological processes involved in the perception of voice identity. We specifically explored the hypothesis that familiar voices (trained-to-familiar (Experiment 1, and famous voices (Experiment 2 are represented as a whole complex pattern, well approximated by the average of multiple utterances produced by a single speaker. In experiment 1, participants learned three voices over several sessions, and performed a three-alternative forced-choice identification task on original voice samples and several “speaker averages,” created by morphing across varying numbers of different vowels (e.g., [a] and [i] produced by the same speaker. In experiment 2, the same participants performed the same task on voice samples produced by familiar speakers. The two experiments showed that for famous voices, but not for trained-to-familiar voices, identification performance increased and response times decreased as a function of the number of utterances in the averages. This study sheds light on the perceptual representation of familiar voices, and demonstrates the power of average in recognizing familiar voices. The speaker average captures the unique characteristics of a speaker, and thus retains the information essential for recognition; it acts as a prototype of the speaker.

  19. Speaking up in groups: a cross-level study of group voice climate and voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe; Wheeler-Smith, Sara L; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on employee voice—defined as the discretionary communication of ideas, suggestions, or opinions intended to improve organizational or unit functioning—the effects of shared or collective-level cognitions have received scant attention. There has also been relatively little research on voice within work groups. Our goal in this study was to address these important gaps by focusing on the effects of group-level beliefs about voice (i.e., group voice climate) on individual voice behavior within work groups. We conducted a cross-level investigation of voice behavior within 42 groups of engineers from a large chemical company. Consistent with our hypotheses, group voice climate was highly predictive of voice and explained variance beyond the effects of individual-level identification and satisfaction, and procedural justice climate. Also consistent with predictions, the effect of identification on voice was stronger in groups with favorable voice climates. These findings provide evidence that voice is shaped not just by individual attitudes and perceptions of the work context, as past research has shown, but also by group-level beliefs. The results also highlight the importance of broadening our conceptual models of voice to include shared cognitions and of conducting additional cross-level research on voice.

  20. The electrolarynx: voice restoration after total laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Rachel; Tang, Christopher G; Sinclair, Catherine F

    2017-01-01

    The ability to speak and communicate with one's voice is a unique human characteristic and is fundamental to many activities of daily living, such as talking on the phone and speaking to loved ones. When the larynx is removed during a total laryngectomy (TL), loss of voice can lead to a devastating decrease in a patient's quality of life, and precipitate significant frustration over their inability to communicate with others effectively. Over the past 50 years there have been many advances in techniques of voice restoration after TL. Currently, there are three main methods of voice restoration: the electrolarynx, esophageal speech, and tracheoesophageal speech through a tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) with voice prosthesis. Although TEP voice is the current gold standard for vocal rehabilitation, a significant minority of patients cannot use or obtain TEP speech for various reasons. As such, the electrolarynx is a viable and useful alternative for these patients. This article will focus on voice restoration using an electrolarynx with the following objectives: 1) To provide an understanding of the importance of voice restoration after total laryngectomy. 2) To discuss how the electrolarynx may be used to restore voice following total laryngectomy. 3) To outline some of the current electrolarynx devices available, including their mechanism of action and limitations. 4) To compare pros and cons of electrolaryngeal speech to TEP and esophageal speech.

  1. The Performing Voice of the Audiobook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgitte Stougaard; Have, Iben

    2014-01-01

    will be based on a reception aesthetic and phenomenological approach, the latter as presented by Don Ihde in his book Listening and Voice. Phenomenologies of Sound , and my analytical sketches will be related to theoretical statements concerning the understanding of voice and media (Cavarero, Dolar, La......Belle, Neumark). Finally, the article will discuss the specific artistic combination and our auditory experience of mediated human voices and sculpturally projected faces in an art museum context under the general conditions of the societal panophonia of disembodied and mediated voices, as promoted by Steven...

  2. Methods of Translating the English passive voice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张李丽

    2009-01-01

    @@ 一、Comparisons between Voices in English and Chinese In English as in many other languages,the passive voice is the form of a transitive verb whose grammatical sabjOct serves as the patient,receiving the action of the verb.The passive voice is typically contrasted with the active voice,which is the form of a transitive verb whose subject serves as the agent,performing the action of the verb.The subject of a verb in the passive voice corresponds to the object of the same verb in the active voice.English's passive voice is periphrastic;that is,it does not have a one-word form.Rather,it is formed using a form of the auxiliary verb be together with a verb's past participle.The passive voice is widely used in English when it is unnecessary,undesirable,or impossible to ilame the agent of an action,or when the passive voice is needed to link the text better.

  3. Prevalence of voice disorders among future teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simberg, S; Laine, A; Sala, E; Rönnemaa, A M

    2000-06-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted in order to find out the prevalence of voice disorders among students studying to be teachers. Vocal symptoms were inquired of 226 students. Their voices were assessed perceptually by a speech therapist and those who had abnormal voice quality or reported several vocal symptoms were referred to a clinical examination by a laryngologist. The results showed that 20% of this population reported two or more vocal symptoms during the previous year and that 19% had an organic voice disorder. This reinforces the need for clinical evaluation of students with vocal symptoms and more vocal training in the teacher education programs.

  4. The style characteristics and the creation of timbre beauty of dulcimer%扬琴的风格特征和音色美创造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巧

    2013-01-01

    The performance art of Chinese dulcimer has a long history, is the crystallization and aesthetic pursuit of Chinese wisdom. This article attempts from the style characteristics and the creation of timbre beauty of dulcimer to explore the music charm of dulcimer, explore its law of timbre formation and its potential in the manifestation, to better develop the expressional strength and appeal.%  中国扬琴的演奏艺术源远流长,是中华民族智慧的结晶和审美追求。本文试图从扬琴的风格特征和音色美创造两个方面来探寻扬琴的音乐魅力,探索其音色形成的规律和其表现中所蕴藏的潜力,来更好地发展扬琴的表现力和感染力。

  5. Development from childhood to adulthood increases morphological and functional inter-individual variability in the right superior temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Milene; Frost, Martin A; Rutten, Sanne; Ley, Anke; Formisano, Elia; Goebel, Rainer

    2013-12-01

    We study the developmental trajectory of morphology and function of the superior temporal cortex (STC) in children (8-9 years), adolescents (14-15 years) and young adults. We analyze cortical surface landmarks and functional MRI (fMRI) responses to voices, other natural categories and tones and examine how hemispheric asymmetry and inter-subject variability change across age. Our results show stable morphological asymmetries across age groups, including a larger left planum temporale and a deeper right superior temporal sulcus. fMRI analyses show that a rightward lateralization for voice-selective responses is present in all groups but decreases with age. Furthermore, STC responses to voices change from being less selective and more spatially diffuse in children to highly selective and focal in adults. Interestingly, the analysis of morphological landmarks reveals that inter-subject variability increases during development in the right--but not in the left--STC. Similarly, inter-subject variability of cortically-realigned functional responses to voices, other categories and tones increases with age in the right STC. Our findings reveal asymmetric developmental changes in brain regions crucial for auditory and voice perception. The age-related increase of inter-subject variability in right STC suggests that anatomy and function of this region are shaped by unique individual developmental experiences.

  6. Influence of classroom acoustics on the voice levels of teachers with and without voice problems: a field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Rydell, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Many teachers suffer from voice problems and classroom acoustics has been considered as one of the potential hazards for this. The present study examines how classroom acoustics interacts with the voices of 14 teachers without voice problems and 13 teachers with voice problems. The assessment...... of Reverberation Time and Voice Support were measured in the 30 empty classrooms of the study. An empirical model shows that the measured voice levels depended on the activity noise levels and the voice support. Teachers with and without voice problems were differently affected by the voice support...... of the classroom. The results thus suggest that teachers with voice problems are more aware of classroom acoustic conditions than their healthy colleagues and make use of the more supportive rooms to lower their voice levels. This behavior may result from an adaptation process of the teachers with voice problems...

  7. Syllogisms delivered in an angry voice lead to improved performance and engagement of a different neural system compared to neutral voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Walton Smith

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that most real-world reasoning occurs in some emotional context, very little is known about the underlying behavioral and neural implications of such context. To further understand the role of emotional context in logical reasoning we scanned 15 participants with fMRI while they engaged in logical reasoning about neutral syllogisms presented through the auditory channel in a sad, angry, or neutral tone of voice. Exposure to angry voice led to improved reasoning performance compared to exposure to sad and neutral voice. A likely explanation for this effect is that exposure to expressions of anger increases selective attention toward the relevant features of target stimuli, in this case the reasoning task. Supporting this interpretation, reasoning in the context of angry voice was accompanied by activation in the superior frontal gyrus—a region known to be associated with selective attention. Our findings contribute to a greater understanding of the neural processes that underlie reasoning in an emotional context by demonstrating that two emotional contexts, despite being of the same (negative valence, have different effects on reasoning.

  8. The design of a digital voice data compression technique for orbiter voice channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Voice bandwidth compression techniques were investigated to anticipate link margin difficulties in the shuttle S-band communication system. It was felt that by reducing the data rate on each voice channel from the baseline 24 (or 32) Kbps to 8 Kbps, additional margin could be obtained. The feasibility of such an alternate voice transmission system was studied. Several factors of prime importance that were addressed are: (1) achieving high quality voice at 8 Kbps; (2) performance in the presence of the anticipated shuttle cabin environmental noise; (3) performance in the presence of the anticipated channel error statistics; and (4) minimal increase in size, weight, and power over the current baseline voice processor.

  9. Investigating the neural correlates of voice versus speech-sound directed information in pre-school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Maria Raschle

    Full Text Available Studies in sleeping newborns and infants propose that the superior temporal sulcus is involved in speech processing soon after birth. Speech processing also implicitly requires the analysis of the human voice, which conveys both linguistic and extra-linguistic information. However, due to technical and practical challenges when neuroimaging young children, evidence of neural correlates of speech and/or voice processing in toddlers and young children remains scarce. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 20 typically developing preschool children (average age  = 5.8 y; range 5.2-6.8 y to investigate brain activation during judgments about vocal identity versus the initial speech sound of spoken object words. FMRI results reveal common brain regions responsible for voice-specific and speech-sound specific processing of spoken object words including bilateral primary and secondary language areas of the brain. Contrasting voice-specific with speech-sound specific processing predominantly activates the anterior part of the right-hemispheric superior temporal sulcus. Furthermore, the right STS is functionally correlated with left-hemispheric temporal and right-hemispheric prefrontal regions. This finding underlines the importance of the right superior temporal sulcus as a temporal voice area and indicates that this brain region is specialized, and functions similarly to adults by the age of five. We thus extend previous knowledge of voice-specific regions and their functional connections to the young brain which may further our understanding of the neuronal mechanism of speech-specific processing in children with developmental disorders, such as autism or specific language impairments.

  10. Muscular tension and body posture in relation to voice handicap and voice quality in teachers with persistent voice complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, P G C; de Jong, F I C R S; Oudes, M J; Huinck, W; van Acht, H; Graamans, K

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between extrinsic laryngeal muscular hypertonicity and deviant body posture on the one hand and voice handicap and voice quality on the other hand in teachers with persistent voice complaints and a history of voice-related absenteeism. The study group consisted of 25 female teachers. A voice therapist assessed extrinsic laryngeal muscular tension and a physical therapist assessed body posture. The assessed parameters were clustered in categories. The parameters in the different categories represent the same function. Further a tension/posture index was created, which is the summation of the different parameters. The different parameters and the index were related to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). The scores of the VHI and the individual parameters differ significantly except for the posterior weight bearing and tension of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. There was also a significant difference between the individual parameters and the DSI, except for tension of the cricothyroid muscle and posterior weight bearing. The score of the tension/posture index correlates significantly with both the VHI and the DSI. In a linear regression analysis, the combination of hypertonicity of the sternocleidomastoid, the geniohyoid muscles and posterior weight bearing is the most important predictor for a high voice handicap. The combination of hypertonicity of the geniohyoid muscle, posterior weight bearing, high position of the hyoid bone, hypertonicity of the cricothyroid muscle and anteroposition of the head is the most important predictor for a low DSI score. The results of this study show the higher the score of the index, the higher the score of the voice handicap and the worse the voice quality is. Moreover, the results are indicative for the importance of assessment of muscular tension and body posture in the diagnosis of voice disorders.

  11. Using the Voice to Design Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Jensen, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    SoundShaping, a system to create ceramics from the human voice. Based on a generic audio feature extraction system, and the principal component analysis to ensure that the pertinent information in the voice is used, a 3D shape is created using simple geometric rules. This shape is output to a 3D printer...

  12. The Voice of Conscience in Rousseau's Emile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodelja, Zdenko

    2015-01-01

    According to Rousseau, conscience and conscience alone can elevate human beings to a level above that of animals. It is conscience, understood as infallible judge of good and bad, which makes man like God. Conscience itself is, in this context, understood as divine, as an "immortal and celestial voice". Therefore, if the voice of…

  13. Why Is My Voice Changing? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enter puberty earlier or later than others. How Deep Will My Voice Get? How deep a guy's voice gets depends on his genes: ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  14. Gender in voice perception in autism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, W.B.; Orsouw, L van; Zwiers, M.; Swinkels, S.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Deficits in the perception of social stimuli may contribute to the characteristic impairments in social interaction in high functioning autism (HFA). Although the cortical processing of voice is abnormal in HFA, it is unclear whether this gives rise to impairments in the perception of voice gender.

  15. Speaking with the voice of authority

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    GPB Consulting has developed a scientific approach to voice coaching. A digital recording of the voice is sent to a lab in Switzerland and analyzed by a computer programme designed by a doctor of psychology and linguistics and a scientist at CERN (1 page).

  16. The Voice of Conscience in Rousseau's Emile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodelja, Zdenko

    2015-01-01

    According to Rousseau, conscience and conscience alone can elevate human beings to a level above that of animals. It is conscience, understood as infallible judge of good and bad, which makes man like God. Conscience itself is, in this context, understood as divine, as an "immortal and celestial voice". Therefore, if the voice of…

  17. Epidemiology of voice problems in Dutch teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F. I. C. R. S.; Kooijman, P. G. C.; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W. J.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H. K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess voice complaints and absence from work due to voice problems among teachers of primary and secondary education, as well as among a control group, 2,117 questionnaires were analysed. The total group consisted of 1,878 teachers and 239 controls. Female teachers more frequently repor

  18. Voice Deviations and Coexisting Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the coexistence of other communicative disorders with voice disorders in about 3,400 children in grades 1-12 at 100 sites throughout the United States. The majority of voice-disordered children had coexisting articulation deviations and also differed from controls on two language measures and mean pure-tone hearing thresholds.…

  19. Using the Voice to Design Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Jensen, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    SoundShaping, a system to create ceramics from the human voice. Based on a generic audio feature extraction system, and the principal component analysis to ensure that the pertinent information in the voice is used, a 3D shape is created using simple geometric rules. This shape is output to a 3D printer...

  20. Epidemiology of voice problems in Dutch teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.J.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H.K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess voice complaints and absence from work due to voice problems among teachers of primary and secondary education, as well as among a control group, 2,117 questionnaires were analysed. The total group consisted of 1,878 teachers and 239 controls. Female teachers more frequently repor

  1. Epidemiology of voice problems in Dutch teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F. I. C. R. S.; Kooijman, P. G. C.; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W. J.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H. K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess voice complaints and absence from work due to voice problems among teachers of primary and secondary education, as well as among a control group, 2,117 questionnaires were analysed. The total group consisted of 1,878 teachers and 239 controls. Female teachers more frequently repor

  2. Predictors of Choral Directors' Voice Handicap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Vocal demands of teaching are considerable and these challenges are greater for choral directors who depend on the voice as a musical and instructive instrument. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine choral directors' vocal condition using a modified Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and (2) determine the extent to which the major variables…

  3. Gender in Voice Perception in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Wouter B.; van Orsouw, Linda; Zwiers, Marcel; Swinkels, Sophie; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Deficits in the perception of social stimuli may contribute to the characteristic impairments in social interaction in high functioning autism (HFA). Although the cortical processing of voice is abnormal in HFA, it is unclear whether this gives rise to impairments in the perception of voice gender. About 20 children with HFA and 20 matched…

  4. Voice Recognition: A New Assessment Tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Darla

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study conducted in Anchorage, Alaska, that evaluated the accuracy and efficiency of using voice recognition (VR) technology to collect oral reading fluency data for classroom-based assessments. The primary research question was as follows: Is voice recognition technology a valid and reliable alternative to…

  5. Two Factors Related to Effective Voice Interpreting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, T. Alan

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-two interpreters for the deaf were measured on accuracy and quality of voice interpreting of the same story in two different sign language types: Pidgin Signed English and American Sign Language. Results indicated that previous experience interpreting was significantly related to the effectiveness of voice interpreting both languages.…

  6. Student Voice and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade's worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves--and how remarkably similar the Common…

  7. Student Voice and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade's worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves--and how remarkably similar the Common…

  8. Voices from Around the Globe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Schreiber

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available JSAA has been seeking to provide an opportunity for Student Affairs professionals and higher education scholars from around the globe to share their research and experiences of student services and student affairs programmes from their respective regional and institutional contexts. This has been given a specific platform with the guest-edited issue “Voices from Around the Globe” which is the result of a collaboration with the International Association of Student Affairs and Services (IASAS, and particularly with the guest editors, Kathleen Callahan and Chinedu Mba.

