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Sample records for superior temporal sulci

  1. Increased Activation in Superior Temporal Gyri as a Function of Increment in Phonetic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnes, Berge; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hjelmervik, Helene; Specht, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    A common assumption is that phonetic sounds initiate unique processing in the superior temporal gyri and sulci (STG/STS). The anatomical areas subserving these processes are also implicated in the processing of non-phonetic stimuli such as music instrument sounds. The differential processing of phonetic and non-phonetic sounds was investigated in…

  2. Increased Activation in Superior Temporal Gyri as a Function of Increment in Phonetic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnes, Berge; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hjelmervik, Helene; Specht, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    A common assumption is that phonetic sounds initiate unique processing in the superior temporal gyri and sulci (STG/STS). The anatomical areas subserving these processes are also implicated in the processing of non-phonetic stimuli such as music instrument sounds. The differential processing of phonetic and non-phonetic sounds was investigated in…

  3. Coding of multisensory temporal patterns in human superior temporal sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toemme eNoesselt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists have long been interested in how the temporal aspects of perception are represented in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of the temporal perception of synchrony/asynchrony for audiovisual speech stimuli using functional magnetic imaging (fMRI. Subjects judged the temporal relation of (asynchronous audiovisual speech streams, and indicated any changes in their perception of the stimuli over time. Differential hemodynamic responses for synchronous versus asynchronous stimuli were observed in the multisensory superior temporal sulcus complex (mSTS-c and prefrontal cortex. Within mSTS-c we found adjacent regions expressing an enhanced BOLD-response to the different physical (asynchrony conditions. These regions were further modulated by the subjects’ perceptual state. By calculating the distances between the modulated regions within mSTS-c in single-subjects we demonstrate that the ‘auditory’ and ‘visual leading areas’ lie closer to ‘synchrony areas’ than to each other. Moreover, analysis of interregional connectivity indicates a stronger functional connection between multisensory prefrontal cortex and mSTS-c during the perception of asynchrony. Taken together, these results therefore suggest the presence of distinct sub-regions within the human STS-c for the maintenance of temporal relations for audiovisual speech stimuli plus differential functional connectivity with prefrontal regions. The respective local activity in mSTS-c is dependent both upon the physical properties of the stimuli presented and upon the subjects’ perception of (asynchrony.

  4. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  5. Biological Motion Task Performance Predicts Superior Temporal Sulcus Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, John D.; Nymberg, Charlotte; Schultz, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies implicate superior temporal sulcus (STS) in the perception of human movement. More recent theories hold that STS is also involved in the "understanding" of human movement. However, almost no studies to date have associated STS function with observable variability in action understanding. The present study directly associated STS…

  6. Localization of the central sulcus and adjacent sulci in human. A study by MRI

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    Erbil, M.; Oenderoglu, S.; Yener, N.; Cumhur, M.; Cila, A. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    1998-08-01

    Variations in localization of the central sulcus and the sulci around the central sulcus namely the superior frontal sulcus, precentral sulcus, postcentral sulcus, marginal ramus of cingulate sulcus were studied in vertex sections retrospectively by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method in 3580 cases. Out of total number of cases, 1000 who did not show any macroscopic intracranial pathology were carefully selected for research. Additionally, 0-1 age group was excluded from the study because the sulci develop in first year of postnatal life, excluding the possibility of considering these as anatomical variations. Thus, the total number of cases is decreased to 990. Sixteen variations related to localization of the superior frontal sulcus, precentral sulcus, central sulcus, postcentral sulcus and the marginal ramus of the cingulate sulcus were identified. The asymmetries of the sulci, the most variable sulci and the distribution of the variations according to sex were statistically analysed. (author)

  7. Preference for Audiovisual Speech Congruency in Superior Temporal Cortex.

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    Lüttke, Claudia S; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A J; de Lange, Floris P

    2016-01-01

    Auditory speech perception can be altered by concurrent visual information. The superior temporal cortex is an important combining site for this integration process. This area was previously found to be sensitive to audiovisual congruency. However, the direction of this congruency effect (i.e., stronger or weaker activity for congruent compared to incongruent stimulation) has been more equivocal. Here, we used fMRI to look at the neural responses of human participants during the McGurk illusion--in which auditory /aba/ and visual /aga/ inputs are fused to perceived /ada/--in a large homogenous sample of participants who consistently experienced this illusion. This enabled us to compare the neuronal responses during congruent audiovisual stimulation with incongruent audiovisual stimulation leading to the McGurk illusion while avoiding the possible confounding factor of sensory surprise that can occur when McGurk stimuli are only occasionally perceived. We found larger activity for congruent audiovisual stimuli than for incongruent (McGurk) stimuli in bilateral superior temporal cortex, extending into the primary auditory cortex. This finding suggests that superior temporal cortex prefers when auditory and visual input support the same representation.

  8. Smaller superior temporal gyrus volume specificity in schizotypal personality disorder

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    Goldstein, Kim E.; Hazlett, Erin A.; New, Antonia S.; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Newmark, Randall E.; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Passarelli, Vincent; Weinstein, Shauna R.; Canfield, Emily L.; Meyerson, David A.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.; Siever, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22) volume is reduced in schizophrenia and to a milder degree in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), representing a less severe disorder in the schizophrenia-spectrum. SPD and Borderline personality disorder (BPD) are severe personality disorders characterized by social and cognitive dysfunction. However, while SPD is characterized by social withdrawal/anhedonia, BPD is marked by hyper-reactivity to interpersonal stimuli and hyper-emotionality. This is the first morphometric study to directly compare SPD and BPD patients in temporal volume. Methods We compared three age-gender- and education-matched groups: 27 unmedicated SPD individuals with no BPD traits, 52 unmedicated BPD individuals with no SPD traits, and 45 healthy controls. We examined gray matter volume of frontal and temporal lobe Brodmann areas (BAs), and dorsal/ventral amygdala from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Results In the STG, an auditory association area reported to be dysfunctional in SPD and BPD, the SPD patients had significantly smaller volume than healthy controls and BPD patients. No group differences were found between BPD patients and controls. Smaller BA22 volume was associated with greater symptom severity in SPD patients. Reduced STG volume may be an important endophenotype for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. SPD is distinct from BPD in terms of STG volume abnormalities which may reflect different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and could help discriminate between them. PMID:19473820

  9. Phonetic Feature Encoding in Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

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    Mesgarani, Nima; Cheung, Connie; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    During speech perception, linguistic elements such as consonants and vowels are extracted from a complex acoustic speech signal. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) participates in high-order auditory processing of speech, but how it encodes phonetic information is poorly understood. We used high-density direct cortical surface recordings in humans while they listened to natural, continuous speech to reveal the STG representation of the entire English phonetic inventory. At single electrodes, we found response selectivity to distinct phonetic features. Encoding of acoustic properties was mediated by a distributed population response. Phonetic features could be directly related to tuning for spectrotemporal acoustic cues, some of which were encoded in a nonlinear fashion or by integration of multiple cues. These findings demonstrate the acoustic-phonetic representation of speech in human STG. PMID:24482117

  10. Phonetic feature encoding in human superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesgarani, Nima; Cheung, Connie; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F

    2014-02-28

    During speech perception, linguistic elements such as consonants and vowels are extracted from a complex acoustic speech signal. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) participates in high-order auditory processing of speech, but how it encodes phonetic information is poorly understood. We used high-density direct cortical surface recordings in humans while they listened to natural, continuous speech to reveal the STG representation of the entire English phonetic inventory. At single electrodes, we found response selectivity to distinct phonetic features. Encoding of acoustic properties was mediated by a distributed population response. Phonetic features could be directly related to tuning for spectrotemporal acoustic cues, some of which were encoded in a nonlinear fashion or by integration of multiple cues. These findings demonstrate the acoustic-phonetic representation of speech in human STG.

  11. [Human interaction, social cognition, and the superior temporal sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Francis; Saitovitch, Anna; Boddaert, Nathalie; Grevent, David; Cambier, Jean; Lelord, Gilbert; Samson, Yves; Zilbovicius, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are social animals. This ability to live together is ensured by cognitive functions, the neuroanatomical bases of which are starting to be unraveled by MRI-based studies. The regions and network engaged in this process are known as the "social brain ". The core of this network is the superior temporal sulcus (STS), which integrates sensory and emotional inputs. Modeling studies of healthy volunteers have shown the role of the STS.in recognizing others as biological beings, as well as facial and eye-gaze recognition, intentionality and emotions. This cognitive capacity has been described as the "theory of mind ". Pathological models such as autism, in which the main clinical abnormality is altered social abilities and communication, have confirmed the role of the STS in the social brain. Conceptualisation of this empathic capacity has been described as "meta cognition ", which forms the basis of human social organizationand culture.

  12. Vowel sound extraction in anterior superior temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obleser, Jonas; Boecker, Henning; Drzezga, Alexander; Haslinger, Bernhard; Hennenlotter, Andreas; Roettinger, Michael; Eulitz, Carsten; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2006-07-01

    We investigated the functional neuroanatomy of vowel processing. We compared attentive auditory perception of natural German vowels to perception of nonspeech band-passed noise stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). More specifically, the mapping in auditory cortex of first and second formants was considered, which spectrally characterize vowels and are linked closely to phonological features. Multiple exemplars of natural German vowels were presented in sequences alternating either mainly along the first formant (e.g., [u]-[o], [i]-[e]) or along the second formant (e.g., [u]-[i], [o]-[e]). In fixed-effects and random-effects analyses, vowel sequences elicited more activation than did nonspeech noise in the anterior superior temporal cortex (aST) bilaterally. Partial segregation of different vowel categories was observed within the activated regions, suggestive of a speech sound mapping across the cortical surface. Our results add to the growing evidence that speech sounds, as one of the behaviorally most relevant classes of auditory objects, are analyzed and categorized in aST. These findings also support the notion of an auditory "what" stream, with highly object-specialized areas anterior to primary auditory cortex. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Morphological study of surgical approach by superior temporal sulcus-temporal horn of lateral ventricle approach using volume rendering.

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    Sun, Wei; Jia, Linpei; Dong, Yidian; Zhao, Hang; Liu, Haoyuan; Yang, Kerong; Li, Youqiong

    2014-03-01

    In this research, we acquired the length of the superior temporal sulcus, the shortest distance from the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, and the approach angle between the median sagittal plane and the shortest segment from the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle measuring 98 specimens by magnetic resonance imaging volume rendering. At the same time, we preliminarily oriented the point of the superior temporal sulcus, which is closest to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, aimed at finding out the best entrance point of surgical approach through the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and reducing the damage to optic radiation as well as other nerve fibers during the operation. The results indicate that the point at the front side 3/5 of the superior temporal sulcus may be the ideal surgical approach entrance point, and there is no difference between 2 cerebral hemispheres (P < 0.05).

  14. Superior Temporal Activation as a Function of Linguistic Knowledge: Insights from Deaf Native Signers Who Speechread

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    Capek, Cheryl M.; Woll, Bencie; MacSweeney, Mairead; Waters, Dafydd; McGuire, Philip K.; David, Anthony S.; Brammer, Michael J.; Campbell, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Studies of spoken and signed language processing reliably show involvement of the posterior superior temporal cortex. This region is also reliably activated by observation of meaningless oral and manual actions. In this study we directly compared the extent to which activation in posterior superior temporal cortex is modulated by linguistic…

  15. Functional Organization of Social Perception and Cognition in the Superior Temporal Sulcus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deen, Ben; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is considered a hub for social perception and cognition, including the perception of faces and human motion, as well as understanding others' actions, mental states, and language...

  16. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

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    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  17. Spectral and temporal auditory processing in the superior colliculus of aged rats.

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    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2017-09-01

    Presbyacusis reflects dysfunctions present along the central auditory pathway. Given that the topographic representation of the auditory directional spatial map is deteriorated in the superior colliculus of aged animals, therefore, are spectral and temporal auditory processes altered with aging in the rat's superior colliculus? Extracellular single-unit recordings were conducted in the superior colliculus of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats. In the spectral domain, level thresholds in aged rats were significantly increased when superior colliculus auditory neurons were stimulated with pure tones or Gaussian noise bursts. The sharpness of the frequency response tuning curve at 10 dB SPL above threshold was also significantly broader among the aged rats. Furthermore, in the temporal domain, the minimal silent gap thresholds to Gaussian noises were significantly longer in aged rats. Hence, these results highlight that spectral and temporal auditory processing in the superior colliculus are impaired during aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Superior Temporal Activation in Response to Dynamic Audio-Visual Emotional Cues

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    Robins, Diana L.; Hunyadi, Elinora; Schultz, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Perception of emotion is critical for successful social interaction, yet the neural mechanisms underlying the perception of dynamic, audio-visual emotional cues are poorly understood. Evidence from language and sensory paradigms suggests that the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STS/STG) play a key role in the integration of auditory and visual…

  19. Superior temporal gyrus volume reduction and P300 in schizophrenia prior to treatment

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    Hirayasu, Akira; Hokama, Hiroto; Ogura, Chikara; Ohta, Hirokazu; Arakaki, Hajime; Asato, Naohiko; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro [Ryukyus Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1998-07-01

    Authors measured the superior temporal gyrus volume by 3D MRI imaging for the schizophrenics and simultaneously recorded the P300 component during the auditory odd-ball exercise. Subjects were 8 cases of schizophrenics and the sex- and age-matched healthy control adults. In schizophrenics, the superior temporal gyrus volume reduction was found. When the superior temporal gyrus was divided into two parts, the anterior part containing the primary auditory area, and the posterior part containing the planum temporale and the Wernicle speech area, the volume reduction of left side in the posterior part was remarkable. There was no difference in the latent time and the P300 amplitude between schizophrenics and healthy controls, suggesting that the superior temporal gyrus abnormalities will appear prior to P300 abnormalities. We could not find any correlation between findings of MRI and P300 and psychic symptoms. We discuss the possible contribution on the elucidation of the pathogenesis of the schizophrenia by simultaneous recordings of 3D MRI imaging and the event-related potentials. (K.H.)

  20. [Towards an integrated approach to infantile autism: the superior temporal lobe between neurosciences and psychoanalysis].

