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Sample records for superior temporal sulcus

  1. [Human interaction, social cognition, and the superior temporal sulcus].

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    Brunelle, Francis; Saitovitch, Anna; Boddaert, Nathalie; Grevent, David; Cambier, Jean; Lelord, Gilbert; Samson, Yves; Zilbovicius, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are social animals. This ability to live together is ensured by cognitive functions, the neuroanatomical bases of which are starting to be unraveled by MRI-based studies. The regions and network engaged in this process are known as the "social brain ". The core of this network is the superior temporal sulcus (STS), which integrates sensory and emotional inputs. Modeling studies of healthy volunteers have shown the role of the STS.in recognizing others as biological beings, as well as facial and eye-gaze recognition, intentionality and emotions. This cognitive capacity has been described as the "theory of mind ". Pathological models such as autism, in which the main clinical abnormality is altered social abilities and communication, have confirmed the role of the STS in the social brain. Conceptualisation of this empathic capacity has been described as "meta cognition ", which forms the basis of human social organizationand culture.

  2. Multisensory speech perception without the left superior temporal sulcus.

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    Baum, Sarah H; Martin, Randi C; Hamilton, A Cris; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2012-09-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a critical site for multisensory integration of auditory and visual information during speech perception. We report a patient, SJ, who suffered a stroke that damaged the left tempo-parietal area, resulting in mild anomic aphasia. Structural MRI showed complete destruction of the left middle and posterior STS, as well as damage to adjacent areas in the temporal and parietal lobes. Surprisingly, SJ demonstrated preserved multisensory integration measured with two independent tests. First, she perceived the McGurk effect, an illusion that requires integration of auditory and visual speech. Second, her perception of morphed audiovisual speech with ambiguous auditory or visual information was significantly influenced by the opposing modality. To understand the neural basis for this preserved multisensory integration, blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) was used to examine brain responses to audiovisual speech in SJ and 23 healthy age-matched controls. In controls, bilateral STS activity was observed. In SJ, no activity was observed in the damaged left STS but in the right STS, more cortex was active in SJ than in any of the normal controls. Further, the amplitude of the BOLD response in right STS response to McGurk stimuli was significantly greater in SJ than in controls. The simplest explanation of these results is a reorganization of SJ's cortical language networks such that the right STS now subserves multisensory integration of speech. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in human superior temporal sulcus.

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    De Winter, François-Laurent; Zhu, Qi; Van den Stock, Jan; Nelissen, Koen; Peeters, Ronald; de Gelder, Beatrice; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2015-02-01

    Most face processing studies in humans show stronger activation in the right compared to the left hemisphere. Evidence is largely based on studies with static stimuli focusing on the fusiform face area (FFA). Hence, the pattern of lateralization for dynamic faces is less clear. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this property is common to human and non-human primates due to predisposing processing strategies in the right hemisphere or that alternatively left sided specialization for language in humans could be the driving force behind this phenomenon. We aimed to address both issues by studying lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in monkeys and humans. Therefore, we conducted an event-related fMRI experiment in three macaques and twenty right handed humans. We presented human and monkey dynamic facial expressions (chewing and fear) as well as scrambled versions to both species. We studied lateralization in independently defined face-responsive and face-selective regions by calculating a weighted lateralization index (LIwm) using a bootstrapping method. In order to examine if lateralization in humans is related to language, we performed a separate fMRI experiment in ten human volunteers including a 'speech' expression (one syllable non-word) and its scrambled version. Both within face-responsive and selective regions, we found consistent lateralization for dynamic faces (chewing and fear) versus scrambled versions in the right human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), but not in FFA nor in ventral temporal cortex. Conversely, in monkeys no consistent pattern of lateralization for dynamic facial expressions was observed. Finally, LIwms based on the contrast between different types of dynamic facial expressions (relative to scrambled versions) revealed left-sided lateralization in human pSTS for speech-related expressions compared to chewing and emotional expressions. To conclude, we found consistent laterality effects in human posterior STS but not

  4. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus

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    Christopher P Said

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  5. Attention to emotion modulates fMRI activity in human right superior temporal sulcus.

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    Narumoto, J; Okada, T; Sadato, N; Fukui, K; Yonekura, Y

    2001-10-01

    A parallel neural network has been proposed for processing various types of information conveyed by faces including emotion. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tested the effect of the explicit attention to the emotional expression of the faces on the neuronal activity of the face-responsive regions. Delayed match to sample procedure was adopted. Subjects were required to match the visually presented pictures with regard to the contour of the face pictures, facial identity, and emotional expressions by valence (happy and fearful expressions) and arousal (fearful and sad expressions). Contour matching of the non-face scrambled pictures was used as a control condition. The face-responsive regions that responded more to faces than to non-face stimuli were the bilateral lateral fusiform gyrus (LFG), the right superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS). In these regions, general attention to the face enhanced the activities of the bilateral LFG, the right STS, and the left IPS compared with attention to the contour of the facial image. Selective attention to facial emotion specifically enhanced the activity of the right STS compared with attention to the face per se. The results suggest that the right STS region plays a special role in facial emotion recognition within distributed face-processing systems. This finding may support the notion that the STS is involved in social perception.

  6. Posterior superior temporal sulcus responses predict perceived pleasantness of skin stroking

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    Monika Davidovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Love and affection is expressed through a range of physically intimate gestures, including caresses. Recent studies suggest that posterior temporal lobe areas typically associated with visual processing of social cues also respond to interpersonal touch. Here, we asked whether these areas are selective to caress-like skin stroking. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from 23 healthy participants and compared brain responses to skin stroking and vibration. We did not find any significant differences between stroking and vibration in the posterior temporal lobe; however, right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS responses predicted healthy participant's perceived pleasantness of skin stroking, but not vibration. These findings link right pSTS responses to individual variability in perceived pleasantness of caress-like tactile stimuli. We speculate that the right pSTS may play a role in the translation of tactile stimuli into positively valenced, socially relevant interpersonal touch and that this system may be affected in disorders associated with impaired attachment.

  7. Mouth and Voice: A Relationship between Visual and Auditory Preference in the Human Superior Temporal Sulcus.

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    Zhu, Lin L; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2017-03-08

    Cortex in and around the human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is known to be critical for speech perception. The pSTS responds to both the visual modality (especially biological motion) and the auditory modality (especially human voices). Using fMRI in single subjects with no spatial smoothing, we show that visual and auditory selectivity are linked. Regions of the pSTS were identified that preferred visually presented moving mouths (presented in isolation or as part of a whole face) or moving eyes. Mouth-preferring regions responded strongly to voices and showed a significant preference for vocal compared with nonvocal sounds. In contrast, eye-preferring regions did not respond to either vocal or nonvocal sounds. The converse was also true: regions of the pSTS that showed a significant response to speech or preferred vocal to nonvocal sounds responded more strongly to visually presented mouths than eyes. These findings can be explained by environmental statistics. In natural environments, humans see visual mouth movements at the same time as they hear voices, while there is no auditory accompaniment to visual eye movements. The strength of a voxel's preference for visual mouth movements was strongly correlated with the magnitude of its auditory speech response and its preference for vocal sounds, suggesting that visual and auditory speech features are coded together in small populations of neurons within the pSTS. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans interacting face to face make use of auditory cues from the talker's voice and visual cues from the talker's mouth to understand speech. The human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a brain region known to be important for speech perception, is complex, with some regions responding to specific visual stimuli and others to specific auditory stimuli. Using BOLD fMRI, we show that the natural statistics of human speech, in which voices co-occur with mouth movements, are reflected in the neural architecture of

  8. Pure word deafness with auditory object agnosia after bilateral lesion of the superior temporal sulcus.

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    Gutschalk, Alexander; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Riedel, Bernhard; Bartsch, Andreas; Brandt, Tobias; Vogt-Schaden, Marlies

    2015-12-01

    Based on results from functional imaging, cortex along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to subserve phoneme and pre-lexical speech perception. For vowel classification, both superior temporal plane (STP) and STS areas have been suggested relevant. Lesion of bilateral STS may conversely be expected to cause pure word deafness and possibly also impaired vowel classification. Here we studied a patient with bilateral STS lesions caused by ischemic strokes and relatively intact medial STPs to characterize the behavioral consequences of STS loss. The patient showed severe deficits in auditory speech perception, whereas his speech production was fluent and communication by written speech was grossly intact. Auditory-evoked fields in the STP were within normal limits on both sides, suggesting that major parts of the auditory cortex were functionally intact. Further studies showed that the patient had normal hearing thresholds and only mild disability in tests for telencephalic hearing disorder. Prominent deficits were discovered in an auditory-object classification task, where the patient performed four standard deviations below the control group. In marked contrast, performance in a vowel-classification task was intact. Auditory evoked fields showed enhanced responses for vowels compared to matched non-vowels within normal limits. Our results are consistent with the notion that cortex along STS is important for auditory speech perception, although it does not appear to be entirely speech specific. Formant analysis and single vowel classification, however, appear to be already implemented in auditory cortex on the STP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Activity in the superior temporal sulcus highlights learning competence in an interaction game.

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    Haruno, Masahiko; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2009-04-08

    During behavioral adaptation through interaction with human and nonhuman agents, marked individual differences are seen in both real-life situations and games. However, the underlying neural mechanism is not well understood. We conducted a neuroimaging experiment in which subjects maximized monetary rewards by learning in a prisoner's dilemma game with two computer agents: agent A, a tit-for-tat player who repeats the subject's previous action, and agent B, a simple stochastic cooperator oblivious to the subject's action. Approximately 1/3 of the subjects (group I) learned optimally in relation to both A and B, while another 1/3 (group II) did so only for B. Post-experiment interviews indicated that group I exploited the agent strategies more often than group II. Significant differences in learning-related brain activity between the two groups were only found in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) for both A and B. Furthermore, the learning performance of each group I subject was predictable based on this STS activity, but not in the group II subjects. This differential activity could not be attributed to a behavioral difference since it persisted in relation to agent B for which the two groups behaved similarly. In sharp contrast, the brain structures for reward processing were recruited similarly by both groups. These results suggest that STS provides knowledge of the other agent's strategies for association between action and reward and highlights learning competence during interactive reinforcement learning.

  10. Glutamate Concentration in the Superior Temporal Sulcus Relates to Neuroticism in Schizophrenia

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    Johanna Balz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies suggest aberrant neurotransmitter concentrations in the brains of patients with schizophrenia (SCZ. Numerous studies have indicated deviant glutamate concentrations in SCZ, although the findings are inconsistent. Moreover, alterations in glutamate concentrations could be linked to personality traits in SCZ. Here, we examined the relationships between personality dimensions and glutamate concentrations in a voxel encompassing the occipital cortex (OCC and another voxel encompassing the left superior temporal sulcus (STS. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to examine glutamate concentrations in the OCC and the STS in 19 SCZ and 21 non-psychiatric healthy control (HC participants. Personality dimensions neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness were assessed using the NEO-FFI questionnaire. SCZ compared to HC showed higher glutamate concentrations in the STS, reduced extraversion scores, and enhanced neuroticism scores. No group differences were observed for the other personality traits and for glutamate concentrations in the OCC. For the SCZ group, glutamate concentrations in STS were negatively correlated with the neuroticism scores [r = -0.537, p = 0.018] but this was not found in HC [r(19 = 0.011, p = 0.962]. No other significant correlations were found. Our study showed an inverse relationship between glutamate concentrations in the STS and neuroticism scores in SCZ. Elevated glutamate in the STS might serve as a compensatory mechanism that enables patients with enhanced concentrations to control and prevent the expression of neuroticism.

  11. Involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in impaired social perception in schizophrenia.

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    Shin, Jung Eun; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Hyeongrae; Shin, Young Seok; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-04-03

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by impairments in diverse thinking and emotional responses, which are related to social perception dysfunction. This fMRI study was designed to investigate a neurobiological basis of social perception deficits of patients with schizophrenia in various social situations of daily life and their relationship with clinical symptoms and social dysfunction. Seventeen patients and 19 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, during which participants performed a virtual social perception task, containing an avatar's speech with positive, negative or neutral emotion in a virtual reality space. Participants were asked to determine whether or not the avatar's speech was appropriate to each situation. The significant group×appropriateness interaction was seen in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), resulting from lower activity in patients in the inappropriate condition, and left DLPFC activity was negatively correlated with the severity of negative symptoms and positively correlated with the level of social functioning. The significant appropriateness×emotion interaction observed in the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) was present in controls, but absent in patients, resulting from the existence and absence of a difference between the inappropriate positive and negative conditions, respectively. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the DLPFC-STS network may underlie patients' abnormal social perception in various social situations of daily life. Abnormal functioning of this network may contribute to increases of negative symptoms and decreases of social functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Auditory, Visual and Audiovisual Speech Processing Streams in Superior Temporal Sulcus.

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    Venezia, Jonathan H; Vaden, Kenneth I; Rong, Feng; Maddox, Dale; Saberi, Kourosh; Hickok, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) is responsive to visual and auditory information, including sounds and facial cues during speech recognition. We investigated the functional organization of STS with respect to modality-specific and multimodal speech representations. Twenty younger adult participants were instructed to perform an oddball detection task and were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech stimuli, as well as auditory and visual nonspeech control stimuli in a block fMRI design. Consistent with a hypothesized anterior-posterior processing gradient in STS, auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli produced the largest BOLD effects in anterior, posterior and middle STS (mSTS), respectively, based on whole-brain, linear mixed effects and principal component analyses. Notably, the mSTS exhibited preferential responses to multisensory stimulation, as well as speech compared to nonspeech. Within the mid-posterior and mSTS regions, response preferences changed gradually from visual, to multisensory, to auditory moving posterior to anterior. Post hoc analysis of visual regions in the posterior STS revealed that a single subregion bordering the mSTS was insensitive to differences in low-level motion kinematics yet distinguished between visual speech and nonspeech based on multi-voxel activation patterns. These results suggest that auditory and visual speech representations are elaborated gradually within anterior and posterior processing streams, respectively, and may be integrated within the mSTS, which is sensitive to more abstract speech information within and across presentation modalities. The spatial organization of STS is consistent with processing streams that are hypothesized to synthesize perceptual speech representations from sensory signals that provide convergent information from visual and auditory modalities.

  13. Functional integration of the posterior superior temporal sulcus correlates with facial expression recognition.

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    Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2016-05-01

    Face perception is essential for daily and social activities. Neuroimaging studies have revealed a distributed face network (FN) consisting of multiple regions that exhibit preferential responses to invariant or changeable facial information. However, our understanding about how these regions work collaboratively to facilitate facial information processing is limited. Here, we focused on changeable facial information processing, and investigated how the functional integration of the FN is related to the performance of facial expression recognition. To do so, we first defined the FN as voxels that responded more strongly to faces than objects, and then used a voxel-based global brain connectivity method based on resting-state fMRI to characterize the within-network connectivity (WNC) of each voxel in the FN. By relating the WNC and performance in the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test across participants, we found that individuals with stronger WNC in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) were better at recognizing facial expressions. Further, the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the rpSTS and right occipital face area (rOFA), early visual cortex (EVC), and bilateral STS were positively correlated with the ability of facial expression recognition, and the FCs of EVC-pSTS and OFA-pSTS contributed independently to facial expression recognition. In short, our study highlights the behavioral significance of intrinsic functional integration of the FN in facial expression processing, and provides evidence for the hub-like role of the rpSTS for facial expression recognition. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1930-1940, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. GABA concentration in superior temporal sulcus predicts gamma power and perception in the sound-induced flash illusion.

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    Balz, Johanna; Keil, Julian; Roa Romero, Yadira; Mekle, Ralf; Schubert, Florian; Aydin, Semiha; Ittermann, Bernd; Gallinat, Jürgen; Senkowski, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    In everyday life we are confronted with inputs of multisensory stimuli that need to be integrated across our senses. Individuals vary considerably in how they integrate multisensory information, yet the neurochemical foundations underlying this variability are not well understood. Neural oscillations, especially in the gamma band (>30Hz) play an important role in multisensory processing. Furthermore, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission contributes to the generation of gamma band oscillations (GBO), which can be sustained by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. Hence, differences in the GABA and glutamate systems might contribute to individual differences in multisensory processing. In this combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electroencephalography study, we examined the relationships between GABA and glutamate concentrations in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), source localized GBO, and illusion rate in the sound-induced flash illusion (SIFI). In 39 human volunteers we found robust relationships between GABA concentration, GBO power, and the SIFI perception rate (r-values=0.44 to 0.53). The correlation between GBO power and SIFI perception rate was about twofold higher when the modulating influence of the GABA level was included in the analysis as compared to when it was excluded. No significant effects were obtained for glutamate concentration. Our study suggests that the GABA level shapes individual differences in audiovisual perception through its modulating influence on GBO. GABA neurotransmission could be a promising target for treatment interventions of multisensory processing deficits in clinical populations, such as schizophrenia or autism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ventral simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia for unfamiliar faces due to a right posterior superior temporal sulcus and angular gyrus lesion.

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    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Hamada, Kensuke; Tsugawa, Naoya; Sugimoto, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with ventral simultanagnosia, prosopagnosia for "unfamiliar faces" (dorsal prosopagnosia), spatial agraphia, and constructional disorder, particularly on the left spatial side, due to a lesion in the right posterior superior and middle temporal gyri and angular gyrus. The patient showed impairment of fundamental visual and visuospatial recognition, such as in object size, configuration, and horizontal point location, which probably underlay the mechanism of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia. This case also suggests that the coexistence of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia results from a right hemispheric insult, and damage to the temporoparietal area interrupts the incorporation of spatial information into object recognition. This disconnection of information flow, together with impaired object recognition per se, may impair the parallel processing of multiple objects, leading to object-by-object or part-by-part recognition.

  16. Out of sight but not out of mind: the neurophysiology of iconic memory in the superior temporal sulcus.

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    Keysers, C; Xiao, D-K; Foldiak, P; Perrett, D I

    2005-05-01

    Iconic memory, the short-lasting visual memory of a briefly flashed stimulus, is an important component of most models of visual perception. Here we investigate what physiological mechanisms underlie this capacity by showing rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequences with and without interstimulus gaps to human observers and macaque monkeys. For gaps of up to 93 ms between consecutive images, human observers and neurones in the temporal cortex of macaque monkeys were found to continue processing a stimulus as if it was still present on the screen. The continued firing of neurones in temporal cortex may therefore underlie iconic memory. Based on these findings, a neurophysiological vision of iconic memory is presented.

  17. The Impact of Single Session Intermittent Theta-Burst Stimulation over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus on Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Hsing-Chang Ni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, a patterned repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, was applied over the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC to explore its impact in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Among 25 adults with ASD, 19 (mean age: 20.8 years completed the randomized, sham-controlled, crossover trial. Every participant received iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC, bilateral pSTS and inion (as a sham control stimulation in a randomized order with a 1-week interval. Neuropsychological functions were assessed using the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Behavioral outcomes were measured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS. In comparison to that in the sham stimulation, the reaction time in the CCPT significantly decreased following single DLPFC session (p = 0.04, effect size = 0.71 while there were no significant differences in the CCPT and WCST following single pSTS session. Besides, the results in behavioral outcomes were inconsistent and had discrepancy between reports of parents and patients. In conclusion, a single session of iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC may alter the neuropsychological function in adults with ASD. The impacts of multiple-sessions iTBS over the DLPFC or pSTS deserve further investigations.

  18. Dissociated roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus in audiovisual processing: top-down and bottom-up mismatch detection.

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    Uno, Takeshi; Kawai, Kensuke; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Wakebe, Toshihiro; Ibaraki, Takuya; Kunii, Naoto; Matsuo, Takeshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2015-01-01

    Visual inputs can distort auditory perception, and accurate auditory processing requires the ability to detect and ignore visual input that is simultaneous and incongruent with auditory information. However, the neural basis of this auditory selection from audiovisual information is unknown, whereas integration process of audiovisual inputs is intensively researched. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal sulcus (STS) are involved in top-down and bottom-up processing, respectively, of target auditory information from audiovisual inputs. We recorded high gamma activity (HGA), which is associated with neuronal firing in local brain regions, using electrocorticography while patients with epilepsy judged the syllable spoken by a voice while looking at a voice-congruent or -incongruent lip movement from the speaker. The STS exhibited stronger HGA if the patient was presented with information of large audiovisual incongruence than of small incongruence, especially if the auditory information was correctly identified. On the other hand, the IFG exhibited stronger HGA in trials with small audiovisual incongruence when patients correctly perceived the auditory information than when patients incorrectly perceived the auditory information due to the mismatched visual information. These results indicate that the IFG and STS have dissociated roles in selective auditory processing, and suggest that the neural basis of selective auditory processing changes dynamically in accordance with the degree of incongruity between auditory and visual information.

  19. Morphology and kainate-receptor immunoreactivity of identified neurons within the entorhinal cortex projecting to superior temporal sulcus in the cynomolgus monkey

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    Good, P. F.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Projections of the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus are well known from the classical studies of Cajal (Ramon y Cajal, 1904) and Lorente de No (1933). Projections from the entorhinal cortex to neocortical areas are less well understood. Such connectivity is likely to underlie the consolidation of long-term declarative memory in neocortical sites. In the present study, a projection arising in layer V of the entorhinal cortex and terminating in a polymodal association area of the superior temporal gyrus has been identified with the use of retrograde tracing. The dendritic arbors of neurons giving rise to this projection were further investigated by cell filling and confocal microscopy with computer reconstruction. This analysis demonstrated that the dendritic arbor of identified projection neurons was largely confined to layer V, with the exception of a solitary, simple apical dendrite occasionally ascending to superficial laminae but often confined to the lamina dissecans (layer IV). Finally, immunoreactivity for glutamate-receptor subunit proteins GluR 5/6/7 of the dendritic arbor of identified entorhinal projection neurons was examined. The solitary apical dendrite of identified entorhinal projection neurons was prominently immunolabeled for GluR 5/6/7, as was the dendritic arbor of basilar dendrites of these neurons. The restriction of the large bulk of the dendritic arbor of identified entorhinal projection neurons to layer V implies that these neurons are likely to be heavily influenced by hippocampal output arriving in the deep layers of the entorhinal cortex. Immunoreactivity for GluR 5/6/7 throughout the dendritic arbor of such neurons indicates that this class of glutamate receptor is in a position to play a prominent role in mediating excitatory neurotransmission within hippocampal-entorhinal circuits.

  20. "Walk the Rim, Feel the Bone" Technique in Superior Sulcus Filling.

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    Looi, Audrey L G; Yong, Kai-Ling

    2015-12-01

    Superior sulcus filler injection is a nonsurgical method to rejuvenate the upper face. Blindness and stroke are devastating complications of facial filler injection. This study describes an injection technique that minimizes the risk of blindness and includes a case study demonstrating the cosmetic benefits of this procedure. To avoid retrograde injection of filler embolus into the ophthalmic artery, we advocate a "'walk the rim, feel the bone" approach. Small boluses of hyaluronic acid filler are given in preperiosteal plane, avoiding the superior orbital foramen.

  1. Semiautomated volumetric response evaluation as an imaging biomarker in superior sulcus tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, C.G.; Paul, M.A.; Dahele, M.; Soernsen de Koste, J.R. van; Senan, S.; Bahce, I.; Smit, E.F.; Thunnissen, E.; Hartemink, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Volumetric response to therapy has been suggested as a biomarker for patient-centered outcomes. The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether the volumetric response to induction chemoradiotherapy was associated with pathological complete response (pCR) or survival in patients with superior sulcus tumors managed with trimodality therapy. The secondary aim was to evaluate a semiautomated method for serial volume assessment. In this retrospective study, treatment outcomes were obtained from a departmental database. The tumor was delineated on the computed tomography (CT) scan used for radiotherapy planning, which was typically performed during the first cycle of chemotherapy. These contours were transferred to the post-chemoradiotherapy diagnostic CT scan using deformable image registration (DIR) with/without manual editing. CT scans from 30 eligible patients were analyzed. Median follow-up was 51 months. Neither absolute nor relative reduction in tumor volume following chemoradiotherapy correlated with pCR or 2-year survival. The tumor volumes determined by DIR alone and DIR + manual editing correlated to a high degree (R 2 = 0.99, P < 0.01). Volumetric response to induction chemoradiotherapy was not correlated with pCR or survival in patients with superior sulcus tumors managed with trimodality therapy. DIR-based contour propagation merits further evaluation as a tool for serial volumetric assessment. (orig.)

  2. Superior Intraparietal Sulcus Controls the Variability of Visual Working Memory Precision.

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    Galeano Weber, Elena M; Peters, Benjamin; Hahn, Tim; Bledowski, Christoph; Fiebach, Christian J

    2016-05-18

    Limitations of working memory (WM) capacity depend strongly on the cognitive resources that are available for maintaining WM contents in an activated state. Increasing the number of items to be maintained in WM was shown to reduce the precision of WM and to increase the variability of WM precision over time. Although WM precision was recently associated with neural codes particularly in early sensory cortex, we have so far no understanding of the neural bases underlying the variability of WM precision, and how WM precision is preserved under high load. To fill this gap, we combined human fMRI with computational modeling of behavioral performance in a delayed color-estimation WM task. Behavioral results replicate a reduction of WM precision and an increase of precision variability under high loads (5 > 3 > 1 colors). Load-dependent BOLD signals in primary visual cortex (V1) and superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), measured during the WM task at 2-4 s after sample onset, were modulated by individual differences in load-related changes in the variability of WM precision. Although stronger load-related BOLD increase in superior IPS was related to lower increases in precision variability, thus stabilizing WM performance, the reverse was observed for V1. Finally, the detrimental effect of load on behavioral precision and precision variability was accompanied by a load-related decline in the accuracy of decoding the memory stimuli (colors) from left superior IPS. We suggest that the superior IPS may contribute to stabilizing visual WM performance by reducing the variability of memory precision in the face of higher load. This study investigates the neural bases of capacity limitations in visual working memory by combining fMRI with cognitive modeling of behavioral performance, in human participants. It provides evidence that the superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is a critical brain region that influences the variability of visual working memory precision between and

  3. Superior temporal sulcus and social cognition in dangerous drivers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelinková, J.; Shaw, D. J.; Mareček, R.; Mikl, M.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Peterková, L.; Zámečník, P.; Brázdil, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 83, December (2013), s. 1024-1030 ISSN 1053-8119 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : fMRI * antisocial behavior * social cognition * STS Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 6.132, year: 2013

  4. Hybrid video-assisted and limited open (VALO) resection of superior sulcus tumors.

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    Nun, Alon Ben; Simansky, David; Rokah, Merav; Zeitlin, Nona; Avi, Roni Ben; Soudack, Michalle; Golan, Nir; Apel, Sarit; Bar, Jair; Yelin, Alon

    2016-06-01

    To compare the postoperative recovery of patients with superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors) following conventional open surgery vs. a hybrid video-assisted and limited open approach (VALO). The subjects of this retrospective study were 20 patients we operated on to resect a Pancoast tumor. All patients received induction chemo-radiation followed by surgery, performed via either a conventional thoracotomy approach (n = 10) or the hybrid VALO approach (n = 10). In the hybrid VALO group, lobectomy and internal chest wall preparation were performed using a video technique, with rib resection and specimen removal through a limited incision. There was no mortality in either group. Two patients from the thoracotomy group required mechanical ventilation, but there was no major morbidity in the hybrid VALO group. The operative times were similar for the two procedures. The average length of hospital stay was shorter and the average pain scores were significantly lower in the hybrid VALO group. The incidence of chronic pain was 10 % in the hybrid VALO group vs. 50 % in the thoracotomy group. Hybrid VALO resection of Pancoast tumors is feasible and safe, resulting in faster patient recovery and a significantly lower incidence of severe chronic pain than open thoracotomy. We conclude that centers experienced with video-assisted lobectomy should consider hybrid VALO surgery as the procedure of choice for Pancoast tumors.

  5. Surgical Outcomes of Deep Superior Sulcus Augmentation Using Acellular Human Dermal Matrix in Anophthalmic or Phthisis Socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Jung, Su-Kyung; Paik, Ji-Sun; Yang, Suk-Woo

    2016-07-01

    Patients with anophthalmic or phthisis socket suffer from cosmetic problems. To resolve those problems, the authors present the surgical outcomes of deep superior sulcus (DSS) augmentation using acellular dermal matrix in patients with anophthalmic or phthisis socket. The authors retrospectively reviewed anophthalmic or phthisis patients who underwent surgery for DSS augmentation using acellular dermal matrix. To evaluate surgical outcomes, the authors focused on 3 aspects: the possibility of wearing contact prosthesis, the degree of correction of the DSS, and any surgical complications. The degree of correction of DSS was classified as excellent: restoration of superior sulcus enough to remove sunken sulcus shadow; fair: gain of correction effect but sunken shadow remained; or fail: no effect of correction at all. Ten eyes of 10 patients were included. There was a mean 21.3 ± 37.1-month period from evisceration or enucleation to the operation for DSS augmentation. All patients could wear contact prosthesis after the operation (100%). The degree of correction was excellent in 8 patients (80%) and fair in 2. Three of 10 (30%) showed complications: eyelid entropion, upper eyelid multiple creases, and spontaneous wound dehiscence followed by inflammation after stitch removal. Uneven skin surface and paresthesia in the forehead area of the affected eye may be observed after surgery. The overall surgical outcomes were favorable, showing an excellent degree of correction of DSS and low surgical complication rates. This procedure is effective for patients who have DSS in the absence or atrophy of the eyeball.

  6. Superior sulcus non-small cell lung carcinoma: A comparison of IMRT and 3D-RT dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truntzer, Pierre; Antoni, Delphine; Santelmo, Nicola; Schumacher, Catherine; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Quoix, Elisabeth; Massard, Gilbert; Noël, Georges

    2016-01-01

    A dosimetric study comparing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) by TomoTherapy to conformational 3D radiotherapy (3D-RT) in patients with superior sulcus non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). IMRT became the main technique in modern radiotherapy. However it was not currently used for lung cancers. Because of the need to increase the dose to control lung cancers but because of the critical organs surrounding the tumors, the gains obtainable with IMRT is not still demonstrated. A dosimetric comparison of the planned target and organs at risk parameters between IMRT and 3D-RT in eight patients who received preoperative or curative intent irradiation. In the patients who received at least 66 Gy, the mean V95% was significantly better with IMRT than 3D-RT (p = 0.043). IMRT delivered a lower D2% compared to 3D-RT (p = 0.043). The IH was significantly better with IMRT (p = 0.043). The lung V 5 Gy and V 13 Gy were significantly higher in IMRT than 3D-RT (p = 0.043), while the maximal dose (D max) to the spinal cord was significantly lower in IMRT (p = 0.043). The brachial plexus D max was significantly lower in IMRT than 3D-RT (p = 0.048). For patients treated with 46 Gy, no significant differences were found. Our study showed that IMRT is relevant for SS-NSCLC. In patients treated with a curative dose, it led to a reduction of the exposure of critical organs, allowing a better dose distribution in the tumor. For the patients treated with a preoperative schedule, our results provide a basis for future controlled trials to improve the histological complete response by increasing the radiation dose.

  7. Audiovisual speech integration in the superior temporal region is dysfunctional in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zheng; Rüsseler, Jascha; Gerth, Ivonne; Münte, Thomas F

    2017-07-25

    Dyslexia is an impairment of reading and spelling that affects both children and adults even after many years of schooling. Dyslexic readers have deficits in the integration of auditory and visual inputs but the neural mechanisms of the deficits are still unclear. This fMRI study examined the neural processing of auditorily presented German numbers 0-9 and videos of lip movements of a German native speaker voicing numbers 0-9 in unimodal (auditory or visual) and bimodal (always congruent) conditions in dyslexic readers and their matched fluent readers. We confirmed results of previous studies that the superior temporal gyrus/sulcus plays a critical role in audiovisual speech integration: fluent readers showed greater superior temporal activations for combined audiovisual stimuli than auditory-/visual-only stimuli. Importantly, such an enhancement effect was absent in dyslexic readers. Moreover, the auditory network (bilateral superior temporal regions plus medial PFC) was dynamically modulated during audiovisual integration in fluent, but not in dyslexic readers. These results suggest that superior temporal dysfunction may underly poor audiovisual speech integration in readers with dyslexia. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus

  9. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, M; Pandya, D N

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  10. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  11. Superior temporal gyrus thickness correlates with cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Asaf; Chapman, Joab; Tal, Sigal; Bercovich, Eran; Gil, Hararai; Achiron, Anat

    2013-07-01

    Decreased cortical thickness that signifies gray matter pathology and its impact on cognitive performance is a research field with growing interest in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and needs to be further elucidated. Using high-field 3.0 T MRI, three-dimensional T1-FSPGR (voxel size 1 × 1 × 1 mm) cortical thickness was measured in 82 regions in the left hemisphere (LH) and right hemisphere (RH) in 20 RRMS patients with low disease activity and in 20 age-matched healthy subjects that in parallel underwent comprehensive cognitive evaluation. The correlation between local cortical atrophy and cognitive performance was examined. We identified seven regions with cortical tissue loss that differed between RRMS and age-matched healthy controls. These regions were mainly located in the frontal and temporal lobes, specifically within the gyrus rectus, inferior frontal sulcus, orbital gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus, with preferential left asymmetry. Increased cortical thickness was identified in two visual sensory regions, the LH inferior occipital gyrus, and the RH cuneus, implicating adaptive plasticity. Correlation analysis demonstrated that only the LH superior temporal gyrus thickness was associated with cognitive performance and its thickness correlated with motor skills (r = 0.65, p = 0.003), attention (r = 0.45, p = 0.042), and information processing speed (r = 0.50, p = 0.025). Our findings show that restricted cortical thinning occurs in RRMS patients with mild disease and that LH superior temporal gyrus atrophy is associated with cognitive dysfunction.

  12. Gender differences in food choice : Effects of superior temporal sulcus stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manippa, Valerio; Padulo, Caterina; van der Laan, Laura N.; Brancucci, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    The easy availability of food has caused a shift from eating for survival to hedonic eating. Women, compared to men, have shown to respond differently to food cues in the environment on a behavioral and a neural level, in particular to energy rich (compared to low energy) foods. It has been

  13. White noise improves learning by modulating activity in dopaminergic midbrain regions and right superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Vanessa H; Bauch, Eva M; Bunzeck, Nico

    2014-07-01

    In neural systems, information processing can be facilitated by adding an optimal level of white noise. Although this phenomenon, the so-called stochastic resonance, has traditionally been linked with perception, recent evidence indicates that white noise may also exert positive effects on cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. The underlying neural mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Here, on the basis of recent theories, we tested the hypothesis that auditory white noise, when presented during the encoding of scene images, enhances subsequent recognition memory performance and modulates activity within the dopaminergic midbrain (i.e., substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, SN/VTA). Indeed, in a behavioral experiment, we can show in healthy humans that auditory white noise-but not control sounds, such as a sinus tone-slightly improves recognition memory. In an fMRI experiment, white noise selectively enhances stimulus-driven phasic activity in the SN/VTA and auditory cortex. Moreover, it induces stronger connectivity between SN/VTA and right STS, which, in addition, exhibited a positive correlation with subsequent memory improvement by white noise. Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of auditory white noise on learning depend on dopaminergic neuromodulation and enhanced connectivity between midbrain regions and the STS-a key player in attention modulation. Moreover, they indicate that white noise could be particularly useful to facilitate learning in conditions where changes of the mesolimbic system are causally related to memory deficits including healthy and pathological aging.

  14. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy via trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathon, Bertrand; Clemenceau, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. The rationale of the selective amygdalohippocampectomy is to spare cerebral tissue not included in the seizure generator. Describe the selective amygdalohippocampectomy through the trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy is performed when the data (semiology, neuroimaging, electroencephalography) point to the mesial temporal structures. The trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach is a minimally invasive and safe technique that allows disconnection of the temporal stem and resection of temporomesial structures.

  15. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  16. Gray and white matter distribution in dyslexia: a VBM study of superior temporal gyrus asymmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Dole

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated brain morphological signatures of dyslexia by using a voxel-based asymmetry analysis. Dyslexia is a developmental disorder that affects the acquisition of reading and spelling abilities and is associated with a phonological deficit. Speech perception disabilities have been associated with this deficit, particularly when listening conditions are challenging, such as in noisy environments. These deficits are associated with known neurophysiological correlates, such as a reduction in the functional activation or a modification of functional asymmetry in the cortical regions involved in speech processing, such as the bilateral superior temporal areas. These functional deficits have been associated with macroscopic morphological abnormalities, which potentially include a reduction in gray and white matter volumes, combined with modifications of the leftward asymmetry along the perisylvian areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate gray/white matter distribution asymmetries in dyslexic adults using automated image processing derived from the voxel-based morphometry technique. Correlations with speech-in-noise perception abilities were also investigated. The results confirmed the presence of gray matter distribution abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus (STG and the superior temporal Sulcus (STS in individuals with dyslexia. Specifically, the gray matter of adults with dyslexia was symmetrically distributed over one particular region of the STS, the temporal voice area, whereas normal readers showed a clear rightward gray matter asymmetry in this area. We also identified a region in the left posterior STG in which the white matter distribution asymmetry was correlated to speech-in-noise comprehension abilities in dyslexic adults. These results provide further information concerning the morphological alterations observed in dyslexia, revealing the presence of both gray and white matter distribution

  17. Gray and white matter distribution in dyslexia: a VBM study of superior temporal gyrus asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Marjorie; Meunier, Fanny; Hoen, Michel

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated brain morphological signatures of dyslexia by using a voxel-based asymmetry analysis. Dyslexia is a developmental disorder that affects the acquisition of reading and spelling abilities and is associated with a phonological deficit. Speech perception disabilities have been associated with this deficit, particularly when listening conditions are challenging, such as in noisy environments. These deficits are associated with known neurophysiological correlates, such as a reduction in the functional activation or a modification of functional asymmetry in the cortical regions involved in speech processing, such as the bilateral superior temporal areas. These functional deficits have been associated with macroscopic morphological abnormalities, which potentially include a reduction in gray and white matter volumes, combined with modifications of the leftward asymmetry along the perisylvian areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate gray/white matter distribution asymmetries in dyslexic adults using automated image processing derived from the voxel-based morphometry technique. Correlations with speech-in-noise perception abilities were also investigated. The results confirmed the presence of gray matter distribution abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the superior temporal Sulcus (STS) in individuals with dyslexia. Specifically, the gray matter of adults with dyslexia was symmetrically distributed over one particular region of the STS, the temporal voice area, whereas normal readers showed a clear rightward gray matter asymmetry in this area. We also identified a region in the left posterior STG in which the white matter distribution asymmetry was correlated to speech-in-noise comprehension abilities in dyslexic adults. These results provide further information concerning the morphological alterations observed in dyslexia, revealing the presence of both gray and white matter distribution anomalies and the

  18. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy via trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mathon , Bertrand; Clemenceau , Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundHippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. The rationale of the selective amygdalohippocampectomy is to spare cerebral tissue not included in the seizure generator.MethodDescribe the selective amygdalohippocampectomy through the trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach.ConclusionSelective amygdalohippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy is performed when the data (semi...

  19. Temporal versus Superior Limbal Incision: Any difference in visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To compare the visual outcome of a superiorly placed limbal incision with a temporal limbal incision in extracapsular cataract surgery. The main outcome measures are visual acuity and the degree of stigmatism based on refraction. Method: A retrospective non randomized comparative study. Medical records of 40 ...

  20. Sentence processing in anterior superior temporal cortex shows a social-emotional bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellem, Monika S; Jasmin, Kyle M; Peng, Cynthia; Martin, Alex

    2016-08-01

    The anterior region of the left superior temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus (aSTG/STS) has been implicated in two very different cognitive functions: sentence processing and social-emotional processing. However, the vast majority of the sentence stimuli in previous reports have been of a social or social-emotional nature suggesting that sentence processing may be confounded with semantic content. To evaluate this possibility we had subjects read word lists that differed in phrase/constituent size (single words, 3-word phrases, 6-word sentences) and semantic content (social-emotional, social, and inanimate objects) while scanned in a 7T environment. This allowed us to investigate if the aSTG/STS responded to increasing constituent structure (with increased activity as a function of constituent size) with or without regard to a specific domain of concepts, i.e., social and/or social-emotional content. Activity in the left aSTG/STS was found to increase with constituent size. This region was also modulated by content, however, such that social-emotional concepts were preferred over social and object stimuli. Reading also induced content type effects in domain-specific semantic regions. Those preferring social-emotional content included aSTG/STS, inferior frontal gyrus, posterior STS, lateral fusiform, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and amygdala, regions included in the "social brain", while those preferring object content included parahippocampal gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, and caudate, regions involved in object processing. These results suggest that semantic content affects higher-level linguistic processing and should be taken into account in future studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Reafferent copies of imitated actions in the right superior temporal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboni, Marco; Koski, Lisa M.; Brass, Marcel; Bekkering, Harold; Woods, Roger P.; Dubeau, Marie-Charlotte; Mazziotta, John C.; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2001-01-01

    Imitation is a complex phenomenon, the neural mechanisms of which are still largely unknown. When individuals imitate an action that already is present in their motor repertoire, a mechanism matching the observed action onto an internal motor representation of that action should suffice for the purpose. When one has to copy a new action, however, or to adjust an action present in one's motor repertoire to a different observed action, an additional mechanism is needed that allows the observer to compare the action made by another individual with the sensory consequences of the same action made by himself. Previous experiments have shown that a mechanism that directly matches observed actions on their motor counterparts exists in the premotor cortex of monkeys and humans. Here we report the results of functional magnetic resonance experiments, suggesting that in the superior temporal sulcus, a higher order visual region, there is a sector that becomes active both during hand action observation and during imitation even in the absence of direct vision of the imitator's hand. The motor-related activity is greater during imitation than during control motor tasks. This newly identified region has all the requisites for being the region at which the observed actions, and the reafferent motor-related copies of actions made by the imitator, interact. PMID:11717457

  2. Neural activity in the posterior superior temporal region during eye contact perception correlates with autistic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Naoya; Kitamura, Hideaki; Murakami, Hiroatsu; Kameyama, Shigeki; Sasagawa, Mutsuo; Egawa, Jun; Endo, Taro; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2013-08-09

    The present study investigated the relationship between neural activity associated with gaze processing and autistic traits in typically developed subjects using magnetoencephalography. Autistic traits in 24 typically developed college students with normal intelligence were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). The Minimum Current Estimates method was applied to estimate the cortical sources of magnetic responses to gaze stimuli. These stimuli consisted of apparent motion of the eyes, displaying direct or averted gaze motion. Results revealed gaze-related brain activations in the 150-250 ms time window in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and in the 150-450 ms time window in medial prefrontal regions. In addition, the mean amplitude in the 150-250 ms time window in the right pSTS region was modulated by gaze direction, and its activity in response to direct gaze stimuli correlated with AQ score. pSTS activation in response to direct gaze is thought to be related to higher-order social processes. Thus, these results suggest that brain activity linking eye contact and social signals is associated with autistic traits in a typical population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Representation of Glossy Material Surface in Ventral Superior Temporal Sulcal Area of Common Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Naohisa; Banno, Taku; Abe, Hiroshi; Tani, Toshiki; Suzuki, Wataru; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2017-01-01

    The common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus ) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array. Out of 143 visually responsive multiunits recorded from four animals, 29% had significant main effect only of the material, 3% only of the shape and 43% of both the material and the shape. Furthermore, we found neuronal cluster(s), in which most cells: (1) showed a significant main effect in material appearance; (2) the best stimulus was a glossy material (glass or metal); and (3) had reduced response to the pixel-shuffled version of the glossy material images. The location of the gloss-selective area was in agreement with previous macaque studies, showing activation in the ventral bank of STS. Our results suggest that perception of gloss is an important ability preserved across wide range of primate species.

  4. Structural alterations of the superior temporal gyrus in schizophrenia: Detailed subregional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, K; Matsuda, Y; Shimada, T; Yasuyama, T; Oshima, K; Sawai, K; Kihara, H; Nitta, Y; Okubo, H; Uehara, T; Kawasaki, Y

    2016-05-01

    Reduced gray matter volumes in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Such volumetric abnormalities might denote alterations in cortical thickness, surface area, local gyrification or all of these factors. The STG can be anatomically divided into five subregions using automatic parcellation in FreeSurfer: lateral aspect of the STG, anterior transverse temporal gyrus of Heschl gyrus (HG), planum polare (PP) of the STG, planum temporale (PT) of the STG and transverse temporal sulcus. We acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 3T scans from 40 age- and sex-matched patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy subjects, and the scans were automatically processed using FreeSurfer. General linear models were used to assess group differences in regional volumes and detailed thickness, surface area and local gyrification. As expected, patients with schizophrenia had significantly smaller bilateral STG volumes than healthy subjects. Of the five subregions in the STG, patients with schizophrenia showed significantly and marginally reduced volumes in the lateral aspect of the STG and PT of the STG bilaterally compared with healthy subjects. The volumetric alteration in bilateral lateral STG was derived from both the cortical thickness and surface area but not local gyrification. There was no significant laterality of the alteration in the lateral STG between patients and controls and no correlation among the structures and clinical characteristics. These findings suggest that of five anatomical subregions in the STG, the lateral STG is one of the most meaningful regions for brain pathophysiology in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Smaller superior temporal gyrus volume specificity in schizotypal personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Kim E.; Hazlett, Erin A.; New, Antonia S.; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Newmark, Randall E.; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Passarelli, Vincent; Weinstein, Shauna R.; Canfield, Emily L.; Meyerson, David A.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.; Siever, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22) volume is reduced in schizophrenia and to a milder degree in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), representing a less severe disorder in the schizophrenia-spectrum. SPD and Borderline personality disorder (BPD) are severe personality disorders characterized by social and cognitive dysfunction. However, while SPD is characterized by social withdrawal/anhedonia, BPD is marked by hyper-reactivity to interpersonal stimuli and hyper-emotionality. This is the first morphometric study to directly compare SPD and BPD patients in temporal volume. Methods We compared three age-gender- and education-matched groups: 27 unmedicated SPD individuals with no BPD traits, 52 unmedicated BPD individuals with no SPD traits, and 45 healthy controls. We examined gray matter volume of frontal and temporal lobe Brodmann areas (BAs), and dorsal/ventral amygdala from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Results In the STG, an auditory association area reported to be dysfunctional in SPD and BPD, the SPD patients had significantly smaller volume than healthy controls and BPD patients. No group differences were found between BPD patients and controls. Smaller BA22 volume was associated with greater symptom severity in SPD patients. Reduced STG volume may be an important endophenotype for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. SPD is distinct from BPD in terms of STG volume abnormalities which may reflect different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and could help discriminate between them. PMID:19473820

  6. Useful signs for identification of the central sulcus in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, E.; Domitrovic, L.; Ypa, P.; Gandarillas Baldelomar, B.; Fuentes, F.; Arcos, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the frequency of appearance of the central sulcus localizing signs in magnetic resonance images (MRI). Material and method. The MRI of 60 adult patients (18-83 years) of both sexes (34 women / 26 men) with normal brains were studied. Axial T1 and T2 images were performed on a Phillips 1.5 tesla resonator. On the MRI we looked the following signs: union between the superior frontal sulcus and the precentral sulcus, sigmoidal hook, pars bracket, bifid post central sulcus, union between the intraparietal sulcus and the post central sulcus and, central sulcus reaching the midline. Mean frequencies were calculated. Results. The posterior part of the superior frontal sulcus joined the precentral sulcus in 95% of the cases. Sigmoidal hook sign was seen in 96.66% of the cases. Pars bracket sign was present in 95% of the observations. Bifid postcentral sulcus sign was seen in 65 % of cases. The postcentral gyrus was thinner than the precentral gyrus in 98.33% of the cases. Intraparietal sulcus joined with the postcentral gyrus in 88.33% of the cases. The central sulcus reached the midline in 86.66% of the observations. Conclusion. The signs described had a high frequency: they were found in 89.28% of the MRI studied. (authors)

  7. Selective activation around the left occipito-temporal sulcus for words relative to pictures: Individual variability or false positives?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Nicholas D.; Mechelli, Andrea; Noppeney, Uta; Veltman, Dick J.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Glensman, Janice; Haynes, John-Dylan; Price, Cathy J.

    2008-01-01

    We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read r !sults in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In tl e first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in >= 1 left OT voxel for word:

  8. Frontal and superior temporal auditory processing abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Edgar, J Christopher; Huang, Mingxiong; Hunter, Michael A; Epstein, Emerson; Howell, Breannan; Lu, Brett Y; Bustillo, Juan; Miller, Gregory A; Cañive, José M

    2013-01-01

    Although magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies show superior temporal gyrus (STG) auditory processing abnormalities in schizophrenia at 50 and 100 ms, EEG and corticography studies suggest involvement of additional brain areas (e.g., frontal areas) during this interval. Study goals were to identify 30 to 130 ms auditory encoding processes in schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC) and group differences throughout the cortex. The standard paired-click task was administered to 19 SZ and 21 HC subjects during MEG recording. Vector-based Spatial-temporal Analysis using L1-minimum-norm (VESTAL) provided 4D maps of activity from 30 to 130 ms. Within-group t-tests compared post-stimulus 50 ms and 100 ms activity to baseline. Between-group t-tests examined 50 and 100 ms group differences. Bilateral 50 and 100 ms STG activity was observed in both groups. HC had stronger bilateral 50 and 100 ms STG activity than SZ. In addition to the STG group difference, non-STG activity was also observed in both groups. For example, whereas HC had stronger left and right inferior frontal gyrus activity than SZ, SZ had stronger right superior frontal gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus activity than HC. Less STG activity was observed in SZ than HC, indicating encoding problems in SZ. Yet auditory encoding abnormalities are not specific to STG, as group differences were observed in frontal and SMG areas. Thus, present findings indicate that individuals with SZ show abnormalities in multiple nodes of a concurrently activated auditory network.

  9. Development from childhood to adulthood increases morphological and functional inter-individual variability in the right superior temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Milene; Frost, Martin A; Rutten, Sanne; Ley, Anke; Formisano, Elia; Goebel, Rainer

    2013-12-01

    We study the developmental trajectory of morphology and function of the superior temporal cortex (STC) in children (8-9 years), adolescents (14-15 years) and young adults. We analyze cortical surface landmarks and functional MRI (fMRI) responses to voices, other natural categories and tones and examine how hemispheric asymmetry and inter-subject variability change across age. Our results show stable morphological asymmetries across age groups, including a larger left planum temporale and a deeper right superior temporal sulcus. fMRI analyses show that a rightward lateralization for voice-selective responses is present in all groups but decreases with age. Furthermore, STC responses to voices change from being less selective and more spatially diffuse in children to highly selective and focal in adults. Interestingly, the analysis of morphological landmarks reveals that inter-subject variability increases during development in the right--but not in the left--STC. Similarly, inter-subject variability of cortically-realigned functional responses to voices, other categories and tones increases with age in the right STC. Our findings reveal asymmetric developmental changes in brain regions crucial for auditory and voice perception. The age-related increase of inter-subject variability in right STC suggests that anatomy and function of this region are shaped by unique individual developmental experiences. © 2013.

  10. An evaluation of traffic-awareness campaign videos: empathy induction is associated with brain function within superior temporal sulcus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelinková, J.; Shaw, D. J.; Mikl, M.; Mareček, R.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Havlíčková, D.; Zámečník, P.; Haitová, P.; Brázdil, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 27 (2014) ISSN 1744-9081 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : fMRI * Traffic-awareness campaign * Socio-emotional processing Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.972, year: 2014 http://www.behavioralandbrainfunctions.com/content/10/1/27

  11. Out of sight but not out of mind : The neurophysiology of iconic memory in the superior temporal sulcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, C; Xiao, DK; Foldiak, P; Perrett, DI

    2005-01-01

    Iconic memory, the short-lasting visual memory of a briefly flashed stimulus, is an important component of most models of visual perception. Here we investigate what physiological mechanisms underlie this capacity by showing rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequences with and without

  12. Selective Activation Around the Left Occipito-Temporal Sulcus for Words Relative to Pictures: Individual Variability or False Positives?

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Nicholas D; Mechelli, Andrea; Noppeney, Uta; Veltman, Dick J; Rombouts, Serge ARB; Glensman, Janice; Haynes, John-Dylan; Price, Cathy J

    2007-01-01

    We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read results in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In the first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in ?1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures (P < 0.05 uncorrected). In a second experiment, another 9/15 subjects performing a semantic decision task activated ?1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures. However, at thi...

  13. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R; Schumann, Cynthia M

    2015-12-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Selective activation around the left occipito-temporal sulcus for words relative to pictures: individual variability or false positives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nicholas D; Mechelli, Andrea; Noppeney, Uta; Veltman, Dick J; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Glensman, Janice; Haynes, John-Dylan; Price, Cathy J

    2008-08-01

    We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read results in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In the first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in > or =1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures (P or =1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures. However, at this low statistical threshold false positives need to be excluded. The semantic decision paradigm was therefore repeated, within subject, in two different scanners (1.5 and 3 T). Both scanners consistently localised left OT activation for words relative to fixation and pictures relative to words, but there were no consistent effects for words relative to pictures. Finally, in a third experiment, we minimised the voxel size (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 mm(3)) and demonstrated a striking concordance between the voxels activated for words and pictures, irrespective of task (naming vs. one-back) or script (English vs. Hebrew). In summary, although we detected differential activation for words relative to pictures, these effects: (i) do not withstand statistical rigour; (ii) do not replicate within or between subjects; and (iii) are observed in voxels that also respond to pictures of objects. Our findings have implications for the role of left OT activation during reading. More generally, they show that studies using low statistical thresholds in single subject analyses should correct the statistical threshold for the number of comparisons made or replicate effects within subject. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. An MRI Study of Superior Temporal Gyrus Volume in Women With Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dickey, Chandlee C.; McCarley, Robert William; Voglmaier, Martina M.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Seidman, Larry Joel; Demeo, Susan; Frumin, Melissa; Shenton, Martha Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Objective: An abnormal superior temporal gyrus has figured prominently in schizophrenia research, and left superior temporal gyrus volume has been shown to be smaller in male subjects with schizotypal personality disorder. This is the first structural magnetic resonance imaging study to examine a group of female subjects with schizotypal personality disorder. Method: The superior temporal gyrus was drawn on coronal images acquired from female subjects recruited from the community (schizotypal...

  16. Anatomical pathways for auditory memory II: Information from rostral superior temporal gyrus to dorsolateral temporal pole and medial temporal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eMunoz-Lopez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory recognition memory in non-human primates differs from recognition memory in other sensory systems. Monkeys learn the rule for visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample within a few sessions, and then show one-trial recognition memory lasting 10-20 minutes. In contrast, monkeys require hundreds of sessions to master the rule for auditory recognition, and then show retention lasting no longer than 30-40 seconds. Moreover, unlike the severe effects of rhinal lesions on visual memory, such lesions have no effect on the monkeys’ auditory memory performance. It is possible, therefore, that the anatomical pathways differ. Long-term visual recognition memory requires anatomical connections from the visual association area TE with areas 35 and 36 of the perirhinal cortex (PRC. We examined whether there is a similar anatomical route for auditory processing, or that poor auditory recognition memory may reflect the lack of such a pathway. Our hypothesis is that an auditory pathway for recognition memory originates in the higher order processing areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG, and then connects via the dorsolateral temporal pole to access the rhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe. To test this, we placed retrograde (3% FB and 2% DY and anterograde (10% BDA 10,000 MW tracer injections in rSTG and the dorsolateral area 38DL of the temporal pole. Results showed that area 38DL receives dense projections from auditory association areas Ts1, TAa, TPO of the rSTG, from the rostral parabelt and, to a lesser extent, from areas Ts2-3 and PGa. In turn, area 38DL projects densely to area 35 of PRC, entorhinal cortex, and to areas TH/TF of the posterior parahippocampal cortex. Significantly, this projection avoids most of area 36r/c of PRC. This anatomical arrangement may contribute to our understanding of the poor auditory memory of rhesus monkeys.

  17. Anatomical pathways for auditory memory II: information from rostral superior temporal gyrus to dorsolateral temporal pole and medial temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, M; Insausti, R; Mohedano-Moriano, A; Mishkin, M; Saunders, R C

    2015-01-01

    Auditory recognition memory in non-human primates differs from recognition memory in other sensory systems. Monkeys learn the rule for visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample within a few sessions, and then show one-trial recognition memory lasting 10-20 min. In contrast, monkeys require hundreds of sessions to master the rule for auditory recognition, and then show retention lasting no longer than 30-40 s. Moreover, unlike the severe effects of rhinal lesions on visual memory, such lesions have no effect on the monkeys' auditory memory performance. The anatomical pathways for auditory memory may differ from those in vision. Long-term visual recognition memory requires anatomical connections from the visual association area TE with areas 35 and 36 of the perirhinal cortex (PRC). We examined whether there is a similar anatomical route for auditory processing, or that poor auditory recognition memory may reflect the lack of such a pathway. Our hypothesis is that an auditory pathway for recognition memory originates in the higher order processing areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG), and then connects via the dorsolateral temporal pole to access the rhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe. To test this, we placed retrograde (3% FB and 2% DY) and anterograde (10% BDA 10,000 mW) tracer injections in rSTG and the dorsolateral area 38 DL of the temporal pole. Results showed that area 38DL receives dense projections from auditory association areas Ts1, TAa, TPO of the rSTG, from the rostral parabelt and, to a lesser extent, from areas Ts2-3 and PGa. In turn, area 38DL projects densely to area 35 of PRC, entorhinal cortex (EC), and to areas TH/TF of the posterior parahippocampal cortex. Significantly, this projection avoids most of area 36r/c of PRC. This anatomical arrangement may contribute to our understanding of the poor auditory memory of rhesus monkeys.

  18. Spatial and temporal distribution of singlet oxygen in Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Britt M; McNally, Ann M; Cory, Rose M; Thoemke, John D; Cotner, James B; McNeill, Kristopher

    2012-07-03

    A multiyear field study was undertaken on Lake Superior to investigate singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) photoproduction. Specifically, trends within the lake were examined, along with an assessment of whether correlations existed between chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) characteristics and (1)O(2) production rates and quantum yields. Quantum yield values were determined and used to estimate noontime surface (1)O(2) steady-state concentrations ([(1)O(2)](ss)). Samples were subdivided into three categories based on their absorbance properties (a300): riverine, river-impacted, or open lake sites. Using calculated surface [(1)O(2)](ss), photochemical half-lives under continuous summer sunlight were calculated for cimetidine, a pharmaceutical whose reaction with (1)O(2) has been established, to be on the order of hours, days, and a week for the riverine, river-impacted, and open lake waters, respectively. Of the CDOM properties investigated, it was found that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and a300 were the best parameters for predicting production rates of [(1)O(2)](ss). For example, given the correlations found, one could predict [(1)O(2)](ss) within a factor of 4 using a300 alone. Changes in the quantum efficiency of (1)O(2) production upon dilution of river water samples with lake water samples demonstrated that the CDOM found in the open lake is not simply diluted riverine organic matter. The open lake pool was characterized by low absorption coefficient, low fluorescence, and low DOC, but more highly efficient (1)O(2) production and predominates the Lake Superior system spatially. This study establishes that parameters that reflect the quantity of CDOM (e.g., a300 and DOC) correlate with (1)O(2) production rates, while parameters that characterize the absorbance spectrum (e.g., spectral slope coefficient and E2:E3) correlate with (1)O(2) production quantum yields.