  9. Improving Quality of Voice Conversion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhid, M.; Tinati, M. A.

    New improvement scheme for voice conversion are proposed in this paper. We take Human factor cepstral coefficients (HFCC), a modification of MFCC that uses the known relationship between center frequency and critical bandwidth from human psychoacoustics to decouple filter bandwidth from filter spacing, as the basic feature. We propose U/V (Unvoiced/Voiced) decision rule such that two sets of codebooks are used to capture the difference between unvoiced and voiced segments of the source speaker. Moreover, we apply three schemes to refine the synthesized voice, including pitch refinement, energy equalization, and frame concatenation. The acceptable performance of the voice conversion system can be verified through ABX listening test and MOS grad.

  10. Romantic Voice in Three Contemporary Ghazals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    فرّخ لطیف نژاد

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In linguistics, the relation between syntax and thought is expressed by verbs and their relationship with subjects, objects and predicates. This link, in turn, creates grammatical voices such as active, passive and so on. Grammatical voice indicates the writer's attitudes towards and viewpoints on a subject and reflects his/her mental and spiritual state. Grammatical voice can be employed to compare the moods of different poets. In this article, we seek to examine and compare the grammatical voice in three ghazals by Ebtehaj, Naderpour and Farrokhzad and relate it to the School Romanticism using statistical analysis. These ghazals are an imitation of one of Sa’di's poems. Results indicate that in the chosen poem the active voice is used more because of the conversation taking place between the lover and the beloved. Farrokhzad has used newer language strategies in her poem as compared with the other two.

  11. Voice Quality Estimation in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Zach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the impact of Wireless (Wi-Fi networks on the perceived quality of voice services. The Quality of Service (QoS metrics must be monitored in the computer network during the voice data transmission to ensure proper voice service quality the end-user has paid for, especially in the wireless networks. In addition to the QoS, research area called Quality of Experience (QoE provides metrics and methods for quality evaluation from the end-user’s perspective. This article focuses on a QoE estimation of Voice over IP (VoIP calls in the wireless networks using network simulator. Results contribute to voice quality estimation based on characteristics of the wireless network and location of a wireless client.

  12. Voice pedagogy-what do we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Brian P; Herbst, Christian T

    2016-12-01

    The final keynote panel of the 10th Pan-European Voice Conference (PEVOC) was concerned with the topic 'Voice pedagogy-what do we need?' In this communication the panel discussion is summarized, and the authors provide a deepening discussion on one of the key questions, addressing the roles and tasks of people working with voice students. In particular, a distinction is made between (1) voice building (derived from the German term 'Stimmbildung'), primarily comprising the functional and physiological aspects of singing; (2) coaching, mostly concerned with performance skills; and (3) singing voice rehabilitation. Both public and private educators are encouraged to apply this distinction to their curricula, in order to arrive at more efficient singing teaching and to reduce the risk of vocal injury to the singers concerned.

  13. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles and responsibilities. DATES... of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee members; Election of... Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  14. [The superior laryngeal nerve and the superior laryngeal artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J; Nachbaur, S; Fischer, K; Vogel, E

    1987-01-01

    Length, diameter and anastomoses of the nervus vagus and its ganglion inferius were measured 44 halved heads. On the average, 8.65 fiber bundles of the vagus nerve leave the retro-olivary area. In the area of the jugular foramen is the near superior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve. In this area were found 1.48 (mean value) anastomoses with the 9th cranial nerve. 11.34 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea branches off the ramus internus of the accessory nerve which has a length of 9.75 mm. Further anastomoses with the 10th cranial nerve were found. The inferior ganglion of the 10th nerve had a length of 25.47 mm and a diameter of 3.46 mm. Five mm below the ganglion the 10th nerve had a width of 2.9 and a thickness of 1.5 mm. The mean length of the superior sympathetic ganglion was 26.6 mm, its width 7.2 and its thickness 3.4 mm. In nearly all specimens anastomoses of the superior sympathetic ganglion with the ansa cervicalis profunda and the inferior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve were found. The superior laryngeal nerve branches off about 36 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea. The width of this nerve was 1.9 mm, its thickness 0.8 mm on the right and 1.0 mm on the left side. The division in the internal and external rami was found about 21 mm below its origin. Between the n. vagus and thyreohyoid membrane the ramus internus had a length of 64 mm, the length of external ramus between the vagal nerve and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle was 89 mm. Its mean length below the thyreopharyngeal part was 10.7 mm, 8.6 branchlets to the cricothyroid muscle were counted. The superior laryngeal artery had its origin in 80% of cases in the superior thyroideal artery, in 6.8% this vessel was a branch of the external carotid artery. Its average outer diameter was 1.23 mm on the right side and 1.39 mm on the left. The length of this vessel between its origin and the thyreohyoid membrane was 34 mm. In 7% on the right side and in 13% on the left, the superior

  15. LABORATORY VOICE DATA ENTRY SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PRAISSMAN,J.L.SUTHERLAND,J.C.

    2003-04-01

    We have assembled a system using a personal computer workstation equipped with standard office software, an audio system, speech recognition software and an inexpensive radio-based wireless microphone that permits laboratory workers to enter or modify data while performing other work. Speech recognition permits users to enter data while their hands are holding equipment or they are otherwise unable to operate a keyboard. The wireless microphone allows unencumbered movement around the laboratory without a ''tether'' that might interfere with equipment or experimental procedures. To evaluate the potential of voice data entry in a laboratory environment, we developed a prototype relational database that records the disposal of radionuclides and/or hazardous chemicals Current regulations in our laboratory require that each such item being discarded must be inventoried and documents must be prepared that summarize the contents of each container used for disposal. Using voice commands, the user enters items into the database as each is discarded. Subsequently, the program prepares the required documentation.

  16. Sonorous Voice and Feminist Teaching: Lessons from Cavarero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    I claim that Adriana Cavarero's concept of sonorous voice is significant in feminist teaching because, as she argues, dominant concepts of voice refer to voice in semantic terms thereby discounting voice in sonorous terms. This process of "devocalization", spanning the history of Western philosophy, devalues the uniqueness embodied in…

  17. 14 CFR 23.1457 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit voice recorders. 23.1457 Section 23... Equipment § 23.1457 Cockpit voice recorders. (a) Each cockpit voice recorder required by the operating rules... cockpit-mounted area microphone, located in the best position for recording voice...

  18. Parent Trigger Laws and the Promise of Parental Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William C.; Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Parent trigger laws have gained momentum nationally under the premise that they will increase local authority by amplifying parental voice in the decision to turn around "failing" schools. Using Hirschman's exit, voice, and loyalty framework we create two conceptual models of voice and evaluate the promise of voice in California, home of…

  19. Sonorous Voice and Feminist Teaching: Lessons from Cavarero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    I claim that Adriana Cavarero's concept of sonorous voice is significant in feminist teaching because, as she argues, dominant concepts of voice refer to voice in semantic terms thereby discounting voice in sonorous terms. This process of "devocalization", spanning the history of Western philosophy, devalues the uniqueness embodied in…

  20. Parent Trigger Laws and the Promise of Parental Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William C.; Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Parent trigger laws have gained momentum nationally under the premise that they will increase local authority by amplifying parental voice in the decision to turn around "failing" schools. Using Hirschman's exit, voice, and loyalty framework we create two conceptual models of voice and evaluate the promise of voice in California,…

  1. Teachers’ voice use in teaching environment. Aspects on speakers’ comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Rydell, Roland; Löfqvist, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    Teachers have high occupational voice demands. The voice load of teachers is both environmental and individual. Little is known about the teachers’ own view of the contribution from the environment and about the teachers’ voice use at their work-place. Aim: The purpose was to investigate the voic...

  2. What are Millian Qualitative Superiorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Riley

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In an article published in Prolegomena 2006, Christoph Schmidt-Petri has defended his interpretation and attacked mine of Mill’s idea that higher kinds of pleasure are superior in quality to lower kinds, regardless of quantity. Millian qualitative superiorities as I understand them are infinite superiorities. In this paper, I clarify my interpretation and show how Schmidt-Petri has misrepresented it and ignored the obvious textual support for it. As a result, he fails to understand how genuine Millian qualitative superiorities determine the novel structure of Mill’s pluralistic utilitarianism, in which a social code of justice that distributes equal rights and duties takes absolute priority over competing considerations. Schmidt-Petri’s own interpretation is a non-starter, because it does noteven recognize that Mill is talking about different kinds of pleasant feelings, such that the higher kinds are intrinsically more valuable than the lower. I conclude by outlining why my interpretation is free of any metaphysical commitment to the “essence” of pleasure.

  3. Isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Palle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA dissection without involvement of the aorta and the SMA origin is unusual. We present a case of an elderly gentleman who had chronic abdominal pain, worse after meals. CT angiography, performed on a 64-slice CT scanner, revealed SMA dissection with a thrombus. A large artery of Drummond was also seen. The patient was managed conservatively.

  4. VOT and the perception of voicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remez, Robert E.

    2001-05-01

    In explaining the ability to distinguish phonemes, linguists have described the dimension of voicing. Acoustic analyses have identified many correlates of the voicing contrast in initial, medial, and final consonants within syllables, and these in turn have motivated studies of the perceptual resolution of voicing. The framing conceptualization articulated by Lisker and Abramson 40 years ago in physiological, phonetic, and perceptual studies has been widely influential, and research on voicing now adopts their perspective without reservation. Their original survey included languages with two voicing categories (Dutch, Puerto Rican Spanish, Hungarian, Tamil, Cantonese, English), three voicing categories (Eastern Armenian, Thai, Korean), and four voicing categories (Hindi, Marathi). Perceptual studies inspired by this work have also ranged widely, including tests with different languages and with listeners of several species. The profound value of the analyses of Lisker and Abramson is evident in the empirical traction provided by the concept of VOT in research on the every important perceptual question about speech and language in our era. Some of these classic perceptual investigations will be reviewed. [Research supported by NIH (DC00308).

  5. Simultaneous face and voice processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taosheng; Pinheiro, Ana P; Zhao, Zhongxin; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2016-05-15

    While several studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities in the unisensory processing of face and voice in schizophrenia (SZ), the extent of abnormalities in the simultaneous processing of both types of information remains unclear. To address this issue, we used event-related potentials (ERP) methodology to probe the multisensory integration of face and non-semantic sounds in schizophrenia. EEG was recorded from 18 schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects in three conditions: neutral faces (visual condition-VIS); neutral non-semantic sounds (auditory condition-AUD); neutral faces presented simultaneously with neutral non-semantic sounds (audiovisual condition-AUDVIS). When compared with HC, the schizophrenia group showed less negative N170 to both face and face-voice stimuli; later P270 peak latency in the multimodal condition of face-voice relative to unimodal condition of face (the reverse was true in HC); reduced P400 amplitude and earlier P400 peak latency in the face but not in the voice-face condition. Thus, the analysis of ERP components suggests that deficits in the encoding of facial information extend to multimodal face-voice stimuli and that delays exist in feature extraction from multimodal face-voice stimuli in schizophrenia. In contrast, categorization processes seem to benefit from the presentation of simultaneous face-voice information. Timepoint by timepoint tests of multimodal integration did not suggest impairment in the initial stages of processing in schizophrenia.

  6. A escrita no Ensino Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição Pillon Christofoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198464445865 O presente artigo trata de apresentar resultados oriundos de pesquisa realizada no Ensino Superior, enfocando a escrita em contextos universitários. Depoimentos por parte dos acadêmicos evidenciam certa resistência ao ato de escrever, o que acaba muitas vezes distanciando o sujeito da produção de um texto. Assim sendo, mesmo que parciais, os resultados até então analisados dão conta de que: pressuposto 1 – há ruptura da ideia de coerência entre o que pensamos, o que conseguimos escrever, o que entende nosso interlocutor; pressuposto 2 – a autocorreção de textos como exercício de pesquisa é imprescindível para a qualificação da escrita; pressuposto 3 – os diários de aula representam rico instrumento para a qualificação da escrita no Ensino Superior; pressuposto 4 – há necessidade de que o aluno do Ensino Superior escreva variados tipos de escrita, ainda que a universidade cumpra com seu papel, enfatizando a escrita acadêmica; pressuposto 5 – o trabalho com a escrita no Ensino Superior deve enfatizar os componentes básicos da expressão escrita: o código escrito e a composição da escrita. Palavras-chave: Escrita; Ensino Superior; formação de professores.

  7. The Role of Listener Experience on Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) Ratings of Postthyroidectomy Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Leah B.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Henry, Leonard R.; Coppit, George L.; Howard, Robin S.; Stojadinovic, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether experienced and inexperienced listeners rate postthyroidectomy voice samples similarly using the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V). Method: Prospective observational study of voice quality ratings of randomized and blinded voice samples was performed. Twenty-one postthyroidectomy patients'…

  8. Research on timbre modeling technology of sad-type musical instrument.%悲伤型乐器的音色建模技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹昊喆; 曹西征; 杜浩翠; 乔锟

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种悲伤型乐器的音色模型,为基于情感的算法作曲提供音响基础.采集擅长表达悲伤情感的乐器的乐音样本,利用离散傅里叶变换获取频谱特征,通过对乐器波形的分析计算获取包络特性,最终构建了一种悲伤型乐器的音色模型.通过实验验证了由该模型产生的悲伤型音色及模型本身具有良好的可调节性.与传统的录制形式相比,该方法成本低,灵活性强,对计算机音乐技术的发展和算法作曲的情感化也起着重要的推动作用.%A kind of timbre model based on sad-type instrument is presented, which can provide the sound basis for emotion-based algorithmic composition. Musical sound samples of the instrument are collected. This instrument is good at expressing sad emotions. And spectral and envelope characteristics are obtained by discrete Fourier transform and analysis calculation method of the instrument waveform. Finally,a kind of timbre model based on sad-type instrument is constructed. Experimental results show the sad-type sound generated by the model and the model itself are well regulated. Compared with the traditional form of recording, this method is of low cost, flexibility, and also plays an important role in promoting the development of computer music technology and the emotional arithmetic composition.

  9. Voice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A simulated mission named Mars500 ended on Nov. 4, 2011. Six volunteer astronauts from Russia, Europe and China had been living inside steel tubes for 520 days, meant to mirror the confinement and stress that a real voyage to Mars would entail.

  10. Voices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Xu Weihua: 'I Suggest Legalizing the Regulation That Men and Women Retire at me Same Age.' 徐维华:“我建议将男女享有同等退休年龄写入法律。” During a recent working conference, Xu Weihua, deputy-director of the Center for Women's Law and Legal Services of Peking University, said," In addition to the difficulties in finding employment, Chinese women also suffer from gender discrimination, as they must retire earlier than men. I suggest legalizing the regulation that men and women retire at the same age.

  11. Voice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the NFL, the highest level of professional American football in the United States. On Feb. 6, 2012, the 46th Super Bowl was held in Indianapolis. The New York Giants beat the New England Patriots, and won the trophy.

  12. Voice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    1999-01-01

    ON July 11 an exciting sceneunfolded in the Beijing ConcertHall:Jiang Ying,professor ofthe Central Conservatory of Music(CCM),praised by the Chinese Vocal music circleas a person of authority in the European

  13. Unvoiced/voiced classification and voiced harmonic parameters estimation using the third-order statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Na; ZHAO Xiao-hui; DONG Jing

    2007-01-01

    Unvoiced/voiced classification of speech is a challenging problem especially under conditions of low signal-to-noise ratio or the non-white-stationary noise environment. To solve this problem, an algorithm for speech classification, and a technique for the estimation of pairwise magnitude frequency in voiced speech are proposed. By using third order spectrum of speech signal to remove noise, in this algorithm the least spectrum difference to get refined pitch and the max harmonic number is given. And this algorithm utilizes spectral envelope to estimate signal-to-noise ratio of speech harmonics. Speech classification, voicing probability, and harmonic parameters of the voiced frame can be obtained.Simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm, under complicated background noise, especially Gaussian noise, can effectively classify speech in high accuracy for voicing probability and the voiced parameters.

  14. Telling stories and hearing voices: narrative work with voice hearers in acute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, C; Foxcroft, R; Shaw, J

    2011-11-01

    Mental health nurses do not always feel at ease talking in detail with voice hearers about their experiences. Using the approach of Romme and Escher, a project was developed to support staff on an acute inpatient ward to explore voice hearing with patients. Romme and Escher suggest that a person's own understanding of their voices and their meaning is the key to recovery. Working together, the nurse helps voice hearers construct a narrative that tells the story of their voices. Examples from the narratives show how they can help increase understanding of a person's voices, and how the mental health nurse in acute care can realistically offer therapeutic interventions that may help a person towards recovery.

  15. Unfamiliar voice identification: Effect of post-event information on accuracy and voice ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Mary Jessica Smith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the effect of misleading post-event information (PEI on voice ratings, identification accuracy, and confidence, as well as the link between verbal recall and accuracy. Participants listened to a dialogue between male and female targets, then read misleading information about voice pitch. Participants engaged in verbal recall, rated voices on a feature checklist, and made a lineup decision. Accuracy rates were low, especially on target-absent lineups. Confidence and accuracy were unrelated, but the number of facts recalled about the voice predicted later lineup accuracy. There was a main effect of misinformation on ratings of target voice pitch, but there was no effect on identification accuracy or confidence ratings. As voice lineup evidence from earwitnesses is used in courts, the findings have potential applied relevance.