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    Golse, Bernard; Robel, Laurence

    2009-02-01

    The superior temporal lobe is currently at the focus of intensive research in infantile autism, a psychopathologic disorder apparently representing the severest failure of access to intersubjectivity, i.e. the ability to accept that others exist independently of oneself. Access to intersubjectivity seems to involve the superior temporal lobe, which is the seat of several relevant functions such as face and voice recognition and perception of others' movements, and coordinates the different sensory inputs that identify an object as being "external". The psychoanalytic approach to infantile autism and recent cognitive data are now converging, and intersubjectivity is considered to result from "mantling" or comodalization of sensory inputs from external objects. Recent brain neuroimaging studies point to anatomic and functional abnormalities of the superior temporal lobe in autistic children. Dialogue is therefore possible between these different disciplines, opening the way to an integrated view of infantile autism in which the superior temporal lobe holds a central place--not necessarily as a primary cause of autism but rather as an intermediary or a reflection of autistic functioning

  1. MRI of the olfactory bulbs and sulci in human fetuses

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    Azoulay, Robin; Grabar, Sophie; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine [Paris V, Faculte de Medecine, Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Fallet-Bianco, Catherine [Hopital Sainte-Anne, Paris (France); Garel, Catherine [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France)

    2006-02-01

    There is limited knowledge of the MRI pattern of the development of fetal olfactory bulbs and sulci. To describe the MRI appearance of olfactory bulbs and sulci in normal in vivo fetuses according to gestational age. Olfactory bulbs and sulci were retrospectively assessed on brain MRI examinations of 88 normal fetuses between 24 and 39 weeks gestational age. Two reference centres were involved in the study and both used routine protocols that included axial and coronal T2- and T1-weighted sequences at 1.5 T. The results were compared both with the commonly used neuropathological data in the literature and with personal neuropathological data. Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were performed. One case of olfactory agenesis associated with CHARGE syndrome was identified. T2-weighted coronal sequences were the most sensitive for detecting olfactory bulbs and sulci. Olfactory sulci were significantly better detected from 30 weeks onwards (90.9-100%; P<0.001). MRI showed a posteroanterior development of these sulci. Olfactory bulbs were better detected from 30 to 34 weeks (80-90.9%; P<0.002). Comparison with neuropathological data confirmed the posteroanterior development of the sulci and showed an important delay in detection of the olfactory structures (bulbs and sulci). No difference was observed between the two centres involved. To date, fetal MRI can depict olfactory sulci from 30 weeks gestational age onwards and olfactory bulbs from 30 to 34 weeks gestational age. This preliminary reference standard is useful to assess the normality of the olfactory system and to diagnose olfactory agenesis. (orig.)

  2. Right anterior superior temporal activation predicts auditory sentence comprehension following aphasic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that recovery of speech comprehension after left hemisphere infarction may depend on a mechanism in the right hemisphere. However, the role that distinct right hemisphere regions play in speech comprehension following left hemisphere stroke has not been established. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate narrative speech activation in 18 neurologically normal subjects and 17 patients with left hemisphere stroke and a history of aphasia. Activation for listening to meaningful stories relative to meaningless reversed speech was identified in the normal subjects and in each patient. Second level analyses were then used to investigate how story activation changed with the patients' auditory sentence comprehension skills and surprise story recognition memory tests post-scanning. Irrespective of lesion site, performance on tests of auditory sentence comprehension was positively correlated with activation in the right lateral superior temporal region, anterior to primary auditory cortex. In addition, when the stroke spared the left temporal cortex, good performance on tests of auditory sentence comprehension was also correlated with the left posterior superior temporal cortex (Wernicke's area). In distinct contrast to this, good story recognition memory predicted left inferior frontal and right cerebellar activation. The implication of this double dissociation in the effects of auditory sentence comprehension and story recognition memory is that left frontal and left temporal activations are dissociable. Our findings strongly support the role of the right temporal lobe in processing narrative speech and, in particular, auditory sentence comprehension following left hemisphere aphasic stroke. In addition, they highlight the importance of the right anterior superior temporal cortex where the response was dissociated from that in the left posterior temporal lobe.

  3. Superior Temporal Activity for the Retrieval Process of Auditory-Word Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimune Kambara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that learning multisensory associations involves the superior temporal regions (Tanabe et al, 2005. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the retrieval of multi-sensory associations were unclear. This functional MRI (fMRI study investigated brain activations during the retrieval of multi-sensory associations. Eighteen right-handed college-aged Japanese participants learned associations between meaningless pictures and words (Vw, meaningless sounds and words (Aw, and meaningless sounds and visual words (W. During fMRI scanning, participants were presented with old and new words and were required to judge whether the words were included in the conditions of Vw, Aw, W or New. We found that the left superior temporal region showed greater activity during the retrieval of words learned in Aw than in Vw, whereas no region showed greater activity for the Vw condition versus the Aw condition (k > 10, p < .001, uncorrected. Taken together, the left superior temporal region could play an essential role in the retrieval process of auditory-word associations.

  4. Right superior temporal gyrus volume in adolescents with a history of suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lisa A; Ramos, Lisa; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Brent, David A; Phillips, Mary L

    2015-04-01

    The extent to which observed differences in emotion processing and regulation neural circuitry in adolescents with a history of suicide attempt are paralleled by structural differences is unknown. We measured brain cortical thickness and grey- and white-matter volumes in 100 adolescents: 28 with a history of suicide attempt and major depressive disorder (MDD); 31 with a history of MDD but no suicide attempt; and a healthy control group (n = 41). The first group compared with controls showed reduction in grey-matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus (BA38), a region important for social emotion processing. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  5. New human-specific brain landmark: the depth asymmetry of superior temporal sulcus.

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    Leroy, François; Cai, Qing; Bogart, Stephanie L; Dubois, Jessica; Coulon, Olivier; Monzalvo, Karla; Fischer, Clara; Glasel, Hervé; Van der Haegen, Lise; Bénézit, Audrey; Lin, Ching-Po; Kennedy, David N; Ihara, Aya S; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Poupon, Cyril; Brysbaert, Marc; Roberts, Neil; Hopkins, William D; Mangin, Jean-François; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2015-01-27

    Identifying potentially unique features of the human cerebral cortex is a first step to understanding how evolution has shaped the brain in our species. By analyzing MR images obtained from 177 humans and 73 chimpanzees, we observed a human-specific asymmetry in the superior temporal sulcus at the heart of the communication regions and which we have named the "superior temporal asymmetrical pit" (STAP). This 45-mm-long segment ventral to Heschl's gyrus is deeper in the right hemisphere than in the left in 95% of typical human subjects, from infanthood till adulthood, and is present, irrespective of handedness, language lateralization, and sex although it is greater in males than in females. The STAP also is seen in several groups of atypical subjects including persons with situs inversus, autistic spectrum disorder, Turner syndrome, and corpus callosum agenesis. It is explained in part by the larger number of sulcal interruptions in the left than in the right hemisphere. Its early presence in the infants of this study as well as in fetuses and premature infants suggests a strong genetic influence. Because this asymmetry is barely visible in chimpanzees, we recommend the STAP region during midgestation as an important phenotype to investigate asymmetrical variations of gene expression among the primate lineage. This genetic target may provide important insights regarding the evolution of the crucial cognitive abilities sustained by this sulcus in our species, namely communication and social cognition.

  6. Timescales of sensory- and decision-related activity in the middle temporal and medial superior temporal areas.

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    Price, Nicholas S C; Born, Richard T

    2010-10-20

    The contribution of sensory neurons to perceptual decisions about external stimulus events has received much attention, but it is less clear how sensory responses are integrated over time to produce decisions that are both rapid and reliable. To address this issue, we recorded from middle temporal area and medial superior temporal area neurons in rhesus macaques performing a task requiring the detection and discrimination of unpredictable speed changes. We examined how neuronal activity encoded the sign of the speed change and predicted the animals' behavioral judgments and reaction times, with a focus on the timescales over which neuronal activity is informative. False detection trials, on which animals reported a speed change even though none had occurred, were grouped according to the animals' discrimination judgment. By comparing the neuronal responses between the two groups of false detection trials, we were able to predict the animals' choices from the sensory activity of single neurons at levels significantly better than chance. These choice probability measurements were strongest using spike counts in an 80 ms window ending 150 ms before a choice saccade began, but significant choice probabilities were observed in windows as short as 10 ms. While the maximum deviation in spiking rate following a speed change is evident in the transient response, averaging neuronal activity in longer time windows can be more informative about both the stimulus and the animals' behavioral judgments. Thus the timescales found in this study represent a trade-off between producing rapid reactions and overcoming the noise inherent in short time windows.

  7. Differential roles for left inferior frontal and superior temporal cortex in multimodal integration of action and language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.M.; Özyürek, A.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies indicate that both posterior superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus (pSTS/MTG) and left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) are involved in integrating information from different modalities. Here we investigated the respective roles of these two areas in integration of action and l

  8. Vowel-specific mismatch responses in the anterior superior temporal gyrus: an fMRI study.

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    Leff, Alexander P; Iverson, Paul; Schofield, Thomas M; Kilner, James M; Crinion, Jennifer T; Friston, Karl J; Price, Cathy J

    2009-04-01

    There have been many functional imaging studies that have investigated the neural correlates of speech perception by contrasting neural responses to speech and "speech-like" but unintelligible control stimuli. A potential drawback of this approach is that intelligibility is necessarily conflated with a change in the acoustic parameters of the stimuli. The approach we have adopted is to take advantage of the mismatch response elicited by an oddball paradigm to probe neural responses in temporal lobe structures to a parametrically varied set of deviants in order to identify brain regions involved in vowel processing. Thirteen normal subjects were scanned using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm while they listened to continuous trains of auditory stimuli. Three classes of stimuli were used: 'vowel deviants' and two classes of control stimuli: one acoustically similar ('single formants') and the other distant (tones). The acoustic differences between the standard and deviants in both the vowel and single-formant classes were designed to match each other closely. The results revealed an effect of vowel deviance in the left anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). This was most significant when comparing all vowel deviants to standards, irrespective of their psychoacoustic or physical deviance. We also identified a correlation between perceptual discrimination and deviant-related activity in the dominant superior temporal sulcus (STS), although this effect was not stimulus specific. The responses to vowel deviants were in brain regions implicated in the processing of intelligible or meaningful speech, part of the so-called auditory "what" processing stream. Neural components of this pathway would be expected to respond to sudden, perhaps unexpected changes in speech signal that result in a change to narrative meaning.

  9. Spectral organization of the human lateral superior temporal gyrus revealed by intracranial recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourski, Kirill V; Steinschneider, Mitchell; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Jones, Robert D; Howard, Matthew A

    2014-02-01

    The place of the posterolateral superior temporal (PLST) gyrus within the hierarchical organization of the human auditory cortex is unknown. Understanding how PLST processes spectral information is imperative for its functional characterization. Pure-tone stimuli were presented to subjects undergoing invasive monitoring for refractory epilepsy. Recordings were made using high-density subdural grid electrodes. Pure tones elicited robust high gamma event-related band power responses along a portion of PLST adjacent to the transverse temporal sulcus (TTS). Responses were frequency selective, though typically broadly tuned. In several subjects, mirror-image response patterns around a low-frequency center were observed, but typically, more complex and distributed patterns were seen. Frequency selectivity was greatest early in the response. Classification analysis using a sparse logistic regression algorithm yielded above-chance accuracy in all subjects. Classifier performance typically peaked at 100-150 ms after stimulus onset, was comparable for the left and right hemisphere cases, and was stable across stimulus intensities. Results demonstrate that representations of spectral information within PLST are temporally dynamic and contain sufficient information for accurate discrimination of tone frequencies. PLST adjacent to the TTS appears to be an early stage in the hierarchy of cortical auditory processing. Pure-tone response patterns may aid auditory field identification.

  10. Posterior superior temporal sulcus responses predict perceived pleasantness of skin stroking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Davidovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Love and affection is expressed through a range of physically intimate gestures, including caresses. Recent studies suggest that posterior temporal lobe areas typically associated with visual processing of social cues also respond to interpersonal touch. Here, we asked whether these areas are selective to caress-like skin stroking. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from 23 healthy participants and compared brain responses to skin stroking and vibration. We did not find any significant differences between stroking and vibration in the posterior temporal lobe; however, right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS responses predicted healthy participant's perceived pleasantness of skin stroking, but not vibration. These findings link right pSTS responses to individual variability in perceived pleasantness of caress-like tactile stimuli. We speculate that the right pSTS may play a role in the translation of tactile stimuli into positively valenced, socially relevant interpersonal touch and that this system may be affected in disorders associated with impaired attachment.

  11. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Said

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  12. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Moore, Christopher D; Norman, Kenneth A; Haxby, James V; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  13. Mapping auditory core, lateral belt, and parabelt cortices in the human superior temporal gyrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweet, Robert A; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Lewis, David A

    2005-01-01

    the location of the lateral belt and parabelt with respect to gross anatomical landmarks. Architectonic criteria for the core, lateral belt, and parabelt were readily adapted from monkey to human. Additionally, we found evidence for an architectonic subdivision within the parabelt, present in both species......The goal of the present study was to determine whether the architectonic criteria used to identify the core, lateral belt, and parabelt auditory cortices in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) could be used to identify homologous regions in humans (Homo sapiens). Current evidence indicates...... that auditory cortex in humans, as in monkeys, is located on the superior temporal gyrus (STG), and is functionally and structurally altered in illnesses such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used serial sets of adjacent sections processed for Nissl substance, acetylcholinesterase...

  14. Pure word deafness with auditory object agnosia after bilateral lesion of the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Riedel, Bernhard; Bartsch, Andreas; Brandt, Tobias; Vogt-Schaden, Marlies

    2015-12-01

    Based on results from functional imaging, cortex along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to subserve phoneme and pre-lexical speech perception. For vowel classification, both superior temporal plane (STP) and STS areas have been suggested relevant. Lesion of bilateral STS may conversely be expected to cause pure word deafness and possibly also impaired vowel classification. Here we studied a patient with bilateral STS lesions caused by ischemic strokes and relatively intact medial STPs to characterize the behavioral consequences of STS loss. The patient showed severe deficits in auditory speech perception, whereas his speech production was fluent and communication by written speech was grossly intact. Auditory-evoked fields in the STP were within normal limits on both sides, suggesting that major parts of the auditory cortex were functionally intact. Further studies showed that the patient had normal hearing thresholds and only mild disability in tests for telencephalic hearing disorder. Prominent deficits were discovered in an auditory-object classification task, where the patient performed four standard deviations below the control group. In marked contrast, performance in a vowel-classification task was intact. Auditory evoked fields showed enhanced responses for vowels compared to matched non-vowels within normal limits. Our results are consistent with the notion that cortex along STS is important for auditory speech perception, although it does not appear to be entirely speech specific. Formant analysis and single vowel classification, however, appear to be already implemented in auditory cortex on the STP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Christoph D; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual representations in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) benefit from acoustic information. To this end, we recorded neural responses in alert monkeys passively watching audio-visual scenes, and quantified the impact of simultaneously presented sounds on responses elicited by the presentation of naturalistic visual scenes. Using methods of stimulus decoding and information theory, we then asked whether the responses of STS neurons become more reliable and informative in multisensory contexts. Our results demonstrate that STS neurons are indeed sensitive to the modality composition of the sensory stimulus. Importantly, information provided by STS neurons' responses about the particular visual stimulus being presented was highest during congruent audio-visual and unimodal visual stimulation, but was reduced during incongruent bimodal stimulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that higher visual representations in the STS not only convey information about the visual input but also depend on the acoustic context of a visual scene.