  19. Enlarged right superior temporal gyrus in children and adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Roger J; Minshew, Nancy J; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Vitale, Matthew P; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2010-11-11

    The superior temporal gyrus has been implicated in language processing and social perception. Therefore, anatomical abnormalities of this structure may underlie some of the deficits observed in autism, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication. In this study, volumes of the left and right superior temporal gyri were measured using magnetic resonance imaging obtained from 18 boys with high-functioning autism (mean age=13.5±3.4years; full-scale IQ=103.6±13.4) and 19 healthy controls (mean age=13.7±3.0years; full-scale IQ=103.9±10.5), group-matched on age, gender, and handedness. When compared to the control group, right superior temporal gyral volumes was significantly increased in the autism group after controlling for age and total brain volume. There was no significant difference in the volume of the left superior temporal gyrus. Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant increase of the right posterior superior temporal gyral volume in the autism group, before and after controlling for age and total brain volume. Examination of the symmetry index for the superior temporal gyral volumes did not yield statistically significant between-group differences. Findings from this preliminary investigation suggest the existence of volumetric alterations in the right superior temporal gyrus in children and adolescents with autism, providing support for a neuroanatomical basis of the social perceptual deficits characterizing this severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. INFRAORBITAL SULCUS: A STUDY IN 100 SKULLS

    OpenAIRE

    Roshni; . Jayanthi; Shubha

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A study was done on 100 intact, unsexed human skulls in the Department of Anatomy, KIMS, Bangalore, to observe and record the presence of a groove in the lateral wall of the orbit, synonymous with infra orbital sulcus. This entity has been described by the fortieth edition of Gray’s text book of Anatomy to extend from the lateral end of superior orbital fissure to the orbital floor. It sometimes contains an anastomosis between middle meningeal artery and infr...

  1. Over-activation in bilateral superior temporal gyrus correlated with subsequent forgetting effect of Chinese words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Ching; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Tseng, Yi-Jhan; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated the subsequent memory and forgotten effects for Chinese using event-related fMRI. Sixteen normal subjects were recruited and performing incidental memory tasks where semantic decision was required during memory encoding. Consistent with previous studies, our results showed bilateral frontal regions as the main locus for the subsequent memory effect. However, contrast between miss and hit responses revealed larger activation in bilateral superior temporal gyrus. We proposed that larger activation in the superior temporal gyrus may reflect alteration of self-monitoring process which resulted in unsuccessful memory encoding for the miss items. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Superior temporal gyrus volume reduction and P300 in schizophrenia prior to treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayasu, Akira; Hokama, Hiroto; Ogura, Chikara; Ohta, Hirokazu; Arakaki, Hajime; Asato, Naohiko; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro

    1998-01-01

    Authors measured the superior temporal gyrus volume by 3D MRI imaging for the schizophrenics and simultaneously recorded the P300 component during the auditory odd-ball exercise. Subjects were 8 cases of schizophrenics and the sex- and age-matched healthy control adults. In schizophrenics, the superior temporal gyrus volume reduction was found. When the superior temporal gyrus was divided into two parts, the anterior part containing the primary auditory area, and the posterior part containing the planum temporale and the Wernicle speech area, the volume reduction of left side in the posterior part was remarkable. There was no difference in the latent time and the P300 amplitude between schizophrenics and healthy controls, suggesting that the superior temporal gyrus abnormalities will appear prior to P300 abnormalities. We could not find any correlation between findings of MRI and P300 and psychic symptoms. We discuss the possible contribution on the elucidation of the pathogenesis of the schizophrenia by simultaneous recordings of 3D MRI imaging and the event-related potentials. (K.H.)

  3. Progressive gray matter reduction of the superior temporal gyrus during transition to psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Wood, Stephen J; Yung, Alison R; Soulsby, Bridget; McGorry, Patrick D; Suzuki, Michio; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Phillips, Lisa J; Velakoulis, Dennis; Pantelis, Christos

    2009-04-01

    Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown progressive gray matter reduction in the superior temporal gyrus during the earliest phases of schizophrenia. It is unknown whether these progressive processes predate the onset of psychosis. To examine gray matter reduction of the superior temporal gyrus over time in individuals at risk for psychosis and in patients with first-episode psychosis. Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation Clinic and Early Psychosis Preventions and Intervention Centre. Thirty-five ultrahigh-risk individuals (of whom 12 later developed psychosis [UHRP] and 23 did not [UHRNP]), 23 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP), and 22 control subjects recruited from the community. Volumes of superior temporal subregions (planum polare, Heschl gyrus, planum temporale, and rostral and caudal regions) were measured at baseline and follow-up (mean, 1.8 years) and were compared across groups. In cross-sectional comparisons, only the FEP group had significantly smaller planum temporale and caudal superior temporal gyrus than other groups at baseline, whereas male UHRP subjects also had a smaller planum temporale than controls at follow-up. In longitudinal comparison, UHRP and FEP patients showed significant gray matter reduction (approximately 2%-6% per year) in the planum polare, planum temporale, and caudal region compared with controls and/or UHRNP subjects. The FEP patients also exhibited progressive gray matter loss in the left Heschl gyrus (3.0% per year) and rostral region (3.8% per year), which were correlated with the severity of delusions at follow-up. A progressive process in the superior temporal gyrus precedes the first expression of florid psychosis. These findings have important implications for underlying neurobiologic features of emerging psychotic disorders and emphasize the importance of early intervention during or before the first episode of psychosis.

  4. Curved planar reformation images for identification of the central sulcus of affected hemispheres. Comparison with functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Hideaki; Inoue, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the curved planar reformation (CPR) for identification of the central sulcus on affected hemispheres. Thirty four patients with an intracranial lesion adjacent to the central sulcus underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI was performed with a 3.0 Tesla scanner during repetitive opening and closing of each hand. The central sulcus was defined as the nearest sulcus to the highest activation spots. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging date sets were processed using the CPR method to create brain surface reformatted images. We evaluated five anatomical features widely used for clinical identification of the central sulcus: 1, termination of the superior frontal sulcus in the precentral sulcus; 2, the intraparietal sulcus joining the postcentral sulcus; 3, the precentral gyros thicker than the postcentral gyrus; 4, inverted omega-shape of the precentral gyrus; and 5, the central sulcus as an isolated sulcus. fMRI and CPR coincided in defining the central sulcus in 34 hemispheres of patients. Applicability of each of the five signs was 61.8, 73.5, 58.8, 50.0 and 67.6%, respectively. The present study indicates that the CPR method successfully defined the central sulcus in most patients with brain tumors. For identification of the central sulcus, the CPR method will be recommended. (author)

  5. Localization of musicogenic epilepsy to Heschl's gyrus and superior temporal plane: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yasunori; Kovach, Christopher K; Ciliberto, Michael; Joshi, Charuta; Rhone, Ariane E; Vesole, Adam; Gander, Phillip E; Nourski, Kirill V; Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Dlouhy, Brian J

    2017-09-15

    Musicogenic epilepsy (ME) is an extremely rare form of the disorder that is provoked by listening to or playing music, and it has been localized to the temporal lobe. The number of reported cases of ME in which intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) has been used for seizure focus localization is extremely small, especially with coverage of the superior temporal plane (STP) and specifically, Heschl's gyrus (HG). The authors describe the case of a 17-year-old boy with a history of medically intractable ME who underwent iEEG monitoring that involved significant frontotemporal coverage as well as coverage of the STP with an HG depth electrode anteriorly and a planum temporale depth electrode posteriorly. Five seizures occurred during the monitoring period, and a seizure onset zone was localized to HG and the STP. The patient subsequently underwent right temporal neocortical resection, involving the STP and including HG, with preservation of the mesial temporal structures. The patient remains seizure free 1 year postoperatively. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of ME in which the seizure focus has been localized to HG and the STP with iEEG monitoring. The authors review the literature on iEEG findings in ME, explain their approach to HG depth electrode placement, and discuss the utility of STP depth electrodes in temporal lobe epilepsy.

  6. Human Superior Temporal Gyrus Organization of Spectrotemporal Modulation Tuning Derived from Speech Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullett, Patrick W; Hamilton, Liberty S; Mesgarani, Nima; Schreiner, Christoph E; Chang, Edward F

    2016-02-10

    The human superior temporal gyrus (STG) is critical for speech perception, yet the organization of spectrotemporal processing of speech within the STG is not well understood. Here, to characterize the spatial organization of spectrotemporal processing of speech across human STG, we use high-density cortical surface field potential recordings while participants listened to natural continuous speech. While synthetic broad-band stimuli did not yield sustained activation of the STG, spectrotemporal receptive fields could be reconstructed from vigorous responses to speech stimuli. We find that the human STG displays a robust anterior-posterior spatial distribution of spectrotemporal tuning in which the posterior STG is tuned for temporally fast varying speech sounds that have relatively constant energy across the frequency axis (low spectral modulation) while the anterior STG is tuned for temporally slow varying speech sounds that have a high degree of spectral variation across the frequency axis (high spectral modulation). This work illustrates organization of spectrotemporal processing in the human STG, and illuminates processing of ethologically relevant speech signals in a region of the brain specialized for speech perception. Considerable evidence has implicated the human superior temporal gyrus (STG) in speech processing. However, the gross organization of spectrotemporal processing of speech within the STG is not well characterized. Here we use natural speech stimuli and advanced receptive field characterization methods to show that spectrotemporal features within speech are well organized along the posterior-to-anterior axis of the human STG. These findings demonstrate robust functional organization based on spectrotemporal modulation content, and illustrate that much of the encoded information in the STG represents the physical acoustic properties of speech stimuli. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362014-13$15.00/0.

  7. Frequency-Selective Attention in Auditory Scenes Recruits Frequency Representations Throughout Human Superior Temporal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Lars; Peters, Judith C; Valente, Giancarlo; Kemper, Valentin G; Formisano, Elia; Sorger, Bettina

    2017-05-01

    A sound of interest may be tracked amid other salient sounds by focusing attention on its characteristic features including its frequency. Functional magnetic resonance imaging findings have indicated that frequency representations in human primary auditory cortex (AC) contribute to this feat. However, attentional modulations were examined at relatively low spatial and spectral resolutions, and frequency-selective contributions outside the primary AC could not be established. To address these issues, we compared blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the superior temporal cortex of human listeners while they identified single frequencies versus listened selectively for various frequencies within a multifrequency scene. Using best-frequency mapping, we observed that the detailed spatial layout of attention-induced BOLD response enhancements in primary AC follows the tonotopy of stimulus-driven frequency representations-analogous to the "spotlight" of attention enhancing visuospatial representations in retinotopic visual cortex. Moreover, using an algorithm trained to discriminate stimulus-driven frequency representations, we could successfully decode the focus of frequency-selective attention from listeners' BOLD response patterns in nonprimary AC. Our results indicate that the human brain facilitates selective listening to a frequency of interest in a scene by reinforcing the fine-grained activity pattern throughout the entire superior temporal cortex that would be evoked if that frequency was present alone. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Speech-specific tuning of neurons in human superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alexander M; Dykstra, Andrew R; Jayaram, Vinay; Leonard, Matthew K; Travis, Katherine E; Gygi, Brian; Baker, Janet M; Eskandar, Emad; Hochberg, Leigh R; Halgren, Eric; Cash, Sydney S

    2014-10-01

    How the brain extracts words from auditory signals is an unanswered question. We recorded approximately 150 single and multi-units from the left anterior superior temporal gyrus of a patient during multiple auditory experiments. Against low background activity, 45% of units robustly fired to particular spoken words with little or no response to pure tones, noise-vocoded speech, or environmental sounds. Many units were tuned to complex but specific sets of phonemes, which were influenced by local context but invariant to speaker, and suppressed during self-produced speech. The firing of several units to specific visual letters was correlated with their response to the corresponding auditory phonemes, providing the first direct neural evidence for phonological recoding during reading. Maximal decoding of individual phonemes and words identities was attained using firing rates from approximately 5 neurons within 200 ms after word onset. Thus, neurons in human superior temporal gyrus use sparse spatially organized population encoding of complex acoustic-phonetic features to help recognize auditory and visual words. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Left Superior Temporal Gyrus Is Coupled to Attended Speech in a Cocktail-Party Auditory Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Ghinst, Marc; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Op de Beeck, Marc; Wens, Vincent; Marty, Brice; Hassid, Sergio; Choufani, Georges; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Goldman, Serge; De Tiège, Xavier

    2016-02-03

    Using a continuous listening task, we evaluated the coupling between the listener's cortical activity and the temporal envelopes of different sounds in a multitalker auditory scene using magnetoencephalography and corticovocal coherence analysis. Neuromagnetic signals were recorded from 20 right-handed healthy adult humans who listened to five different recorded stories (attended speech streams), one without any multitalker background (No noise) and four mixed with a "cocktail party" multitalker background noise at four signal-to-noise ratios (5, 0, -5, and -10 dB) to produce speech-in-noise mixtures, here referred to as Global scene. Coherence analysis revealed that the modulations of the attended speech stream, presented without multitalker background, were coupled at ∼0.5 Hz to the activity of both superior temporal gyri, whereas the modulations at 4-8 Hz were coupled to the activity of the right supratemporal auditory cortex. In cocktail party conditions, with the multitalker background noise, the coupling was at both frequencies stronger for the attended speech stream than for the unattended Multitalker background. The coupling strengths decreased as the Multitalker background increased. During the cocktail party conditions, the ∼0.5 Hz coupling became left-hemisphere dominant, compared with bilateral coupling without the multitalker background, whereas the 4-8 Hz coupling remained right-hemisphere lateralized in both conditions. The brain activity was not coupled to the multitalker background or to its individual talkers. The results highlight the key role of listener's left superior temporal gyri in extracting the slow ∼0.5 Hz modulations, likely reflecting the attended speech stream within a multitalker auditory scene. When people listen to one person in a "cocktail party," their auditory cortex mainly follows the attended speech stream rather than the entire auditory scene. However, how the brain extracts the attended speech stream from the whole

  10. Surgically induced astigmatism after phacoemulsification by temporal clear corneal and superior clear corneal approach: a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikose AS

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Archana Sunil Nikose, Dhrubojyoti Saha, Pradnya Mukesh Laddha, Mayuri Patil Department of Ophthalmology, N.K.P. Salve Institute and LMH, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: Cataract surgery has undergone various advances since it was evolved from ancient couching to the modern phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA remains one of the most common complications. The introduction of sutureless clear corneal incision has gained increasing popularity worldwide because it offers several advantages over the traditional sutured limbal incision and scleral tunnel. A clear corneal incision has the benefit of being bloodless and having an easy approach, but SIA is still a concern.Purpose: In this study, we evaluated the SIA in clear corneal incisions with temporal approach and superior approach phacoemulsification. Comparisons between the two incisions were done using keratometric readings of preoperative and postoperative refractive status.Methodology: It was a hospital-based prospective interventional comparative randomized control trial of 261 patients conducted in a rural-based tertiary care center from September 2012 to August 2014. The visual acuity and detailed anterior segment and posterior segment examinations were done and the cataract was graded according to Lens Opacification Classification System II. Patients were divided for phacoemulsification into two groups, group A and group B, who underwent temporal and superior clear corneal approach, respectively. The patients were followed up on day 1, 7, 30, and 90 postoperatively. The parameters recorded were uncorrected visual acuity, best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp examination, and keratometry. The mean difference of SIA between 30th and 90th day was statistically evaluated using paired t-test, and all the analyses were performed using SPSS 18.0 (SPSS Inc. software.Results: The mean postoperative SIA in group A was 0.998 D on the 30th day, which

  11. Morphometry of superior temporal gyrus and planum temporale in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnanather, J Tilak; Poynton, Clare B; Pisano, Dominic V; Crocker, Britni; Postell, Elizabeth; Cebron, Shannon; Ceyhan, Elvan; Honeycutt, Nancy A; Mahon, Pamela B; Barta, Patrick E

    2013-11-01

    Structural abnormalities in temporal lobe, including the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and planum temporale (PT), have been reported in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) patients. While most MRI studies have suggested gray matter volume and surface area reduction in temporal lobe regions, few have explored changes in laminar thickness in PT and STG in SCZ and BPD. ROI subvolumes of the STG from 94 subjects were used to yield gray matter volume, gray/white surface area and laminar thickness for STG and PT cortical regions. Morphometric analysis suggests that there may be gender and laterality effects on the size and shape of the PT in BPD (n=36) and SCZ (n=31) with reduced laterality in PT in subjects with SCZ but not in BPD. In addition, PT surface area was seen to be larger in males, and asymmetry in PT surface area was larger in BPD. Subjects with SCZ had reduced thickness and smaller asymmetry in PT volume. Thus, the PT probably plays a more sensitive role than the STG in structural abnormalities seen in SCZ. © 2013.

  12. Neural correlates of auditory short-term memory in rostral superior temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer; Yin, Pingbo

    2014-12-01

    Auditory short-term memory (STM) in the monkey is less robust than visual STM and may depend on a retained sensory trace, which is likely to reside in the higher-order cortical areas of the auditory ventral stream. We recorded from the rostral superior temporal cortex as monkeys performed serial auditory delayed match-to-sample (DMS). A subset of neurons exhibited modulations of their firing rate during the delay between sounds, during the sensory response, or during both. This distributed subpopulation carried a predominantly sensory signal modulated by the mnemonic context of the stimulus. Excitatory and suppressive effects on match responses were dissociable in their timing and in their resistance to sounds intervening between the sample and match. Like the monkeys' behavioral performance, these neuronal effects differ from those reported in the same species during visual DMS, suggesting different neural mechanisms for retaining dynamic sounds and static images in STM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vocal amusia in a professional tango singer due to a right superior temporal cortex infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Yasuo; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Shindoh, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Nagai, Chiyoko; Furubayashi, Toshiaki; Arai, Noritoshi; Okabe, Shingo; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Tsuji, Shouji

    2006-01-01

    We describe the psychophysical features of vocal amusia in a professional tango singer caused by an infarction mainly involving the superior temporal cortex of the right hemisphere. The lesion also extended to the supramarginal gyrus, the posterior aspect of the postcentral gyrus and the posterior insula. She presented with impairment of musical perception that was especially pronounced in discriminating timbre and loudness but also in discriminating pitch, and a severely impaired ability to reproduce the pitch just presented. In contrast, language and motor disturbances were almost entirely absent. By comparing her pre- and post-stroke singing, we were able to show that her singing after the stroke lacked the fine control of the subtle stress and pitch changes that characterized her pre-stroke singing. Such impairment could not be explained by the impairment of pitch perception. The findings suggest that damage to the right temporoparietal cortex is enough to produce both perceptive and expressive deficits in music.

  14. Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine eFoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The auditory cortex is well known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of 8 patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70-150 Hz frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75-200ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity towards dissonance.

  15. Altered Medial Frontal and Superior Temporal Response to Implicit Processing of Emotions in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K; Patriquin, Michelle A; Black, Briley S; Channell, Marie M; Wicker, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting emotional expressions appropriately poses a challenge for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, difficulties with emotional processing in ASD are more pronounced in contexts where emotional expressions are subtle, automatic, and reflexive-that is, implicit. In contrast, explicit emotional processing, which requires the cognitive evaluation of an emotional experience, appears to be relatively intact in individuals with ASD. In the present study, we examined the brain activation and functional connectivity differences underlying explicit and implicit emotional processing in age- and IQ-matched adults with (n = 17) and without (n = 15) ASD. Results indicated: (1) significantly reduced levels of brain activation in participants with ASD in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) during implicit emotion processing; (2) significantly weaker functional connectivity in the ASD group in connections of the MPFC with the amygdala, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and fusiform gyrus; (3) No group difference in performance accuracy or reaction time; and (4) Significant positive relationship between empathizing ability and STG activity in ASD but not in typically developing participants. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms underlying implicit, but not explicit, emotion processing may be altered at multiple levels in individuals with ASD. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Human middle longitudinal fascicle: segregation and behavioral-clinical implications of two distinct fiber connections linking temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus with the angular gyrus or superior parietal lobule using multi-tensor tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, N; Preti, M G; Wassermann, D; Rathi, Y; Papadimitriou, G M; Yergatian, C; Dickerson, B C; Shenton, M E; Kubicki, M

    2013-09-01

    The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a major fiber connection running principally between the superior temporal gyrus and the parietal lobe, neocortical regions of great biological and clinical interest. Although one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts, it has only recently been discovered in humans. In this high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delineated the two major fiber connections of the human MdLF, by examining morphology, topography, cortical connections, biophysical measures, volume and length in seventy-four brains. These two fiber connections course together through the dorsal temporal pole and the superior temporal gyrus maintaining a characteristic topographic relationship in the mediolateral and ventrodorsal dimensions. As these pathways course towards the parietal lobe, they split to form separate fiber pathways, one following a ventrolateral trajectory and connecting with the angular gyrus and the other following a dorsomedial route and connecting with the superior parietal lobule. Based on the functions of their cortical affiliations, we suggest that the superior temporal-angular connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)AG plays a role in language and attention, whereas the superior temporal-superior parietal connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)SPL is involved in visuospatial and integrative audiovisual functions. Furthermore, the MdLF may have clinical implications in neurodegenerative disorders such as primary progressive aphasia, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy, corticobulbar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease as well as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia.

  17. How Auditory Experience Differentially Influences the Function of Left and Right Superior Temporal Cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Tae; Waters, Dafydd; Price, Cathy J; Evans, Samuel; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2017-09-27

    To investigate how hearing status, sign language experience, and task demands influence functional responses in the human superior temporal cortices (STC) we collected fMRI data from deaf and hearing participants (male and female), who either acquired sign language early or late in life. Our stimuli in all tasks were pictures of objects. We varied the linguistic and visuospatial processing demands in three different tasks that involved decisions about (1) the sublexical (phonological) structure of the British Sign Language (BSL) signs for the objects, (2) the semantic category of the objects, and (3) the physical features of the objects.Neuroimaging data revealed that in participants who were deaf from birth, STC showed increased activation during visual processing tasks. Importantly, this differed across hemispheres. Right STC was consistently activated regardless of the task whereas left STC was sensitive to task demands. Significant activation was detected in the left STC only for the BSL phonological task. This task, we argue, placed greater demands on visuospatial processing than the other two tasks. In hearing signers, enhanced activation was absent in both left and right STC during all three tasks. Lateralization analyses demonstrated that the effect of deafness was more task-dependent in the left than the right STC whereas it was more task-independent in the right than the left STC. These findings indicate how the absence of auditory input from birth leads to dissociable and altered functions of left and right STC in deaf participants. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Those born deaf can offer unique insights into neuroplasticity, in particular in regions of superior temporal cortex (STC) that primarily respond to auditory input in hearing people. Here we demonstrate that in those deaf from birth the left and the right STC have altered and dissociable functions. The right STC was activated regardless of demands on visual processing. In contrast, the left STC was

  18. Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Francine; King-Stephens, David; Weber, Peter; Laxer, Kenneth; Parvizi, Josef; Knight, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    The auditory cortex is well-known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of eight patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70–150 Hz) frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75 and 200 ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords, and a positive correlation between changes in γhigh power and the degree of stimulus roughness was observed in both hemispheres. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity toward dissonance. PMID:27148011

  19. Prominent increased calcineurin immunoreactivity in the superior temporal gyrus in schizophrenia: A postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Akira; Kunii, Yasuto; Matsumoto, Jyunya; Hino, Mizuki; Yang, Qiaohui; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Yabe, Hirooki

    2017-01-01

    Many neuroimaging studies have demonstrated structural changes in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in patients with schizophrenia. Several postmortem studies have reported on the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, but few reports have investigated alterations in molecules in the STG. In addition, several studies have suggested that calcineurin (CaN) inadequacy may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, but no reports about CaN expression in the STG in schizophrenia have been published. We compared the density of CaN-immunoreactive (CaN-IR) neurons in the STG from 11 patients with schizophrenia with that of 11 sex- and age-matched controls. We used immunohistochemical analysis with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against human CaN. In the STG, the density of CaN-IR neurons in layers II - VI in the group with schizophrenia was significantly higher than that in the control group. Our results confirmed pathological changes in the STG in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that alterations in the CaN pathway play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prepulse Inhibition of Auditory Cortical Responses in the Caudolateral Superior Temporal Gyrus in Macaca mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuyue; Parkkonen, Lauri; Wei, Jingkuan; Dong, Jin-Run; Ma, Yuanye; Carlson, Synnöve

    2018-04-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to a decreased response to a startling stimulus when another weaker stimulus precedes it. Most PPI studies have focused on the physiological startle reflex and fewer have reported the PPI of cortical responses. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in four monkeys and investigated whether the PPI of auditory cortical responses (alpha, beta, and gamma oscillations and evoked potentials) can be demonstrated in the caudolateral belt of the superior temporal gyrus (STGcb). We also investigated whether the presence of a conspecific, which draws attention away from the auditory stimuli, affects the PPI of auditory cortical responses. The PPI paradigm consisted of Pulse-only and Prepulse + Pulse trials that were presented randomly while the monkey was alone (ALONE) and while another monkey was present in the same room (ACCOMP). The LFPs to the Pulse were significantly suppressed by the Prepulse thus, demonstrating PPI of cortical responses in the STGcb. The PPI-related inhibition of the N1 amplitude of the evoked responses and cortical oscillations to the Pulse were not affected by the presence of a conspecific. In contrast, gamma oscillations and the amplitude of the N1 response to Pulse-only were suppressed in the ACCOMP condition compared to the ALONE condition. These findings demonstrate PPI in the monkey STGcb and suggest that the PPI of auditory cortical responses in the monkey STGcb is a pre-attentive inhibitory process that is independent of attentional modulation.

  1. Genetic underpinnings of left superior temporal gyrus thickness in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthusen, Rick P F; Hass, Johanna; Walton, Esther; Turner, Jessica A; Rössner, Veit; Sponheim, Scott R; Ho, Beng-Choon; Holt, Daphne J; Gollub, Randy L; Calhoun, Vince; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2015-08-07

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous phenotypic appearance. We aimed to further the understanding of some of the underlying genetics of schizophrenia, using left superior temporal gyrus (STG) grey matter thickness reduction as an endophenoptype in a genome-wide association (GWA) study. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genetic data of the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium (MCIC) study of schizophrenia were used to analyse the interaction effects between 1,067,955 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease status on left STG thickness in 126 healthy controls and 113 patients with schizophrenia. We next used a pathway approach to detect underlying pathophysiological pathways that may be related to schizophrenia. No SNP by diagnosis interaction effect reached genome-wide significance (5 × 10 -8 ) in our GWA study, but 10 SNPs reached P-values less than 10 -6 . The most prominent pathways included those involved in insulin, calcium, PI3K-Akt and MAPK signalling. Our strongest findings in the GWA study and pathway analysis point towards an involvement of glucose metabolism in left STG thickness reduction in patients with schizophrenia only. These results are in line with recently published studies, which showed an increased prevalence of psychosis among patients with metabolic syndrome-related illnesses including diabetes.

  2. Positive symptoms associate with cortical thinning in the superior temporal gyrus via the ENIGMA Schizophrenia consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, E; Hibar, D P; van Erp, T G M; Potkin, S G; Roiz-Santiañez, R; Crespo-Facorro, B; Suarez-Pinilla, P; Van Haren, N E M; de Zwarte, S M C; Kahn, R S; Cahn, W; Doan, N T; Jørgensen, K N; Gurholt, T P; Agartz, I; Andreassen, O A; Westlye, L T; Melle, I; Berg, A O; Mørch-Johnsen, L; Faerden, A; Flyckt, L; Fatouros-Bergman, H; Jönsson, E G; Hashimoto, R; Yamamori, H; Fukunaga, M; Preda, A; De Rossi, P; Piras, F; Banaj, N; Ciullo, V; Spalletta, G; Gur, R E; Gur, R C; Wolf, D H; Satterthwaite, T D; Beard, L M; Sommer, I E; Koops, S; Gruber, O; Richter, A; Krämer, B; Kelly, S; Donohoe, G; McDonald, C; Cannon, D M; Corvin, A; Gill, M; Di Giorgio, A; Bertolino, A; Lawrie, S; Nickson, T; Whalley, H C; Neilson, E; Calhoun, V D; Thompson, P M; Turner, J A; Ehrlich, S

    2017-05-01

    Based on the role of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in auditory processing, language comprehension and self-monitoring, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between STG cortical thickness and positive symptom severity in schizophrenia. This prospective meta-analysis includes data from 1987 individuals with schizophrenia collected at seventeen centres around the world that contribute to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. STG thickness measures were extracted from T1-weighted brain scans using FreeSurfer. The study performed a meta-analysis of effect sizes across sites generated by a model predicting left or right STG thickness with a positive symptom severity score (harmonized SAPS or PANSS-positive scores), while controlling for age, sex and site. Secondary models investigated relationships between antipsychotic medication, duration of illness, overall illness severity, handedness and STG thickness. Positive symptom severity was negatively related to STG thickness in both hemispheres (left: β std = -0.052; P = 0.021; right: β std = -0.073; P = 0.001) when statistically controlling for age, sex and site. This effect remained stable in models including duration of illness, antipsychotic medication or handedness. Our findings further underline the important role of the STG in hallmark symptoms in schizophrenia. These findings can assist in advancing insight into symptom-relevant pathophysiological mechanisms in schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Paradoxical vocal changes in a trained singer by focally cooling the right superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlowitz, Kalman A; Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W; Long, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    The production and perception of music is preferentially mediated by cortical areas within the right hemisphere, but little is known about how these brain regions individually contribute to this process. In an experienced singer undergoing awake craniotomy, we demonstrated that direct electrical stimulation to a portion of the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) selectively interrupted singing but not speaking. We then focally cooled this region to modulate its activity during vocalization. In contrast to similar manipulations in left hemisphere speech production regions, pSTG cooling did not elicit any changes in vocal timing or quality. However, this manipulation led to an increase in the pitch of speaking with no such change in singing. Further analysis revealed that all vocalizations exhibited a cooling-induced increase in the frequency of the first formant, raising the possibility that potential pitch offsets may have been actively avoided during singing. Our results suggest that the right pSTG plays a key role in vocal sensorimotor processing whose impact is dependent on the type of vocalization produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform–amygdalar effective connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H.; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-01-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform–amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. PMID:24298171

  5. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform-amygdalar effective connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrs, Corinna; Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-11-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform-amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The role of the right superior temporal gyrus in stimulus-centered spatial processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah-Basak, Priyanka P; Chen, Peii; Caulfield, Kevin; Medina, Jared; Hamilton, Roy H

    2018-05-01

    Although emerging neuropsychological evidence supports the involvement of temporal areas, and in particular the right superior temporal gyrus (STG), in allocentric neglect deficits, the role of STG in healthy spatial processing remains elusive. While several functional brain imaging studies have demonstrated involvement of the STG in tasks involving explicit stimulus-centered judgments, prior rTMS studies targeting the right STG did not find the expected neglect-like rightward bias in size judgments using the conventional landmark task. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether disruption of the right STG using inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could impact stimulus-centered, allocentric spatial processing in healthy individuals. A lateralized version of the landmark task was developed to accentuate the dissociation between viewer-centered and stimulus-centered reference frames. We predicted that inhibiting activity in the right STG would decrease accuracy because of induced rightward bias centered on the line stimulus irrespective of its viewer-centered or egocentric locations. Eleven healthy, right-handed adults underwent the lateralized landmark task. After viewing each stimulus, participants had to judge whether the line was bisected, or whether the left (left-long trials) or the right segment (right-long trials) of the line was longer. Participants repeated the task before (pre-rTMS) and after (post-rTMS) receiving 20 min of 1 Hz rTMS over the right STG, the right supramarginal gyrus (SMG), and the vertex (a control site) during three separate visits. Linear mixed models for binomial data were generated with either accuracy or judgment errors as dependent variables, to compare 1) performance across trial types (bisection, non-bisection), and 2) pre- vs. post-rTMS performance between the vertex and the STG and the vertex and the SMG. Line eccentricity (z = 4.31, p right-long type by 10.7% on bisection

  7. Aberrant DNA methylation associated with Alzheimer's disease in the superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhan; Fu, Hong-Juan; Zhao, Li-Bo; Sun, Zhuo-Yan; Yang, Yu-Fei; Zhu, Hong-Yan

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal DNA methylation patterns have been demonstrated to be associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aimed to identify differential methylation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) of patients with late-onset AD based on epigenome-wide DNA methylation data by bioinformatics analysis. The genome-wide DNA methylation data in the STG region of 34 patients with late-onset AD and 34 controls without dementia were recruited from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Through systemic quality control, differentially methylated CpG sites were determined by the Student's t-test and mean methylation value differences between the two conditions. Hierarchical clustering analysis was applied to assess the classification performance of differentially methylated CpGs. Functional analysis was performed to investigate the biological functions of the genes associated with differentially methylated CpGs. A total of 17,895 differentially methylated CpG sites were initially identified, including 11,822 hypermethylated CpGs and 6,073 hypomethylated CpGs. Further analysis examined 2,211 differentially methylated CpGs (covering 1,991 genes). AD subjects demonstrated distinctive DNA methylation patterns when compared with the controls, with a classification accuracy value of 1. Hypermethylation was mainly detected for genes regulating the cell cycle progression, whereas hypomethylation was observed in genes involved in transcription factor binding. The present study demonstrated widespread and distinctive DNA methylation alterations in late-onset AD. Identification of AD-associated epigenetic biomarkers may allow for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

  8. Altered fucosyltransferase expression in the superior temporal gyrus of elderly patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Toni M; Yates, Stefani D; Haroutunian, Vahram; Meador-Woodruff, James H

    2017-04-01

    Glycosylation is a post-translational modification that is an essential element in cell signaling and neurodevelopmental pathway regulation. Glycan attachment can influence the tertiary structure and molecular interactions of glycosylated substrates, adding an additional layer of regulatory complexity to functional mechanisms underlying central cell biological processes. One type of enzyme-mediated glycan attachment, fucosylation, can mediate glycoprotein and glycolipid cell surface expression, trafficking, secretion, and quality control to modulate a variety of inter- and intracellular signaling cascades. Building on prior reports of glycosylation abnormalities and evidence of dysregulated glycosylation enzyme expression in schizophrenia, we examined the protein expression of 5 key fucose-modifying enzymes: GDP-fucose:protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (POFUT1), GDP-fucose:protein O-fucosyltransferase 2 (POFUT2), fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8), fucosyltransferase 11 (FUT11), and plasma α-l-fucosidase (FUCA2) in postmortem superior temporal gyrus of schizophrenia (N=16) and comparison (N=14) subjects. We also used the fucose binding protein, Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL), to assess α-1,6-fucosylated N-glycoprotein abundance in the same subjects. In schizophrenia, we found increased expression of POFUT2, a fucosyltransferase uniquely responsible for O-fucosylation of thrombospondin-like repeat domains that is involved in a non-canonical endoplasmic reticulum quality control pathway. We also found decreased expression of FUT8 in schizophrenia. Given that FUT8 is the only α-1,6-fucosyltransferase expressed in mammals, the concurrent decrease in AAL binding in schizophrenia, particularly evident for N-glycoproteins in the ~52-58kDa and ~60-70kDa molecular mass ranges, likely reflects a consequence of abnormal FUT8 expression in the disorder. Dysregulated FUT8 and POFUT2 expression could potentially explain a variety of molecular abnormalities in schizophrenia. Copyright

  9. Gray matter changes in right superior temporal gyrus in criminal psychopaths. Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jürgen L; Gänssbauer, Susanne; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Weber, Tatjana; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Hajak, Göran

    2008-08-30

    "Psychopathy" according to the PCL-R describes a specific subgroup of antisocial personality disorder with a high risk for criminal relapses. Lesion and imaging studies point towards frontal or temporal brain regions connected with disturbed social behavior, antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy. Morphologically, some studies described a reduced prefrontal brain volume, whereas others reported on temporal lobe atrophy. To further investigate whether participants with psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Version (PCL-R) show abnormalities in brain structure, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate region-specific changes in gray matter in 17 forensic male inpatients with high PCL-R scores (PCL-R>28) and 17 male control subjects with low PCL-R scores (PCLright superior temporal gyrus. This is the first study to show that psychopathy is associated with a decrease in gray matter in both frontal and temporal brain regions, in particular in the right superior temporal gyrus, supporting the hypothesis that a disturbed frontotemporal network is critically involved in the pathogenesis of psychopathy.

  10. Radiology of the paraglenoid sulcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schemmer, D.; White, P.G.; Friedman, L.

    1995-01-01

    The paraglenoid sulcus is a variable groove in the ilium adjacent to the inferior end of the sacroiliac joint. This study investigates the hypothesis that the groove is due to resorption at the insertion of the anterior sacroiliac ligament in response to stress. The anatomical relationships of the groove are shown with plain films, arteriography and computed tomography. Relationship to parity was tested in 70 adult female subjects; a statistically significant relationship was found, with deep grooves occurring only in parous women. An association with osteitis condensans ilii was also demonstrated. Relationship to lumbosacral posture was tested in 102 adult females, and an association with increased lumbar lordosis was found. These findings are consistent with our initial hypothesis. (orig.)

  11. Radiology of the paraglenoid sulcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemmer, D [McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada); White, P G [Dept. of Radiology, McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Friedman, L [Dept. of Radiology, McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    The paraglenoid sulcus is a variable groove in the ilium adjacent to the inferior end of the sacroiliac joint. This study investigates the hypothesis that the groove is due to resorption at the insertion of the anterior sacroiliac ligament in response to stress. The anatomical relationships of the groove are shown with plain films, arteriography and computed tomography. Relationship to parity was tested in 70 adult female subjects; a statistically significant relationship was found, with deep grooves occurring only in parous women. An association with osteitis condensans ilii was also demonstrated. Relationship to lumbosacral posture was tested in 102 adult females, and an association with increased lumbar lordosis was found. These findings are consistent with our initial hypothesis. (orig.)

  12. Visualisation of Rouviere's Sulcus during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, P B; Maharjan, D K; Tamang, T Y; Shrestha, S K

    2015-01-01

    Safe dissection of Calot's Triangle is important during the performance of laparascopic cholucystectomy. The purpose of the study is to determine the frequency of demonstrable Rouviere's sulcus in patients with symptomatic gall stones and its role in safe dissection in Calot's triangle. This is a prospective descriptive study design done in Department of surgery, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital from Jan 2013 to Jan 2015. Patients who were posted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included. During laparoscopy, Rouviere's sulcus was noted in the operative note and classified according to following: Type I: Open type was defined as a cleft in which the right hepatic pedicle was visualized and the sulcus was opened throughout its length. Type II: if the sulcus was open only at its lateral end. Type III If the sulcus was open only at its medial end. Type IV: Fused type was defined as one in which the pedicle was not visualized.  A total of 200 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy during period of 2 years. Out of which Rouviere's sulcus was visualized in 150 patients (75 %).Type I (open type) was commoner in 54%, type II in 12%, Type III in 9% and type IV (fused type) in 25%. Rouviere's Sulcus is an important extra biliary land mark for safe dissection of Calot's triangle during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  Rouviere's Sulcus, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Bile duct injury.

  13. Dissociable contributions of MRI volume reductions of superior temporal and fusiform gyri to symptoms and neuropsychology in schizophrenia ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor, Paul G.; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Gurrera, Ronald J.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Frumin, Melissa; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    We sought to identify the functional correlates of reduced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the fusiform gyrus (FG) in patients with chronic schizophrenia. MRI volumes, positive/negative symptoms, and neuropsychological tests of facial memory and executive functioning were examined within the same subjects. The results indicated two distinct, dissociable brain structure-function relationships: (1) reduced left STG volume-positive symptoms-execu...

  14. Comparison of the Keratometric Corneal Astigmatic Power after Phacoemulsification: Clear Temporal Corneal Incision versus Superior Scleral Tunnel Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi He

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This is prospective randomized control trial to compare the mean keratometric corneal astigmatism diopter power (not surgical induced astigmatism among preop and one-month and three-month postop phacoemulcification of either a clear temporal corneal incision or a superior scleral tunnel Incision, using only keratometric astigmatic power reading to evaluate the difference between the two cataract surgery incisions. Methods. 120 patients (134 eyes underwent phacoemulcification were randomly assigned to two groups: Group A, the clear temporal corneal incision group, and Group B, the superior scleral tunnel incision group. SPSS11.5 Software was used for statistical analysis to compare the postsurgical changes of cornea astigmatism on keratometry. Results. The changes of corneal astigmatic diopter in Groups A and B after 3 month postop from keratometric reading were 1.04 + 0.76 and 0.94 + 0.27, respectively (=.84>.05, which showed no statistic significance difference. Conclusion. The incision through either temporal clear cornea or superior scleral tunnel in phacoemulcification shows no statistic difference in astigmatism change on keratometry 3-month postop.

  15. Impaired expression of GABA transporters in the human Alzheimer's disease hippocampus, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, Tessa E; Palpagama, Thulani H; Waldvogel, Henry J; Synek, Beth J L; Turner, Clinton; Faull, Richard L; Kwakowsky, Andrea

    2017-05-20

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and plays an important role in regulating neuronal excitability. GABA reuptake from the synapse is dependent on specific transporters - mainly GAT-1, GAT-3 and BGT-1 (GATs). This study is the first to show alterations in the expression of the GATs in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus. We found a significant increase in BGT-1 expression associated with AD in all layers of the dentate gyrus, in the stratum oriens of the CA2 and CA3 and the superior temporal gyrus. In AD there was a significant decrease in GAT-1 expression in the entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus. We also found a significant decrease in GAT-3 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 and CA3, the subiculum and entorhinal cortex. These observations indicate that the expression of the GATs shows brain-region- and layer-specific alterations in AD, suggesting a complex activation pattern of different GATs during the course of the disease. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. fMR-adaptation indicates selectivity to audiovisual content congruency in distributed clusters in human superior temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Blau, Vera C; Blomert, Leo; Goebel, Rainer

    2010-02-02

    Efficient multisensory integration is of vital importance for adequate interaction with the environment. In addition to basic binding cues like temporal and spatial coherence, meaningful multisensory information is also bound together by content-based associations. Many functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies propose the (posterior) superior temporal cortex (STC) as the key structure for integrating meaningful multisensory information. However, a still unanswered question is how superior temporal cortex encodes content-based associations, especially in light of inconsistent results from studies comparing brain activation to semantically matching (congruent) versus nonmatching (incongruent) multisensory inputs. Here, we used fMR-adaptation (fMR-A) in order to circumvent potential problems with standard fMRI approaches, including spatial averaging and amplitude saturation confounds. We presented repetitions of audiovisual stimuli (letter-speech sound pairs) and manipulated the associative relation between the auditory and visual inputs (congruent/incongruent pairs). We predicted that if multisensory neuronal populations exist in STC and encode audiovisual content relatedness, adaptation should be affected by the manipulated audiovisual relation. The results revealed an occipital-temporal network that adapted independently of the audiovisual relation. Interestingly, several smaller clusters distributed over superior temporal cortex within that network, adapted stronger to congruent than to incongruent audiovisual repetitions, indicating sensitivity to content congruency. These results suggest that the revealed clusters contain multisensory neuronal populations that encode content relatedness by selectively responding to congruent audiovisual inputs, since unisensory neuronal populations are assumed to be insensitive to the audiovisual relation. These findings extend our previously revealed mechanism for the integration of letters and speech sounds and

  17. fMR-adaptation indicates selectivity to audiovisual content congruency in distributed clusters in human superior temporal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomert Leo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient multisensory integration is of vital importance for adequate interaction with the environment. In addition to basic binding cues like temporal and spatial coherence, meaningful multisensory information is also bound together by content-based associations. Many functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies propose the (posterior superior temporal cortex (STC as the key structure for integrating meaningful multisensory information. However, a still unanswered question is how superior temporal cortex encodes content-based associations, especially in light of inconsistent results from studies comparing brain activation to semantically matching (congruent versus nonmatching (incongruent multisensory inputs. Here, we used fMR-adaptation (fMR-A in order to circumvent potential problems with standard fMRI approaches, including spatial averaging and amplitude saturation confounds. We presented repetitions of audiovisual stimuli (letter-speech sound pairs and manipulated the associative relation between the auditory and visual inputs (congruent/incongruent pairs. We predicted that if multisensory neuronal populations exist in STC and encode audiovisual content relatedness, adaptation should be affected by the manipulated audiovisual relation. Results The results revealed an occipital-temporal network that adapted independently of the audiovisual relation. Interestingly, several smaller clusters distributed over superior temporal cortex within that network, adapted stronger to congruent than to incongruent audiovisual repetitions, indicating sensitivity to content congruency. Conclusions These results suggest that the revealed clusters contain multisensory neuronal populations that encode content relatedness by selectively responding to congruent audiovisual inputs, since unisensory neuronal populations are assumed to be insensitive to the audiovisual relation. These findings extend our previously revealed mechanism for

  18. Structure and Function of the Superior Temporal Plane in Adult Males with Cleft Lip and Palate: Pathologic Enlargement with No Relationship to Childhood Hearing Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, A. S.; Canady, J.; Richman, L.; Andreasen, N. C.; Nopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In a previous study from our lab, adult males with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) were shown to have significantly lower temporal lobe gray matter volume than matched controls. The current study was designed to begin a regional analysis of specific subregions of the temporal lobe. The superior temporal plane (STP) is a…

  19. Gene expression signature is shared by patients with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia at the superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, Y; Katsel, P; Haroutunian, V; Domany, E

    2011-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia are two common diseases of the brain with significant differences in neuropathology, etiology and symptoms. This dissimilarity in the two diseases makes a comparison of the two ideal for detecting molecular substrates that are common to brain disorders in general. In this study, we compared gene expression profiles across multiple brain areas, taken postmortem from patients with well-characterized Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia, and from cognitively normal control group with no neuro- or psychopathology. Although the totality of gene expression changes in the two diseases is dissimilar, a subset of genes appears to play a role in both diseases in specific brain regions. We find at Brodmann area 22, the superior temporal gyrus, a statistically significant number of genes with apparently disregulated expression in both diseases. Furthermore, we found genes that differentiate the two diseases from the control across multiple brain regions, and note that these genes were usually down-regulated. Brodmann area 8, part of the superior frontal cortex, is relatively abundant with them. We show overwhelming statistical evidence for Alzheimer's and Schizophrenia sharing a specific molecular background at the superior temporal gyrus. We suggest that impairment of the regulation of autophagy pathway is shared, in BA 22, by the two diseases. © 2010 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2010 EFNS.

  20. Involuntary switching into the native language induced by electrocortical stimulation of the superior temporal gyrus: a multimodal mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Marin, Dario; Canderan, Cinzia; Maieron, Marta; Budai, Riccardo; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2014-09-01

    We describe involuntary language switching from L2 to L1 evoked by electro-stimulation in the superior temporal gyrus in a 30-year-old right-handed Serbian (L1) speaker who was also a late Italian learner (L2). The patient underwent awake brain surgery. Stimulation of other portions of the exposed cortex did not cause language switching as did not stimulation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, where we evoked a speech arrest. Stimulation effects on language switching were selective, namely, interfered with counting behaviour but not with object naming. The coordinates of the positive site were combined with functional and fibre tracking (DTI) data. Results showed that the language switching site belonged to a significant fMRI cluster in the left superior temporal gyrus/supramarginal gyrus found activated for both L1 and L2, and for both the patient and controls, and did not overlap with the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). This area, also known as Stp, has a role in phonological processing. Language switching phenomenon we observed can be partly explained by transient dysfunction of the feed-forward control mechanism hypothesized by the DIVA (Directions Into Velocities of Articulators) model (Golfinopoulos, E., Tourville, J. A., & Guenther, F. H. (2010). The integration of large-scale neural network modeling and functional brain imaging in speech motor control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dissociable contributions of MRI volume reductions of superior temporal and fusiform gyri to symptoms and neuropsychology in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Paul G; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Gurrera, Ronald J; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Frumin, Melissa; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2007-03-01

    We sought to identify the functional correlates of reduced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the fusiform gyrus (FG) in patients with chronic schizophrenia. MRI volumes, positive/negative symptoms, and neuropsychological tests of facial memory and executive functioning were examined within the same subjects. The results indicated two distinct, dissociable brain structure-function relationships: (1) reduced left STG volume-positive symptoms-executive deficits; (2) reduced left FG-negative symptoms-facial memory deficits. STG and FG volume reductions may each make distinct contributions to symptoms and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia.

  2. Auditory properties in the parabelt regions of the superior temporal gyrus in the awake macaque monkey: an initial survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Frey, Stephen; Ross, Deborah; Falchier, Arnaud; Hackett, Troy A; Schroeder, Charles E

    2015-03-11

    The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is on the inferior-lateral brain surface near the external ear. In macaques, 2/3 of the STG is occupied by an auditory cortical region, the "parabelt," which is part of a network of inferior temporal areas subserving communication and social cognition as well as object recognition and other functions. However, due to its location beneath the squamous temporal bone and temporalis muscle, the STG, like other inferior temporal regions, has been a challenging target for physiological studies in awake-behaving macaques. We designed a new procedure for implanting recording chambers to provide direct access to the STG, allowing us to evaluate neuronal properties and their topography across the full extent of the STG in awake-behaving macaques. Initial surveys of the STG have yielded several new findings. Unexpectedly, STG sites in monkeys that were listening passively responded to tones with magnitudes comparable to those of responses to 1/3 octave band-pass noise. Mapping results showed longer response latencies in more rostral sites and possible tonotopic patterns parallel to core and belt areas, suggesting the reversal of gradients between caudal and rostral parabelt areas. These results will help further exploration of parabelt areas. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354140-11$15.00/0.

  3. Functional connection between posterior superior temporal gyrus and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garell, P C; Bakken, H; Greenlee, J D W; Volkov, I; Reale, R A; Oya, H; Kawasaki, H; Howard, M A; Brugge, J F

    2013-10-01

    The connection between auditory fields of the temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex has been well characterized in nonhuman primates. Little is known of temporofrontal connectivity in humans, however, due largely to the fact that invasive experimental approaches used so successfully to trace anatomical pathways in laboratory animals cannot be used in humans. Instead, we used a functional tract-tracing method in 12 neurosurgical patients with multicontact electrode arrays chronically implanted over the left (n = 7) or right (n = 5) perisylvian temporal auditory cortex (area PLST) and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for diagnosis and treatment of medically intractable epilepsy. Area PLST was identified by the distribution of average auditory-evoked potentials obtained in response to simple and complex sounds. The same sounds evoked little if there is any activity in VLPFC. A single bipolar electrical pulse (0.2 ms, charge-balanced) applied between contacts within physiologically identified PLST resulted in polyphasic evoked potentials clustered in VLPFC, with greatest activation being in pars triangularis of the IFG. The average peak latency of the earliest negative deflection of the evoked potential on VLPFC was 13.48 ms (range: 9.0-18.5 ms), providing evidence for a rapidly conducting pathway between area PLST and VLPFC.

  4. On the same wavelength: predictable language enhances speaker-listener brain-to-brain synchrony in posterior superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikker, Suzanne; Silbert, Lauren J; Hasson, Uri; Zevin, Jason D

    2014-04-30

    Recent research has shown that the degree to which speakers and listeners exhibit similar brain activity patterns during human linguistic interaction is correlated with communicative success. Here, we used an intersubject correlation approach in fMRI to test the hypothesis that a listener's ability to predict a speaker's utterance increases such neural coupling between speakers and listeners. Nine subjects listened to recordings of a speaker describing visual scenes that varied in the degree to which they permitted specific linguistic predictions. In line with our hypothesis, the temporal profile of listeners' brain activity was significantly more synchronous with the speaker's brain activity for highly predictive contexts in left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), an area previously associated with predictive auditory language processing. In this region, predictability differentially affected the temporal profiles of brain responses in the speaker and listeners respectively, in turn affecting correlated activity between the two: whereas pSTG activation increased with predictability in the speaker, listeners' pSTG activity instead decreased for more predictable sentences. Listeners additionally showed stronger BOLD responses for predictive images before sentence onset, suggesting that highly predictable contexts lead comprehenders to preactivate predicted words.

  5. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in the superior temporal gyrus reveals epigenetic signatures associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Corey T; Roussos, Panos; Garg, Paras; Ho, Daniel J; Azam, Nidha; Katsel, Pavel L; Haroutunian, Vahram; Sharp, Andrew J

    2016-01-19

    Alzheimer's disease affects ~13% of people in the United States 65 years and older, making it the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Recent work has identified roles for environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors in Alzheimer's disease risk. We performed a genome-wide screen of DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 platform on bulk tissue samples from the superior temporal gyrus of patients with Alzheimer's disease and non-demented controls. We paired a sliding window approach with multivariate linear regression to characterize Alzheimer's disease-associated differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We identified 479 DMRs exhibiting a strong bias for hypermethylated changes, a subset of which were independently associated with aging. DMR intervals overlapped 475 RefSeq genes enriched for gene ontology categories with relevant roles in neuron function and development, as well as cellular metabolism, and included genes reported in Alzheimer's disease genome-wide and epigenome-wide association studies. DMRs were enriched for brain-specific histone signatures and for binding motifs of transcription factors with roles in the brain and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Notably, hypermethylated DMRs preferentially overlapped poised promoter regions, marked by H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, previously shown to co-localize with aging-associated hypermethylation. Finally, the integration of DMR-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms with Alzheimer's disease genome-wide association study risk loci and brain expression quantitative trait loci highlights multiple potential DMRs of interest for further functional analysis. We have characterized changes in DNA methylation in the superior temporal gyrus of patients with Alzheimer's disease, highlighting novel loci that facilitate better characterization of pathways and mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, and improve our understanding of epigenetic signatures that may contribute to the

  6. Resection of the medial temporal lobe disconnects the rostral superior temporal gyrus from some of its projection targets in the frontal lobe and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Monica; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C

    2009-09-01

    Auditory memory in the monkey does not appear to extend beyond the limits of working memory. It is therefore surprising that this ability is impaired by medial temporal lobe (MTL) resections, because such lesions spare working memory in other sensory modalities. To determine whether MTL ablations might have caused the auditory deficit through inadvertent transection of superior temporal gyrus (STG) projections to its downstream targets, and, if so, which targets might have been compromised, we injected anterograde tracer (biotinylated dextran amine) in the STG of both the normal and MTL-lesioned hemispheres of split-brain monkeys. Interhemispheric comparison of label failed to show any effect of the MTL ablation on efferents from caudal STG, which projects to the inferior prefrontal convexity. However, the ablation did consistently interrupt the normally dense projections from rostral STG to both the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and medial thalamic nuclei. The findings support the possibility that the auditory working memory deficit after MTL ablation is due to transection of downstream auditory projections, and indicate that the candidate structures for mediating auditory working memory are the ventral medial prefrontal cortical areas, the medial thalamus, or both.

  7. Time course of the involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum in emotional prosody perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolijn Hoekert

    Full Text Available In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional prosody perception. Here, we used triple-pulse repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to shed light on the precise time course of involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum. We hypothesized that information would be processed in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus before being processed in the right fronto-parietal operculum. Right-handed healthy subjects performed an emotional prosody task. During listening to each sentence a triplet of TMS pulses was applied to one of the regions at one of six time points (400-1900 ms. Results showed a significant main effect of Time for right anterior superior temporal gyrus and right fronto-parietal operculum. The largest interference was observed half-way through the sentence. This effect was stronger for withdrawal emotions than for the approach emotion. A further experiment with the inclusion of an active control condition, TMS over the EEG site POz (midline parietal-occipital junction, revealed stronger effects at the fronto-parietal operculum and anterior superior temporal gyrus relative to the active control condition. No evidence was found for sequential processing of emotional prosodic information from right anterior superior temporal gyrus to the right fronto-parietal operculum, but the results revealed more parallel processing. Our results suggest that both right fronto-parietal operculum and right anterior superior temporal gyrus are critical for emotional prosody perception at a relatively late time period after sentence onset. This may reflect that emotional cues can still be ambiguous at the beginning of sentences, but become

  8. Time course of the involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum in emotional prosody perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekert, Marjolijn; Bais, Leonie; Kahn, René S; Aleman, André

    2008-05-21

    In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody) conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional prosody perception. Here, we used triple-pulse repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to shed light on the precise time course of involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum. We hypothesized that information would be processed in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus before being processed in the right fronto-parietal operculum. Right-handed healthy subjects performed an emotional prosody task. During listening to each sentence a triplet of TMS pulses was applied to one of the regions at one of six time points (400-1900 ms). Results showed a significant main effect of Time for right anterior superior temporal gyrus and right fronto-parietal operculum. The largest interference was observed half-way through the sentence. This effect was stronger for withdrawal emotions than for the approach emotion. A further experiment with the inclusion of an active control condition, TMS over the EEG site POz (midline parietal-occipital junction), revealed stronger effects at the fronto-parietal operculum and anterior superior temporal gyrus relative to the active control condition. No evidence was found for sequential processing of emotional prosodic information from right anterior superior temporal gyrus to the right fronto-parietal operculum, but the results revealed more parallel processing. Our results suggest that both right fronto-parietal operculum and right anterior superior temporal gyrus are critical for emotional prosody perception at a relatively late time period after sentence onset. This may reflect that emotional cues can still be ambiguous at the beginning of sentences, but become more apparent half

  9. Spontaneous neural activity in the right superior temporal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus is associated with insight level in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; Zhong, Mingtian; Gan, Jun; Liu, Wanting; Niu, Chaoyang; Liao, Haiyan; Zhang, Hongchun; Tan, Changlian; Yi, Jinyao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2017-01-01

    Insight into illness is an important issue for psychiatry disorder. Although the existence of a poor insight subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was recognized in the DSM-IV, and the insight level in OCD was specified further in DSM-V, the neural underpinnings of insight in OCD have been rarely explored. The present study was designed to bridge this research gap by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Spontaneous neural activity were examined in 19 OCD patients with good insight (OCD-GI), 18 OCD patients with poor insight (OCD-PI), and 25 healthy controls (HC) by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the resting state. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between regional ALFFs and insight levels among OCD patients. OCD-GI and OCD-PI demonstrated overlapping and distinct brain alterations. Notably, compared with OCD-GI, tOCD-PI had reduced ALFF in left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and right superior temporal gyrus (STG), as well as increased ALFF in right middle occipital gyrus. Further analysis revealed that ALFF values for the left MTG and right STG were correlated negatively with insight level in patients with OCD. Relatively small sample size and not all patients were un-medicated are our major limitations. Spontaneous brain activity in left MTG and right STG may be neural underpinnings of insight in OCD. Our results suggest the great role of human temporal brain regions in understanding insight, and further underscore the importance of considering insight presentation in understanding the clinical heterogeneity of OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gray matter deficits and altered resting-state connectivity in the superior temporal gyrus among individuals with problematic hypersexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Ji-Woo; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2018-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of hypersexual disorder have been accumulating, yet alternations in brain structures and functional connectivity in individuals with problematic hypersexual behavior (PHB) has only recently been studied. This study aimed to investigate gray matter deficits and resting-state abnormalities in individuals with PHB using voxel-based morphometry and resting-state connectivity analysis. Seventeen individuals with PHB and 19 age-matched healthy controls participated in this study. Gray matter volume of the brain and resting-state connectivity were measured using 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to healthy subjects, individuals with PHB had significant reductions in gray matter volume in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right middle temporal gyrus. Individuals with PHB also exhibited a decrease in resting-state functional connectivity between the left STG and left precuneus and between the left STG and right caudate. The gray matter volume of the left STG and its resting-state functional connectivity with the right caudate both showed significant negative correlations with the severity of PHB. The findings suggest that structural deficits and resting-state functional impairments in the left STG might be linked to PHB and provide new insights into the underlying neural mechanisms of PHB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased cortical thickness and altered functional connectivity of the right superior temporal gyrus in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiling; Chen, Heng; Wang, Junping; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yifeng; Lu, Fengmei; Yu, Chunshui; Chen, Huafu

    2015-01-01

    Altered structure in the temporal cortex has been implicated in the variable language laterality of left-handers (LH). The neuroanatomy of language lateralization and the corresponding synchronous functional connectivity (FC) in handedness cohorts are not, however, fully understood. We used structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to investigate the effect of altered cortical thickness on FC in LH and right-handers (RH). Whole-brain cortical thickness was calculated and compared between the LH and RH. We observed increased cortical thickness in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the LH. A further FC analysis was conducted between the right STG and the remaining voxels in the brain. Compared with RH, the LH showed significantly higher FC in the left STG, right occipital cortex, and lower FC in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Our findings suggest that LH have atypical connectivity in the language network, with an enhanced role of the STG, findings which provide novel insights into the structural and functional substrates underlying the atypical language development of left-handed individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics of neuronal lipofuscin in the superior temporal gyrus in Alzheimer's disease do not differ from non-diseased controls: a comparison with disease-related changes in the superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Christopher Q; Dowson, Jonathan H; Harrington, Charles; Cairns, Mary R; Wilton-Cox, Helen

    2005-05-01

    Neuronal lipofuscin characteristics in the superior temporal gyrus from 21 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and from 18 age-matched non-diseased subjects were compared with previously reported findings from the superior frontal gyrus. A discriminant function analysis of lipofuscin characteristics in the superior temporal gyrus did not provide a significant predictive level for cases whose diagnoses were correctly classified (56.4%, P=0.63). In contrast, AD-related decrease in the number of smaller lipofuscin regions in the neurons of the frontal gyrus was confirmed, and the same analysis of lipofuscin characteristics in this region gave a significant predictive level for membership of the AD group of 86.6% (P<0.001). The findings indicate that changes in neuronal lipofuscin related to AD, which may reflect an increased rate of lipofuscin formation, show differences between neocortical regions. This study provides additional information on the distribution of neuropathological characteristics in AD.