  16. Teachers’ voice use in teaching environment. Aspects on speakers’ comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Rydell, Roland; Löfqvist, Anders; Garcia, David Pelegrin; Brunskog, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Teachers have high occupational voice demands. The voice load of teachers is both environmental and individual. Little is known about the teachers’ own view of the contribution from the environment and about the teachers’ voice use at their work-place. Aim: The purpose was to investigate the voice use and prevalence of voice problems in teachers and to explore their ratings of vocally loading aspects of their working environment. Method: A questionnaire-survey in 467 teachers aiming to explor...

  17. Space-Based Voice over IP Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sam P.; Okino, Clayton; Walsh, William; Clare, Loren

    2007-01-01

    In human space exploration missions (e.g. a return to the Moon and for future missions to Mars), there will be a need to provide voice communications services. In this work we focus on the performance of Voice over IP (VoIP) techniques applied to space networks, where long range latencies, simplex links, and significant bit error rates occur. Link layer and network layer overhead issues are examined. Finally, we provide some discussion on issues related to voice conferencing in the space network environment.

  18. Perception of Paralinguistic Traits in Synthesized Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird, Alice Emily; Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Parada-Cabaleiro, Emilia

    the paralinguistic traits of the synthesized voice. Using a corpus of 13 synthesized voices, constructed from acoustic concatenative speech synthesis, we assessed the response of 23 listeners from differing cultural backgrounds. Evaluating if the perception shifts from the known ground–truths, we asked listeners...... to assigned traits of age, gender, accent origin, and human–likeness. Results present a difference in perception for age and human–likeness across voices, and a general agreement across listeners for both gender and accent origin. Connections found between age, gender and human–likeness call for further...

  19. [Complex voice assessment--Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruszewicz, Antoni; Obrebowski, Andrzej; Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Wojnowski, Waldemar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to present own modification of Jacobson's The Voice Handicap Index, the self-estimation scale of the voice as a one part of the complex voice evaluation. The VHI contains three groups of questions of physical, emotional and functional subscales, which specify complaints during phonation scored in 4 points (0-4). The presented our own modification of the VHI may be useful in everyday clinical practice.

  20. Shifting voices with participant roles: Voice qualities and speech registers in Mesoamerica

    OpenAIRE

    Sicoli, M.

    2010-01-01

    Although an increasing number of sociolinguistic researchers consider functions of voice qualities as stylistic features, few studies consider cases where voice qualities serve as the primary signs of speech registers. This article addresses this gap through the presentation of a case study of Lachixio Zapotec speech registers indexed though falsetto, breathy, creaky, modal, and whispered voice qualities. I describe the system of contrastive speech registers in Lachixio Zapotec and then track...

  1. Mediatization: a concept, multiple voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto GOMES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediatization has become increasingly a key concept, fundamental, essential to describe the present and the history of media and communicative change taking place. Thus, it became part of a whole, one can not see them as a separate sphere. In this perspective, the media coverage is used as a concept to describe the process of expansion of the different technical means and consider the interrelationships between the communicative change, means and sociocultural change. However, although many researchers use the concept of mediatization, each gives you the meaning that best suits your needs. Thus, the concept of media coverage is treated with multiple voices. This paper discusses this problem and present a preliminary pre-position on the matter.

  2. Giving the Customer a Voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van der Hoven, Christopher; Michea, Adela; Varnes, Claus

    ” (Deszca et al, 2010, p613). Therefore, in situations where traditional techniques - interviews and focus groups - are ineffective, the question is which market research techniques are appropriate, particularly for developing breakthrough products? To investigate this, an attempt was made to access...... their knowledge, repertory grid technique was used. This psychology based method particularly seeks out tacit knowledge by using indepth interviews. In this case the interviews were conducted with professionals from leading market research agencies in two countries. The resulting data provided two unique insights...... the voice of the customer (VoC) through market research is well documented (Davis, 1993; Mullins and Sutherland, 1998; Cooper et al., 2002; Flint, 2002; Davilla et al., 2006; Cooper and Edgett, 2008; Cooper and Dreher, 2010; Goffin and Mitchell, 2010). However, not all research methods are well received...

  3. Voice Technology Using Personal Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    PROGRA -.. NDC -A85 -AiSG 743 VOICE TECNOLOGY USING PERSONAL COMPUTE3SI(U) alit FORCE 212 INST OF TECH MRIGJ4T-PATTERSON RFB ON G L TALBOT 1987...Inline( $2E/$C6/$06/ Int24Err $Ol/$50/$89/$F8/$2E/$A2/ Int24ErrCode /$58/$BO/$OO/$89/$EC/$5D/$CF); - 150 - i..r - l. .. { Turbo: PUSH BP save...caller’s stack frame MOV BP,SP Set up this procedure’s stack frame PUSH BP ? Inline: MOV BYTE CS:[INT24Err],I Set INT24Err to True PUSH AX MOV AX,DI Get INT

  4. Validation and Adaptation of the Singing Voice Handicap Index for Egyptian Singing Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elsaad, Tamer; Baz, Hemmat; Afsah, Omayma; Abo-Elsoud, Hend

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the severity of a voice disorder is difficult. This can be achieved by both subjective and objective measures. The Voice Handicap Index is the most known and used self-rating tool for voice disorders. The Classical Singing Handicap Index (CSHI) is a self-administered questionnaire measuring the impact of vocal deviation on the quality of life of singers. The objective of this study was to develop an Arabic version of the CSHI and to test its validity and reliability in Egyptian singers with different singing styles with normal voice and with voice disorders. The interpreted version was administered to 70 Egyptian singers including artistic singers (classical and popular) and specialized singers (Quran reciters and priests) who were divided into 40 asymptomatic singers (control group) and 30 singers with voice disorders. Participants' responses were statistically analyzed to assess the validity and reliability, and to compare the patient group with the control group. Quran reciters, patients with no previous professional training, and patients with vocal fold lesions demonstrated the highest scores. The Arabic version of CSHI is found to be a reliable, valid, and sensitive self-assessment tool that can be used in the clinical practice for the evaluation of the impact of voice disorders on singing voice. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, B; Dommerich, S

    2009-05-01

    Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prosthesis are mechanical aids for patients, who for different reasons underwent either tracheostomies or laryngectomies. In this review, indications, surgical procedures, and consequencies of the preceeding surgical intervention are reported for a better understanding of the specific requirements for the artificial aids. In spite of the increasing number of percutaneous dilatation tracheostomies, e. g. in intensive care units, a classical tracheostomy with epithelialized connections between trachea and skin still represents the method of choice for all cases, in which a longer lasting access to the trachea is requested. Special tubes made of different materials, offering different physical qualities are used to keep the tracheostomy open and guarantee an easy access to the lower respiratory tract. For each individual patient the most adequate device must be found out. Voice prostheses allow a fast and effective vocal rehabilitation after laryngectomy. As many models are on the market with differences in terms of material, principle and design of the underlying valve mechanism, size etc., again, in each individual patient the most suitable prosthesis has to be chosen. In combination with special heat and moisture exchangers (HME), such prostheses not only allow a good vocal but also pulmonary rehabilitation. The duration of such prostheses depend on material properties but also on formation of biofilms (mostly consisting of bacteria and fungi) that can destroy the valve mechanism. Whenever possible, and additional valve mechanism covering the opening of the tracheostomy should be used in order to avoid the necessity to close this opening manually during phonation. Each doctor taking care of patients with speech prostheses after laryngectomy should know exactly what to do in case the device fails or gets lost.

  6. Voice-controlled Debugging of Spreadsheets

    CERN Document Server

    Flood, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Developments in Mobile Computing are putting pressure on the software industry to research new modes of interaction that do not rely on the traditional keyboard and mouse combination. Computer users suffering from Repetitive Strain Injury also seek an alternative to keyboard and mouse devices to reduce suffering in wrist and finger joints. Voice-control is an alternative approach to spreadsheet development and debugging that has been researched and used successfully in other domains. While voice-control technology for spreadsheets is available its effectiveness has not been investigated. This study is the first to compare the performance of a set of expert spreadsheet developers that debugged a spreadsheet using voice-control technology and another set that debugged the same spreadsheet using keyboard and mouse. The study showed that voice, despite its advantages, proved to be slower and less accurate. However, it also revealed ways in which the technology might be improved to redress this imbalance.

  7. Voice quality variations in English sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Melissa

    2002-05-01

    This study examines the predictability of changes in voice quality at the sentence level in English. Sentence-level effects can only be isolated once the effects of linguistic factors (e.g., glottalization before a glottalized consonant), social or dialectal, and individual factors have been eliminated. In this study, these effects were controlled by obtaining a baseline value for each measurement for each word of the corpus. Voice quality variations were tracked using quantitative measurements derived from the LF model of the glottal source, and also qualitative descriptions of the waveforms. Preliminary results indicate that there are consistent voice quality differences at the sentence level and that pitch contours and sentence accent also produce predictable effects on voice quality.

  8. Voice Recognition in Face-Blind Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran R; Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-04-01

    Right or bilateral anterior temporal damage can impair face recognition, but whether this is an associative variant of prosopagnosia or part of a multimodal disorder of person recognition is an unsettled question, with implications for cognitive and neuroanatomic models of person recognition. We assessed voice perception and short-term recognition of recently heard voices in 10 subjects with impaired face recognition acquired after cerebral lesions. All 4 subjects with apperceptive prosopagnosia due to lesions limited to fusiform cortex had intact voice discrimination and recognition. One subject with bilateral fusiform and anterior temporal lesions had a combined apperceptive prosopagnosia and apperceptive phonagnosia, the first such described case. Deficits indicating a multimodal syndrome of person recognition were found only in 2 subjects with bilateral anterior temporal lesions. All 3 subjects with right anterior temporal lesions had normal voice perception and recognition, 2 of whom performed normally on perceptual discrimination of faces. This confirms that such lesions can cause a modality-specific associative prosopagnosia.

  9. Pensamiento Superior y Desarrollo Territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Racancoj Alonzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta reflexión pretende explicar el papel, fundamental, que juega el pensamiento superior, en la formulación y la práctica de modelos de desarrollo territorial local; para que contribuyan de forma sustantiva, en la transformación de las condiciones socioeconómicas adversas que hoy viven comunidades indígenas y rurales de muchos países, como Guatemala, situación que puede resumirse en altos índices de pobreza y desnutrición. Pero, el pensamiento superior, debe ser competencia de la población con pertenencia a lo local, pues si y solo si esta condición existe, se dará validez y viabilidad al desarrollo territorial. Para alcanzar competencias de pensamiento superior, en los espacios locales, se tiene que superar obstáculos en el modelo de universidad, que hoy estamos familiarizados a ver y pensar; modelos que tienen las características de: herencia colonial, disfunción con la problemática económica, cultural, social y política de la sociedad y la negación de los saberes ancestrales.

  10. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach.

  11. Using dysphonic voice to characterize speaker's biometry

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Vilda, Pedro; San Segundo, Eugenia; Mazaira Fernández, Luis Miguel; Álvarez Marquina, Agustín; Rodellar Biarge, M. Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Phonation distortion leaves relevant marks in a speaker's biometric profile. Dysphonic voice production may be used for biometrical speaker characterization. In the present paper phonation features derived from the glottal source (GS) parameterization, after vocal tract inversion, is proposed for dysphonic voice characterization in Speaker Verification tasks. The glottal source derived parameters are matched in a forensic evaluation framework defining a distance-based metric specification. Th...

  12. Voice Biometrics for Information Assurance Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    verification capability). Approach #2: The individual speaker selects a test phrase (our approach) — In the NRL voice biomet - rics system, the...templates must be issued to all users. Approach #2: Unprocessed speech waveforms (our approach) — If the fingerprint-matching biomet - rics method stores...is that the amount of data to be stored is larger compared to the previous approach. The minimum amount of information we need to perform voice biomet

  13. Silence and Voicing Accumulations in Italian Primary School Teachers With and Without Voice Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Astolfi, Arianna; Hunter, Eric J

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between the silence and voicing accumulations of primary school teachers and the teachers' clinical status was examined to determine whether more voicing accumulations and fewer silence accumulations were measured for the vocally unhealthy subjects than for the healthy subjects, which would imply more vocal loading and fewer short-term recovery moments. Twenty-six Italian primary school teachers were allocated by clinicians to three groups: (1) with organic voice disorders, (2) with subjectively mild organic alteration or functional voice symptoms, and (3) normal voice quality and physiology. Continuous silence and voicing periods were measured with the APM3200 during the teachers' 4-hour workdays. The accumulations were grouped into seven time intervals, ranging from 0.03-0.9 to 3.16-10 seconds, according to Italian prosody. The effects of group on silence and voicing accumulations were evaluated. Regarding silence accumulations, Group 1 accumulated higher values in intervals between 0.1 and 3.15 seconds than other groups, whereas Groups 2 and 3 did not differ from each other. Voicing accumulations between 0.17 and 3.15 seconds were higher for subjects with a structural disorder. A higher time dose was accumulated by these subjects (40.6%) than other subjects (Group 2, 31.9%; Group 3, 32.3%). Although previous research has suggested that a rest period of a few seconds may produce some vocal fatigue recovery, these results indicate that periods shorter than 3.16 seconds may not have an observable effect on recovery. The results provide insight into how vocal fatigue and vocal recovery may relate to voice disorders in occupational voice users. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Voice Use Among Music Theory Teachers: A Voice Dosimetry and Self-Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Isabel S; Morsomme, Dominique; Remacle, Angélique

    2017-07-25

    This study aimed (1) to investigate music theory teachers' professional and extra-professional vocal loading and background noise exposure, (2) to determine the correlation between vocal loading and background noise, and (3) to determine the correlation between vocal loading and self-evaluation data. Using voice dosimetry, 13 music theory teachers were monitored for one workweek. The parameters analyzed were voice sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), phonation time, vocal loading index (VLI), and noise SPL. Spearman correlation was used to correlate vocal loading parameters (voice SPL, F0, and phonation time) and noise SPL. Each day, the subjects self-assessed their voice using visual analog scales. VLI and self-evaluation data were correlated using Spearman correlation. Vocal loading parameters and noise SPL were significantly higher in the professional than in the extra-professional environment. Voice SPL, phonation time, and female subjects' F0 correlated positively with noise SPL. VLI correlated with self-assessed voice quality, vocal fatigue, and amount of singing and speaking voice produced. Teaching music theory is a profession with high vocal demands. More background noise is associated with increased vocal loading and may indirectly increase the risk for voice disorders. Correlations between VLI and self-assessments suggest that these teachers are well aware of their vocal demands and feel their effect on voice quality and vocal fatigue. Visual analog scales seem to represent a useful tool for subjective vocal loading assessment and associated symptoms in these professional voice users. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Wavelet adaptation for automatic voice disorders sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanian Saeedi, Nafise; Almasganj, Farshad

    2013-07-01

    Early diagnosis of voice disorders and abnormalities by means of digital speech processing is a subject of interest for many researchers. Various methods are introduced in the literature, some of which are able to extensively discriminate pathological voices from normal ones. Voice disorders sorting, on the other hand, has received less attention due to the complexity of the problem. Although, previous publications show satisfactory results in classifying one type of disordered voice from normal cases, or two different types of abnormalities from each other, no comprehensive approach for automatic sorting of vocal abnormalities has been offered yet. In this paper, a solution for this problem is suggested. We create a powerful wavelet feature extraction approach, in which, instead of standard wavelets, adaptive wavelets are generated and applied to the voice signals. Orthogonal wavelets are parameterized via lattice structure and then, the optimal parameters are investigated through an iterative process, using the genetic algorithm (GA). GA is guided by the classifier results. Based on the generated wavelet, a wavelet-filterbank is constructed and the voice signals are decomposed to compute eight energy-based features. A support vector machine (SVM) then classifies the signals using the extracted features. Experimental results show that six various types of vocal disorders: paralysis, nodules, polyps, edema, spasmodic dysphonia and keratosis are fully sorted via the proposed method. This could be a successful step toward sorting a larger number of abnormalities associated with the vocal system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Voice Quality in Mobile Telecommunication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Stankevičius

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methods measuring the quality of voice transmitted over the mobile network as well as related problem, algorithms and options. It presents the created voice quality measurement system and discusses its adequacy as well as efficiency. Besides, the author presents the results of system application under the optimal hardware configuration. Under almost ideal conditions, the system evaluates the voice quality with MOS 3.85 average estimate; while the standardized TEMS Investigation 9.0 has 4.05 average MOS estimate. Next, the article presents the discussion of voice quality predictor implementation and investigates the predictor using nonlinear and linear prediction methods of voice quality dependence on the mobile network settings. Nonlinear prediction using artificial neural network resulted in the correlation coefficient of 0.62. While the linear prediction method using the least mean squares resulted in the correlation coefficient of 0.57. The analytical expression of voice quality features from the three network parameters: BER, C / I, RSSI is given as well.Article in Lithuanian

  17. Personality as a predictor of the value of voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Derek R

    2003-09-01

    The opportunity for workers to provide input, also known as voice, has received extensive study. The contrasting relational and instrumental theories of voice have stimulated research investigating why people value voice. However, researchers have yet to assess individual differences in the actual value that people place on voice. This consideration is particularly important because the effect of voice on perceived procedural fairness varies according to the value of voice. This laboratory study is an examination of the Big Five (extraversion, agreeableness, openness to experience, neuroticism, and conscientiousness; L. Goldberg, 1992) and core self-evaluations (neuroticism, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control; T. Judge, E. Locke, & C. Durham, 1997) as predictors of the value of voice for 96 undergraduates. Although both the Big Five and core self-evaluations accounted for significant variance in the value of voice, only 2 individual components (extraversion and self-efficacy) significantly predicted the value of voice.