  16. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Dahl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual representations in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS benefit from acoustic information. To this end, we recorded neural responses in alert monkeys passively watching audio-visual scenes, and quantified the impact of simultaneously presented sounds on responses elicited by the presentation of naturalistic visual scenes. Using methods of stimulus decoding and information theory, we then asked whether the responses of STS neurons become more reliable and informative in multisensory contexts. Our results demonstrate that STS neurons are indeed sensitive to the modality composition of the sensory stimulus. Importantly, information provided by STS neurons’ responses about the particular visual stimulus being presented was highest during congruent audio-visual and unimodal visual stimulation, but was reduced during incongruent bimodal stimulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that higher visual representations in the STS not only convey information about the visual input but also depend on the acoustic context of a visual scene.

  17. Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine eFoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The auditory cortex is well known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of 8 patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70-150 Hz frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75-200ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity towards dissonance.

  18. Human middle longitudinal fascicle: Segregation and behavioral-clinical implications of two distinct fiber connections linking temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus with the angular gyrus or superior parietal lobule using multi-tensor tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, N.; Preti, M.G.; Wassermann, D.; Rathi, Y.; Papadimitriou, G. M.; Yergatian, C.; Dickerson, B. C.; Shenton, M. E.; Kubicki, M.

    2013-01-01

    The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a major fiber connection running principally between the superior temporal gyrus and the parietal lobe, neocortical regions of great biological and clinical interest. Although one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts it has only recently been discovered in humans. In this high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delineated the two major fiber connections of the human MdLF, by examining morphology, topography, cortical connections, biophysical measures, volume and length in seventy-four brains. These two fiber connections course together through the dorsal temporal pole and the superior temporal gyrus maintaining a characteristic topographic relationship in the mediolateral and ventrodorsal dimensions. As these pathways course towards the parietal lobe, they split to form separate fiber pathways, one following a ventrolateral trajectory and connecting with the angular gyrus and the other following a dorsomedial route and connecting with the superior parietal lobule. Based on the functions of their cortical affiliations, we suggest that the superior temporal-angular connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)AG plays a role in language and attention, whereas the superior temporal-superior parietal connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)SPL is involved in visuospatial and integrative audiovisual functions. Furthermore, the MdLF may have clinical implications in neurodegenerative disorders such as primary progressive aphasia, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy, corticobulbar degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease as well as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:23686576

  19. Mouth and Voice: A Relationship between Visual and Auditory Preference in the Human Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin L; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2017-03-08

    Cortex in and around the human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is known to be critical for speech perception. The pSTS responds to both the visual modality (especially biological motion) and the auditory modality (especially human voices). Using fMRI in single subjects with no spatial smoothing, we show that visual and auditory selectivity are linked. Regions of the pSTS were identified that preferred visually presented moving mouths (presented in isolation or as part of a whole face) or moving eyes. Mouth-preferring regions responded strongly to voices and showed a significant preference for vocal compared with nonvocal sounds. In contrast, eye-preferring regions did not respond to either vocal or nonvocal sounds. The converse was also true: regions of the pSTS that showed a significant response to speech or preferred vocal to nonvocal sounds responded more strongly to visually presented mouths than eyes. These findings can be explained by environmental statistics. In natural environments, humans see visual mouth movements at the same time as they hear voices, while there is no auditory accompaniment to visual eye movements. The strength of a voxel's preference for visual mouth movements was strongly correlated with the magnitude of its auditory speech response and its preference for vocal sounds, suggesting that visual and auditory speech features are coded together in small populations of neurons within the pSTS.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans interacting face to face make use of auditory cues from the talker's voice and visual cues from the talker's mouth to understand speech. The human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a brain region known to be important for speech perception, is complex, with some regions responding to specific visual stimuli and others to specific auditory stimuli. Using BOLD fMRI, we show that the natural statistics of human speech, in which voices co-occur with mouth movements, are reflected in the neural architecture of

  20. Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Francine; King-Stephens, David; Weber, Peter; Laxer, Kenneth; Parvizi, Josef; Knight, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    The auditory cortex is well-known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of eight patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70-150 Hz) frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75 and 200 ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords, and a positive correlation between changes in γhigh power and the degree of stimulus roughness was observed in both hemispheres. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity toward dissonance.

  1. The impact of vascular factors on language localization in the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M

    2014-08-01

    The left superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been shown in numerous functional imaging studies to be a critical region for language processing, as it is reliably activated when language comprehension is compared with acoustically matched control conditions. Studies in non-human primates have demonstrated several subdivisions in the STS, yet the precise region(s) within the STS that are important for language remain unclear, in large part because the presence of draining veins in the sulcus makes it difficult to determine whether neural activity is localized to the dorsal or ventral bank of the sulcus. We used functional MRI to localize language regions, and then acquired several additional sequences in order to account for the impact of vascular factors. A breath-holding task was used to induce hypercapnia in order to normalize voxel-wise differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responsivity, and veins were identified on susceptibility-weighted and T2*-weighted BOLD images, and masked out. We found that the precise locations of language areas in individual participants were strongly influenced by vascular factors, but that these vascular effects could be ameliorated by hypercapnic normalization and vein masking. After these corrections were applied, the majority of regions activated by language processing were localized to the dorsal bank of the STS.

  2. Representation of Glossy Material Surface in Ventral Superior Temporal Sulcal Area of Common Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Naohisa; Banno, Taku; Abe, Hiroshi; Tani, Toshiki; Suzuki, Wataru; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2017-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array. Out of 143 visually responsive multiunits recorded from four animals, 29% had significant main effect only of the material, 3% only of the shape and 43% of both the material and the shape. Furthermore, we found neuronal cluster(s), in which most cells: (1) showed a significant main effect in material appearance; (2) the best stimulus was a glossy material (glass or metal); and (3) had reduced response to the pixel-shuffled version of the glossy material images. The location of the gloss-selective area was in agreement with previous macaque studies, showing activation in the ventral bank of STS. Our results suggest that perception of gloss is an important ability preserved across wide range of primate species.

  3. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform–amygdalar effective connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H.; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-01-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform–amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. PMID:24298171

  4. Functional Organization of Social Perception and Cognition in the Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Ben; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is considered a hub for social perception and cognition, including the perception of faces and human motion, as well as understanding others' actions, mental states, and language. However, the functional organization of the STS remains debated: Is this broad region composed of multiple functionally distinct modules, each specialized for a different process, or are STS subregions multifunctional, contributing to multiple processes? Is the STS spatially organized, and if so, what are the dominant features of this organization? We address these questions by measuring STS responses to a range of social and linguistic stimuli in the same set of human participants, using fMRI. We find a number of STS subregions that respond selectively to certain types of social input, organized along a posterior-to-anterior axis. We also identify regions of overlapping response to multiple contrasts, including regions responsive to both language and theory of mind, faces and voices, and faces and biological motion. Thus, the human STS contains both relatively domain-specific areas, and regions that respond to multiple types of social information. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in impaired social perception in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Eun; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Hyeongrae; Shin, Young Seok; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-04-03

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by impairments in diverse thinking and emotional responses, which are related to social perception dysfunction. This fMRI study was designed to investigate a neurobiological basis of social perception deficits of patients with schizophrenia in various social situations of daily life and their relationship with clinical symptoms and social dysfunction. Seventeen patients and 19 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, during which participants performed a virtual social perception task, containing an avatar's speech with positive, negative or neutral emotion in a virtual reality space. Participants were asked to determine whether or not the avatar's speech was appropriate to each situation. The significant group×appropriateness interaction was seen in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), resulting from lower activity in patients in the inappropriate condition, and left DLPFC activity was negatively correlated with the severity of negative symptoms and positively correlated with the level of social functioning. The significant appropriateness×emotion interaction observed in the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) was present in controls, but absent in patients, resulting from the existence and absence of a difference between the inappropriate positive and negative conditions, respectively. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the DLPFC-STS network may underlie patients' abnormal social perception in various social situations of daily life. Abnormal functioning of this network may contribute to increases of negative symptoms and decreases of social functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform-amygdalar effective connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrs, Corinna; Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-11-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform-amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala.

  7. Representation of Glossy Material Surface in Ventral Superior Temporal Sulcal Area of Common Marmosets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Naohisa; Banno, Taku; Abe, Hiroshi; Tani, Toshiki; Suzuki, Wataru; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2017-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array. Out of 143 visually responsive multiunits recorded from four animals, 29% had significant main effect only of the material, 3% only of the shape and 43% of both the material and the shape. Furthermore, we found neuronal cluster(s), in which most cells: (1) showed a significant main effect in material appearance; (2) the best stimulus was a glossy material (glass or metal); and (3) had reduced response to the pixel-shuffled version of the glossy material images. The location of the gloss-selective area was in agreement with previous macaque studies, showing activation in the ventral bank of STS. Our results suggest that perception of gloss is an important ability preserved across wide range of primate species. PMID:28367117

  8. Deciphering phonemes from syllables in blood oxygenation level-dependent signals in human superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingtian; Hu, Xiaolin; Luo, Huan; Li, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Linguistic units such as phonemes and syllables are important for speech perception. How the brain encodes these units is not well understood. Many neuroimaging studies have found distinct representations of consonant-vowel syllables that shared one phoneme and differed in the other phoneme (e.g. /ba/ and /da/), but it is unclear whether this discrimination ability is due to the neural coding of phonemes or syllables. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivariate pattern analysis to explore this question. Subjects listened to nine Mandarin syllables in a consonant-vowel form. We successfully decoded phonemes from the syllables based on the blood oxygenation level-dependent signals in the superior temporal gyrus (STG). Specifically, a classifier trained on the cortical patterns elicited by a set of syllables, which contained two phonemes, could distinguish the cortical patterns elicited by other syllables that contained the two phonemes. The results indicated that phonemes have unique representations in the STG. In addition, there was a categorical effect, i.e. the cortical patterns of consonants were similar, and so were the cortical patterns of vowels. Further analysis showed that phonemes exhibited stronger encoding specificity in the mid-STG than in the anterior STG.

  9. Mental representations of vowel features asymmetrically modulate activity in superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Domahs, Ulrike; Klein, Elise; Domahs, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Research in auditory neuroscience illustrated the importance of superior temporal sulcus (STS) for speech sound processing. However, evidence for abstract processing beyond the level of phonetics in STS has remained elusive. In this study, we follow an underspecification approach according to which the phonological representation of vowels is based on the presence vs. absence of abstract features. We hypothesized that phonological mismatch in a same/different task is governed by underspecification: A less specified vowel in second position of same/different minimal pairs (e.g. [e]) compared to its more specified counterpart in first position (e.g. [o]) should result in stronger activation in STS than in the reverse presentation. Whole-brain analyses confirmed this hypothesis in a bilateral cluster in STS. However, this effect interacted with the feature-distance between first and second vowel and was most pronounced for a minimal, one-feature distance, evidencing the benefit of phonological information for processing acoustically minimal sound differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Paradoxical vocal changes in a trained singer by focally cooling the right superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlowitz, Kalman A; Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W; Long, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    The production and perception of music is preferentially mediated by cortical areas within the right hemisphere, but little is known about how these brain regions individually contribute to this process. In an experienced singer undergoing awake craniotomy, we demonstrated that direct electrical stimulation to a portion of the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) selectively interrupted singing but not speaking. We then focally cooled this region to modulate its activity during vocalization. In contrast to similar manipulations in left hemisphere speech production regions, pSTG cooling did not elicit any changes in vocal timing or quality. However, this manipulation led to an increase in the pitch of speaking with no such change in singing. Further analysis revealed that all vocalizations exhibited a cooling-induced increase in the frequency of the first formant, raising the possibility that potential pitch offsets may have been actively avoided during singing. Our results suggest that the right pSTG plays a key role in vocal sensorimotor processing whose impact is dependent on the type of vocalization produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Positive symptoms associate with cortical thinning in the superior temporal gyrus via the ENIGMA Schizophrenia consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, E; Hibar, D P; van Erp, T G M; Potkin, S G; Roiz-Santiañez, R; Crespo-Facorro, B; Suarez-Pinilla, P; Van Haren, N E M; de Zwarte, S M C; Kahn, R S; Cahn, W; Doan, N T; Jørgensen, K N; Gurholt, T P; Agartz, I; Andreassen, O A; Westlye, L T; Melle, I; Berg, A O; Mørch-Johnsen, L; Faerden, A; Flyckt, L; Fatouros-Bergman, H; Jönsson, E G; Hashimoto, R; Yamamori, H; Fukunaga, M; Preda, A; De Rossi, P; Piras, F; Banaj, N; Ciullo, V; Spalletta, G; Gur, R E; Gur, R C; Wolf, D H; Satterthwaite, T D; Beard, L M; Sommer, I E; Koops, S; Gruber, O; Richter, A; Krämer, B; Kelly, S; Donohoe, G; McDonald, C; Cannon, D M; Corvin, A; Gill, M; Di Giorgio, A; Bertolino, A; Lawrie, S; Nickson, T; Whalley, H C; Neilson, E; Calhoun, V D; Thompson, P M; Turner, J A; Ehrlich, S

    2017-05-01

    Based on the role of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in auditory processing, language comprehension and self-monitoring, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between STG cortical thickness and positive symptom severity in schizophrenia. This prospective meta-analysis includes data from 1987 individuals with schizophrenia collected at seventeen centres around the world that contribute to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. STG thickness measures were extracted from T1-weighted brain scans using FreeSurfer. The study performed a meta-analysis of effect sizes across sites generated by a model predicting left or right STG thickness with a positive symptom severity score (harmonized SAPS or PANSS-positive scores), while controlling for age, sex and site. Secondary models investigated relationships between antipsychotic medication, duration of illness, overall illness severity, handedness and STG thickness. Positive symptom severity was negatively related to STG thickness in both hemispheres (left: βstd = -0.052; P = 0.021; right: βstd = -0.073; P = 0.001) when statistically controlling for age, sex and site. This effect remained stable in models including duration of illness, antipsychotic medication or handedness. Our findings further underline the important role of the STG in hallmark symptoms in schizophrenia. These findings can assist in advancing insight into symptom-relevant pathophysiological mechanisms in schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Activity in the superior temporal sulcus highlights learning competence in an interaction game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruno, Masahiko; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2009-04-08

    During behavioral adaptation through interaction with human and nonhuman agents, marked individual differences are seen in both real-life situations and games. However, the underlying neural mechanism is not well understood. We conducted a neuroimaging experiment in which subjects maximized monetary rewards by learning in a prisoner's dilemma game with two computer agents: agent A, a tit-for-tat player who repeats the subject's previous action, and agent B, a simple stochastic cooperator oblivious to the subject's action. Approximately 1/3 of the subjects (group I) learned optimally in relation to both A and B, while another 1/3 (group II) did so only for B. Post-experiment interviews indicated that group I exploited the agent strategies more often than group II. Significant differences in learning-related brain activity between the two groups were only found in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) for both A and B. Furthermore, the learning performance of each group I subject was predictable based on this STS activity, but not in the group II subjects. This differential activity could not be attributed to a behavioral difference since it persisted in relation to agent B for which the two groups behaved similarly. In sharp contrast, the brain structures for reward processing were recruited similarly by both groups. These results suggest that STS provides knowledge of the other agent's strategies for association between action and reward and highlights learning competence during interactive reinforcement learning.