  13. Schizophrenia affects speech-induced functional connectivity of the superior temporal gyrus under cocktail-party listening conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juanhua; Wu, Chao; Zheng, Yingjun; Li, Ruikeng; Li, Xuanzi; She, Shenglin; Wu, Haibo; Peng, Hongjun; Ning, Yuping; Li, Liang

    2017-09-17

    The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is involved in speech recognition against informational masking under cocktail-party-listening conditions. Compared to healthy listeners, people with schizophrenia perform worse in speech recognition under informational speech-on-speech masking conditions. It is not clear whether the schizophrenia-related vulnerability to informational masking is associated with certain changes in FC of the STG with some critical brain regions. Using sparse-sampling fMRI design, this study investigated the differences between people with schizophrenia and healthy controls in FC of the STG for target-speech listening against informational speech-on-speech masking, when a listening condition with either perceived spatial separation (PSS, with a spatial release of informational masking) or perceived spatial co-location (PSC, without the spatial release) between target speech and masking speech was introduced. The results showed that in healthy participants, but not participants with schizophrenia, the contrast of either the PSS or PSC condition against the masker-only condition induced an enhancement of functional connectivity (FC) of the STG with the left superior parietal lobule and the right precuneus. Compared to healthy participants, participants with schizophrenia showed declined FC of the STG with the bilateral precuneus, right SPL, and right supplementary motor area. Thus, FC of the STG with the parietal areas is normally involved in speech listening against informational masking under either the PSS or PSC conditions, and declined FC of the STG in people with schizophrenia with the parietal areas may be associated with the increased vulnerability to informational masking. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Abnormal left superior temporal gyrus volumes in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua Hsua; Nicoletti, Mark A; Hatch, John P; Sassi, Roberto B; Axelson, David; Brambilla, Paolo; Monkul, E Serap; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Ryan, Neal D; Birmaher, Boris; Soares, Jair C

    2004-06-03

    Abnormalities in left superior temporal gyrus (STG) have been reported in adult bipolar patients. However, it is not known whether such abnormalities are already present early in the course of this illness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometric analysis of STG was performed in 16 DSM-IV children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (mean age+/-SD 15.5+/-3.4 years) and 21 healthy controls (mean age+/-SD 16.9+/-3.8 years). Subjects underwent a 3D spoiled gradient recalled acquisition MRI examination. Using analysis of covariance with age, gender and intra-cranial brain volume as covariates, we found significantly smaller left total STG volumes in bipolar patients (12.5+/-1.5 cm(3)) compared with healthy controls (13.6+/-2.5 cm(3)) (F=4.45, d.f.=1, 32, P=0.04). This difference was accounted for by significantly smaller left and right STG white matter volumes in bipolar patients. Decreased white matter connections may be the core of abnormalities in STG, which is an important region for speech, language and communication, and could possibly underlie neurocognitive deficits present in bipolar patients.

  15. A Double Dissociation between Anterior and Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus for Processing Audiovisual Speech Demonstrated by Electrocorticography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozker, Muge; Schepers, Inga M; Magnotti, John F; Yoshor, Daniel; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    Human speech can be comprehended using only auditory information from the talker's voice. However, comprehension is improved if the talker's face is visible, especially if the auditory information is degraded as occurs in noisy environments or with hearing loss. We explored the neural substrates of audiovisual speech perception using electrocorticography, direct recording of neural activity using electrodes implanted on the cortical surface. We observed a double dissociation in the responses to audiovisual speech with clear and noisy auditory component within the superior temporal gyrus (STG), a region long known to be important for speech perception. Anterior STG showed greater neural activity to audiovisual speech with clear auditory component, whereas posterior STG showed similar or greater neural activity to audiovisual speech in which the speech was replaced with speech-like noise. A distinct border between the two response patterns was observed, demarcated by a landmark corresponding to the posterior margin of Heschl's gyrus. To further investigate the computational roles of both regions, we considered Bayesian models of multisensory integration, which predict that combining the independent sources of information available from different modalities should reduce variability in the neural responses. We tested this prediction by measuring the variability of the neural responses to single audiovisual words. Posterior STG showed smaller variability than anterior STG during presentation of audiovisual speech with noisy auditory component. Taken together, these results suggest that posterior STG but not anterior STG is important for multisensory integration of noisy auditory and visual speech.

  16. Effects of Time-Compressed Speech Training on Multiple Functional and Structural Neural Mechanisms Involving the Left Superior Temporal Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tsukasa; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Motoki, Kosuke; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Nouchi, Rui; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Sakaki, Kohei; Sasaki, Yukako; Magistro, Daniele; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2018-01-01

    Time-compressed speech is an artificial form of rapidly presented speech. Training with time-compressed speech (TCSSL) in a second language leads to adaptation toward TCSSL. Here, we newly investigated the effects of 4 weeks of training with TCSSL on diverse cognitive functions and neural systems using the fractional amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) with the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), fractional anisotropy (FA), and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) of young adults by magnetic resonance imaging. There were no significant differences in change of performance of measures of cognitive functions or second language skills after training with TCSSL compared with that of the active control group. However, compared with the active control group, training with TCSSL was associated with increased fALFF, RSFC, and FA and decreased rGMV involving areas in the left STG. These results lacked evidence of a far transfer effect of time-compressed speech training on a wide range of cognitive functions and second language skills in young adults. However, these results demonstrated effects of time-compressed speech training on gray and white matter structures as well as on resting-state intrinsic activity and connectivity involving the left STG, which plays a key role in listening comprehension.

  17. Effective connectivity between superior temporal gyrus and Heschl's gyrus during white noise listening: linear versus non-linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Ka; Yusoff, An; Rahman, Mza; Mohamad, M; Hamid, Aia

    2012-04-01

    This fMRI study is about modelling the effective connectivity between Heschl's gyrus (HG) and the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in human primary auditory cortices. MATERIALS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; Ten healthy male participants were required to listen to white noise stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to generate individual and group brain activation maps. For input region determination, two intrinsic connectivity models comprising bilateral HG and STG were constructed using dynamic causal modelling (DCM). The models were estimated and inferred using DCM while Bayesian Model Selection (BMS) for group studies was used for model comparison and selection. Based on the winning model, six linear and six non-linear causal models were derived and were again estimated, inferred, and compared to obtain a model that best represents the effective connectivity between HG and the STG, balancing accuracy and complexity. Group results indicated significant asymmetrical activation (p(uncorr) Model comparison results showed strong evidence of STG as the input centre. The winning model is preferred by 6 out of 10 participants. The results were supported by BMS results for group studies with the expected posterior probability, r = 0.7830 and exceedance probability, ϕ = 0.9823. One-sample t-tests performed on connection values obtained from the winning model indicated that the valid connections for the winning model are the unidirectional parallel connections from STG to bilateral HG (p model comparison between linear and non-linear models using BMS prefers non-linear connection (r = 0.9160, ϕ = 1.000) from which the connectivity between STG and the ipsi- and contralateral HG is gated by the activity in STG itself. We are able to demonstrate that the effective connectivity between HG and STG while listening to white noise for the respective participants can be explained by a non-linear dynamic causal model with

  18. GABAergic system impairment in the hippocampus and superior temporal gyrus of patients with paranoid schizophrenia: A post-mortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Johann; Brisch, Ralf; Schiltz, Kolja; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Mawrin, Christian; Krzyżanowska, Marta; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Braun, Katharina; Schmitt, Andrea; Bogerts, Bernhard; Gos, Tomasz

    2016-11-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a key enzyme in GABA synthesis and alterations in GABAergic neurotransmission related to glial abnormalities are thought to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study aimed to identify potential differences regarding the neuropil expression of GAD between paranoid and residual schizophrenia. GAD65/67 immunostained histological sections were evaluated by quantitative densitometric analysis of GAD-immunoreactive (ir) neuropil. Regions of interest were the hippocampal formation (CA1 field and dentate gyrus [DG]), superior temporal gyrus (STG), and laterodorsal thalamic nucleus (LD). Data from 16 post-mortem schizophrenia patient samples (10 paranoid and 6 residual schizophrenia cases) were compared with those from 16 matched controls. Overall, schizophrenia patients showed a lower GAD-ir neuropil density (P=0.014), particularly in the right CA1 (P=0.033). However, the diagnostic subgroups differed significantly (Pparanoid versus residual patients (P=0.036) and controls (Pparanoid versus residual schizophrenia cases (P=0.042). GAD-ir neuropil density correlated positively with antipsychotic dosage, particularly in CA1 (right: r=0.850, P=0.004; left: r=0.800, P=0.010). Our finding of decreased relative density of GAD-ir neuropil suggests hypofunction of the GABAergic system, particularly in hippocampal CA1 field and STG layer V of patients with paranoid schizophrenia. The finding that antipsychotic medication seems to counterbalance GABAergic hypofunction in schizophrenia patients suggests the possibility of exploring new treatment avenues which target this system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. GABAA receptor subunit expression changes in the human Alzheimer's disease hippocampus, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakowsky, Andrea; Calvo-Flores Guzmán, Beatriz; Pandya, Madhavi; Turner, Clinton; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L

    2018-02-27

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA type A receptors (GABA A Rs) are severely affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the distribution and subunit composition of GABA A Rs in the AD brain are not well understood. This is the first comprehensive study to show brain region- and cell layer-specific alterations in the expression of the GABA A R subunits α1-3, α5, β1-3 and γ2 in the human AD hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus (STG). In late-stage AD tissue samples using immunohistochemistry we found significant alteration of all investigated GABA A Rs subunits except for α3 and β1 that were well preserved. The most prominent changes include an increase in GABA A R α1 expression associated with AD in all layers of the CA3 region, in the stratum (str.) granulare and hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG). We found a significant increase in GABA A R α2 expression in the str. oriens of the CA1-3, str. radiatum of the CA2,3 and decrease in the str. pyramidale of the CA1 region in AD cases. In AD there was a significant increase in GABA A R α5 subunit expression in str. pyramidale, str. oriens of the CA1 region and decrease in the STG. We also found a significant decrease in the GABA A R β3 subunit immunoreactivity in the str. oriens of the CA2, str. granulare and str. moleculare of the DG. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the expression of the GABA A R subunits shows brain region- and layer-specific alterations in AD, and these changes could significantly influence and alter GABA A R function in the disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Altered activity and functional connectivity of superior temporal gyri in anxiety disorders: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaohu; Xi, Qian; Wang, Peijun; Li, Chunbo [Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai (China); He, Hongjian [Bio-X lab, Dept. of Physics, Zhe Jiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-08-15

    The prior functional MRI studies have demonstrated significantly abnormal activity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) of anxiety patients. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether the abnormal activity in these regions was related to a loss of functional connectivity between these regions. Ten healthy controls and 10 anxiety patients underwent noninvasive fMRI while actively listening to emotionally neutral words alternated by silence (Task 1) or threat-related words (Task 2). The participants were instructed to silently make a judgment of each word's valence (i.e., unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral). A coherence analysis was applied to the functional MRI data to examine the functional connectivity between the left and the right STG, which was selected as the primary region of interest on the basis of our prior results. The data demonstrated that the anxiety patients exhibited significantly increased activation in the bilateral STG than the normal controls. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that the patient group showed significantly decreased degree of connectivity between the bilateral STG during processing Task 2 compared to Task 1 (t = 2.588, p = 0.029). In addition, a significantly decreased connectivity was also observed in the patient group compared to the control group during processing Task 2 (t = 2.810, p = 0.012). Anxiety patients may exhibit increased activity of the STG but decreased functional connectivity between the left and right STG, which may reflect the underlying neural abnormality of anxiety disorder, and this will provide new insights into this disease.

  1. Altered activity and functional connectivity of superior temporal gyri in anxiety disorders: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaohu; Xi, Qian; Wang, Peijun; Li, Chunbo; He, Hongjian

    2014-01-01

    The prior functional MRI studies have demonstrated significantly abnormal activity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) of anxiety patients. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether the abnormal activity in these regions was related to a loss of functional connectivity between these regions. Ten healthy controls and 10 anxiety patients underwent noninvasive fMRI while actively listening to emotionally neutral words alternated by silence (Task 1) or threat-related words (Task 2). The participants were instructed to silently make a judgment of each word's valence (i.e., unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral). A coherence analysis was applied to the functional MRI data to examine the functional connectivity between the left and the right STG, which was selected as the primary region of interest on the basis of our prior results. The data demonstrated that the anxiety patients exhibited significantly increased activation in the bilateral STG than the normal controls. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that the patient group showed significantly decreased degree of connectivity between the bilateral STG during processing Task 2 compared to Task 1 (t = 2.588, p = 0.029). In addition, a significantly decreased connectivity was also observed in the patient group compared to the control group during processing Task 2 (t = 2.810, p = 0.012). Anxiety patients may exhibit increased activity of the STG but decreased functional connectivity between the left and right STG, which may reflect the underlying neural abnormality of anxiety disorder, and this will provide new insights into this disease.

  2. Poor receptive joint attention skills are associated with atypical gray matter asymmetry in the posterior superior temporal gyrus of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, William D; Misiura, Maria; Reamer, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    and behavioral data on receptive joint attention (RJA) was obtained from a sample of 191 chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees that performed poorly on the RJA task had less GM in the right compared to left hemisphere in the posterior but not anterior superior temporal gyrus. We further found that middle......-aged and elderly chimpanzee performed more poorly on the RJA task and had significantly less GM than young-adult and sub-adult chimpanzees. The results are consistent with previous studies implicating the posterior temporal gyrus in the processing of socially relevant information....

  3. Diminished caudate and superior temporal gyrus responses to effort-based decision making in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-hua; Huang, Jia; Lan, Yong; Zhu, Cui-ying; Liu, Xiao-qun; Wang, Ye-fei; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-01-04

    Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in reward processing, is a hallmark feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), but its underlying neurobiological mechanism is largely unknown. The present study aimed to examine the underlying neural mechanism of reward-related decision-making in patients with MDD. We examined behavioral and neural responses to rewards in patients with first-episode MDD (N=25) and healthy controls (N=25) using the Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). The task involved choices about possible rewards of varying magnitude and probability. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with MDD would exhibit a reduced neural response in reward-related brain structures involved in cost-benefit decision-making. Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD showed significantly weaker responses in the left caudate nucleus when contrasting the 'high reward'-'low reward' condition, and blunted responses in the left superior temporal gyrus and the right caudate nucleus when contrasting high and low probabilities. In addition, hard tasks chosen during high probability trials were negatively correlated with superior temporal gyrus activity in MDD patients, while the same choices were negatively correlated with caudate nucleus activity in healthy controls. These results indicate that reduced caudate nucleus and superior temporal gyrus activation may underpin abnormal cost-benefit decision-making in MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Language development at 2 years is correlated to brain microstructure in the left superior temporal gyrus at term equivalent age: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, Alec; De Tiège, Xavier; Creuzil, Marylise; David, Philippe; Balériaux, Danielle; Van Overmeire, Bart; Metens, Thierry; Van Bogaert, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    This study aims at testing the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental abilities at age 2 years are related with local brain microstructure of preterm infants at term equivalent age. Forty-one preterm infants underwent brain MRI with diffusion tensor imaging sequences to measure mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), longitudinal and transverse diffusivity (λ// and λ[perpendicular]) at term equivalent age. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 2 years corrected age using the Bayley III scale. A voxel-based analysis approach, statistical parametric mapping (SPM8), was used to correlate changes of the Bayley III scores with the regional distribution of MD, FA, λ// and λ[perpendicular]. We found that language abilities are negatively correlated to MD, λ// and λ[perpendicular] in the left superior temporal gyrus in preterm infants. These findings suggest that higher MD, λ// and λ[perpendicular] values at term-equivalent age in the left superior temporal gyrus are associated with poorer language scores in later childhood. Consequently, it highlights the key role of the left superior temporal gyrus for the development of language abilities in children. Further studies are needed to assess on an individual basis and on the long term the prognostic value of brain DTI at term equivalent age for the development of language. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Visualisation of Rouviere’s Sulcus during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabin Bikram Thapa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safe dissection of Calot’s Triangle is important during the performance of laparascopic cholucystectomy. The purpose of the study is to determine the frequency of demonstrable Rouviere’s sulcus in patients with symptomatic gall stones and its role in safe dissection in Calot’s triangle. Methods: This is a prospective descriptive study design done in Department of surgery, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital from Jan 2013 to Jan 2015. Patients who were posted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included. During laparoscopy, Rouviere’s sulcus was noted in the operative note and classified according to following: Type I: Open type was defined as a cleft in which the right hepatic pedicle was visualized and the sulcus was opened throughout its length. Type II: if the sulcus was open only at its lateral end. Type III If the sulcus was open only at its medial end. Type IV: Fused type was defined as one in which the pedicle was not visualized. Results: A total of 200 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy during period of 2 years. Out of which Rouviere’s sulcus was visualized in 150 patients (75 %.Type I (open type was commoner in 54%, type II in 12%, Type III in 9% and type IV (fused type in 25%. Conclusions: Rouviere’s Sulcus is an important extra biliary land mark for safe dissection of Calot’s triangle during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Keywords: Rouviere’s Sulcus, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, bile duct injury.

  6. fMR-adaptation indicates selectivity to audiovisual content congruency in distributed clusters in human superior temporal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Blau, Vera C; Blomert, Leo; Goebel, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Efficient multisensory integration is of vital importance for adequate interaction with the environment. In addition to basic binding cues like temporal and spatial coherence, meaningful multisensory information is also bound together by content-based associations. Many functional

  7. Anhedonia correlates with abnormal functional connectivity of the superior temporal gyrus and the caudate nucleus in patients with first-episode drug-naive major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Tian, Kai; Wang, Dong-Fang; Wang, Yi; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-Rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-08-15

    Recent empirical findings have suggested that imbalanced neural networks may underlie the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the contribution of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the caudate nucleus to its pathophysiology remains unclear. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) date were acquired from 40 patients with first-episode drug-naive MDD and 36 matched healthy controls during wakeful rest. We used whole-brain voxel-wise statistical maps to quantify within-group resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) and between-group differences of bilateral caudate and STG seeds. Compared with healthy controls, first-episode MDD patients were found to have reduced connectivity between the ventral caudate and several brain regions including the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), as well as increased connectivity with the cuneus. We also found increased connectivity between the left STG and the precuneus, the angular gyrus and the cuneus. Moreover, we found that increased anhedonia severity was correlated with the magnitude of ventral caudate functional connectivity with the cuneus and the MTG in MDD patients. Due to our small sample size, we did not correct the statistical threshold in the correlation analyses between clinical variables and connectivity abnormalities. The present study suggests that anhedonia is mainly associated with altered ventral caudate-cortical connectivity and highlights the importance of the ventral caudate in the neurobiology of MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Poor Receptive Joint Attention Skills Are Associated with Atypical Grey Matter Asymmetry in the Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eHopkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental data have implicated the posterior superior temporal gyrus as an important cortical region in the processing of socially relevant stimuli such as gaze following, eye direction, and head orientation. Gaze following and responding to different socio-communicative signals is an important and highly adaptive skill in primates, including humans. Here, we examined whether individual differences in responding to socio-communicative cues was associated with variation in either grey matter volume and asymmetry in a sample of chimpanzees. MRI scans and behavioral data on receptive joint attention (RJA was obtained from a sample of 191 chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees that performed poorly on the RJA task had more rightward asymmetries in the posterior but not anterior superior temporal gyrus. We further found that middle-aged and elderly chimpanzee performed more poorly on the RJA task and had significantly less grey matter than young-adult and sub-adult chimpanzees. The results are consistent with previous studies implicating the posterior temporal gyrus in the processing of socially relevant information.

  9. Poor receptive joint attention skills are associated with atypical gray matter asymmetry in the posterior superior temporal gyrus of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D; Misiura, Maria; Reamer, Lisa A; Schaeffer, Jennifer A; Mareno, Mary C; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and experimental data have implicated the posterior superior temporal gyrus as an important cortical region in the processing of socially relevant stimuli such as gaze following, eye direction, and head orientation. Gaze following and responding to different socio-communicative signals is an important and highly adaptive skill in primates, including humans. Here, we examined whether individual differences in responding to socio-communicative cues was associated with variation in either gray matter (GM) volume and asymmetry in a sample of chimpanzees. Magnetic resonance image scans and behavioral data on receptive joint attention (RJA) was obtained from a sample of 191 chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees that performed poorly on the RJA task had less GM in the right compared to left hemisphere in the posterior but not anterior superior temporal gyrus. We further found that middle-aged and elderly chimpanzee performed more poorly on the RJA task and had significantly less GM than young-adult and sub-adult chimpanzees. The results are consistent with previous studies implicating the posterior temporal gyrus in the processing of socially relevant information.

  10. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: A possible trait marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHoman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The left superior temporal gyrus (STG has been suggested to play a key role in auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Eleven medicated subjects with schizophrenia and medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations and 19 healthy controls underwent perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling. Three additional repeated measurements were conducted in the patients. Patients underwent a treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS between the first 2 measurements. The main outcome measure was the pooled cerebral blood flow (CBF, which consisted of the regional CBF measurement in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG and the global CBF measurement in the whole brain.Results: Regional CBF in the left STG in patients was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.0001 and to the global CBF in patients (p < 0.004 at baseline. Regional CBF in the left STG remained significantly increased compared to the global CBF in patients across time (p < 0.0007, and it remained increased in patients after TMS compared to the baseline CBF in controls (p < 0.0001. After TMS, PANSS (p = 0.003 and PSYRATS (p = 0.01 scores decreased significantly in patients.Conclusions: This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  11. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia: The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Marie-José; van der Meer, Lisette; Bruggeman, Richard; Modinos, Gemma; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2014-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia (SZ) have been proposed to result from abnormal local, interregional and interhemispheric integration of brain signals in regions involved in language production and perception. This abnormal functional integration may find its base in morphological abnormalities. Structurally, AVHs have been frequently linked to abnormal morphology of the superior temporal gyrus (STG), but only a few studies investigated the relation of hallucination presence with both whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) morphometry. Using a unified voxel-based morphometry-DARTEL approach, we investigated correlates of AVH presence in 51 schizophrenia patients (20 non-hallucinating [SZ -], 31 hallucinating [SZ +]), and included 51 age and sex matched healthy participants. Effects are reported at p frontal and right parahippocampal gyrus, and higher WM volume of the left postcentral and superior parietal lobule than controls. Finally, volume of the putamen was lower in SZ + compared to SZ -. No effects on corpus callosum morphometry were observed. Delusion severity, general positive and negative symptomatology illness duration, and medication status could not explain the results. Results suggest that STG GM abnormalities underlie the general susceptibility to experience psychotic symptoms and that additional abnormalities in a network of medial temporal, ventrolateral, putaminal, and parietal regions related to verbal memory and speech production may specifically increase the likelihood of experiencing AVH. Future studies should clarify the meaning of morphometry abnormalities for functional interregional communication.

  12. Upper midbrain profile sign and cingulate sulcus sign. MRI findings on sagittal images in idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus, Alzheimer's disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Michito; Ohshima, Fumi; Kawanami, Toru; Kato, Takeo

    2006-01-01

    On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sagittal sections, we sometimes encounter abnormal aspects of the superior profile of the midbrain and the cingulate sulcus in patients with dementia. In this preliminary study, we refer to these findings as the ''upper midbrain profile sign'' and the cingulate sulcus sign.'' We prospectively evaluated the usefulness of these signs for the diagnosis of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). We evaluated the upper midbrain profile sign and the cingulate sulcus sign on MRI sagittal images obtained from 21 people with headaches but no neurological deficit (controls), 10 iNPH patients, 11 AD patients, and 5 PSP patients. The upper midbrain profile sign indicated a concave shape to the superior profile of the midbrain on mid-sagittal images, and the cingulate sulcus sign indicated a narrow, tight aspect of the posterior part of the cingulate sulcus on paramedian-sagittal images. These signs were never seen in any images from the controls. The upper midbrain profile sign was seen in 7 of 10 patients with iNPH, 5 of 11 with AD, and 3 of 5 with PSP. The cingulate sulcus sign was seen in all 10 patients with iNPH but was never seen in any patient with AD or PSP. The upper midbrain profile sign could support a diagnosis of PSP but cannot discriminate among iNPH, AD, and PSP. In contrast, the cingulate sulcus sign has a very high sensitivity for iNPH and should facilitate the distinction of iNPH from other dementias. In the clinical setting, it is momentous to evaluate these signs easily by one simple MRI sequence. (author)

  13. Monkey’s short-term auditory memory nearly abolished by combined removal of the rostral superior temporal gyrus and rhinal cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jonathan B.; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    While monkeys easily acquire the rules for performing visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample, a method for testing recognition memory, they have extraordinary difficulty acquiring a similar rule in audition. Another striking difference between the modalities is that whereas bilateral ablation of the rhinal cortex (RhC) leads to profound impairment in visual and tactile recognition, the same lesion has no detectable effect on auditory recognition memory (Fritz et al., 2005). In our previous study, a mild impairment in auditory memory was obtained following bilateral ablation of the entire medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the RhC, and an equally mild effect was observed after bilateral ablation of the auditory cortical areas in the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG). In order to test the hypothesis that each of these mild impairments was due to partial disconnection of acoustic input to a common target (e.g., the ventromedial prefrontal cortex), in the current study we examined the effects of a more complete auditory disconnection of this common target by combining the removals of both the rSTG and the MTL. We found that the combined lesion led to forgetting thresholds (performance at 75% accuracy) that fell precipitously from the normal retention duration of ~30–40 seconds to a duration of ~1–2 seconds, thus nearly abolishing auditory recognition memory, and leaving behind only a residual echoic memory. PMID:26707975

  14. Monkey׳s short-term auditory memory nearly abolished by combined removal of the rostral superior temporal gyrus and rhinal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jonathan B; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C

    2016-06-01

    While monkeys easily acquire the rules for performing visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample, a method for testing recognition memory, they have extraordinary difficulty acquiring a similar rule in audition. Another striking difference between the modalities is that whereas bilateral ablation of the rhinal cortex (RhC) leads to profound impairment in visual and tactile recognition, the same lesion has no detectable effect on auditory recognition memory (Fritz et al., 2005). In our previous study, a mild impairment in auditory memory was obtained following bilateral ablation of the entire medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the RhC, and an equally mild effect was observed after bilateral ablation of the auditory cortical areas in the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG). In order to test the hypothesis that each of these mild impairments was due to partial disconnection of acoustic input to a common target (e.g., the ventromedial prefrontal cortex), in the current study we examined the effects of a more complete auditory disconnection of this common target by combining the removals of both the rSTG and the MTL. We found that the combined lesion led to forgetting thresholds (performance at 75% accuracy) that fell precipitously from the normal retention duration of ~30 to 40s to a duration of ~1 to 2s, thus nearly abolishing auditory recognition memory, and leaving behind only a residual echoic memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Pseudohypacusis in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased gray matter volume in the medial frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi; Kinoshita, Sumihito; Korenaga, Yuki; Mabe, Hiroyo

    2012-04-01

    Pseudohypacusis is a somatoform disorder characterized by hearing loss with discrepancies between pure-tone audiometry and auditory brainstem response (ABR), but the underlying neuronal mechanisms remain unclear. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for 14 unmedicated, right-handed patients and 35 healthy control subjects, we investigated whether functional hearing loss was associated with discernible changes of brain morphology. Group differences in gray matter volume (GMV) were assessed using high-resolution, T1-weighted, volumetric MR imaging datasets (3T Trio scanner; Siemens AG) and analyzed with covariant factors of age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and total GMV, which was increased by 27.9% in the left medial frontal gyrus (MFG) (Brodmann area 10) (p=.001, corrected cluster level) and by 14.4% in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the adjacent middle temporal gyrus (MTG) (BA42 to 21) (p=.009, corrected cluster level) in patients with pseudohypacusis. The GMV in the right STG (BA42) and verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) were correlated significantly with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Third Edition (WISC-III) (ß=-.57, p<.0001) and level of SES (ß=-.55, p<.0001). The present findings suggest that the development of the auditory association cortex involved in language processing is affected, causing insufficient pruning during brain development. We therefore assert that differences in the neuroanatomical substrate of pseudohypacusis subjects result from a developmental disorder in auditory processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  16. Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddaert, N.; Poline, J.B.; Brunelle, F.; Zilbovicius, M.; Boddaert, N.; Brunelle, F.; Chabane, N.; Barthelemy, C.; Zilbovicius, M.; Bourgeois, M.; Samson, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Childhood autism is a severe developmental disorder that impairs the acquisition of some of the most important skills in human life. Progress in understanding the neural basis of childhood autism requires clear and reliable data indicating specific neuro-anatomical or neuro-physiological abnormalities. The purpose of the present study was to research localized brain dysfunction in autistic children using functional brain imaging. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in 21 primary autistic children and 10 age-matched non autistic children. A statistical parametric analysis of rCBF images revealed significant bilateral temporal hypoperfusion in the associative auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus) and in the multimodal cortex (superior temporal sulcus) in the autistic group (p<0.001). In addition, temporal hypoperfusion was detected individually in 77% of autistic children. These findings provide robust evidence of well localized functional abnormalities in autistic children located in the superior temporal lobe. Such localized abnormalities were not detected with the low resolution PET camera (14-22). This study suggests that high resolution PET camera combined with statistical parametric mapping is useful to understand developmental disorders. (authors)

  17. What impact does an angry context have upon us? The effect of anger on functional connectivity of the right insula and superior temporal gyri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana eMazzola

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Being in a social world requires an understanding of other people that is co-determined in its meaning by the situation at hand. Therefore, we investigated the underlying neural activation occurring when we encounter someone acting in angry or joyful situation. We hypothesized a dynamic interplay between the right insula, both involved in mapping visceral states associated with emotional experiences and autonomic control, and the bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG, part of the 'social brain’, when facing angry vs joyful situations. Twenty participants underwent a fMRI scanning session while watching video clips of actors grasping objects in joyful and angry situations. The analyses of functional connectivity, psychophysiological interaction (PPI. and dynamic causal modeling (DCM, all revealed changes in functional connectivity associated with the angry situation. Indeed, the DCM model showed that the modulatory effect of anger increased the ipsilateral forward connection from the right insula to the right STG, while it suppressed the contralateral one. Our findings reveal a critical role played by the right insula when we are engaged in angry situations. In addition, they suggest that facing angry people modulates the effective connectivity between these two nodes associated, respectively, with autonomic responses and bodily movements and human-agent motion recognition. Taken together, these results add knowledge to the current understanding of hierarchical brain network for social cognition.

  18. Action word Related to Walk Heard by the Ears Activates Visual Cortex and Superior Temporal Gyrus: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Osaka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience of language of action processing is one of the interesting issues on the cortical “seat” of word meaning and related action (Pulvermueller, 1999 Behavioral Brain Sciences 22 253–336. For example, generation of action verbs referring to various arm or leg actions (e.g., pick or kick differentially activate areas along the motor strip that overlap with those areas activated by actual movement of the fingers or feet (Hauk et al., 2004 Neuron 41 301–307. Meanwhile, mimic words like onomatopoeia have the other potential to selectively and strongly stimulate specific brain regions having a specified “seat” of action meaning. In fact, mimic words highly suggestive of laughter and gaze significantly activated the extrastriate visual /premotor cortices and the frontal eye field, respectively (Osaka et al., 2003 Neuroscience Letters 340 127–130; 2009 Neuroscience Letters 461 65–68. However, the role of a mimic word related to walk on specific brain regions has not yet been investigated. The present study showed that a mimic word highly suggestive of human walking, heard by the ears with eyes closed, significantly activated the visual cortex located in extrastriate cortex and superior temporal gyrus while hearing non-sense words that did not imply walk under the same task did not activate these areas. These areas would be a critical region for generating visual images of walking and related action.

  19. The prevalence of superior semicircular canal dehiscence in conductive and mixed hearing loss in the absence of other pathology using submillimetric temporal bone computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Hen; Rivas-Rodriguez, Francisco; Song, Jae-Jun; Yang, Kyung-Sook; Mukherji, Suresh K

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) and hearing impairment. We retrospectively compared the prevalence of SSCD in the ears classified as conductive hearing loss (CHL), mixed hearing loss (MHL), and normal hearing status using submillimetric temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT) on the basis of coronal and additional reformatted planes dedicated to SSCD. From the patients with CHL (n = 127) and MHL (n = 45), the overall prevalence of SSCD in the ears classified as CHL, MHL, and normal hearing status were 6.6%, 7.2%, and 3.0%, respectively. Furthermore, the odds ratio for SSCD in the absence of any cause of hearing loss (eg, dysfunction of the tympanic membrane or middle ear, TBCT abnormalities, otosclerosis, trauma, surgery) was 5.35 in MHL (4/27; P = 0.037, 95% confidence interval, 1.1-25.81) and 3.31 in CHL (5/61; P = 0.115, 95% confidence interval, 0.75-14.63), compared with normal hearing status. Bony covering of the SSC should be specifically evaluated in patients with hearing impairment using submillimetric TBCT.

  20. Abnormal fatty acid pattern in the superior temporal gyrus distinguishes bipolar disorder from major depression and schizophrenia and resembles multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Rider, Therese; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick

    2014-03-30

    This study investigated the fatty acid composition of the postmortem superior temporal gyrus (STG), a cortical region implicated in emotional processing, from normal controls (n=15) and patients with bipolar disorder (BD, n=15), major depressive disorder (MDD, n=15), and schizophrenia (SZ, n=15). For comparative purposes, STG fatty acid composition was determined in a separate cohort of multiple sclerosis patients (MS, n=15) and normal controls (n=15). Compared with controls, patients with BD, but not MDD or SZ, exhibited abnormal elevations in the saturated fatty acids (SFA) palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) linoleic acid (18:2n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), and reductions in the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) oleic acid (18:1n-9). The total MUFA/SFA and 18:1/18:0 ratios were lower in the STG of BD patients and were inversely correlated with total PUFA composition. MS patients exhibited a pattern of fatty acid abnormalities similar to that observed in BD patients including elevated PUFA and a lower 18:1/18:0 ratio. Collectively, these data demonstrate that BD patients exhibit a pattern of fatty acid abnormalities in the STG that is not observed in MDD and SZ patients and closely resembles MS patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Altered spontaneous activity of posterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal gyrus are associated with a smoking cessation treatment outcome using varenicline revealed by regional homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Shen, Zhujing; Huang, Peiyu; Qian, Wei; Yu, Xinfeng; Sun, Jianzhong; Yu, Hualiang; Yang, Yihong; Zhang, Minming

    2017-06-01

    Compared to nonsmokers, smokers exhibit a number of potentially important differences in regional brain function. However, little is known about the associations between the local spontaneous brain activity and smoking cessation treatment outcomes. In the present analysis, we aimed to evaluate whether the local features of spontaneous brain activity prior to the target quit date was associated with the smoking cessation outcomes. All the participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans and smoking-related behavioral assessments. After a 12-week treatment with varenicline, 23 smokers succeeded in quitting smoking and 32 failed. Smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning prior to an open label smoking cessation treatment trial. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to measure spontaneous brain activity, and whole-brain voxel-wise comparisons of ReHo were performed to detect brain regions with altered spontaneous brain activity between relapser and quitter groups. After controlling for potentially confounding factors including years of education, years smoked, cigarettes smoked per day and FTND score as covariates, compared to quitters, relapsers displayed significantly decreased ReHo in bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), as well as increased ReHo in left superior temporal gyrus (STG). These preliminary results suggest that regional brain function variables may be promising predictors of smoking relapse. This study provided novel insights into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying smoking relapse. A deeper understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms associated with relapse may result in novel pharmacological and behavioral interventions.

  2. Altered Connectivity of the Anterior Cingulate and the Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus in a Longitudinal Study of Later-life Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Harada

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with later-life depression (LLD show abnormal gray matter (GM volume, white matter (WM integrity and functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG, but it remains unclear whether these abnormalities persist over time. We examined whether structural and functional abnormalities in these two regions are present within the same subjects during depressed vs. remitted phases. Sixteen patients with LLD and 30 healthy subjects were studied over a period of 1.5 years. Brain images obtained with a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI system were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry of the GM volume, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional MRI were used to assess ACC–pSTG connectivity. Patients with LLD in the depressed and remitted phases showed significantly smaller GM volume in the left ACC and left pSTG than healthy subjects. Both patients with LLD in the depressed and remitted phases had significantly higher diffusivities in the WM tract of the left ACC–pSTG than healthy subjects. Remitted patients with LLD showed lower functional ACC–pSTG connectivity compared to healthy subjects. No difference was found in the two regions between depressed and remitted patients in GM volume, structural or functional connectivity. Functional ACC–pSTG connectivity was positively correlated with lower global function during remission. Our preliminary data show that structural and functional abnormalities of the ACC and pSTG occur during LLD remission. Our findings tentatively reveal the brain pathophysiology involved in LLD and may aid in developing neuroanatomical biomarkers for this condition.

  3. Real-time fMRI neurofeedback to down-regulate superior temporal gyrus activity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Natasza D; Giampietro, Vincent; O'Daly, Owen; Lam, Sheut-Ling; Barker, Gareth J; Rubia, Katya; McGuire, Philip; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Allen, Paul

    2018-02-12

    Neurocognitive models and previous neuroimaging work posit that auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) arise due to increased activity in speech-sensitive regions of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG). Here, we examined if patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and AVH could be trained to down-regulate STG activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NF). We also examined the effects of rtfMRI-NF training on functional connectivity between the STG and other speech and language regions. Twelve patients with SCZ and treatment-refractory AVH were recruited to participate in the study and were trained to down-regulate STG activity using rtfMRI-NF, over four MRI scanner visits during a 2-week training period. STG activity and functional connectivity were compared pre- and post-training. Patients successfully learnt to down-regulate activity in their left STG over the rtfMRI-NF training. Post- training, patients showed increased functional connectivity between the left STG, the left inferior prefrontal gyrus (IFG) and the inferior parietal gyrus. The post-training increase in functional connectivity between the left STG and IFG was associated with a reduction in AVH symptoms over the training period. The speech-sensitive region of the left STG is a suitable target region for rtfMRI-NF in patients with SCZ and treatment-refractory AVH. Successful down-regulation of left STG activity can increase functional connectivity between speech motor and perception regions. These findings suggest that patients with AVH have the ability to alter activity and connectivity in speech and language regions, and raise the possibility that rtfMRI-NF training could present a novel therapeutic intervention in SCZ.

  4. Altered Connectivity of the Anterior Cingulate and the Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus in a Longitudinal Study of Later-life Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kenichiro; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Nakashima, Mami; Watanuki, Toshio; Hirotsu, Masako; Matsubara, Toshio; Yamagata, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Yoshifumi; Matsuo, Koji

    2018-01-01

    Patients with later-life depression (LLD) show abnormal gray matter (GM) volume, white matter (WM) integrity and functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), but it remains unclear whether these abnormalities persist over time. We examined whether structural and functional abnormalities in these two regions are present within the same subjects during depressed vs. remitted phases. Sixteen patients with LLD and 30 healthy subjects were studied over a period of 1.5 years. Brain images obtained with a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry of the GM volume, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI were used to assess ACC-pSTG connectivity. Patients with LLD in the depressed and remitted phases showed significantly smaller GM volume in the left ACC and left pSTG than healthy subjects. Both patients with LLD in the depressed and remitted phases had significantly higher diffusivities in the WM tract of the left ACC-pSTG than healthy subjects. Remitted patients with LLD showed lower functional ACC-pSTG connectivity compared to healthy subjects. No difference was found in the two regions between depressed and remitted patients in GM volume, structural or functional connectivity. Functional ACC-pSTG connectivity was positively correlated with lower global function during remission. Our preliminary data show that structural and functional abnormalities of the ACC and pSTG occur during LLD remission. Our findings tentatively reveal the brain pathophysiology involved in LLD and may aid in developing neuroanatomical biomarkers for this condition.

  5. A case of double depressor palsy followed by pursuit deficit due to sequential infarction in bilateral thalamus and right medial superior temporal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Yeom, Myeong In; Lee, Seung Uk

    2017-12-01

    We present a unique case of a patient who suffered two rare events affecting the supranuclear control, first of the vertical and second of the horizontal eye movements. The first event involved bilateral thalamic infarcts that resulted in double depressor palsy. The second event occurred 1 year later and it involved supranuclear control of horizontal eye movements creating pursuit deficit. A 47-year-old male presented with complaints of diplopia upon awakening. He had atrial fibrillation, mitral valve regurgitation, aortic valve regurgitation, and a history of spleen infarction 1 year ago. His right eye was hypertrophic and right eye downgaze was limited unilaterally of equal degree in adduction and abduction. The patient was diagnosed with double depressor palsy of the right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed an old infarction of the left thalamus, and diffusion MRI showed acute infarction of the right thalamus. The patient's daily warfarin dose was 2 mg and it was increased to 5 mg with cilostazol 75 mg twice a day. Seven weeks later, the patient's ocular movement revealed near normal muscle action, and subjectively, the patient was diplopia free. At follow-up 12 months later, the patient revisited the hospital because of sudden onset of blurred vision on right gaze. He was observed to have smooth pursuit deficit to the right side, and orthophoric position of the eyes in primary gaze. MRI of the brain showed an acute infarction in the right medial superior temporal area. The patient experienced very rare abnormal eyeball movements twice. This case highlights the importance of evaluating vertical movement of the eyes and vascular supplies when patients present with depressor deficit and supports the theory of a supranuclear function in patients who present with pursuit deficit.

  6. Superior intraparietal sulcus controls the variability of visual working memory precision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galeano Weber, E.M.; Peters, B.; Hahn, T.; Bledowski, C.; Fiebach, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Limitations of working memory (WM) capacity depend strongly on the cognitive resources that are available for maintaining WM contents in an activated state. Increasing the number of items to be maintained in WM was shown to reduce the precision of WM and to increase the variability of WM precision

  7. The Spatial Distribution of Thermal Emission from Baghdad Sulcus, Enceladus, at 100 meter Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John R.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Howett, C. J. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Albright, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has been observing endogenic thermal emission from the south pole of Enceladus since 2005. Best spatial resolution from conventional scans is about 1km, usually from distances > 2000 km. When Cassini is closer to Enceladus, the spacecraft cannot rotate fast enough to track the surface, and the 5 seconds required to obtain a CIRS spectrum produces many kilometers of smear. However, higher-resolution mapping can be done from much closer range by exploiting the 20 msec sampling of the CIRS raw interferograms. On April 14th 2012, Cassini made a gravity pass of Enceladus at a range of 74 km. Spacecraft orientation was inertially fixed, and chosen so that the active tiger stripe Baghdad Sulcus passed through the CIRS and VIMS fields of view during the flyby. In the 7 to 17 µm region, CIRS uses linear arrays of ten detectors with IFOV of 0.29 mrad, which were oriented roughly perpendicular to the groundtrack and operated in pairs, giving five cross-track spatial resolution elements, each 43 meters wide. Along-track spatial resolution, defined by the 20 msec interferogram sampling time and the flyby speed of 7.5 km/sec, was 150 meters. At longer wavelengths, CIRS obtained a single-detector scan with a spatial resolution of 300 meters. The brief passage of the intense tiger stripe thermal emission through the field of view produced complex spikes in the CIRS interferograms. Though spectra cannot be reconstructed, we can use knowledge of the interferogram temporal response to reconstruct the time history of the incoming radiation and thus its spatial distribution. The resulting image will map tiger stripe thermal emission along a small part of Baghdad Sulcus at about ten times the spatial resolution of the best previous Cassini thermal images.

  8. Deep and shallow forms of the sulcus for extensor carpi ulnaris.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, T; Hojo, T; Furukawa, H

    1993-01-01

    Anatomical variations in the sulcus for the tendon of extensor carpi ulnaris were studied in 240 upper limbs. The sulcus lies between the head and the styloid process on the dorsal surface of the distal end of the ulna. This groove has deep and shallow forms and, rarely, a flat form. The sulcus was classified into 4 grades according to its depth. Grade I, a deep sulcus, was found in 51.3%. Grades II and III are shallow, but the styloid process in grade II is more prominent than in grade III. ...

  9. Pneumopericardium and Deep Sulcus Sign After Blunt Chest Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Tarladacalisir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pneumopericardium is defined as air between the leaves of the pericardium, which is usually self-limited. In tension pneumopericardium, however, rapid fluid resuscitation and haemodynamic monitoring followed by pericardial fenestration and drainage should be performed. A 49-year-old male falling from height was brought to the emergency room. On chest X-ray in supine position, a deep sulcus sign and subcutaneous emphysema with multiple rib fractures were detected. At computerized tomography, pericardial free air, right pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema were detected. A tube thoracostomy was applied to the patient. During follow-up with cardiac enzymes in the intensive care unit, no tension pneumopericardium developed, and subcutaneous emphysema regressed. A control computerized tomography scan showed a complete regression in the pneumopericardium on the tenth day.

  10. SULCUS TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE ABSENCE AND PRESENCE OF ORAL HYGIENE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PERDOK, JF; LUKACOVIC, M; MAJETI, S; ARENDS, J; BUSSCHER, HJ

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using sulcus temperature measurements as an early indicator for the beginning of gingival inflammation. Sulcus temperature distributions over the arches appeared to obey a quadratic polynomial. With a test group of 10 volunteers, all dental students,

  11. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia: The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-José van Tol

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: Results suggest that STG GM abnormalities underlie the general susceptibility to experience psychotic symptoms and that additional abnormalities in a network of medial temporal, ventrolateral, putaminal, and parietal regions related to verbal memory and speech production may specifically increase the likelihood of experiencing AVH. Future studies should clarify the meaning of morphometry abnormalities for functional interregional communication.

  12. Time Course of the Involvement of the Right Anterior Superior Temporal Gyrus and the Right Fronto-Parietal Operculum in Emotional Prosody Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekert, Marjolijn; Bais, Leonie; Kahn, Rene S.; Aleman, Andre

    2008-01-01

    In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody) conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional

  13. Task-dependent modulation of regions in the left temporal cortex during auditory sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linjun; Yue, Qiuhai; Zhang, Yang; Shu, Hua; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have revealed the essential role of the left lateral temporal cortex in auditory sentence comprehension along with evidence of the functional specialization of the anterior and posterior temporal sub-areas. However, it is unclear whether task demands (e.g., active vs. passive listening) modulate the functional specificity of these sub-areas. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we addressed this issue by applying both independent component analysis (ICA) and general linear model (GLM) methods. Consistent with previous studies, intelligible sentences elicited greater activity in the left lateral temporal cortex relative to unintelligible sentences. Moreover, responses to intelligibility in the sub-regions were differentially modulated by task demands. While the overall activation patterns of the anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (STS/MTG) were equivalent during both passive and active tasks, a middle portion of the STS/MTG was found to be selectively activated only during the active task under a refined analysis of sub-regional contributions. Our results not only confirm the critical role of the left lateral temporal cortex in auditory sentence comprehension but further demonstrate that task demands modulate functional specialization of the anterior-middle-posterior temporal sub-areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Temporal lobe sulcal pattern and the bony impressions in the middle cranial fossa: the case of the el Sidrón (Spain) neandertal sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Antonio; Peña-Melián, Angel; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; De La Rasilla, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Correspondence between temporal lobe sulcal pattern and bony impressions on the middle cranial fossae (MCF) was analyzed. MCF bone remains (SD-359, SD-315, and SD-1219) from the El Sidrón (Spain) neandertal site are analyzed in this context. Direct comparison of the soft and hard tissues from the same individual was studied by means of: 1) dissection of two human heads; 2) optic (white light) surface scans; 3) computed tomography and magnetic resonance of the same head. The inferior temporal sulcus and gyrus are the features most strongly influencing MCF bone surface. The Superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal and fusiform gyri also leave imprints. Temporal lobe form differs between Homo sapiens and neandertals. A wider and larger post-arcuate fossa (posterior limit of Brodmann area 20 and the anterior portion of area 37) is present in modern humans as compared to neandertals. However other traits of the MCF surface are similar in these two large-brained human groups. A conspicuous variation is appreciated in the more vertical location of the inferior temporal gyrus in H. sapiens. In parallel, structures of the lower surface of the temporal lobe are more sagittally orientated. Grooves accommodating the fusiform and the lower temporal sulci become grossly parallel to the temporal squama. These differences can be understood within the context of a supero-lateral deployment of the lobe in H. sapiens, a pattern previously identified (Bastir et al., Nat Commun 2 (2011) 588-595). Regarding dural sinus pattern, a higher incidence of petrosquamous sinus is detected in neandertal samples. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Surgical treatment of gliomas involving the supplementary motor area in the superior frontal gyrus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Lai, Jian-jun; Qu, Yuan-ming

    2004-07-07

    To explore surgical treatment of gliomas involving the supplementary motor area (SMA) in the superior frontal gyrus. Clinical data and follow-up outcome of 16 patients with low graded astrocytomas involving the supplementary motor area were analyzed. SMA syndrome was developed in 6 patients in whom the posterior tumor resection line was at a distance of more than 1 cm from the precentral sulcus and resolved after 12 months. Hemiplegia occurred however in 8 patients in whom the resection line was less than 1 cm to precentral sulcus and only resolved in 3 patients during follow period 12 months. When the resection is performed at a distance of less than 1 cm from the precentral sulcus, surgery for gliomas of involving the supplementary motor area in the superior frontal gyrus may be result in permanent morbidity.

  16. [Identification of the central sulcus using magnetoencephalography and neuronavigator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, E; Mayanagi, Y; Kaneko, Y

    1993-11-01

    The brain-generated currents that produce potentials measured by the electroencephalogram also produce magnetic fields which can be measured by the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), N 20 compatible evoked field after median nerve stimulation is known to be generated in primary sensory cortex. Using MEG with 37 channel SQUIDs, a current dipole is back traced which corresponds to the sensory cortex. When the dipole is projected onto the MRI of the same patient, the primary sensory cortex is precisely identified in the MRI images. These data were used as the key images for navigator enabling a surgeon identify the central cortex in the surgical field. Seven patients with peri-central mass lesion (3 meningiomas, 1 metastatic tumors, 1 angiomas, 2 gliomas) underwent surgery under MEG-navigator method. In every case, the central sulcus and motor cortex were easily identified on the cortex and the tumor was removed as far as possible preserving the motor strip. There were no postoperative worsening of the motor paresis and no other complications were noticed. The method which combines the MEG functional mapping and navigator was considered to be a powerful tool in surgery of the pericentral mass lesions.

  17. Optimization of CMOS image sensor utilizing variable temporal multisampling partial transfer technique to achieve full-frame high dynamic range with superior low light and stop motion capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Salman; Smith, Craig; Armstrong, Frank; Barnard, Gerrit; Schneider, Alex; Guidash, Michael; Vogelsang, Thomas; Endsley, Jay

    2018-03-01

    Differential binary pixel technology is a threshold-based timing, readout, and image reconstruction method that utilizes the subframe partial charge transfer technique in a standard four-transistor (4T) pixel CMOS image sensor to achieve a high dynamic range video with stop motion. This technology improves low light signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by up to 21 dB. The method is verified in silicon using a Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company's 65 nm 1.1 μm pixel technology 1 megapixel test chip array and is compared with a traditional 4 × oversampling technique using full charge transfer to show low light SNR superiority of the presented technology.

  18. Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study; Dysfonctionnement bitemporal dans l'autisme infantile: etude en tomographie par emission de positons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boddaert, N; Poline, J B; Brunelle, F; Zilbovicius, M [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, ER-M INSERM 0205, DSV, DRM CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Brunelle, F [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Necker-Enfants-Malades, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, 75 - Paris (France); Chabane, N [Hopital Robert-Debre, Service de Pedopsychiatrie, 75 - Paris (France); Barthelemy, C; Zilbovicius, M [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bretonneau, INSERM Unite 316, 37 - Tours (France); Bourgeois, M [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Necker-Enfants-Malades, Dept. de Pediatrie, 75 - Paris (France); Samson, Y [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pitie-Salpetriere, Service des Urgences Cerebraux Vasculaires, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-12-01

    Childhood autism is a severe developmental disorder that impairs the acquisition of some of the most important skills in human life. Progress in understanding the neural basis of childhood autism requires clear and reliable data indicating specific neuro-anatomical or neuro-physiological abnormalities. The purpose of the present study was to research localized brain dysfunction in autistic children using functional brain imaging. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in 21 primary autistic children and 10 age-matched non autistic children. A statistical parametric analysis of rCBF images revealed significant bilateral temporal hypoperfusion in the associative auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus) and in the multimodal cortex (superior temporal sulcus) in the autistic group (p<0.001). In addition, temporal hypoperfusion was detected individually in 77% of autistic children. These findings provide robust evidence of well localized functional abnormalities in autistic children located in the superior temporal lobe. Such localized abnormalities were not detected with the low resolution PET camera (14-22). This study suggests that high resolution PET camera combined with statistical parametric mapping is useful to understand developmental disorders. (authors)

  19. Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study; Dysfonctionnement bitemporal dans l'autisme infantile: etude en tomographie par emission de positons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boddaert, N.; Poline, J.B.; Brunelle, F.; Zilbovicius, M. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, ER-M INSERM 0205, DSV, DRM CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Brunelle, F. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Necker-Enfants-Malades, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, 75 - Paris (France); Chabane, N. [Hopital Robert-Debre, Service de Pedopsychiatrie, 75 - Paris (France); Barthelemy, C.; Zilbovicius, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bretonneau, INSERM Unite 316, 37 - Tours (France); Bourgeois, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Necker-Enfants-Malades, Dept. de Pediatrie, 75 - Paris (France); Samson, Y. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pitie-Salpetriere, Service des Urgences Cerebraux Vasculaires, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-12-01

    Childhood autism is a severe developmental disorder that impairs the acquisition of some of the most important skills in human life. Progress in understanding the neural basis of childhood autism requires clear and reliable data indicating specific neuro-anatomical or neuro-physiological abnormalities. The purpose of the present study was to research localized brain dysfunction in autistic children using functional brain imaging. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in 21 primary autistic children and 10 age-matched non autistic children. A statistical parametric analysis of rCBF images revealed significant bilateral temporal hypoperfusion in the associative auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus) and in the multimodal cortex (superior temporal sulcus) in the autistic group (p<0.001). In addition, temporal hypoperfusion was detected individually in 77% of autistic children. These findings provide robust evidence of well localized functional abnormalities in autistic children located in the superior temporal lobe. Such localized abnormalities were not detected with the low resolution PET camera (14-22). This study suggests that high resolution PET camera combined with statistical parametric mapping is useful to understand developmental disorders. (authors)

  20. The effect of handedness on the shape of the central sulcus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhong Yi; Klöppel, Stefan; Rivière, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Sinistrals differ from dextrals in the size of certain cortical folds. For instance, handedness has an impact on central sulcus surface area: the sulcus is larger in the dominant left hemisphere of dextrals and vice versa for sinistrals. However, the impact of handedness on the shape of the centr...... an accumulated record of both innate biases and early developmental experience. Characterizing normal variation of cortical morphology provides a means of systematically correlating behavior with cortical development....