  18. Updating signal typing in voice: addition of type 4 signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Alicia; Olszewski, Aleksandra; Jiang, Jack J; Zhang, Yu

    2010-06-01

    The addition of a fourth type of voice to Titze's voice classification scheme is proposed. This fourth voice type is characterized by primarily stochastic noise behavior and is therefore unsuitable for both perturbation and correlation dimension analysis. Forty voice samples were classified into the proposed four types using narrowband spectrograms. Acoustic, perceptual, and correlation dimension analyses were completed for all voice samples. Perturbation measures tended to increase with voice type. Based on reliability cutoffs, the type 1 and type 2 voices were considered suitable for perturbation analysis. Measures of unreliability were higher for type 3 and 4 voices. Correlation dimension analyses increased significantly with signal type as indicated by a one-way analysis of variance. Notably, correlation dimension analysis could not quantify the type 4 voices. The proposed fourth voice type represents a subset of voices dominated by noise behavior. Current measures capable of evaluating type 4 voices provide only qualitative data (spectrograms, perceptual analysis, and an infinite correlation dimension). Type 4 voices are highly complex and the development of objective measures capable of analyzing these voices remains a topic of future investigation.

  19. Voicing Others’ Voices: Spotlighting the Researcher as Narrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan O’SULLIVAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As qualitative research undertakings are not independent of the researcher, the “indissoluble interrelationship between interpreter and interpretation” (Thomas & James, 2006, p. 782 renders it necessary for researchers to understand that their text is a representation, a version of the truth that is the product of writerly choices, and that it is discursive. Endlessly creative, artistic and political, as there is no single interpretative truth, the interpretative process facilitates the refashioning of representations, the remaking of choices and the probing of discourses. As a consequence of the particularity of any researcher’s account, issues pertaining to researcher identity and authorial stance always remain central to research endeavours (Kamler & Thomson, 2006, p. 68; Denzin & Lincoln 2011, pp. 14-15. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to be reflexive about their analyses and research accounts (Elliott, 2005, p. 152, as reflexivity helps spotlight the role of the researcher as narrator. In turn, spotlighting the researcher as narrator foregrounds a range of complex issues about voice, representation and interpretive authority (Chase, 2005, p. 657; Genishi & Glupczynski, 2006, p. 671; Eisenhart, 2006. In essence, therefore, this paper is reflective of the challenges of “doing” qualitative research in educational settings. Its particular focus-the shaping of beginning primary teachers’ identities, in Ireland, throughout the course of their initial year of occupational experience, post-graduation- endeavours to highlight issues pertaining to the researcher as narrator (O’Sullivan, 2014.

  20. Une approche non verbale de l’identité musicale de la marque : influence du « timbre » et du « tempo » sur l’image de marque évoquée

    OpenAIRE

    Goudey, Alain

    2007-01-01

    The literature on how consumer reacts to music exposure at the point of sales, in adverts, over the phone and on the Internet is rich. However there is a little convergence in the results. We propose a new conceptual framework based on the concept of synesthesia and specifically study the influence of timbre and tempo. We also examine the mediating impact of pleasantness of music and the moderating influence of sex, personality traits and musical expertise. Using nonverbal projective methods ...

  1. Student Voice as a Contested Practice: Power and Participation in Two Student Voice Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Carol; Taylor, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This article applies theoretical understandings of power relations within student voice work to two empirical examples of school-based student voice projects. The article builds on and refines theoretical understandings of power and participation developed in previous articles written by the authors. The first article argued that at the heart of…

  2. Evaluation of Voice Disorders: Dysphonia Severity Index and Voice Handicap Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Hakkesteegt (Marieke)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe voice is arguable still the most important tool of communication despite the growing importance of e-mails and text messaging (SMS) in daily contact. Indeed in modern society people are probably even more dependent on their voice than in the rural societies of old. Approximately one

  3. The Passive Voice and Teaching the Passive Voice to Chinese-speaking Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘若芸

    2004-01-01

    The most significant functions of the passive voice for writing are identified with particular referenceto Chinese students.The use of the passive as a carefully controlled stylistic tool,and the appropriate use of theagentless passive are considered foundational to the teaching of the passive voice for writing purposes.Some potentialproblems will be also identified.

  4. Variation of voice quality features and aspects of voice training in males and females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, Arend Marten

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess information on voice quality features and to ascertain the variability of these features in specified groups. Groups were created based on gender and status of vocal training, in order to study the influence of these grouping variables on selected voice quality fea

  5. Voices We Want to Hear and Voices We Don't.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter H.; Nicholls, John G.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses theories about knowledge and schooling and describes democratic classrooms. Students need empowerment to have a voice in curriculum design and governance. Schools that foster student voice must establish conditions for democratic talk in class. Students must be taught to respect others; they cannot be allowed to denigrate…

  6. Comparison of post menopausal voice changes across professional and non-professional users of the voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Vishwas Sovani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Menopause effects a permanent change in certain body functions, one of them being voice. Moreover, if the voice is used continuously as a part of one’s occupation, this may further impact postmenopausal voice changes. The present study investigated the impact of menopause and professional voice use, and their interaction effect, on the voice. 92 women were classified into reproductive (52 and postmenopausal (40. Each group was divided into Level II (teachers and Level IV (clerks of Koufman and Isaacson’s (1991 classification. Acoustic parameters were analyzed using the VisiPitch III software. Aerodynamic parameters were manually calculated. The VHI (Voice Handicap Index was also included to improve the face validity of the study. Results suggest that Fo, SFo and MPT reduce post menopause while NHR and VTI increase. Some changes are accelerated in teachers as compared to clerks while some are decelerated. VHI scores of teachers are significantly greater than clerks, though not significantly different across menopause. Thus the presence or absence of voice use in one’s profession differentially affects postmenopausal changes. The study has implications in improving the condition of teachers in India, developing norms for menopausal changes and modifying allowable limits for voice recognition systems in future.

  7. Native Tongue, Captive Voice: The Representation of the Aboriginal "Voice" in Colonial South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Robert; Muhlhausler, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Examines the way in which the Aboriginal "voice" was represented in colonial South Australia, particularly in the form of pidgin English. The first part of the article focuses on the first decade of settlement; the second part examines the period between 1860 and the turn of the century. Findings indicate that the Aboriginal voice in South…

  8. Biomechanical models of damage and healing processes for voice health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados Corsellas, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Jacobsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    In voice-loading occupations employees are required to use their voice for continuous and large periods of time, which might lead to voice problems. In this work anomalous vocal-fold vibrations due to long-time high voice-load are investigated. Laryngeal endoscopic high-speed images within...... the vocal-fold plane are available. This data is used to improve existing continuum biomechanical models of the vocal-folds by analyzing the injury processes. The project is expected to result in methods that objectively demonstrate the impact of high voice-load on voice. A detailed description...

  9. CCNA Voice Study Guide, Exam 640-460

    CERN Document Server

    Froehlich, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate guide to the new CCNA voice network administrator certification exam. The new CCNA Voice exam tests candidates on their ability to implement a Cisco VoIP solution. Network administrators of voice systems will appreciate that the CCNA Voice Study Guide focuses completely on the information required by the exam. Along with hands-on labs and an objective map showing where each objective is covered, this guide includes a CD with the Sybex Test Engine, flashcards, and entire book in PDF format.: The new CCNA Voice certification will be valuable for administrators of voice network syste

  10. Underconnectivity between voice-selective cortex and reward circuitry in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A; Lynch, Charles J; Cheng, Katherine M; Phillips, Jennifer; Supekar, Kaustubh; Ryali, Srikanth; Uddin, Lucina Q; Menon, Vinod

    2013-07-16

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often show insensitivity to the human voice, a deficit that is thought to play a key role in communication deficits in this population. The social motivation theory of ASD predicts that impaired function of reward and emotional systems impedes children with ASD from actively engaging with speech. Here we explore this theory by investigating distributed brain systems underlying human voice perception in children with ASD. Using resting-state functional MRI data acquired from 20 children with ASD and 19 age- and intelligence quotient-matched typically developing children, we examined intrinsic functional connectivity of voice-selective bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). Children with ASD showed a striking pattern of underconnectivity between left-hemisphere pSTS and distributed nodes of the dopaminergic reward pathway, including bilateral ventral tegmental areas and nucleus accumbens, left-hemisphere insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Children with ASD also showed underconnectivity between right-hemisphere pSTS, a region known for processing speech prosody, and the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala, brain regions critical for emotion-related associative learning. The degree of underconnectivity between voice-selective cortex and reward pathways predicted symptom severity for communication deficits in children with ASD. Our results suggest that weak connectivity of voice-selective cortex and brain structures involved in reward and emotion may impair the ability of children with ASD to experience speech as a pleasurable stimulus, thereby impacting language and social skill development in this population. Our study provides support for the social motivation theory of ASD.

  11. Entidades fiscalizadoras superiores y accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    OBJETIVOS DE LA TESIS: El objetivo general del trabajo es establecer el nivel de eficacia de las Entidades Fiscalizadoras Superiores (EFS) como agencia asignada y herramienta de accountability horizontal, a través de la valoración de su diseño institucional y de la calidad de sus productos finales, los informes de auditoría, estableciéndose los siguientes objetivos específicos: 1. Relevar las nociones de accountability, actualizando el Estado del Arte de la cuestión. 2. Analizar la ...

  12. Employee voice and private sector workplace outcomes in Britain, 1980-2004

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Non-union direct voice has replaced union representative voice as the primary avenue for employee voice in the British private sector. This paper provides a framework for examining the relationship between employee voice and workplace outcomes that explains this development. As exit-voice theory predicts, voice is associated with lower voluntary turnover, especially in the case of union voice. Union voice is also associated with greater workplace conflict and poorer productivity. Non-union vo...

  13. Implicit multisensory associations influence voice recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina von Kriegstein

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural objects provide partially redundant information to the brain through different sensory modalities. For example, voices and faces both give information about the speech content, age, and gender of a person. Thanks to this redundancy, multimodal recognition is fast, robust, and automatic. In unimodal perception, however, only part of the information about an object is available. Here, we addressed whether, even under conditions of unimodal sensory input, crossmodal neural circuits that have been shaped by previous associative learning become activated and underpin a performance benefit. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging before, while, and after participants learned to associate either sensory redundant stimuli, i.e. voices and faces, or arbitrary multimodal combinations, i.e. voices and written names, ring tones, and cell phones or brand names of these cell phones. After learning, participants were better at recognizing unimodal auditory voices that had been paired with faces than those paired with written names, and association of voices with faces resulted in an increased functional coupling between voice and face areas. No such effects were observed for ring tones that had been paired with cell phones or names. These findings demonstrate that brief exposure to ecologically valid and sensory redundant stimulus pairs, such as voices and faces, induces specific multisensory associations. Consistent with predictive coding theories, associative representations become thereafter available for unimodal perception and facilitate object recognition. These data suggest that for natural objects effective predictive signals can be generated across sensory systems and proceed by optimization of functional connectivity between specialized cortical sensory modules.

  14. Facing sound – voicing art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansa Lønstrup

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art with a primary focus on the Tony Oursler solo exhibition Face to Face in Aarhus Art Museum ARoS, 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience’s interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space, and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics, phenomenology, and newer writings on sound, voice and listening. The focus of the investigation is the quality and possible perspectives of the interaction with audiovisual works of art, articulating and sounding out their own ‘voices’. This methodological combination has been chosen to transgress the dichotomy between the aesthetic or hermeneutic artwork ‘text’ analysis and cultural theory, which focuses on the context understood as the framing, the cultural acts and agendas around the aesthetic ‘text’. The article will include experiences with another exhibition, David Lynch: The Air is on Fire (Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, Paris, 2007 and Kunstforeningen Gl. Strand, Copenhagen, 2010- 2011. The two exhibitions are fundamentally different in their integration of sound. My field of interest concerns the exploration of sound as artistic material in audiovisual combinations and those audiovisual works of art that might cause a change in the participatory strategy of the art museum towards the audience.

  15. Inspiratory Phonation in Baby Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermke, Kathleen; Haschemi, Asin Ahmad; Hesse, Volker; Robb, Michael P

    2017-05-18

    This study aimed to evaluate the developmental occurrence of inspiratory phonations (IPs) in the spontaneous cries of healthy infants across the first 10 weeks of life. This is a populational retrospective study. The spontaneous crying of 17 healthy infants (10 were male) was retrospectively investigated. Sound files of spontaneously uttered cries that were repeatedly recorded once per week for across the first 10 weeks of life were retrospectively analyzed. Frequency spectra and waveforms were used to identify the occurrence of IPs and to measure the duration and fundamental frequency (fo) of each instance of IP. A consistent number of IPs were identified across the 10-week period. All infants were observed to produce IPs in their spontaneous cries, although the frequency of occurrence was not consistent across infants. A marked sex difference was observed with female infants producing a higher number of IPs compared to males. The duration and fo of IPs did not differ significantly across the 10 weeks or between sexes. The production of IPs is a regularly occurring phenomenon in healthy, normally developing infants' spontaneous crying. The proportional difference in the production of IPs between female and male infants, observed for the first time here, is postulated to be linked to sex-based differences (including steroidal hormones) in respiratory anatomy and physiology. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The sentence superiority effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    A sentence superiority effect was investigated using post-cued word-in-sequence identification with the rapid parallel visual presentation (RPVP) of four horizontally aligned words. The four words were presented for 200ms followed by a post-mask and cue for partial report. They could form a grammatically correct sentence or were formed of the same words in a scrambled agrammatical sequence. Word identification was higher in the syntactically correct sequences, and crucially, this sentence superiority effect did not vary as a function of the target's position in the sequence. Cloze probability measures for words at the final, arguably most predictable position, revealed overall low values that did not interact with the effects of sentence context, suggesting that these effects were not driven by word predictability. The results point to a level of parallel processing across multiple words that enables rapid extraction of their syntactic categories. These generate a sentence-level representation that constrains the recognition process for individual words, thus facilitating parallel word processing when the sequence is grammatically sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Study on the Timbre of an Electric Guitar Sound with Distortion%电吉他增加畸变后的音色研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花田健吾; 川井敬二; 安藤四一

    2007-01-01

    声音畸变是电吉他音乐最重要的特性之一,对电吉他增加畸变后的音色的描述是目前的研究热点.笔者利用实验手段研究了不同畸变后得到的音色差别与从震源信号的自相关函数中提取出来的物理因子的关系,并利用自相关函数φ(0)定义了一个因子Wφ(0)在利用模拟声音畸变进行的实验中,发现Wφ(0)因子可以较好地描述声音的畸变,同时,音色的差别与Wφ(0)的平均值有较强的相关关系.另一项采用商业化效应器进行的实验也得到了类似的结果,这表明音色差异与Wφ(0)的均值之间也有强的相关关系.%The "distortion" of electric guitar, which is one of the most important characteristics of music, is focused on describing timbre. This paper experimentally investigates the relationship between the dissimilarity representing the difference in timbre with different distortions and the physical factors extracted from the autocorrelation function of the source signal. A factor Wφ(0) is defined by the width at 0.5 crossing of the normalized autocorrelation function, φ(0). In the experiment with simulated distortion,it is found that the factor Wφ(0) well describes the distortion. At the same time, a high correlation between the dissimilarity and the mean value of Wφ(0) was shown. Another experiment performed similarly using commercial effectors also shows the high correlation between the dissimilarity and the mean value of Wφ(0).

  18. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis.

  19. A Unique Wavelet Steganography Based Voice Biometric Protection Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjaypande M. B

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Voice biometric is an easy and cost effective biometric technique which requires minimalistic hardware and software complexity. General voice biometric needs a voice phrase by user which is processed with Mel Filter and Vector Quantized features are extracted. Vector quantization reduces the codebook size but decreases the accuracy of recognition. Therefore we propose a voice biometric system where voice file's non quantized code books are matched with spoken phrase. In order to ensure security to such direct voice sample we embed the voice file in a randomly selected image using DWT technique. Imposters are exposed to only images and are unaware of the voice files. We show that the technique produces better efficiency in comparison to VQ based technique.

  20. Practical applications of interactive voice technologies: Some accomplishments and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Michael W.; Hicklin, M. B.; Porter, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    A technology assessment of the application of computers and electronics to complex systems is presented. Three existing systems which utilize voice technology (speech recognition and speech generation) are described. Future directions in voice technology are also described.

  1. Artificial 'Voice Box' Implant Helps Cancer Patient Speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162873.html Artificial 'Voice Box' Implant Helps Cancer Patient Speak New device ... WEDNESDAY, Jan. 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An artificial "voice box" has provided long-term relief for a ...