  13. BOLD temporal dynamics of rat superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus following short duration visual stimulation.

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    Condon Lau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The superior colliculus (SC and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN are important subcortical structures for vision. Much of our understanding of vision was obtained using invasive and small field of view (FOV techniques. In this study, we use non-invasive, large FOV blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD fMRI to measure the SC and LGN's response temporal dynamics following short duration (1 s visual stimulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments are performed at 7 tesla on Sprague Dawley rats stimulated in one eye with flashing light. Gradient-echo and spin-echo sequences are used to provide complementary information. An anatomical image is acquired from one rat after injection of monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION, a blood vessel contrast agent. BOLD responses are concentrated in the contralateral SC and LGN. The SC BOLD signal measured with gradient-echo rises to 50% of maximum amplitude (PEAK 0.2±0.2 s before the LGN signal (p<0.05. The LGN signal returns to 50% of PEAK 1.4±1.2 s before the SC signal (p<0.05. These results indicate the SC signal rises faster than the LGN signal but settles slower. Spin-echo results support these findings. The post-MION image shows the SC and LGN lie beneath large blood vessels. This subcortical vasculature is similar to that in the cortex, which also lies beneath large vessels. The LGN lies closer to the large vessels than much of the SC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The differences in response timing between SC and LGN are very similar to those between deep and shallow cortical layers following electrical stimulation, which are related to depth-dependent blood vessel dilation rates. This combined with the similarities in vasculature between subcortex and cortex suggest the SC and LGN timing differences are also related to depth-dependent dilation rates. This study shows for the first time that BOLD responses in the rat SC and LGN following short duration visual stimulation are

  14. Functional integration of the posterior superior temporal sulcus correlates with facial expression recognition.

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    Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2016-05-01

    Face perception is essential for daily and social activities. Neuroimaging studies have revealed a distributed face network (FN) consisting of multiple regions that exhibit preferential responses to invariant or changeable facial information. However, our understanding about how these regions work collaboratively to facilitate facial information processing is limited. Here, we focused on changeable facial information processing, and investigated how the functional integration of the FN is related to the performance of facial expression recognition. To do so, we first defined the FN as voxels that responded more strongly to faces than objects, and then used a voxel-based global brain connectivity method based on resting-state fMRI to characterize the within-network connectivity (WNC) of each voxel in the FN. By relating the WNC and performance in the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test across participants, we found that individuals with stronger WNC in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) were better at recognizing facial expressions. Further, the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the rpSTS and right occipital face area (rOFA), early visual cortex (EVC), and bilateral STS were positively correlated with the ability of facial expression recognition, and the FCs of EVC-pSTS and OFA-pSTS contributed independently to facial expression recognition. In short, our study highlights the behavioral significance of intrinsic functional integration of the FN in facial expression processing, and provides evidence for the hub-like role of the rpSTS for facial expression recognition. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1930-1940, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Auditory, Visual and Audiovisual Speech Processing Streams in Superior Temporal Sulcus.

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    Venezia, Jonathan H; Vaden, Kenneth I; Rong, Feng; Maddox, Dale; Saberi, Kourosh; Hickok, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) is responsive to visual and auditory information, including sounds and facial cues during speech recognition. We investigated the functional organization of STS with respect to modality-specific and multimodal speech representations. Twenty younger adult participants were instructed to perform an oddball detection task and were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech stimuli, as well as auditory and visual nonspeech control stimuli in a block fMRI design. Consistent with a hypothesized anterior-posterior processing gradient in STS, auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli produced the largest BOLD effects in anterior, posterior and middle STS (mSTS), respectively, based on whole-brain, linear mixed effects and principal component analyses. Notably, the mSTS exhibited preferential responses to multisensory stimulation, as well as speech compared to nonspeech. Within the mid-posterior and mSTS regions, response preferences changed gradually from visual, to multisensory, to auditory moving posterior to anterior. Post hoc analysis of visual regions in the posterior STS revealed that a single subregion bordering the mSTS was insensitive to differences in low-level motion kinematics yet distinguished between visual speech and nonspeech based on multi-voxel activation patterns. These results suggest that auditory and visual speech representations are elaborated gradually within anterior and posterior processing streams, respectively, and may be integrated within the mSTS, which is sensitive to more abstract speech information within and across presentation modalities. The spatial organization of STS is consistent with processing streams that are hypothesized to synthesize perceptual speech representations from sensory signals that provide convergent information from visual and auditory modalities.

  16. Perceived communicative intent in gesture and language modulates the superior temporal sulcus.

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    Redcay, Elizabeth; Velnoskey, Kayla R; Rowe, Meredith L

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral evidence and theory suggest gesture and language processing may be part of a shared cognitive system for communication. While much research demonstrates both gesture and language recruit regions along perisylvian cortex, relatively less work has tested functional segregation within these regions on an individual level. Additionally, while most work has focused on a shared semantic network, less has examined shared regions for processing communicative intent. To address these questions, functional and structural MRI data were collected from 24 adult participants while viewing videos of an experimenter producing communicative, Participant-Directed Gestures (PDG) (e.g., "Hello, come here"), noncommunicative Self-adaptor Gestures (SG) (e.g., smoothing hair), and three written text conditions: (1) Participant-Directed Sentences (PDS), matched in content to PDG, (2) Third-person Sentences (3PS), describing a character's actions from a third-person perspective, and (3) meaningless sentences, Jabberwocky (JW). Surface-based conjunction and individual functional region of interest analyses identified shared neural activation between gesture (PDGvsSG) and language processing using two different language contrasts. Conjunction analyses of gesture (PDGvsSG) and Third-person Sentences versus Jabberwocky revealed overlap within left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). Conjunction analyses of gesture and Participant-Directed Sentences to Third-person Sentences revealed regions sensitive to communicative intent, including the left middle and posterior STS and left inferior frontal gyrus. Further, parametric modulation using participants' ratings of stimuli revealed sensitivity of left posterior STS to individual perceptions of communicative intent in gesture. These data highlight an important role of the STS in processing participant-directed communicative intent through gesture and language. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3444-3461, 2016. © 2016 Wiley

  17. Gray matter changes in right superior temporal gyrus in criminal psychopaths. Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

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    Müller, Jürgen L; Gänssbauer, Susanne; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Weber, Tatjana; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Hajak, Göran

    2008-08-30

    "Psychopathy" according to the PCL-R describes a specific subgroup of antisocial personality disorder with a high risk for criminal relapses. Lesion and imaging studies point towards frontal or temporal brain regions connected with disturbed social behavior, antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy. Morphologically, some studies described a reduced prefrontal brain volume, whereas others reported on temporal lobe atrophy. To further investigate whether participants with psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Version (PCL-R) show abnormalities in brain structure, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate region-specific changes in gray matter in 17 forensic male inpatients with high PCL-R scores (PCL-R>28) and 17 male control subjects with low PCL-R scores (PCLright superior temporal gyrus. This is the first study to show that psychopathy is associated with a decrease in gray matter in both frontal and temporal brain regions, in particular in the right superior temporal gyrus, supporting the hypothesis that a disturbed frontotemporal network is critically involved in the pathogenesis of psychopathy.

  18. Dynamic analysis of the human brain with complex cerebral sulci.

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    Tseng, Jung-Ge; Huang, Bo-Wun; Ou, Yi-Wen; Yen, Ke-Tien; Wu, Yi-Te

    2016-07-03

    The brain is one of the most vulnerable organs inside the human body. Head accidents often appear in daily life and are easy to cause different level of brain damage inside the skull. Once the brain suffered intense locomotive impact, external injuries, falls, or other accidents, it will result in different degrees of concussion. This study employs finite element analysis to compare the dynamic characteristics between the geometric models of an assumed simple brain tissue and a brain tissue with complex cerebral sulci. It is aimed to understand the free vibration of the internal brain tissue and then to protect the brain from injury caused by external influences. Reverse engineering method is used for a Classic 5-Part Brain (C18) model produced by 3B Scientific Corporation. 3D optical scanner is employed to scan the human brain structure model with complex cerebral sulci and imported into 3D graphics software to construct a solid brain model to simulate the real complex brain tissue. Obtaining the normal mode analysis by inputting the material properties of the true human brain into finite element analysis software, and then to compare the simplified and the complex of brain models.

  19. Comparison of the Keratometric Corneal Astigmatic Power after Phacoemulsification: Clear Temporal Corneal Incision versus Superior Scleral Tunnel Incision

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    Yongqi He

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This is prospective randomized control trial to compare the mean keratometric corneal astigmatism diopter power (not surgical induced astigmatism among preop and one-month and three-month postop phacoemulcification of either a clear temporal corneal incision or a superior scleral tunnel Incision, using only keratometric astigmatic power reading to evaluate the difference between the two cataract surgery incisions. Methods. 120 patients (134 eyes underwent phacoemulcification were randomly assigned to two groups: Group A, the clear temporal corneal incision group, and Group B, the superior scleral tunnel incision group. SPSS11.5 Software was used for statistical analysis to compare the postsurgical changes of cornea astigmatism on keratometry. Results. The changes of corneal astigmatic diopter in Groups A and B after 3 month postop from keratometric reading were 1.04 + 0.76 and 0.94 + 0.27, respectively (=.84>.05, which showed no statistic significance difference. Conclusion. The incision through either temporal clear cornea or superior scleral tunnel in phacoemulcification shows no statistic difference in astigmatism change on keratometry 3-month postop.

  20. fMR-adaptation indicates selectivity to audiovisual content congruency in distributed clusters in human superior temporal cortex

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    Blomert Leo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient multisensory integration is of vital importance for adequate interaction with the environment. In addition to basic binding cues like temporal and spatial coherence, meaningful multisensory information is also bound together by content-based associations. Many functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies propose the (posterior superior temporal cortex (STC as the key structure for integrating meaningful multisensory information. However, a still unanswered question is how superior temporal cortex encodes content-based associations, especially in light of inconsistent results from studies comparing brain activation to semantically matching (congruent versus nonmatching (incongruent multisensory inputs. Here, we used fMR-adaptation (fMR-A in order to circumvent potential problems with standard fMRI approaches, including spatial averaging and amplitude saturation confounds. We presented repetitions of audiovisual stimuli (letter-speech sound pairs and manipulated the associative relation between the auditory and visual inputs (congruent/incongruent pairs. We predicted that if multisensory neuronal populations exist in STC and encode audiovisual content relatedness, adaptation should be affected by the manipulated audiovisual relation. Results The results revealed an occipital-temporal network that adapted independently of the audiovisual relation. Interestingly, several smaller clusters distributed over superior temporal cortex within that network, adapted stronger to congruent than to incongruent audiovisual repetitions, indicating sensitivity to content congruency. Conclusions These results suggest that the revealed clusters contain multisensory neuronal populations that encode content relatedness by selectively responding to congruent audiovisual inputs, since unisensory neuronal populations are assumed to be insensitive to the audiovisual relation. These findings extend our previously revealed mechanism for

  1. Structure and Function of the Superior Temporal Plane in Adult Males with Cleft Lip and Palate: Pathologic Enlargement with No Relationship to Childhood Hearing Deficits

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    Shriver, A. S.; Canady, J.; Richman, L.; Andreasen, N. C.; Nopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In a previous study from our lab, adult males with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) were shown to have significantly lower temporal lobe gray matter volume than matched controls. The current study was designed to begin a regional analysis of specific subregions of the temporal lobe. The superior temporal plane (STP) is a…

  2. Structure and Function of the Superior Temporal Plane in Adult Males with Cleft Lip and Palate: Pathologic Enlargement with No Relationship to Childhood Hearing Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, A. S.; Canady, J.; Richman, L.; Andreasen, N. C.; Nopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In a previous study from our lab, adult males with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) were shown to have significantly lower temporal lobe gray matter volume than matched controls. The current study was designed to begin a regional analysis of specific subregions of the temporal lobe. The superior temporal plane (STP) is a…

  3. Morphologic Study of Superior Temporal Sulcus-Amygdaloid Body and Lateral Fissure-Amygdaloid Body Surgical Approach by Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volume Rendering.

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    Qu, Yuan; Ren, Bichen; Chang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jinnan; Li, Youqiong; Duan, Haobo; Cheng, Kailiang; Wang, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    In this research, 83 patients were measured by magnetic resonance imaging volume rendering technique. The authors acquired the curve length of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure on the cerebral hemisphere, the shortest distance from the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure to the center of amygdaloid body separately, the vertical diameter, the transversal diameter, and the anteroposterior diameter of the amygdaloid body and the 2 approach angles between the median sagittal plane and the shortest segment from the superior temporal sulcus to the center of amygdaloid body and the shortest segment from lateral fissure to the center of the amygdaloid body. At the same time, we preliminarily oriented the 2 points of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure, which are closest to the center of amygdaloid body, aimed at finding out the best entrance points of surgical approach through the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure to the amygdaloid body and reducing the damage to the nerve fibers or blood vessels during the operation. The results indicate that the point at the front side 1/4 of the superior temporal sulcus may be the ideal surgical approach entrance point and the point at the front side 1/3 of the lateral fissure. There is no difference between 2 cerebral hemispheres (P < 0.05).

  4. Development from childhood to adulthood increases morphological and functional inter-individual variability in the right superior temporal cortex.

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    Bonte, Milene; Frost, Martin A; Rutten, Sanne; Ley, Anke; Formisano, Elia; Goebel, Rainer

    2013-12-01

    We study the developmental trajectory of morphology and function of the superior temporal cortex (STC) in children (8-9 years), adolescents (14-15 years) and young adults. We analyze cortical surface landmarks and functional MRI (fMRI) responses to voices, other natural categories and tones and examine how hemispheric asymmetry and inter-subject variability change across age. Our results show stable morphological asymmetries across age groups, including a larger left planum temporale and a deeper right superior temporal sulcus. fMRI analyses show that a rightward lateralization for voice-selective responses is present in all groups but decreases with age. Furthermore, STC responses to voices change from being less selective and more spatially diffuse in children to highly selective and focal in adults. Interestingly, the analysis of morphological landmarks reveals that inter-subject variability increases during development in the right--but not in the left--STC. Similarly, inter-subject variability of cortically-realigned functional responses to voices, other categories and tones increases with age in the right STC. Our findings reveal asymmetric developmental changes in brain regions crucial for auditory and voice perception. The age-related increase of inter-subject variability in right STC suggests that anatomy and function of this region are shaped by unique individual developmental experiences.