  1. Effect of voice therapy in sulcus vocalis: A single case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajasudhakar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulcus vocalis is a structural deformity of the vocal ligament. It is the focal invagination of the epithelium deeply attaching to the vocal ligament. There is a dearth of literature on the outcome of voice therapy in sulcus vocalis condition.Objective: The primary objective of this study was to document voice characteristics of sulcus vocalis and the secondary objective was to establish the efficacy of voice therapy in a patient with sulcus vocalis.Method: A trial of voice therapy was given to the client who was diagnosed as having sulcus vocalis. Boon’s facilitation techniques were used in voice therapy along with other techniques such as breath holding and push and pull approach prior to surgery. Acoustic, aerodynamic, perceptual, quantitative measures of voice quality and self-rating measurements were performed before and after voice therapy.Results: Improvement was noticed in 10/10 acoustic, 4/4 aerodynamic, perceptual, dysphonia severity index and voice handicap index scores, which hinted that voice therapy can be an option critically for clients with sulcus vocalis in the initial stage.Conclusion: Voice therapy showed promising improvement in the study and it must be recommended as the initial treatment option before any surgical management.

  2. Task-modulated activation and functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas during speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Q; Zhang, L; Xu, G; Shu, H; Li, P

    2013-05-01

    There is general consensus in the literature that a distributed network of temporal and frontal brain areas is involved in speech comprehension. However, how active versus passive tasks modulate the activation and the functional connectivity of the critical brain areas is not clearly understood. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify intelligibility and task-related effects in speech comprehension. Participants performed a semantic judgment task on normal and time-reversed sentences, or passively listened to the sentences without making an overt response. The subtraction analysis demonstrated that passive sentence comprehension mainly engaged brain areas in the left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG), whereas active sentence comprehension recruited bilateral frontal regions in addition to the aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG regions. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that during passive sentence comprehension, the left aSTS/MTG was functionally connected with the left Heschl's gyrus (HG) and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) but no area was functionally connected with the left pSTS/MTG; during active sentence comprehension, however, both the left aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG were functionally connected with bilateral superior temporal and inferior frontal areas. While these results are consistent with the view that the ventral stream of the temporo-frontal network subserves semantic processing, our findings further indicate that both the activation and the functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas are modulated by task demands. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytoarchitectonic identification and probabilistic mapping of two distinct areas within the anterior ventral bank of the human intraparietal sulcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hi-Jae; Zilles, Karl; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Schleicher, Axel; Fink, Gereon R.; Armstrong, Este; Amunts, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Anatomical studies in the macaque cortex and functional imaging studies in humans have demonstrated the existence of different cortical areas within the IntraParietal Sulcus (IPS). Such functional segregation, however, does not correlate with presently available architectonic maps of the human brain. This is particularly true for the classical Brodmann map, which is still widely used as an anatomical reference in functional imaging studies. The aim of this cytoarchitectonic mapping study was to use previously defined algorithms to determine whether consistent regions and borders can be found within the cortex of the anterior IPS in a population of ten postmortem human brains. Two areas, the human IntraParietal area 1 (hIP1) and the human IntraParietal area 2 (hIP2), were delineated in serial histological sections of the anterior, lateral bank of the human IPS. The region hIP1 is located posterior and medial to hIP2, and the former is always within the depths of the IPS. The latter, on the other hand, sometimes reaches the free surface of the superior parietal lobule. The delineations were registered to standard reference space, and probabilistic maps were calculated, thereby quantifying the intersubject variability in location and extent of both areas. In the future, they can be a tool in analyzing structure – function relationships and a basis for determining degrees of homology in the IPS among anthropoid primates. We conclude that the human intraparietal sulcus has a finer grained parcellation than shown in Brodmann’s map. PMID:16432904

  4. A computational model of fMRI activity in the intraparietal sulcus that supports visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domijan, Dražen

    2011-12-01

    A computational model was developed to explain a pattern of results of fMRI activation in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) supporting visual working memory for multiobject scenes. The model is based on the hypothesis that dendrites of excitatory neurons are major computational elements in the cortical circuit. Dendrites enable formation of a competitive queue that exhibits a gradient of activity values for nodes encoding different objects, and this pattern is stored in working memory. In the model, brain imaging data are interpreted as a consequence of blood flow arising from dendritic processing. Computer simulations showed that the model successfully simulates data showing the involvement of inferior IPS in object individuation and spatial grouping through representation of objects' locations in space, along with the involvement of superior IPS in object identification through representation of a set of objects' features. The model exhibits a capacity limit due to the limited dynamic range for nodes and the operation of lateral inhibition among them. The capacity limit is fixed in the inferior IPS regardless of the objects' complexity, due to the normalization of lateral inhibition, and variable in the superior IPS, due to the different encoding demands for simple and complex shapes. Systematic variation in the strength of self-excitation enables an understanding of the individual differences in working memory capacity. The model offers several testable predictions regarding the neural basis of visual working memory.

  5. Sulcus depth reproduction with polyvinyl siloxane impression material: effects of hydrophilicity and impression temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidekazu; Finger, Werner J; Kurokawa, Rie; Furukawa, Masae; Komatsu, Masashi

    2010-03-01

    To determine the sulcus penetration ability of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression materials by impression technique, temperature, and sulcus width. Hydrophilic Flexitime (FLE; Heraeus Kulzer) and its hydrophobic counterpart (EXP) without surfactant were investigated, using light (L), monophase (M), and heavy (H) consistencies. A truncated steel cone surrounded by a 2-mm-deep and 50-, 100-, or 200-microm-wide sulcus, simulating the gingival tissue with agar, served as the test model. Impressions were made with single-mix (L or M) and double-mix (LM or LH) techniques at 23 degrees C and 37 degrees C, respectively. The reproduced sulcus heights were measured with a 3D laser scanner. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey HSD (P 1.9 mm); FLE-M, -LM, and-LH reproductions were shorter with narrow sulci. Reproductions of 50- and 100-microm sulci with EXP-L were shallower than with FLE-L. The shortest reproduction was, however, greater than 1.6 mm. In spite of some significant differences found in sulcus-reproducing ability with hydrophilic and hydrophobic impression materials applied at different impression-making temperatures and with different techniques, the practical relevance is limited.

  6. Dual Endotemponade for Extensive Long-standing Cyclodialysis Using Sulcus-fixated Cionni Ring and PCIOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha; Sagar, Pradeep; Gogia, Varun; Khokhar, Sudarshan; Dada, Tanuj

    2016-03-01

    A young patient presented with visual acuity of hand movements only, unrecordable intraocular pressure, and total cataract after trauma 12 months ago. She reported failure to improve with conservative therapy as well as a direct cycloplexy elsewhere. After cleft localization on preoperative gonioscopy, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and intraoperative gonioscopy, a partial-thickness scleral flap was fashioned at the site of maximum cleft height. Following phacoaspiration, a multipiece intraocular lens was implanted in the sulcus; its haptics aligned to the axis with maximum height of cyclodialysis. A Cionni ring placed in sulcus was sutured to sclera under the flap to provide additional tamponading effect. Postoperative UBM and gonioscopy confirmed cleft closure. Normalization of intraocular pressure was found on repeated follow-ups till 1 year (12 to 14 mm Hg). UBM showed increase in sulcus diameter, and "double indentation sign" on the ciliary body.

  7. Functional differentiation of macaque visual temporal cortical neurons using a parametric action space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeneugden, Joris; Pollick, Frank; Vogels, Rufin

    2009-03-01

    Neurons in the rostral superior temporal sulcus (STS) are responsive to displays of body movements. We employed a parametric action space to determine how similarities among actions are represented by visual temporal neurons and how form and motion information contributes to their responses. The stimulus space consisted of a stick-plus-point-light figure performing arm actions and their blends. Multidimensional scaling showed that the responses of temporal neurons represented the ordinal similarity between these actions. Further tests distinguished neurons responding equally strongly to static presentations and to actions ("snapshot" neurons), from those responding much less strongly to static presentations, but responding well when motion was present ("motion" neurons). The "motion" neurons were predominantly found in the upper bank/fundus of the STS, and "snapshot" neurons in the lower bank of the STS and inferior temporal convexity. Most "motion" neurons showed strong response modulation during the course of an action, thus responding to action kinematics. "Motion" neurons displayed a greater average selectivity for these simple arm actions than did "snapshot" neurons. We suggest that the "motion" neurons code for visual kinematics, whereas the "snapshot" neurons code for form/posture, and that both can contribute to action recognition, in agreement with computation models of action recognition.

  8. Sulcus reproduction with elastomeric impression materials: a new in vitro testing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Werner J; Kurokawa, Rie; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Komatsu, Masashi

    2008-12-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the depth reproduction of differently wide sulci with elastomeric impression materials by single- and double-mix techniques using a tooth and sulcus model, simulating clinical conditions. Impressions with one vinyl polysiloxane (VPS; FLE), two polyethers (PE; IMP and P2), and one hybrid VPS/PE elastomer (FUS) were taken from a truncated steel cone with a circumferential 2 mm deep sulcus, 50, 100 or 200 microm wide. The "root surface" was in steel and the "periodontal tissue" in reversible hydrocolloid. Single-mix impressions were taken with light-body (L) or monophase (M) pastes, double-mix impressions with L as syringe and M or heavy-body (H) as tray materials (n=8). Sulcus reproduction was determined by 3D laser topography of impressions at eight locations, 45 degrees apart. Statistical data analysis by ANOVA and multiple comparison tests (pimpression materials only: FLE=IMP>FUS=P2. At 50 and 100 microm width, significant differences were found between materials (IMP>FUS=FLE>P2) and techniques (L+H=L+M>M>L). The sulcus model is considered useful for screening evaluation of elastomeric impression materials ability to reproduce narrow sulci. All tested materials and techniques reproduced 200 microm wide sulci to almost nominal depth. Irrespective of the impression technique used, IMP showed the best penetration ability in 50 and 100 microm sulci. Double-mix techniques are more suitable to reproduce narrow sulci than single-mix techniques.

  9. The influence of sulcus width on simulated electric fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, A M; Rampersad, S M; Stegeman, D F; Oostendorp, T F; Lucka, F; Lanfer, B; Aydin, Ü; Wolters, C H; Lew, S

    2013-01-01

    Volume conduction models can help in acquiring knowledge about the distribution of the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. One aspect of a detailed model is an accurate description of the cortical surface geometry. Since its estimation is difficult, it is important to know how accurate the geometry has to be represented. Previous studies only looked at the differences caused by neglecting the complete boundary between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and grey matter (Thielscher et al 2011 NeuroImage 54 234–43, Bijsterbosch et al 2012 Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 50 671–81), or by resizing the whole brain (Wagner et al 2008 Exp. Brain Res. 186 539–50). However, due to the high conductive properties of the CSF, it can be expected that alterations in sulcus width can already have a significant effect on the distribution of the electric field. To answer this question, the sulcus width of a highly realistic head model, based on T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, was altered systematically. This study shows that alterations in the sulcus width do not cause large differences in the majority of the electric field values. However, considerable overestimation of sulcus width produces an overestimation of the calculated field strength, also at locations distant from the target location. (paper)

  10. The influence of sulcus width on simulated electric fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, A. M.; Rampersad, S. M.; Lucka, F.; Lanfer, B.; Lew, S.; Aydin, Ü.; Wolters, C. H.; Stegeman, D. F.; Oostendorp, T. F.

    2013-07-01

    Volume conduction models can help in acquiring knowledge about the distribution of the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. One aspect of a detailed model is an accurate description of the cortical surface geometry. Since its estimation is difficult, it is important to know how accurate the geometry has to be represented. Previous studies only looked at the differences caused by neglecting the complete boundary between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and grey matter (Thielscher et al 2011 NeuroImage 54 234-43, Bijsterbosch et al 2012 Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 50 671-81), or by resizing the whole brain (Wagner et al 2008 Exp. Brain Res. 186 539-50). However, due to the high conductive properties of the CSF, it can be expected that alterations in sulcus width can already have a significant effect on the distribution of the electric field. To answer this question, the sulcus width of a highly realistic head model, based on T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, was altered systematically. This study shows that alterations in the sulcus width do not cause large differences in the majority of the electric field values. However, considerable overestimation of sulcus width produces an overestimation of the calculated field strength, also at locations distant from the target location.

  11. Characterization of Vocal Fold Vibration in Sulcus Vocalis Using High-Speed Digital Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Tayama, Niro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize vocal fold vibrations in sulcus vocalis by high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and to clarify the correlations between HSDI-derived parameters and traditional vocal parameters. Method: HSDI was performed in 20 vocally healthy subjects (8 men and 12 women) and…

  12. Is the omega sign a reliable landmark for the neurosurgical team? An anatomical study about the central sulcus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe central sulcus region is an eloquent area situated between the frontal and parietal lobes. During neurosurgical procedures, it is sometimes difficult to understand the cortical anatomy of this region.Objective Find alternative ways to anatomically navigate in this region during neurosurgical procedures.Method We analyzed eighty two human hemispheres using a surgical microscope and completed a review of the literature about central sulcus region.Results In 68/82 hemispheres, the central sulcus did not reach the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. A knob on the second curve of the precentral gyrus was reliably identified in only 64/82 hemispheres.Conclusion The morphometric data presented in this article can be useful as supplementary method to identify the central sulcus region landmarks.

  13. Variation in functional connectivity along anterior-to-posterior intraparietal sulcus, and relationship with age across late childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Vinette

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a region in the dorsal attention network (DAN, has been implicated in multi-sensory attention and working memory. Working memory and attention develop across childhood; changes in functional connectivity within the DAN may relate to this maturation. Previous findings regarding fronto-parietal intrinsic functional connectivity age-effects were mixed. Our study aimed to circumvent limitations of previous work using a large cross-sectional sample, 183 typically developing participants 6.5–20 years, from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange, and seed regions along the anterior-to-posterior axis of the IPS. These seeds, IPS0-4, were entered into functional connectivity models. Group-level models investigated differential connectivity along the IPS and relationships with age. Anterior IPS3/4 exhibited greater connectivity with sensorimotor/pre-motor regions. Posterior IPS0/1 demonstrated greater connectivity with dorsal and ventral visual regions. Positive age-effects were found between IPS3-4 and visual regions. Negative age-effects were found between IPS and superior parietal and medial orbitofrontal cortices. Follow-up region of interest analyses were used to estimate age-effects for DAN and anticorrelated default mode network regions. Results suggest age-effects on IPS functional connectivity are relatively modest, and may differ pre- and across-adolescence. Studying typical age-related connectivity variability within this network may help to understand neurodevelopmental disorders marked by impaired attention.

  14. Feasibility of Using Ultrasonography to Establish Relationships Among Sacral Base Position, Sacral Sulcus Depth, Body Mass Index, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Michael D; Kondrashova, Tatyana; Johnson, Jane C

    2015-11-01

    Identifying relationships among anatomical structures is key in diagnosing somatic dysfunction. Ultrasonography can be used to visualize anatomical structures, identify sacroiliac landmarks, and validate anatomical findings and measurements in relation to somatic dysfunction. As part of the osteopathic manipulative medicine course at A.T. Still University-Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, first-year students are trained to use ultrasonography to establish relationships among musculoskeletal structures. To determine the ability of first-year osteopathic medical students to establish sacral base position (SBP) and sacral sulcus depth (SSD) using ultrasonography and to identify the relationship of SBP and SSD to body mass index (BMI) and sex. Students used ultrasonography to obtain the distance between the skin and the sacral base (the SBP) and the distance between the skin and the tip of the posterior superior iliac spine bilaterally. Next, students calculated the SSD (the distance between the tip of the posterior superior iliac spine and the SBP). Data were analyzed with respect to side of the body, BMI, sex, and age. The BMI data were subdivided into normal (18-25 mg/kg) and overweight (25-30 mg/kg) groups. Ultrasound images of 211 students were included in the study. The SBP was not significantly different between the left and right sides (36.5 mm vs 36.5 mm; P=.95) but was significantly different between normal and overweight BMI categories (33.0 mm vs 40.0 mm; Psex may point to more soft tissue overlaying the sacrum in these groups. Further research is needed on the use of ultrasonography to establish criteria for somatic dysfunction.

  15. Three interesting cases of gyral infarction as detected by CT in the vicinity of the central sulcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiguchi, Susumu; Kurashima, Akihiko; Tsuchiya, Toshiaki; Ito, Jusuke

    1986-01-01

    In most cases of senile brain, the arrangement of the cerebral sulci and gyri of the superior surface of the hemisphere is well demonstrated by thin-sectioned CT. In these cases, it is not very difficult to identify the cortical gyri anatomically. We experienced three interesting cases with a small gyral infarction in the vicinity of the central sulcus (Roland). The lesions were detected and their anatomical localizations were precisely identified by CT, and they correlated well with their clinical findings. In Case 1, who suddenly developed clumsiness of the left hand, neurological findings were confined to her left hand, where a marked impairment of the combined sensation and position sense was found. However, there was no weakness or impaired vibration sense or disturbed superficial sensation. Since vibratory appreciation is seldom disturbed by lesions above the level of the thalamus, and since the combined sensation and joint sense were selectively impaired in this case, a lesion in the right parietal lobe was suggested. CT scan revealed a small gyral infarction which was strictly confined to the right postcentral gyrus. Case 2, developed weakness of the left hand. He could not extend the wrist against gravity, but dorsiflexion of the wrist could be elicited by grasping. Weakness was confined to his left hand, and there was no sensory disturbance. Neurological findings suggested a small cortical infraction in the right precentral gyrus. CT showed a small lesion just under the right precentral gyrus, where the cortical representation of the hand was thought to be arranged. In Case 3, who developed an adversive seizure, CT clearly demonstrated a lesion in the contralateral premotor area. Our method of the anatomical identification of the sulci and the gyri of the superior surface of the cerebral hemisphere was described. (author)

  16. A model for predicting sulcus-to-sulcus diameter in posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens candidates: correlation between ocular biometric parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Mohammad; Abdi-Shahshahani, Mehdi; Peyman, Alireza; Pourazizi, Mohsen

    2018-02-21

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between ocular biometric parameters and sulcus-to-sulcus (STS) diameter. This was a cross-sectional study of preoperative ocular biometry data of patients who were candidates for phakic intraocular lens (IOL) surgery. Subjects underwent ocular biometry analysis, including refraction error evaluation using an autorefractor and Orbscan topography for white-to-white (WTW) corneal diameter and measurement. Pentacam was used to perform WTW corneal diameter and measurements of minimum and maximum keratometry (K). Measurements of STS and angle-to-angle (ATA) were obtained using a 50-MHz B-mode ultrasound device. Anterior optical coherence tomography was performed for anterior chamber depth measurement. Pearson's correlation test and stepwise linear regression analysis were used to find a model to predict STS. Fifty-eight eyes of 58 patients were enrolled. Mean age ± standard deviation of sample was 28.95 ± 6.04 years. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between STS with WTW, ATA, mean K was 0.383, 0.492, and - 0.353, respectively, which was statistically significant (all P correlation of STS with WTW and mean K and potential of direct and essay measurement of WTW and mean K, it seems that current IOL sizing protocols could be estimating with WTW and mean K.

  17. Opacification of the C-flex 570C intraocular lens after sulcus fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Patrick; Carbonneau, Marjorie

    2017-09-08

    To report a case of diffuse intraocular lens (IOL) opacification in a patient who started complaining of blurred vision in his left eye over the course of three years after having phacoemulsification surgery combined with capsular bag fixation of a C-flex 570C IOL. The IOL had been repositioned in the ciliary sulcus following its subluxation. An IOL exchange was performed, and the explanted IOL was sent for histopathological analysis. Scanning electron microscopy identified multiple crystalline-like deposits on both sides of the IOL. The optic was more extensively involved than the haptics. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the predominance of calcium within the deposits. The breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier seems to be a key component of this calcification process. Ciliary sulcus fixation is not a suitable option for C-flex 570C IOLs.

  18. Pigment dispersion and chronic intraocular pressure elevation after sulcus placement of 3-piece acrylic intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, M Camille; Wu, Michael C; Chen, Philip P

    2009-12-01

    A 55-year-old man had phacoemulsification and implantation of a 3-piece acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) (AcrySof MA60AC) in the right eye. One month postoperatively, the intraocular pressure (IOP) was 48 mm Hg and peripheral transillumination defects were noted in the iris circumferentially, with the IOL optic edge visible as a silhouette. Gonioscopy showed dense pigmentation of the trabecular meshwork in the right eye, but in the left eye, only mild trabecular meshwork pigment was seen, along with a concave peripheral iris insertion. At 21 months, the right eye required 3 medications for IOP control. While pigment dispersion has been widely reported after placement of 1-piece acrylic IOLs in the ciliary sulcus, we conclude that in susceptible individuals with a concave peripheral iris insertion, pigment dispersion can occur with sulcus placement of a 3-piece acrylic model despite its thinner optic and angulated haptics.

  19. Assessment of a new hydrophilic acrylic supplementary IOL for sulcus fixation in pseudophakic cadaver eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, N; Werner, L; Guan, J; Li, J; Tsaousis, K T; Mamalis, N; Srinivasan, S

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Management of refractive errors after cataract surgery includes spectacles or contact lens, secondary laser vision correction, intraocular lens (IOL) exchange, or piggyback lens implantation. We evaluated for the first time a single-piece hydrophilic acrylic IOL designed for supplementary sulcus fixation in postmortem pseudophakic human eyes. Methods Pseudophakic human cadaver eyes were imaged by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) to assess position of the primary IOL. Eyes were prepared as per the Miyake-Apple technique. The supplementary IOL (Medicontur A4 Addon IOL family) was then inserted into the ciliary sulcus. AS-OCT and photographs from anterior and posterior views were used to assess IOL centration, tilt, and interlenticular distance from the primary IOL. Results Data were obtained from 12 eyes having primary IOLs of varying materials and designs in the bag and representing different sizes of eyes and severity of Soemmering's ring formation. The A4 Addon IOL was successfully inserted into the ciliary sulcus and was well centered in all cases. Four cases of tilt were observed on AS-OCT: three with mild tilt due to pre-existing zonular dehiscence, and one due to a localized area of Soemmering's ring formation. Interlenticular distance ranged from 0.34 to 1.24 mm and was not dependent on severity of Soemmering's ring or type of primary IOL. Conclusions The A4 Addon IOL was designed for sulcus fixation as a supplementary lens, with a large diameter, a square-shaped optic, four smooth loop haptics, and a convex–concave optical surface. It exhibited appropriate centration and interlenticular distance with different primary in-the-bag IOLs. PMID:28106890

  20. Temporalis Fascia Transplantation for Sulcus Vocalis and Vocal Fold Scar: Long-Term Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, William E; Helman, Samuel N; Cooper, Amy; Zhang, Yuan; Pitman, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Sulcus vocalis and vocal fold scar involve derangement of the superficial lamina propria of the vocal fold, which results in significant dysphonia. Many options exist for treatment, most of which have unsatisfactory and unpredictable outcomes. Autologous transplantation of temporalis fascia into the vocal fold (ATFV) has the potential to be a better treatment option, but long-term outcomes have not been well studied. Retrospective chart review and patient survey. Twenty-one patients diagnosed with vocal fold scar or sulcus vocalis and treated with ATFV with at least 1-year follow-up were included. Voice Handicap Index 10 (VHI-10) questionnaires were collected preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Patients were reached at the time of the study to complete another VHI-10 and a Likert scale survey. The mean decrease in VHI-10 scores between preoperation and 6 months postoperation was 8.35 ( P vocal fold for the treatment of vocal fold scar and sulcus vocalis is a safe surgery with good long-term outcomes and high patient satisfaction.

  1. The far lateral transpontomedullary sulcus approach to pontine cavernous malformations: technical report and surgical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abla, Adib A; Benet, Arnau; Lawton, Michael T

    2014-09-01

    Pontine cavernous malformations (CMs) located on a peripheral pontine surface or the fourth ventricular floor are resectable lesions, but those deep within the pons away from a pial surface are typically observed. However, the anterior bulge of the pons formed by the brachium pontis creates a unique entry point for access to deep pontine lesions from below, working upward through the pontomedullary sulcus. We developed a transpontomedullary sulcus (TPMS) approach to these lesions. The TPMS approach used the far lateral craniotomy and upper vagoaccessory triangle to define the surgical corridor. The entry point was above the olive, lateral to the pyramidal tracts and cranial nerve (CN) VI, above the preolivary sulcus and CN XII, and medial to CNs VII and VIII and CNs IX through XI. Four patients underwent this approach. All presented with hemorrhage and CN VI palsies. All pontine CMs were resected completely. Three patients were improved or unchanged, with good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2) in all patients. The central pons remains difficult territory to access, and new surgical corridors are needed. The bulging underbelly of the pons allows access to pontine lesions deep to the pial surface from below. The far lateral TPMS approach is a novel and more direct alternative to the retrosigmoid transmiddle cerebellar peduncle approach. Unlike the retrosigmoid approach, the TPMS approach requires minimal parenchymal transgression and uses a brainstem entry point medial to most lower CNs. Favorable results demonstrate the feasibility of resecting pontine CMs that might have been previously deemed unresectable.

  2. Sulcal and gyral anatomy of the basal occipital-temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Anthony Minh Tien; Stewart, Fiona; Gragnaniello, Cristian

    2014-12-01

    The sulcal and gyral anatomy of the basal occipital-temporal lobe is highly variable and detailed descriptions of this region are limited and often inconsistent. The aim of this study was to describe the salient features of the sulcal and gyral anatomy of the basal occipital-temporal lobe. We studied the sulcal and gyral patterns of 30 formalin-fixed cerebral hemispheres. The major landmarks are the collateral sulcus (separated into the rhinal, proper, and caudal segments) and occipitotemporal sulcus (often interrupted), which were always present in this study. The bifurcation of the caudal collateral sulcus is a useful landmark. In relation to these sulci, we have described the surface anatomy and nominated landmarks of the medial (parahippocampal and lingual) and lateral (fusiform) occipitotemporal gyri. Understanding of the sulcal and gyral patterns of the basal occipital-temporal lobe may provide valuable information in its radiological and intraoperative interpretation.

  3. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  4. Imaging the femoral sulcus with ultrasound, CT, and MRI: reliability and generalizability in patients with patellar instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toms, Andoni P.; Cahir, John [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Departments of Radiology, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom); Swift, Louise [University of East Anglia, School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom); Donell, Simon T. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Institute of Orthopedics, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Recent advances in surgical intervention for patellar instability have led to a need for long-term radiological monitoring. The aim of this study is to determine whether or not magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound (US) can replace computed tomography (CT) as the standard of care for the evaluation of the femoral sulcus. This was a prospective study comparing the reliability of CT, magnetic resonance (MR), and US for measuring the femoral sulcus in patients with patellar instability. Twenty-four patients were recruited to undergo a CT, MR, and US examination of each knee. Two observers independently measured femoral sulcus angles from subchondral bone and hyaline cartilage on two occasions. Intraclass correlations and generalizability coefficients were calculated to measure the reliability of each of the techniques. Thereafter, two observers measured the femoral sulcus angle from ultrasound images recorded by two independent operators to estimate interobserver and interoperator reliability. Forty-seven knees were examined with CT and US and 44 with MRI. The sulcus angle was consistently smaller when measured from subchondral bone compared to cartilage (5-7 ). Interobserver reliability for CT, MR, and US measurements from subchondral bone were 0.87, 0.80, and 0.82 and from cartilage 0.80, 0.81, and 0.50. Generalizability coefficients of measurements from subchondral bone for CT, MR, and US were 0.87, 0.76, and 0.81 and for cartilage 0.76, 0.73, and 0.05. Most of the variability in the US occurred at image acquisition rather than measurement. In patients with patellar instability, CT and MR are reliable techniques for measuring the femoral sulcus angle but US, particularly of the articular cartilage, is not. MR is therefore the most suitable tool for longitudinal studies of the femoral sulcus. (orig.)

  5. Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with tube insertion through the ciliary sulcus in pseudophakic/aphakic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Yadolla; Mohammadi, Massood; Fakhraie, Ghasem; Zarei, Reza; Moghimi, Sasan

    2014-02-01

    To report the efficacy and safety of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) insertion into the ciliary sulcus in pseudophakic/aphakic patients. A chart review was done on patients with uncontrolled glaucoma, who underwent AGV implantation with tube inserted into the ciliary sulcus. Baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of medications were compared with that of postoperative follow-up visits. Surgical success was defined as last IOP glaucoma control, and without loss of light perception. Postoperative complications were recorded. Twenty-three eyes of 23 patients were recruited with the mean follow-up of 9 months (range, 3 to 24 mo). The mean (SD) age of patients was 49.9 (16.9) years (range, 22 to 80 years). The mean (SD) IOP (mm Hg) was reduced from 37.9 (12.4) before surgery to 16.2 (3.6) at the last follow-up visit (P<0.001). The mean (SD) number of medications was reduced from 3.3 (0.9) preoperatively to 1 (1.1) at the last follow-up (P<0.001). Success rate was 18/23 (78.6%). Complications included endophthalmitis in 1 eye, tube exposure in 1 diabetic patient, and vitreous tube occlusion in 1 eye. No case of corneal decompensation or graft failure was seen during follow-up. Ciliary sulcus placement of the tube of AGV effectively reduces IOP and medication use in short term. It has the potential to lower corneal complications of anterior chamber tube insertion and avoids the need for pars plana vitrectomy and tube insertion in patients at higher risk of corneal decompensation.

  6. Where syntax meets math: Right Intraparietal Sulcus activation in response to grammatical number agreement violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiras, Manuel; Carr, Lindsay; Barber, Horacio A.; Hernandez, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the processing of words referring to actions activated motor areas. Here we show activation of the right intraparietal sulcus, an area that has been associated with quantity processing, when participants are asked to read pairs of words with number agreement violations as opposed to phrases with gender agreement violations or with no violation. In addition, we show activation in the left premotor and left inferior frontal areas when either gender or number agreement is violated. We argue that number violation automatically activates processes linked to quantity processing which are not directly related to language mechanisms. PMID:19800410

  7. Frontal and temporal contributions to understanding the iconic co-speech gestures that accompany speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Mok, Eva H; Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Small, Steven L

    2014-03-01

    In everyday conversation, listeners often rely on a speaker's gestures to clarify any ambiguities in the verbal message. Using fMRI during naturalistic story comprehension, we examined which brain regions in the listener are sensitive to speakers' iconic gestures. We focused on iconic gestures that contribute information not found in the speaker's talk, compared with those that convey information redundant with the speaker's talk. We found that three regions-left inferior frontal gyrus triangular (IFGTr) and opercular (IFGOp) portions, and left posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTGp)--responded more strongly when gestures added information to nonspecific language, compared with when they conveyed the same information in more specific language; in other words, when gesture disambiguated speech as opposed to reinforced it. An increased BOLD response was not found in these regions when the nonspecific language was produced without gesture, suggesting that IFGTr, IFGOp, and MTGp are involved in integrating semantic information across gesture and speech. In addition, we found that activity in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STSp), previously thought to be involved in gesture-speech integration, was not sensitive to the gesture-speech relation. Together, these findings clarify the neurobiology of gesture-speech integration and contribute to an emerging picture of how listeners glean meaning from gestures that accompany speech. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. P1-24: Neural Representation of Gloss in the Macaque Inferior Temporal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Nishio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The variation of the appearance such as gloss provides one of the most important information for object recognition. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms related to the perception of gloss. We examined whether the neurons in the inferior temporal (IT cortex of the monkeys are coding gloss of objects. We made visual stimuli which have various surface reflectance properties, and tested responses of IT neurons to these stimuli while a monkey was performing a visual fixation task. We found that there exist neurons in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus that selectively responded to specific stimuli. The selectivity was largely maintained when the object shape or illumination condition was changed. In contrast, neural selectivity was lost when the pixels of objects were randomly rearranged. In the former manipulation of the stimuli, gloss perceptions were maintained, whereas in the latter manipulation, gloss perception was dramatically changed. These results indicate that these IT neurons selectively responded to gloss, not to the irrelevant local image features or average luminance or color. Next, to understand how the responses of gloss selective neurons are related to perceived gloss, responses of gloss selective neurons were mapped in perceptual gloss space in which glossiness changes uniformly. I found that responses of most gloss selective neurons can be explained by linear combinations of two parameters that are shown to be important for gloss perception. This result suggests that the responses of gloss selective neurons of IT cortex are closely related to gloss perception.

  9. Cochlear implant benefits in deafness rehabilitation: PET study of temporal voice Activations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coez, A.; Zilbovicius, M. [CEA, Serv Hosp Frederic Joliot, INSERM, Res Unit Neuroimaging and Psychiat, U797, IFR49, F-91406 Orsay (France); Zilbovicius, M.; Syrota, A.; Samson, Y. [CEA, DSV, DRM, Serv Hosp Frederic Joliot, F-91406 Orsay (France); Bizaguet, E. [Lab Correct Audit, Paris (France); Coez, A. [Univ Paris Sud 11, Paris (France); Ferrary, E.; Bouccara, D.; Mosnier, I.; Sterkers, O. [INSERM, Unit M 867, Paris (France); Ambert-Dahan, E. [Hop Beaujon, Serv ORL Chirurg Cervicofaciale, AP-HP, Clichy (France); Ferrary, E.; Bouccara, D.; Mosnier, I.; Sterkers, O. [Inst Fed Rech Claude Bernard Physiol et Pathol, IFR02, Paris (France); Samson, Y. [Hop La Pitie Salpetriere, Serv Urgences Cerebro-vasc, AP-HP, Paris (France); Samson, Y. [Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Sterkers, O. [Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    Cochlear implants may improve the medical and social prognosis of profound deafness. Nevertheless, some patients have experienced poor results without any clear explanations. One correlate may be an alteration in cortical voice processing. To test this hypothesis, we studied the activation of human temporal voice areas (TVA) using a well-standardized PET paradigm adapted from previous functional MRI (fMRI) studies. Methods: A PET H{sub 2}{sup 15}O activation study was performed on 3 groups of adult volunteers: normal-hearing control subjects (n 6) and cochlear-implanted post-lingually deaf patients with {>=}2 y of cochlear implant experience, with intelligibility scores in the 'Lafon monosyllabic task' {>=}80% (Good group; n 6) or {<=}20% (Poor group; n 6). Relative cerebral blood flow was measured in 3 conditions: rest, passive listening to human voice, and non-voice stimuli. Results: Compared with silence, the activations induced by non-voice stimuli were bilaterally located in the superior temporal regions in all groups. However these activations were significantly and similarly reduced in both cochlear implant groups, whereas control subjects showed supplementary activations. Compared with non-voice, the voice stimuli induced bilateral activation of the TVA along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) in both the control and the Good groups. In contrast, these activations were not detected in the Poor group, which showed only left unilateral middle STS activation. Conclusion: These results suggest that PET is an adequate method to explore cochlear implant benefits and that this benefit could be linked to the activation of the TVA. (authors)

  10. Cochlear implant benefits in deafness rehabilitation: PET study of temporal voice Activations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coez, A.; Zilbovicius, M.; Zilbovicius, M.; Syrota, A.; Samson, Y.; Bizaguet, E.; Coez, A.; Ferrary, E.; Bouccara, D.; Mosnier, I.; Sterkers, O.; Ambert-Dahan, E.; Ferrary, E.; Bouccara, D.; Mosnier, I.; Sterkers, O.; Samson, Y.; Samson, Y.; Sterkers, O.

    2008-01-01

    Cochlear implants may improve the medical and social prognosis of profound deafness. Nevertheless, some patients have experienced poor results without any clear explanations. One correlate may be an alteration in cortical voice processing. To test this hypothesis, we studied the activation of human temporal voice areas (TVA) using a well-standardized PET paradigm adapted from previous functional MRI (fMRI) studies. Methods: A PET H 2 15 O activation study was performed on 3 groups of adult volunteers: normal-hearing control subjects (n 6) and cochlear-implanted post-lingually deaf patients with ≥2 y of cochlear implant experience, with intelligibility scores in the 'Lafon monosyllabic task' ≥80% (Good group; n 6) or ≤20% (Poor group; n 6). Relative cerebral blood flow was measured in 3 conditions: rest, passive listening to human voice, and non-voice stimuli. Results: Compared with silence, the activations induced by non-voice stimuli were bilaterally located in the superior temporal regions in all groups. However these activations were significantly and similarly reduced in both cochlear implant groups, whereas control subjects showed supplementary activations. Compared with non-voice, the voice stimuli induced bilateral activation of the TVA along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) in both the control and the Good groups. In contrast, these activations were not detected in the Poor group, which showed only left unilateral middle STS activation. Conclusion: These results suggest that PET is an adequate method to explore cochlear implant benefits and that this benefit could be linked to the activation of the TVA. (authors)

  11. Nonlinear dynamic-based analysis of severe dysphonia in patients with vocal fold scar and sulcus vocalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong Hee; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.; Bless, Diane M.; Welham, Nathan V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this study was to evaluate a nonlinear dynamic approach to the acoustic analysis of dysphonia associated with vocal fold scar and sulcus vocalis. Study Design Case-control study. Methods Acoustic voice samples from scar/sulcus patients and age/sex-matched controls were analyzed using correlation dimension (D2) and phase plots, time-domain based perturbation indices (jitter, shimmer, signal-to-noise ratio [SNR]), and an auditory-perceptual rating scheme. Signal typing was performed to identify samples with bifurcations and aperiodicity. Results Type 2 and 3 acoustic signals were highly represented in the scar/sulcus patient group. When data were analyzed irrespective of signal type, all perceptual and acoustic indices successfully distinguished scar/sulcus patients from controls. Removal of type 2 and 3 signals eliminated the previously identified differences between experimental groups for all acoustic indices except D2. The strongest perceptual-acoustic correlation in our dataset was observed for SNR; the weakest correlation was observed for D2. Conclusions These findings suggest that D2 is inferior to time-domain based perturbation measures for the analysis of dysphonia associated with scar/sulcus; however, time-domain based algorithms are inherently susceptible to inflation under highly aperiodic (i.e., type 2 and 3) signal conditions. Auditory-perceptual analysis, unhindered by signal aperiodicity, is therefore a robust strategy for distinguishing scar/sulcus patient voices from normal voices. Future acoustic analysis research in this area should consider alternative (e.g., frequency- and quefrency-domain based) measures alongside additional nonlinear approaches. PMID:22516315

  12. Corticothalamic and corticotectal somatosensory projections from the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (SIV cortex) in neonatal cats: an anatomical demonstration with HRP and 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHaffie, J.G.; Kruger, L.; Clemo, H.R.; Stein, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    Corticothalamic and corticotectal projections from the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AES) in neonatal cats were studied with anterograde and retrograde neuroanatomical techniques. When the injection site was relatively restricted to the sulcal walls and fundus of the rostral AES (i.e., the SIV cortex), heavy ipsilateral thalamic label was observed in the medial subdivision of the posterior group, in the suprageniculate nucleus, and in the external medullary lamina. No terminal label was seen in the contralateral thalamus although the contralateral homotopic cortex was heavily labeled. Within the ventrobasal complex (VB), dense axonal label was observed in fascicles that traversed VB, but only light terminal label was observed within VB itself. However, in cases where the tracer spread into adjacent SII, terminal label in VB was pronounced. Similarly, when the injection site extended into auditory cortex, terminal label was observed in the lateral and intermediate subdivisions of the posterior group. Rostral AES injections produced distinct, predominantly ipsilateral, terminal label in the superior colliculus that was distributed in two tiers: a discontinuous band in the stratum griseum intermedium and a more diffuse band in stratum griseum profundum. Caudally, dense terminal label was seen in the intercollicular zone and dorsolateral periaqueductal gray. When the injection site did not include rostral AES, no label was observed in the superior colliculus. Horseradish peroxidase injections into the superior colliculus of neonates produced retrogradely labeled neurons throughout the AES, but none was found on the crown of the gyrus where SII is located. Thus, the neonatal corticotectal somatosensory projection arises exclusively from AES and parallels that found in adults

  13. Cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togao, Osamu; Yoshiura, Takashi; Mihara, Futoshi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Honda, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To confirm the cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus (CS) visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema on MRI. Materials and methods: T2-weighted images of 70 cerebral hemispheres showing vasogenic edema infiltrating into subcortical white matter around the CS were studied retrospectively. Two neuroradiologists measured the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of the CS, precentral sulci (PrCS), and postcentral sulci (PoCS). Additionally, we compared the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of each sulcus visually using a grading scale. Results: On T2-weighted images, the cerebral cortex was highlighted by a high signal-intensity vasogenic edema in the adjacent white matter, and its thickness was readily measurable. The unique cortical thickness difference between the anterior and posterior banks of the CS were confirmed with measurements of 2.67 and 1.48 mm (p < 0.0001). The cortical measurements across other cerebral sulci were 2.04 and 1.95 mm (NS) for the PrCS, and 1.67 and 1.77 mm (NS) for the PoCS. The cortical thickness ratios were 1.86 for the CS, 1.05 for the PrCS, and 0.96 for the PoCS. On visual evaluation, the anterior bank of the CS was thicker than the posterior bank in 93% (65/70). For the PrCS and PoCS, the thickness of the anterior and posterior banks appeared to be equal in over 70% of the patients. Conclusion: A prominent cortical thickness difference across the CS in the presence of vasogenic edema was confirmed. This finding is considered to facilitate the identification of the CS in patients with brain tumors

  14. Cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togao, Osamu [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)], E-mail: togao@dr.hosp.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Yoshiura, Takashi; Mihara, Futoshi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    Purpose: To confirm the cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus (CS) visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema on MRI. Materials and methods: T2-weighted images of 70 cerebral hemispheres showing vasogenic edema infiltrating into subcortical white matter around the CS were studied retrospectively. Two neuroradiologists measured the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of the CS, precentral sulci (PrCS), and postcentral sulci (PoCS). Additionally, we compared the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of each sulcus visually using a grading scale. Results: On T2-weighted images, the cerebral cortex was highlighted by a high signal-intensity vasogenic edema in the adjacent white matter, and its thickness was readily measurable. The unique cortical thickness difference between the anterior and posterior banks of the CS were confirmed with measurements of 2.67 and 1.48 mm (p < 0.0001). The cortical measurements across other cerebral sulci were 2.04 and 1.95 mm (NS) for the PrCS, and 1.67 and 1.77 mm (NS) for the PoCS. The cortical thickness ratios were 1.86 for the CS, 1.05 for the PrCS, and 0.96 for the PoCS. On visual evaluation, the anterior bank of the CS was thicker than the posterior bank in 93% (65/70). For the PrCS and PoCS, the thickness of the anterior and posterior banks appeared to be equal in over 70% of the patients. Conclusion: A prominent cortical thickness difference across the CS in the presence of vasogenic edema was confirmed. This finding is considered to facilitate the identification of the CS in patients with brain tumors.

  15. The effect of cyclosporin-A on the oral microflora at gingival sulcus of the ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R G; Edwardsson, S; Klinge, B; Attström, R

    1996-09-01

    The effect of cyclosporin-A (CyA) on the dentogingival flora of ferrets with healthy and experimentally induced periodontal breakdown was studied. Five animals were given 10 mg/kg/d CyA. At the start of the experiments (day 0), ligatures were placed around 4 teeth in the right upper and lower jaws; corresponding contralateral teeth on the left side served as control. On days 0 and 28 (end of the experiment), microbiological samples were collected from the gingival sulcus of the experimental and the control teeth and from closely located gingival mucosa membrane. The samples were subjected to viable counts and to darkfield microscopic analyses. On day 0, facultative anaerobic rods, mainly Pasteurella spp, Alcaligenes spp, Corynebacterium spp. and Rothia spp dominated in the viable counts. No anaerobic bacteria were detected in the viable counts. On day 28 spirochetes increased in the experimental gingival sulcus samples and anaerobic bacteria appeared in most of the samples and constituted 40-60% of the total cultivable flora; Fusobacterium necrophorum and Eubacterium spp. predominated in the samples from the experimental sites. The results of the present study were compared with those of our previous investigation of ferrets not medicated with cyclosporin but also subject to experimental ligature periodontitis. Eubacterium spp. were absent in the animals not treated with cyclosporin, while this species was frequently present in the immunosuppressed ferrets. The results indicate that the presence of the large numbers of gram negative rods and of anaerobic bacteria may have enhanced the inflammatory process and further provoked the gingival overgrowth observed.

  16. The relation between chondromalacia patella and meniscal tear and the sulcus angle/ trochlear depth ratio as a powerful predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Hatice; Zateri, Coskun; Nusran, Gurdal; Goksel, Ferdi; Aylanc, Nilufer

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relation between chondromalacia patella and the sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio as a marker of trochlear morphology. In addition, we also planned to show the relationship between meniscus damage, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness as a marker of obesity, patellar tilt angle and chondromalacia patella. Patients with trauma, rheumatologic disease, a history of knee surgery and patellar variations such as patella alba and patella baja were excluded. Magnetic resonance images of the knees of 200 patients were evaluated. Trochlear morphology from standardized levels, patellar tilt angle, lateral/medial facet ratio, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness from 3 locations and meniscus injury were assessed by two specialist radiologists. Retropatellar cartilage was normal in 108 patients (54%) at radiological evaluation, while chondromalacia patella was determined in 92 (46%) cases. Trochlear sulcus angle and prepatellar subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness were significantly high in patients with chondromalacia patella, while trochlear depth and lateral patellar tilt angle were low. The trochlear sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio was also high in chondromalacia patella and was identified as an independent risk factor at regression analysis. Additionally, medial meniscal tear was observed in 35 patients (38%) in the chondromalacia patella group and in 27 patients (25%) in the normal group, the difference being statistically significant (P = 0.033). An increased trochlear sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio is a significant predictor of chondromalacia patella. Medial meniscus injury is more prevalent in patients with chondromalacia patella in association with impairment in knee biomechanics and the degenerative process.

  17. The relation of sulcus nervi radialis with the fracture line of humerus fracture and radial nerve injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozden, Hilmi; Demir, Ahmet; Guven, Gul

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Radial nerve is closely in contact with the bone in sulcus nervi radialis (SNR). Location of SNR shows ethnic differences. Radial nerve is a big problem in humerus fractures and its surgery. In this study, we aimed to examine if humerus fractures of this region increases the probability...

  18. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  19. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  20. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  1. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  2. Cambio climático y dinámica temporal del paisaje y de los hábitats en las ecorregiones del NW de la Península Ibérica durante el Pleistoceno superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Muñoz Sobrino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 60 años los modelos propuestos para la interpretación de las condiciones ambientales a lo largo del Pleistoceno Superior Final han sufrido numerosos cambios determinados tanto por la adopción de nuevos conceptos científicos, como por la mejora de los métodos analíticos y sobre todo por un mayor número de registros disponibles. Del uniformismo ambiental y biogeográfico imperante a finales de la década de los ochenta, se ha pasado a incrementar el valor que las configuraciones de carácter local y regional, que afectan tanto al clima como a la composición y distribución de los ecosistemas terrestres ; y por tanto a los recursos naturales renovables que el hombre pudo haber aprovechado en cada momento. A su vez, las configuraciones locales y regionales se intregran en los modelos climáticos globales, elaborados a patir del estudio de isótopos y elementos traza obtenidos en depósitos con gran amplitud cronológica y un ritmo de deposición conocido. La integracion de la información paleoambiental a diferentes escalas temporales y espaciales obliga a rechazar, o en su caso limitar, la información paleoambiental que muestre un elevado grado de incertidumbre en relación al origen geográfico de sus componentes, o bien derivado de una tafocenosis heterogénea, o vinculado con una deposición intermitente o con mezclas de los distintos niveles.

  3. Specialization of the Right Intraparietal Sulcus for Processing Mathematics During Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schel, Margot A; Klingberg, Torkel

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical ability, especially perception of numbers and performance of arithmetics, is known to rely on the activation of intraparietal sulcus (IPS). However, reasoning ability and working memory, 2 highly associated abilities also activate partly overlapping regions. Most studies aimed at localizing mathematical function have used group averages, where individual variability is averaged out, thus confounding the anatomical specificity when localizing cognitive functions. Here, we analyze the functional anatomy of the intraparietal cortex by using individual analysis of subregions of IPS based on how they are structurally connected to frontal, parietal, and occipital cortex. Analysis of cortical thickness showed that the right anterior IPS, defined by its connections to the frontal lobe, was associated with both visuospatial working memory, and mathematics in 6-year-old children. This region specialized during development to be specifically related to mathematics, but not visuospatial working memory in adolescents and adults. This could be an example of interactive specialization, where interacting with the environment in combination with interactions between cortical regions leads from a more general role of right anterior IPS in spatial processing, to a specialization of this region for mathematics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Long-term outcomes of ciliary sulcus versus capsular bag fixation of intraocular lenses in children: An ultrasound biomicroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-E Zhao

    Full Text Available To evaluate the long-term outcomes of ciliary sulcus versus capsular bag fixation of intraocular lenses (IOLs in children after pediatric cataract surgery.IOL was implanted in the ciliary sulcus in 21 eyes of 14 children, and in the capsular bag in 19 eyes of 12 children for the treatment of pediatric cataract in an institutional setting. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM was performed. Main outcome measures included IOL decentration, IOL tilt, anterior chamber depth (ACD, angle-opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500, trabecular-iris angle (TIA, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, and incidence of postoperative complications.The mean follow-up period was 6.81 ± 1.82 years. Comparing to the capsular bag fixation group, the ciliary sulcus fixation group had higher vertical IOL decentration, horizontal IOL tilt, and vertical IOL tilt (p = 0.02, 0.01,0.01, respectively, higher incidence of iris-IOL contact and peripheral anterior synechia (p = 0.001, 0.03, respectively, smaller ACD, AOD500, and TIA (p = 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, respectively, higher mean IOP (17.10 ±6.06 mmHg vs.14.15± 4.74 mmHg, p = 0.01, and higher incidence of secondary glaucoma (28.57% vs. 10.53%, p = 0.007.There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the BCVA, refractive errors, incidence of myopic shift, nystagmus, strabismus, and visual axis opacity.Ciliary sulcus fixation of IOLs in pediatric eyes may increase IOL malposition and crowding of the anterior segment, and may associate with a higher risk of secondary glaucoma compared to capsular bag fixation of IOLs.

  5. [Endoscopically controlled optimization of trans-scleral suture fixation of posterior chamber lenses in the ciliary sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, C; Sundmacher, R

    1993-08-01

    Two technical difficulties have to be overcome in transscleral suture fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCL) in the ciliary sulcus: first, exact needle penetration through the sulcus, and second, exact positioning of the PCL haptics in the sulcus. Incongruence of the two may lead to long-term complications by compression or even strangulation of ciliary processes. Intraocular endoscopy was used intraoperatively to visualize the site of needle penetration and the final location of the haptics in patients. It turned out that with our previously described standard techniques the precision was far less than anticipated. Thus, new technical ways had to be sought to improve the precision of positioning. In secondary implantation without perforating keratoplasty we achieved the best results when the needle was passed ab externo before opening the eye and before anterior vitrectomy, taking advantage of a precisely prepared sclerocorneal zone. Passing the needle ab externo in an already hypotonic eyeball gives much less precise results. In combination with perforating keratoplasty with an open-sky approach, needle penetration ab interno is reliable. Correct positioning of the PCL haptics is at least as difficult as correct needle penetration, a fact which up to now has mostly been ignored. In 33 consecutively operated eyes the technique of implantation and PCL design was varied under endoscopical control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Prevalence of the acetabular sublabral sulcus at MR arthrography in patients under 17 years of age: does it exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magerkurth, Olaf [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hospital Baden, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); Jacobson, Jon A.; Morag, Yoav; Fessell, David [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bedi, Asheesh; Sekiya, Jon K. [University of Michigan, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-04-18

    To retrospectively determine characteristics of contrast-filled acetabular labral clefts in patients under the age of 17 years at MR arthrography (Mra) correlated with arthroscopy, which may impact the thinking regarding the existence of a sublabral sulcus. After IRB approval, 41 patients under the age of 17 who had MRa were identified. The following observations of contrast-filled clefts were assessed: (1) presence/absence, (2) location, (3) depth, (4) abnormal signal within the labrum and (5) shape (linear, gaping, complex). Fisher's exact and the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test were performed. Interreader agreement was calculated with Cohen's k. Reader 1 found clefts in 41 %. Depth was less than half in 6 %, more than half in 65 % and full thickness in 29 %. Shape was linear in 53 %, gaping in 18 % and complex in 29 %. Signal changes occurred in 88 %. Reader 2 found clefts in 29 %. Depth was less than half in 17 %, more than half in 58 % and full thickness in 25 %. Shape was linear in 50 %, gaping in 42 % and complex in 17 %. Signal changes occurred in 50 %. None of the clefts fulfilled the criteria for a sublabral sulcus at MRa and arthroscopy. None of the clefts found in our subjects under the age of 17 years met the MRa and arthroscopy criteria for a sublabral sulcus, which supports the theory that such clefts represent labral tears. (orig.)

  7. Self and Superior Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    model of the self-evaluation process as it differs from the evaluation process used by superiors. Symbolic Interactionism One view of self assessment is...supplied by the symbolic interactionists (Cooley, 1902; Head, 1934), who state that self perceptions are generated largely from individuals...disagreements remained even immediately after an appraisal interview in which a great deal of feedback was given. Research on the symbolic interactionist

  8. Clinical outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve in anterior chamber versus ciliary sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, A; Önol, M

    2017-04-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) tube insertion through the anterior chamber angle (ACA) or through the ciliary sulcus (CS).Patients and methodsIn this case-control study, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of consecutive glaucoma patients who had undergone AGV implantation either through the ACA or the CS between March 2009 and December 2014. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications prescribed, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), glaucoma type, success rate, complications, and survival ratios. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS.ResultsThere were 68 eyes in the ACA group and 35 eyes in the CS group. There were no significant differences between the groups for age, sex, laterality, IOP, preoperative glaucoma medication number, BCVA or glaucoma type (P>0.05). The postoperative follow-up period was 27.2±16.5 months and 30.2±17.7 months for the ACA and the CS groups (P=0.28); IOP values were significantly reduced at the last visit to 16.4±7.2 mm Hg and 14.4±6.8 mm Hg. The difference in the last-visit IOP between the groups was not significant (P=0.06), but the IOP reduction ratio was higher in the CS group (P=0.03). There was no significant difference in the number of postoperative medications (P=0.18). Postoperative complications were similar, but the incidence of flat anterior chamber was higher in the ACA group (P=0.05).ConclusionsThe use of an AGV can control IOP in the majority of cases whether placed in the ACA or the CS. The IOP reduction ratio seemed to be higher in the CS group.

  9. Hand preference and magnetic resonance imaging asymmetries of the central sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundas, A L; Hong, K; Leonard, C M; Heilman, K M

    1998-04-01

    Hand preference is perhaps the most evident behavioral asymmetry observed in humans. Anatomic brain asymmetries that may be associated with hand preference have not been extensively studied, and no clear relationship between asymmetries of the motor system and hand preference have been established. Therefore, using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging methodologies, the surface area of the hand representation was measured along the length of the central sulcus in 15 consistent right- and 15 left-handers matched for age and gender. There was a significant leftward asymmetry of the motor hand area of the precentral gyrus in the right-handers, but no directional asymmetry was found in the left-handers. When asymmetry quotients were computed to determine the distribution of interhemispheric asymmetries, the left motor bank was greater than the right motor bank in 9 of 15 right-handers, the right motor bank was greater than the left motor bank in 3 of 15 right-handers, and the motor banks were equal in 3 of 15 right-handers. In contrast, among left-handers, the left motor bank was greater than the right motor bank in 5 of 15, the right motor bank was greater than the left motor bank in 5 of 15, and the motor banks were equal in 5 of 15. Although no direct measure of motor dexterity and skill was performed, these data suggest that anatomic asymmetries of the motor hand area may be related to hand preference because of the differences in right-handers and left-handers. Furthermore, the predominant leftward asymmetry in right-handers and the random distribution of asymmetries in the left-handers support Annett's right-shift theory. It is unclear, however, whether these asymmetries are the result of preferential hand use or are a reflection of a biologic preference to use one limb over the other.

  10. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience.

  11. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J.; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience. PMID:23372547

  12. Superior facet syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-01-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L 5 or/and S 1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively, Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L 5 roots and 11 S 1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L 5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome. (author)

  13. Eutrophication monitoring for Lake Superior's Chequamegon ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A priority for the Lake Superior CSMI was to identify susceptible nearshore eutrophication areas. We developed an integrated sampling design to collect baseline data for Lake Superior’s Chequamegon Bay to understand how nearshore physical processes and tributary loading relate to observed chlorophyll concentrations. Sampling included ship-based water samples combined with vertical CTD casts, continuous in situ towing and data collected from an autonomous underwater glider. Sampling was conducted during June, July and September. The glider collected regional data as part of three extended missions in Lake Superior over the same periods. During the study, two significant storm events impacted the western end of Lake Superior; the first occurred during July 11-12, with 8-10 inches of rain in 24hrs, and the second on July 21 with winds in excess of 161 km/h. Using GIS software, we organized these diverse temporal data sets along a continuous time line with temporally coincident Modis Satellite data to visualize surface sediment plumes in relation to water quality measurements. Preliminary results suggest that both events impacted regional water quality, and that nearshore physical forces (upwelling and currents) influenced the spatial variability. Results comparing in situ measures with remotely sensed images will be discussed. not applicable

  14. The fusion of mental imagery and sensation in the temporal association cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2014-10-08

    It is well understood that the brain integrates information that is provided to our different senses to generate a coherent multisensory percept of the world around us (Stein and Stanford, 2008), but how does the brain handle concurrent sensory information from our mind and the external world? Recent behavioral experiments have found that mental imagery--the internal representation of sensory stimuli in one's mind--can also lead to integrated multisensory perception (Berger and Ehrsson, 2013); however, the neural mechanisms of this process have not yet been explored. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging and an adapted version of a well known multisensory illusion (i.e., the ventriloquist illusion; Howard and Templeton, 1966), we investigated the neural basis of mental imagery-induced multisensory perception in humans. We found that simultaneous visual mental imagery and auditory stimulation led to an illusory translocation of auditory stimuli and was associated with increased activity in the left superior temporal sulcus (L. STS), a key site for the integration of real audiovisual stimuli (Beauchamp et al., 2004a, 2010; Driver and Noesselt, 2008; Ghazanfar et al., 2008; Dahl et al., 2009). This imagery-induced ventriloquist illusion was also associated with increased effective connectivity between the L. STS and the auditory cortex. These findings suggest an important role of the temporal association cortex in integrating imagined visual stimuli with real auditory stimuli, and further suggest that connectivity between the STS and auditory cortex plays a modulatory role in spatially localizing auditory stimuli in the presence of imagined visual stimuli. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3313684-09$15.00/0.