  2. Clinical value of acoustic voice measures: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Katrin; Voigt, Daniel; Döllinger, Michael; Eysholdt, Ulrich; Lohscheller, Jörg

    2010-08-01

    Within this study a retrospective analysis of clinical voice perturbation measures, Dysphonia Severity Index and subjective perceived hoarseness was performed to determine their value under clinical aspects. The study included the data of 580 healthy and 1,700 pathologic voices, which were investigated under the following aspects. The relevant parameters were identified and their interrelation determined. Group differences between healthy and pathologic voices were figured out and investigated if voice quality measures allowed an automatic diagnosis of voice disorders. The analysis revealed significant changes between the clinical groups, which indicate the diagnostic relevance of voice quality measures. However, an individual diagnosis of the underlying voice disorder failed due to a vast spread of the parameter values within the respective groups. Classification accuracies of 75-90% were achieved. The high misclassification rate of up to 25% implied that in voice disorder diagnosis, the individual interpretation of the parameter values has to be done carefully.

  3. Functionality of Voice Teaching in Tertiary Institutions and Remedial Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iruoma Amaka Ugoo-Okonkwo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Voice as a musical instrument invariably refers to singing and this instrument of expression and interpretation is taught like any other musical instrument. The purpose of the research therefore was focused on the views of voice teachers with regard to their teaching techniques and the problems associated with the subject. The research was carried out in two Universities and one College of Education. To determine how voice is done in the schools, twenty voice teachers’ perception and methodology of teaching were noted and analysed from the structured questionnaire they responded to. Interview and direct observations were done to cross-check the responses and arrive at a conclusion on how voice is done in the schools. The investigation revealed the state of voice teaching in schools, the problems experienced by students during voice teaching and remedial measures to be taken especially the therapy against voice strain.  

  4. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Department of the Navy Superior Supplier Incentive Program AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... policy that will establish a Superior Supplier Incentive Program (SSIP). Under the SSIP, contractors that..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors...

  5. The Glasgow Voice Memory Test: Assessing the ability to memorize and recognize unfamiliar voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri, Virginia; Watson, Rebecca; Pernet, Cyril; Latinus, Marianne; Garrido, Lúcia; Belin, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    One thousand one hundred and twenty subjects as well as a developmental phonagnosic subject (KH) along with age-matched controls performed the Glasgow Voice Memory Test, which assesses the ability to encode and immediately recognize, through an old/new judgment, both unfamiliar voices (delivered as vowels, making language requirements minimal) and bell sounds. The inclusion of non-vocal stimuli allows the detection of significant dissociations between the two categories (vocal vs. non-vocal stimuli). The distributions of accuracy and sensitivity scores (d') reflected a wide range of individual differences in voice recognition performance in the population. As expected, KH showed a dissociation between the recognition of voices and bell sounds, her performance being significantly poorer than matched controls for voices but not for bells. By providing normative data of a large sample and by testing a developmental phonagnosic subject, we demonstrated that the Glasgow Voice Memory Test, available online and accessible from all over the world, can be a valid screening tool (~5 min) for a preliminary detection of potential cases of phonagnosia and of "super recognizers" for voices.

  6. Secure voice-based authentication for mobile devices: vaulted voice verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. C.; Scheirer, Walter J.; Boult, Terrance E.

    2013-05-01

    As the use of biometrics becomes more wide-spread, the privacy concerns that stem from the use of biometrics are becoming more apparent. As the usage of mobile devices grows, so does the desire to implement biometric identification into such devices. A large majority of mobile devices being used are mobile phones. While work is being done to implement different types of biometrics into mobile phones, such as photo based biometrics, voice is a more natural choice. The idea of voice as a biometric identifier has been around a long time. One of the major concerns with using voice as an identifier is the instability of voice. We have developed a protocol that addresses those instabilities and preserves privacy. This paper describes a novel protocol that allows a user to authenticate using voice on a mobile/remote device without compromising their privacy. We first discuss the Vaulted Verification protocol, which has recently been introduced in research literature, and then describe its limitations. We then introduce a novel adaptation and extension of the Vaulted Verification protocol to voice, dubbed Vaulted Voice Verification (V3). Following that we show a performance evaluation and then conclude with a discussion of security and future work.

  7. Comparison of Voice Perceptual Charactheristics between Speech - Language Pathologists', Dysphonic and Normal Voiced Adult's View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Maryam khoddami

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In recent years, several tools for assessment of quality of patient life have been designed especially for dysphonics. Nowadays, we have useful assessments in health system that are refered for numerous clinical decisions. In this way, this investigation compares clinician and patient perception in dysphonic and normal voiced for first time.Methods: This study was carried out on 30 dysphonic and 30 subjects with normal voice. Their age, sex and job were same. In two groups, Consensus Auditory – Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V was used for evaluation of clinician perception and Voice Handicap Index - 30 (VHI-30 for assessment of patient perception. After collecting data, they were analyzed by Mann- witney and Wilcoxon tests.Results: The research revealed that mean of total and each section score of VHI-30 have significant difference between dysphonic and control group (p<0.01. Comparison of total and every parameter score of CAPE-V and speed also indicated significant difference between two groups (p<0.01. Study of reliability shows weak reliability (r=0.34 between clinician and patient perception of voice in dysphonics.Conclusion: Dysphonic patients percept their voice problem different and severe rather than clinicians that shows physical, psychological and social affects of dysphonia. This research confirms that patient – based assessment of voice is necessary to be part of common assessments of dysphonia.

  8. superior en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mureddu Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo desarrolla algunos de los retos que ha traído consigo el acceso a la información existente en la red de Internet y lo que ello supone. Se abordan principalmente las consecuencias de la presencia actual de una sociedad llamada del conocimiento, si se mantiene la confusión entre conocimiento e información. Por ello, la sola gestión de la información no puede ser tomada como definitoria respecto a la función de educación superior confiada a las universidades. Hacerlo sería cometer un error aún más grave que la confusión teórica entre los términos mencionados.

  9. Why Voice Matters: Culture and Politics After Neoliberalism

    OpenAIRE

    Couldry, Nick

    2010-01-01

    For more than thirty years neoliberalism has declared that market functioning trumps all other social, political and economic values. In this book, Nick Couldry passionately argues for voice, the effective opportunity for people to speak and be heard on what affects their lives, as the only value that can truly challenge neoliberal politics. But having voice is not enough: we need to know our voice matters. Insisting that the answer goes much deeper than simply calling for 'more voices', whet...

  10. Objective Voice Parameters and Self-Perceived Handicap in Dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, Christina; Scharf, Manuela; Schützenberger, Anne; Graessel, Elmar; Rosanowski, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study focuses on the relation between objective voice quality and the self-perception of a voice handicap. Patients and Methods: The study group consisted of 86 German-speaking patients (51 women, 35 men) suffering from benign dysphonia. The test persons completed the German version of the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) Questionnaire without prior information about their diagnosis and underwent voice analysis with the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) being the parameter ...

  11. METHODS FOR QUALITY ENHANCEMENT OF USER VOICE SIGNAL IN VOICE AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Faizulaieva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reasonability for the usage of computer systems user voice in the authentication process is proved. The scientific task for improving the signal/noise ratio of the user voice signal in the authentication system is considered. The object of study is the process of input and output of the voice signal of authentication system user in computer systems and networks. Methods and means for input and extraction of voice signal against external interference signals are researched. Methods for quality enhancement of user voice signal in voice authentication systems are suggested. As modern computer facilities, including mobile ones, have two-channel audio card, the usage of two microphones is proposed in the voice signal input system of authentication system. Meanwhile, the task of forming a lobe of microphone array in a desired area of voice signal registration (100 Hz to 8 kHz is solved. The usage of directional properties of the proposed microphone array gives the possibility to have the influence of external interference signals two or three times less in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The possibilities for implementation of space-time processing of the recorded signals using constant and adaptive weighting factors are investigated. The simulation results of the proposed system for input and extraction of signals during digital processing of narrowband signals are presented. The proposed solutions make it possible to improve the value of the signal/noise ratio of the useful signals recorded up to 10, ..., 20 dB under the influence of external interference signals in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The results may be useful to specialists working in the field of voice recognition and speaker’s discrimination.

  12. Effects of Voice on Emotional Arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche eLoui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners’ preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants’ perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50 made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music.

  13. Jordanian teachers' perceptions of voice handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Basem S; Natour, Yaser S; Haj-Tas, Maisa A

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate if Jordanian school teachers perceive their voice as handicapped using the Voice Handicap Index (VHI)-Arab. The effect of teachers' age, gender, years of teaching, class taught, and education level on VHI was examined. A total of 289 teachers and a control group of 100 participants took part in the study. The teachers' group differed significantly from the control group in the physical, emotional, and functional subscales and the total score of the VHI-Arab. There was no significant difference among teachers in any of the three VHI subscales or total regarding gender, age, years of teaching experience, education level, and classes taught. Jordanian teachers have a strong perception of voice handicap. Thus, preventive and treatment vocal programs are strongly advised.

  14. [Psychological classification of functional voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiese-Himmel, C; Kruse, E

    1997-01-01

    In an explorative study the classification of a collective of patients with different voice disorders by discriminant and cluster analysis was tried. 21 variables, obtained from 128 patients with various diagnoses of voice disorders, were used. A first discriminant analysis on the basis of diagnoses-groups permitted no differentiation. A subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis indicated a four-cluster-solution. The clusters showed only little association with the phoniatric diagnoses. Cluster 1 is characterized by patients with non-organic voice disorders. Cluster 2 is marked by emotional unstable patients with organic dysphonia. Cluster 3 consists of patients with psychosomatic dysphonia by laryngeal contact granuloma, and cluster 4 contains emotional stable patients suffering from organic dysphonia and from spasmodic dysphonia. Thirteen psychological variables discriminated the clusters significantly: Anxiety about appearing in public, emotionality (neuroticism), life satisfaction, aggressiveness, anxiety, about physical injuries, extraversion.

  15. The electronic cry: Voice and gender in electroacoustic music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The voice provides an entrance to discuss gender and related fundamental issues in electroacoustic music that are relevant as well in other musical genres and outside of music per se: the role of the female voice; the use of language versus non-verbal vocal sounds; the relation of voice, embodiment

  16. The clinical utility of vocal dosimetry for assessing voice rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misono, Stephanie; Banks, Kathryn; Gaillard, Philippe; Goding, George S; Yueh, Bevan

    2015-01-01

    Voice rest is frequently recommended following surgical disruption of vocal fold epithelium, but patients report variable adherence to voice rest recommendations. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical utility of an ambulatory vocal dosimeter for measuring adherence to voice rest recommendations. Outcomes research. Part 1: To determine the utility of the dosimeter in nonclinical use, the relationship between self-reported voice use and dosimeter measurements was examined in normal subjects (n = 11) who prospectively logged voice use while wearing the dosimeter. Part 2: To determine clinical utility of the dosimeter, patients undergoing vocal fold surgery for which postoperative voice rest was recommended (n = 11) wore a dosimeter for 2 days prior to and 2 days after surgery. Phonation percent and sound level were compared at baseline and during voice rest. The dosimeter performed as hypothesized with both normal subjects and patients. A moderate correlation (r = 0.62) was noted between self-reported voice use and dosimeter measurements in normal subjects. In patients on voice rest, a statistically and clinically significant decrease was observed in measured voice use, both in phonation time (P = .002) and intensity of phonation (P = .004). Ambulatory vocal dosimetry may have clinical utility for assessing adherence to voice rest recommendations. This information will be useful for the design of future studies on voice rest. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Speaking comfort and voice use of teachers in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    Teachers suffer from voice problems more often than the rest of the population, as a consequence of the intensive use of their voices during teaching. Noise and classroom acoustics have been defined as hazards eventually leading to voice problems. In order to make a good classroom acoustic design...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1457 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit voice recorders. 27.1457 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1457 Cockpit voice recorders. (a) Each cockpit voice recorder required by the operating rules of this chapter must be approved,...

  19. 14 CFR 125.227 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit voice recorders. 125.227 Section... Requirements § 125.227 Cockpit voice recorders. (a) No certificate holder may operate a large turbine engine... cockpit voice recorder is installed in that airplane and is operated continuously from the start of...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1457 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit voice recorders. 29.1457 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1457 Cockpit voice recorders. (a) Each cockpit voice recorder required by the operating rules of this chapter must be...

  1. 14 CFR 129.24 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit voice recorders. 129.24 Section 129... § 129.24 Cockpit voice recorders. No person may operate an aircraft under this part that is registered in the United States unless it is equipped with an approved cockpit voice recorder that meets...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1457 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit voice recorders. 25.1457 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1457 Cockpit voice recorders. (a) Each cockpit voice recorder required by the operating rules of this chapter must be...

  3. A voice-producing Prosthesis for Laryngectomized Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tack, J. W.; Marres, H. A. M.; Meeuwis, C. A.; van der Houwen, E. B.; Rakhorst, G.; Verkerke, G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite state of the art tracheo-esophageal (TE) voice-rehabilitation after laryn-gectomy, some patients are unable to produce voice of sufficient quality, because of hypotonicity or atonicity of their pharyngo-esophageal (PE) segment. Furthermore, the TE voice is low pitched, which presents a probl

  4. Original Knowledge, Gender and the Word's Mythology: Voicing the Doctorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Using mythology as a generative matrix, this article investigates the relationship between knowledge, words, embodiment and gender as they play out in academic writing's voice and, in particular, in doctoral voice. The doctoral thesis is defensive, a performance seeking admittance into discipline scholarship. Yet in finding its scholarly voice,…

  5. A voice-producing Prosthesis for Laryngectomized Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tack, J. W.; Marres, H. A. M.; Meeuwis, C. A.; van der Houwen, E. B.; Rakhorst, G.; Verkerke, G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite state of the art tracheo-esophageal (TE) voice-rehabilitation after laryn-gectomy, some patients are unable to produce voice of sufficient quality, because of hypotonicity or atonicity of their pharyngo-esophageal (PE) segment. Furthermore, the TE voice is low pitched, which presents a

  6. Caffeinated soft drinks reduce bacterial prevalence in voice prosthetic biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Free, RH; Elving, GJ; Van der Mei, HC; Van Weissenbruch, R; Albers, FWJ; Busscher, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Laryngectomized patients use indwelling silicone rubber voice prostheses, placed in a surgically created fistula in between the trachea and the esophagus, for voice and speech rehabilitation. At the esophageal side, these voice prostheses rapidly become colonized by a thick biofilm consisting of a v

  7. The voice handicap of student-teachers and risk factors perceived to have a negative influence on the voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George; Kooijman, Piet G C; Donders, A Rogier T; Cremers, W R J; de Jong, Felix I C R S

    2007-05-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed. The objectives of the study were to assess the psychosocial impact of current voice complaints as perceived by student-teachers with voice complaints in comparison with student-teachers without voice complaints, and to observe the pattern of risk factors in relation to their voice handicap. Subjects in the general population without a voice-demanding profession were selected as a reference group for limited comparison with the total group of student-teachers (future professional voice users). The respondents to the questionnaires were anonymous. Among the student-teachers, 17.2% reported current voice complaints in comparison with 9.7% of the reference group, and the odds ratio was 1.94, which showed the relative risk. Student-teachers had significantly greater total Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores than the reference group (P = 0.034). The VHI subscale scores were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Student-teachers who reported current voice complaints had a significantly higher total VHI and subscale scores than student teachers without voice complaints (P VHI scores greater than the 75th percentile. These persons may be neglecting their voice handicap and probably represent the false-negative cases in the estimation of voice complaints. Logistic regression analysis of each of the given risk factors with the VHI as the independent variable showed that the perceived negative influence of the given risk factors on their voices was significantly greater with increasing VHI scores across the VHI range. A significant correlation was observed between the number of perceived risk factors and increasing VHI scores across the VHI range. An increased awareness of risk factors in relation to their voice handicap would serve to motivate student-teachers to change factors that contributed to their voice problem. Attention to all risk factors, which the subjects perceive to be a risk, would aid in effective management

  8. Power flow in normal human voice production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The principal mechanisms of energy utilization in voicing are quantified using a simplified model, in order to better define voice efficiency. A control volume analysis of energy utilization in phonation is presented to identify the energy transfer mechanisms in terms of their function. Conversion of subglottal airstream potential energy into useful work done (vocal fold vibration, flow work, sound radiation), and into heat (sound radiation absorbed by the lungs, glottal jet dissipation) are described. An approximate numerical model is used to compute the contributions of each of these mechanisms, as a function of subglottal pressure, for normal phonation. Acknowledge support of NIH Grant 2R01DC005642-10A1.

  9. Voice-Controlled Artificial Handspeak System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fonda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A man-machine interaction project is described which aims to establish an automated voice to sign language translator for communication with the deaf using integrated open technologies. The first prototype consists of a robotic hand designed with OpenSCAD and manufactured with a low-cost 3D printer ─which smoothly reproduces the alphabet of the sign language controlled by voice only. The core automation comprises an Arduino UNO controller used to activate a set of servo motors that follow instructions from a Raspberry Pi mini-computer having installed the open source speech recognition engine Julius. We discuss its features, limitations and possible future developments.

  10. The visual/kinesthetic effects of melodic contour in musical notation as it affects vocal timbre in singers of classical and music theater repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Burroughs, Kathryn; Watts, Christopher; Brown, Oren L; Lovetri, Jeannette

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to obtain information from professional singers active in performing of both classical and music theater repertoire with regard to the visual/kinesthetic effect of melodic contour in musical notation as it affects vocal timbre. The evaluation of data gathered during the study indicates that there is reason to investigate the resulting postural shifts of the head and neck because they are guided by visual maps of melodic contour and its inversion. Significantly, it was discovered that the tone quality produced when a singer's head and neck postures followed the natural melodic contour of the melody was in no case considered to be the most pleasing of the conditions studied and that, in many cases, the tone quality produced when a singer's head and neck postures followed a map of the inversion of the melodic contour was judged to be much improved. The results of the study also indicate that the development of new technology for the general teaching studio, designed to address these effects, may be useful to these singers.