  5. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency

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    Christoph Dahl; Nikos K Logothetis; Christoph Kayser

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual ...

  6. Modulation of Visual Responses in the Superior Temporal Sulcus by Audio-Visual Congruency

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Christoph D.; Nikos K Logothetis; Kayser, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual ...

  7. The grounding of temporal metaphors

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    Lai, Vicky T.; Desai, Rutvik H.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (Her seminar stretches across the afternoon) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (Her backyard stretches across the desert) and literal motion (Her arm stretches across the table), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus. These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional. PMID:26854961

  8. Ventral simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia for unfamiliar faces due to a right posterior superior temporal sulcus and angular gyrus lesion.

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    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Hamada, Kensuke; Tsugawa, Naoya; Sugimoto, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with ventral simultanagnosia, prosopagnosia for "unfamiliar faces" (dorsal prosopagnosia), spatial agraphia, and constructional disorder, particularly on the left spatial side, due to a lesion in the right posterior superior and middle temporal gyri and angular gyrus. The patient showed impairment of fundamental visual and visuospatial recognition, such as in object size, configuration, and horizontal point location, which probably underlay the mechanism of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia. This case also suggests that the coexistence of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia results from a right hemispheric insult, and damage to the temporoparietal area interrupts the incorporation of spatial information into object recognition. This disconnection of information flow, together with impaired object recognition per se, may impair the parallel processing of multiple objects, leading to object-by-object or part-by-part recognition.

  9. Time course of the involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum in emotional prosody perception.

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    Marjolijn Hoekert

    Full Text Available In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional prosody perception. Here, we used triple-pulse repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to shed light on the precise time course of involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum. We hypothesized that information would be processed in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus before being processed in the right fronto-parietal operculum. Right-handed healthy subjects performed an emotional prosody task. During listening to each sentence a triplet of TMS pulses was applied to one of the regions at one of six time points (400-1900 ms. Results showed a significant main effect of Time for right anterior superior temporal gyrus and right fronto-parietal operculum. The largest interference was observed half-way through the sentence. This effect was stronger for withdrawal emotions than for the approach emotion. A further experiment with the inclusion of an active control condition, TMS over the EEG site POz (midline parietal-occipital junction, revealed stronger effects at the fronto-parietal operculum and anterior superior temporal gyrus relative to the active control condition. No evidence was found for sequential processing of emotional prosodic information from right anterior superior temporal gyrus to the right fronto-parietal operculum, but the results revealed more parallel processing. Our results suggest that both right fronto-parietal operculum and right anterior superior temporal gyrus are critical for emotional prosody perception at a relatively late time period after sentence onset. This may reflect that emotional cues can still be ambiguous at the beginning of sentences, but become

  10. Plasticity in bilateral superior temporal cortex: Effects of deafness and cochlear implantation on auditory and visual speech processing.

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    Anderson, Carly A; Lazard, Diane S; Hartley, Douglas E H

    2017-01-01

    While many individuals can benefit substantially from cochlear implantation, the ability to perceive and understand auditory speech with a cochlear implant (CI) remains highly variable amongst adult recipients. Importantly, auditory performance with a CI cannot be reliably predicted based solely on routinely obtained information regarding clinical characteristics of the CI candidate. This review argues that central factors, notably cortical function and plasticity, should also be considered as important contributors to the observed individual variability in CI outcome. Superior temporal cortex (STC), including auditory association areas, plays a crucial role in the processing of auditory and visual speech information. The current review considers evidence of cortical plasticity within bilateral STC, and how these effects may explain variability in CI outcome. Furthermore, evidence of audio-visual interactions in temporal and occipital cortices is examined, and relation to CI outcome is discussed. To date, longitudinal examination of changes in cortical function and plasticity over the period of rehabilitation with a CI has been restricted by methodological challenges. The application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in studying cortical function in CI users is becoming increasingly recognised as a potential solution to these problems. Here we suggest that fNIRS offers a powerful neuroimaging tool to elucidate the relationship between audio-visual interactions, cortical plasticity during deafness and following cochlear implantation, and individual variability in auditory performance with a CI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Time course of superior temporal sulcus activity in response to eye gaze: a combined fMRI and MEG study

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    Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2008-01-01

    The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to be involved in gaze processing, but temporal data regarding this issue are lacking. We investigated this topic by combining fMRI and MEG in four normal subjects. Photographs of faces with either averted or straight eye gazes were presented and subjects passively viewed the stimuli. First, we analyzed the brain areas involved using fMRI. A group analysis revealed activation of the STS for averted compared to straight gazes, which was confirmed in all subjects. We then measured brain activity using MEG, and conducted a 3D spatial filter analysis. The STS showed higher activity in response to averted versus straight gazes during the 150–200 ms period, peaking at around 170 ms, after stimulus onset. In contrast, the fusiform gyrus, which was detected by the main effect of stimulus presentations in fMRI analysis, exhibited comparable activity across straight and averted gazes at about 170 ms. These results indicate involvement of the human STS in rapid processing of the eye gaze of another individual. PMID:19015114

  12. Variation of the major sulci of the occipital lobe - A morphological study

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    Lopamudra Mandal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occipital lobe of cerebrum is intimately related with visual function. The detailed anatomy of this lobe is essential for the surgeons and radiologists. The aim of the present study was to identify the variation of different sulci of the occipital lobe and find the relations between them. So, this study was done to evaluate the different parameters of these sulci by studying cerebral hemispheres morphologically. Methods: Total 106 formalin fixed cadaveric brains were studied. The locations and the length (cm of the calcarine, lunate and parieto-occipital sulcus were studied in detail. Microsoft excel software was utilized to analyze the data. Results: The calcarine sulcus in 59.43% had terminated by dividing into two rami. In only 31.13% cases calcarine sulcus met lunate sulcus after reaching the superolateral surface of the hemisphere. Lunate sulcus was of myriad shapes. Though in 49.05% of cases it was convex, in majority of brains it was “f” or “S” shaped. Different hemispheres of the same brain revealed significant variation. Conclusion: The study revealed wide variability of the sulci of the occipital lobe. For proper planning of neurosurgical procedures and radiological representation of visual functional areas, detailed knowledge on the variation of these sulci are essential. So, parameters of occipital sulci can permit safer access to deep structures and reduce operative complications.

  13. Naturalistic fMRI Mapping Reveals Superior Temporal Sulcus as the Hub for the Distributed Brain Network for Social Perception

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    Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Glerean, Enrico; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a set of 137 short (approximately 16 s each, total 27 min) audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech) and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action, and non-human sounds) lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: (1) a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, (2) a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion, and pain, (3) a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction, and speech, and (4) a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the pSTS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life. PMID:22905026

  14. Naturalistic FMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception.

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    Lahnakoski, Juha M; Glerean, Enrico; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a set of 137 short (approximately 16 s each, total 27 min) audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech) and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action, and non-human sounds) lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: (1) a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, (2) a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion, and pain, (3) a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction, and speech, and (4) a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the pSTS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life.

  15. Naturalistic fMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Marko Lahnakoski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-tesla functional magnetic imaging (fMRI, a set of 137 short (~16 s each, total 27 min audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action and non-human sounds lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: 1 a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, 2 a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion and pain, 3 a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction and speech, and 4 a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the posterior STS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life.

  16. Involvement of the superior temporal cortex and the occipital cortex in spatial hearing: evidence from repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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    Lewald, Jörg; Meister, Ingo G; Weidemann, Jürgen; Töpper, Rudolf

    2004-06-01

    The processing of auditory spatial information in cortical areas of the human brain outside of the primary auditory cortex remains poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the occipital cortex (OC) in spatial hearing using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The right STG is known to be of crucial importance for visual spatial awareness, and has been suggested to be involved in auditory spatial perception. We found that rTMS of the right STG induced a systematic error in the perception of interaural time differences (a primary cue for sound localization in the azimuthal plane). This is in accordance with the recent view, based on both neurophysiological data obtained in monkeys and human neuroimaging studies, that information on sound location is processed within a dorsolateral "where" stream including the caudal STG. A similar, but opposite, auditory shift was obtained after rTMS of secondary visual areas of the right OC. Processing of auditory information in the OC has previously been shown to exist only in blind persons. Thus, the latter finding provides the first evidence of an involvement of the visual cortex in spatial hearing in sighted human subjects, and suggests a close interconnection of the neural representation of auditory and visual space. Because rTMS induced systematic shifts in auditory lateralization, but not a general deterioration, we propose that rTMS of STG or OC specifically affected neuronal circuits transforming auditory spatial coordinates in order to maintain alignment with vision.

  17. Cross-frequency power correlations reveal the right superior temporal gyrus as a hub region during working memory maintenance.

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    Park, Hyojin; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Kim, June Sic; Jensen, Ole; Chung, Chun Kee; Lee, Dong Soo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we characterized within- and cross-frequency power correlations from magnetoencephalography (MEG) data in order to understand how different brain regions cooperate as a network to maintain working memory representations with several features. The working memory items were composed of spatially arranged dots supposedly requiring both the dorsal and the ventral stream to be engaged during maintenance. Using a beamforming technique, we localized memory-dependent sources in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands. After the single-trial power values were extracted from these frequency bands with respect to each source, we calculated the correlations within- and cross-frequency bands. The following general picture emerged: gamma power in right superior temporal gyrus (STG) during working memory maintenance was correlated with numerous other sources in the alpha band in prefrontal, parietal, and posterior regions. In addition, the power correlations within the alpha band showed correlations across posterior-parietal-frontal regions. From these findings, we suggest that the STG dominated by gamma activity serves as a hub region for the network nodes responsible for the retention of the stimulus used in this study, which is likely to depend on both the "where-" and the "what-" visual system simultaneously. The present study demonstrates how oscillatory dynamics reflecting the interaction between cortical areas can be investigated by means of cross-frequency power correlations in source space. This methodological framework could be of general utility when studying functional network properties of the working brain.

  18. Altered activity and functional connectivity of superior temporal gyri in anxiety disorders: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

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    Zhao, Xiaohu; Xi, Qian; Wang, Peijun; Li, Chunbo [Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai (China); He, Hongjian [Bio-X lab, Dept. of Physics, Zhe Jiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-08-15

    The prior functional MRI studies have demonstrated significantly abnormal activity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) of anxiety patients. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether the abnormal activity in these regions was related to a loss of functional connectivity between these regions. Ten healthy controls and 10 anxiety patients underwent noninvasive fMRI while actively listening to emotionally neutral words alternated by silence (Task 1) or threat-related words (Task 2). The participants were instructed to silently make a judgment of each word's valence (i.e., unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral). A coherence analysis was applied to the functional MRI data to examine the functional connectivity between the left and the right STG, which was selected as the primary region of interest on the basis of our prior results. The data demonstrated that the anxiety patients exhibited significantly increased activation in the bilateral STG than the normal controls. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that the patient group showed significantly decreased degree of connectivity between the bilateral STG during processing Task 2 compared to Task 1 (t = 2.588, p = 0.029). In addition, a significantly decreased connectivity was also observed in the patient group compared to the control group during processing Task 2 (t = 2.810, p = 0.012). Anxiety patients may exhibit increased activity of the STG but decreased functional connectivity between the left and right STG, which may reflect the underlying neural abnormality of anxiety disorder, and this will provide new insights into this disease.

  19. Responses in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus show a feature-based response to facial expression.

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    Flack, Tessa R; Andrews, Timothy J; Hymers, Mark; Al-Mosaiwi, Mohammed; Marsden, Samuel P; Strachan, James W A; Trakulpipat, Chayanit; Wang, Liang; Wu, Tian; Young, Andrew W

    2015-08-01

    The face-selective region of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) plays an important role in analysing facial expressions. However, it is less clear how facial expressions are represented in this region. In this study, we used the face composite effect to explore whether the pSTS contains a holistic or feature-based representation of facial expression. Aligned and misaligned composite images were created from the top and bottom halves of faces posing different expressions. In Experiment 1, participants performed a behavioural matching task in which they judged whether the top half of two images was the same or different. The ability to discriminate the top half of the face was affected by changes in the bottom half of the face when the images were aligned, but not when they were misaligned. This shows a holistic behavioural response to expression. In Experiment 2, we used fMR-adaptation to ask whether the pSTS has a corresponding holistic neural representation of expression. Aligned or misaligned images were presented in blocks that involved repeating the same image or in which the top or bottom half of the images changed. Increased neural responses were found in the right pSTS regardless of whether the change occurred in the top or bottom of the image, showing that changes in expression were detected across all parts of the face. However, in contrast to the behavioural data, the pattern did not differ between aligned and misaligned stimuli. This suggests that the pSTS does not encode facial expressions holistically. In contrast to the pSTS, a holistic pattern of response to facial expression was found in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Together, these results suggest that pSTS reflects an early stage in the processing of facial expression in which facial features are represented independently.

  20. Facial expression recognition takes longer in the posterior superior temporal sulcus than in the occipital face area.

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    Pitcher, David

    2014-07-02

    Neuroimaging studies have identified a face-selective region in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) that responds more strongly during facial expression recognition tasks than during facial identity recognition tasks, but precisely when the rpSTS begins to causally contribute to expression recognition is unclear. The present study addressed this issue using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In Experiment 1, repetitive TMS delivered over the rpSTS of human participants, at a frequency of 10 Hz for 500 ms, selectively impaired a facial expression task but had no effect on a matched facial identity task. In Experiment 2, participants performed the expression task only while double-pulse TMS (dTMS) was delivered over the rpSTS or over the right occipital face area (rOFA), a face-selective region in lateral occipital cortex, at different latencies up to 210 ms after stimulus onset. Task performance was selectively impaired when dTMS was delivered over the rpSTS at 60-100 ms and 100-140 ms. dTMS delivered over the rOFA impaired task performance at 60-100 ms only. These results demonstrate that the rpSTS causally contributes to expression recognition and that it does so over a longer time-scale than the rOFA. This difference in the length of the TMS induced impairment between the rpSTS and the rOFA suggests that the neural computations that contribute to facial expression recognition in each region are functionally distinct.