  15. Auditory and visual modulation of temporal lobe neurons in voice-sensitive and association cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K; Petkov, Christopher I

    2014-02-12

    Effective interactions between conspecific individuals can depend upon the receiver forming a coherent multisensory representation of communication signals, such as merging voice and face content. Neuroimaging studies have identified face- or voice-sensitive areas (Belin et al., 2000; Petkov et al., 2008; Tsao et al., 2008), some of which have been proposed as candidate regions for face and voice integration (von Kriegstein et al., 2005). However, it was unclear how multisensory influences occur at the neuronal level within voice- or face-sensitive regions, especially compared with classically defined multisensory regions in temporal association cortex (Stein and Stanford, 2008). Here, we characterize auditory (voice) and visual (face) influences on neuronal responses in a right-hemisphere voice-sensitive region in the anterior supratemporal plane (STP) of Rhesus macaques. These results were compared with those in the neighboring superior temporal sulcus (STS). Within the STP, our results show auditory sensitivity to several vocal features, which was not evident in STS units. We also newly identify a functionally distinct neuronal subpopulation in the STP that appears to carry the area's sensitivity to voice identity related features. Audiovisual interactions were prominent in both the STP and STS. However, visual influences modulated the responses of STS neurons with greater specificity and were more often associated with congruent voice-face stimulus pairings than STP neurons. Together, the results reveal the neuronal processes subserving voice-sensitive fMRI activity patterns in primates, generate hypotheses for testing in the visual modality, and clarify the position of voice-sensitive areas within the unisensory and multisensory processing hierarchies.

  16. Auditory and Visual Modulation of Temporal Lobe Neurons in Voice-Sensitive and Association Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K.

    2014-01-01

    Effective interactions between conspecific individuals can depend upon the receiver forming a coherent multisensory representation of communication signals, such as merging voice and face content. Neuroimaging studies have identified face- or voice-sensitive areas (Belin et al., 2000; Petkov et al., 2008; Tsao et al., 2008), some of which have been proposed as candidate regions for face and voice integration (von Kriegstein et al., 2005). However, it was unclear how multisensory influences occur at the neuronal level within voice- or face-sensitive regions, especially compared with classically defined multisensory regions in temporal association cortex (Stein and Stanford, 2008). Here, we characterize auditory (voice) and visual (face) influences on neuronal responses in a right-hemisphere voice-sensitive region in the anterior supratemporal plane (STP) of Rhesus macaques. These results were compared with those in the neighboring superior temporal sulcus (STS). Within the STP, our results show auditory sensitivity to several vocal features, which was not evident in STS units. We also newly identify a functionally distinct neuronal subpopulation in the STP that appears to carry the area's sensitivity to voice identity related features. Audiovisual interactions were prominent in both the STP and STS. However, visual influences modulated the responses of STS neurons with greater specificity and were more often associated with congruent voice-face stimulus pairings than STP neurons. Together, the results reveal the neuronal processes subserving voice-sensitive fMRI activity patterns in primates, generate hypotheses for testing in the visual modality, and clarify the position of voice-sensitive areas within the unisensory and multisensory processing hierarchies. PMID:24523543

  17. Differential Medial Temporal Lobe and Parietal Cortical Contributions to Real-world Autobiographical Episodic and Autobiographical Semantic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thackery I; Rissman, Jesse; Chow, Tiffany E; Uncapher, Melina R; Wagner, Anthony D

    2018-04-18

    Autobiographical remembering can depend on two forms of memory: episodic (event) memory and autobiographical semantic memory (remembering personally relevant semantic knowledge, independent of recalling a specific experience). There is debate about the degree to which the neural signals that support episodic recollection relate to or build upon autobiographical semantic remembering. Pooling data from two fMRI studies of memory for real-world personal events, we investigated whether medial temporal lobe (MTL) and parietal subregions contribute to autobiographical episodic and semantic remembering. During scanning, participants made memory judgments about photograph sequences depicting past events from their life or from others' lives, and indicated whether memory was based on episodic or semantic knowledge. Results revealed several distinct functional patterns: activity in most MTL subregions was selectively associated with autobiographical episodic memory; the hippocampal tail, superior parietal lobule, and intraparietal sulcus were similarly engaged when memory was based on retrieval of an autobiographical episode or autobiographical semantic knowledge; and angular gyrus demonstrated a graded pattern, with activity declining from autobiographical recollection to autobiographical semantic remembering to correct rejections of novel events. Collectively, our data offer insights into MTL and parietal cortex functional organization, and elucidate circuitry that supports different forms of real-world autobiographical memory.

  18. Trait-level temporal lobe hypoactivation to social exclusion in unaffected siblings of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Z. Bolling

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion elicits powerful feelings of negative affect associated with rejection. Additionally, experiencing social exclusion reliably recruits neural circuitry associated with emotion processing. Recent work has demonstrated abnormal neural responses to social exclusion in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. However, it remains unknown to what extent these abnormalities are due to atypical social experiences versus genetic predispositions to atypical neural processing. To address this question, the current study investigated brain responses to social exclusion compared to a baseline condition of fair play in unaffected siblings of youth with ASD using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We identified common deviations between unaffected siblings and ASD probands that might represent trait-level abnormalities in processing Social Exclusion vs. Fair Play, specifically in the right anterior temporoparietal junction extending into posterior superior temporal sulcus. Thus, hypoactivation to Social Exclusion vs. Fair Play in this region may represent a shared genetic vulnerability to developing autism. In addition, we present evidence supporting the idea that one's status as an unaffected sibling moderates the relationship between IQ and neural activation to Social Exclusion vs. Fair Play in anterior cingulate cortex. These results are discussed in the context of previous literature on neural endophenotypes of autism.

  19. Trait-level temporal lobe hypoactivation to social exclusion in unaffected siblings of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Vander Wyk, Brent C

    2015-06-01

    Social exclusion elicits powerful feelings of negative affect associated with rejection. Additionally, experiencing social exclusion reliably recruits neural circuitry associated with emotion processing. Recent work has demonstrated abnormal neural responses to social exclusion in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, it remains unknown to what extent these abnormalities are due to atypical social experiences versus genetic predispositions to atypical neural processing. To address this question, the current study investigated brain responses to social exclusion compared to a baseline condition of fair play in unaffected siblings of youth with ASD using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We identified common deviations between unaffected siblings and ASD probands that might represent trait-level abnormalities in processing Social Exclusion vs. Fair Play, specifically in the right anterior temporoparietal junction extending into posterior superior temporal sulcus. Thus, hypoactivation to Social Exclusion vs. Fair Play in this region may represent a shared genetic vulnerability to developing autism. In addition, we present evidence supporting the idea that one's status as an unaffected sibling moderates the relationship between IQ and neural activation to Social Exclusion vs. Fair Play in anterior cingulate cortex. These results are discussed in the context of previous literature on neural endophenotypes of autism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Information Superiority through Data Warehousing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warner, Neil

    2001-01-01

    .... A precursor to a knowledge edge is Information Superiority. Within most current Command Support Systems minimal integration and fusion of data is undertaken to provide the basis of information superiority...

  1. Top-down modulation from inferior frontal junction to FEFs and intraparietal sulcus during short-term memory for visual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneve, Markus H; Magnussen, Svein; Alnæs, Dag; Endestad, Tor; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Visual STM of simple features is achieved through interactions between retinotopic visual cortex and a set of frontal and parietal regions. In the present fMRI study, we investigated effective connectivity between central nodes in this network during the different task epochs of a modified delayed orientation discrimination task. Our univariate analyses demonstrate that the inferior frontal junction (IFJ) is preferentially involved in memory encoding, whereas activity in the putative FEFs and anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) remains elevated throughout periods of memory maintenance. We have earlier reported, using the same task, that areas in visual cortex sustain information about task-relevant stimulus properties during delay intervals [Sneve, M. H., Alnæs, D., Endestad, T., Greenlee, M. W., & Magnussen, S. Visual short-term memory: Activity supporting encoding and maintenance in retinotopic visual cortex. Neuroimage, 63, 166-178, 2012]. To elucidate the temporal dynamics of the IFJ-FEF-aIPS-visual cortex network during memory operations, we estimated Granger causality effects between these regions with fMRI data representing memory encoding/maintenance as well as during memory retrieval. We also investigated a set of control conditions involving active processing of stimuli not associated with a memory task and passive viewing. In line with the developing understanding of IFJ as a region critical for control processes with a possible initiating role in visual STM operations, we observed influence from IFJ to FEF and aIPS during memory encoding. Furthermore, FEF predicted activity in a set of higher-order visual areas during memory retrieval, a finding consistent with its suggested role in top-down biasing of sensory cortex.

  2. Management of sulcus-fixated single-piece intraocular lens-induced pigmentary glaucoma with 3-piece IOL exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, Hossein Mohammad; Esfandiari, Hamed; Rikhtegar, Mohammad Hassan; Hekmat, Vahid

    2018-02-01

    To describe our experience with exchanging sulcus-fixated single-piece intraocular lens (IOL) with 3-piece IOLs for management of pigmentary glaucoma. In this retrospective study, records of patients who underwent sulcus-fixated single-piece IOL exchanged with 3-piece IOLs were retrieved, and demographic and baseline data of patients, type of IOL, pre- and post-IOL exchange BCVA, IOP, number of anti-glaucoma medications, and optic nerve head examination were documented. Baseline and final examinations were analyzed and compared. Mean age of the patients was 59 ± 10 years, and 5 (41.6%) were female. Mean interval between primary cataract extraction operation and IOL exchange was 17 ± 5 months. Nine patients received in sulcus implantation of Alcon SA60AT, and three patients had SN60WF model at the end of primary surgery. BCVA changed insignificantly from 0.06 ± 0.06 logMAR to 0.06 ± 0.06 after IOL exchange. (P = 0.22) IOP was controlled in 8 cases (66.6%), but four cases (33.3%) needed glaucoma surgery to further control glaucoma condition. IOP decreased significantly from preoperative 17 ± 3 to 14 ± 1 mmHg postoperatively. Patients with advanced age and higher baseline IOP were more likely to undergo glaucoma surgery after IOL exchange. (P = 0.07 and 0.00, respectively). single-piece IOL exchange with 3-piece IOL dramatically decreases pigment release and reduces IOP. Those with advanced age and higher IOP are less likely to respond to IOL exchange and may need glaucoma surgery to control high intraocular pressure.

  3. Osteoma of the superior petrous portion of the temporal bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Tsay

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: In patients with auditory symptoms such as tinnitus or hearing loss with abnormal osseous findings on MRI, CT can assist in diagnosis. The differential diagnosis of such lesions includes osteomas, pneumoceles, pneumocephalus, parosteal osteosarcoma and osteoblastoma. Thorough radiological assessment can be valuable in reaching the correct diagnosis, and can prevent unnecessarily aggressive management and treatment for benign osseous lesions.

  4. Bringing transcranial mapping into shape: Sulcus-aligned mapping captures motor somatotopy in human primary motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffin, Estelle; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Motor representations express some degree of somatotopy in human primary motor hand area (M1HAND), but within-M1HAND corticomotor somatotopy has been difficult to study with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here we introduce a “linear” TMS mapping approach based on the individual shape...... of the central sulcus to obtain mediolateral corticomotor excitability profiles of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscles. In thirteen young volunteers, we used stereotactic neuronavigation to stimulate the right M1HAND with a small eight-shaped coil at 120% of FDI resting...

  5. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  6. Somatotopic organization of cortical fields in the lateral sulcus of Homo sapiens: evidence for SII and PV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disbrow, E; Roberts, T; Krubitzer, L

    2000-02-28

    The human somatosensory cortex in the Sylvian fissure was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging to describe the number and internal organization of cortical fields present. Somatic stimuli were applied to the lips, face, hand, trunk, and foot of 18 human subjects. Activity patterns were transposed onto three-dimensional magnetic resonance images of the brain so that the location of activity associated with the different stimuli could be related to specific regions of the cortex. There were several consistent findings. First, there were three regions of activity in the lateral sulcus associated with stimulation of the contralateral body. The most consistent locus of activation was on the upper bank of the lateral sulcus, continuing onto the operculum. The other two areas, one rostral and one caudal to this large central area, were smaller and were activated less consistently. Second, when activity patterns in the large central area resulting from stimulation of all body parts were considered, this region appeared to contain two fields that corresponded in location and somatotopic organization to the second somatosensory area (SII) and the parietal ventral area (PV). Finally, patterns of activation within SII and PV were somewhat variable across subjects. Repeated within-subject stimulus presentation indicated that differences across subjects were not due to inconsistent stimulus presentation. Comparisons with other mammals suggest that some features of organization are found only in primates. It is hypothesized that these features may be associated with manual dexterity and coordination of the hands, a characteristic generally restricted to the primate lineage.

  7. DOES THE INFERIOR FRONTAL SULCUS PLAY A FUNCTIONAL ROLE IN DECEPTION? A NEURONAVIGATED THETA-BURST TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eVerschuere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. By definition, lying involves withholding the truth. Response inhibition may therefore be the cognitive function at the heart of deception. Neuroimaging research has shown that the same brain region that is activated during response inhibition tasks, namely the inferior frontal region, is also activated during deception paradigms. This led to the hypothesis that the inferior frontal region is the neural substrate critically involved in withholding the truth. Objective. We critically examine the functional necessity of the inferior frontal region in withholding the truth during deception. Method. We experimentally manipulated the neural activity level in right inferior frontal sulcus (IFS by means of neuronavigated continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS. Individual structural magnetic resonance brain images (MRI were used to allow precise stimulation in each participant. Twenty-six participants answered autobiographical questions truthfully or deceptively before and after sham and real cTBS. Results. Deception was reliably associated with more errors, longer and more variable response times than truth telling. Despite the potential role of IFS in deception as suggested by neuroimaging data, the cTBS-induced disruption of right IFS did not affect response times or error rates, when compared to sham stimulation. Conclusions. The present findings do not support the hypothesis that the right inferior frontal sulcus is critically involved in deception.

  8. What causes an icy fault to slip? Investigating strike-slip failure conditions on Ganymede at Dardanus and Tiamat Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M. E.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Burkhard, L. M.; Collins, G. C.; Seifert, F.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    Ganymede exhibits two geologically distinct terrains known as dark and light (grooved) terrain. The mechanism for a transition from dark to light terrain remains unclear; however, inferences of strike-slip faulting and distributed shear zones suggest that strike-slip tectonism may be important to the structural development of Ganymede's surface and in this transition. Here we investigate the role of tidal stresses on Ganymede in the formation and evolution of strike-slip structures in both dark and grooved terrains. Using numerical code SatStress, we calculate both diurnal and non-synchronous rotation (NSR) tidal stresses at Ganymede's surface. Specifically, we investigate the role of fault friction and orbital eccentricity in the development of ~45 km of right-lateral offset at Dardanus Sulcus and a possible case of study with a detailed morphological mapping of strike-slip morphologies (en echelon structures, strike-slip duplexes, laterally offset pre-existing features, and possible strained craters) at Nun Sulcus and several other locations. These structures serve as example regions to provide improved constraints for global stress mechanisms responsible for strike-slip fault evolution on Ganymede.

  9. Small Intestinal Submucosa Implantation for the Possible Treatment of Vocal Fold Scar, Sulcus, and Superficial Lamina Propria Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Michael J; Cabin, Jonathan A; Iacob, Codrin E

    2016-02-01

    Evaluate the histologic effects of grafting porcine-derived small intestinal submucosa (SIS) into the vocal fold superficial lamina propria (SLP) layer for the potential treatment of vocal fold scar, sulcus and superficial lamina propria atrophy. Small intestinal submucosa was implanted into the right vocal fold SLP of 6 mongrel dogs. The left vocal fold served as a sham surgical control. At 2, 4, and 6 weeks postoperative, bilateral vocal fold specimens were evaluated histologically. At 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, SIS-implanted vocal folds demonstrated moderate and mild inflammation and acute and chronic inflammation. At 6 weeks, inflammation was minimal and chronic. The 6-week specimens showed copious amounts of newly generated hyaluronic acid (HA) within the graft. There was no reactive fibrosis at 6 weeks. In the canine model, SIS appears safe for SLP grafting. Inflammation is similar to that of sham surgery. Small intestinal submucosa results in newly generated HA without concomitant fibrosis. Small intestinal submucosa has potential to be used in treatment of disorders with SLP, including vocal fold scar, sulcus, and atrophy. Studies evaluating the effect of SIS implantation on vocal fold function, as well as the ultimate fate of the graft, are required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Intraoperative definition of bottom-of-sulcus dysplasia using intraoperative ultrasound and single depth electrode recording - A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dorothea; Carney, Patrick; Archer, John S; Fitt, Gregory J; Jackson, Graeme D; Bulluss, Kristian J

    2018-02-01

    Bottom of sulcus dysplasias (BOSDs) are localized focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) centred on the bottom of a sulcus that can be highly epileptogenic, but difficult to delineate intraoperatively. We report on a patient with refractory epilepsy due to a BOSD, successfully resected with the aid of a multimodal surgical approach using neuronavigation based on MRI and PET, intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) and electrocorticography (ECoG) using depth electrodes. The lesion could be visualized on iUS showing an increase in echogenicity at the grey-white matter junction. IUS demonstrated the position of the depth electrode in relation to the lesion. Depth electrode recording showed almost continuous spiking. Thus, intraoperative imaging and electrophysiology helped confirm the exact location of the lesion. Post-resection ultrasound demonstrated the extent of the resection and depth electrode recording did not show any epileptiform activity. Thus, both techniques helped assess completeness of resection. The patient has been seizure free since surgery. Using a multimodal approach including iUS and ECoG is a helpful adjunct in surgery for BOSD and may improve seizure outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surgical resection of grade II astrocytomas in the superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraud, Aurelia; Meschede, Magnus; Eisner, Wilhelm; Ilmberger, Josef; Reulen, Hans-Jürgen

    2002-05-01

    Surgery in the superior frontal gyrus partially involving the supplementary motor area (SMA) may be followed by contralateral transient weakness and aphasia initially indistinguishable from damage to the primary motor cortex. However, recovery is different, and SMA deficits may resolve completely within days to weeks. No study has assessed the distinct postoperative deficits after tumor resection in the SMA on a homogeneous patient group. Twenty-four patients with World Health Organization Grade II astrocytomas in the superior frontal gyrus consecutively treated by surgery were studied. Degree and duration of postoperative deficits were evaluated according to tumor location and boundaries via magnetic resonance imaging scans, intraoperative neuromonitoring results, and extent of tumor resection. Postoperatively, motor deficits were evident in 21 of 24 and speech deficits in 9 of 12 patients. Motor function quickly recovered in 11 and speech function in 3 patients. None of the 12 patients in whom the posterior tumor resection line was at a distance of more than 0.5 cm from the precentral sulcus experienced persistent motor deficits. Eight of these patients developed typical SMA syndrome with transient initiation difficulties. Seven of 12 patients in whom the tumor extended to the precentral sulcus still had motor deficits at the 12-month follow-up assessment. Surgery for Grade II gliomas in the superior frontal gyrus is more likely to result in permanent morbidity when the resection is performed at a distance of less than 0.5 cm from the precentral gyrus or positive stimulation points. Therefore, cortical mapping of motor and speech function, in critical cases under local anesthesia with the patient as his or her own monitor, is recommended; resection should be tailored to obtain good functional outcome and maintain quality of life.

  12. Hippocampal Temporal-Parietal Junction Interaction in the Production of Psychotic Symptoms: A Framework for Understanding the Schizophrenic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gayle Wible

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A framework is described for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome at the brain systems level. It is hypothesized that over-activation of dynamic gesture and social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ, posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS and surrounding regions produce the syndrome (including positive and negative symptoms, their prevalence, prodromal signs and cognitive deficits. Hippocampal system hyper-activity and atrophy have been consistently found in schizophrenia. Hippocampal activity is highly related to activity in the TPJ and may be a source of over-excitation of the TPJ and surrounding regions. Strong evidence for this comes from in-vivo recordings in humans during psychotic episodes. The TPJ and PSTS play a key role in the perception (and production of dynamic social, emotional and attentional gestures for the self and others (e.g., body/face/eye gestures, audiovisual speech, prosody. The single cell representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, tactile, matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the single cell perceptual signal of dynamic gesture representations is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others. The neurons are also tuned or biased to detect threat related emotions. Abnormal over-activation in this system could produce the conscious hallucination of a voice (audiovisual speech, person or a touch. Over-activation could interfere with attentional/emotional gesture perception and production (negative symptoms. It could produce the unconscious feeling of being watched, followed or of a social situation unfolding along with accompanying perception of intent and agency inherent in those representations (delusions. Cognitive disturbances in attention, predictive social processing, agency, working memory, and a bias toward the perception of threat would also be predicted.

  13. Imaging derived cortical thickness reduction in high-functioning autism: key regions and temporal slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Christian; Rotarska-Jagiela, Anna; Schilbach, Leonhard; Lehnhardt, Fritz G; Krug, Barbara; Vogeley, Kai; Tepest, Ralf

    2011-09-15

    Cortical thickness (CT) changes possibly contribute to the complex symptomatology of autism. The aberrant developmental trajectories underlying such differences in certain brain regions and their continuation in adulthood are a matter of intense debate. We studied 28 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 28 control subjects matched for age, gender, IQ and handedness. A surface-based whole brain analysis utilizing FreeSurfer was employed to detect CT differences between the two diagnostic groups and to investigate the time course of age-related changes. Direct comparison with control subjects revealed thinner cortex in HFA in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of the left hemisphere. Considering the time course of CT development we found clusters around the pSTS and cuneus in the left and the paracentral lobule in the right hemisphere to be thinner in HFA with comparable age-related slopes in patients and controls. Conversely, we found clusters around the supramarginal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in the left and the precentral and postcentral gyrus in the right hemisphere to be thinner in HFA, but with different age-related slopes in patients and controls. In the latter regions CT showed a steady decrease in controls but no analogous thinning in HFA. CT analyses contribute in characterizing neuroanatomical correlates of HFA. Reduced CT is present in brain regions involved in social cognition. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that aberrant brain development leading to such differences is proceeding throughout adulthood. Discrepancies in prior morphometric studies may be induced by the complex time course of cortical changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of photodynamic therapy on pathogenic bacteria around peri-implant sulcus and in the cavity between abutment and implant after healing phase: A prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin-Yi; Shi, Jun-Yu; Zhu, Yu; Qian, Shu-Jiao; Lai, Hong-Chang; Gu, Ying-Xin

    2018-05-14

    To compare levels of pathogens from peri-implant sulcus versus abutment screw cavities after photodynamic therapy. Twenty patients were included. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was applied both in sulcus and cavities after sampling following suprastructures loading, and repeated after 2 weeks. Two samples each containing four paper points were collected for each implant at baseline, 2 weeks, 3 months: (i) peri-implant sulcus and (ii) abutment screw cavities. Seventy-five percent ethanol was applied in another 20 patients as the control group in the same way. qPCR was used to quantify periodontal pathogens: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans. PDT showed a better bacterial reduction than ethanol. P. g. and F. n. were most frequently detected, while less for S. m. P. gingivalis' proportion from both sites was significantly higher than the other two bacteria (P abutment screw cavities were always less than those from peri-implant sulcus and was significantly lower for total bacteria at 3 months (P abutment screw cavities significantly reduced at 3 months compared to baseline (P abutment screw cavities in the long run, suggesting PDT an effective way sterilizing inner surface of oral implant suprastrutures. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Transcortical selective amygdalohippocampectomy technique through the middle temporal gyrus revisited: An anatomical study laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Baran; da Silva Centeno, Ricardo; Chaddad-Neto, Feres; da Costa, Marcos Devanir Silva; Goiri, Marcelo Augusto Acosta; Karadag, Ali; Tugcu, Bekir; Ovalioglu, Talat Cem; Tanriover, Necmettin; Kaya, Serdar; Yagmurlu, Kaan; Grande, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) have been used for surgical treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined the comprehensive white matter tract anatomy of the temporal lobe to gain an insight into the trans-middle temporal gyrus, a lateral approach which has been commonly used. The transmiddle temporal gyrus approach was performed in a stepwise manner on cadaveric human heads to examine the traversing white matter pathways through it and the structures located in the temporal horn. We reviewed the literature to compare the trans-middle temporal gyrus approach with other SelAH techniques based on surgical outcomes. There does not appear to be a significant difference in seizure outcome between SelAH and ATL. However, the SelAH provides a better neuropsychological outcomes than the ATL in selected patients. Each SelAH approach has individual advantages and disadvantages. Based on our anatomical study, in the transcortical amygdalohippocampectomy technique through the middle temporal gyrus the white matter pathways to be encountered. In the temporal horn, the collateral eminence, hippocampus, lateral ventricular sulcus, choroidal fissure, inferior choroidal point, choroid plexus, fimbria of the fornix, and amygdala are exposed. The subpial dissection is performed along the lateral ventricular sulcus from the collateral eminence on lateral side and from the choroidal fissure on medial side by microdissector for en bloc resection of the hippocampus proper. The trans-middle temporal gyrus approach is commonly used in treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients. A better anatomical and functional understanding of the structures of the temporal lobe is crucial for safer and more accurate surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saramäki, Jari

    2013-01-01

    The concept of temporal networks is an extension of complex networks as a modeling framework to include information on when interactions between nodes happen. Many studies of the last decade examine how the static network structure affect dynamic systems on the network. In this traditional approach  the temporal aspects are pre-encoded in the dynamic system model. Temporal-network methods, on the other hand, lift the temporal information from the level of system dynamics to the mathematical representation of the contact network itself. This framework becomes particularly useful for cases where there is a lot of structure and heterogeneity both in the timings of interaction events and the network topology. The advantage compared to common static network approaches is the ability to design more accurate models in order to explain and predict large-scale dynamic phenomena (such as, e.g., epidemic outbreaks and other spreading phenomena). On the other hand, temporal network methods are mathematically and concept...

  17. Intracranially protruded bilateral posterior and superior SCCs with multiple dehiscences in a patient with positional vertigo: CT and MR imaging findings and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundaragi, Nischal G; Mudali, Srinivasa; Karpagam, Bulabai; Priya, Rathna

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of intracranially protruded posterior and superior semicircular canals beyond the margins of temporal bone with bony roof dehiscence in bilateral posterior and left superior semicircular canals in a patient with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)

  18. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  19. Gram-positive bacteria as an antigen topically applied into gingival sulcus of immunized rat accelerates periodontal destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, F; Kaneko, T; Yoshinaga, Y; Ukai, T; Kuramoto, A; Nakatsu, S; Oshino, K; Ichimura, I; Hara, Y

    2013-08-01

    Periodontitis is generally accepted to relate to gram-negative bacteria, and the host defense system influences its onset and progression. However, little is known about the relation between gram-positive bacteria and periodontitis. In this study, we topically applied gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial suspensions to the gingival sulcus in rats after immunization, and then histopathologically examined their influence on periodontal destruction. Rats previously immunized with heat-treated and sonicated Staphylococcus aureus or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were used as immunized groups. The non-immunized group received only sterile phosphate-buffered saline. In each animal, S. aureus or A. actinomycetemcomitans suspension was applied topically to the palatal gingival sulcus of first molars every 24 h for 10 d. Blood samples were collected and the serum level of anti-S. aureus or anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The first molar regions were resected and observed histopathologically. Osteoclasts were stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The formation of immune complexes was confirmed by immunohistological staining of C1qB. Serum levels of anti-S. aureus and anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans IgG antibodies in the immunized groups were significantly higher than those in the non-immunized groups were. The loss of attachment, increase in apical migration of the junctional epithelium, and decreases in alveolar bone level and number of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells in each immunized group were significantly greater than in each non-immunized group. The presence of C1qB was observed in the junctional epithelium and adjacent connective tissue in the immunized groups. Heat-treated and sonicated S. aureus and A. actinomycetemcomitans induced attachment loss in rats immunized with their suspensions. Our results suggest that not only gram-negative but also gram

  20. [Lens exchange for subluxation of posterior chamber lenses implanted in the capsular bag or in the ciliary sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürmer, J

    2013-04-01

    There are an increasing number of patients with decreased vision due to dislocated posterior chamber lenses, with pseudoexfoliation being the main risk factor. Various techniques for refixation of the subluxated posterior chamber IOL have been described. Experience with our technique of IOL-explantation, anterior vitrectomy and implantation of an Artisan anterior chamber lens are presented. In a retrospective study design all lens exchanges with implantation of an Artisan anterior chamber lens performed between 2003 and 2012 are analyzed. The study included 65 eyes of 61 patients (age 79.6 ± 9.2 years: 43-98). The majority of eyes (46/65; 70.8%) had Sundown Syndrome (late in-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation), in 19 eyes the posterior chamber lens was implanted primary or secondary into the ciliary sulcus. In the 46 eyes with Sundown Syndrome cataract surgery with implantation of a posterior chamber lens in the capsular bag was performed 7.4 ± 3.7 (1-22) years before subluxation within the bag. Pseudoexfoliation was the main risk factor in 42/46 (91.2%) of these eyes. A capsular tension ring (CTR) was implanted during cataract surgery in 34/46 (73.9%) eyes. The 34 IOLs with a CTR luxated significantly earlier (p IOLs without a CTR (6.6 ± 3.6 years; median 5.8 vs. 9.4 ± 3.1 years; median 9.2). The average visual gain was 0.2 logMAR in the group of luxated capsular bag lenses and 0.12 logMAR in the group of luxated sulcus lenses. Postoperative IOP decompensation was seen in 17/65 (26.2%) eyes (requiring IOP-lowering surgery in 8 eyes), 7 eyes developed corneal decompensation, 5 eyes had central retinal vein occlusion and one eye developed postoperative endophthalmitis. Lens exchange with implantation of an Artisan anterior chamber lens has become a routine procedure to improve vision in patients with subluxated IOLs. Postoperative IOP decompensation and vascular problems are the major complications. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Pharmacological inactivation does not support a unique causal role for intraparietal sulcus in the discrimination of visual number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas K DeWind

    Full Text Available The "number sense" describes the intuitive ability to quantify without counting. Single neuron recordings in non-human primates and functional imaging in humans suggest the intraparietal sulcus is an important neuroanatomical locus of numerical estimation. Other lines of inquiry implicate the IPS in numerous other functions, including attention and decision making. Here we provide a direct test of whether IPS has functional specificity for numerosity judgments. We used muscimol to reversibly and independently inactivate the ventral and lateral intraparietal areas in two monkeys performing a numerical discrimination task and a color discrimination task, roughly equilibrated for difficulty. Inactivation of either area caused parallel impairments in both tasks and no evidence of a selective deficit in numerical processing. These findings do not support a causal role for the IPS in numerical discrimination, except insofar as it also has a role in the discrimination of color. We discuss our findings in light of several alternative hypotheses of IPS function, including a role in orienting responses, a general cognitive role in attention and decision making processes and a more specific role in ordinal comparison that encompasses both number and color judgments.

  2. Formation and function of a new pollen aperture pattern in angiosperms: The proximal sulcus of Tillandsia leiboldiana (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Béatrice; Matamoro-Vidal, Alexis; Raquin, Christian; Nadot, Sophie

    2010-02-01

    Pollen grains are generally surrounded by an extremely resistant wall interrupted in places by apertures that play a key role in reproduction; pollen tube growth is initiated at these sites. The shift from a proximal to distal aperture location is a striking innovation in seed plant reproduction. Reversals to proximal aperture position have only very rarely been described in angiosperms. The genus Tillandsia belongs to the Bromeliaceae family, and its aperture pattern has been described as distal monosulcate, the most widespread aperture patterns recorded in monocots and basal angiosperms. Here we report developmental and functional elements to demonstrate that the sulcate aperture in Tillandsia leiboldiana is not distal as previously described but proximal. Postmeitotic tetrad observation indicates unambiguously the proximal position of the sulcus, and in vitro germination of pollen grains confirms that the aperture is functional. This is the first report of a sulcate proximal aperture with proximal germination. The observation of microsporogenesis reveals specific features in the patterns of callose thickenings in postmeiotic tetrads.

  3. Olfactory bulb and olfactory sulcus depths are associated with disease duration and attack frequency in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanik, Nermin; Serin, Halil Ibrahim; Celikbilek, Asuman; Inan, Levent Ertugrul; Gundogdu, Fatma

    2015-11-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disease that progresses to axonal loss and demyelinization. Olfactory dysfunction in patients with MS has been reported frequently. We were interested in the associations of olfactory bulb (OB) and olfactory sulcus depth (OSD) with disease duration and attack frequency. We included 25 patients with MS and 30 age- and sex-matched controls in this study. The Expanded Disability Status Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Mini Mental State Examination were applied. OB, OSD, and magnetic resonance imaging plaque numbers were calculated. OB volume and OSD in patients with MS were significantly lower than those in the control group (right and left OB: p<0.001; right OSD: p=0.001; and left OSD: p=0.039). Disease duration was negatively correlated with right and left OB volume (right OB: r=-0.434, p=0.030 and left OB: r=-0.518, p=0.008). Attack frequency was negatively correlated with left OB volume and left OSD (left OB: r=-0.428, p=0.033 and left OSD: r=-0.431, p=0.032). The OB and OSD were atrophied significantly in patients with MS, and this was correlated with disease duration and attack frequency. The left side tended to be dominant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations of olfactory bulb and depth of olfactory sulcus with basal ganglia and hippocampus in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanik, Nermin; Serin, Halil Ibrahim; Celikbilek, Asuman; Inan, Levent Ertugrul; Gundogdu, Fatma

    2016-05-04

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by hyposmia in the preclinical stages. We investigated the relationships of olfactory bulb (OB) volume and olfactory sulcus (OS) depth with basal ganglia and hippocampal volumes. The study included 25 patients with PD and 40 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Idiopathic PD was diagnosed according to published diagnostic criteria. The Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale, the motor subscale of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III), and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were administered to participants. Volumetric measurements of olfactory structures, the basal ganglia, and hippocampus were performed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). OB volume and OS depth were significantly reduced in PD patients compared to healthy control subjects (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). The OB and left putamen volumes were significantly correlated (p=0.048), and the depth of the right OS was significantly correlated with right hippocampal volume (p=0.018). We found significant correlations between OB and putamen volumes and OS depth and hippocampal volume. Our study is the first to demonstrate associations of olfactory structures with the putamen and hippocampus using MRI volumetric measurements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anthropogenic climate change has altered primary productivity in Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, M D; Werne, J P; Hecky, R E; Johnson, T C; Katsev, S; Reavie, E D

    2017-06-09

    Anthropogenic climate change has the potential to alter many facets of Earth's freshwater resources, especially lacustrine ecosystems. The effects of anthropogenic changes in Lake Superior, which is Earth's largest freshwater lake by area, are not well documented (spatially or temporally) and predicted future states in response to climate change vary. Here we show that Lake Superior experienced a slow, steady increase in production throughout the Holocene using (paleo)productivity proxies in lacustrine sediments to reconstruct past changes in primary production. Furthermore, data from the last century indicate a rapid increase in primary production, which we attribute to increasing surface water temperatures and longer seasonal stratification related to longer ice-free periods in Lake Superior due to anthropogenic climate warming. These observations demonstrate that anthropogenic effects have become a prominent influence on one of Earth's largest, most pristine lacustrine ecosystems.

  6. Solving intraocular lens-related pigment dispersion syndrome with repositioning of primary sulcus implanted single-piece IOL in the capsular bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Thomas; Kook, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    We describe 2 cases of pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) after uneventful phacoemulsification and implantation of a posterior chamber single-piece intraocular lens (IOL) with a sharp-edge design. In both cases, several days after IOL implantation, marked pigment dispersion was seen on the iris and in the trabecular meshwork, associated with an elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP). Thorough examination showed that the implanted IOL was in the ciliary sulcus. After surgical repositioning of both IOLs in the capsular bag, the pigment dispersion regressed and the IOP returned to normal limits. The 2 cases suggest that particularly in PDS patients, an IOL with an anterior sharp-edge design should be implanted in the capsular bag. Implantation in the ciliary sulcus should be avoided.

  7. A phase I/II exploratory clinical trial for intracordal injection of recombinant hepatocyte growth factor for vocal fold scar and sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shigeru; Kawamoto, Atsuhiko; Tateya, Ichiro; Mizuta, Masanobu; Kishimoto, Yo; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kawai, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Takuya; Suzuki, Ryo; Kaneko, Mami; Naito, Yasushi; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Kanemaru, Shin-Ichi

    2018-04-01

    Vocal fold scar and sulcus are intractable diseases with no effective established treatments. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has preclinically proven to have potent antifibrotic and regenerative effects on vocal fold scar. The current Phase I/II clinical trial aims to examine the safety and effectiveness of intracordal injection of a recombinant human HGF drug for patients with vocal fold scar or sulcus. This is an open-label, dose-escalating, first-in-human clinical trial. Eighteen patients with bilateral vocal fold scar or sulcus were enrolled and divided into three groups: Step I received 1 μg of HGF per vocal fold; Step II received 3 μg of HGF; and Step III received 10 μg of HGF. Injections were administered once weekly for 4 weeks. The protocol treatment was performed starting with Step I and escalating to Step III. Patients were followed for 6 months post-treatment. Local and systemic safety aspects were examined as primary endpoints, and therapeutic effects were assessed as secondary endpoints using voice handicap index-10; maximum phonation time; vocal fold vibratory amplitude; grade, rough, breathy, asthenic, strained scale; and jitter. The results indicated no serious drug-related adverse events in either the systemic or local examinations. In whole-subject analysis, voice handicap index-10, vocal fold vibratory amplitude, and grade, rough, breathy, asthenic, strained scale were significantly improved at 6 months, whereas maximum phonation time and jitter varied. There were no significant differences in phonatory data between the step groups. In conclusion, intracordal injection of a recombinant human HGF drug was safe, feasible, and potentially effective for human patients with vocal fold scar or sulcus. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Temporal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari

    2012-10-01

    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered

  9. Role of Fusiform and Anterior Temporal Cortical Areas in Facial Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Shahin; Tootell, Roger BH

    2012-01-01

    Recent FMRI studies suggest that cortical face processing extends well beyond the fusiform face area (FFA), including unspecified portions of the anterior temporal lobe. However, the exact location of such anterior temporal region(s), and their role during active face recognition, remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that (in addition to FFA) a small bilateral site in the anterior tip of the collateral sulcus (‘AT’; the anterior temporal face patch) is selectively activated during recognition of faces but not houses (a non-face object). In contrast to the psychophysical prediction that inverted and contrast reversed faces are processed like other non-face objects, both FFA and AT (but not other visual areas) were also activated during recognition of inverted and contrast reversed faces. However, response accuracy was better correlated to recognition-driven activity in AT, compared to FFA. These data support a segregated, hierarchical model of face recognition processing, extending to the anterior temporal cortex. PMID:23034518

  10. Writing superiority in cued recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eFueller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001. In other memory retrieval paradigms, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005. In a series of four experiments using a paired associate (PA learning paradigm we tested (a whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b whether a possible superiority for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c whether the performance in PA word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory task. We found better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a PA learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written versus spoken recall cannot be (solely explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory

  11. Displacement of the central sulcus in cerebral arteriovenous malformations situated in the peri-motor cortex as assessed by magnetoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Norihito; Ohkuma, Hiroki; Ogane, Kazumi; Manabe, Hiroshi; Yagihashi, Akinori; Kikkawa, Tomoshige; Suzuki, Shigeharu

    2003-01-01

    In order to determine the optimal treatment for a pen-motor cortex lesion, preoperative orientation of central sulcus (CS) is indispensable. The purpose of this study is to detect a discrepancy between ''functional'' CS and ''anatomical'' CS in cerebral lesions. Stereotactic mapping of functional'' CS was performed on 12 subjects using somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) with MRI-linked whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system preoperatively. All subjects who underwent axial T1-weighted MRI scans had a left-sided lesion with diagnoses including: three arteriovenous malformations (AVM), six gliomas and three meningiomas. Two certified neurosurgeons identified the anatomical CS of the cerebral hemispheres in MRI. Right median nerves were stimulated at the wrists using the following parameters of stimulation: 1 Hz rectangular electrical wave, 0.2 msec duration, and 3 to 5 mA intensity. The sampling rate was 600 Hz and band pass filters were 0.1 to 200 Hz. One hundred epochs were averaged to determine SEFs during a 50 msec pre-stimulus to 300 msec following stimulus onset. Estimations of single dipole were corresponded with N20m of SEFs. Estimated current dipoles were superimposed on the MR images. Anatomical CS accorded with functional CS in the intracranial tumor cases. AVM cases in which the nidus was situated in the peri-motor cortex showed discrepancies between functional CS and anatomical CS marking one gyrus. AVMs situated in the peri-motor area have the ability to displace the CS. Preoperative consideration for AVM treatment should include functional brain mapping to decide the most suitable operative approach and avoid postoperative deficits. (author)

  12. The anterior intraparietal sulcus mediates grasp execution, independent of requirement to update: new insights from transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nichola J; Tunik, Eugene; Grafton, Scott T

    2006-08-02

    Although a role of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in grasping is becoming evident, the specific contribution of regions within the IPS remains undefined. In this vein, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the anterior (aIPS), middle (mIPS), and caudal (cIPS) IPS in two tasks designed to dissociate the potential roles of the IPS in either grasp planning or execution (task 1) and its involvement in error detection or error correction (task 2). Determining the involvement of specific regions of the IPS in perceptual (planning and error detection) versus motor (execution and correction) components of grasping allowed us to assess the ecological validity of competing computational models attempting to simulate reach-to-grasp movements. In task 1, we demonstrate that, when no on-line adjustment is necessary, TMS to aIPS (but not mIPS or cIPS) disrupts grasping; this disruption is only elicited when TMS is applied during the execution (but not the planning) phase of the movement. Task 2 reveals that TMS to aIPS (but not mIPS or cIPS) disrupts grasping in the presence of a perturbation; this disruption is only elicited when TMS is applied during the error correction (but not error detection) phase of the movement. We propose that the specific contribution of the aIPS in grasping is in the on-line computation of a difference vector based on motor goal, efference copy, and sensory inputs. This computation is performed for both stable and perturbed motor goals.

  13. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  14. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome Affecting 3 Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Katherine D; Kileny, Paul R; Ahmed, Sameer; El-Kashlan, Hussam K; Melendez, Tori L; Basura, Gregory J; Lesperance, Marci M

    2017-07-01

    Superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is an increasingly recognized cause of hearing loss and vestibular symptoms, but the etiology of this condition remains unknown. To describe 7 cases of SCDS across 3 families. This retrospective case series included 7 patients from 3 different families treated at a neurotology clinic at a tertiary academic medical center from 2010 to 2014. Patients were referred by other otolaryngologists or were self-referred. Each patient demonstrated unilateral or bilateral SCDS or near dehiscence. Clinical evaluation involved body mass index calculation, audiometry, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing, electrocochleography, and multiplanar computed tomographic (CT) scan of the temporal bones. Zygosity testing was performed on twin siblings. The diagnosis of SCDS was made if bone was absent over the superior semicircular canal on 2 consecutive CT images, in addition to 1 physiologic sign consistent with labyrinthine dehiscence. Near dehiscence was defined as absent bone on only 1 CT image but with symptoms and at least 1 physiologic sign of labyrinthine dehiscence. A total of 7 patients (5 female and 2 male; age range, 8-49 years) from 3 families underwent evaluation. Family A consisted of 3 adult first-degree relatives, of whom 2 were diagnosed with SCDS and 1 with near dehiscence. Family B included a mother and her child, both of whom were diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. Family C consisted of adult monozygotic twins, each of whom was diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. For all cases, dehiscence was located at the arcuate eminence. Obesity alone did not explain the occurrence of SCDS because 5 of the 7 cases had a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) less than 30.0. Superior canal dehiscence syndrome is a rare, often unrecognized condition. This report of 3 multiplex families with SCDS provides evidence in support of a potential genetic contribution to the etiology

  15. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  16. Double elevator weakening for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy with ipsilateral superior rectus contracture and lax superior oblique tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif O

    2012-06-01

    In unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy, a large hypertropia is sometimes associated with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle and apparent overaction of the contralateral superior oblique. Ipsilateral double elevator weakening is one surgical approach; however, this procedure could compromise supraduction. We report a series of three consecutive patients who underwent ipsilateral superior rectus and inferior oblique recessions for unilateral superior oblique palsy. Intraoperatively, all three patients were found to have a lax ipsilateral superior oblique tendon. Postoperatively, all three patients had satisfactory correction of the hypertropia and abnormal head position with minimal supraduction defect. This procedure seems to be an acceptable initial surgical option for treating congenital superior oblique muscle palsy with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle, even when the ipsilateral superior oblique tendon is lax. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Large Scale Functional Brain Networks Underlying Temporal Integration of Audio-Visual Speech Perception: An EEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Vinodh; Halder, Tamesh; Jaiswal, Amit K; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Roy, Dipanjan; Banerjee, Arpan

    2016-01-01

    Observable lip movements of the speaker influence perception of auditory speech. A classical example of this influence is reported by listeners who perceive an illusory (cross-modal) speech sound (McGurk-effect) when presented with incongruent audio-visual (AV) speech stimuli. Recent neuroimaging studies of AV speech perception accentuate the role of frontal, parietal, and the integrative brain sites in the vicinity of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) for multisensory speech perception. However, if and how does the network across the whole brain participates during multisensory perception processing remains an open question. We posit that a large-scale functional connectivity among the neural population situated in distributed brain sites may provide valuable insights involved in processing and fusing of AV speech. Varying the psychophysical parameters in tandem with electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, we exploited the trial-by-trial perceptual variability of incongruent audio-visual (AV) speech stimuli to identify the characteristics of the large-scale cortical network that facilitates multisensory perception during synchronous and asynchronous AV speech. We evaluated the spectral landscape of EEG signals during multisensory speech perception at varying AV lags. Functional connectivity dynamics for all sensor pairs was computed using the time-frequency global coherence, the vector sum of pairwise coherence changes over time. During synchronous AV speech, we observed enhanced global gamma-band coherence and decreased alpha and beta-band coherence underlying cross-modal (illusory) perception compared to unisensory perception around a temporal window of 300-600 ms following onset of stimuli. During asynchronous speech stimuli, a global broadband coherence was observed during cross-modal perception at earlier times along with pre-stimulus decreases of lower frequency power, e.g., alpha rhythms for positive AV lags and theta rhythms for negative AV lags. Thus, our

  18. Temporal contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C.R.; Craig, Andrew R.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. PMID:23994260

  19. Temporal contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Laser iridotomy to treat uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome secondary to reverse pupillary block in sulcus-placed intraocular lenses: Case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmanjit; Modabber, Milad; Safran, Steven G; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2015-10-01

    To present cases of uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema (UGH) syndrome due to reverse pupillary block in sulcus-placed posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) that were managed with laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). Community-based subspecialty clinics. Retrospective interventional case series. A chart review of patients with a sulcus-placed PC IOLs presenting with UGH syndrome and reverse pupillary block with posterior iris bowing as diagnosed by gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography was carried out. Laser peripheral iridotomy was performed in the eyes included in the study. The main outcome measure was clinical resolution of UGH syndrome. The study included 6 eyes of 6 patients with a mean age of 59.8 years (range 43.0 to 66.0 years) who presented with unilateral UGH syndrome a mean of 28.7 months (range 0.3 to 84.0 months) after PC IOL implantation. All patients were previously myopic, with 5 (83.3%) having a history of vitrectomy. The mean axial length was 27.0 mm ± 1.4 (SD). An LPI was used to treat the reverse pupillary block with resultant improvement in iris profile and resolution of UGH syndrome in all eyes. The mean intraocular pressure decreased from 30.5 ± 10.0 mm Hg on 0.5 ± 0.8 glaucoma medications to 15.5 ± 3.2 mm Hg postoperatively on 0.7 ± 1.2 medications. The UGH syndrome due to reverse pupillary block occurred after sulcus-placed PC IOLs in susceptible patients, those with axial myopia, and post-vitrectomized eyes. The cases were managed with LPIs. Dr. Ahmed is a consultant to Alcon Laboratories, Inc. and Abbott Medical Optics, Inc. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  2. [Application of 3D virtual reality technology with multi-modality fusion in resection of glioma located in central sulcus region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T N; Yin, X T; Li, X G; Zhao, J; Wang, L; Mu, N; Ma, K; Huo, K; Liu, D; Gao, B Y; Feng, H; Li, F

    2018-05-08

    Objective: To explore the clinical and teaching application value of virtual reality technology in preoperative planning and intraoperative guide of glioma located in central sulcus region. Method: Ten patients with glioma in the central sulcus region were proposed to surgical treatment. The neuro-imaging data, including CT, CTA, DSA, MRI, fMRI were input to 3dgo sczhry workstation for image fusion and 3D reconstruction. Spatial relationships between the lesions and the surrounding structures on the virtual reality image were obtained. These images were applied to the operative approach design, operation process simulation, intraoperative auxiliary decision and the training of specialist physician. Results: Intraoperative founding of 10 patients were highly consistent with preoperative simulation with virtual reality technology. Preoperative 3D reconstruction virtual reality images improved the feasibility of operation planning and operation accuracy. This technology had not only shown the advantages for neurological function protection and lesion resection during surgery, but also improved the training efficiency and effectiveness of dedicated physician by turning the abstract comprehension to virtual reality. Conclusion: Image fusion and 3D reconstruction based virtual reality technology in glioma resection is helpful for formulating the operation plan, improving the operation safety, increasing the total resection rate, and facilitating the teaching and training of the specialist physician.

  3. Temporal Glare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias; Ihrke, Matthias; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2009-01-01

    Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contra...... to initially static HDR images. By conducting psychophysical studies, we validate that our method improves perceived brightness and that dynamic glare-renderings are often perceived as more attractive depending on the chosen scene.......Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contrast....... Even though most, if not all, subjects report perceiving glare as a bright pattern that fluctuates in time, up to now it has only been modeled as a static phenomenon. We argue that the temporal properties of glare are a strong means to increase perceived brightness and to produce realistic...

  4. Physiological models of the lateral superior olive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Ashida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In computational biology, modeling is a fundamental tool for formulating, analyzing and predicting complex phenomena. Most neuron models, however, are designed to reproduce certain small sets of empirical data. Hence their outcome is usually not compatible or comparable with other models or datasets, making it unclear how widely applicable such models are. In this study, we investigate these aspects of modeling, namely credibility and generalizability, with a specific focus on auditory neurons involved in the localization of sound sources. The primary cues for binaural sound localization are comprised of interaural time and level differences (ITD/ILD, which are the timing and intensity differences of the sound waves arriving at the two ears. The lateral superior olive (LSO in the auditory brainstem is one of the locations where such acoustic information is first computed. An LSO neuron receives temporally structured excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs that are driven by ipsi- and contralateral sound stimuli, respectively, and changes its spike rate according to binaural acoustic differences. Here we examine seven contemporary models of LSO neurons with different levels of biophysical complexity, from predominantly functional ones ('shot-noise' models to those with more detailed physiological components (variations of integrate-and-fire and Hodgkin-Huxley-type. These models, calibrated to reproduce known monaural and binaural characteristics of LSO, generate largely similar results to each other in simulating ITD and ILD coding. Our comparisons of physiological detail, computational efficiency, predictive performances, and further expandability of the models demonstrate (1 that the simplistic, functional LSO models are suitable for applications where low computational costs and mathematical transparency are needed, (2 that more complex models with detailed membrane potential dynamics are necessary for simulation studies where sub

  5. Técnica do retalho pediculado para correção do sulco vocal The pediculated flap technique to sulcus vocalis repairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Grellet

    Full Text Available Introdução: técnica do retalho pediculado de mucosa para reparar o sulco vocal permite o aparecimento da onda mucosa nessa região. A presença do sulco vocal traz como conseqüência rouquidão, soprosidade e aspereza. Outros sintomas podem estar presentes como fadiga ao falar, queimação ou ardor. Objetivo: provocar o aparecimento de onda mucosa com técnica cirúrgica. Forma de estudo: clínico retrospectivo. Material e método: Foram operados 3 pacientes para auxiliar no deslocamento do epitélio escamoso estratificado e da camada superficial da prega vocal aderidos ao ligamento vocal injetamos pequena quantidade de dexametasona. Obtemos o retalho pediculado descolando retalho de mucosa da prega vocal. Resultados: No pós-operatório, a videoestroboscopia mostra uniformidade do revestimento da cobertura da prega vocal na região do sulco vocal. Nos pacientes operados observamos a presença da onda mucosa nessa região e a coaptação das pregas vocais é satisfatória, no caso de sulco unilateral. A análise subjetiva e objetiva da voz apresenta resultados normais a partir de um ano da cirurgia. Os sintomas, esforço e fadiga ao falar, ardor e queimação, desapareceram nesse período. Para sulco bilateral operamos inicialmente o sulco de uma prega vocal com melhora dos índices acústicos utilizados, embora não atingisse valores normais em todos os parâmetros avaliados no curto período de evolução (30 dias de pós-operatório após realizarmos a correção cirúrgica do sulco da outra prega vocal. Conclusão: A técnica microfonocirúrgica de retalho pediculado de mucosa para correção do sulco vocal mostrou resultados amplamente favoráveis para reabilitação da voz nos três pacientes apresentados.Introduction: the pedicullate flap technique to repair sulcus vocalis allows the appearing of the mucous wave in this region. Sulcus vocalis cause hoarseness, breathing and roughness. Other symptoms can happen during the speech like

  6. Middle and Inferior Temporal Gyrus Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in First-Episode Schizophrenia: An MRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroki, Noriomi; Shenton, Martha Elizabeth; Salisbury, Dean; Hirayasu, Yoshio; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert William

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of schizophrenia reveal temporal lobe structural brain abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus and the amygdala-hippocampal complex. However, the middle and inferior temporal gyri have received little investigation, especially in first-episode schizophrenia. Method: High-spatial-resolution MRI was used to measure gray matter volume in the inferior, middle, and superior temporal gyri in 20 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 20 pa...

  7. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  8. Quantitative Evaluation of Medial Temporal Lobe Morphology in Children with Febrile Status Epilepticus: Results of the FEBSTAT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, A C; Gomes, W A; Shinnar, S; Hesdorffer, D C; Bagiella, E; Lewis, D V; Bello, J A; Chan, S; MacFall, J; Chen, M; Pellock, J M; Nordli, D R; Frank, L M; Moshé, S L; Shinnar, R C; Sun, S

    2016-12-01

    The pathogenesis of febrile status epilepticus is poorly understood, but prior studies have suggested an association with temporal lobe abnormalities, including hippocampal malrotation. We used a quantitative morphometric method to assess the association between temporal lobe morphology and febrile status epilepticus. Brain MR imaging was performed in children presenting with febrile status epilepticus and control subjects as part of the Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood study. Medial temporal lobe morphologic parameters were measured manually, including the distance of the hippocampus from the midline, hippocampal height:width ratio, hippocampal angle, collateral sulcus angle, and width of the temporal horn. Temporal lobe morphologic parameters were correlated with the presence of visual hippocampal malrotation; the strongest association was with left temporal horn width (P status epilepticus, encompassing both the right and left sides. This association was statistically strongest in the right temporal lobe, whereas hippocampal malrotation was almost exclusively left-sided in this cohort. The association between temporal lobe measurements and febrile status epilepticus persisted when the analysis was restricted to cases with visually normal imaging findings without hippocampal malrotation or other visually apparent abnormalities. Several component morphologic features of hippocampal malrotation are independently associated with febrile status epilepticus, even when complete hippocampal malrotation is absent. Unexpectedly, this association predominantly involves the right temporal lobe. These findings suggest that a spectrum of bilateral temporal lobe anomalies are associated with febrile status epilepticus in children. Hippocampal malrotation may represent a visually apparent subset of this spectrum. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  9. Quantum Temporal Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Mankei; Psaltis, Demetri

    2006-01-01

    The concept of quantum temporal imaging is proposed to manipulate the temporal correlation of entangled photons. In particular, we show that time correlation and anticorrelation can be converted to each other using quantum temporal imaging.

  10. Paso superior en una ladera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, O.

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available The Redwood highway, through the Californian forest, runs on a viaduct, as it crosses a mountain slope of about 45° inclination. The firm ground is fairly deep, and as an additional constructional difficulty, it was necessary to respect the natural beauty of the countryside. A structure of portal frames were built, forming a number of short spans. These spans were bridged with metal girders, on which a 19 m wide deck was placed. The columns are hollow and have a transversal cross beam, to join each pair. There was difficulty in excavating the foundations for the columns, as it was necessary to dig through the soft top soil, and also prevent this soil from hurting the trunks of the forest trees. Another significant difficulty in the construction of this viaduct was the access to the working site, since there were no suitable platforms from which to operate the appropriate machinery. This made it necessary to do a lot of the work by manual operation. As one of the edges of the deck is very close to the mountain side, a supporting beam was erected on this side. It was made of concrete, on metal piles. The formwork for the deck structure was placed on the concrete stems of the supporting piles.La autopista denominada Redwood (California salva, con un paso superior, la ladera de un bosque cuya pendiente es del 1/1. El terreno firme se halla a bastante profundidad, añadiéndose, a los naturales problemas de la construcción, el imperativo de respetar la belleza agreste del paraje. La solución adoptada consiste en una estructura porticada, con varios tramos de pequeñas luces, salvados con vigas metálicas, sobre los que se coloca la losa del tablero, de 19 m de anchura total. Los soportes están constituidos por pórticos de dos montantes huecos (con bases de hormigón en masa por debajo del suelo, hasta el firme coronados por un cabezal. La perforación de pozos para el hormigonado de los montantes presentaba la dificultad de atravesar el terreno

  11. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Self-Determination Act (Pub. L. 110-343) and in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The purpose of the meeting is to orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles... following business will be conducted: Overview of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource...

  12. Increased likelihood of bacterial pathogens in the coronal sulcus and urethra of uncircumcised men in a diverse group of HIV infected and uninfected patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Schneider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological mechanism of circumcision as potentiating HIV prevention is poorly understood. Foreskin microbiota has been postulated as having a potential role; however, little is known about the relationship between bacterial pathogens and circumcision in adults. Materials and Methods: We sampled the coronal sulcus of a diverse group of circumcised and uncircumcised men (n=315 from a government chest hospital and fertility clinic in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Genital examination was conducted on three groups of men: Group 1 - HIV infected; Group 2 - TB infected; Group 3 - control. Aerobic and anaerobic specimens were cultured according to standard clinical protocols, and results were analyzed following multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Three hundred fifteen study participants - 47.6% of Group 1, 36.5% of Group 2, and 15.9% of Group 3 - were enrolled in the study and included in all analyses. Overall 37.1% of the participants were circumcised without variation across groups (P=0.29. Smegma was observed in 18.7% of the participants with no cases observed in Group 3 (P<0.001. Gram-negative pathogens were more prevalent among study participants in Group 1 (22.7% and Group 2 (30.4% as compared with those in Group 3 (6.0% (P=0.003. In multivariate regression analysis, controlling for group, age, and presence of smegma, uncircumcised men were more likely to be colonized with gram positives [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 1.9; P<0.05], gram negatives (AOR 2.4; P<0.05, or any pathogen (AOR 2.8; P<0.005. Conclusions: Uncircumcised men in this population in South India are more likely to harbor bacterial pathogens in the coronal sulcus than do their circumcised counterparts. Future studies should examine the relationship between foreskin microbiota and HIV transmission.