  11. Voice, Genre, and Intentionality: An Integrated Methods Study of Voice Criteria in the Evaluation of Secondary Students' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Jill V.

    2010-01-01

    "Voice" is widely considered to be a feature of effective writing. It's no surprise, then, that voice criteria frequently appear on rubrics used to score student essays in large-scale writing assessments. However, composition theorists hold vastly different views regarding voice and how it should be applied in the evaluation of student writing, if…

  12. The voice handicap of student-teachers and risk factors perceived to have a negative influence on the voice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, G.; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed. The objectives of the study were to assess the psychosocial impact of current voice complaints as perceived by student-teachers with voice complaints in comparison with student-teachers without voice complaints, and to observe the pattern of risk

  13. The relation of vocal fold lesions and voice quality to voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.; Marres, H.A.; Jong, F. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voice disorders have a multifactorial genesis and may be present in various ways. They can cause a significant communication handicap and impaired quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of vocal fold lesions and voice quality on voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being. METH

  14. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  15. Voice problems of future speech-language pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottliebson, Renee Ogle; Lee, Linda; Weinrich, Barbara; Sanders, Jessica

    2007-11-01

    Students training to be educators frequently exhibit voice disorders prior to employment. To date, there exist no similar studies of future speech-language pathologists (SLPs). The study is designed as a prospective, nonrandomized survey. The objective of this study is to determine the voice problems of first year graduate students training to be SLPs. Participants were 104 first year graduate students majoring in speech-language pathology at two universities. The Quick Screen for Voice was administered. Participants who failed completed a questionnaire regarding voice problems, medical history, daily habits, and voice use. When responses further indicated voice-related problems, endoscopic examination was completed. Fourteen percent (N=15) of the participants failed the screening by demonstrating two or more abnormal voice characteristics. These included persistent glottal fry (present in all who failed), low habitual pitch, juvenile resonance, hoarse, breathy, or strained phonation, abnormally low pitch on sustained vowels, and voice breaks during the frequency range. Twelve percent (N=12) failed both the screening and follow-up questionnaire. Responses included self-reported dysphonia, medical history with voice-related side effects, difficulty with excessive voice use, and voice problems occurring daily or weekly. Endoscopic evaluation showed one participant with bilateral vocal nodules. The results suggest that voice problems among future SLPs (12%) are more common than the 3-9% reported in the general population and similar to the 11% previously reported for teachers. However, future SLP voice problems are less frequent than those reported among education majors (21%) and all college students (17%). Faculty should identify students with voice problems and emphasize optimal voice use in classroom and clinical settings.

  16. Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems: Voice-Flight NexGen Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Speaking to the cockpit as a method of system management in flight can become an effective interaction method, since voice communication is very efficient. Automated...

  17. Scientific Bases of Human-Machine Communication by Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Ronald W.

    1995-10-01

    The scientific bases for human-machine communication by voice are in the fields of psychology, linguistics, acoustics, signal processing, computer science, and integrated circuit technology. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the basic scientific and technological issues in human-machine communication by voice and to point out areas of future research opportunity. The discussion is organized around the following major issues in implementing human-machine voice communication systems: (i) hardware/software implementation of the system, (ii) speech synthesis for voice output, (iii) speech recognition and understanding for voice input, and (iv) usability factors related to how humans interact with machines.

  18. Exploring the feasibility of smart phone microphone for measurement of acoustic voice parameters and voice pathology screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uloza, Virgilijus; Padervinskis, Evaldas; Vegiene, Aurelija; Pribuisiene, Ruta; Saferis, Viktoras; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Verikas, Antanas

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the reliability of acoustic voice parameters obtained using smart phone (SP) microphones and investigate the utility of use of SP voice recordings for voice screening. Voice samples of sustained vowel/a/obtained from 118 subjects (34 normal and 84 pathological voices) were recorded simultaneously through two microphones: oral AKG Perception 220 microphone and SP Samsung Galaxy Note3 microphone. Acoustic voice signal data were measured for fundamental frequency, jitter and shimmer, normalized noise energy (NNE), signal to noise ratio and harmonic to noise ratio using Dr. Speech software. Discriminant analysis-based Correct Classification Rate (CCR) and Random Forest Classifier (RFC) based Equal Error Rate (EER) were used to evaluate the feasibility of acoustic voice parameters classifying normal and pathological voice classes. Lithuanian version of Glottal Function Index (LT_GFI) questionnaire was utilized for self-assessment of the severity of voice disorder. The correlations of acoustic voice parameters obtained with two types of microphones were statistically significant and strong (r = 0.73-1.0) for the entire measurements. When classifying into normal/pathological voice classes, the Oral-NNE revealed the CCR of 73.7% and the pair of SP-NNE and SP-shimmer parameters revealed CCR of 79.5%. However, fusion of the results obtained from SP voice recordings and GFI data provided the CCR of 84.60% and RFC revealed the EER of 7.9%, respectively. In conclusion, measurements of acoustic voice parameters using SP microphone were shown to be reliable in clinical settings demonstrating high CCR and low EER when distinguishing normal and pathological voice classes, and validated the suitability of the SP microphone signal for the task of automatic voice analysis and screening.

  19. Evaluation of an Intelligent Assistive Technology for Voice Navigation of Spreadsheets

    CERN Document Server

    Flood, Derek; Caffery, Fergal Mc; Bishop, Brian

    2008-01-01

    An integral part of spreadsheet auditing is navigation. For sufferers of Repetitive Strain Injury who need to use voice recognition technology this navigation can be highly problematic. To counter this the authors have developed an intelligent voice navigation system, iVoice, which replicates common spreadsheet auditing behaviours through simple voice commands. This paper outlines the iVoice system and summarizes the results of a study to evaluate iVoice when compared to a leading voice recognition technology.

  20. The Sound of Voice: Voice-Based Categorization of Speakers' Sexual Orientation within and across Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; Fasoli, Fabio; Maass, Anne; Paladino, Maria Paola; Vespignani, Francesco; Eyssel, Friederike; Bentler, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Empirical research had initially shown that English listeners are able to identify the speakers' sexual orientation based on voice cues alone. However, the accuracy of this voice-based categorization, as well as its generalizability to other languages (language-dependency) and to non-native speakers (language-specificity), has been questioned recently. Consequently, we address these open issues in 5 experiments: First, we tested whether Italian and German listeners are able to correctly identify sexual orientation of same-language male speakers. Then, participants of both nationalities listened to voice samples and rated the sexual orientation of both Italian and German male speakers. We found that listeners were unable to identify the speakers' sexual orientation correctly. However, speakers were consistently categorized as either heterosexual or gay on the basis of how they sounded. Moreover, a similar pattern of results emerged when listeners judged the sexual orientation of speakers of their own and of the foreign language. Overall, this research suggests that voice-based categorization of sexual orientation reflects the listeners' expectations of how gay voices sound rather than being an accurate detector of the speakers' actual sexual identity. Results are discussed with regard to accuracy, acoustic features of voices, language dependency and language specificity.

  1. The Sound of Voice: Voice-Based Categorization of Speakers’ Sexual Orientation within and across Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Anne; Paladino, Maria Paola; Vespignani, Francesco; Eyssel, Friederike; Bentler, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Empirical research had initially shown that English listeners are able to identify the speakers' sexual orientation based on voice cues alone. However, the accuracy of this voice-based categorization, as well as its generalizability to other languages (language-dependency) and to non-native speakers (language-specificity), has been questioned recently. Consequently, we address these open issues in 5 experiments: First, we tested whether Italian and German listeners are able to correctly identify sexual orientation of same-language male speakers. Then, participants of both nationalities listened to voice samples and rated the sexual orientation of both Italian and German male speakers. We found that listeners were unable to identify the speakers' sexual orientation correctly. However, speakers were consistently categorized as either heterosexual or gay on the basis of how they sounded. Moreover, a similar pattern of results emerged when listeners judged the sexual orientation of speakers of their own and of the foreign language. Overall, this research suggests that voice-based categorization of sexual orientation reflects the listeners' expectations of how gay voices sound rather than being an accurate detector of the speakers' actual sexual identity. Results are discussed with regard to accuracy, acoustic features of voices, language dependency and language specificity. PMID:26132820

  2. Perceiving a stranger's voice as being one's own: a 'rubber voice' illusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zane Z Zheng

    Full Text Available We describe an illusion in which a stranger's voice, when presented as the auditory concomitant of a participant's own speech, is perceived as a modified version of their own voice. When the congruence between utterance and feedback breaks down, the illusion is also broken. Compared to a baseline condition in which participants heard their own voice as feedback, hearing a stranger's voice induced robust changes in the fundamental frequency (F0 of their production. Moreover, the shift in F0 appears to be feedback dependent, since shift patterns depended reliably on the relationship between the participant's own F0 and the stranger-voice F0. The shift in F0 was evident both when the illusion was present and after it was broken, suggesting that auditory feedback from production may be used separately for self-recognition and for vocal motor control. Our findings indicate that self-recognition of voices, like other body attributes, is malleable and context dependent.

  3. Changes after voice therapy in objective and subjective voice measurements of pediatric patients with vocal nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcaner, Ciler Zahide; Karatayli Ozgursoy, Selmin; Ozgursoy, Selmin Karatayli; Sati, Isil; Dursun, Gursel

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficiency of the voice therapy in children with vocal nodules by using the acoustic analysis and subjective assessment. Thirty-nine patients with vocal fold nodules, aged between 7 and 14, were included in the study. Each subject had voice therapy led by an experienced voice therapist once a week. All diagnostic and follow-up workouts were performed before the voice therapy and after the third or the sixth month. Transoral and/or transnasal videostroboscopic examination and acoustic analysis were achieved using multi-dimensional voice program (MDVP) and subjective analysis with GRBAS scale. As for the perceptual assessment, the difference was significant for four parameters out of five. A significant improvement was found in the acoustic analysis parameters of jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio. The voice therapy which was planned according to patients' needs, age, compliance and response to therapy had positive effects on pediatric patients with vocal nodules. Acoustic analysis and GRBAS may be used successfully in the follow-up of pediatric vocal nodule treatment.

  4. The Sound of Voice: Voice-Based Categorization of Speakers' Sexual Orientation within and across Languages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sulpizio

    Full Text Available Empirical research had initially shown that English listeners are able to identify the speakers' sexual orientation based on voice cues alone. However, the accuracy of this voice-based categorization, as well as its generalizability to other languages (language-dependency and to non-native speakers (language-specificity, has been questioned recently. Consequently, we address these open issues in 5 experiments: First, we tested whether Italian and German listeners are able to correctly identify sexual orientation of same-language male speakers. Then, participants of both nationalities listened to voice samples and rated the sexual orientation of both Italian and German male speakers. We found that listeners were unable to identify the speakers' sexual orientation correctly. However, speakers were consistently categorized as either heterosexual or gay on the basis of how they sounded. Moreover, a similar pattern of results emerged when listeners judged the sexual orientation of speakers of their own and of the foreign language. Overall, this research suggests that voice-based categorization of sexual orientation reflects the listeners' expectations of how gay voices sound rather than being an accurate detector of the speakers' actual sexual identity. Results are discussed with regard to accuracy, acoustic features of voices, language dependency and language specificity.

  5. Estill Voice Training and voice quality control in contemporary commercial singing: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Marco; Fussi, Franco; Crosetti, Erika; Succo, Giovanni

    2016-09-30

    Estill Voice Training (EVT) is a widely known programme for developing vocal skills based on partitioning the process of vocal production in order to reach control of specific structures in the vocal mechanism. The present retrospective small-scale exploratory study aims at reporting preliminary data about the efficacy of EVT - in terms of voice quality control on a specific vocal exercise - in contemporary commercial singers with a Certificate of Figure Proficiency (CFP). Thirty-five contemporary commercial singers (professional or semi-professional pop and rock singers) with no vocal complaints were recruited. The experimental group was composed of twenty singers who studied EVT and had a CFP. The control group was composed of fifteen singers who studied in Italian contemporary popular music institutions but were not familiar with EVT. Voice quality control was assessed through acoustic and perceptual analysis on a specific vocal exercise requiring sound pitch, perturbation and spectral energy distribution control. The acoustic analysis showed some significant differences between the two groups of singers both in sound perturbation control and spectral energy distribution control, suggesting a higher voice quality control ability for the experimental group. The perceptual evaluation confirmed a higher ability for the experimental group to produce recognizable voice qualities in this specific task. The reported preliminary results seem to suggest EVT as an effective educational system for developing voice quality control ability in contemporary commercial singers.

  6. Assessing efficacy of voice treatments: a guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonckere, P H

    2000-01-01

    The proposal of this guideline or basic protocol is an attempt to reach better agreement and uniformity concerning the methodology for functional assessment of pathological voices. The purpose is to allow relevant comparisons with the literature when presenting/publishing the results of voice treatment, e.g. a phonosurgical technique, or a new/improved instrument or procedure for investigating the pathological voice. Meta-analyses of results of voice treatments are generally limited--and even impossible--due to the major diversity in assessing functional outcomes. A minimal, multidimensional set of basic measurements is proposed, suitable for all "common" dysphonias: it includes 5 different approaches: perception (grade, roughness, breathiness), videostroboscopy (closure, regularity, mucosal wave and symmetry), acoustics (jitter, shimmer, Fo-range and softest intensity), aerodynamics (phonation quotient), and self rating by the patient. The protocol is elaborated on the base of an exhaustive review of the literature, the experience of the Committee members, and of plenary discussions within the European Laryngological Society. Instrumentation is kept to a minimum, but considered essential for professionals performing phonosurgery.

  7. Youth Voice and the Llano Grande Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Francisco; Perez, Delia; Guajardo, Miguel A.; Davila, Eric; Ozuna, Juan; Saenz, Maribel; Casaperalta, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    The Llano Grande Center is a non-profit education and community development organization founded in the mid-1990s by youth and teachers out of a public high school classroom in a rural South Texas (USA) community. The Center was created, in large part, to cultivate youth voices as important elements of curriculum development and teacher training…

  8. Voices from CCPIT Sub-Councils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ All the branches and headquarters comprise the huge and crisscross network of CCPIT system.At the National CCPIT Work Meeting on January 16-17,2010,50 CCPIT local sub-councils,22 CCPIT industrial sub-councils,16CCPIT overseas offices voiced their views on how CCPIT can be built as a worldwide top class trade promotion agency.

  9. The Child's Voice in School Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Steven; Walford, Geoffrey

    1997-01-01

    Explores the diverse roles that British children play in choosing a secondary school in England, based on interviews with parents drawn from contrasting socioeconomic areas. Some families actively "play the market;" others are relatively passive. Although the child's voice was more influential with "passive" families and played…

  10. Developing Voice through the Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn-Reinke, Kathryn; Chesner, Geralyn A.

    2006-01-01

    This book shows prospective teachers how to use the language arts to connect diverse students to the world around them and help them develop their own literate voices. It considers the integrated nature of the primary language arts--reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and visually representing. The authors encourage preservice and…

  11. Voice Onset Time in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Emily; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2010-01-01

    Research has found that speaking rate has an effect on voice onset time (VOT). Given that Parkinson disease (PD) affects speaking rate, the purpose of this study was to examine VOT with the effect of rate removed (VOT ratio), along with the traditional VOT measure, in individuals with PD. VOT and VOT ratio were examined in 9 individuals with PD…

  12. Every Voice Matters: The Importance of Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royea, Amber J.; Appl, Dolores J.

    2009-01-01

    Over the years parents, professionals, and politicians have come together to advocate on behalf of children's rights. Advocacy can occur individually, collectively, or a combination of both. Although some advocacy efforts are more successful than others, it is the process of the advocacy and voices behind it that matter most. In this guest…

  13. Ambivalences: Voices of Indonesian Academic Discourse Gatekeepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basthomi, Yazid

    2012-01-01

    This article presents voices of academic discourse gatekeepers in the Indonesian context. It reports on results of an attempt to re-read (re-analyze and re-interpret) the transcripts of interviews with Indonesian journal editors/reviewers in the area of English Language Teaching (ELT). The interviews were made with five editors/reviewers of two…

  14. Teaching Listening: Voices from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Nikki, Ed.; Tran, Anh, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Listening is the most important of the four language skills and is used most often in everyday communication. Teachers need innovative ways to address the particular listening problems emerging in their own contexts. "Teaching Listening: Voices From the Field" shares successful practices employed by teachers at different levels of education around…

  15. Parental Voices and Controversies in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with autism have played a prominent role in controversies surrounding this condition. Parental voices were critical in challenging the "refrigerator mother" theory and more recently have attracted public attention for claims that autism may be caused by childhood vaccinations and that "unorthodox biomedical" treatments may…

  16. Women’s Voice in Mass Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    IN May of 1996, Women’s Media Monitoring Network was set up in Beijing. The organization was established on the commemorative convention for the 10th anniversary of The Capital Female Journalists Association, aiming to open women’s eyes and discover their voice in mass media. Just one year after its establishment, the Network aroused extensive attention from

  17. Vanishing voices from Russia & Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, T.

    2016-01-01

    These recordings were digitised as part of the Endangered Archives Programme (EAP) project EAP347: ‘Vanishing voices from the Uralic world: sound recordings for archives in Russia (in particular Udmurtia), Estonia, Finland and Hungary’. The project digitised sound collections from the Uralic speakin

  18. Using Student Voices to Guide Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott-Johns, Susan E.; Booth, David; Rowsell, Jennifer; Puig, Enrique; Paterson, Jane

    2012-01-01

    A collaborative team of five international teacher educators/researchers examine the importance of student voice for authentic discourse and instructional design in contemporary classrooms. Excerpts from their perspectives on teaching, research, and innovative programs are woven together and include suggested Actions/Reflections for the reader.…

  19. Woman Helps Patients Find Their Voices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    THE director of the China Revocalization Association sat opposite me, talking with ease and fluency. Her voice was clear and I couldn’t believe that she was once rendered mute after an operation to remove her vocal cords because of throat cancer.