  1. Coding for stimulus velocity by temporal patterning of spike discharges in visual cells of cat superior colliculus.

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    Mandl, G

    1993-07-01

    Statistical analyses, performed on extracellularly recorded spike trains generated by 69 single motion sensitive visual cells in the intermediate layers of superior colliculi of pretrigeminal cat preparations, revealed that--even in the unstimulated condition (38/69)--most neuronal spike discharge patterns tended to switch between two stochastically distinct states, in the form of rapidly alternating "bursting" (high frequency) and "resting" (low frequency) episodes. The numbers of consecutive interspike intervals within a given state were, as a rule, independent integer-valued random variables with discrete probability distributions, in essential agreement with the semi-Markov model proposed by Ekholm and Hyvärinen [(1970) Biophysical Journal, 10, 773-796]. The introduction of visual stimuli (47/69) moving with velocities of 2-160 deg/sec caused systematic and reproducible changes in the ratio of bursting to resting activities, decreases in overall discharge variability, and increases in signal transinformation flow. Moreover, with one group of stimulated cells (28/47), increasing stimulus velocity caused increasingly precise ("stimulus-forced") synchronization of bursting episodes with specific phases of stimulus movement; while for a smaller group (12/47), stimulus-related alternations between bursting and resting states assumed the form of semi-rhythmical burst discharges within the characteristic 60-80 Hz "gamma oscillation" range ("stimulus-induced" synchronization). For a minority of cells (7/47), switching between bursting and resting states--although characteristically modified by stimulus velocity--remained largely desynchronized with all phases of stimulus transit. It was argued that such temporal patterns of discharge may constitute elements of a candidate "distribution" code for movement detection by the cat visual system.

  2. Virtual lesion of right posterior superior temporal sulcus modulates conscious visual perception of fearful expressions in faces and bodies.

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    Candidi, Matteo; Stienen, Bernard M C; Aglioti, Salvatore M; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-04-01

    The posterior Superior Temporal Suclus (pSTS) represents a central hub in the complex cerebral network for person perception and emotion recognition as also suggested by its heavy connections with face- and body-specific cortical (e.g., the fusiform face area, FFA and the extrastriate body area, EBA) and subcortical structures (e.g., amygdala). Information on whether pSTS is causatively involved in sustaining conscious visual perception of emotions expressed by faces and bodies is lacking. We explored this issue by combining a binocular rivalry procedure (where emotional and neutral face and body postures rivaled with house images) with off-line, 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We found that temporary inhibition of the right pSTS reduced perceptual dominance of fearful faces and increased perceptual dominance of fearful bodies, while leaving unaffected the perception of neutral face and body images. Inhibition of the vertex had no effect on conscious visual perception of neutral or emotional face or body stimuli. Thus, the right pSTS plays a causal role in shortening conscious vision of fearful faces and in prolonging conscious vision of fearful bodies. These results suggest that pSTS selectively modulates the activity of segregated networks involved in the conscious visual perception of emotional faces or bodies. We speculate that the opposite role of the right pSTS for conscious perception of fearful face and body may be explained by the different connections that this region entertains with face- and body-selective visual areas as well as with amygdalae and premotor regions.

  3. Hyperintense ipsilateral cortical sulci on FLAIR imaging in carotid stenosis: ivy sign equivalent from enlarged leptomeningeal collaterals.

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    Hacein-Bey, Lotfi; Mukundan, Govind; Shahi, Kavian; Chan, Hung; Tajlil, Ali T

    2014-01-01

    Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging provides high contrast between hyperintense lesions and normal tissue. Hyperintense structures in convexity sulci are commonly linked to abnormal cerebrospinal fluid composition, whether blood, protein, or infection. A patient with hemispheric transient ischemic attacks from severe carotid stenosis had hyperintense convexity sulci on FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging, interpreted as possible prior hemorrhage, making the patient ineligible for carotid stent reconstruction. Retrospective analysis revealed that hyperintense sulci were dilated leptomeningeal collaterals. In severe arterial disease causing cerebral hypoperfusion, dilated leptomeningeal vessels should be considered a cause for serpiginous hyperintense structures on FLAIR imaging, similar to the "ivy sign" described in moya-moya patients.

  4. Poor Receptive Joint Attention Skills Are Associated with Atypical Grey Matter Asymmetry in the Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes

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    William eHopkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental data have implicated the posterior superior temporal gyrus as an important cortical region in the processing of socially relevant stimuli such as gaze following, eye direction, and head orientation. Gaze following and responding to different socio-communicative signals is an important and highly adaptive skill in primates, including humans. Here, we examined whether individual differences in responding to socio-communicative cues was associated with variation in either grey matter volume and asymmetry in a sample of chimpanzees. MRI scans and behavioral data on receptive joint attention (RJA was obtained from a sample of 191 chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees that performed poorly on the RJA task had more rightward asymmetries in the posterior but not anterior superior temporal gyrus. We further found that middle-aged and elderly chimpanzee performed more poorly on the RJA task and had significantly less grey matter than young-adult and sub-adult chimpanzees. The results are consistent with previous studies implicating the posterior temporal gyrus in the processing of socially relevant information.

  5. Pantomiming tool use with an imaginary tool in hand as compared to demonstration with tool in hand specifically modulates the left middle and superior temporal gyri.

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    Lausberg, Hedda; Kazzer, Philipp; Heekeren, Hauke R; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2015-10-01

    Neuropsychological lesion studies evidence the necessity to differentiate between various forms of tool-related actions such as real tool use, tool use demonstration with tool in hand and without physical target object, and pantomime without tool in hand. However, thus far, neuroimaging studies have primarily focused only on investigating tool use pantomimes. The present fMRI study investigates pantomime without tool in hand as compared to tool use demonstration with tool in hand in order to explore patterns of cerebral signal modulation associated with acting with imaginary tools in hand. Fifteen participants performed with either hand (i) tool use pantomime with an imaginary tool in hand in response to visual tool presentation and (ii) tool use demonstration with tool in hand in response to visual-tactile tool presentation. In both conditions, no physical target object was present. The conjunction analysis of the right and left hands executions of tool use pantomime relative to tool use demonstration yielded significant activity in the left middle and superior temporal lobe. In contrast, demonstration relative to pantomime revealed large bihemispherically distributed homologous areas of activity. Thus far, fMRI studies have demonstrated the relevance of the left middle and superior temporal gyri in viewing, naming, and matching tools and related actions and contexts. Since in our study all these factors were equally (ir)relevant both in the tool use pantomime and the tool use demonstration conditions, the present findings enhance the knowledge about the function of these brain regions in tool-related cognitive processes. The two contrasted conditions only differ regarding the fact that the pantomime condition requires the individual to act with an imaginary tool in hand. Therefore, we suggest that the left middle and superior temporal gyri are specifically involved in integrating the projected mental image of a tool in the execution of a tool-specific movement

  6. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: A possible trait marker

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    Philipp eHoman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The left superior temporal gyrus (STG has been suggested to play a key role in auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Eleven medicated subjects with schizophrenia and medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations and 19 healthy controls underwent perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling. Three additional repeated measurements were conducted in the patients. Patients underwent a treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS between the first 2 measurements. The main outcome measure was the pooled cerebral blood flow (CBF, which consisted of the regional CBF measurement in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG and the global CBF measurement in the whole brain.Results: Regional CBF in the left STG in patients was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.0001 and to the global CBF in patients (p < 0.004 at baseline. Regional CBF in the left STG remained significantly increased compared to the global CBF in patients across time (p < 0.0007, and it remained increased in patients after TMS compared to the baseline CBF in controls (p < 0.0001. After TMS, PANSS (p = 0.003 and PSYRATS (p = 0.01 scores decreased significantly in patients.Conclusions: This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  7. Signed words in the congenitally deaf evoke typical late lexicosemantic responses with no early visual responses in left superior temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Matthew K; Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Torres, Christina; Travis, Katherine E; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I; Halgren, Eric

    2012-07-11

    Congenitally deaf individuals receive little or no auditory input, and when raised by deaf parents, they acquire sign as their native and primary language. We asked two questions regarding how the deaf brain in humans adapts to sensory deprivation: (1) is meaning extracted and integrated from signs using the same classical left hemisphere frontotemporal network used for speech in hearing individuals, and (2) in deafness, is superior temporal cortex encompassing primary and secondary auditory regions reorganized to receive and process visual sensory information at short latencies? Using MEG constrained by individual cortical anatomy obtained with MRI, we examined an early time window associated with sensory processing and a late time window associated with lexicosemantic integration. We found that sign in deaf individuals and speech in hearing individuals activate a highly similar left frontotemporal network (including superior temporal regions surrounding auditory cortex) during lexicosemantic processing, but only speech in hearing individuals activates auditory regions during sensory processing. Thus, neural systems dedicated to processing high-level linguistic information are used for processing language regardless of modality or hearing status, and we do not find evidence for rewiring of afferent connections from visual systems to auditory cortex.

  8. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains

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    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P.; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. PMID:26350727

  9. Finite element analysis for normal pressure hydrocephalus: The effects of the integration of sulci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hakseung; Park, Dae-Hyeon; Yi, Seong; Jeong, Eun-Jin; Yoon, Byung C; Czosnyka, Marek; Sutcliffe, Michael P F; Kim, Dong-Joo

    2015-08-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) is increasingly used to investigate the brain under various pathological changes. Although FEA has been used to study hydrocephalus for decades, previous studies have primarily focused on ventriculomegaly. The present study aimed to investigate the pathologic changes regarding sulcal deformation in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Two finite element (FE) models-an anatomical brain geometric (ABG) model and the conventional simplified brain geometric (SBG) model-of NPH were constructed. The models were constructed with identical boundary conditions but with different geometries. The ABG model contained details of the sulci geometry, whereas these details were omitted from the SBG model. The resulting pathologic changes were assessed via four biomechanical parameters: pore pressure, von Mises stress, pressure, and void ratio. NPH was induced by increasing the transmantle pressure gradient (TPG) from 0 to a maximum of 2.0 mmHg. Both models successfully simulated the major features of NPH (i.e., ventriculomegaly and periventricular lucency). The changes in the biomechanical parameters with increasing TPG were similar between the models. However, the SBG model underestimated the degree of stress across the cerebral mantle by 150% compared with the ABG model. The SBG model also overestimates the degree of ventriculomegaly (increases of 194.5% and 154.1% at TPG = 2.0 mmHg for the SBG and ABG models, respectively). Including the sulci geometry in a FEA for NPH clearly affects the overall results. The conventional SBG model is inferior to the ABG model, which accurately simulated sulcal deformation and the consequent effects on cortical or subcortical structures. The inclusion of sulci in future FEA for the brain is strongly advised, especially for models used to investigate space-occupying lesions.

  10. Electric power and desalinated water co-production from Sulcis coal gasification project - Sardinia, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, E.; Utzeri, B.; Figus, M. (IST Engineers and Contractors, Cagliari (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    Because of environmental constraints, coal gasification is the only process which can be used to process Sulcis coal. Pilot plant IGCC tests have shown that high carbon conversion rates are possible, minimum emissions are achievable, and chemically and physically inert slag can be produced. Studies have also been undertaken of a co-production plant with the capability of recovering the discharged thermal energy into water cooling condensers feeding a desalination plant for production of industrial water from sea water. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Intensity and sulci landmark combined brain atlas construction for Chinese pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yishan; Shi, Lin; Weng, Jian; He, Hongjian; Chu, Winnie C W; Chen, Feiyan; Wang, Defeng

    2014-08-01

    Constructing an atlas from a population of brain images is of vital importance to medical image analysis. Especially in neuroscience study, creating a brain atlas is useful for intra- and inter-population comparison. Research on brain atlas construction has attracted great attention in recent years, but the research on pediatric population is still limited, mainly due to the limited availability and the relatively low quality of pediatric magnetic resonance brain images. This article is targeted at creating a high quality representative brain atlas for Chinese pediatric population. To achieve this goal, we have designed a set of preprocessing procedures to improve the image quality and developed an intensity and sulci landmark combined groupwise registration method to align the population of images for atlas construction. As demonstrated in experiments, the newly constructed atlas can better represent the size and shape of brains of Chinese pediatric population, and show better performance in Chinese pediatric brain image analysis compared with other standard atlases.

  12. The Impact of Single Session Intermittent Theta-Burst Stimulation over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus on Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Hsing-Chang Ni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, a patterned repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, was applied over the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC to explore its impact in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Among 25 adults with ASD, 19 (mean age: 20.8 years completed the randomized, sham-controlled, crossover trial. Every participant received iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC, bilateral pSTS and inion (as a sham control stimulation in a randomized order with a 1-week interval. Neuropsychological functions were assessed using the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Behavioral outcomes were measured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS. In comparison to that in the sham stimulation, the reaction time in the CCPT significantly decreased following single DLPFC session (p = 0.04, effect size = 0.71 while there were no significant differences in the CCPT and WCST following single pSTS session. Besides, the results in behavioral outcomes were inconsistent and had discrepancy between reports of parents and patients. In conclusion, a single session of iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC may alter the neuropsychological function in adults with ASD. The impacts of multiple-sessions iTBS over the DLPFC or pSTS deserve further investigations.

  13. Activity changes in the left superior temporal sulcus reflect the effects of childcare training on young female students' perceptions of infants' negative facial expressions.

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    Ito, Ayahito; Niwano, Katsuko; Tanabe, Motoko; Sato, Yosuke; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2017-09-12

    In many developed countries, the number of infants who experience non-parent childcare is increasing, and the role of preschool teachers is becoming more important. However, little attention has been paid to the effects of childcare training on students who are studying to become preschool teachers. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether and how childcare training affects brain responses to infants' facial expressions among young females studying to become preschool teachers. Twenty-seven subjects who attended a childcare training session (i.e., the experimental group) and 28 subjects who did not attend the training (i.e., the control group) participated in this study. The participants went through fMRI scanning twice: before and after the childcare training session. They were presented with happy, neutral, and sad infant faces one by one during fMRI scanning. The present neuroimaging results revealed that the activity patterns of the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) for sad faces were modulated by the interaction between the time point of the data collection and group differences. The present results are the first to highlight the effects of childcare training on the human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Action word Related to Walk Heard by the Ears Activates Visual Cortex and Superior Temporal Gyrus: An fMRI Study

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    Naoyuki Osaka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience of language of action processing is one of the interesting issues on the cortical “seat” of word meaning and related action (Pulvermueller, 1999 Behavioral Brain Sciences 22 253–336. For example, generation of action verbs referring to various arm or leg actions (e.g., pick or kick differentially activate areas along the motor strip that overlap with those areas activated by actual movement of the fingers or feet (Hauk et al., 2004 Neuron 41 301–307. Meanwhile, mimic words like onomatopoeia have the other potential to selectively and strongly stimulate specific brain regions having a specified “seat” of action meaning. In fact, mimic words highly suggestive of laughter and gaze significantly activated the extrastriate visual /premotor cortices and the frontal eye field, respectively (Osaka et al., 2003 Neuroscience Letters 340 127–130; 2009 Neuroscience Letters 461 65–68. However, the role of a mimic word related to walk on specific brain regions has not yet been investigated. The present study showed that a mimic word highly suggestive of human walking, heard by the ears with eyes closed, significantly activated the visual cortex located in extrastriate cortex and superior temporal gyrus while hearing non-sense words that did not imply walk under the same task did not activate these areas. These areas would be a critical region for generating visual images of walking and related action.