  13. Auditory attention enhances processing of positive and negative words in inferior and superior prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyn, Martin; Herbert, Cornelia; Ethofer, Thomas; Flaisch, Tobias; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-11-01

    Visually presented emotional words are processed preferentially and effects of emotional content are similar to those of explicit attention deployment in that both amplify visual processing. However, auditory processing of emotional words is less well characterized and interactions between emotional content and task-induced attention have not been fully understood. Here, we investigate auditory processing of emotional words, focussing on how auditory attention to positive and negative words impacts their cerebral processing. A Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study manipulating word valence and attention allocation was performed. Participants heard negative, positive and neutral words to which they either listened passively or attended by counting negative or positive words, respectively. Regardless of valence, active processing compared to passive listening increased activity in primary auditory cortex, left intraparietal sulcus, and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG). The attended valence elicited stronger activity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left SFG, in line with these regions' role in semantic retrieval and evaluative processing. No evidence for valence-specific attentional modulation in auditory regions or distinct valence-specific regional activations (i.e., negative > positive or positive > negative) was obtained. Thus, allocation of auditory attention to positive and negative words can substantially increase their processing in higher-order language and evaluative brain areas without modulating early stages of auditory processing. Inferior and superior frontal brain structures mediate interactions between emotional content, attention, and working memory when prosodically neutral speech is processed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intracerebral stimulation of left and right ventral temporal cortex during object naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédos Ulvin, Line; Jonas, Jacques; Brissart, Hélène; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Thiriaux, Anne; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Maillard, Louis

    2017-12-01

    While object naming is traditionally considered asa left hemisphere function, neuroimaging studies have reported activations related to naming in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) bilaterally. Our aim was to use intracerebral electrical stimulation to specifically compare left and right VTC in naming. In twenty-three epileptic patients tested for visual object naming during stimulation, the proportion of naming impairments was significantly higher in the left than in the right VTC (31.3% vs 13.6%). The highest proportions of positive naming sites were found in the left fusiform gyrus and occipito-temporal sulcus (47.5% and 31.8%). For 17 positive left naming sites, an additional semantic picture matching was carried out, always successfully performed. Our results showed the enhanced role of the left compared to the right VTC in naming and suggest that it may be involved in lexical retrieval rather than in semantic processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Towards General Temporal Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehlen, Michael H.; Gamper, Johann; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    associated with the management of temporal data. Indeed, temporal aggregation is complex and among the most difficult, and thus interesting, temporal functionality to support. This paper presents a general framework for temporal aggregation that accommodates existing kinds of aggregation, and it identifies...

  16. Three-dimensional reconstruction of brain surface anatomy: technique comparison between flash and diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jianzhong; Wang Zhikang; Gong Xiangyang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare two methods 3D flash and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) in reconstructing the brain surface anatomy, and to evaluate their displaying ability, advantages, limitations and clinical application. Methods: Thrity normal cases were prospectively examined with 3D flash sequence and echo-planar DWI. Three-dimensional images were acquired with volume-rendering on workstation. Brain surface structures were evaluated and scored by a group of doctors. Results: Main structures of brain surface were clearly displayed on three-dimensional images based on 3D flash sequence. Average scores were all above 2.50. For images based on DWI, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus, precentral sulcus, central sulcus, postcentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus and superior frontal sulcus were best shown with average scores between 2.60-2.75, However, supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, lateral sulcus, inferior frontal sulcus could not be well shown, with average scores between 1.67-2.48. Middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, superior temporal sulcus and inferior temporal sulcus can only get scores from 0.88 to 1.27. Scores of images based on 3D flash were much higher than that based on DWI with distinct differentiations, P values were all below 0.01. Conclusion: Three-dimensional images based on 3D flash can really display brain surface structures. It is very useful for anatomic researches. Three-dimensional reconstruction of brain surface based on DWI is a worthy technique to display brain surface anatomy, especially for frontal and parietal structures. (authors)

  17. Temporal bone radiography using the orthopantomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatezawa, T.

    1981-01-01

    Temporal bone radiographs obtained with an Orthopantomograph were compared with conventional radiographs. In acoustic neurinoma, cholesteatoma, otitis media, and middle fossa tumors, both methods demonstrated the abnormalities well. In two cases with lesions extending beyond the range of conventional projections, the broad orthopantomographic coverage was very valuable. Mastoid air cells, the mastoid process, petrous ridge, and internal auditory meatus were well demonstrated by both techniques. Orthopantomography was found to be superior in the demonstration of the petrous apex, while the superior semicircular canal was better demonstrated on the conventional views. Bilateral symmetry was particularly good and because of fewer films, radiation exposure was considerably less with orthopantomography. For many applications, orthopantomography is an adequate convenient substitute for conventional methods of examining the temporal bones

  18. Magnetic resonance arthrography assessment of the superior labrum using the BLC system: age-related changes mimicking SLAP-2 lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koziak, Adrian; Chuang, Michael J.; Jancosko, Jason J.; Nottage, Wesley M.; Burnett, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the variation of the superior labrum with increasing age by assessing magnetic resonance (MR) arthrograms. Inclusion criteria were used to include only the MR arthrograms of patients devoid of clinical labral pathology. Two hundred thiry-six MR arthrograms were blindly assessed for biceps-labral complex (BLC) type 1-3 and sublabral recess size by a musculoskeletal radiologist. We have chosen the BLC system, which defines normal superior labral variants, since it is established in the literature and is used by reporting musculoskeletal (MSK) radiologists. The MR arthrograms demonstrated that the majority of patients <40 years old were BLC type 1 and showed a steady increase in BLC types 2 and 3 with increasing age. Assessments demonstrated significantly greater (p < 0.01) mean BLC types (1.62 vs 1.29) and recess size (1.35 vs 0.66 mm) in those over 40 compared with those less than 40 years of age. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were noted between mean BLC assessments between different decades of age. There appears to be a physiologic deepening of the superior labrum sulcus with age, which becomes significant after the age of 40. These findings can contribute to whether the superior labrum is considered abnormal when assessed radiographically. The differentiation of normal age-related changes in the shoulder, from those of a type 2 SLAP tear can reduce the rates of unnecessary SLAP-2 repairs. This is the first reported series to use the BLC system; we believe it provides a common nomenclature to allow clear communication between specialists. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic resonance arthrography assessment of the superior labrum using the BLC system: age-related changes mimicking SLAP-2 lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziak, Adrian [Queen' s School of Medicine, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Chuang, Michael J.; Jancosko, Jason J.; Nottage, Wesley M. [The Sport Clinic Orthopedic Medical Associates, Inc., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Burnett, Keith R. [Saddleback Valley Radiology, Laguna Hills, CA (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of the study was to describe the variation of the superior labrum with increasing age by assessing magnetic resonance (MR) arthrograms. Inclusion criteria were used to include only the MR arthrograms of patients devoid of clinical labral pathology. Two hundred thiry-six MR arthrograms were blindly assessed for biceps-labral complex (BLC) type 1-3 and sublabral recess size by a musculoskeletal radiologist. We have chosen the BLC system, which defines normal superior labral variants, since it is established in the literature and is used by reporting musculoskeletal (MSK) radiologists. The MR arthrograms demonstrated that the majority of patients <40 years old were BLC type 1 and showed a steady increase in BLC types 2 and 3 with increasing age. Assessments demonstrated significantly greater (p < 0.01) mean BLC types (1.62 vs 1.29) and recess size (1.35 vs 0.66 mm) in those over 40 compared with those less than 40 years of age. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were noted between mean BLC assessments between different decades of age. There appears to be a physiologic deepening of the superior labrum sulcus with age, which becomes significant after the age of 40. These findings can contribute to whether the superior labrum is considered abnormal when assessed radiographically. The differentiation of normal age-related changes in the shoulder, from those of a type 2 SLAP tear can reduce the rates of unnecessary SLAP-2 repairs. This is the first reported series to use the BLC system; we believe it provides a common nomenclature to allow clear communication between specialists. (orig.)

  20. Superiority in value and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    superiority does not amount to a radical value difference at all. I then spell out the consequences of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest.......James Griffin has considered a weak form of superiority in value a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this paper, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into a stronger form of superiority. And in a context where value is non-additive, weak...

  1. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome causing growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and lifethreateningclinical condition caused by the compressionof the third portion of the duodenum between the aortaand the superior mesenteric artery’s proximal part. Thiscompression may lead to chronic intermittent, acute totalor partial obstruction. Sudden weight-loss and the relateddecrease in the fat tissue are considered to be the etiologicalreason of acute stenosis. Weight-loss accompaniedby nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, andbloating are the leading complaints. Barium radiographs,computerized tomography, conventional angiography,tomographic and magnetic resonance angiography areused in the diagnosis. There are medical and surgical approachesto treatment. We hereby present the case ofa patient with superior mesenteric artery syndrome withdelayed diagnosis.Key words: superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nausea-vomiting, anorexia

  2. Superior versus inferior Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, Mohammad; Yazdani, Shahin; Shahabi, Camelia; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2009-02-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) (New World Medical Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) implantation in the superior versus inferior quadrants. Prospective parallel cohort study. A total of 106 eyes of 106 patients with refractory glaucoma. Consecutive patients with refractory glaucoma underwent AGV implantation in the superior or inferior quadrants. Main outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP) and rate of complications. Other outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of glaucoma medications, and success rate (defined as at least 30% IOP reduction and 5glaucoma surgery, phthisis bulbi, or loss of light perception. Of a total of 106 eyes, 58 and 48 eyes underwent AGV implantation in the superior and inferior quadrants, respectively. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the study groups, except for preoperative IOP, which was higher in the superior group (P = 0.01). Patients were followed for a mean period of 10.6+/-8.49 months and 10.58+/-6.75 months in the superior and inferior groups, respectively (P = 0.477). BCVA was comparable between the groups at all postoperative visits (P>0.122). After 1 year, statistically significant but comparable IOP reduction from baseline (Pglaucoma medications was comparable after 1 year (1.3+/-1.2 vs. 1.9+/-0.8 for superior and inferior implants, respectively, P = 0.256). Success rates were also similar at 1 year: 27 eyes (81.8%) versus 20 eyes (95.2%) for superior and inferior implants, respectively (P = 0.227). However, the overall rate of complications, such as implant exposure necessitating removal, cosmetically unappealing appearance, and endophthalmitis, was higher in the inferior group: 12 eyes (25%) versus 3 eyes (5.2%) for superior and inferior groups, respectively, (P = 0.004). Superior and inferior AGV implants have similar intermediate efficacy in terms of IOP reduction, decrease in number of glaucoma medications, and preservation of vision. However

  3. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van; Zaknun, John J.; Maes, Alex; Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon; Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina; Bal, C.S.; Dondi, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  4. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Zaknun, John J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Maes, Alex [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina [Fleni Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, Nuclear Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bal, C.S. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); Ospedale Maggiore, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of the superior olivary complex of Canis lupus domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fech, Tatiana; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J

    2017-08-01

    The superior olivary complex (SOC) is a collection of brainstem auditory nuclei which play essential roles in the localization of sound sources, temporal coding of vocalizations and descending modulation of the cochlea. Notwithstanding, the SOC nuclei vary considerably between species in accordance with the auditory needs of the animal. The canine SOC was subjected to anatomical and physiological examination nearly 50 years ago and was then virtually forgotten. Herein, we aimed to characterize the nuclei of the canine SOC using quantitative morphometrics, estimation of neuronal number, histochemistry for perineuronal nets and immunofluorescence for the calcium binding proteins calbindin and calretinin. We found the principal nuclei to be extremely well developed: the lateral superior olive (LSO) contained over 20,000 neurons and the medial superior olive (MSO) contained over 15,000 neurons. In nearly all non-chiropterian terrestrial mammals, the MSO exists as a thin, vertical column of neurons. The canine MSO was folded into a U-shaped contour and had associated with the ventromedial tip a small, round collection of neurons we termed the tail nucleus of the MSO. Further, we found evidence within the LSO, MSO and medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) for significant morphological variations along the mediolateral or rostrocaudal axes. Finally, the majority of MNTB neurons were calbindin-immunopositive and associated with calretinin-immunopositive calyceal terminals. Together, these observations suggest the canine SOC complies with the basic plan of the mammalian SOC but possesses a number of unique anatomical features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mesial temporal lobe morphology in intractable pediatric epilepsy: so-called hippocampal malrotation, associated findings, and relevance to presurgical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, James L; Awwad, Reem; Greiner, Hansel M; Vannest, Jennifer J; Miles, Lili; Mangano, Francesco T

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Diagnostic criteria for hippocampal malrotation (HIMAL) on brain MRI typically include a rounded hippocampus, vertical collateral sulcus, and architectural blurring. Relationship to epileptogenesis remains speculative, and usefulness for surgical guidance is unknown. The study was performed to determine the prevalence of hippocampal rotational anomalies in a cohort of pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy undergoing evaluation for surgery and to determine the significance of this finding in the context of surgical planning. METHODS Forty-eight surgically treated children with intractable epilepsy were compared with matched healthy subjects; reviewers were blinded to surgical side. Each temporal lobe was evaluated for rounded hippocampus, blurring, vertical collateral sulcus, wide choroidal fissure, enlarged temporal horn, low fornix, hippocampal signal, and findings of hippocampal sclerosis. A mesial temporal lobe (MTL) score was calculated by summing the number of features, and the collateral sulcus angle (CSA) was measured in each temporal lobe. Surgical side, pathological diagnosis, and imaging findings elsewhere in the brain were tabulated. Presence of HIMAL, associated imaging features, and MTL score were compared between sides, between epilepsy and control groups, in relationship to side of surgery, and in relationship to postoperative outcome. RESULTS Only 3 epilepsy patients (6.2%) and no controls exhibited all 3 features of HIMAL (p = 0.12). Eight of 48 (16.7%) epilepsy versus 2 of 48 (4.6%) control subjects had both a rounded hippocampus and vertical collateral sulcus (suggesting HIMAL) (p = 0.045). In control and epilepsy subjects, most findings were more prevalent on the left, and the left CSA was more vertical (p Epilepsy subjects had higher MTL scores (z = -2.95, p = 0.002) and more acute CSAs (p = 0.04) than controls. Only lateralizing raw MTL score had a significant association with surgical side (p = 0.03, OR 7.33); however, this

  7. Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava: image findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Junior, Cyrillo Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Fraguas Filho, Sergio Roberto; Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Jacob, Beatriz Mahmud; Machado, Marcio Martins; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos; Ximenes, Carlos Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava absent right superior vena cava is a rare anomaly, with less than 150 cases reported in the literature. Congenitally persistent left superior vena cava is the most common variant of systemic venous return to the heart, resulting embryologically from failure of the left anterior cardinal vein to become obliterated. Its incidence varies from 0.3% in patients with otherwise normal heart to 4.3% in patients with congenital heart disease. In the majority of the patients, a right superior vena cava is present as well, but rarely the right anterior cardinal vein degenerates resulting in the absence of the normal right superior vena cava. The blood from the right side is carried by the persistent left superior vena cava to the right atrium through the coronary sinus. We report the case of a patient with a persistent left superior vena cava and absence of right superior vena cava identified by chance during a chest radiograph and computed tomography examination for investigation of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease. The patient had no congenital heart disease and the blood from the right side was drained by the persistent left superior vena cava into the right atrium through the coronary sinus. (author)

  8. Spatial vision is superior in musicians when memory plays a role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Atalia H; Biron, Tali; Lieder, Itay; Granot, Roni Y; Ahissar, Merav

    2014-08-21

    Musicians' perceptual advantage in the acoustic domain is well established. Recent studies show that musicians' verbal working memory is also superior. Additionally, some studies report that musicians' visuospatial skills are enhanced although others failed to find this enhancement. We now examined whether musicians' spatial vision is superior, and if so, whether this superiority reflects refined visual skills or a general superiority of working memory. We examined spatial frequency discrimination among musicians and nonmusician university students using two presentation conditions: simultaneous (spatial forced choice) and sequential (temporal forced choice). Musicians' performance was similar to that of nonmusicians in the simultaneous condition. However, their performance in the sequential condition was superior, suggesting an advantage only when stimuli need to be retained, i.e., working memory. Moreover, the two groups showed a different pattern of correlations: Musicians' visual thresholds were correlated, and neither was correlated with their verbal memory. By contrast, among nonmusicians, the visual thresholds were not correlated, but sequential thresholds were correlated with verbal memory scores, suggesting that a general working memory component limits their performance in this condition. We propose that musicians' superiority in spatial frequency discrimination reflects an advantage in a domain-general aspect of working memory rather than a general enhancement in spatial-visual skills. © 2014 ARVO.

  9. The picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, William E

    2008-10-01

    The picture superiority effect has been well documented in tests of item recognition and recall. The present study shows that the picture superiority effect extends to associative recognition. In three experiments, students studied lists consisting of random pairs of concrete words and pairs of line drawings; then they discriminated between intact (old) and rearranged (new) pairs of words and pictures at test. The discrimination advantage for pictures over words was seen in a greater hit rate for intact picture pairs, but there was no difference in the false alarm rates for the two types of stimuli. That is, there was no mirror effect. The same pattern of results was found when the test pairs consisted of the verbal labels of the pictures shown at study (Experiment 4), indicating that the hit rate advantage for picture pairs represents an encoding benefit. The results have implications for theories of the picture superiority effect and models of associative recognition.

  10. The decreasing of NFκB level in gingival junctional epithelium of rat exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis with application of 1% curcumin on gingival sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Krismariono

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is a chronic, multi-factorial disease. Chronic periodontitis is one of the main causes of tooth loss. Chronic periodontitis is usually caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis can induce NFκB activation resulting in the increasing of periodontal extracellular matrix degradation. Curcumin can inhibit NFκB activation and reduce the severity of periodontal degradation. Purpose: This research was aimed to observe level of NFκB in gingival junctional epithelium of rat exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis with local administration of curcumin. Methods: Sixteen Wistar rat were divided into two groups. Group 1 (treatment consisted of eight rat given 2 x 106CFU/ml P. gingivalis and 1% curcumin. Meanwhile, group 2 (control consisted of eight rat given 2 x 106 CFU/ml P. gingivalis only. GCF samples were collected from gingival sulcus. The samples were biochemically analyzed with ELISA method. Data were then analyzed statistically by using independent t-test (α=0.05. Results: The examination of NFκB level showed that there was significant difference between treatment group and control group (p<0.05. The level of NFκB in the treatment group was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 1% curcumin application can reduce NFκB level in gingival junctional epithelium of rat exposed to P. gingivalis.

  11. Vena cava superior syndrome associated with sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, K.; Walz, M.; Reidemeister, J.C.; Donhuijsen, K.

    1988-01-01

    We report the first observation of clinical manifestations of vena cava superior syndrome (VCSS) associated with sarcoidosis. Twenty-four years after the first signs of the disease had been noted, mediastinal lymphomas penetrating the wall of the vena cava superior caused complete obstruction. It is most unusual for the vessel wall to be destroyed in this way, which explains why VCSS is often missed in sarcoidosis. The obstructed vessel was resected and successfully replaced by a Gore-Tex prosthesis. The importance of VCSS for the differential diagnosis is pointed out. Two further peculiarities are the simultaneous occurrence of elevated intraocular pressure and VCSS, and the familial incidence. (orig.) [de

  12. Superior oblique luxation and trochlear luxation as new concepts in superior oblique muscle weakening surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombaerts, I.; Koornneef, L.; Everhard-Halm, Y. S.; Hughes, D. S.; Maillette de Buy Wenniger-Prick, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    We used superior oblique luxation and trochlear luxation as new surgical procedures to treat acquired Brown's syndrome and superior oblique muscle overaction. We studied nine patients (11 eyes) who underwent trochlear surgery between 1988 and 1993. Four patients had acquired Brown's syndrome and

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of meniscoid superior labrum: normal variant or superior labral tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Novelino Simão

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of a "meniscoid" superior labrum. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 582 magnetic resonance imaging examinations of shoulders. Of those 582 examinations, 110 were excluded, for a variety of reasons, and the final analysis therefore included 472 cases. Consensus readings were performed by three musculoskeletal radiologists using specific criteria to diagnose meniscoid labra. Results: A meniscoid superior labrum was identified in 48 (10.2% of the 472 cases evaluated. Arthroscopic proof was available in 21 cases (43.8%. In 10 (47.6% of those 21 cases, the operative report did not include the mention a superior labral tear, thus suggesting the presence of a meniscoid labrum. In only one of those cases were there specific comments about a mobile superior labrum (i.e., meniscoid labrum. In the remaining 11 (52.4%, surgical correlation demonstrated superior labral tears. Conclusion: A meniscoid superior labrum is not an infrequent finding. Depending upon assumptions and the requirement of surgical proof, the prevalence of a meniscoid superior labrum in this study was between 2.1% (surgically proven and 4.8% (projected. However, superior labral tears are just as common and are often confused with meniscoid labra.

  14. La reforma de los proyectos docentes en el espacio europeo de educación superior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Gladish, B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La declaración de Bolonia representa el compromiso de 29 países europeos para reformar su propio sistema o sistemas de educación superior con el objetivo de crear un espacio común de educación superior europeo que, respetando los principios fundamentales de autonomía y diversidad, mejore el empleo y la movilidad de los ciudadanos y aumente la competitividad internacional de la educación superior europea. Todos estos aspectos darán lugar a una profunda reforma con horizonte temporal en el 2010 de los planes de estudios y, en particular, de los programas de las asignaturas a impartir que se verá reflejada en los proyectos docentes. La presente comunicación pretende suscitar un debate a cerca del futuro diseño de los proyectos docentes.

  15. Comparative study of the stridulatorium sulcus, buccula and rostrum of nymphs of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo et al, Triatoma vandae Carcavallo et al and Triatoma williami Galvao et al (Hemiptera: Redivide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Maria B.A.; Jurberg, Jose; Galvao, Cleber; Barbosa, Helene S.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrastructural analysis of the ventral region of the head - rostrum, buccula and stridulatorium sulcus - of 1st, 3rd and 5th instars of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo et al, Triatoma vandae Carcavallo et al, and Triatoma williami Galvao et al, are described in here. Morphological differences in the analyzed structures for all three Triatoma species studied were detected under scanning electron microscopy, allowing their grouping by their morphological similarities. Species-specific differences at each nymphal development stage were analyzed as well. (author)

  16. Comparative study of the stridulatorium sulcus, buccula and rostrum of nymphs of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo et al, Triatoma vandae Carcavallo et al and Triatoma williami Galvao et al (Hemiptera: Redivide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria B.A.; Jurberg, Jose; Galvao, Cleber; Barbosa, Helene S. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Estrutural. Lab. Nacional e Internacional de Referencia em Taxonomia de Triatomineos

    2010-01-15

    Ultrastructural analysis of the ventral region of the head - rostrum, buccula and stridulatorium sulcus - of 1st, 3rd and 5th instars of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo et al, Triatoma vandae Carcavallo et al, and Triatoma williami Galvao et al, are described in here. Morphological differences in the analyzed structures for all three Triatoma species studied were detected under scanning electron microscopy, allowing their grouping by their morphological similarities. Species-specific differences at each nymphal development stage were analyzed as well. (author)

  17. Temporal subtraction of dual-energy chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armato, Samuel G. III; Doshi, Devang J.; Engelmann, Roger; Caligiuri, Philip; MacMahon, Heber

    2006-01-01

    Temporal subtraction and dual-energy imaging are two enhanced radiography techniques that are receiving increased attention in chest radiography. Temporal subtraction is an image processing technique that facilitates the visualization of pathologic change across serial chest radiographic images acquired from the same patient; dual-energy imaging exploits the differential relative attenuation of x-ray photons exhibited by soft-tissue and bony structures at different x-ray energies to generate a pair of images that accentuate those structures. Although temporal subtraction images provide a powerful mechanism for enhancing visualization of subtle change, misregistration artifacts in these images can mimic or obscure abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether dual-energy imaging could improve the quality of temporal subtraction images. Temporal subtraction images were generated from 100 pairs of temporally sequential standard radiographic chest images and from the corresponding 100 pairs of dual-energy, soft-tissue radiographic images. The registration accuracy demonstrated in the resulting temporal subtraction images was evaluated subjectively by two radiologists. The registration accuracy of the soft-tissue-based temporal subtraction images was rated superior to that of the conventional temporal subtraction images. Registration accuracy also was evaluated objectively through an automated method, which achieved an area-under-the-ROC-curve value of 0.92 in the distinction between temporal subtraction images that demonstrated clinically acceptable and clinically unacceptable registration accuracy. By combining dual-energy soft-tissue images with temporal subtraction, misregistration artifacts can be reduced and superior image quality can be obtained

  18. Superior intellectual ability in schizophrenia: neuropsychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCabe, James H; Brébion, Gildas; Reichenberg, Abraham; Ganguly, Taposhri; McKenna, Peter J; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that neurocognitive impairment is a core deficit in schizophrenia. However, it appears that some patients with schizophrenia have intelligence quotients (IQs) in the superior range. In this study, we sought out schizophrenia patients with an estimated premorbid Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of at least 115 and studied their neuropsychological profile. Thirty-four patients meeting diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV), with mean estimated premorbid IQ of 120, were recruited and divided into two subgroups, according to whether or not their IQ had declined by at least 10 points from their premorbid estimate. Their performance on an extensive neuropsychological battery was compared with that of 19 IQ-matched healthy controls and a group of 16 "typical" schizophrenia patients with estimated premorbid IQ Schizophrenia patients whose estimated premorbid and current IQ both lay in the superior range were statistically indistinguishable from IQ-matched healthy controls on all neurocognitive tests. However, their profile of relative performance in subtests was similar to that of typical schizophrenia patients. Patients with superior premorbid IQ and evidence of intellectual deterioration had intermediate scores. Our results confirm the existence of patients meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia who have markedly superior premorbid intellectual level and appear to be free of gross neuropsychological deficits. We discuss the implications of these findings for the primacy of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  19. The Picture Superiority Effect and Biological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…

  20. Mammographic varicosities indicative of a superior mediastinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, an abnormal calibre of the superficial veins can reflect not only underrying breast pathology, but a collateral venous return resulting from an upper mediastinal obstruction. A case mammographically demonstrating mammary varicosities resulting from a superior mediastinal syndrome is described. S. Afr. Med.

  1. COSEE Superior Creates Passion for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    COSEE was a transformative educational experience that has changed the way I teach. In July, I participated in the COSEE Lake Superior Shipboard and Shoreline Science program. I spent a week on the US EPA’s R/V Lake Guardian with 14 other teachers and a crew of sailors and scient...

  2. Perturbation resilience and superiorization of iterative algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Censor, Y; Davidi, R; Herman, G T

    2010-01-01

    Iterative algorithms aimed at solving some problems are discussed. For certain problems, such as finding a common point in the intersection of a finite number of convex sets, there often exist iterative algorithms that impose very little demand on computer resources. For other problems, such as finding that point in the intersection at which the value of a given function is optimal, algorithms tend to need more computer memory and longer execution time. A methodology is presented whose aim is to produce automatically for an iterative algorithm of the first kind a 'superiorized version' of it that retains its computational efficiency but nevertheless goes a long way toward solving an optimization problem. This is possible to do if the original algorithm is 'perturbation resilient', which is shown to be the case for various projection algorithms for solving the consistent convex feasibility problem. The superiorized versions of such algorithms use perturbations that steer the process in the direction of a superior feasible point, which is not necessarily optimal, with respect to the given function. After presenting these intuitive ideas in a precise mathematical form, they are illustrated in image reconstruction from projections for two different projection algorithms superiorized for the function whose value is the total variation of the image

  3. Pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma after secondary sulcus transscleral fixation of single-piece foldable posterior chamber intraocular lenses in Chinese aphakic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Nianting; Liu, Fuling; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Liangyu; Zhou, Zhanyu; Gong, Huimin; Yuan, Fuxiang

    2017-05-01

    To describe secondary pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) and pigmentary glaucoma after secondary sulcus transscleral fixation of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic foldable posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) in aphakic patients in a Chinese population. Department of Ophthalmology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, China. Retrospective case series. This chart review included eyes that had secondary sulcus transscleral fixation of a 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic foldable PC IOL (Tecnis ZCB00) between March 2011 and March 2014. The patients' demographic data, clinical data, postoperative complications, intervals between initial surgery and the onset of PDS, pigmentary glaucoma occurrences, and findings on slitlamp biomicroscopy, gonioscopy, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) were recorded. The study comprised 23 consecutive eyes of 21 patients. Seventeen eyes of 16 patients were diagnosed with PDS, and 7 eyes of 6 patients were diagnosed with pigmentary glaucoma. The slitlamp examination and UBM showed that the location between the IOL optic and the posterior surface of the iris was very close. Slitlamp examination of the anterior chamber angle using a gonioscope showed dense pigment deposition on the IOL surfaces. A reverse pupillary block was found in 10 eyes of 9 patients. Other postoperative complications included intraocular hemorrhage, pupillary capture of the IOL optic, IOL tilt, IOL decentration, IOL dislocation, and suture erosion. The 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic foldable PC IOL was not suitable for sulcus transscleral fixation because of a high incidence of PDS and pigmentary glaucoma after surgery in a Chinese population. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Navigation-assisted trans-inferotemporal cortex selective amygdalohippocampectomy for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy; preserving the temporal stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishima, Haruhiko; Kato, Amami; Oshino, Satoru; Tani, Naoki; Maruo, Tomoyuki; Khoo, Hui Ming; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Edakawa, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Maki; Tanaka, Masataka; Hosomi, Koichi; Hirata, Masayuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2017-03-01

    Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) can be used to obtain satisfactory seizure control in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Several SAH procedures have been reported to achieve satisfactory outcomes for seizure control, but none yield fully satisfactory outcomes for memory function. We hypothesized that preserving the temporal stem might play an important role. To preserve the temporal stem, we developed a minimally invasive surgical procedure, 'neuronavigation-assisted trans-inferotemporal cortex SAH' (TITC-SAH). TITC-SAH was performed in 23 patients with MTLE (MTLE on the language-non-dominant hemisphere, n = 11). The inferior horn of the lateral ventricle was approached via the inferior or middle temporal gyrus along the inferior temporal sulcus under neuronavigation guidance. The hippocampus was dissected in a subpial manner and resected en bloc together with the parahippocampal gyrus. Seizure control at one year and memory function at 6 months postoperatively were evaluated. One year after TITC-SAH, 20 of the 23 patients were seizure-free (ILAE class 1), 2 were class 2, and 1 was class 3. Verbal memory improved significantly in 13 patients with a diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis, for whom WMS-R scores were available both pre- and post-operatively. Improvements were seen regardless of whether the SAH was on the language-dominant or non-dominant hemisphere. No major complication was observed. Navigation-assisted TITC-SAH performed for MTLE offers a simple, minimally invasive procedure that appears to yield excellent outcomes in terms of seizure control and preservation of memory function, because this procedure does not damage the temporal stem. TITC-SAH should be one of the feasible surgical procedures for MTLE. SAH: Amygdalohippocampectomy; MTLE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE); TITC-SAH: Ttrans-inferotemporal cortex SAH; ILAE: International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE); MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging; EEG

  5. Advances in temporal logic

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham

    2000-01-01

    Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...

  6. Function connectivity MRI to evaluate the changes of the motorial nerve net in patients with brain tumors adjacent to the central sulcus occurred with reorganization of motor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Tong; Liu Meili; Cui Shimin; Liu Li; Jin Song; Lei Jing; Liu Hui; Guo Jun; Hao Nina; Guo Ying; Xiang Huadong; Weng Xuchu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the changes of the motorial network in patients suffered from brain tumors adjacent to the central sulcus occurred with reorganization of motor function using function connectivity MRI (fcMRI) technique in order to provide the new evidence for the compensational hypothesis of the reorganization caused by focal lesions. Methods: Using 1.5 T MRI unit, 14 patients with brain tumors in the vicinity of the central sulcus occurred with reorganization of motor function and 6 normal volunteers were examined with fcMRI technique while the subjects performed no task. By selecting seed voxels (region of interest) in the regions showing the most activation in Mi area on the activated map and cross correlating with every, voxel within the brain, the fcMRI maps based on unilateral primary motor (M1) area were calculated. The location, extent and volume of the region showing significant connectivity to the several seed voxel, such as left/right M1 area in the health group and affected/unaffected Mlarea in the patient group were evaluated on the fcMRI map. Results: In healthy group, the extent and volume of the region showing significant connectivity to the left Mlarea [(9514.17±186.92)mm 3 ] were almost similar to those to the right M1 area [(9364.67±382.75) mm 3 ]. There showed no significant difference in motor connectivity between the two groups (P>0.05). In the tumor group, the volume of regions showing significant connectivity to the M1 area located in the affected hemisphere [(11193.14 ± 811.29) mm 3 ] was obviously higher than that of regions based on the seed voxel in the unaffected side [(6549.86± 400.94) mm 3 ] (t=20.383, P<0.01). The volume was significantly different among the regions showing high connectivity to the M1 of the affected side in patient group, those showing significant connectivity to the left M1 and right M1 in health group (P<0.01), the former was the biggest (P<0.01). The extent of the regions showing connectivity to

  7. Mapping auditory core, lateral belt, and parabelt cortices in the human superior temporal gyrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweet, Robert A; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Lewis, David A

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether the architectonic criteria used to identify the core, lateral belt, and parabelt auditory cortices in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) could be used to identify homologous regions in humans (Homo sapiens). Current evidence indicates...

  8. Psychophysiological interaction between superior temporal gyrus (STG) and cerebellum: An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, A. N.; Teng, X. L.; Ng, S. B.; Hamid, A. I. A.; Mukari, S. Z. M.

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to model the psychophysiological interaction (PPI) between the bilateral STG and cerebellum (lobule VI and lobule VII) during an arithmetic addition task. Eighteen young adults participated in this study. They were instructed to solve single-digit addition tasks in quiet and noisy backgrounds during an fMRI scan. Results showed that in both hemispheres, the response in the cerebellum was found to be linearly influenced by the activity in STG (vice-versa) for both in-quiet and in-noise conditions. However, the influence of the cerebellum on STG seemed to be modulated by noise. A two-way PPI model between STG and cerebellum is suggested. The connectivity between the two regions during a simple addition task in a noisy condition is modulated by the participants’ higher attention to perceive.

  9. Indeterministic Temporal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzęsicki Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.

  10. The neural basis of temporal order processing in past and future thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Jeunehomme, Olivier; Majerus, Steve; Bastin, Christine; Salmon, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Although growing evidence has shown that remembering the past and imagining the future recruit a common core network of frontal-parietal-temporal regions, the extent to which these regions contribute to the temporal dimension of autobiographical thought remains unclear. In this fMRI study, we focused on the event-sequencing aspect of time and examined whether ordering past and future events involve common neural substrates. Participants had to determine which of two past (or future) events occurred (or would occur) before the other, and these order judgments were compared with a task requiring to think about the content of the same past or future events. For both past and future events, we found that the left posterior hippocampus was more activated when establishing the order of events, whereas the anterior hippocampus was more activated when representing their content. Aside from the hippocampus, most of the brain regions that were activated when thinking about temporal order (notably the intraparietal sulcus, dorsolateral pFC, dorsal anterior cingulate, and visual cortex) lied outside the core network and may reflect the involvement of controlled processes and visuospatial imagery to locate events in time. Collectively, these findings suggest (a) that the same processing operations are engaged for ordering past events and planned future events in time, (b) that anterior and posterior portions of the hippocampus are involved in processing different aspects of autobiographical thought, and (c) that temporal order is not necessarily an intrinsic property of memory or future thought but instead requires additional, controlled processes.

  11. Aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, A

    1984-11-01

    This is a report about 4 patients with aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery of arteriosclerotic, mycotic and probably congenital etiology together with a review of the literature as to the etiology, diagnostic possibilities and therapy. Arteriography is the method of choice even though a diagnosis may be possible by sonography or CT in special cases. Even though an aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery is rare, it has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of persisting abdominal problems of unknown origin. This is especially true for patients with a predisposing history such as previous or existing endocarditis, sepsis, arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Because of the possibility of rupture followed by life threating bleeding an adequate diagnostic step such as arteriography has to be considered finally.

  12. Aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebauer, A.

    1984-01-01

    This is a report about 4 patients with aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery of arteriosclerotic, mycotic and probably congenital etiology together with a review of the literature as to the etiology, diagnostic possibilities and therapy. Arteriography is the method of choice even though a diagnosis may be possible by sonography or CT in special cases. Even though an aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery is rare, it has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of persisting abdominal problems of unknown origin. This is especially true for patients with a predisposing history such as previous or existing endocarditis, sepsis, arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Because of the possibility of rupture followed by life threating bleeding an adequate diagnostic step such as arteriography has to be considered finally. (orig.) [de

  13. Superior cold recycling : The score project

    OpenAIRE

    LESUEUR, D; POTTI, JJ; SOUTHWELL, C; WALTER, J; CRUZ, M; DELFOSSE, F; ECKMANN, B; FIEDLER, J; RACEK, I; SIMONSSON, B; PLACIN, F; SERRANO, J; RUIZ, A; KALAAJI, A; ATTANE, P

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop Environmentally Friendly Construction Technologies (EFCT) and as part of the 5th Framework Program of Research and Development, the European Community has decided to finance a research project on cold recycling, entitled SCORE "Superior COld REcycling based on benefits of bituminous microemulsions and foamed bitumen. A EFCT system for the rehabilitation and the maintenance of roads". This research project gathers organizations from all over Europe, from industrial partners...

  14. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  15. [Neuromolecular mechanism of the superiority illusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    The majority of individuals evaluate themselves as above average. This is a cognitive bias called "the superiority illusion". This illusory self-evaluation helps us to have hopes for the future, and has been central to the process of human evolution. Possessing this illusion is also important for mental health, as depressed people appear to have a more realistic perception of themselves, dubbed "depressive realism". Our recent study revealed the spontaneous brain activity and central dopaminergic neurotransmission that generate this illusion, using resting-state fMRI and PET. A functional connectivity between the frontal cortex and striatum, regulated by inhibitory dopaminergic neurotransmission, determines individual levels of the superiority illusion. We further revealed that blocking the dopamine transporter, which enhanced the level of dopamine, increased the degree of the superiority illusion. These findings suggest that dopamine acts on striatal dopamine receptors to suppress fronto-striatal functional connectivity, leading to disinhibited, heuristic, approaches to positive self-evaluation. These findings help us to understand how this key aspect of the human mind is biologically determined, and will suggest treatments for depressive symptoms by targeting specific molecules and neural circuits.

  16. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia involving the superior rectus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Hellman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We present the first reported case of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia in the right superior rectus causing diplopia. Observations: A 72-year-old man with a 6-month history of untreated asymptomatic Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia presented with 2 years of diagonal binocular diplopia that was previously thought to be due to ocular myasthenia gravis. Examination showed mild right proptosis and right hypotropia, and MRI revealed a focal lesion of the right superior rectus muscle. Orbital biopsy was performed, and histopathology showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration among the skeletal muscle fibers of the rectus muscle. Immunostaining confirmed a B-cell preponderance, along with more extensive staining for IgM than IgG, and in situ hybridization confirmed lambda restriction. These findings corresponded with those of his previous bone marrow biopsy, confirming Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia as the etiology for the extraocular muscle mass. Conclusions and Importance: Lymphoma of an extraocular muscle is a rare manifestation of orbital lymphoma, and the tumors are usually mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas (i.e. extranodal marginal zone lymphomas. There are 4 previous reports of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma of an extraocular muscle; however this is the first reported case of such a lesion in a patient with concurrent Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia at the time of diagnosis. Keywords: Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, Lymphoma, Superior rectus, Diplopia

  17. Burlington Northern Taconite Transshipment Facility, Duluth-Superior Harbor, Superior Wisconsin. Environmental Assessment Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    the Federal Government declared the Duluth- Superior area to be economically depressed . The reason given was the "consistant and chronic unemployment...include dogwood, sumac, arrowwood, blueberry, highbush cranberry , elderberry, wild grape, buttonbrush, snowberry and partridgeberry. Aquatic and...water for the proposed greenbelt areas and as dust sup- pression spray. 10.003 The depressed economy of the Duluth-Superior area would benefit by the

  18. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  19. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor. (orig.)

  20. Superior mesenteric artery compression syndrome - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rocha França Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is an entity generally caused by the loss of the intervening mesenteric fat pad, resulting in compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery. This article reports the case of a patient with irremovable metastatic adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon, that evolved with intense vomiting. Intestinal transit was carried out, which showed important gastric dilation extended until the third portion of the duodenum, compatible with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Considering the patient's nutritional condition, the medical team opted for the conservative treatment. Four months after the surgery and conservative measures, the patient did not present vomiting after eating, maintaining previous weight. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is uncommon and can have unspecific symptoms. Thus, high suspicion is required for the appropriate clinical adjustment. A barium examination is required to make the diagnosis. The treatment can initially require gastric decompression and hydration, besides reversal of weight loss through adequate nutrition. Surgery should be adopted only in case of clinical treatment failure.A síndrome da artéria mesentérica superior é uma entidade clínica causada geralmente pela perda do tecido adiposo mesentérico, resultando na compressão da terceira porção do duodeno pela artéria mesentérica superior. Esse artigo relata o caso clínico de uma paciente portadora de adenocarcinoma de cólon sigmoide metastático irressecável, que evoluiu com vômitos incoercíveis. Realizou-se, então, trânsito intestinal que evidenciou dilatação gástrica importante, que se prolongava até a terceira porção duodenal, quadro radiológico compatível com pinçamento da artéria mesentérica superior. Diante da condição nutricional da paciente, foi optado por iniciar medidas conservadoras (porções alimentares pequenas e mais frequentes, além de dec

  1. Tractography-based Parcellation of the Human Middle Temporal Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinping; Wang, Jiaojian; Fan, Lingzhong; Li, Hai; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Qingmao; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-01-01

    The middle temporal gyrus (MTG) participates in a variety of functions, suggesting the existence of distinct functional subregions. In order to further delineate the functions of this brain area, we parcellated the MTG based on its distinct anatomical connectivity profiles and identified four distinct subregions, including the anterior (aMTG), middle (mMTG), posterior (pMTG), and sulcus (sMTG). Both the anatomical connectivity patterns and the resting-state functional connectivity patterns revealed distinct connectivity profiles for each subregion. The aMTG was primarily involved in the default mode network, sound recognition, and semantic retrieval. The mMTG was predominantly involved in the semantic memory and semantic control networks. The pMTG seems to be a part of the traditional sensory language area. The sMTG appears to be associated with decoding gaze direction and intelligible speech. Interestingly, the functional connectivity with Brodmann’s Area (BA) 40, BA 44, and BA 45 gradually increased from the anterior to the posterior MTG, a finding which indicated functional topographical organization as well as implying that language processing is functionally segregated in the MTG. These proposed subdivisions of the MTG and its functions contribute to understanding the complex functions of the MTG at the subregional level. PMID:26689815

  2. MRI in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Kazuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The present study investigated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in temporal lobe epilepsy and correlated them with clinical variables, such as age, illness duration, past history, and the frequency of seizure. Cerebral MRI was performed in 45 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy of unknown etiology, using a 0.5 T and/or a 1.5 T MRI systems. The temporal lobe was seen as high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and/or proton density-weighted images in 6 patients, although it was missed on CT and T1-weighted images. The high intensity area seemed to reflect sclerosis of the temporal lobe. This finding was significantly associated with partial seizure. Of these patients, 3 had a history of febrile convulsions. Ten patients had slight dilatation of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle. They were significantly old at the time of onset and examination, as compared with those without dilatation. Furthermore, 6 patients with unilateral dilatation were significantly younger than the other 4 with bilateral dilatation. Nine patients had small multiple high signal areas in white matter, mainly in the parietal lobe, which suggested vascular origin. These patients were significantly old at the time of onset and examination, as compared with those having no such findings. In depicting high signal intensity areas, a 1.5 T MRI system was not always superior to a 0.5 T MRI system. Proton density-weighted images were better than T2-weighted images in some patients. (N.K.)

  3. The functional neuro-anatomy of the human response to fear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activating the amygdala passes through the superior colliculi and the pulvinar of the thalamus before accessing it. .... cingulate, the superior temporal sulcus and the lingual gyrus.41. A role for the human amygdala in the ... dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (BA 10) and middle frontal gyri. (BA 6).47,48. Hence, in healthy people ...

  4. Neural correlates of successful and unsuccessful syntactic processing in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Wilson

    2015-04-01

    Our findings suggest that some of the regions modulated by a syntactic processing task reflect task-related functions such as working memory, attention, and executive function, specifically the anterior insula bilaterally, the supplementary motor cortex bilaterally, and left dorsal premotor cortex. In contrast, other regions were modulated only in individuals with relatively intact syntactic processing, namely the left inferior frontal junction, left posterior superior temporal sulcus, and left intraparietal sulcus, suggesting that these regions are important for syntactic processing.

  5. Superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Jonathan C; Omid, Reza

    2012-12-01

    The patient was a 25-year-old male college student with a chief complaint of right shoulder pain. The patient was initially diagnosed with bicipital tendinitis by his physician and had been treated for 4 weeks by a physical therapist. However, his symptoms did not improve and he was unable to return to his preinjury activity levels, so he sought the services of another physical therapist for a second opinion. Due to concern for a labrum tear, the physical therapist referred the patient to an orthopaedic surgeon. Magnetic resonance arthrography revealed findings consistent with a superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

  6. Ultrasound Detection of Superior Vena Cava Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Birch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Superior vena cava (SVC syndrome is most commonly the insidious result of decreased vascular flow through the SVC due to malignancy, spontaneous thrombus, infections, and iatrogenic etiologies. Clinical suspicion usually leads to computed tomography to confirm the diagnosis. However, when a patient in respiratory distress requires emergent airway management, travel outside the emergency department is not ideal. With the growing implementation of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS, clinicians may make critical diagnoses rapidly and safely. We present a case of SVC syndrome due to extensive thrombosis of the deep venous system cephalad to the SVC diagnosed by POCUS. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6:715-718

  7. Superior Venacava Thrombus-A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay Sah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior venacava (SVC thrombus is a condition requiring immediate diagnosis and treatment. SVC thrombus causes obstruction of blood flow through the SVC resulting in severe decrease in venous return from the head, neck and upper extremity to the heart. The presenting symptoms of SVC obstruction include headache, hoarseness of voice, dyspnea, and laryngeal edema, dizziness, swelling of face, neck, and upper extremity. We hereby present a case of SVC thrombus who presented to the casualty department of COMS-TH with features of SVC syndrome which was diagnosed and managed promptly.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(1:33-5.

  8. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  9. Influences of Long-Term Memory-Guided Attention and Stimulus-Guided Attention on Visuospatial Representations within Human Intraparietal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Maya L; Stern, Chantal E; Michalka, Samantha W; Devaney, Kathryn J; Somers, David C

    2015-08-12

    Human parietal cortex plays a central role in encoding visuospatial information and multiple visual maps exist within the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), with each hemisphere symmetrically representing contralateral visual space. Two forms of hemispheric asymmetries have been identified in parietal cortex ventrolateral to visuotopic IPS. Key attentional processes are localized to right lateral parietal cortex in the temporoparietal junction and long-term memory (LTM) retrieval processes are localized to the left lateral parietal cortex in the angular gyrus. Here, using fMRI, we investigate how spatial representations of visuotopic IPS are influenced by stimulus-guided visuospatial attention and by LTM-guided visuospatial attention. We replicate prior findings that a hemispheric asymmetry emerges under stimulus-guided attention: in the right hemisphere (RH), visual maps IPS0, IPS1, and IPS2 code attentional targets across the visual field; in the left hemisphere (LH), IPS0-2 codes primarily contralateral targets. We report the novel finding that, under LTM-guided attention, both RH and LH IPS0-2 exhibit bilateral responses and hemispheric symmetry re-emerges. Therefore, we demonstrate that both hemispheres of IPS0-2 are independently capable of dynamically changing spatial coding properties as attentional task demands change. These findings have important implications for understanding visuospatial and memory-retrieval deficits in patients with parietal lobe damage. The human parietal lobe contains multiple maps of the external world that spatially guide perception, action, and cognition. Maps in each cerebral hemisphere code information from the opposite side of space, not from the same side, and the two hemispheres are symmetric. Paradoxically, damage to specific parietal regions that lack spatial maps can cause patients to ignore half of space (hemispatial neglect syndrome), but only for right (not left) hemisphere damage. Conversely, the left parietal cortex has

  10. Otosclerosis: Temporal Bone Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Alicia M; Ishai, Reuven; McKenna, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Otosclerosis is pathologically characterized by abnormal bony remodeling, which includes bone resorption, new bone deposition, and vascular proliferation in the temporal bone. Sensorineural hearing loss in otosclerosis is associated with extension of otosclerosis to the cochlear endosteum and deposition of collagen throughout the spiral ligament. Persistent or recurrent conductive hearing loss after stapedectomy has been associated with incomplete footplate fenestration, poor incus-prosthesis connection, and incus resorption in temporal bone specimens. Human temporal bone pathology has helped to define the role of computed tomography imaging for otosclerosis, confirming that computed tomography is highly sensitive for diagnosis, yet limited in assessing cochlear endosteal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring the role of the posterior middle temporal gyrus in semantic cognition: Integration of anterior temporal lobe with executive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, James; Thompson, Hannah E; Hallam, Glyn; Karapanagiotidis, Theodoros; Murphy, Charlotte; De Caso, Irene; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Bernhardt, Boris C; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2016-08-15

    Making sense of the world around us depends upon selectively retrieving information relevant to our current goal or context. However, it is unclear whether selective semantic retrieval relies exclusively on general control mechanisms recruited in demanding non-semantic tasks, or instead on systems specialised for the control of meaning. One hypothesis is that the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) is important in the controlled retrieval of semantic (not non-semantic) information; however this view remains controversial since a parallel literature links this site to event and relational semantics. In a functional neuroimaging study, we demonstrated that an area of pMTG implicated in semantic control by a recent meta-analysis was activated in a conjunction of (i) semantic association over size judgements and (ii) action over colour feature matching. Under these circumstances the same region showed functional coupling with the inferior frontal gyrus - another crucial site for semantic control. Structural and functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that this site is at the nexus of networks recruited in automatic semantic processing (the default mode network) and executively demanding tasks (the multiple-demand network). Moreover, in both task and task-free contexts, pMTG exhibited functional properties that were more similar to ventral parts of inferior frontal cortex, implicated in controlled semantic retrieval, than more dorsal inferior frontal sulcus, implicated in domain-general control. Finally, the pMTG region was functionally correlated at rest with other regions implicated in control-demanding semantic tasks, including inferior frontal gyrus and intraparietal sulcus. We suggest that pMTG may play a crucial role within a large-scale network that allows the integration of automatic retrieval in the default mode network with executively-demanding goal-oriented cognition, and that this could support our ability to understand actions and non

  12. Acute Bilateral Superior Branch Vestibular Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Yacovino

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid onset of a bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH is often attributed to vestibular ototoxicity. However, without any prior exposure to ototoxins, the idiopathic form of BVH is most common. Although sequential bilateral vestibular neuritis (VN is described as a cause of BVH, clinical evidence for simultaneous and acute onset bilateral VN is unknown. We describe a patient with an acute onset of severe gait ataxia and oscillopsia with features compatible with acute BVH putatively due to a bilateral VN, which we serially evaluated with clinical and laboratory vestibular function testing over the course of 1 year. Initially, bilateral superior and horizontal semicircular canals and bilateral utricles were impaired, consistent with damage to both superior branches of each vestibular nerve. Hearing was spared. Only modest results were obtained following 6 months of vestibular rehabilitation. At a 1-year follow-up, only the utricular function of one side recovered. This case is the first evidence supporting an acute presentation of bilateral VN as a cause for BVH, which would not have been observed without critical assessment of each of the 10 vestibular end organs.

  13. Premissas para o Ensino Superior do Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Marques da Silveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a temática da Educação Superior e objetivo identificar premissas para o Ensino em Design no Brasil. Para tanto, efetua um estudo dos conteúdos das comunicações da área em periódicos e livros quanto ao assunto. O método de investigação utilizado foi a análise de conteúdo e observou as seguintes etapas de investigação: registro de dados, interpretação inferencial e categorização. Num primeiro momento, identifica a frequência do aparecimento de índices lexicais quanto ao relato de problemas no processo de Ensino-aprendizagem do Design e as proposições para o seu enfrentamento. Procede uma interpretação inferencial destes dados e, por fim, propõe como resultado, um conjunto de doze premissas que devem ser observadas quanto ao Ensino Superior em Design, a saber: 1 Incentivar o empreendedorismo; 2 Nivelar a Formação; 3 Desenvolver estrategistas; 4 Pensar a ética na atuação profissional; 5 Educar para o social; 6 Valorizar os ideias humanistas; 7 Repensar as estruturas acadêmicas; 8 Focar na aprendizagem baseada em problemas; 9 Aceitar os novos paradigmas; 10 Fomentar o pensamento crítico reflexivo; 11 Estimular a transdisciplinaridade; 12 Focar nas economias emergentes.

  14. Development of on-off spiking in superior paraolivary nucleus neurons of the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Richard A.; Vonderschen, Katrin; Berrebi, Albert S.

    2013-01-01

    The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON) is a prominent cell group in the auditory brain stem that has been increasingly implicated in representing temporal sound structure. Although SPON neurons selectively respond to acoustic signals important for sound periodicity, the underlying physiological specializations enabling these responses are poorly understood. We used in vitro and in vivo recordings to investigate how SPON neurons develop intrinsic cellular properties that make them well suited for encoding temporal sound features. In addition to their hallmark rebound spiking at the stimulus offset, SPON neurons were characterized by spiking patterns termed onset, adapting, and burst in response to depolarizing stimuli in vitro. Cells with burst spiking had some morphological differences compared with other SPON neurons and were localized to the dorsolateral region of the nucleus. Both membrane and spiking properties underwent strong developmental regulation, becoming more temporally precise with age for both onset and offset spiking. Single-unit recordings obtained in young mice demonstrated that SPON neurons respond with temporally precise onset spiking upon tone stimulation in vivo, in addition to the typical offset spiking. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that SPON neurons develop sharp on-off spiking, which may confer sensitivity to sound amplitude modulations or abrupt sound transients. These findings are consistent with the proposed involvement of the SPON in the processing of temporal sound structure, relevant for encoding communication cues. PMID:23515791

  15. Nontraumatic temporal subcortical hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.; Shamsnia, M.; Elliott, D.; Charity Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1990-01-01

    Thirty patients with temporal hematomas were analyzed. Four with frontal extension survived. Of 6 with ganglionic extension, three had residual deficit. Of 8 with parietal extension, 4 had delayed deterioration and died, two patients recovered, and two with peritumoral hemorrhage due to glioblastoma multiforme died. Five patients with posterior temporal hematomas recovered. In 7 patients with basal-inferior temporal hematomas, angiography showed aneurysms in 3 cases, angiomas in 2 cases and no vascular lesion in 2 cases. Of 23 cases with negative angiography and no systemic cause for temporal hematoma, 12 patients were hypertensive and 11 were normotensive. Ten hypertensive patients without evidence of chronic vascular disease had the largest hematomas, extending into the parietal or ganglionic regions. Seven of these patients died; 3 had residual deficit. Eleven normotensive and two hypertensive patients with evidence of chronic vascular change had smaller hematomas. They survived with good functional recovery. (orig.)

  16. Temporal Lobe Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions, including having odd feelings — such as euphoria, deja vu or fear. Temporal lobe seizures are sometimes called ... sudden sense of unprovoked fear or joy A deja vu experience — a feeling that what's happening has happened ...

  17. Tratamento da síndrome da veia cava superior Treatment of superior vena cava syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Inaco Cirino

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A veia cava superior é formada pela união das duas veias inominadas, direita e esquerda, e localiza-se no mediastino médio, à direita da artéria aorta e anteriormente à traquéia. A síndrome da veia cava superior representa um conjunto de sinais (dilatação das veias do pescoço, pletora facial, edema de membros superiores, cianose e sintomas (cefaléia, dispnéia, tosse, edema de membro superior, ortopnéia e disfagia decorrentes da obstrução do fluxo sanguíneo através da veia cava superior em direção ao átrio direito. A obstrução pode ser causada por compressão extrínseca, invasão tumoral, trombose ou por dificuldade do retorno venoso ao coração secundária a doenças intra-atriais ou intraluminais. Aproximadamente 73% a 97% dos casos de síndrome da veia cava superior ocorrem durante a evolução de processos malignos intratorácicos. A maioria dos pacientes com a síndrome secundária a neoplasias malignas é tratada sem necessidade de cirurgia, através de radioterapia ou quimioterapia, ou através da colocação de stents endoluminais. Quando a síndrome é de etiologia benigna, o tratamento é feito através de medidas clínicas (anticoagulação, elevação da cabeça, etc. ou, em casos refratários, através de angioplastia, colocação de stents endoluminais e cirurgia.The superior vena cava is formed by the union of the right and left brachiocephalic veins. It is located in the middle mediastinum, to the right of the aorta and anterior to the trachea. Superior vena cava syndrome consists of a group of signs (dilation of the veins in the neck, facial swelling, edema of the upper limbs, and cyanosis and symptoms (headache, dyspnea, cough, orthopnea and dysphagia caused by the obstruction of blood flow through the superior vena cava to the right atrium. This obstruction can be caused by extrinsic compression, tumor invasion or thrombosis. Such obstruction may also occur as a result of insufficient venous return

  18. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  19. Superior cervical gangliectomy induces non-exudative age-related macular degeneration in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán H. Dieguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration, a prevalent cause of blindness, is a progressive and degenerative disease characterized by alterations in Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium, and photoreceptors exclusively localized in the macula. Although experimental murine models exist, the vast majority take a long time to develop retinal alterations and, in general, these alterations are ubiquitous, with many resulting from non-eye-specific genetic manipulations; additionally, most do not always reproduce the hallmarks of human age-related macular degeneration. Choroid vessels receive sympathetic innervation from the superior cervical ganglion, which, together with the parasympathetic system, regulates blood flow into the choroid. Choroid blood flow changes have been involved in age-related macular degeneration development and progression. At present, no experimental models take this factor into account. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of superior cervical gangliectomy (also known as ganglionectomy on the choroid, Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium and retina. Adult male C57BL/6J mice underwent unilateral superior cervical gangliectomy and a contralateral sham procedure. Although superior cervical gangliectomy induced ubiquitous choroid and choriocapillaris changes, it induced Bruch's membrane thickening, loss of retinal pigment epithelium melanin content and retinoid isomerohydrolase, the appearance of drusen-like deposits, and retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor atrophy, exclusively localized in the temporal side. Moreover, superior cervical gangliectomy provoked a localized increase in retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor apoptosis, and a decline in photoreceptor electroretinographic function. Therefore, superior cervical gangliectomy recapitulated the main features of human non-exudative age-related macular degeneration, and could become a new experimental model of dry age

  20. Superior cervical gangliectomy induces non-exudative age-related macular degeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez, Hernán H; Romeo, Horacio E; González Fleitas, María F; Aranda, Marcos L; Milne, Georgia A; Rosenstein, Ruth E; Dorfman, Damián

    2018-02-07

    Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration, a prevalent cause of blindness, is a progressive and degenerative disease characterized by alterations in Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium, and photoreceptors exclusively localized in the macula. Although experimental murine models exist, the vast majority take a long time to develop retinal alterations and, in general, these alterations are ubiquitous, with many resulting from non-eye-specific genetic manipulations; additionally, most do not always reproduce the hallmarks of human age-related macular degeneration. Choroid vessels receive sympathetic innervation from the superior cervical ganglion, which, together with the parasympathetic system, regulates blood flow into the choroid. Choroid blood flow changes have been involved in age-related macular degeneration development and progression. At present, no experimental models take this factor into account. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of superior cervical gangliectomy (also known as ganglionectomy) on the choroid, Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium and retina. Adult male C57BL/6J mice underwent unilateral superior cervical gangliectomy and a contralateral sham procedure. Although superior cervical gangliectomy induced ubiquitous choroid and choriocapillaris changes, it induced Bruch's membrane thickening, loss of retinal pigment epithelium melanin content and retinoid isomerohydrolase, the appearance of drusen-like deposits, and retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor atrophy, exclusively localized in the temporal side. Moreover, superior cervical gangliectomy provoked a localized increase in retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor apoptosis, and a decline in photoreceptor electroretinographic function. Therefore, superior cervical gangliectomy recapitulated the main features of human non-exudative age-related macular degeneration, and could become a new experimental model of dry age-related macular degeneration, and

  1. Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) for lesions of the temporal lobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoerner, W.; Felix, R.; Meencke, H.J.; Freie Univ. Berlin; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study between magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) and CT was carried out in 16 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The MRT studies were performed on a 0.35 T Magnetom with T.1 modes in a coronal plane. MRT proved to the superior to CT. CT demonstrated a discrete temporal lobe lesion in three patients and MRT in four patients. In addition, unilateral atrophy of the temporal lobe was demonstrated by MRT in six cases; these could not be diagnosed by CT. The lack of artifacts near the skull base, the possibility of producing coronal sections and the excellent tissue differential of MRT provide the basis for improved diagnosis of lesions in the temporal lobes. (orig.) [de

  2. Air Power's First Among Equals: Why Air Superiority Still Matters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slawson, Andrew T

    2008-01-01

    .... History is replete with examples of successful or failed air superiority campaigns. This paper details air superiority's role in both the Battle of Britain, and the 1967 Six Day War's Operation MOKED...