  20. Voice Onset Time in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Emily; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2010-01-01

    Research has found that speaking rate has an effect on voice onset time (VOT). Given that Parkinson disease (PD) affects speaking rate, the purpose of this study was to examine VOT with the effect of rate removed (VOT ratio), along with the traditional VOT measure, in individuals with PD. VOT and VOT ratio were examined in 9 individuals with PD…

  1. Find Your Voice: Eliminate Classroom Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Michael V.

    2007-01-01

    The academically underprepared community college student may also be psychosocially underprepared for college, a condition contributing to the development of classroom-specific social phobia and to the high attrition rate at community colleges. The "Find Your Voice Program" uses individual and group cognitive-behavioral techniques to develop…

  2. Homework: Voices from EFL Teachers and Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have mainly focused on homework in courses such as math and physics with little attention to homework in EFL (English as a foreign language) classes. The main purpose of the study reported in this paper was to give a voice to both EFL teachers and learners with regard to English homework. To this end, 8 EFL teachers and 19 EFL…

  3. Voice, dialogicality and identity construction in textual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    “They came there as workers”: Voice, dialogicality and identity .... Lonmin employs approximately 28,000 people, most of whom are ... How do Lonmin, Nzuza, Mtshamba and Magidiwana construct themselves ... or are affected by, the company's activities; (ii) the environment; and (iii) the company's ..... back to the mountain.

  4. Classroom Noise and Teachers' Voice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Leena M.; Hakala, Suvi; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to research the associations between noise (ambient and activity noise) and objective metrics of teachers' voices in real working environments (i.e., classrooms). Method: Thirty-two female and 8 male teachers from 14 elementary schools were randomly selected for the study. Ambient noise was measured during breaks…

  5. Voices of Disability on the Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    Background: While much commentary exists in relation to the portrayal of disabled people in the media, very little research examines the talk itself in any detail. This paper examines the how people with communication disabilities and disabled people are dealt with in the talk of a radio programme about disability. Aims: To show how the voices of…

  6. The value of visualizing tone of voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Graham; Cook, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Whilst most of us have an innate feeling for tone of voice, it is an elusive quality that even phoneticians struggle to describe with sufficient subtlety. For people who cannot speak themselves this can have particularly profound repercussions. Augmentative communication often involves text-to-speech, a technology that only supports a basic choice of prosody based on punctuation. Given how inherently difficult it is to talk about more nuanced tone of voice, there is a risk that its absence from current devices goes unremarked and unchallenged. Looking ahead optimistically to more expressive communication aids, their design will need to involve more subtle interactions with tone of voice-interactions that the people using them can understand and engage with. Interaction design can play a role in making tone of voice visible, tangible, and accessible. Two projects that have already catalysed interdisciplinary debate in this area, Six Speaking Chairs and Speech Hedge, are introduced together with responses. A broader role for design is advocated, as a means to opening up speech technology research to a wider range of disciplinary perspectives, and also to the contributions and influence of people who use it in their everyday lives.

  7. Voice Blogging and L2 Speaking Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigated the effect of extensive speaking practice on the development of L2 speaking complexity, accuracy, and fluency in voice blogging. The participants were 30 college EFL (English as a foreign language) learners in Taiwan. As a supplement to the insufficient speaking practice in class, each…

  8. Voice over IP in Wireless Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Chakraborty, Shyam; Prasad, Ramjee

    The convergence of different types of traffic has preceded the convergence of systems and services in a wireless heterogeneous network. Voice and data traffic are usually treated separate in both 2G and 2.5G wireless networks. With advances in packet switching technology and especially with the d...... and to the discruption caused by the user mobility during the session. Voice over IP in Wireless Hetetrogeneous Networks thus investigates and proposes cross-layer techniques for realizing time-efficient control mechanisms for VoIP: signaling, mobility and security.......The convergence of different types of traffic has preceded the convergence of systems and services in a wireless heterogeneous network. Voice and data traffic are usually treated separate in both 2G and 2.5G wireless networks. With advances in packet switching technology and especially....... The focus of Voice over IP in Wierless Heterogeneous Networks is on mechanisms that affect the VoIP user satisfaction  while not explicitly involved in the media session. This relates to the extra delays introduced by the security and the signaling protocols used to set up an authorized VoIP session...

  9. Delay related issues in integrated voice and data networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, J. G.

    1981-06-01

    The described investigation is concerned with the problem of transmitting voice with data in a computer communications network. The motivations for considering mixed voice and data traffic in such a shared network environment include the advent of new voice related applications with the technology now existing to economically support them, and the desire to plan for and design future integrated networks for reasons of economy and flexibility. Attention is given to the problem of variable delays in a shared network environment handling voice traffic. Previous work in packetized voice, as well as various approaches to integrated voice and data transmission, are reviewed. These approaches may be regarded as enhanced versions of circuit, packet, and hybrid switching. The impact of network interfacing and delay considerations for voice traffic is discussed.

  10. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  11. Varieties of Voice-Hearing: Psychics and the Psychosis Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Albert R; Kelley, Megan S; Corlett, Philip R

    2017-01-01

    Hearing voices that are not present is a prominent symptom of serious mental illness. However, these experiences may be common in the non-help-seeking population, leading some to propose the existence of a continuum of psychosis from health to disease. Thus far, research on this continuum has focused on what is impaired in help-seeking groups. Here we focus on protective factors in non-help-seeking voice-hearers. We introduce a new study population: clairaudient psychics who receive daily auditory messages. We conducted phenomenological interviews with these subjects, as well as with patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder who hear voices, people with a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder who do not hear voices, and matched control subjects (without voices or a diagnosis). We found the hallucinatory experiences of psychic voice-hearers to be very similar to those of patients who were diagnosed. We employed techniques from forensic psychiatry to conclude that the psychics were not malingering. Critically, we found that this sample of non-help-seeking voice hearers were able to control the onset and offset of their voices, that they were less distressed by their voice-hearing experiences and that, the first time they admitted to voice-hearing, the reception by others was much more likely to be positive. Patients had much more negative voice-hearing experiences, were more likely to receive a negative reaction when sharing their voices with others for the first time, and this was subsequently more disruptive to their social relationships. We predict that this sub-population of healthy voice-hearers may have much to teach us about the neurobiology, cognitive psychology and ultimately the treatment of voices that are distressing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Voice recognition software for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, K

    1998-11-01

    The current generation voice recognition products truly offer the promise of voice recognition systems, that are financially and operationally acceptable for use in a health care facility. Although the initial capital outlay for the purchase of such equipment may be substantial, the long-term benefit is felt to outweigh the expense. The ability to utilize computer equipment for educational purposes and information management alone helps to rationalize the cost. In addition, it is important to remember that the Internet has become a substantial source of information which provides another functional use for this equipment. Although one can readily see the implication for such a program in clinical practice, other uses for the program should not be overlooked. Uses far beyond the writing of clinic notes and correspondence can be easily envisioned. Utilization of voice recognition software offers clinical practices the ability to produce quality printed records in a timely and cost-effective manner. After learning procedures for the selected product and appropriately formatting word processing software and printers, printed progress notes should be able to be produced in less time than traditional dictation and transcription methods. Although certain procedures and practices may need to be altered, or may preclude optimal utilization of this type of system, many advantages are apparent. It is recommended that facilities consider utilization of Voice Recognition products such as Dragon Systems Naturally Speaking Software, or at least consider a trial of this method with one of the limited-feature products, if current dictation practices are unsatisfactory or excessively costly. Free downloadable trial software or single user software can provide a reduced-cost method for trial evaluation of such products if a major commitment is not felt to be desired. A list of voice recognition software manufacturer web sites may be accessed through the following: http

  13. Preferences for very low and very high voice pitch in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Re

    Full Text Available Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. Nineteen university students (ages: 20-25 participated in three experiments. On average, men preferred high-pitched women's voices to low-pitched women's voices across all frequencies tested. On average, women preferred men's voices lowered in pitch, but did not prefer very low men's voices. The results of this study may reflect selection pressures for men's and women's voices, and shed light on a perceptual link between voice pitch and vocal attractiveness.

  14. [Towards an integrated approach to infantile autism: the superior temporal lobe between neurosciences and psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golse, Bernard; Robel, Laurence

    2009-02-01

    The superior temporal lobe is currently at the focus of intensive research in infantile autism, a psychopathologic disorder apparently representing the severest failure of access to intersubjectivity, i.e. the ability to accept that others exist independently of oneself. Access to intersubjectivity seems to involve the superior temporal lobe, which is the seat of several relevant functions such as face and voice recognition and perception of others' movements, and coordinates the different sensory inputs that identify an object as being "external". The psychoanalytic approach to infantile autism and recent cognitive data are now converging, and intersubjectivity is considered to result from "mantling" or comodalization of sensory inputs from external objects. Recent brain neuroimaging studies point to anatomic and functional abnormalities of the superior temporal lobe in autistic children. Dialogue is therefore possible between these different disciplines, opening the way to an integrated view of infantile autism in which the superior temporal lobe holds a central place--not necessarily as a primary cause of autism but rather as an intermediary or a reflection of autistic functioning

  15. Loudness and timbre features model of ship radiated noise%舰船辐射噪声的响度和音色特征模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹红丽; 方世良

    2013-01-01

    First, the normalized power and Moore loudness change trend of the simulated ship radiated noise is analyzed. Furthermore, the Moore loudness cyclical change is tested by the sea trial data, and the Moore loudness mean is extracted as one dimensional characteristic. Then the effective timbre spectrum centroid characteristics are studied, and the formulae of spectral centroid bandwidth, spectral centroid skewness and spectral centroid kurtosis are deduced according to the mathematical definition of spectrum centroid. The physical meanings of spectrum centroid, spectral centroid bandwidth , spectral centroid skewness and spectral centroid kurtosis are illustrated by an example, and a 24-dimensional features model based on spectral centroid, spectral centroid bandwidth, spectral centroid skewness and spectral centroid kurtosis of six segmented frequency bands is proposed. The Moore loudness feature model is combined with the timbre feature model, and the combined characteristics have certain separability, which can be seen from the mean and variance distributions of 25-dimensional characteristics. Finally, a three-layer BP neural network classifier is designed, and the sea trial data simulation results indicate that the feature extraction method is effective and helpful to improve the recognition rate.%首先分析模拟舰船辐射噪声的归一化功率和Moore响度变化趋势,进一步用海试数据验证Moore响度的周期性变化特点,分析Moore响度周期性变化的原因,提取Moore响度均值作为一维特征.然后分析研究音色中有效的谱质心特征,根据谱质心的数学定义推导出谱质心带宽、谱质心斜度以及谱质心峰度的数学公式,举例分析其物理含义,并提出基于六分段频带的谱质心、谱质心带宽、谱质心斜度以及谱质心峰度共24维的音色特征模型.将Moore响度特征模型和音色特征模型相结合,从组合的25维特征的均值和方差分布可知特征具有一

  16. Does insecure attachment mediate the relationship between trauma and voice-hearing in psychosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilton, Marie; Bucci, Sandra; McManus, James; Hayward, Mark; Emsley, Richard; Berry, Katherine

    2016-12-30

    This study extends existing research and theoretical developments by exploring the potential mediating role of insecure attachment within the relationship between trauma and voice-hearing. Fifty-five voice hearers with a psychosis-related diagnosis completed comprehensive assessments of childhood trauma, adult attachment, voice-related severity and distress, beliefs about voices and relationships with voices. Anxious attachment was significantly associated with the voice-hearing dimensions examined. More sophisticated analysis showed that anxious attachment mediated the relationship between childhood sexual and emotional abuse and voice-related severity and distress, voice-malevolence, voice-omnipotence, voice-resistance and hearer-dependence. Anxious attachment also mediated the relationship between childhood physical neglect and voice-related severity and distress and hearer-dependence. Furthermore, consistent with previous research, the relationship between anxious attachment and voice-related distress was mediated by voice-malevolence, voice-omnipotence and voice-resistance. We propose a model whereby anxious attachment mediates the well-established relationship between trauma and voice-hearing. In turn, negative beliefs about voices may mediate the association between anxious attachment and voice-related distress. Findings presented here highlight the need to assess and formulate the impact of attachment patterns upon the voice-hearing experience in psychosis and the potential to alleviate voice-related distress by fostering secure attachments to therapists or significant others.

  17. Nonlinear acoustic analysis in the evaluation of occupational voice disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over recent years numerous papers have stressed that production of voice is subjected to the nonlinear processes, which cause aperiodic vibrations of vocal folds. These vibrations cannot always be characterized by means of conventional acoustic parameters, such as measurements of frequency and amplitude perturbations. Thus, special attention has recently been paid to nonlinear acoustic methods. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of nonlinear cepstral analysis, including the evaluation of mel cepstral coefficients (MFCC, in diagnosing occupational voice disorders. Material and methods: The study involved 275 voice samples of pathologic voice (sustained vowel "a" and four standardized sentences registered in female teachers with the occupation-related benign vocal fold masses (BVFM, such as vocal nodules, polyps, and 200 voice samples of normal voices from the control group of females. The mean age of patients and controls was similar (45 vs. 43 years. Voice samples from both groups were analyzed, including MFCC evaluation. Results: MFCC classification using the Sammon Mapping and Support Vector Machines yielded a considerable accuracy of the test. Voice pathologies were detected in 475 registered voice samples: for vowel "a" with 86% sensitivity and 90% specificity, and for the examined sentences the corresponding values varied between 87% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Nonlinear voice analysis with application of mel cepstral coefficients could be a useful and objective tool for confirming occupational-related lesions of the glottis. Further studies addressing this problem are being carried out. Med Pr 2013;64(1:29–35

  18. Matching Speaking to Singing Voices and the Influence of Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peynircioğlu, Zehra F; Rabinovitz, Brian E; Repice, Juliana

    2017-03-01

    We tested whether speaking voices of unfamiliar people could be matched to their singing voices, and, if so, whether the content of the utterances would influence this matching performance. Our hypothesis was that enough acoustic features would remain the same between speaking and singing voices such that their identification as belonging to the same or different individuals would be possible even upon a single hearing. We also hypothesized that the contents of the utterances would influence this identification process such that voices uttering words would be easier to match than those uttering vowels. We used a within-participant design with blocked stimuli that were counterbalanced using a Latin square design. In one block, mode (speaking vs singing) was manipulated while content was held constant; in another block, content (word vs syllable) was manipulated while mode was held constant, and in the control block, both mode and content were held constant. Participants indicated whether the voices in any given pair of utterances belonged to the same person or to different people. Cross-mode matching was above chance level, although mode-congruent performance was better. Further, only speaking voices were easier to match when uttering words. We can identify speaking and singing voices as the same or different even on just a single hearing. However, content interacts with mode such that words benefit matching of speaking voices but not of singing voices. Results are discussed within an attentional framework. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The singer's voice range profile: female professional opera soloists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Anick; Ternström, Sten; Pabon, Peter

    2010-07-01

    This work concerns the collection of 30 voice range profiles (VRPs) of female operatic voice. We address the questions: Is there a need for a singer's protocol in VRP acquisition? Are physiological measurements sufficient or should the measurement of performance capabilities also be included? Can we address the female singing voice in general or is there a case for categorizing voices when studying phonetographic data? Subjects performed a series of structured tasks involving both standard speech voice protocols and additional singing tasks. Singers also completed an extensive questionnaire. Physiological VRPs differ from performance VRPs. Two new VRP metrics, the voice area above a defined level threshold and the dynamic range independent from the fundamental frequency (F(0)), were found to be useful in the analysis of singer VRPs. Task design had no effect on performance VRP outcomes. Voice category differences were mainly attributable to phonation frequency-based information. Results support the clinical importance of addressing the vocal instrument as it is used in performance. Equally important is the elaboration of a protocol suitable for the singing voice. The given context and instructions can be more important than task design for performance VRPs. Yet, for physiological VRP recordings, task design remains critical. Both types of VRPs are suggested for a singer's voice evaluation. Copyright (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Through the looking glass: self-reassuring meta-cognitive capacityand its relationship with the thematic content of voicesand nature of the voice/voice-hearer relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte eConnor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAimsTo examine the self-critical thoughts and self-reassuring meta-cognitive capacity of those who hear voices and explore whether they are associated with the theme of voice content and appraisals of voice power and voice expressed emotion. MethodA cross-sectional design was used, combining semi-structured interviews and self-report measures. Data on symptomatology, self-critical thoughts and self-reassuring meta-cognitive capacity, thematic voice content and appraisals of voice power and expressed emotion were collected from 74 voice-hearers in Birmingham, UK. Results Common themes of voice content reflected issues of shame, control and affiliation. Controlling content was the most prevalent theme, however, no significant predictor of this theme was found; shaming thematic voice content linked with reduced capacity to self-reassure following self-critical thoughts. Voice-hearers with the greatest level of self-critical thoughts appraised their voices as powerful and high in voice expressed emotion ConclusionsFindings suggest that voice-hearers self-critical thoughts are reflected in the type of relationship they have with their voice. However, access to self-reassuring meta-cognitive capacity may serve as a protective factor for those who hear voices, resulting in more benign voice content. These findings highlight the importance of this specific meta-cognitive capacity and will inform future therapeutic interventions for the management of voices in this vulnerable group.