  15. Three-dimensional probabilistic maps of the occipital sulci of the human brain in standardized stereotaxic space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaria, G; Robbins, S; Petrides, M

    2008-01-02

    Developments in functional neuroimaging in normal human subjects, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have permitted the mapping of several visual areas of the human brain and have already provided provisional identification of some of the visual areas that were first described in nonhuman primates. However, the lack of a detailed description of the sulcal patterns of the human occipital lobe makes it difficult to establish clear relationships between sulcal landmarks and identified visual areas with functional neuroimaging. In the present study we used magnetic resonance images to investigate the morphological variation of the human occipital sulci in both the left and right hemispheres of 40 normal adult human brains. We identified 11 occipital sulci, the parieto-occipital fissure and the temporo-occipital incisure, and their corresponding gray matter voxels were marked in the magnetic resonance volumes which had been transformed into the Montreal Neurological Institute standard proportional stereotaxic space. Probability maps were then constructed for each occipital sulcus. These probability maps provide a quantitative measure of the variability of the occipital sulci in standard stereotaxic space and are a useful tool to identify the location of voxels of other magnetic resonance imaging images transformed in the same stereotaxic space.

  16. RELN-expressing neuron density in layer I of the superior temporal lobe is similar in human brains with autism and in age-matched controls.

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    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2014-09-05

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A case of double depressor palsy followed by pursuit deficit due to sequential infarction in bilateral thalamus and right medial superior temporal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Yeom, Myeong In; Lee, Seung Uk

    2016-12-05

    We present a unique case of a patient who suffered two rare events affecting the supranuclear control, first of the vertical and second of the horizontal eye movements. The first event involved bilateral thalamic infarcts that resulted in double depressor palsy. The second event occurred 1 year later and it involved supranuclear control of horizontal eye movements creating pursuit deficit. A 47-year-old male presented with complaints of diplopia upon awakening. He had atrial fibrillation, mitral valve regurgitation, aortic valve regurgitation, and a history of spleen infarction 1 year ago. His right eye was hypertrophic and right eye downgaze was limited unilaterally of equal degree in adduction and abduction. The patient was diagnosed with double depressor palsy of the right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed an old infarction of the left thalamus, and diffusion MRI showed acute infarction of the right thalamus. The patient's daily warfarin dose was 2 mg and it was increased to 5 mg with cilostazol 75 mg twice a day. Seven weeks later, the patient's ocular movement revealed near normal muscle action, and subjectively, the patient was diplopia free. At follow-up 12 months later, the patient revisited the hospital because of sudden onset of blurred vision on right gaze. He was observed to have smooth pursuit deficit to the right side, and orthophoric position of the eyes in primary gaze. MRI of the brain showed an acute infarction in the right medial superior temporal area. The patient experienced very rare abnormal eyeball movements twice. This case highlights the importance of evaluating vertical movement of the eyes and vascular supplies when patients present with depressor deficit and supports the theory of a supranuclear function in patients who present with pursuit deficit.

  18. On the definition and interpretation of voice selective activation in the temporal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eBethmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Regions along the superior temporal sulci and in the anterior temporal lobes have been found to be involved in voice processing. It has even been argued that parts of the temporal cortices serve as voice-selective areas. Yet, evidence for voice-selective activation in the strict sense is still missing. The current fMRI study aimed at assessing the degree of voice-specific processing in different parts of the superior and middle temporal cortices. To this end, voices of famous persons were contrasted with widely different categories, which were sounds of animals and musical instruments. The argumentation was that only brain regions with statistically proven absence of activation by the control stimuli may be considered as candidates for voice-selective areas. Neural activity was found to be stronger in response to human voices in all analyzed parts of the temporal lobes except for the middle and posterior STG. More importantly, the activation differences between voices and the other environmental sounds increased continuously from the mid-posterior STG to the anterior MTG. Here, only voices but not the control stimuli excited an increase of the BOLD response above a resting baseline level. The findings are discussed with reference to the function of the anterior temporal lobes in person recognition and the general question on how to define selectivity of brain regions for a specific class of stimuli or tasks. In addition, our results corroborate recent assumptions about the hierarchical organization of auditory processing building on a processing stream from the primary auditory cortices to anterior portions of the temporal lobes.

  19. Automated sulcal depth measurement on cortical surface reflecting geometrical properties of sulci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk Jin Yun

    Full Text Available Sulcal depth that is one of the quantitative measures of cerebral cortex has been widely used as an important marker for brain morphological studies. Several studies have employed Euclidean (EUD or geodesic (GED algorithms to measure sulcal depth, which have limitations that ignore sulcal geometry in highly convoluted regions and result in under or overestimated depth. In this study, we proposed an automated measurement for sulcal depth on cortical surface reflecting geometrical properties of sulci, which named the adaptive distance transform (ADT. We first defined the volume region of cerebrospinal fluid between the 3D convex hull and the cortical surface, and constructed local coordinates for that restricted region. Dijkstra's algorithm was then used to compute the shortest paths from the convex hull to the vertices of the cortical surface based on the local coordinates, which may be the most proper approach for defining sulcal depth. We applied our algorithm to both a clinical dataset including patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD and 25 normal controls and a simulated dataset whose shape was similar to a single sulcus. The mean sulcal depth in the mild AD group was significantly lower than controls (p = 0.007, normal [mean±SD]: 7.29±0.23 mm, AD: 7.11±0.29 and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was relatively high, showing the value of 0.818. Results from clinical dataset that were consistent with former studies using EUD or GED demonstrated that ADT was sensitive to cortical atrophy. The robustness against inter-individual variability of ADT was highlighted through simulation dataset. ADT showed a low and constant normalized difference between the depth of the simulated data and the calculated depth, whereas EUD and GED had high and variable differences. We suggest that ADT is more robust than EUD or GED and might be a useful alternative algorithm for measuring sulcal depth.

  20. Absent activation in medial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction but not superior temporal sulcus during the perception of biological motion in schizophrenia: a functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Naoki Hashimoto,1,2 Atsuhito Toyomaki,1 Masahiro Hirai,3 Tamaki Miyamoto,1 Hisashi Narita,1 Ryo Okubo,1 Ichiro Kusumi1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 2Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Center for Development of Advanced Medical Technology, Jichi Medical University, Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan Background: Patients with schizophrenia show disturbances in both visual perception and social cognition. Perception of biological motion (BM is a higher-level visual process, and is known to be associated with social cognition. BM induces activation in the “social brain network”, including the superior temporal sulcus (STS. Although deficits in the detection of BM and atypical activation in the STS have been reported in patients with schizophrenia, it remains unclear whether other nodes of the “social brain network” are also atypical in patients with schizophrenia.Purpose: We aimed to explore whether brain regions other than STS were involved during BM perception in patients with schizophrenia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI.Methods and patients: Seventeen patients with schizophrenia, and 17 age- and sex- matched healthy controls, underwent fMRI scanning during a one-back visual task, containing three experimental conditions: (1 BM, (2 scrambled motion (SM, and (3 static condition. We used one-sample t-tests to examine neural responses selective to BM versus SM within each group, and two-sample t-tests to directly compare neural patterns to BM versus SM in schizophrenics versus controls.Results: We found significant activation in the STS region when BM was contrasted with SM in both groups, with no significant difference between groups. On the contrary, significant activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC and bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ was found only in the

  1. Vertical and temporal variability in concentration and distribution of thaumarchaeotal tetraether lipids in Lake Superior and the implications for the application of the TEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, M.; Werne, J.P.; Kish, J.L.; Hicks, R.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the vertical and temporal distribution of Thaumarchaeota derived core isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids through sampling and analysis of both suspended particulate matter from the water column at different times in the annual cycle and a 3 year lon

  2. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia: The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-José van Tol

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: Results suggest that STG GM abnormalities underlie the general susceptibility to experience psychotic symptoms and that additional abnormalities in a network of medial temporal, ventrolateral, putaminal, and parietal regions related to verbal memory and speech production may specifically increase the likelihood of experiencing AVH. Future studies should clarify the meaning of morphometry abnormalities for functional interregional communication.

  3. Time Course of the Involvement of the Right Anterior Superior Temporal Gyrus and the Right Fronto-Parietal Operculum in Emotional Prosody Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekert, Marjolijn; Bais, Leonie; Kahn, Rene S.; Aleman, Andre

    2008-01-01

    In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody) conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional

  4. Feasibility study (I stage) of CO{sub 2} geological storage by ECBM techniques in the Sulcis coal province (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedora Quattrocchi; Roberto Bencini; Carlo Amorino (and others) [Istituto Nazionale Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    An ECBM feasibility study started for the Sulcis Coal Province (SW Sardinia, Italy): available geochemical, structural-geology, stratigraphic and reservoir engineering considerations as well as the newly gathered experimental data are discussed, including fluid geochemistry (major and minor elements, dissolved gases, C and He isotopic ratios) of different strata/reservoir, coal composition and experimental data on CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} adsorption on coal. A MapInfo GIS structure was built up including stratigraphic, geo-structural, hydro-geochemical, coal-compositional and environmental-impact information as well as the CO{sub 2} sources location and typology. Though preliminary, these data highlight both the positive and negative features of the Sulcis Coal Province with respect to the exploitation of the ECBM technique. CO{sub 2} geological storage and CH{sub 4} production potentials in Sulcis have been roughly evaluated as a whole, in the frame of the Sardinia region CO{sub 2} sources, including the coal-fired power plants, both existent and foreseen (hundreds of millions of tonnes of CO{sub 2} are possible to be stored underground in the next decades). The most important objective of this phase I of the project is the selection of the best Sulcis ECBM test-pilot site, which will be followed by the choice of a site for scale up (Phase II-2007) and possibly by future full scale implementation within a network type of project (Phase III-2008). 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Application of MRI volume rendering in surgical approach by superior temporal sulcus-temporal horn of lateral ventricle%MRI容量重建技术在颞上沟-侧脑室颞角手术入路选择中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白芃; 刘彩霞; 贾林沛; 刘浩源; 苏略; 孙维; 李幼琼

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过测量经颞上沟-侧脑室颞角手术入路的相关数据,初步定位大脑背外侧面颞上沟进入侧脑室最短距离的点,寻找经颞上沟进入侧脑室颞角的最佳手术入路点。方法:选取120例成年人脑部 MRI扫描标本,利用容量重建技术构建大脑三维立体模型,测得颞上沟的长度 S1。沿垂直于颞叶长轴的方向以1.0 mm间距切割得到多个冠状切面,依次测量颞上沟到侧脑室颞角的距离并确定最短距离S2,同时测量颞上沟的深度S3,测量大脑颞上沟表面相对应的最短距离点到颞上沟前端起始部的距离 S4,计算 S4与 S1的比值 M,同时测量最短距离与正中矢状位方向之间的夹角α。所有样本进行双侧测量,对比两侧的测量结果。结果:120例国人的 S1左侧为(159.56±17.55)mm,右侧为(164.35±15.07)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);S2左侧为(8.18±0.96)mm,右侧为(7.81±0.90)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);S3左侧为(12.19±1.43)mm,右侧为(11.57±1.33)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);S4左侧为(100.88±16.09)mm,右侧为(104.15±14.49)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);M左侧为(0.63±0.07),右侧为(0.63±0.06),左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);α左侧为(55.80±3.64)°,右侧为(56.46±4.17)°,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:颞上沟前端3/5处可能为理想的手术入路点,由该点进入侧脑室颞角距离最短,提示实施颞上沟-侧脑室颞角手术时该入路可减少对脑组织损伤。%Objective To acquire some related data of surgical approach through brain superior temporal sulcus to temporal horn of lateral ventricle by MRI volume rendering, and to orientate the point of superior temporal sulcus on the lateral

  6. Relation of trophic changes in the central nervous system, measured by the width of cordical sulci, to the clinical course of anorexia nervosa (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogal, Pawel; Pniewska-Siark, Barbara; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2008-12-01

    In patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), computer tomography (CT) scanning and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MR) are usually applied to visualise trophic changes of the brain, resulting from considerable malnutrition or general cachexia of the organism. The goal of the study was an evaluation attempt of the degree of trophic changes in the central nervous system (CNS) of girls with AN, following CT scanning of the brain, together with an analysis of selected clinical and diagnostic parameters, related to the trophic changes in question. The study involved fifty-five (55) female patients with AN. Following CT of the brain - scanning of the cortical sulci - four (4) groups of the patients were identified. The following classification of lesions was applied: Group I - width of cortical sulci 3 mm. We did not observe any patient with AN in whom the width of all the cortical sulci was bigger than 3 mm (Group V). In all the groups, clinical parameters, as well as routine laboratory tests and selected hormonal tests, were analysed. In the performed CT scanning of the head in patients with AN, trophic changes in the CNS (as evaluated by the width of cortical sulci) were revealed in 67.3% of the patients. Among the studied groups, statistically significant differences were found for: body weight loss (BWL), the percent of BWL (BWL%), the BWL to disease duration ratio (BWL/time) and BWL%/time, serum concentrations of potassium, calcium, glucose, total protein and urea, as well as serum concentrations of LH, E2, cortisol, FT3 and FT4. The most pronounced disturbances were observed in Group IV, while the least ones - in Group I. In CT scanning of the head, trophic changes in the CNS were observed in girls with AN, measured by the width of cortical sulci. The higher severity of trophic changes in the CNS was associated with higher BWL/time ratio, higher hypercortisolemia, more enhanced hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, disorders in the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid

  7. Contributions to singing ability by the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus of the non-language-dominant hemisphere: first evidence from subdural cortical stimulation, Wada testing, and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Ralph O; Golby, Alexandra; Whalen, Stephen; Sato, Susumu; Theodore, William H; Kufta, Conrad V; Devinsky, Orrin; Balish, Marshall; Bromfield, Edward B

    2010-03-01

    Although the substrates that mediate singing abilities in the human brain are not well understood, invasive brain mapping techniques used for clinical decision making such as intracranial electro-cortical testing and Wada testing offer a rare opportunity to examine music-related function in a select group of subjects, affording exceptional spatial and temporal specificity. We studied eight patients with medically refractory epilepsy undergoing indwelling subdural electrode seizure focus localization. All patients underwent Wada testing for language lateralization. Functional assessment of language and music tasks was done by electrode grid cortical stimulation. One patient was also tested non-invasively with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Functional organization of singing ability compared to language ability was determined based on four regions-of-interest (ROIs): left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and left and right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG). In some subjects, electrical stimulation of dominant pSTG can interfere with speech and not singing, whereas stimulation of non-dominant pSTG area can interfere with singing and not speech. Stimulation of the dominant IFG tends to interfere with both musical and language expression, while non-dominant IFG stimulation was often observed to cause no interference with either task; and finally, that stimulation of areas adjacent to but not within non-dominant pSTG typically does not affect either ability. Functional fMRI mappings of one subject revealed similar music/language dissociation with respect to activation asymmetry within the ROIs. Despite inherent limitations with respect to strictly research objectives, invasive clinical techniques offer a rare opportunity to probe musical and language cognitive processes of the brain in a select group of patients. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  8. Visual Field Map Clusters in High-Order Visual Processing: Organization of V3A/V3B and a New Cloverleaf Cluster in the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Brian; Brewer, Alyssa A