  3. Ipsiversive ictal eye deviation in inferioposterior temporal lobe epilepsy-Two SEEG cases report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xingzhou; Zuo, Lijun; Guo, Qiang; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-02-21

    Versive seizure characterized by conjugate eye movement during epileptic seizure has been considered commonly as one of the most valuable semiological signs for epilepsy localization, especially for frontal lobe epilepsy. However, the lateralizing and localizing significance of ictaleye deviation has been questioned by clinical observation of a series of focal epilepsy studies, including frontal, central, temporal, parietal and occipital epilepsy. Two epileptic cases characterized by ipsiversive eye deviation as initial clinical sign during the habitual epileptic seizures are presented in this paper. The localization of the epileptogenic zone of both of the cases has been confirmed as inferioposterior temporal region by the findings of ictalstereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) and a good result after epileptic surgery. Detailed analysis of the exact position of the key contacts of the SEEG electrodes identified the overlap between the location of the epileptogenic zone and human MT/MST complex, which play a crucial role in the control of smooth pursuit eye movement. Ipsiversive eye deviation could be the initial clinical sign of inferioposterior temporal lobe epilepsy and attribute to the involvement of human MT/MST complex, especially human MST whichwas located on the anterior/dorsal bank of the anterior occipital sulcus (AOS).

  4. Temporal Lobe Lesions and Perception of Species-Specific Vocalizations by Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Henry E.; Heffner, Rickye S.

    1984-10-01

    Japanese macaques were trained to discriminate two forms of their coo vocalization before and after unilateral and bilateral ablation of the temporal cortex. Unilateral ablation of the left superior temporal gyrus, including auditory cortex, resulted in an initial impairment in the discrimination, but similar unilateral ablation of the right superior temporal gyrus had no effect. Bilateral temporal lesions including auditory cortex completely abolished the ability of the animals to discriminate their coos. Neither unilateral nor bilateral ablation of cortex dorsal to and sparing the auditory cortex had any effect on the discrimination. The perception of species-specific vocalizations by Japanese macaques seems to be mediated by the temporal cortex, with the left hemisphere playing a predominant role.

  5. Radiotherapy of superior vena cava syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanami, Shoko; Imada, Hajime; Terashima, Hiromi; Nakata, Hajime

    1996-01-01

    The records of 38 patients with superior vena cava syndrome (SVC syndrome) due to malignancy and who received radiation therapy were retrospectively reviewed. The majority were lung cancers, constituting 28 of the 38 cases (73.7%). All patients were treated with conventional radiation doses ranging from 20 to 70 Gy and good symptomatic response was observed in 31 cases (81.6% ). The response appeared within 1.7±0.9 weeks on average (3 days-4 weeks;, and performance status also improved in 50% of the patients. The median survival was 6.6 months. Long term survivors were seen mostly in patients with thymoma, and only one patient ever showed a recurrence of SVC syndrome. We conclude that radiotherapy can be an effective therapeutic modality for SVC syndrome and that it improves the quality of life in most patients. (author)

  6. CT findings of superior vena cava syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jun; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Since early 1980's high resolution CT has been used for detection of intrathoracic pathologic condition such as superior vena cava syndrome. Authors retrospectively analysed CT findings of 18 cases of proven SVC syndrome. The results were as follows: 1. The mean age was 50-year-old, and 14 cases were male. 2. Of 18 cases of SVC syndrome, 8 cases had confirmed to be lung cancers, malignant thymoma and teratoma were respectively each 2 cases, and malignant lymphoma, mediastinal abscess, thyroid adenoma and metastatic tumor were 1 case. 3. CT findings were A. Abnormal SVC consisted of compression with displacement (44.4%), intraluminal thrombus (27.8%), and encasement (27.8%). B. The collateral pathways were the azygos-homozygous (88.8%), vertebral (50%), internal mammary (44.4%), and lateral thoracic route (33.3%)

  7. CT findings of superior vena cava syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jun; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    Since early 1980's high resolution CT has been used for detection of intrathoracic pathologic condition such as superior vena cava syndrome. Authors retrospectively analysed CT findings of 18 cases of proven SVC syndrome. The results were as follows: 1. The mean age was 50-year-old, and 14 cases were male. 2. Of 18 cases of SVC syndrome, 8 cases had confirmed to be lung cancers, malignant thymoma and teratoma were respectively each 2 cases, and malignant lymphoma, mediastinal abscess, thyroid adenoma and metastatic tumor were 1 case. 3. CT findings were A. Abnormal SVC consisted of compression with displacement (44.4%), intraluminal thrombus (27.8%), and encasement (27.8%). B. The collateral pathways were the azygos-homozygous (88.8%), vertebral (50%), internal mammary (44.4%), and lateral thoracic route (33.3%).

  8. Have the Guests Perceived Superior Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levyda Levyda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe guests’ perceived value by using a multidimensional approach. From previous research, guests’ perceived value consisted of some functional value, emotional value, and social value. Based on guest experience, and functional value consisted of physical evidence, guest room, food and beverage, hotel staff, and price. This research was conducted in four-star hotels in Jakarta. The respondents were the guests who had stayed in four-star hotels. The number of the respondent was 405. The data were obtained by using self-administered questionnaires. This research shows that guests have not perceived superior value. Some of the values and the necessary efforts need to be improved.

  9. Superiority: China Mobile in the competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The market share between China Mobile and China Unicom has stabilized since 2002.It is found that China Mobile has the superiority in the competition, for example, the scissors movement between its revenue and cost indicates that it has a strong profit generating ability and there is enough room for it to reduce the price.The ratio between its price (marginal income) and marginal cost indicates that there is a very distant limit for it to reduce the price.Its demand is obviously flexible with the price, but it does not use the price weapon abundantly.The reason for the stabilization of the market is that China Mobile withdrew from the competition.

  10. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome or Wilkie Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano Llano, Rodrigo; Chams Anturi, Abraham; Arango Vargas, Paula

    2009-01-01

    We described three cases of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome, also known as Wilkie's syndrome, chronic duodenal ileus, or cast syndrome. This syndrome occurs when the third portion of the duodenum is compressed between the SMA and the aorta. The major risk factors for development of SMA syndrome are rapid weight loss and surgical correction of spinal deformities. The clinical presentation of SMA syndrome is variable and nonspecific, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and weight loss. The diagnosis is based on endoscopic, radiographic and tomographic findings of duodenal compression by the SMA. The treatment of SMA syndrome is aimed at the precipitating factor, which usually is related to weight loss. Therefore, conservative therapy with nutritional supplementation is the initial approach, and surgery is reserved for those who do not respond to nutritional therapy.

  11. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold for perc...... simultaneously we find a different pattern: In a whole report experiment with six stimuli (letters or words), letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity....... for perception of words, or a higher speed of processing for words than letters. We have investigated the WSE using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention. In an experiment using single stimuli (words or letters) presented centrally, we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual...

  12. Superior vena thrombosis with peripartum dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, R.; Hussain, S.; Kayani, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A 30 years multiparous female with history of emergency caesarean section 10 days back was referred to us with cough, severe breathlessness at rest, orthopnea with pain in neck and arms. Clinical examination revealed signs of heart failure. Echocardiography showed ejection fraction of 15%, with no right ventricular strain. A diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy was made. Doppler ultrasound of neck veins showed bilateral internal jugular vein thrombosis. Subsequent multislice CT examination showed thrombosis of superior vena cava and both internal jugular veins (with collateral formation) and pulmonary embolism. There were no mediastinal abnormalities on the CT scan. Her thrombophilia screen and CT scan brain was normal. She was managed in collaboration with cardiologist. Following treatment with subcutaneous enoxaparin therapy and warfarin her symptoms of upper limb pain improved. She responded very well to medical therapy for heart failure with marked improvement of NYHA functional class. (author)

  13. Superior vena cava syndrome in hemodialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeb Molhem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstruction of blood flow in the superior vena cava (SVC results in symptoms and signs of SVC syndrome. SVC obstruction can be caused either by invasion or external compression of the SVC by contagious pathologic processes involving the right lung, lymph nodes, and other mediastinal structures, or by thrombosis of blood within the SVC. Occasionally, both mechanisms co-exist. We hereby report a case of a 28-year-old male, Saudi patient who was diagnosed with end-stage renal disease and was maintained on regular hemodiaysis via right jugular vein dual lumen catheter for ten months. Three years later, the patient presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of SVC obstruction that was successfully managed with SVC stenting.

  14. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  15. Incidence of dehiscence of the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal by CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Dehiscence of the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal (SSCC) is rare, but it has been recognized by otologists since Minor et al first described superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS). In this study, dehiscence of the bony roof of SSCC was incidentally detected in three patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo out of 49 serial patients with vertigo and dizziness by multi-slice computed tomography. Although detection of dehiscence of the SSCC by ultra-high-resolution CT imaging of the temporal bones has been required for a diagnosis of SCDS, this study showed that dehiscence of the bony roof of the SSCC can be an incidental finding and therefore is not specific for SCDS. (author)

  16. Phase fluctuations model for EM wave propagation through solar scintillation at superior solar conjunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guanjun; Song, Zhaohui

    2017-04-01

    Traveling solar wind disturbances have a significant influence on radio wave characteristics during the superior solar conjunction communication. This paper considers the impact of solar scintillation on phase fluctuations of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation during the superior solar conjunction. Based on the Geometric Optics approximation, the close-form approximation model for phase fluctuations is developed. Both effects of anisotropic temporal variations function of plasma irregularities and their power spectrum are presented and analyzed numerically. It is found that phase fluctuations rapidly decrease with increasing Sun-Earth-Probe angle and decrease with increasing frequency at the rate of 1/f2. Moreover, the role of various features of the solar wind irregularities and their influence on the EM wave characteristic parameters is studied and discussed. Finally, we study the phase fluctuations of typical cases in order to better understand the impact of phase fluctuations in future deep space communication scenarios during solar conjunction periods.

  17. Superiority of Bessel function over Zernicke polynomial as base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Here we describe the superiority of Bessel function as base function for radial expan- sion over Zernicke polynomial in the tomographic reconstruction technique. The causes for the superiority have been described in detail. The superiority has been shown both with simulated data for Kadomtsev's model for ...

  18. Superior glenoid inclination and rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Peter N; Beck, Lindsay; Granger, Erin; Henninger, Heath; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2018-03-23

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether glenoid inclination (1) could be measured accurately on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using computed tomography (CT) as a gold standard, (2) could be measured reliably on MRI, and (3) whether it differed between patients with rotator cuff tears and age-matched controls without evidence of rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral osteoarthritis. In this comparative retrospective radiographic study, we measured glenoid inclination on T1 coronal MRI corrected into the plane of the scapula. We determined accuracy by comparison with CT and inter-rater reliability. We compared glenoid inclination between patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears and patients aged >50 years without evidence of a rotator cuff tear or glenohumeral arthritis. An a priori power analysis determined adequate power to detect a 2° difference in glenoid inclination. (1) In a validation cohort of 37 patients with MRI and CT, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.877, with a mean difference of 0° (95% confidence interval, -1° to 1°). (2) For MRI inclination, the inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.911. (3) Superior glenoid inclination was 2° higher (range, 1°-4°, P rotator cuff tear group of 192 patients than in the control cohort of 107 patients. Glenoid inclination can be accurately and reliably measured on MRI. Although superior glenoid inclination is statistically greater in those with rotator cuff tears than in patients of similar age without rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral arthritis, the difference is likely below clinical significance. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Kompetisi Stasiun Televisi Swasta Nasional Berdasarkan Superiority Direction dan Superiority Magnitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Winanti Riesardhy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Uses and gratification theory is employed particularly as the teoritical frame of the research to examine the extent to which ten national television stations compete to satisfy Indonesian audiences. In particular, two main concepts of that theory namely audiences “gratification sought and gratifications obtained, are broken down and counted based on superiority direction and superiority magnitude. In general, the findings show that those televisions have satisfied their audiences, although in terms of gratifications to dispersal motives, they haven’t satisfied as much as it was expected. Significant competition occurs between TRANSTV and TRANS7, RCTI and SCTV, and TVONE and METROTV. TVONE become the most satisfiyng television station. Abstrak: Teori Uses & Gratification menjadi dasar penelitian ini untuk mengukur bagaimana kompetisi yang terjadi di antara sepuluh stasiun televisi yang bersiaran secara nasional di Indonesia. Aplikasi dari teori tersebut dimunculkan dalam konsep kepuasan yang diharapkan dan kepuasan yang diperoleh ketika menonton acara televisi dan didasarkan pada penghitungan superiority direction dan superiority magnitude. Sepuluh stasiun televisi yang diteliti telah dapat memuaskan audiensnya, meskipun untuk kepuasan atas motif pengalihan masih belum dapat melampaui kepuasan yang diharapkan. Kompetisi yang signifikan terjadi antara TRANSTV dengan TRANS7, RCTI dengan SCTV serta TVONE dengan METROTV. TVONE menjadi stasiun televisi yang menduduki peringkat pertama dalam memberikan kepuasan tertinggi kepada audiens.

  20. Preoperative visual field deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeet S. Grewal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical resection and laser thermoablation have been used to treat drug resistant epilepsy with good results. However, they are not without risk. One of the most commonly reported complications of temporal lobe surgery is contralateral superior homonymous quadrantanopsia. We describe a patient with asymptomatic preoperative quadrantanopsia fortuitously discovered as part of our recently modified protocol to evaluate patients prior to temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. This visual field deficit was subtle and not detected on routine clinical neurological examination. While we understand that this is a single case, we advocate further study for more detailed preoperative visual field examinations to characterize the true incidence of postoperative visual field lesions.

  1. Evaluation of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy of nontumorous origin with qualitative and quantitative MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanna, N.K.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Sperling, M.R.; Kohn, M.I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that although MR imaging is superior to CT in the detection of focal lesions in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), its role in the detection of mesial temporal sclerosis remains controversial. This is significant, as the latter represents a frequent cause of TLE and manifests with only subtle atrophic changes and occasional high signal abnormalities. PReoperative MR images of 47 patients who had undergone temporal lobectomy for nontumoral TLE and of 20 control subjects were valuated for focal atrophy and hippocampal high signal abnormalities. Quantitative measurements were performed in 33 patients and 20 control subjects with use of a new brain volumetric analysis program to determine volumes of temporal lobes

  2. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  3. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...... temporal ccp by developing a process calculus called ntcc. The ntcc calculus generalizes the tcc model, the latter being a temporal ccp model for deterministic and synchronouss timed reactive systems. The calculus is built upon few basic ideas but it captures several aspects of timed systems. As tcc, ntcc...... structures, robotic devises, multi-agent systems and music applications. The calculus is provided with a denotational semantics that captures the reactive computations of processes in the presence of arbitrary environments. The denotation is proven to be fully-abstract for a substantial fragment...

  4. Empresas de trabajo temporal

    OpenAIRE

    Chico Abad, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Las empresas de trabajo temporal han ido tomando mayor relevancia debido a la estructura de la sociedad y de la economía. La entrada en vigor de la ley 14/1994 por la que se regulan las empresas de trabajo temporal suposo la incorporación al ordenamiento jurífico español de un tipo de empresas cuya actuación se habia extendido en otros países del entorno europeo. La idea general gira en torno a la flexibilidad de un nuevo marco económico y organizativo y exige a las empresas una capa...

  5. Medial temporal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.J.; Cross, D.T.; Friedman, D.P.; Bello, J.A.; Hilal, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    To better define the MR appearance of hippocampal sclerosis, the authors have reviewed over 500 MR coronal images of the temporal lobes. Many cysts were noted that analysis showed were of choroid-fissure (arachnoid) origin. Their association with seizures was low. A few nontumorous, static, medial temporal lesions, noted on T2-weighted coronal images, were poorly visualized on T1-weighted images and did not enhance with gadolinium. The margins were irregular, involved the hippocampus, and were often associated with focal atrophy. The lesions usually were associated with seizure disorders and specific electroencephalographic changes, and the authors believe they represented hippocampal sclerosis

  6. Anterior & lateral extension of optic radiation & safety of amygdalohippocampectomy through middle temporal gyrus: a cadaveric study of 11 cerebral hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, F H; Khan, A H

    2010-01-01

    This is a cadaveric anatomical study on the localization of the optic radiation within the temporal lobe and to find whether surgical intervention to the temporal lobe, especially amygdalohippocampectomy, can damage the optic radiation or not. 11 cadaveric cerebral hemispheres were used for the study. A 2 cm long antero-posterior incision was done with a sharp knife, on middle temporal gyrus, starting 3 cm posterior to temporal pole. The incision was deepened perpendicular to surface of the gyrus to reach the temporal horn. The optic radiation was dissected under operating microscope using Klinger's fiber dissection technique and measurements were taken to define the anterior and lateral extension of optic radiation. The optic radiation in each hemispehere was inspected for any incision related damage. No damage to the optic radiation was found, caused by the 2 cm long anterior-posterior incision on middle temporal gyrus 3 cm posterior to temporal pole. Most anterior 9mm (8-10mm) of the Meyer loop was completely on the roof and there was no extension over lateral wall of the temporal horn. In next posterior 17.5mm (16-20 mm) it extended over lateral wall of temporal horn with gradual progression. The most anterior extension of optic radiation was 26mm (23-31mm) posterior to temporal pole. Amygdalohippocampectomy through a 2 cm long horizontal incision on the middle temporal gyrus, starting 3 cm posterior to the temporal pole, to enter into the temporal horn through the lower aspect of the lateral wall is unlikely to cause damage to the Meyer's loop. Any entry from the superior aspect of the temporal horn and any temporal lobectomy inclusive of the superior temporal gyrus to enter the temporal horn is likely to cause Meyer's loop injury. The findings support the fact that the more inferior the surgical trajectory to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, the lover is the risk of visual field damage.

  7. The synaptic pharmacology underlying sensory processing in the superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, K E

    1999-10-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is one of the most ancient regions of the vertebrate central sensory system. In this hub afferents from several sensory pathways converge, and an extensive range of neural circuits enable primary sensory processing, multi-sensory integration and the generation of motor commands for orientation behaviours. The SC has a laminar structure and is usually considered in two parts; the superficial visual layers and the deep multi-modal/motor layers. Neurones in the superficial layers integrate visual information from the retina, cortex and other sources, while the deep layers draw together data from many cortical and sub-cortical sensory areas, including the superficial layers, to generate motor commands. Functional studies in anaesthetized subjects and in slice preparations have used pharmacological tools to probe some of the SC's interacting circuits. The studies reviewed here reveal important roles for ionotropic glutamate receptors in the mediation of sensory inputs to the SC and in transmission between the superficial and deep layers. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors appear to have special responsibility for the temporal matching of retinal and cortical activity in the superficial layers and for the integration of multiple sensory data-streams in the deep layers. Sensory responses are shaped by intrinsic inhibitory mechanisms mediated by GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors and influenced by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These sensory and motor-command activities of SC neurones are modulated by levels of arousal through extrinsic connections containing GABA, serotonin and other transmitters. It is possible to naturally stimulate many of the SC's sensory and non-sensory inputs either independently or simultaneously and this brain area is an ideal location in which to study: (a) interactions between inputs from the same sensory system; (b) the integration of inputs from several sensory systems; and (c) the influence of non-sensory systems on

  8. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK). Interventional case series. In this clinical practice case series, the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on SLK were observed. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was performed using a Brymill E tip spray (0.013-inch aperture) with a double freeze-thaw technique. All subjects were outpatients who had local anesthesia with a single drop of topical proparacaine. The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Four female patients (average age, 64 +/- 13 years) and seven eyes with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Resolution of signs and symptoms occurred within two weeks. Disease recurred in two patients and three of seven eyes, although repeat cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. The repeat cryotherapy was performed at three months postoperatively. There were no adverse ocular events. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy appears to be an effective alternative treatment for SLK as all subjects studied achieved long-term cures. Repeat cryotherapy may be necessary in some instances and may be performed three months after the first treatment.

  9. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  10. Optimizing Temporal Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David; Bowman, Ivan Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Recent research in the area of temporal databases has proposed a number of query languages that vary in their expressive power and the semantics they provide to users. These query languages represent a spectrum of solutions to the tension between clean semantics and efficient evaluation. Often, t...

  11. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  12. Temporal Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    The finite frame rate also used in computer animated films is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively...

  13. Temporal compressive sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W.

    2017-12-12

    Methods and systems for temporal compressive sensing are disclosed, where within each of one or more sensor array data acquisition periods, one or more sensor array measurement datasets comprising distinct linear combinations of time slice data are acquired, and where mathematical reconstruction allows for calculation of accurate representations of the individual time slice datasets.

  14. Information and Temporality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Flender

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Being able to give reasons for what the world is and how it works is one of the defining characteristics of modernity. Mathematical reason and empirical observation brought science and engineering to unprecedented success. However, modernity has reached a post-state where an instrumental view of technology needs revision with reasonable arguments and evidence, i.e. without falling back to superstition and mysticism. Instrumentally, technology bears the potential to ease and to harm. Easing and harming can't be controlled like the initial development of technology is a controlled exercise for a specific, mostly easing purpose. Therefore, a revised understanding of information technology is proposed based upon mathematical concepts and intuitions as developed in quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics offers unequaled opportunities because it raises foundational questions in a precise form. Beyond instrumentalism it enables to raise the question of essences as that what remains through time what it is. The essence of information technology is acausality. The time of acausality is temporality. Temporality is not a concept or a category. It is not epistemological. As an existential and thus more comprehensive and fundamental than a concept or a category temporality is ontological; it does not simply have ontic properties. Rather it exhibits general essences. Datability, significance, spannedness and openness are general essences of equiprimordial time (temporality.

  15. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  16. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Nov (2016), 1-8, č. článku 38076. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : temporal quantum steering * EPR steering Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  17. Communication, Technology, Temporality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Martinez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a media studies that foregrounds technological objects as communicative and historical agents. Specifically, I take the digital computer as a powerful catalyst of crises in communication theories and certain key features of modernity. Finally, the computer is the motor of “New Media” which is at once a set of technologies, a historical epoch, and a field of knowledge. As such the computer shapes “the new” and “the future” as History pushes its origins further in the past and its convergent quality pushes its future as a predominate medium. As treatment of information and interface suggest, communication theories observe computers, and technologies generally, for the mediated languages they either afford or foreclose to us. My project describes the figures information and interface for the different ways they can be thought of as aspects of communication. I treat information not as semantic meaning, formal or discursive language, but rather as a physical organism. Similarly an interface is not a relationship between a screen and a human visual intelligence, but is instead a reciprocal, affective and physical process of contact. I illustrate that historically there have been conceptions of information and interface complimentary to mine, fleeting as they have been in the face of a dominant temporality of mediation. I begin with a theoretically informed approach to media history, and extend it to a new theory of communication. In doing so I discuss a model of time common to popular, scientific, and critical conceptions of media technologies especially in theories of computer technology. This is a predominate model with particular rules of temporal change and causality for thinking about mediation, and limits the conditions of possibility for knowledge production about communication. I suggest a new model of time as integral to any event of observation and analysis, and that human mediation does not exhaust the

  18. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William

    2015-08-04

    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  19. Absent right superior caval vein in situs solitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Sundberg, Karin; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In up to 0.07% of the general population, the right anterior cardinal vein obliterates and the left remains open, creating an absent right superior caval vein and a persistent left superior caval vein. Absent right superior caval vein is associated with additional congenital heart...... disease in about half the patients. We wished to study the consequences of absent right superior caval vein as an incidental finding on prenatal ultrasonic malformation screening. Material and methods This is a retrospective case series study of all foetuses diagnosed with absent right superior caval vein...... no postnatal complications. All children were found to have healthy hearts at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In all cases, the findings proved to be a benign condition with no clinical manifestations or complications. Although isolated absent right superior caval vein does not seem to affect the outcome, associated...

  20. The CT appearance of the superior intercostal veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, G.

    1982-01-01

    The CT appearance of the superior intercostal veins is described. The veins are more frequently seen on the right side. The right superior intercostal vein should not be misinterpreted as a paraspinal mass when it is large or bulges into the contour of the right lung. A case of stenosis of the left brachiocephalic vein is shown, where the left superior intercostal vein serves as a collateral. (orig.)

  1. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: An Infrequent Complication of Scoliosis Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Keskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare condition that causes a proximal small intestinal obstruction due to contraction of the angle between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta. Scoliosis surgery is one of the 15 reasons for superior mesenteric artery syndrome, which can present with acute or chronic manifestations. Although conservative treatment is usually possible, surgical treatment is required in certain cases that cannot be treated using conservative methods. In this paper, we describe a patient who developed superior mesenteric artery syndrome after scoliosis surgery and was treated with duodenojejunostomy due to failure and complications of conservative treatment.

  2. Information Superiority: Outsourcing an Air Force Core Competency?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McTerman, Hugh

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis explores the perceived relationship between the core competency requirements for information superiority and the tasks defined for the Air Force communication, computer, and information career field...

  3. ADHD and temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    According to the official diagnostic manual, ADHD is defined by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and patterns of behaviour are characterized as failure to pay attention to details, excessive talking, fidgeting, or inability to remain seated in appropriate situations (DSM-5......). In this paper, however, I will ask if we can understand what we call ADHD in a different way than through the symptom descriptions and will advocate for a complementary, phenomenological understanding of ADHD as a certain being in the world – more specifically as a matter of a phenomenological difference...... in temporal experience and/or rhythm. Inspired by both psychiatry’s experiments with people diagnosed with ADHD and their assessment of time and phenomenological perspectives on mental disorders and temporal disorientation I explore the experience of ADHD as a disruption in the phenomenological experience...

  4. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  5. Three-Dimensional Printed Prosthesis for Repair of Superior Canal Dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Cheng, Song; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Outcomes following repair of superior canal dehiscence (SCD) are variable, and surgery carries a risk of persistent or recurrent SCD symptoms, as well as a risk of hearing loss and vestibulopathy. Poor outcomes may occur from inadequate repair of the SCD or mechanical insult to the membranous labyrinth. Repair of SCD using a customized, fixed-length prosthesis may address current operative limitations and improve surgical outcomes. We aim to 3-dimensionally print customized prostheses to resurface or occlude bony SCD defects. Dehiscences were created along the arcuate eminence of superior semicircular canals in cadaveric temporal bones. Prostheses were designed and created using computed tomography and a 3-dimensional printer. The prostheses occupied the superior semicircular canal defect, reflected in postrepair computed tomography scans. This novel approach to SCD repair could have advantages over current techniques. Refinement of prosthesis design and materials will be important if this approach is translated into clinical use. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  6. Temporal rainfall estimation using input data reduction and model inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A. J.; Vrugt, J. A.; Walker, J. P.; Pauwels, V. R. N.

    2016-12-01

    Floods are devastating natural hazards. To provide accurate, precise and timely flood forecasts there is a need to understand the uncertainties associated with temporal rainfall and model parameters. The estimation of temporal rainfall and model parameter distributions from streamflow observations in complex dynamic catchments adds skill to current areal rainfall estimation methods, allows for the uncertainty of rainfall input to be considered when estimating model parameters and provides the ability to estimate rainfall from poorly gauged catchments. Current methods to estimate temporal rainfall distributions from streamflow are unable to adequately explain and invert complex non-linear hydrologic systems. This study uses the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to reduce rainfall dimensionality for the catchment of Warwick, Queensland, Australia. The reduction of rainfall to DWT coefficients allows the input rainfall time series to be simultaneously estimated along with model parameters. The estimation process is conducted using multi-chain Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation with the DREAMZS algorithm. The use of a likelihood function that considers both rainfall and streamflow error allows for model parameter and temporal rainfall distributions to be estimated. Estimation of the wavelet approximation coefficients of lower order decomposition structures was able to estimate the most realistic temporal rainfall distributions. These rainfall estimates were all able to simulate streamflow that was superior to the results of a traditional calibration approach. It is shown that the choice of wavelet has a considerable impact on the robustness of the inversion. The results demonstrate that streamflow data contains sufficient information to estimate temporal rainfall and model parameter distributions. The extent and variance of rainfall time series that are able to simulate streamflow that is superior to that simulated by a traditional calibration approach is a

  7. Distinct brain mechanisms support spatial vs temporal filtering of nociceptive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Martucci, Katherine T; Granovsky, Yelena; Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Yarnitsky, David; Coghill, Robert C

    2014-12-01

    The role of endogenous analgesic mechanisms has largely been viewed in the context of gain modulation during nociceptive processing. However, these analgesic mechanisms may play critical roles in the extraction and subsequent utilization of information related to spatial and temporal features of nociceptive input. To date, it remains unknown if spatial and temporal filtering of nociceptive information is supported by similar analgesic mechanisms. To address this question, human volunteers were recruited to assess brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging during conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and offset analgesia (OA). CPM provides one paradigm for assessing spatial filtering of nociceptive information while OA provides a paradigm for assessing temporal filtering of nociceptive information. CPM and OA both produced statistically significant reductions in pain intensity. However, the magnitude of pain reduction elicited by CPM was not correlated with that elicited by OA across different individuals. Different patterns of brain activation were consistent with the psychophysical findings. CPM elicited widespread reductions in regions engaged in nociceptive processing such as the thalamus, insula, and secondary somatosensory cortex. OA produced reduced activity in the primary somatosensory cortex but was associated with greater activation in the anterior insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, intraparietal sulcus, and inferior parietal lobule relative to CPM. In the brain stem, CPM consistently produced reductions in activity, while OA produced increases in activity. Conjunction analysis confirmed that CPM-related activity did not overlap with that of OA. Thus, dissociable mechanisms support inhibitory processes engaged during spatial vs temporal filtering of nociceptive information. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nueva variante de abordaje al surco ciliar en la fijación transescleral de lentes de cámara posterior New variant of approach to the ciliary sulcus in the transcleral fixation of posterior chamber lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Vila Dópico

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una variante de abordaje al surco ciliar para la fijación del lente intraocular de cámara posterior, que está a nuestro alcance, en pacientes en que no existe soporte capsular o este es insuficiente. Se describe la técnica. Se realizó en 17 pacientes de los que se obtuvo mejoría visual en todos los casos (20/50-20/20 con un seguimiento promedio de 12 meses. Esta variante tiene la ventaja de evitar el paso de la aguja por el surco ciliar a ciegas, pues se utiliza el abordaje a través de la esclera y con ello evitamos dañar estructuras oculares aledañas evitando el riesgo de complicaciones por lo que se logra la recuperación anatómica y funcional en todos los casos.A variant to approach the ciliary sulcus for fixating the posterior chamber intraocular lens, which is within our reach, in patients with insufficient or no capsular support, is explained. The technique is described here and it was applied to 17 patients. Visual improvement was obtained in all cases (20/50-20/20 with an average follow-up of 12 months. This variant allows to prevent the blind passage of the needle through the ciliary sulcus, since it is approached via the sclera, avoiding to damage adjoining ocular structures and to have complications, and making possible the anatomic and functional recovery of all patients.

  9. Topographical gradients of semantics and phonology revealed by temporal lobe stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miozzo, Michele; Williams, Alicia C; McKhann, Guy M; Hamberger, Marla J

    2017-02-01

    Word retrieval is a fundamental component of oral communication, and it is well established that this function is supported by left temporal cortex. Nevertheless, the specific temporal areas mediating word retrieval and the particular linguistic processes these regions support have not been well delineated. Toward this end, we analyzed over 1000 naming errors induced by left temporal cortical stimulation in epilepsy surgery patients. Errors were primarily semantic (lemon → "pear"), phonological (horn → "corn"), non-responses, and delayed responses (correct responses after a delay), and each error type appeared predominantly in a specific region: semantic errors in mid-middle temporal gyrus (TG), phonological errors and delayed responses in middle and posterior superior TG, and non-responses in anterior inferior TG. To the extent that semantic errors, phonological errors and delayed responses reflect disruptions in different processes, our results imply topographical specialization of semantic and phonological processing. Specifically, results revealed an inferior-to-superior gradient, with more superior regions associated with phonological processing. Further, errors were increasingly semantically related to targets toward posterior temporal cortex. We speculate that detailed semantic input is needed to support phonological retrieval, and thus, the specificity of semantic input increases progressively toward posterior temporal regions implicated in phonological processing. Hum Brain Mapp 38:688-703, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: a rare complication of nephrotic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullu M

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A two and half year-old-male child, known case of steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome presented with fever and vomiting of acute onset. He was diagnosed to have superior sagittal sinus thrombosis on a contrast computerised tomographic scan of brain. Recovery was complete without anticoagulant therapy. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is an extremely rare complication of nephrotic syndrome.

  11. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome: case report | Jani | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome (SMAS) is caused by trapping of the third part of the duodenum between Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) and aorta as result of narrowing of the angle between the two vessels due to acute loss of mesenteric fat which is secondary to rapid weight loss. A fifteen year old caucasian ...

  12. Aging and the Picture Superiority Effect in Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Eugene; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect. One experiment found an interaction between age and type of material. In other experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. Performing a semantic-orienting task had no effect on recall. (Author/RC)

  13. Superior dislocation hip with anterior column acetabular fracture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Superior variety of anterior dislocation of the hip is a rare injury. Its occurrence with acetabular fractures has been documented infrequently. We report a case of superior dislocation of the hip with anterior column acetabular fracture. Open reduction of the hip and internal fixation of the fracture was carried out using a twin ...

  14. The Development of the Picture-Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    When pictures and words are presented serially in an explicit memory task, recall of the pictures is superior. While this effect is well established in the adult population, little is known of the development of this picture-superiority effect in typical development. This task was administered to 80 participants from middle childhood to…

  15. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ORGANIZATION STAFF ASSIGNMENTS AND REVIEW OF ACTION UNDER ASSIGNMENTS General Provisions § 385.7 Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... be made, severally, to each such staff member's respective superiors. In accordance with the...

  16. Fatal pericardial tamponade after superior vena cava stenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegmakers, M.J.M.; Rutten, M.J.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a fatal complication of percutaneous superior vena cava (SVC) self-expandable stent placement in a patient with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). The SVCS was caused by a malignant mediastinal mass with total occlusion of the SVC. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, the patient died

  17. Superior vena cava obstruction caused by radiation induced venous fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putten, JWG; Schlosser, NJJ; Vujaskovic, Z; Van der Leest, AHD; Groen, HJM

    Superior vena cava syndrome is most often caused by lung carcinoma. Two cases are described in whom venous obstruction in the superior mediastinum was caused by local vascular fibrosis due to radiotherapy five and seven years earlier. The development of radiation injury to greater vessels is

  18. Young women do it better: sexual dimorphism in temporal discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jane Williams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two sensory stimuli presented sequentially are detected as asynchronous by the observer. Temporal discrimination thresholds are known to increase with age. Having previously observed shorter thresholds in young women than in men, in this work we sought to sytematically examine the effect of sex and age on temporal discrimination. The aims of this study were to examine, in a large group of men and women aged 20 to 65 years, the distribution of temporal discrimination thresholds with an analysis of the individual participant’s responses, assessing the point of subjective equality (PSE and the just noticeable difference (JND. These respectively assess sensitivity and accuracy of an individual’s response. In 175 participants (88 women aged 20-65 years, temporal discrimination was faster in women than in men under the age of 40 years by a mean of approximately 13ms. However age-related decline in temporal discrimination was three times faster in women so that, in the age group of 40-65 years, the female superiority was reversed. The point of subjective equality showed a similar advantage in younger women and more marked age-related decline in women than men, as the temporal discrimination threshold. Just noticeable difference values declined equally in both sexes showing no sexual dimorphism. This observed sexual dimorphism in temporal discrimination is important for both a future clinical research assessing disordered mid-brain covert attention in basal-ganglia disorders and b understanding the biology of this sexual dimorphism which may be genetic or hormonal.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  20. Síndrome de Deiscência de Canal Semicircular Superior Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane da Cunha Ferreira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome de Deiscência de Canal Semicircular Superior (SDCSS, primeiramente descrita em 1998 por Minor et al., caracteriza-se por vertigem associada à presença de nistagmo, relacionados à exposição a estímulos sonoros intensos ou a modificações de pressão dentro da orelha média ou intracraniana. Disacusia, em sua maioria de padrão condutivo à audiometria tonal, também pode estar presente. Nesta revisão da literatura objetivou-se abordar a SDCSS, com seus principais sinais e sintomas, achados diagnósticos e tratamento, assim como enfatizar a importância de sua inclusão dentre as causas de vertigem, visto tratar-se de acometimento ainda pouco conhecido até mesmo entre especialistas. O diagnóstico correto, além de possibilitar seu tratamento, impede que abordagens diagnósticas e terapêuticas inapropriadas sejam realizadas.The Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome (SCDS was first reported by Minor at. Al. (1998, and has been characterized by vertigo and vertical-torsional eye movements related to loud sounds or stimuli that change middle ear or intracranial pressure. Hearing loss, for the most part with conductive patterns on audiometry, may be present in this syndrome. We performed a literature survey in order to to present symptoms, signs, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the SCDS, also aiming at stressing the great importance of including this syndrome among the tractable cause of vertigo. We should emphasize that this is a recent issue, still unknown by some specialists. The Correct SCDS diagnosis, besides enabling patient treatment, precludes misdiagnosis and inadequate therapeutic approaches.

  1. Egocentric Temporal Action Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao Huang; Weiqiang Wang; Shengfeng He; Lau, Rynson W H

    2018-02-01

    We present an approach to localize generic actions in egocentric videos, called temporal action proposals (TAPs), for accelerating the action recognition step. An egocentric TAP refers to a sequence of frames that may contain a generic action performed by the wearer of a head-mounted camera, e.g., taking a knife, spreading jam, pouring milk, or cutting carrots. Inspired by object proposals, this paper aims at generating a small number of TAPs, thereby replacing the popular sliding window strategy, for localizing all action events in the input video. To this end, we first propose to temporally segment the input video into action atoms, which are the smallest units that may contain an action. We then apply a hierarchical clustering algorithm with several egocentric cues to generate TAPs. Finally, we propose two actionness networks to score the likelihood of each TAP containing an action. The top ranked candidates are returned as output TAPs. Experimental results show that the proposed TAP detection framework performs significantly better than relevant approaches for egocentric action detection.

  2. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  3. Cortico-cortical connections of areas 44 and 45B in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Stephen; Mackey, Scott; Petrides, Michael

    2014-04-01

    In the human brain, areas 44 and 45 constitute Broca's region, the ventrolateral frontal region critical for language production. The homologues of these areas in the macaque monkey brain have been established by direct cytoarchitectonic comparison with the human brain. The cortical areas that project monosynaptically to areas 44 and 45B in the macaque monkey brain require clarification. Fluorescent retrograde tracers were placed in cytoarchitectonic areas 44 and 45B of the macaque monkey, as well as in the anterior part of the inferior parietal lobule and the superior temporal gyrus. The results demonstrate that ipsilateral afferent connections of area 44 arise from local frontal areas, including rostral premotor cortical area 6, from secondary somatosensory cortex, the caudal insula, and the cingulate motor region. Area 44 is strongly linked with the anterior inferior parietal lobule (particularly area PFG and the adjacent anterior intraparietal sulcus). Input from the temporal lobe is limited to the fundus of the superior temporal sulcus extending caudal to the central sulcus. There is also input from the sulcal part of area Tpt in the upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus. Area 45B shares some of the connections of area 44, but can be distinguished from area 44 by input from the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG) and significant input from the part of the superior temporal sulcus that extends anterior to the central sulcus. Area 45B also receives input from visual association cortex that is not observed in area 44. The results have provided a clarification of the relative connections of areas 44 and 45B of the ventrolateral frontal region which, in the human brain, subserves certain aspects of language processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Temporal lobe structures and facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia patients and nonpsychotic relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; Macdonald, Angus W; Sponheim, Scott R

    2011-11-01

    Temporal lobe abnormalities and emotion recognition deficits are prominent features of schizophrenia and appear related to the diathesis of the disorder. This study investigated whether temporal lobe structural abnormalities were associated with facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and related to genetic liability for the disorder. Twenty-seven schizophrenia patients, 23 biological family members, and 36 controls participated. Several temporal lobe regions (fusiform, superior temporal, middle temporal, amygdala, and hippocampus) previously associated with face recognition in normative samples and found to be abnormal in schizophrenia were evaluated using volumetric analyses. Participants completed a facial emotion recognition task and an age recognition control task under time-limited and self-paced conditions. Temporal lobe volumes were tested for associations with task performance. Group status explained 23% of the variance in temporal lobe volume. Left fusiform gray matter volume was decreased by 11% in patients and 7% in relatives compared with controls. Schizophrenia patients additionally exhibited smaller hippocampal and middle temporal volumes. Patients were unable to improve facial emotion recognition performance with unlimited time to make a judgment but were able to improve age recognition performance. Patients additionally showed a relationship between reduced temporal lobe gray matter and poor facial emotion recognition. For the middle temporal lobe region, the relationship between greater volume and better task performance was specific to facial emotion recognition and not age recognition. Because schizophrenia patients exhibited a specific deficit in emotion recognition not attributable to a generalized impairment in face perception, impaired emotion recognition may serve as a target for interventions.

  5. Exploring the spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Xu, Yang; Jew, Carol A.; Pyles, John A.; Kass, Robert E.; Tarr, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Humans are experts at face individuation. Although previous work has identified a network of face-sensitive regions and some of the temporal signatures of face processing, as yet, we do not have a clear understanding of how such face-sensitive regions support learning at different time points. To study the joint spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning, we trained subjects to categorize two groups of novel faces and recorded their neural responses using magnetoencephalography (MEG) throughout learning. A regression analysis of neural responses in face-sensitive regions against behavioral learning curves revealed significant correlations with learning in the majority of the face-sensitive regions in the face network, mostly between 150–250 ms, but also after 300 ms. However, the effect was smaller in nonventral regions (within the superior temporal areas and prefrontal cortex) than that in the ventral regions (within the inferior occipital gyri (IOG), midfusiform gyri (mFUS) and anterior temporal lobes). A multivariate discriminant analysis also revealed that IOG and mFUS, which showed strong correlation effects with learning, exhibited significant discriminability between the two face categories at different time points both between 150–250 ms and after 300 ms. In contrast, the nonventral face-sensitive regions, where correlation effects with learning were smaller, did exhibit some significant discriminability, but mainly after 300 ms. In sum, our findings indicate that early and recurring temporal components arising from ventral face-sensitive regions are critically involved in learning new faces. PMID:28570739

  6. Dissociable spatial and temporal effects of inhibition of return.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Wang

    Full Text Available Inhibition of return (IOR refers to the relative suppression of processing at locations that have recently been attended. It is frequently explored using a spatial cueing paradigm and is characterized by slower responses to cued than to uncued locations. The current study investigates the impact of IOR on overt visual orienting involving saccadic eye movements. Using a spatial cueing paradigm, our experiments have demonstrated that at a cue-target onset asynchrony (CTOA of 400 ms saccades to the vicinity of cued locations are not only delayed (temporal cost but also biased away (spatial effect. Both of these effects are basically no longer present at a CTOA of 1200 ms. At a shorter 200 ms CTOA, the spatial effect becomes stronger while the temporal cost is replaced by a temporal benefit. These findings suggest that IOR has a spatial effect that is dissociable from its temporal effect. Simulations using a neural field model of the superior colliculus (SC revealed that a theory relying on short-term depression (STD of the input pathway can explain most, but not all, temporal and spatial effects of IOR.

  7. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Batisse, Alain [Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, Paris (France); Vouhe, Pascal [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Ou, Phalla [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

    2008-08-15

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  8. Ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Seref Corbacioglu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery (SGA is very rare and the most common causes are blunt or penetrating pelvic traumas. Although pseudoaneurysm can be asymptomatic at the time of initial trauma, it can be symptomatic weeks, months, even years after initial trauma. We present a case of a ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock twenty days after a bomb injury in the Syria civil war. In addition, we review the anatomy of the SGA, clinical presentation and pitfalls of pseudoaneurysm, and imaging and treatment options. Keywords: Pseudoaneurysm, Superior gluteal artery, Pitfall, Angiography

  9. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien; Batisse, Alain; Vouhe, Pascal; Ou, Phalla

    2008-01-01

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  10. Novel anammox bacteria and nitrogen loss from Lake Superior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean A.; Treusch, Alexander H.; Forth, Michael

    2017-01-01

    and diversity of anammox bacteria in the world's largest freshwater lake - Lake Superior. We found that anammox performed by previously undiscovered bacteria is an important contributor to sediment N2 production. We observed striking differences in the anammox bacterial populations found at different locations...... within Lake Superior and those described from other locations. Our data thus reveal that novel anammox bacteria underpin N-loss from Lake Superior, and if more broadly distributed across inland waters would play an important role in continental N-cycling and mitigation of fixed nitrogen transfer from...

  11. Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J.

    2017-06-01

    Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  12. Model Based Temporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Marla J.; Spinrad, Paul R.; Fall, Thomas C.

    1988-03-01

    Systems that assess the real world must cope with evidence that is uncertain, ambiguous, and spread over time. Typically, the most important function of an assessment system is to identify when activities are occurring that are unusual or unanticipated. Model based temporal reasoning addresses both of these requirements. The differences among temporal reasoning schemes lies in the methods used to avoid computational intractability. If we had n pieces of data and we wanted to examine how they were related, the worst case would be where we had to examine every subset of these points to see if that subset satisfied the relations. This would be 2n, which is intractable. Models compress this; if several data points are all compatible with a model, then that model represents all those data points. Data points are then considered related if they lie within the same model or if they lie in models that are related. Models thus address the intractability problem. They also address the problem of determining unusual activities if the data do not agree with models that are indicated by earlier data then something out of the norm is taking place. The models can summarize what we know up to that time, so when they are not predicting correctly, either something unusual is happening or we need to revise our models. The model based reasoner developed at Advanced Decision Systems is thus both intuitive and powerful. It is currently being used on one operational system and several prototype systems. It has enough power to be used in domains spanning the spectrum from manufacturing engineering and project management to low-intensity conflict and strategic assessment.

  13. Multiple Temporalities, Layered Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pearson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Quotational Practices: Repeating the Future in Contemporary Art, Patrick Greaney asserts, “the past matters not only because of what actually happened but also because of the possibilities that were not realized and that still could be. Quotation evokes those possibilities. By repeating the past, artists and writers may be attempting to repeat that past’s unrealized futures.”[1]  In the information age, the Internet, for instance, provides us an expanded collection of visual information—quite literally available at our fingertips—summoning together aspects of the past and possibilities of the future into a boundless present. Sketchbook Revisions (2014–2015, a series of mixed-media paintings, represents my attempt to communicate the ways in which I experience my contemporary moment constructed from multiple temporalities excavated from my past. This body of work combines fragments of representational paintings created between 1995 and 2003 and nonrepresentational renderings produced between 2003 and 2014. Using traditional tracing paper and graphic color, I randomly select moments of my previous work to transfer and layer over selected areas of already-filled pages of a sketchbook I used from 2003 to 2004. These sketches depict objects I encountered in studio art classrooms and iconic architecture on the campus of McDaniel College, and often incorporate teaching notes. The final renditions of fragmented and layered histories enact the ways that we collectively experience multiple temporalities in the present. Quoting my various bodies of work, Sketchbook Revisions challenges both material and conceptual boundaries that determine fixed notions of artistic identity.

  14. Join Operations in Temporal Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    Joins are arguably the most important relational operators. Poor implementations are tantamount to computing the Cartesian product of the input relations. In a temporal database, the problem is more acute for two reasons. First, conventional techniques are designed for the evaluation of joins...... with equality predicates rather than the inequality predicates prevalent in valid-time queries. Second, the presence of temporally varying data dramatically increases the size of a database. These factors indicate that specialized techniques are needed to efficiently evaluate temporal joins. We address...... this need for efficient join evaluation in temporal databases. Our purpose is twofold. We first survey all previously proposed temporal join operators. While many temporal join operators have been defined in previous work, this work has been done largely in isolation from competing proposals, with little...

  15. Knowledge acquisition for temporal abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, A; Musen, M A; Shahar, Y

    1996-01-01

    Temporal abstraction is the task of detecting relevant patterns in data over time. The knowledge-based temporal-abstraction method uses knowledge about a clinical domain's contexts, external events, and parameters to create meaningful interval-based abstractions from raw time-stamped clinical data. In this paper, we describe the acquisition and maintenance of domain-specific temporal-abstraction knowledge. Using the PROTEGE-II framework, we have designed a graphical tool for acquiring temporal knowledge directly from expert physicians, maintaining the knowledge in a sharable form, and converting the knowledge into a suitable format for use by an appropriate problem-solving method. In initial tests, the tool offered significant gains in our ability to rapidly acquire temporal knowledge and to use that knowledge to perform automated temporal reasoning.

  16. [Temporal meaning of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porée, J

    2015-09-01

    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  17. Multisensory Interactions between Auditory and Haptic Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Menz, Mareike M; R�der, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    and haptic object features activate cortical regions that host unified conceptual object representations. The left fusiform gyrus (FG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) showed increased activation during crossmodal matching of semantically congruent but not incongruent object stimuli. In the FG...

  18. What Are You Doing with That Object? Comparing the Neural Responses of Action Understanding in Adolescents with and without Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Jennifer J.; Hatt, Naomi V.; Rogers, Sally J.; Rivera, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding another's actions, including what they are doing and why they are doing it, can be difficult for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This understanding is supported by the action observation (AON) and mentalizing (MZN) networks, as well as the superior temporal sulcus. We examined these areas in children with ASD and…

  19. The left fusiform gyrus hosts trisensory representations of manipulable objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Klinge, Corinna; Hölig, Cordula

    2011-01-01

    During object manipulation the brain integrates the visual, auditory, and haptic experience of an object into a unified percept. Previous brain imaging studies have implicated for instance the dorsal part of the lateral occipital complex in visuo-tactile and the posterior superior temporal sulcus...

  20. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  1. 2010 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Bathymetric Lidar: Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained in this file contain hydrographic and topographic data collected by the Fugro LADS Mk II system along the Lake Superior coast of Minnessota,...

  2. Sacroiliac joint injection using the posterior superior iliac spines as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limitations in the availability of such image guided techniques in health ... School of Medical Sciences, University of Science and Technology between 2006 and ... The needle position from the posterior superior iliac spine and its angle of ...

  3. Analysis of the Lake Superior Watershed Seasonal Snow Cover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, Steven F; Baldwin, Timothy B; Weyrick, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Daily estimates of the snow water equivalent (SWE) distribution for the period from 1 December through 30 April for each winter season from 1979 80 through 2002 03 were calculated for the entire Lake Superior watershed...

  4. Does gender activism aggravate the superiority of one gender over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Does gender activism aggravate the superiority of one gender over the other? ... findings reveal that firstly, failure to value and embrace diversity by males, perpetuate gender discrimination. ... Keywords: Context, Culture, Structures, Systems ...

  5. Electrocautery Superior to Topical Treatments for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Anal Cancer Treatment Anal Cancer Prevention Research Electrocautery Superior to Topical Treatments for Precancerous Anal Lesions ... randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at ...

  6. Can Taichi reshape the brain? A brain morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Xia Wei

    Full Text Available Although research has provided abundant evidence for Taichi-induced improvements in psychological and physiological well-being, little is known about possible links to brain structure of Taichi practice. Using high-resolution MRI of 22 Tai Chi Chuan (TCC practitioners and 18 controls matched for age, sex and education, we set out to examine the underlying anatomical correlates of long-term Taichi practice at two different levels of regional specificity. For this purpose, parcel-wise and vertex-wise analyses were employed to quantify the difference between TCC practitioners and the controls based on cortical surface reconstruction. We also adopted the Attention Network Test (ANT to explore the effect of TCC on executive control. TCC practitioners, compared with controls, showed significantly thicker cortex in precentral gyrus, insula sulcus and middle frontal sulcus in the right hemisphere and superior temporal gyrus and medial occipito-temporal sulcus and lingual sulcus in the left hemisphere. Moreover, we found that thicker cortex in left medial occipito-temporal sulcus and lingual sulcus was associated with greater intensity of TCC practice. These findings indicate that long-term TCC practice could induce regional structural change and also suggest TCC might share similar patterns of neural correlates with meditation and aerobic exercise.

  7. Computed tomography imaging for superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobeli, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Superior semicircular canal dehiscence is a newly described syndrome of sound and/or pressure induced vertigo. Computed tomography (CT) imaging plays an important role in confirmation of a defect in the bone overlying the canal. A high resolution CT technique utilising 0.5 mm or thinner slices and multi-planar reconstructions parallel to the superior semicircular canal is required. Placement of a histogram over a suspected defect can assist CT diagnosis

  8. Attention modulations on the perception of social hierarchy at distinct temporal stages: an electrophysiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Tian, Tengxiang; Feng, Xue; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2015-04-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroscientific studies have revealed the preferential processing of superior-hierarchy cues. However, it remains poorly understood whether top-down controlled mechanisms modulate temporal dynamics of neurocognitive substrates underlying the preferential processing of these biologically and socially relevant cues. This was investigated in the current study by recording event-related potentials from participants who were presented with superior or inferior social hierarchy. Participants performed a hierarchy-judgment task that required attention to hierarchy cues or a gender-judgment task that withdrew their attention from these cues. Superior-hierarchy cues evoked stronger neural responses than inferior-hierarchy cues at both early (N170/N200) and late (late positive potential, LPP) temporal stages. Notably, the modulations of top-down attention were identified on the LPP component, such that superior-hierarchy cues evoked larger LPP amplitudes than inferior-hierarchy cues only in the attended condition; whereas the modulations of the N170/N200 component by hierarchy cues were evident in both attended and unattended conditions. These findings suggest that the preferential perception of superior-hierarchy cues involves both relatively automatic attentional bias at the early temporal stage as well as flexible and voluntary cognitive evaluation at the late temporal stage. Finally, these hierarchy-related effects were absent when participants were shown the same stimuli which, however, were not associated with social-hierarchy information in a non-hierarchy task (Experiment 2), suggesting that effects of social hierarchy at early and late temporal stages could not be accounted for by differences in physical attributes between these social cues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Marketing at Superior: Theory meets application in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, S.

    1992-01-01

    The field marketing practices of Superior Propane in rural Ontario are illustrated. In the Smithville area, Superior's customer base consists of agricultural, industrial, commercial, and residential customers, plus a large market for auto propane. A 6,900 ft 2 showroom presents a representative selection of the wide range of appliances using propane. Superior's Smithville branch is one of the top five in Canada, in terms of volume. To expand business beyond its traditional branch structures, Superior has an Independent Partners Program which is aimed at all phases of business including independent sales agents, conversions, propane fuel stops, appliance installations, and building contractors. In Keswick, located in the summer resort region on the south shore of Lake Simcoe, Superior's base load is 40% commercial and 20% each agricultural, residential, and automotive. A new 4,100 ft 2 showroom was recently constructed with separate display units for each appliance. The new building has brought increases in auto propane and appliance sales. The different branches of Superior Propane are able to tailor their marketing programs according to local needs by choosing the appropriate programs from those available at head office. 5 figs

  10. Auditory temporal processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavasani, Azam Navaei; Mohammadkhani, Ghassem; Motamedi, Mahmoud; Karimi, Leyla Jalilvand; Jalaei, Shohreh; Shojaei, Fereshteh Sadat; Danesh, Ali; Azimi, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    Auditory temporal processing is the main feature of speech processing ability. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, despite their normal hearing sensitivity, may present speech recognition disorders. The present study was carried out to evaluate the auditory temporal processing in patients with unilateral TLE. The present study was carried out on 25 patients with epilepsy: 11 patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy and 14 with left temporal lobe epilepsy with a mean age of 31.1years and 18 control participants with a mean age of 29.4years. The two experimental and control groups were evaluated via gap-in-noise and duration pattern sequence tests. One-way ANOVA was run to analyze the data. The mean of the threshold of the GIN test in the control group was observed to be better than that in participants with LTLE and RTLE. Also, it was observed that the percentage of correct responses on the DPS test in the control group and in participants with RTLE was better than that in participants with LTLE. Patients with TLE have difficulties in temporal processing. Difficulties are more significant in patients with LTLE, likely because the left temporal lobe is specialized for the processing of temporal information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Veia cava superior esquerda anômala com ausência de veia cava superior direita: achados de imagem Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava: image findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrillo Rodrigues de Araújo Júnior

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A persistência da veia cava superior esquerda com ausência da veia cava superior direita é uma anomalia rara, com menos de 150 casos descritos na literatura. A não-obliteração e regressão da veia cardinal anterior esquerda durante o desenvolvimento embriológico promove uma variação sistêmica de retorno venoso ao coração, com persistência da veia cava superior esquerda. Sua incidência varia de 0,3% em pacientes sem alterações cardíacas congênitas concomitantes a 4,3% naqueles com cardiopatias. Na maioria das vezes coexiste a veia cava superior direita, porém se houver regressão e degeneração da veia cardinal anterior direita, implicará a sua ausência e a drenagem venosa para o coração será feita pela veia cava superior esquerda ao átrio direito, através do seio coronariano. Mostramos um caso de um paciente submetido a radiografia de tórax e tomografia computadorizada para avaliação de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, tendo como achado a persistência da veia cava superior esquerda com ausência da direita, sem qualquer cardiopatia associada e com a drenagem cardíaca sendo feita, através do seio coronariano, para o átrio direito.Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava is a rare anomaly, with less than 150 cases reported in the literature. Congenitally persistent left superior vena cava is the most common variant of systemic venous return to the heart, resulting embryologically from failure of the left anterior cardinal vein to become obliterated. Its incidence varies from 0.3% in patients with otherwise normal heart to 4.3% in patients with congenital heart disease. In the majority of the patients, a right superior vena cava is present as well, but rarely the right anterior cardinal vein degenerates resulting in the absence of the normal right superior vena cava. The blood from the right side is carried by the persistent left superior vena cava to the right atrium through the

  12. A qualidade da educação superior e o complexo exercício de propor indicadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARILIA COSTA MOROSINI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo sintetiza algunas reflexiones acerca de la calidad de la educación superior realizadas por el Projeto Observatório da Educação Superior, de sarrollado por la Rede Sulbrasileira de Investigadores de Educação Superior – RIES/CAPES/INEP. La metodología, con diferentes procedimientos cuanti-cualitativos, apunta la complejidad de proponerse indicadores de evaluación que asumen el carácter contextualizado y temporal de la universidad y la multirreferencialidad como valor. La análisis de los datos es acompañada de interpretación teórica general del proyecto y específica de ejes que relacionan la calidad de la educación superior a los temas de internacionalización, gestión, enseñanza de grado, innovación, formación y desarrollo profesional docente. De esta manera, se construyen indicadores que auxilian la percepción acerca de la calidad y ofrecen contribuciones.