  1. Paso superior en una ladera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, O.

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available The Redwood highway, through the Californian forest, runs on a viaduct, as it crosses a mountain slope of about 45° inclination. The firm ground is fairly deep, and as an additional constructional difficulty, it was necessary to respect the natural beauty of the countryside. A structure of portal frames were built, forming a number of short spans. These spans were bridged with metal girders, on which a 19 m wide deck was placed. The columns are hollow and have a transversal cross beam, to join each pair. There was difficulty in excavating the foundations for the columns, as it was necessary to dig through the soft top soil, and also prevent this soil from hurting the trunks of the forest trees. Another significant difficulty in the construction of this viaduct was the access to the working site, since there were no suitable platforms from which to operate the appropriate machinery. This made it necessary to do a lot of the work by manual operation. As one of the edges of the deck is very close to the mountain side, a supporting beam was erected on this side. It was made of concrete, on metal piles. The formwork for the deck structure was placed on the concrete stems of the supporting piles.La autopista denominada Redwood (California salva, con un paso superior, la ladera de un bosque cuya pendiente es del 1/1. El terreno firme se halla a bastante profundidad, añadiéndose, a los naturales problemas de la construcción, el imperativo de respetar la belleza agreste del paraje. La solución adoptada consiste en una estructura porticada, con varios tramos de pequeñas luces, salvados con vigas metálicas, sobre los que se coloca la losa del tablero, de 19 m de anchura total. Los soportes están constituidos por pórticos de dos montantes huecos (con bases de hormigón en masa por debajo del suelo, hasta el firme coronados por un cabezal. La perforación de pozos para el hormigonado de los montantes presentaba la dificultad de atravesar el terreno

  2. Low Vocal Pitch Preference Drives First Impressions Irrespective of Context in Male Voices but Not in Female Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsantani, Maria S; Belin, Pascal; Paterson, Helena M; McAleer, Phil

    2016-08-01

    Vocal pitch has been found to influence judgments of perceived trustworthiness and dominance from a novel voice. However, the majority of findings arise from using only male voices and in context-specific scenarios. In two experiments, we first explore the influence of average vocal pitch on first-impression judgments of perceived trustworthiness and dominance, before establishing the existence of an overall preference for high or low pitch across genders. In Experiment 1, pairs of high- and low-pitched temporally reversed recordings of male and female vocal utterances were presented in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Results revealed a tendency to select the low-pitched voice over the high-pitched voice as more trustworthy, for both genders, and more dominant, for male voices only. Experiment 2 tested an overall preference for low-pitched voices, and whether judgments were modulated by speech content, using forward and reversed speech to manipulate context. Results revealed an overall preference for low pitch, irrespective of direction of speech, in male voices only. No such overall preference was found for female voices. We propose that an overall preference for low pitch is a default prior in male voices irrespective of context, whereas pitch preferences in female voices are more context- and situation-dependent. The present study confirms the important role of vocal pitch in the formation of first-impression personality judgments and advances understanding of the impact of context on pitch preferences across genders.

  3. Voice parameters and videonasolaryngoscopy in children with vocal nodules: a longitudinal study, before and after voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Victor; Ysunza, Antonio; Ocharan-Hernandez, Esther; Garrido-Bustamante, Norma; Sanchez-Valerio, Araceli; Pamplona, Ma C

    2012-09-01

    Vocal Nodules (VN) are a functional voice disorder associated with voice misuse and abuse in children. There are few reports addressing vocal parameters in children with VN, especially after a period of vocal rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to describe measurements of vocal parameters including Fundamental Frequency (FF), Shimmer (S), and Jitter (J), videonasolaryngoscopy examination and clinical perceptual assessment, before and after voice therapy in children with VN. Voice therapy was provided using visual support through Speech-Viewer software. Twenty patients with VN were studied. An acoustical analysis of voice was performed and compared with data from subjects from a control group matched by age and gender. Also, clinical perceptual assessment of voice and videonasolaryngoscopy were performed to all patients with VN. After a period of voice therapy, provided with visual support using Speech Viewer-III (SV-III-IBM) software, new acoustical analyses, perceptual assessments and videonasolaryngoscopies were performed. Before the onset of voice therapy, there was a significant difference (ptherapy period, a significant improvement (pvocal nodules were no longer discernible on the vocal folds in any of the cases. SV-III software seems to be a safe and reliable method for providing voice therapy in children with VN. Acoustic voice parameters, perceptual data and videonasolaryngoscopy were significantly improved after the speech therapy period was completed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Voice hearing: a secondary analysis of talk by people who hear voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Malcolm; Coffey, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Unitary explanations of mental illness symptoms appear to be inadequate when faced with everyday experiences of living with these conditions. In particular, the experience of voice hearing is not sufficiently accounted for by biomedical explanations. This paper revisits data collected from a sample of people who hear voices to perform a secondary analysis with the aim of examining the explanatory devices deployed by individuals in their accounts of voice hearing. Secondary analysis is the use of existing data, collected for a previous study, in order to explore a research question distinct from the original inquiry. In this study, we subjected these data to a thematic analysis. People who hear voices make use of standard psychiatric explanations about the experience in their accounts. However, the accounts paint a more complex picture and show that people also impute personal meaning to the experience. This in turn implicates both personal and social identity; that is, how the person is known to themselves and to others. We suggest that this knowledge can inform a more thoughtful engagement with the experiences of voice hearing by mental health nurses. © 2011 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. Voice F0 responses to pitch-shifted voice feedback during English speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephanie H; Liu, Hanjun; Xu, Yi; Larson, Charles R

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that motor control of segmental features of speech rely to some extent on sensory feedback. Control of voice fundamental frequency (F0) has been shown to be modulated by perturbations in voice pitch feedback during various phonatory tasks and in Mandarin speech. The present study was designed to determine if voice Fo is modulated in a task-dependent manner during production of suprasegmental features of English speech. English speakers received pitch-modulated voice feedback (+/-50, 100, and 200 cents, 200 ms duration) during a sustained vowel task and a speech task. Response magnitudes during speech (mean 31.5 cents) were larger than during the vowels (mean 21.6 cents), response magnitudes increased as a function of stimulus magnitude during speech but not vowels, and responses to downward pitch-shift stimuli were larger than those to upward stimuli. Response latencies were shorter in speech (mean 122 ms) compared to vowels (mean 154 ms). These findings support previous research suggesting the audio vocal system is involved in the control of suprasegmental features of English speech by correcting for errors between voice pitch feedback and the desired F0.

  6. Voice-to-Phoneme Conversion Algorithms for Voice-Tag Applications in Embedded Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ming Cheng

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe two voice-to-phoneme conversion algorithms for speaker-independent voice-tag creation specifically targeted at applications on embedded platforms. These algorithms (batch mode and sequential are compared in speech recognition experiments where they are first applied in a same-language context in which both acoustic model training and voice-tag creation and application are performed on the same language. Then, their performance is tested in a cross-language setting where the acoustic models are trained on a particular source language while the voice-tags are created and applied on a different target language. In the same-language environment, both algorithms either perform comparably to or significantly better than the baseline where utterances are manually transcribed by a phonetician. In the cross-language context, the voice-tag performances vary depending on the source-target language pair, with the variation reflecting predicted phonological similarity between the source and target languages. Among the most similar languages, performance nears that of the native-trained models and surpasses the native reference baseline.

  7. Ageing Voices: The Effect of Changes in Voice Parameters on ASR Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichander Vipperla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With ageing, human voices undergo several changes which are typically characterized by increased hoarseness and changes in articulation patterns. In this study, we have examined the effect on Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR and found that the Word Error Rates (WER on older voices is 10% absolute higher compared to those of adult voices. Subsequently, we compared several voice source parameters including fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, harmonicity, and cepstral peak prominence of adult and older males. Several of these parameters show statistically significant difference for the two groups. However, artificially increasing jitter and shimmer measures do not effect the ASR accuracies significantly. Artificially lowering the fundamental frequency degrades the ASR performance marginally but this drop in performance can be overcome to some extent using Vocal Tract Length Normalisation (VTLN. Overall, we observe that the changes in the voice source parameters do not have a significant impact on ASR performance. Comparison of the likelihood scores of all the phonemes for the two age groups show that there is a systematic mismatch in the acoustic space of the two age groups. Comparison of the phoneme recognition rates show that mid vowels, nasals, and phonemes that depend on the ability to create constrictions with tongue tip for articulation are more affected by ageing than other phonemes.

  8. Pseudodisplacements of superior vena cava catheter in the persistent left superior vena cava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantsch, H.; Draxler, V.; Muhar, U.; Schlemmer, M.; Waneck, R.

    1983-01-01

    Pseudodisplacement of a left sided superior vena cava catheter in a persistent superior vena cava may be expected in adults in 0,37% and in a group of children with congenital heart disease in 2,5%. Embryology, anatomy and clinical implications is discussed on the basis of our own cases. The vena cava superior sinistra persitents is depending on a sufficient calibre a suitable vessel for a superior cava catheter.

  9. Using the Voice to Design Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvede Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Digital technology makes new possibilities in ceramic craft. This project is about how experiential knowledge that the craftsmen gains in a direct physical and tactile interaction with a responding material can be transformed and utilized in the use of digital technologies. The project presents...... SoundShaping, a system to create ceramics from the human voice. Based on a generic audio feature extraction system, and the principal component analysis to ensure that the pertinent information in the voice is used, a 3D shape is created using simple geometric rules. This shape is output to a 3D printer...... to make ceramic results. The system demonstrates the close connection between digital technology and craft practice....

  10. Speech enhancement on smartphone voice recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tris Atmaja, Bagus; Nur Farid, Mifta; Arifianto, Dhany

    2016-11-01

    Speech enhancement is challenging task in audio signal processing to enhance the quality of targeted speech signal while suppress other noises. In the beginning, the speech enhancement algorithm growth rapidly from spectral subtraction, Wiener filtering, spectral amplitude MMSE estimator to Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). Smartphone as revolutionary device now is being used in all aspect of life including journalism; personally and professionally. Although many smartphones have two microphones (main and rear) the only main microphone is widely used for voice recording. This is why the NMF algorithm widely used for this purpose of speech enhancement. This paper evaluate speech enhancement on smartphone voice recording by using some algorithms mentioned previously. We also extend the NMF algorithm to Kulback-Leibler NMF with supervised separation. The last algorithm shows improved result compared to others by spectrogram and PESQ score evaluation.

  11. Voice disorders in children with classic galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Nancy L

    2011-04-01

    Children with classic galactosemia are at risk for motor speech disorders resulting from disruptions in motor planning and programming (childhood apraxia of speech or CAS) or motor execution (dysarthria). In the present study of 33 children with classic galactosemia, 21% were diagnosed with CAS, 3% with ataxic dysarthria, and 3% with mixed CAS-dysarthria. Voice disorders due to laryngeal insufficiency were common in children with dysarthria and co-occurred with CAS. Most (58%) of the children with classic galactosemia had decreased respiratory-phonatory support for speech, and 33% had disturbed vocal quality that was indicative of cerebellar dysfunction. Three children, two diagnosed with CAS and one not diagnosed with a motor speech disorder, had vocal tremors. Treatment of voice dysfunction in neurogenic speech disorders is discussed.

  12. Experiences with Voice to Design Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Jensen, Kristoffer

    2013-01-01

    This article presents SoundShaping, a system to create ceramics from the human voice and thus how digital technology makes new possibilities in ceramic craft. The article is about how experiential knowledge that the craftsmen gains in a direct physical and tactile interaction with a responding ma....... The shape is output to a 3D printer to make ceramic results. The system demonstrates the close connection between digital technology and craft practice. Several experiments and reflections demonstrate the validity of this work....... material can be transformed and utilized in the use of digital technologies. SoundShaping is based on a generic audio feature extraction system and the principal component analysis to ensure that the pertinent information in the voice is used. Moreover, 3D shape is created using simple geometric rules...

  13. Voice and Narrative in L1 Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Ellen; Piekut, Anke

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing....... Subsequently, two empirical investigations of L1 writing in a Danish upper secondary school are presented. The first study is based on longitudinal interview data and analyses one student’s experience as an L1 writer in the transition from lower secondary to upper secondary school. A high-achieving student...... in lower secondary L1, she found that her previous writing strategies were not rewarded in upper secondary school. In the second empiri-cal study, two upper-secondary exam papers are investigated, with a focus on their approaches to exam genres and their use of narrative resources to address issues...

  14. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  15. Voice-Controlled Artificial Handspeak System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gatti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A man-machine interaction project is described whic h aims to establish an automated voice to sign language translator for communication with the deaf using integrated open technologies. The first prototype consists of a robotic hand designed with OpenSCAD and manufactured with a low-cost 3D printer which smoothly reproduces the alphabet of the sign language controlled by voice only. The core automation comprises an Arduino UNO controller used to activate a set of servo motors that follow instructions from a Raspberry Pi mini-computer havi ng installed the open source speech recognition eng ine Julius. We discuss its features, limitations and po ssible future developmen

  16. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  17. A basic study on application of voice recognition input to an electronic nursing record system -evaluation of the function as an input interface-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marukami, Terutaka; Tani, Shoko; Matsuda, Atsuko; Takemoto, Keiko; Shindo, Akiko; Inada, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    As computerization in the nursing field has been recently progressing, an electronic nursing record system is gradually introduced in the medical institution in Japan. Although it is expected for the electronic nursing record system to reduce the load of nursing work, the conventional keyboard operation is used for information input of the present electronic nursing record system and it has some problems concerning the input time and the operationability for common nurses who are unfamiliar with the computer operation. In the present study, we conducted a basic study on application of voice recognition input to an electronic nursing record system. The voice input is recently introduced to an electronic medical record system in a few clinics. However, so far the entered information cannot be processed because the information of the medical record must be entered as a free sentence. Therefore, we contrived a template for an electronic nursing record system and introduced it to the system for simple information entry and easy processing of the entered information in this study. Furthermore, an input experiment for evaluation of the voice input with the template was carried out by voluntary subjects for evaluation of the function as an input interface of an electronic nursing record system. The results of the experiment revealed that the input time by the voice input is obviously fast compared with that by the keyboard input and operationability of the voice input was superior to the keyboard input although all subjects had inexperience of the voice input. As a result, it was suggested our method, the voice input using the template made by us, might be useful for an input interface of an electronic nursing record system.

  18. Is our knowledge of voice and silence in organizations growing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoll, Michael; Wegge, Jürgen; Unterrainer, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This article has three objectives. Firstly, we seek to demonstrate the relevance of voice and silence – that is, whether employees contribute or withhold information, ideas, views and/or concerns at work – for the sustainable development of individuals, organizations and societies. Our second...... objective is to identify emerging (and enduring) issues – conceptual, theoretical and methodological – that have not yet been adequately addressed in voice and silence research. These issues include the relationship between voice and silence, how they may manifest in organizations, their manifold...... integrative approach to the nature of silence and voice and their antecedents and consequences. These opportunities include a multi-level model specifying elements and processes leading to individual and collective voice and silence, approaches to voice and silence that have received little attention...

  19. Speaking comfort and voice use of teachers in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    Teachers suffer from voice problems more often than the rest of the population, as a consequence of the intensive use of their voices during teaching. Noise and classroom acoustics have been defined as hazards eventually leading to voice problems. In order to make a good classroom acoustic design...... to preserve the teachers’ voices and maximize their comfort, it is necessary to understand the underlaying relationship between classroom acoustics and teachers’ voice production. This paper presents a brief summary of investigations looking into this relationship. A pilot study, carried out in different...... located at various distances, in rooms with very different acoustics. A field study in schools of southern Sweden found out that teachers with and without voice problems, during actual teaching, are affected differently by the support of the classroom. A last laboratory experiment was carried out...

  20. Voice and persuasion in a banking telemarketing context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebat, Jean-Charles; El Hedhli, Kamel; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire; Boivin, Robert

    2007-04-01

    Voice has been neglected in research on advertising and persuasion. The present study examined the influence of voice and sex on the credibility of the voice source in a banking telemarketing context as well as with regards to the attitude toward the advertisement, and subjects' behavioral intention. An experiment using voices of a man and a woman was conducted. A recorded mock-telemarketing message consisted of an advertisement for an ATM card offered by a Canadian bank. Subjects were undergraduate students (N=399; 71.6% women, 28.4% men; M age=26.5 yr., SD = 7.4). They completed a questionnaire after hearing the message in telemarketing conditions. Analysis indicated a moderate intensity, an unmarked intonation, and a fast speech rate are associated with a more credible source than the other combinations. Sex was not a significant moderator in the relationship between voice characteristics and source credibility. Voice characteristics significantly affected attitudes toward the advertisement and behavioral intention.