  13. Bleeding 'downhill' esophageal varices associated with benign superior vena cava obstruction: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, Michael; Anderson, Sharon; Schlansky, Barry

    2016-10-24

    Proximal or 'downhill' esophageal varices are a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Unlike the much more common distal esophageal varices, which are most commonly a result of portal hypertension, downhill esophageal varices result from vascular obstruction of the superior vena cava (SVC). While SVC obstruction is most commonly secondary to malignant causes, our review of the literature suggests that benign causes of SVC obstruction are the most common cause actual bleeding from downhill varices. Given the alternative pathophysiology of downhill varices, they require a unique approach to management. Variceal band ligation may be used to temporize acute variceal bleeding, and should be applied on the proximal end of the varix. Relief of the underlying SVC obstruction is the cornerstone of definitive treatment of downhill varices. A young woman with a benign superior vena cava stenosis due to a tunneled internal jugular vein dialysis catheter presented with hematemesis and melena. Urgent upper endoscopy revealed multiple 'downhill' esophageal varices with stigmata of recent hemorrhage. As there was no active bleeding, no endoscopic intervention was performed. CT angiography demonstrated stenosis of the SVC surrounding the distal tip of her indwelling hemodialysis catheter. The patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the stenotic SVC segment with resolution of her bleeding and clinical stabilization. Downhill esophageal varices are a distinct entity from the more common distal esophageal varices. Endoscopic therapies have a role in temporizing active variceal bleeding, but relief of the underlying SVC obstruction is the cornerstone of treatment and should be pursued as rapidly as possible. It is unknown why benign, as opposed to malignant, causes of SVC obstruction result in bleeding from downhill varices at such a high rate, despite being a less common etiology of SVC obstruction.

  14. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  15. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Jensen, K; Podelski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  16. Temporal Cyber Attack Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Draelos, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galiardi, Meghan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doak, Justin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Rigorous characterization of the performance and generalization ability of cyber defense systems is extremely difficult, making it hard to gauge uncertainty, and thus, confidence. This difficulty largely stems from a lack of labeled attack data that fully explores the potential adversarial space. Currently, performance of cyber defense systems is typically evaluated in a qualitative manner by manually inspecting the results of the system on live data and adjusting as needed. Additionally, machine learning has shown promise in deriving models that automatically learn indicators of compromise that are more robust than analyst-derived detectors. However, to generate these models, most algorithms require large amounts of labeled data (i.e., examples of attacks). Algorithms that do not require annotated data to derive models are similarly at a disadvantage, because labeled data is still necessary when evaluating performance. In this work, we explore the use of temporal generative models to learn cyber attack graph representations and automatically generate data for experimentation and evaluation. Training and evaluating cyber systems and machine learning models requires significant, annotated data, which is typically collected and labeled by hand for one-off experiments. Automatically generating such data helps derive/evaluate detection models and ensures reproducibility of results. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of generative sequence analysis techniques on learning the structure of attack graphs, based on a realistic example. These derived models can then be used to generate more data. Additionally, we provide a roadmap for future research efforts in this area.

  17. Carbon mineralization and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, Lake Superior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiying; Crowe, Sean Andrew; Miklesh, David

    2012-01-01

    To understand carbon and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, we investigated eight locations (160–318-m depth) throughout Lake Superior. Despite the 2–4 weight percent organic carbon content, oxygen penetrated into the sediment by 3.5 to > 12 cm at all locations. Such deep ...... volume-specific carbon degradation rates were 0.3–1.5 µmol cm−3 d−1; bioturbation coefficient near the sediment surface was 3–8 cm2 yr−1. These results indicate that carbon cycling in large freshwater systems conforms to many of the same trends as in marine systems.......To understand carbon and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, we investigated eight locations (160–318-m depth) throughout Lake Superior. Despite the 2–4 weight percent organic carbon content, oxygen penetrated into the sediment by 3.5 to > 12 cm at all locations. Such deep......, suggesting that temporal variability in deeply oxygenated sediments may be greater than previously acknowledged. The oxygen uptake rates (4.4–7.7 mmol m−2 d−1, average 6.1 mmol m−2 d−1) and carbon mineralization efficiency (∼ 90% of deposited carbon) were similar to those in marine hemipelagic and pelagic...

  18. Sound Rhythms Are Encoded by Postinhibitory Rebound Spiking in the Superior Paraolivary Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Richard A.; Fridberger, Anders; Leijon, Sara; Berrebi, Albert S.; Magnusson, Anna K.

    2013-01-01

    The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON) is a prominent structure in the auditory brainstem. In contrast to the principal superior olivary nuclei with identified roles in processing binaural sound localization cues, the role of the SPON in hearing is not well understood. A combined in vitro and in vivo approach was used to investigate the cellular properties of SPON neurons in the mouse. Patch-clamp recordings in brain slices revealed that brief and well timed postinhibitory rebound spiking, generated by the interaction of two subthreshold-activated ion currents, is a hallmark of SPON neurons. The Ih current determines the timing of the rebound, whereas the T-type Ca2+ current boosts the rebound to spike threshold. This precisely timed rebound spiking provides a physiological explanation for the sensitivity of SPON neurons to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) tones in vivo, where peaks in the sound envelope drive inhibitory inputs and SPON neurons fire action potentials during the waveform troughs. Consistent with this notion, SPON neurons display intrinsic tuning to frequency-modulated sinusoidal currents (1–15Hz) in vitro and discharge with strong synchrony to SAMs with modulation frequencies between 1 and 20 Hz in vivo. The results of this study suggest that the SPON is particularly well suited to encode rhythmic sound patterns. Such temporal periodicity information is likely important for detection of communication cues, such as the acoustic envelopes of animal vocalizations and speech signals. PMID:21880918

  19. Mondini-like malformation mimicking otosclerosis and superior semicircular canal dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlberg, M; Annertz, M; Magnusson, M

    2006-05-01

    In 2003, it was reported that superior semicircular canal dehiscence can mimic otosclerosis because of low-frequency bone conduction hearing gain and dissipation of air-conducted acoustic energy through the dehiscence. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl with left-sided combined hearing loss thought to be due to otosclerosis. Bone conduction thresholds were -10 dB at 250 and 500 Hz and she had a 40 dB air-bone gap at 250 Hz. When a tuning fork was placed at her ankle she heard it in her left ear. Acoustic reflexes and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials could be elicited bilaterally. Imaging of the temporal bones showed no otosclerosis, superior semicircular canal dehiscence or large vestibular aqueduct, but a left-sided, Mondini-like dysplasia of the cochlea with a modiolar deficiency could be seen. Mondini-like cochlear dysplasia should be added to the causes of inner-ear conductive hearing loss.

  20. Reassessment of the predatory effects of rainbow smelt on ciscoes in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jared T.; Jones, Michael L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from small lakes suggests that predation on larval ciscoes Coregonus artedi by nonnative rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax can lead to cisco suppression or extirpation. However, evidence from larger lakes has led to equivocal conclusions. In this study, we examine the potential predation effects of rainbow smelt in two adjacent but contrasting embayments in Lake Superior (Thunder and Black bays, Ontario). During May 2006, we sampled the ichthyoplankton, pelagic fish communities, and diet composition of rainbow smelt in both bays. Using acoustics and midwater trawling, we estimated rainbow smelt densities to be 476 ± 34/ha (mean ± SE) in Thunder Bay and 3,435 ± 460/ha in Black Bay. We used a bioenergetics model to estimate the proportion of cisco larvae consumed by rainbow smelt. Our results suggest that predation by rainbow smelt accounts for 15–52% and 37–100% of the mortality of larval ciscoes in Thunder and Black bays, respectively, depending on the predator feeding rate and the scale of predator–prey overlap. We also examined the sensitivity of past conclusions (based on 1974 field collections) to assumptions of temporal overlap between rainbow smelt and larval ciscoes and estimates of rainbow smelt abundance derived from bottom trawl samples. After adjusting these parameters to reflect current understanding, we found that the previous predation estimates may have been conservative. We conclude that rainbow smelt may have been a more important contributor to the demise and slow recovery of ciscoes in Lake Superior than previously thought.

  1. Memory skills mediating superior memory in a world-class memorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, K Anders; Cheng, Xiaojun; Pan, Yafeng; Ku, Yixuan; Ge, Yi; Hu, Yi

    2017-10-01

    Laboratory studies have investigated how individuals with normal memory spans attained digit spans over 80 digits after hundreds of hours of practice. Experimental analyses of their memory skills suggested that their attained memory spans were constrained by the encoding time, for the time needed will increase if the length of digit sequences to be memorised becomes longer. These constraints seemed to be violated by a world-class memorist, Feng Wang (FW), who won the World Memory Championship by recalling 300 digits presented at 1 digit/s. In several studies we examined FW's memory skills underlying his exceptional performance. First FW reproduced his superior memory span of 200 digits under laboratory condition, and we obtained his retrospective reports describing his encoding/retrieval processes (Experiment 1). Further experiments used self-paced memorisation to identify temporal characteristics of encoding of digits in 4-digit clusters (Experiment 2), and explored memory encoding at presentation speeds much faster than 1 digit/s (Experiment 3). FW's superiority over previous digit span experts is explained by his acquisition of well-known mnemonic techniques and his training that focused on rapid memorisation. His memory performance supports the feasibility of acquiring memory skills for improved working memory based on storage in long-term memory.

  2. Virtual dissection and comparative connectivity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in chimpanzees and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Erin E.; Gutman, David A.; Bradley, Bruce A.; Preuss, Todd M.; Stout, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Many of the behavioral capacities that distinguish humans from other primates rely on fronto-parietal circuits. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is the primary white matter tract connecting lateral frontal with lateral parietal regions; it is distinct from the arcuate fasciculus, which interconnects the frontal and temporal lobes. Here we report a direct, quantitative comparison of SLF connectivity using virtual in vivo dissection of the SLF in chimpanzees and humans. SLF I, the superior-most branch of the SLF, showed similar patterns of connectivity between humans and chimpanzees, and was proportionally volumetrically larger in chimpanzees. SLF II, the middle branch, and SLF III, the inferior-most branch, showed species differences in frontal connectivity. In humans, SLF II showed greater connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas in chimps SLF II showed greater connectivity with the inferior frontal gyrus. SLF III was right-lateralized and proportionally volumetrically larger in humans, and human SLF III showed relatively reduced connectivity with dorsal premotor cortex and greater extension into the anterior inferior frontal gyrus, especially in the right hemisphere. These results have implications for the evolution of fronto-parietal functions including spatial attention to observed actions, social learning, and tool use, and are in line with previous research suggesting a unique role for the right anterior inferior frontal gyrus in the evolution of human fronto-parietal network architecture. PMID:25534109

  3. Temporal Ventriloquism Reveals Intact Audiovisual Temporal Integration in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Michael D; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2018-02-01

    We have shown previously that amblyopia involves impaired detection of asynchrony between auditory and visual events. To distinguish whether this impairment represents a defect in temporal integration or nonintegrative multisensory processing (e.g., cross-modal matching), we used the temporal ventriloquism effect in which visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) is normally enhanced by a lagging auditory click. Participants with amblyopia (n = 9) and normally sighted controls (n = 9) performed a visual TOJ task. Pairs of clicks accompanied the two lights such that the first click preceded the first light, or second click lagged the second light by 100, 200, or 450 ms. Baseline audiovisual synchrony and visual-only conditions also were tested. Within both groups, just noticeable differences for the visual TOJ task were significantly reduced compared with baseline in the 100- and 200-ms click lag conditions. Within the amblyopia group, poorer stereo acuity and poorer visual acuity in the amblyopic eye were significantly associated with greater enhancement in visual TOJ performance in the 200-ms click lag condition. Audiovisual temporal integration is intact in amblyopia, as indicated by perceptual enhancement in the temporal ventriloquism effect. Furthermore, poorer stereo acuity and poorer visual acuity in the amblyopic eye are associated with a widened temporal binding window for the effect. These findings suggest that previously reported abnormalities in audiovisual multisensory processing may result from impaired cross-modal matching rather than a diminished capacity for temporal audiovisual integration.

  4. Toward a clinic of temporality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivasseau Jonveaux, Thérèse; Batt, Martine; Trognon, Alain

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of time cells has expanded our knowledge in the field of spatial and temporal information coding and the key role of the hippocampus. The internal clock model complemented with the attentional gate model allows a more in-depth understanding of the perception of time. The motor representation of duration is ensured by the basal ganglia, while the cerebellum synchronizes short duration for the movement. The right prefrontal cortex seemingly intervenes in the handling of temporal information in working memory. The temporal lobe ensures the comparison of durations, especially the right lobe for the reference durations and the medial lobe for the reproduction of durations in episodic memory. During normal aging, the hypothesis of slowing of the temporal processor is evoked when noting the perception of the acceleration of the passage of time that seemingly occurs with advancing age. The various studies pertaining specifically to time cognition, albeit heterogeneous in terms of methodology, attest to the wide-ranging disturbances of this cognitive field during the course of numerous disorders, whether psychiatric - depression and schizophrenia notably - or neurological. Hence, perturbations in temporality are observed in focal brain lesions and in subcortical disorders, such as Parkinson's disease or Huntington's chorea. Alzheimer's disease represents a particularly fertile field of exploration with regard to time cognition and temporality. The objectified deconstruction of temporal experience provides insights into the very processes of temporality and their nature: episodic, semantic and procedural. In addition to exploration based on elementary stimuli, one should also consider the time lived, i.e. that of the subject, to better understand cognition as it relates to time. While the temporal dimension permeates the whole cognitive field, it remains largely neglected: integration of a genuine time cognition and temporality clinic in daily practice remains

  5. Neural Correlates of Auditory Figure-Ground Segregation Based on Temporal Coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Sundeep; Barascud, Nicolas; Picard, Samuel; Payne, Christopher; Griffiths, Timothy D; Chait, Maria

    2016-09-01

    To make sense of natural acoustic environments, listeners must parse complex mixtures of sounds that vary in frequency, space, and time. Emerging work suggests that, in addition to the well-studied spectral cues for segregation, sensitivity to temporal coherence-the coincidence of sound elements in and across time-is also critical for the perceptual organization of acoustic scenes. Here, we examine pre-attentive, stimulus-driven neural processes underlying auditory figure-ground segregation using stimuli that capture the challenges of listening in complex scenes where segregation cannot be achieved based on spectral cues alone. Signals ("stochastic figure-ground": SFG) comprised a sequence of brief broadband chords containing random pure tone components that vary from 1 chord to another. Occasional tone repetitions across chords are perceived as "figures" popping out of a stochastic "ground." Magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurement in naïve, distracted, human subjects revealed robust evoked responses, commencing from about 150 ms after figure onset that reflect the emergence of the "figure" from the randomly varying "ground." Neural sources underlying this bottom-up driven figure-ground segregation were localized to planum temporale, and the intraparietal sulcus, demonstrating that this area, outside the "classic" auditory system, is also involved in the early stages of auditory scene analysis." © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Neural Correlates of Auditory Figure-Ground Segregation Based on Temporal Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Sundeep; Barascud, Nicolas; Picard, Samuel; Payne, Christopher; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Chait, Maria

    2016-01-01

    To make sense of natural acoustic environments, listeners must parse complex mixtures of sounds that vary in frequency, space, and time. Emerging work suggests that, in addition to the well-studied spectral cues for segregation, sensitivity to temporal coherence—the coincidence of sound elements in and across time—is also critical for the perceptual organization of acoustic scenes. Here, we examine pre-attentive, stimulus-driven neural processes underlying auditory figure-ground segregation using stimuli that capture the challenges of listening in complex scenes where segregation cannot be achieved based on spectral cues alone. Signals (“stochastic figure-ground”: SFG) comprised a sequence of brief broadband chords containing random pure tone components that vary from 1 chord to another. Occasional tone repetitions across chords are perceived as “figures” popping out of a stochastic “ground.” Magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurement in naïve, distracted, human subjects revealed robust evoked responses, commencing from about 150 ms after figure onset that reflect the emergence of the “figure” from the randomly varying “ground.” Neural sources underlying this bottom-up driven figure-ground segregation were localized to planum temporale, and the intraparietal sulcus, demonstrating that this area, outside the “classic” auditory system, is also involved in the early stages of auditory scene analysis.” PMID:27325682

  7. Advantages of T2 reversed fast spin-echo image and enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography for the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Sumiyoshi; Honmou, Osamu; Minamida, Yoshihiro; Hashi, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Although the anatomical investigation of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with conventional neuro-imagings considerably supports the preoperative evaluation, it is still hard to dissect the detailed anatomical conformations of AVMs such as location of nidus, identification of feeding arteries or draining veins, and the three-dimensional configuration of nidus in sulci or gyri. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography (surface MRA) and T2 reversed image (T2R image) in the diagnosis and surgical planning for cerebral AVMs. The diagnostic accuracy was studied in twelve AVMs: four AVMs closed to motor area, one to Broca area, one to Wernicke area, four in temporal lobe, and two in occipital lobe. Images were obtained with a SIGNA HORIZON LX 1.5T VER 8.2. To construct T2R, the brain is scanned by fast SE method with long TR and was displayed with the reversed gray scale, which seemed similar to T1WI. Surface MRA is a fusion image of MRA and surface image in the workstation. The original data was obtained by enhanced 3D-SPGR method. MRA image was reconstructed with MIP method, and surface image was manipulated with a volume rendering method. T2R images demonstrated seven sulcal AVMs, three gyral AVMs, and two sulco-gyral AVMs; five AVMs located on cortex, four extended to subcortex, and three to paraventricular brain. The images clearly showed six AVMs had hypervascular network such as modja-modja vascular formation. Surface MRA represented nidus adjacent to eloquent area. They were present in central sulcus, precentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, inferior frontal sulcus, sylvian fissure, superior temporal sulcus, inferior temporal sulcus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, medial temporal gyrus, premotor area and superior frontal sulcus, precuneus and parieto-occipital sulcus. It was easy to identify the point of feeding arteries going down into the sulcus and the junction-point of nidus

  8. Advantages of T2 reversed fast spin-echo image and enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography for the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Sumiyoshi; Honmou, Osamu; Minamida, Yoshihiro; Hashi, Kazuo [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-09-01

    Although the anatomical investigation of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with conventional neuro-imagings considerably supports the preoperative evaluation, it is still hard to dissect the detailed anatomical conformations of AVMs such as location of nidus, identification of feeding arteries or draining veins, and the three-dimensional configuration of nidus in sulci or gyri. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography (surface MRA) and T2 reversed image (T2R image) in the diagnosis and surgical planning for cerebral AVMs. The diagnostic accuracy was studied in twelve AVMs: four AVMs closed to motor area, one to Broca area, one to Wernicke area, four in temporal lobe, and two in occipital lobe. Images were obtained with a SIGNA HORIZON LX 1.5T VER 8.2. To construct T2R, the brain is scanned by fast SE method with long TR and was displayed with the reversed gray scale, which seemed similar to T1WI. Surface MRA is a fusion image of MRA and surface image in the workstation. The original data was obtained by enhanced 3D-SPGR method. MRA image was reconstructed with MIP method, and surface image was manipulated with a volume rendering method. T2R images demonstrated seven sulcal AVMs, three gyral AVMs, and two sulco-gyral AVMs; five AVMs located on cortex, four extended to subcortex, and three to paraventricular brain. The images clearly showed six AVMs had hypervascular network such as modja-modja vascular formation. Surface MRA represented nidus adjacent to eloquent area. They were present in central sulcus, precentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, inferior frontal sulcus, sylvian fissure, superior temporal sulcus, inferior temporal sulcus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, medial temporal gyrus, premotor area and superior frontal sulcus, precuneus and parieto-occipital sulcus. It was easy to identify the point of feeding arteries going down into the sulcus and the junction-point of nidus

  9. La educación superior como eje del desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Afanador Vargas

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Este documento analiza cómo ha sido la interacción entre la política educativa y las estrategiasde desarrollo en Colombia, a lo largo del siglo XX. Se presenta una revisión del estadoactual de la educación en Colombia, tanto a nivel de educación básica y media, como de laeducación superior. Para ello se toman tres criterios básicos que son la cobertura, la calidady la equidad en el acceso a la educación. Para el caso de la educación superior, se comparala oferta de cupos con la demanda existente, se clasifican los distintos segmentos en que sedivide la educación superior y se hace una breve reseña sobre el recurso humano con que secuenta en la educación superior colombiana. Así mismo, se expone una conceptualización delos retos que enfrenta la educación superior, sobretodo para lograr una cohesión de la sociedad,evitando que algunos de sus integrantes sean excluidos y permitiendo que todos losestamentos de la sociedad puedan compartir los mismos ideales y los consideren asequibles.Finalmente, se presentan unas conclusiones que se derivan del estudio y se proponen algunasrecomendaciones de política .

  10. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome: Lessons from the First 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan K. Ward

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome was first reported by Lloyd Minor and colleagues in 1998. Patients with a dehiscence in the bone overlying the superior semicircular canal experience symptoms of pressure or sound-induced vertigo, bone conduction hyperacusis, and pulsatile tinnitus. The initial series of patients were diagnosed based on common symptoms, a physical examination finding of eye movements in the plane of the superior semicircular canal when ear canal pressure or loud tones were applied to the ear, and high-resolution computed tomography imaging demonstrating a dehiscence in the bone over the superior semicircular canal. Research productivity directed at understanding better methods for diagnosing and treating this condition has substantially increased over the last two decades. We now have a sound understanding of the pathophysiology of third mobile window syndromes, higher resolution imaging protocols, and several sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. Furthermore, we have a treatment (surgical occlusion of the superior semicircular canal that has demonstrated efficacy. This review will highlight some of the fundamental insights gained in SCDS, propose diagnostic criteria, and discuss future research directions.

  11. The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L; Binney, Richard J; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-03-01

    Wernicke's aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory-verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke's aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke's aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke's aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate-inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke's aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke's aphasia group displayed an 'over-activation' in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke's aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions.

  12. Temporal Discrimination: Mechanisms and Relevance to Adult-Onset Dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Conte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Temporal discrimination is the ability to determine that two sequential sensory stimuli are separated in time. For any individual, the temporal discrimination threshold (TDT is the minimum interval at which paired sequential stimuli are perceived as being asynchronous; this can be assessed, with high test–retest and inter-rater reliability, using a simple psychophysical test. Temporal discrimination is disordered in a number of basal ganglia diseases including adult-onset dystonia, of which the two most common phenotypes are cervical dystonia and blepharospasm. The causes of adult-onset focal dystonia are unknown; genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors are relevant. Abnormal TDTs in adult-onset dystonia are associated with structural and neurophysiological changes considered to reflect defective inhibitory interneuronal processing within a network which includes the superior colliculus, basal ganglia, and primary somatosensory cortex. It is hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination is a mediational endophenotype and, when present in unaffected relatives of patients with adult-onset dystonia, indicates non-manifesting gene carriage. Using the mediational endophenotype concept, etiological factors in adult-onset dystonia may be examined including (i the role of environmental exposures in disease penetrance and expression; (ii sexual dimorphism in sex ratios at age of onset; (iii the pathogenesis of non-motor symptoms of adult-onset dystonia; and (iv subcortical mechanisms in disease pathogenesis.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Saliency Perception via Hypercomplex Frequency Spectral Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Tian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Salient object perception is the process of sensing the salient information from the spatio-temporal visual scenes, which is a rapid pre-attention mechanism for the target location in a visual smart sensor. In recent decades, many successful models of visual saliency perception have been proposed to simulate the pre-attention behavior. Since most of the methods usually need some ad hoc parameters or high-cost preprocessing, they are difficult to rapidly detect salient object or be implemented by computing parallelism in a smart sensor. In this paper, we propose a novel spatio-temporal saliency perception method based on spatio-temporal hypercomplex spectral contrast (HSC. Firstly, the proposed HSC algorithm represent the features in the HSV (hue, saturation and value color space and features of motion by a hypercomplex number. Secondly, the spatio-temporal salient objects are efficiently detected by hypercomplex Fourier spectral contrast in parallel. Finally, our saliency perception model also incorporates with the non-uniform sampling, which is a common phenomenon of human vision that directs visual attention to the logarithmic center of the image/video in natural scenes. The experimental results on the public saliency perception datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared to eleven state-of-the-art approaches. In addition, we extend the proposed model to moving object extraction in dynamic scenes, and the proposed algorithm is superior to the traditional algorithms.

  14. On the Same Wavelength: Predictable Language Enhances Speaker–Listener Brain-to-Brain Synchrony in Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikker, Suzanne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374650403; Silbert, Lauren J; Hasson, Uri; Zevin, Jason D

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the degree to which speakers and listeners exhibit similar brain activity patterns during human linguistic interaction is correlated with communicative success. Here, we used an intersubject correlation approach in fMRI to test the hypothesis that a listener's ability

  15. Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J

    2017-08-06

    Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramendi, José I; Rey, Estibaliz; Hamzeh, Gadah; Crespo, Alejandro; Luis, Maite; Voces, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    We describe the surgical technique of reimplantation of the right superior pulmonary vein into the left atrium in 2 patients with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava without atrial septal defect. A right axillary minithoracotomy is done through the fourth intercostal space. The pulmonary vein is detached from its origin in the superior vena cava. This is sutured with 6-0 reabsorbable polydioxanone suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ). A lateral clamp is applied to the left atrium, and the pulmonary vein is reimplanted. The patient is extubated in the operating room. Neither cardiopulmonary bypass nor blood transfusion was required. It is simple, safe, and reproducible. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Papaya Development Model As A Competitive Local Superior Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Sukmawani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the comparative advantage and papaya competitive and to design its development model by using the approach of local base agriculture development. This research uses survey method. The resulting research shows that papaya is a base commodity that has comparative advantage and competitive. The development papaya in the district of Sukabumi is quite good bases on eight superior creations. But in order to be the main sector in economic development and has a competition, the development of papaya must concern to its influence factors. In supporting papaya development as a competitive local superior commodity, it needs to be done some efforts are as follows: (1 increase a skillful worker; (2 improve business management; (3 increase papaya productivity by using technology and study papaya planted technology in specific local superior commodity; (4 develop the involvement of the business relation; (5 provide market information and information technology network; and (6 improve infrastructures.

  18. Isolated abscess in superior rectus muscle in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushank Ashok Bhalerao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyomyositis is a primary bacterial infection of striated muscles nearly always caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Development of the intramuscular abscess involving the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs remains an extremely rare process. We herein present a case of isolated EOM pyomyositis involving superior rectus muscle in a 2-year male child who was referred with complaints of swelling in left eye (LE and inability to open LE since last 1-month. Orbital computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined, hypo-dense, peripheral rim-enhancing lesion in relation to left superior rectus muscle suggestive of left superior rectus abscess. The abscess was drained through skin approach. We concluded that pyomyositis of EOM should be considered in any patient presenting with acute onset of orbital inflammation and characteristic CT or magnetic resonance imaging features. Management consists of incision and drainage coupled with antibiotic therapy.

  19. Aging and the picture superiority effect in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, E; Smith, A D; Simon, E W

    1982-01-01

    One recurrent theme in the literature on aging and memory is that the decline of memory for nonverbal information is steeper than for verbal information. This research compares verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect, the finding that pictures are remembered better than words. In the first experiment, an interaction was found between age and type of material; younger subjects recalled more pictures than words while older subjects did not. However, the overall effect was small and two further experiments were conducted. In both of these experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. In addition, performing a semantic orienting task had no effect on recall. The finding of a picture superiority effect in older subjects indicates that nonverbal codes can be effectively used by subjects in all age groups to facilitate memory performance.

  20. Status of the shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Michael H.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    The shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) was historically found in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior, but has been extirpated in Lakes Huron and Michigan apparently as the result of commercial overharvest. During 1999-2001, we conducted an assessment of shortjaw cisco abundance in five areas, spanning the U.S. waters of Lake Superior, and compared our results with the abundance measured at those areas in 1921-1922. The shortjaw cisco was found at four of the five areas sampled, but abundances were so low that they were not significantly different from zero. In the four areas where shortjaw ciscoes were found, abundance declined significantly by 99% from the 1920s to the present. To increase populations of this once economically and ecologically important species in Lake Superior, an interagency rehabilitation effort is needed. Population monitoring is recommended to assess population trends and to evaluate success of rehabilitation efforts.

  1. INFORMATION ASSURANCE - INTELLIGENCE - INFORMATION SUPERIORITY RELATIONSHIP WITHIN NATO OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BOARU, Ioan-Mihai ILIEŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a tight relationship between information assurance, the intelligence cycle and information superiority within NATO operations. The intelligence cycle has a discrete architecture and provides on-time and relevant intelligence products to the joint force commanders and to other authorized users in a specifi c joint area of operations. The intelligence cycle must follow the evolution of the operation. A permanent intelligence estimate will be performed during the military decision making process and operations execution. Information superiority is one of the most powerful intelligence cycle achievements. and decisively infuences the success of NATO joint operations. Information superiority must be preserved and enhanced through information assurance. Information assurance is an information operation that must be planned by the military in charge of operation security or by non-military experts, executed by all personnel during the entire intelligence cycle life time and employed during the planning and execution of NATO joint operations.

  2. Semantics of Temporal Models with Multiple Temporal Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    ending up with lexical data models. In particular we look upon the representations by sets of normalised tables, by sets of 1NF tables and by sets of N1NF/nested tables. At each translation step we focus on how the temporal semantic is consistently maintained. In this way we recognise the requirements...... for representation of temporal properties in different models and the correspondence between the models. The results rely on the assumptions that the temporal dimensions are interdependent and ordered. Thus for example the valid periods of existences of a property in a mini world are dependent on the transaction...... periods in which the corresponding recordings are valid. This is not the normal way of looking at temporal dimensions and we give arguments supporting our assumption....

  3. Neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eVaskinn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data suggests that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ and superior intelligence can present without specific neurocognitive deficits. However, neurocognitive decrements, defined as worse cognition than expected, have been reported in practically all schizophrenia cases. This study investigated if neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ by comparing the neuropsychological profile of SZ cases with IQ-matched healthy controls (HC across intellectual level. Participants with SZ and HCs were stratified into three IQ-groups; intellectually low (IQ 80-95; SZ n = 65 & HC n = 13, intellectually normal (IQ = 100-115; SZ n = 111 & HC n = 115 and intellectually superior (IQ > 120; SZ n = 20 & HC n = 50. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of co-variance compared performance on eight selected neuropsychological tests across IQ-strata and diagnostic group. Differences in clinical characteristics and social functioning in SZ across IQ-strata were investigated with multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. Intellectually superior SZ participants scored within normal limits, but had neurocognitive decrements compared to superior HCs. Decrements were of the same magnitude as in the low and normal IQ-strata. Levels of functional impairments and clinical characteristics in participants with SZ did not differ significantly across IQ-strata. Results indicate that neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ to the same extent as in intellectually low and intellectually normal SZ, supporting the notion that SZ is a neurocognitive disorder. Similar levels of social functional deficits and clinical symptoms suggest similar disease processes in SZ across intellectual level.

  4. Total variation superiorized conjugate gradient method for image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibetti, Marcelo V. W.; Lin, Chuan; Herman, Gabor T.

    2018-03-01

    The conjugate gradient (CG) method is commonly used for the relatively-rapid solution of least squares problems. In image reconstruction, the problem can be ill-posed and also contaminated by noise; due to this, approaches such as regularization should be utilized. Total variation (TV) is a useful regularization penalty, frequently utilized in image reconstruction for generating images with sharp edges. When a non-quadratic norm is selected for regularization, as is the case for TV, then it is no longer possible to use CG. Non-linear CG is an alternative, but it does not share the efficiency that CG shows with least squares and methods such as fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithms (FISTA) are preferred for problems with TV norm. A different approach to including prior information is superiorization. In this paper it is shown that the conjugate gradient method can be superiorized. Five different CG variants are proposed, including preconditioned CG. The CG methods superiorized by the total variation norm are presented and their performance in image reconstruction is demonstrated. It is illustrated that some of the proposed variants of the superiorized CG method can produce reconstructions of superior quality to those produced by FISTA and in less computational time, due to the speed of the original CG for least squares problems. In the Appendix we examine the behavior of one of the superiorized CG methods (we call it S-CG); one of its input parameters is a positive number ɛ. It is proved that, for any given ɛ that is greater than the half-squared-residual for the least squares solution, S-CG terminates in a finite number of steps with an output for which the half-squared-residual is less than or equal to ɛ. Importantly, it is also the case that the output will have a lower value of TV than what would be provided by unsuperiorized CG for the same value ɛ of the half-squared residual.

  5. The pygmy whitefish, Coregonus coulteri, in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.; Bailey, Reeve M.

    1955-01-01

    Bottom trawling by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service motor vessel Cisco in Lake Superior in 1952–1953 revealed a large population of a tiny whitefish, Coregonus (Prosopium) coulteri, which has been reported previously only from northwestern North America. The hiatus in range, from Lake Superior to the Columbia River basin, is the greatest known for a North American freshwater fish. Although minor structural differences characterize the disjunct populations of the pygmy whitefish, these are not deemed worthy of nomenclatorial recognition. Comparisons with related species indicate that the pygmy whitefish is distinctive in the small size, large scales, few vertebrae, few pyloric caeca, and in other characters.

  6. Ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbacioglu, Kerem Seref; Aksel, Gokhan; Yildiz, Altan

    2016-03-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery (SGA) is very rare and the most common causes are blunt or penetrating pelvic traumas. Although pseudoaneurysm can be asymptomatic at the time of initial trauma, it can be symptomatic weeks, months, even years after initial trauma. We present a case of a ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock twenty days after a bomb injury in the Syria civil war. In addition, we review the anatomy of the SGA, clinical presentation and pitfalls of pseudoaneurysm, and imaging and treatment options.

  7. Designing Pareto-superior demand-response rate options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, I.; Woo, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    We explore three voluntary service options-real-time pricing, time-of-use pricing, and curtailable/interruptible service-that a local distribution company might offer its customers in order to encourage them to alter their electricity usage in response to changes in the electricity-spot-market price. These options are simple and practical, and make minimal information demands. We show that each of the options is Pareto-superior ex ante, in that it benefits both the participants and the company offering it, while not affecting the non-participants. The options are shown to be Pareto-superior ex post as well, except under certain exceptional circumstances. (author)

  8. Insular epilepsy: similarities to temporal lobe epilepsy case report Epilepsia insular: similaridades à epilepsia do lobo temporal - relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR CUKIERT

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Insular epilepsy has been rarely reported and its clinical and electrographic features are poorly understood. The electrographic study of the insula is difficult since it is hidden from the brain surface by the frontal and temporal lobe. A 48 years-old woman started having simple partial autonomic and complex partial seizures with automatisms and ictal left arm paresis 8 years prior to admission. Seizure's frequency was 1 per week. Pre-operative EEG showed a right temporal lobe focus. Neuropsychological testing disclosed right fronto-temporal dysfunction. MRI showed a right anterior insular cavernous angioma. Intraoperative ECoG obtained after spliting of the sylvian fissure showed independent spiking from the insula and temporal lobe and insular spikes that spread to the temporal lobe. The cavernous angioma and the surrounding gliotic tissue were removed and the temporal lobe was left in place. Post-resection ECoG still disclosed independent temporal and insular spiking with a lower frequency. The patient has been seizure-free since surgery. Insular epilepsy may share many clinical and electroencephalographic features with temporal lobe epilepsy.A epilepsia insular tem sido raramente relatada e suas características clínicas e eletrencefalográficas são pobremente conhecidas. O estudo eletrográfico da ínsula é difícil já que ela se encontra recoberta pelos lobos frontal e temporal. Uma paciente, de 48 anos, começou a ter crises parciais simples autonômicas e crises parciais complexas com automatismos e paresia crítica de membro superior esquerdo 8 anos antes desta internação. A frequência de crises era de 1/semana . O EEG pré-operatório mostrou foco temporal direito. Testagem neuropsicológica demonstrou disfunção fronto-temporal direita. RMN demonstrou cavernoma insular anterior direito. A eletrocorticografia intraoperatória obtida após a abertura da fissura sylviana demonstrou a presença de espículas independentes na

  9. Explaining the high voice superiority effect in polyphonic music: evidence from cortical evoked potentials and peripheral auditory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J; Marie, Céline; Bruce, Ian C; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2014-02-01

    Natural auditory environments contain multiple simultaneously-sounding objects and the auditory system must parse the incoming complex sound wave they collectively create into parts that represent each of these individual objects. Music often similarly requires processing of more than one voice or stream at the same time, and behavioral studies demonstrate that human listeners show a systematic perceptual bias in processing the highest voice in multi-voiced music. Here, we review studies utilizing event-related brain potentials (ERPs), which support the notions that (1) separate memory traces are formed for two simultaneous voices (even without conscious awareness) in auditory cortex and (2) adults show more robust encoding (i.e., larger ERP responses) to deviant pitches in the higher than in the lower voice, indicating better encoding of the former. Furthermore, infants also show this high-voice superiority effect, suggesting that the perceptual dominance observed across studies might result from neurophysiological characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Although musically untrained adults show smaller responses in general than musically trained adults, both groups similarly show a more robust cortical representation of the higher than of the lower voice. Finally, years of experience playing a bass-range instrument reduces but does not reverse the high voice superiority effect, indicating that although it can be modified, it is not highly neuroplastic. Results of new modeling experiments examined the possibility that characteristics of middle-ear filtering and cochlear dynamics (e.g., suppression) reflected in auditory nerve firing patterns might account for the higher-voice superiority effect. Simulations show that both place and temporal AN coding schemes well-predict a high-voice superiority across a wide range of interval spacings and registers. Collectively, we infer an innate, peripheral origin for the higher-voice superiority observed in human

  10. Síndrome de veia cava superior Superior vena cava syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMUEL ZUÍNGLIO DE BIASI CORDEIRO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A obstrução ao fluxo sanguíneo na VCS e suas manifestações clínicas têm hoje como causa principal o câncer de pulmão. A história relata que no século XVIII a sífilis e a tuberculose eram responsáveis por 40% dos casos conhecidos. O conhecimento das alterações hemodinâmicas compreendidas nesta síndrome assim como a apuração das técnicas de diagnóstico de imagem e de citopatologia permitem hoje que o médico possa tratar de seu paciente com mais segurança e conforto do que há 10 anos. A TC contrastada e a RM auxiliam no diagnóstico de localização da obstrução e técnicas mais antigas como a cavografia puderam ser abandonadas. O diagnóstico de obstrução da VCS e o estudo por Doppler realizado à beira do leito em muito contribuem para a realização de procedimentos de desobstrução como a angioplastia transluminal percutânea nos casos de trombose ou estenose do vaso. Também a utilização de próteses como PTFE é de importância fundamental na condução de casos de lesão traumática da VCS durante cirurgias para câncer pulmonar ou mediastinal. No campo da radioterapia, a técnica de fracionamento permite que altas doses de irradiação sejam administradas aos pacientes portadores de neoplasias malignas, com benefícios em 70% dos casos.Lung cancer is now the main cause of blood flow obstruction in the superior vena cava and of its clinical manifestations. History tells that in the 18th Century, syphilis and tuberculosis were responsible for 40% of the known cases. The knowledge of hemodynamic changes seen in this syndrome and the improvement of diagnostic and cytopathologic techniques allow for a safer and more comfortable treatment of the patient than 10 years ago. Contrast CT and MR added to the identification and location of the obstruction, and older techniques such as cavography could be abandoned. SVC obstruction diagnosis and Doppler studies carried out at the bed of the patient contribute to

  11. Intraoperative cone-beam computed tomography and multi-slice computed tomography in temporal bone imaging for surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erovic, Boban M; Chan, Harley H L; Daly, Michael J; Pothier, David D; Yu, Eugene; Coulson, Chris; Lai, Philip; Irish, Jonathan C

    2014-01-01

    Conventional computed tomography (CT) imaging is the standard imaging technique for temporal bone diseases, whereas cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging is a very fast imaging tool with a significant less radiation dose compared with conventional CT. We hypothesize that a system for intraoperative cone-beam CT provides comparable image quality to diagnostic CT for identifying temporal bone anatomical landmarks in cadaveric specimens. Cross-sectional study. University tertiary care facility. Twenty cadaveric temporal bones were affixed into a head phantom and scanned with both a prototype cone-beam CT C-arm and multislice helical CT. Imaging performance was evaluated by 3 otologic surgeons and 1 head and neck radiologist. Participants were presented images in a randomized order and completed landmark identification questionnaires covering 21 structures. CBCT and multislice CT have comparable performance in identifying temporal structures. Three otologic surgeons indicated that CBCT provided statistically equivalent performance for 19 of 21 landmarks, with CBCT superior to CT for the chorda tympani and inferior for the crura of the stapes. Subgroup analysis showed that CBCT performed superiorly for temporal bone structures compared with CT. The radiologist rated CBCT and CT as statistically equivalent for 18 of 21 landmarks, with CT superior to CBCT for the crura of stapes, chorda tympani, and sigmoid sinus. CBCT provides comparable image quality to conventional CT for temporal bone anatomical sites in cadaveric specimens. Clinical applications of low-dose CBCT imaging in surgical planning, intraoperative guidance, and postoperative assessment are promising but require further investigation.

  12. Temporal bone trauma and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turetschek, K.; Czerny, C.; Wunderbaldinger, P.; Steiner, E.

    1997-01-01

    Fractures of the temporal bone result from direct trauma to the temporal bone or occur as one component of a severe craniocerebral injury. Complications of temporal trauma are hemotympanon, facial nerve paralysis, conductive or sensorineur hearing loss, and leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. Erly recognition and an appropiate therapy may improve or prevent permanent deficits related to such complications. Only 20-30% of temporal bone fractures can be visualized by plain films. CT has displaced plain radiography in the investigation of the otological trauma because subtle bony details are best evaluated by CT which even can be reformatted in multiple projections, regardless of the original plane of scanning. Associated epidural, subdural, and intracerebral hemorrhagic lesions are better defined by MRI. (orig.) [de

  13. Temporal dimension in cognitive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decortis, F.; Cacciabue, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Increased attention has been given to the role of humans in nuclear power plant safety, but one aspect seldom considered is the temporal dimension of human reasoning. Time is recognized as crucial in human reasoning and has been the subject of empirical studies where cognitive mechanisms and strategies to face the temporal dimension have been studied. The present study shows why temporal reasoning is essential in Human Reliability Analysis and how it could be introduced in a human model. Accounting for the time dimension in human behaviour is discussed first, with reference to proven field studies. Then, theoretical modelling of the temporal dimension in human reasoning and its relevance in simulation of cognitive activities of plant operator is discussed. Finally a Time Experience Model is presented

  14. Activations in temporal areas using visual and auditory naming stimuli: A language fMRI study in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, Gloria G; Trimmel, Karin; Haag, Anja; van Graan, Louis A; Koepp, Matthias J; Thompson, Pamela J; Duncan, John S

    2016-12-01

    Verbal fluency functional MRI (fMRI) is used for predicting language deficits after anterior temporal lobe resection (ATLR) for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but primarily engages frontal lobe areas. In this observational study we investigated fMRI paradigms using visual and auditory stimuli, which predominately involve language areas resected during ATLR. Twenty-three controls and 33 patients (20 left (LTLE), 13 right (RTLE)) were assessed using three fMRI paradigms: verbal fluency, auditory naming with a contrast of auditory reversed speech; picture naming with a contrast of scrambled pictures and blurred faces. Group analysis showed bilateral temporal activations for auditory naming and picture naming. Correcting for auditory and visual input (by subtracting activations resulting from auditory reversed speech and blurred pictures/scrambled faces respectively) resulted in left-lateralised activations for patients and controls, which was more pronounced for LTLE compared to RTLE patients. Individual subject activations at a threshold of T>2.5, extent >10 voxels, showed that verbal fluency activated predominantly the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in 90% of LTLE, 92% of RTLE, and 65% of controls, compared to right IFG activations in only 15% of LTLE and RTLE and 26% of controls. Middle temporal (MTG) or superior temporal gyrus (STG) activations were seen on the left in 30% of LTLE, 23% of RTLE, and 52% of controls, and on the right in 15% of LTLE, 15% of RTLE, and 35% of controls. Auditory naming activated temporal areas more frequently than did verbal fluency (LTLE: 93%/73%; RTLE: 92%/58%; controls: 82%/70% (left/right)). Controlling for auditory input resulted in predominantly left-sided temporal activations. Picture naming resulted in temporal lobe activations less frequently than did auditory naming (LTLE 65%/55%; RTLE 53%/46%; controls 52%/35% (left/right)). Controlling for visual input had left-lateralising effects. Auditory and picture naming activated

  15. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study mapping the episodic memory encoding network in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Meneka K.; Stretton, Jason; Winston, Gavin P.; Bonelli, Silvia; Centeno, Maria; Vollmar, Christian; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J.; Koepp, Matthias J.

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated reorganization of memory encoding networks within the temporal lobe in temporal lobe epilepsy, but little is known of the extra-temporal networks in these patients. We investigated the temporal and extra-temporal reorganization of memory encoding networks in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and the neural correlates of successful subsequent memory formation. We studied 44 patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (24 left) and 26 healthy control subjects. All participants performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging memory encoding paradigm of faces and words with subsequent out-of-scanner recognition assessments. A blocked analysis was used to investigate activations during encoding and neural correlates of subsequent memory were investigated using an event-related analysis. Event-related activations were then correlated with out-of-scanner verbal and visual memory scores. During word encoding, control subjects activated the left prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus whereas patients with left hippocampal sclerosis showed significant additional right temporal and extra-temporal activations. Control subjects displayed subsequent verbal memory effects within left parahippocampal gyrus, left orbitofrontal cortex and fusiform gyrus whereas patients with left hippocampal sclerosis activated only right posterior hippocampus, parahippocampus and fusiform gyrus. Correlational analysis showed that patients with left hippocampal sclerosis with better verbal memory additionally activated left orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and left posterior hippocampus. During face encoding, control subjects showed right lateralized prefrontal cortex and bilateral hippocampal activations. Patients with right hippocampal sclerosis showed increased temporal activations within the superior temporal gyri bilaterally and no increased extra-temporal areas of activation compared with

  16. Memory for Pictorial Information and the Picture Superiority Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisto, Albert A.; Queen, Debbie Elaine

    1992-01-01

    The performance of 53 younger adults (mean age 20.7) and 52 older adults (mean age 68.3) was compared in a memory task involving pictures, words, and pictures-plus-words. Results showed (1) significantly higher recall scores for younger adults; (2) equivalent picture superiority effect for both groups; and (3) decline in older adults' performance…

  17. Evaluation of the Superior Gluteal Nerve During Proximal Femoral Nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sonmez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The superior gluteal nerve may be compromised during hip surgery. We retrospectively evaluated the patients who underwent proximal femoral nailing for unstable trochanteric fractures in order to investigate the presence of superior gluteal nerve injury and its clinical findings. Material and Method: Twenty five patients (14 women, 11 men were included in the study who had femoral nailing between January 2004 and March 2010 at Hamidiye Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital Department of Orthopaedics. Two different types of nails which have similar designs and surgical techniques were used for fracture fixation. Patients who had a history of cerebrovascular disease, electromyography findings of polyneuropathy, or degenerative vertebral disease were excluded from the study. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically. Findings related to acute denervation in the gluteus medius muscle and motor unit action potential changes were accepted as signs of superior gluteal nerve injury. Results: Eight patients were using support during walking and three of these patients had positive Trendelenburg sign, but only one patient had acute denervation signs of the superior gluteal nerve. Discussion: Based on the present study the incidence of iatrogenic nerve injury is a rare complication of proximal femoral nailing. Elderly patients, regardless of whether they have nerve injury, may limp and need to use a walking support.

  18. Morphological evaluation of the superior colliculus of young Wistar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological evaluation of the superior colliculus of young Wistar rats following prenatal exposure to Carica papaya leaf extract. ... 9 and 10 of gestation (Group A); days 16 and 17 (Group B); and on days 9, 10, 16 and 17 (Group C); while Group D represented the control, and received distilled water throughout gestation.

  19. Superior repair: A useful approach for some anatomic variants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    retrospectively reviewed.Three patients had long narrow venous stalk connecting the coronary sinus to venous confl uence; two had the right pulmonary veins draining to superior vena cava (SVC) and left pulmonary veins to left lateral wall of SVC and one had an obstruction at entrance of Pulmonary Vein into venous confl ...

  20. Superiority of legendre polynomials to Chebyshev polynomial in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we proved the superiority of Legendre polynomial to Chebyshev polynomial in solving first order ordinary differential equation with rational coefficient. We generated shifted polynomial of Chebyshev, Legendre and Canonical polynomials which deal with solving differential equation by first choosing Chebyshev ...

  1. Developmental Trends of the Defence of Superior Order: Acritical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developmental Trends of the Defence of Superior Order: Acritical Appraisal of the Statute of the International Criminal Court. Eni E Alobo. Abstract. No Abstract. LWATI: A Journal of Contemporary Research, 9(3), 107-125, 2012. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  2. Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassel, B. van

    1995-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage

  3. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) provides a superior tool for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) provides a superior tool for the diagnosis of Pneumococcal Infection in Burkina Faso. Y Chaibou, M Congo/Ouedraogo, I Sanou, H Somlare, K Ouattara, CM Kienou, H Belem, E Sampo, SA Traore, R Traore/Ouedraogo, C Hatcher, L Mayer, X Wang, L Sangare ...

  4. The Quagga mussel invades the Lake Superior basin - journal article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior studies recognized the presence of a single dreissenid species in Lake Superior--the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. However, taxonomic keys based on traditional shell morphology are not always able to differentiate dreissenid species with confidence. We thus employed ge...

  5. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin; Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization

  6. Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassel, B. van [McKinsey and Co., Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage.

  7. Dynamic ensemble coding of saccades in the monkey superior colliculus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, H.H.L.M.; Opstal, A.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The deeper layers of the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) contain a topographic motor map in which a localized population of cells is recruited for each saccade, but how the brain stem decodes the dynamic SC output is unclear. Here we analyze saccade-related responses in the monkey SC to test a new

  8. Residual symptoms after surgery for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caca, Ihsan; Sahin, Alparslan; Cingu, Abdullah; Ari, Seyhmus; Akbas, Umut

    2012-01-01

    To establish the surgical results and residual symptoms in 48 cases with unilateral congenital superior oblique muscle palsy that had surgical intervention to the vertical muscles alone. Myectomy and concomitant disinsertion of the inferior oblique (IO) muscle was performed in 38 cases and myectomy and concomitant IO disinsertion and recession of the superior rectus muscle in the ipsilateral eye was performed in 10 cases. The preoperative and postoperative vertical deviation values and surgical results were compared. Of the patients who had myectomy and concomitant IO disinsertion, 74% achieved an "excellent" result, 21% a "good" result, and 5% a "poor" result postoperatively. The difference in deviation between preoperative and postoperative values was statistically significant (P < .001). Of the patients who had myectomy and concomitant inferior oblique disinsertion and ipsilateral superior rectus recession, 50% achieved an "excellent" result, 20% a "good" result, and 30% a "poor" result postoperatively. The difference in deviation between preoperative and postoperative values was statistically significant (P < .001). Both procedures are effective and successful in patients with superior oblique muscle palsy, but a secondary surgery may be required. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Semicircular canal dehiscence: Frequency and distribution on temporal bone CT and its relationship with the clinical outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmali, Muzaffer; Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Kucuk, Harun; Atmaca, Sinan; Aksoy, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of SCD and its distribution and relationship with clinical outcomes on thin-section CT of the temporal bone. Materials and methods: Digital temporal bone CT images of 850 consecutive patients (1700 temporal bone CTs, 5100 SCs) who presented with a range of complaints such as vertigo, deafness, ear pain, fullness, and discharge between January 2008 and December 2011 were re-evaluated. Axial and oblique coronal reconstruction images of the temporal bone were made with a reconstruction thickness of 0.5 mm. Additionally, superior SC was evaluated in two perpendicular planes. Results: Out of 850 patients, 70 had completely normal temporal bone CT. Ninety-three patients had at least one SCD. In the temporal bone-based evaluation, 119 (26 bilateral, 67 unilateral) of 1700 temporal bones (7%) showed dehiscence. The SC-based evaluation revealed 125 SCD (2.5%) in 5100 SCs. The total number and rates of SCD were as follows: superior 103 (82.4%), posterior 13 (10.4%), and lateral nine (7.2%). Twenty of the 93 patients with SCD (21.5%) revealed no other findings on their temporal bone CTs. We determined a significant correlation between vestibular complaints, conductive hearing loss and SCD but there was no correlation between mixed, sensorineural hearing loss and SCD. Conclusion: We determined the frequency of SCD in 11% of patients and 7% of temporal bones. With regards to the distribution, the superior SC showed the highest dehiscence rate (82.4%). We found a significant correlation between vestibular symptoms, conductive hearing loss and SCD

  10. Semicircular canal dehiscence: Frequency and distribution on temporal bone CT and its relationship with the clinical outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmali, Muzaffer, E-mail: muzafel@yahoo.com.tr [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Polat, Ahmet Veysel, E-mail: veyselp@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Kucuk, Harun, E-mail: hardrmd@yahoo.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Atmaca, Sinan, E-mail: sinanatmaca@yahoo.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Aksoy, Ahmet, E-mail: toxocara47@hotmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of SCD and its distribution and relationship with clinical outcomes on thin-section CT of the temporal bone. Materials and methods: Digital temporal bone CT images of 850 consecutive patients (1700 temporal bone CTs, 5100 SCs) who presented with a range of complaints such as vertigo, deafness, ear pain, fullness, and discharge between January 2008 and December 2011 were re-evaluated. Axial and oblique coronal reconstruction images of the temporal bone were made with a reconstruction thickness of 0.5 mm. Additionally, superior SC was evaluated in two perpendicular planes. Results: Out of 850 patients, 70 had completely normal temporal bone CT. Ninety-three patients had at least one SCD. In the temporal bone-based evaluation, 119 (26 bilateral, 67 unilateral) of 1700 temporal bones (7%) showed dehiscence. The SC-based evaluation revealed 125 SCD (2.5%) in 5100 SCs. The total number and rates of SCD were as follows: superior 103 (82.4%), posterior 13 (10.4%), and lateral nine (7.2%). Twenty of the 93 patients with SCD (21.5%) revealed no other findings on their temporal bone CTs. We determined a significant correlation between vestibular complaints, conductive hearing loss and SCD but there was no correlation between mixed, sensorineural hearing loss and SCD. Conclusion: We determined the frequency of SCD in 11% of patients and 7% of temporal bones. With regards to the distribution, the superior SC showed the highest dehiscence rate (82.4%). We found a significant correlation between vestibular symptoms, conductive hearing loss and SCD.

  11. Young Women do it Better: Sexual Dimorphism in Temporal Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura Jane; Butler, John S; Molloy, Anna; McGovern, Eavan; Beiser, Ines; Kimmich, Okka; Quinlivan, Brendan; O'Riordan, Sean; Hutchinson, Michael; Reilly, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest time interval at which two sensory stimuli presented sequentially are detected as asynchronous by the observer. TDTs are known to increase with age. Having previously observed shorter thresholds in young women than in men, in this work we sought to systematically examine the effect of sex and age on temporal discrimination. The aims of this study were to examine, in a large group of men and women aged 20-65 years, the distribution of TDTs with an analysis of the individual participant's responses, assessing the "point of subjective equality" and the "just noticeable difference" (JND). These respectively assess sensitivity and accuracy of an individual's response. In 175 participants (88 women) aged 20-65 years, temporal discrimination was faster in women than in men under the age of 40 years by a mean of approximately 13 ms. However, age-related decline in temporal discrimination was three times faster in women so that, in the age group of 40-65 years, the female superiority was reversed. The point of subjective equality showed a similar advantage in younger women and more marked age-related decline in women than men, as the TDT. JND values declined equally in both sexes, showing no sexual dimorphism. This observed sexual dimorphism in temporal discrimination is important for both (a) future clinical research assessing disordered mid-brain covert attention in basal-ganglia disorders, and (b) understanding the biology of this sexual dimorphism which may be genetic or hormonal.

  12. Temporal anteroinferior encephalocele: An underrecognized etiology of temporal lobe epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavalainen, Taavi; Jutila, Leena; Mervaala, Esa; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Vanninen, Ritva; Immonen, Arto

    2015-10-27

    To report the increasing frequency with which temporal anteroinferior encephalocele is a cause of adult temporal lobe epilepsy, to illustrate the clinical and imaging characteristics of this condition, and to report its surgical treatment in a series of 23 adult patients. Epilepsy patients diagnosed with temporal anteroinferior encephalocele from January 2006 to December 2013 in a national epilepsy refer