    2017-01-01

    The cortical hierarchy of the human visual system has been shown to be organized around retinal spatial coordinates throughout much of low- and mid-level visual processing. These regions contain visual field maps (VFMs) that each follows the organization of the retina, with neighboring aspects of the visual field processed in neighboring cortical locations. On a larger, macrostructural scale, groups of such sensory cortical field maps (CFMs) in both the visual and auditory systems are organized into roughly circular cloverleaf clusters. CFMs within clusters tend to share properties such as receptive field distribution, cortical magnification, and processing specialization. Here we use fMRI and population receptive field (pRF) modeling to investigate the extent of VFM and cluster organization with an examination of higher-level visual processing in temporal cortex and compare these measurements to mid-level visual processing in dorsal occipital cortex. In human temporal cortex, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) has been implicated in various neuroimaging studies as subserving higher-order vision, including face processing, biological motion perception, and multimodal audiovisual integration. In human dorsal occipital cortex, the transverse occipital sulcus (TOS) contains the V3A/B cluster, which comprises two VFMs subserving mid-level motion perception and visuospatial attention. For the first time, we present the organization of VFMs in pSTS in a cloverleaf cluster. This pSTS cluster contains four VFMs bilaterally: pSTS-1:4. We characterize these pSTS VFMs as relatively small at ∼125 mm(2) with relatively large pRF sizes of ∼2-8° of visual angle across the central 10° of the visual field. V3A and V3B are ∼230 mm(2) in surface area, with pRF sizes here similarly ∼1-8° of visual angle across the same region. In addition, cortical magnification measurements show that a larger extent of the pSTS VFM surface areas are devoted to the peripheral

  9. T'ain't what you say, it's the way that you say it--left insula and inferior frontal cortex work in interaction with superior temporal regions to control the performance of vocal impersonations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Manly, Tom; Wisbey, Duncan; Scott, Sophie K

    2013-11-01

    Historically, the study of human identity perception has focused on faces, but the voice is also central to our expressions and experiences of identity [Belin, P., Fecteau, S., & Bedard, C. Thinking the voice: Neural correlates of voice perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 129-135, 2004]. Our voices are highly flexible and dynamic; talkers speak differently, depending on their health, emotional state, and the social setting, as well as extrinsic factors such as background noise. However, to date, there have been no studies of the neural correlates of identity modulation in speech production. In the current fMRI experiment, we measured the neural activity supporting controlled voice change in adult participants performing spoken impressions. We reveal that deliberate modulation of vocal identity recruits the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus, supporting the planning of novel articulations. Bilateral sites in posterior superior temporal/inferior parietal cortex and a region in right middle/anterior STS showed greater responses during the emulation of specific vocal identities than for impressions of generic accents. Using functional connectivity analyses, we describe roles for these three sites in their interactions with the brain regions supporting speech planning and production. Our findings mark a significant step toward understanding the neural control of vocal identity, with wider implications for the cognitive control of voluntary motor acts.

  10. Characteristics of the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of China’s Superiority Olympic Events%我国奥运优势项目时空演变发展特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓林; 任德利; 袁锋

    2015-01-01

    In the present project,we looked at the number of gold medals that China has won at the Olympic Sum-mer and Winter Games,the places of origin of the gold medalists,and the characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of the gold-winning sports events. Temporally,we found a wave-like upward pattern in the number of gold medals,and that superiority events are mainly distributed among six events,i. e. ,weightlifting,gymnastics div-ing,shooting,table tennis and badminton, in four major subgroups of events:the speed-and-power-demanding, the difficulty-and-beauty-demanding,the accuracy-demanding,and the net events,the first subgroup being based on fit-ness and the latter three on skill. The superiority Olympic events have contributed 74. 6%of all gold medals won by China at the Olympic Games,with an uneven regional distribution,showing a difference in quality longitudinally and one in quantity latitudinally. These events are distributed over three regions,which are rated as strong,fairly strong and weak respectively. For the comprehensive upgrade of China’s competitiveness in the Olympic events,we suggest deepening the priority development strategy,seizing the opportunity for national coordinated regional development to promote coordinated regional development of competitive sports,working for an even distribution and development of the superiority Olympic events,and broadening development paths.%利用文献资料法、数理统计法与比较研究法等,对我国所参加的历届夏季奥运会与冬季奥运会所获金牌数量、金牌运动员籍贯以及金牌项目的时空分布特征进行研究。结果表明:我国奥运会金牌总数在时间分布上呈现波浪式前进态势;我国奥运优势项目主要分布在体能主导类的快速力量性,技能主导类的表现难美性、表现准确性、隔网对抗性四大亚项群的举重、体操与跳水、射击、乒乓球与羽毛球六个项目;奥运优势

  11. Cochlear implant outcomes in patients with superior canal dehiscence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Roberts, Daniel S.; Niesten, Marlien E F; Dilger, Amanda E.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether adult cochlear implant (CI) users with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) or asymptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) have different surgical, vestibular, and audiologic outcomes when compared to CI users with normal temporal bone anatomy. Meth

  12. Sulci Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. This is the Noctis Labyrinthus region of Mars. These collapse pits are forming along structural fractures that are allowing the release of volatiles from the subsurface. This is believed to be the way that chaos terrain forms on Mars. This area represents the early stage of chaos formation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -12.6, Longitude 264 East (96 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. 精神分裂症患者颞上回的大麻素受体密度没有显著性变化%No changes in densities of cannabinoid receptors in the superior temporal gyrus in schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓超; 韩玫; 黄旭枫

    2007-01-01

    目的 近年来研究发现,在精神分裂症患者的内源性大麻素递质系统会出现异常变化,而颞上回在精神分裂症的病理生理机制中和幻听症状密切相关.因此,对照正常人群,我们研究了精神分裂症患者颞上回大麻素CB-1受体的密度变化.方法 采用定量放射自显影技术,通过[3H]SR141716A(CB-1受体选择性拮抗剂)和[3H]CP-55940(CB-1受体激动剂)检测颞上回CB-1受体密度水平.死后脑组织由澳大利亚新南威尔士州组织资源中心提供.结果 先前研究发现,精神分裂症患者与认知功能失常相关的额前叶,前、后扣带回皮质的CB-1受体密度水平有异常改变.与此相反,本研究发现在精神分裂症患者的由[3H]SR141716A和[3H]CP-55940检测的颞上回大麻素受体密度水平和对照组比较没有显著变化.结论 我们认为颞上回大麻素CB-1受体和精神分裂症患者的发病及幻听症状无关.%Objective In recent years, abnormal changes in the endocannabinoid system have been found in schizophrenia.The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, particularly with regards to auditory hallucinations. In this study, we investigated the binding density of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the STG of schizophrenia patients compared to control subjects. Methods Quantitative autoradiography was used to investigate the binding densities of [3H]SR141716A (a selective antagonist) and [3H]CP-55940 (an agonist) to the CB1 receptors in the STG. Post-mortem brain tissue was obtained from the NSW Tissue Resource Centre (Australia). Results Contrasting to previous findings in the alterations of CB1 receptor densities in the prefrontal, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex of schizophrenia, which were suggested to be associated to impairment of cognition function, no significant difference was found between the schizophrenia and control cases in both [3H]SR141716A and [3H]CP-55940

  14. Cambio climático y dinámica temporal del paisaje y de los hábitats en las ecorregiones del NW de la Península Ibérica durante el Pleistoceno superior

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Sobrino, C.; Iriarte, M. J.; Ramil-Rego, P.; L. Gómez-Orellana

    2005-01-01

    En los últimos 60 años los modelos propuestos para la interpretación de las condiciones ambientales a lo largo del Pleistoceno Superior Final han sufrido numerosos cambios determinados tanto por la adopción de nuevos conceptos científicos, como por la mejora de los métodos analíticos y sobre todo por un mayor número de registros disponibles. Del uniformismo ambiental y biogeográfico imperante a finales de la década de los ochenta, se ha pasado a incrementar el valor que las configuraciones de...

  15. Intervenção em fisioterapia, baseada no conceito de Bobath, consegue influenciar a relação neural entre o membro superior e o membro inferior, na linha temporal dos APAS's?

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Joana Cristina Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: A atividade de músculos e /ou grupos musculares que se ativam de forma estereotipada no decorrer de tarefas funcionais continua pouco compreendida nos indivíduos pós acidente vascular encefálico (AVE). A relação neural atípica entre o membro inferior (MI) e o membro superior (MS) expressa-se frequentemente através de um predomínio da atividade extensora no MI associada a componentes flexores no MS. Objectivo(s): Face ao exposto, importa perceber se em sujeitos com componente flexo...

  16. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  17. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  18. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  19. Observation on the development of fetal cerebral sulci by prenatal ultrasound%超声观察胎儿大脑沟回发育及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓康; 林惠通; 吕国荣

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pattern of development of fetal cerebral sulei by prenatal ultrasound and its clinical significance. Methods Sixty hundred and ninety-two fetuses at age from 17 to 40 weeks were observed for the development and depth of cerebral sulci (parietal-occipital sulcus, calcarine suleus, central sulcus, eingulate sulcus, cingulate gyrus, and sylvian fissure) by transabdominal ultrasonography. Results Parietal-occipital sulcus,calcarine sulcus,and sylvian fissure were visible at about 19 weeks of gestation, central sulcus was at about 25 weeks, cingulate sulcus and cingulate gyrus were at about 26 weeks. One case of them was considered as cerebral sulei growth retardation due to the signs of invisible parietal-occipital sulcus and sylvian fissure at 24 weeks of gestation. Two cases were considered as cerebral sulci growth retardation due to the signs of invisible parietal occipital sulcus and central sulcus and the shallow blunt shape of sylvian fissure at 29 weeks of gestation. There were positive correlations between the depths of fetal cerebral sulci and gestational weeks, and negative correlations between their relative depths and gestational weeks(all P <0.05), Conclusions Transabdominal ultrasonography can be use to observe the development of fetal cerebral sulci (parietal-occipital sulcus, calcarine sulcus, central sulcus, eingulate sulcus,cingulate gyrus,and sylvian fissure). The depth of cerebral sulci is relative to gestational weeks,and would be considered for prenatal assessment of cerebral sulci maldevelopment, such as cerebral sulci growth retardation and lissencephalia.%目的 探讨产前超声检测胎儿大脑沟回的发育过程及其临床意义.方法 经腹部超声观测692例孕19~39周胎儿大脑沟回(顶枕沟、距状沟、中央沟、扣带沟、扣带回、大脑外侧裂)发生、发展并测量其深度.结果 顶枕沟、距状沟、大脑外侧裂在19周左右可显示.中央沟在25周左右可显

  20. PERSISTENT LEFT SUPERIOR VENACAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A Persistent Left Superior Venacava (PLSVC is the most common variation of the thoracic venous system and rare congenital vascular anomaly and is prevalent in 0.3% of the population. It may be associated with other cardiovascular abnormalities including atrial septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of aorta, coronary sinus ostial atresia, and cor triatriatum. Incidental rotation of a dilated coronary sinus on echocardiography should raise the suspicion of PLSVC. The diagnosis should be confirmed by saline contrast echocardiography. Condition is usually asymptomatic. Here we present a rare case of persistent left superior vena cava presented in OPD with dyspnoea & palpitations.

  1. Cambio climático y dinámica temporal del paisaje y de los hábitats en las ecorregiones del NW de la Península Ibérica durante el Pleistoceno superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Muñoz Sobrino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 60 años los modelos propuestos para la interpretación de las condiciones ambientales a lo largo del Pleistoceno Superior Final han sufrido numerosos cambios determinados tanto por la adopción de nuevos conceptos científicos, como por la mejora de los métodos analíticos y sobre todo por un mayor número de registros disponibles. Del uniformismo ambiental y biogeográfico imperante a finales de la década de los ochenta, se ha pasado a incrementar el valor que las configuraciones de carácter local y regional, que afectan tanto al clima como a la composición y distribución de los ecosistemas terrestres ; y por tanto a los recursos naturales renovables que el hombre pudo haber aprovechado en cada momento. A su vez, las configuraciones locales y regionales se intregran en los modelos climáticos globales, elaborados a patir del estudio de isótopos y elementos traza obtenidos en depósitos con gran amplitud cronológica y un ritmo de deposición conocido. La integracion de la información paleoambiental a diferentes escalas temporales y espaciales obliga a rechazar, o en su caso limitar, la información paleoambiental que muestre un elevado grado de incertidumbre en relación al origen geográfico de sus componentes, o bien derivado de una tafocenosis heterogénea, o vinculado con una deposición intermitente o con mezclas de los distintos niveles.

  2. RISK CHARACTERIZATION OF A COASTAL ENVIRONMENT FACING A MINING AND INDUSTRIAL AREA IN SARDINIA (SULCIS-IGLESIENTE BY MEANS OF CLUSTER SAMPLING AND CONTAMINANTS RESEARCH ON EDIBLE FISH AND CLAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. Piras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the results obtained from the analysis carried out on various environmental substrates (sediments, sea water and bio-indicators, it can be assumed that there has been a transfer of contaminants from sediments to edible “biota” in the Boi Cerbus lagoon (Sulcis-Iglesiente. It has also been verified that the benthic clams, in particular the Cerastoderma glaucum, is the species mainly affected by heavy metals contamination, in particular Lead, even if the role of Cadmium in the lagoon would need further investigation.

  3. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  4. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  5. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  6. Statistics of superior records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistics of records in a sequence of random variables. These identical and independently distributed variables are drawn from the parent distribution ρ. The running record equals the maximum of all elements in the sequence up to a given point. We define a superior sequence as one where all running records are above the average record expected for the parent distribution ρ. We find that the fraction of superior sequences SN decays algebraically with sequence length N, SN˜N-β in the limit N→∞. Interestingly, the decay exponent β is nontrivial, being the root of an integral equation. For example, when ρ is a uniform distribution with compact support, we find β=0.450265. In general, the tail of the parent distribution governs the exponent β. We also consider the dual problem of inferior sequences, where all records are below average, and find that the fraction of inferior sequences IN decays algebraically, albeit with a different decay exponent, IN˜N-α. We use the above statistical measures to analyze earthquake data.

  7. Frenillo labial superior doble

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    Carlos Albornoz López del Castillo

    Full Text Available El frenillo labial superior doble no sindrómico es una anomalía del desarrollo que no hemos encontrado reportada en la revisión bibliográfica realizada. Se presenta una niña de 11 años de edad que fue remitida al servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "Eduardo Agramonte Piña", de Camagüey, por presentar un frenillo labial superior doble de baja inserción. Se describen los síntomas clínicos asociados a esta anomalía y el tratamiento quirúrgico utilizado para su solución: una frenectomía y plastia sobre la banda muscular frénica anormal que provocaba exceso de tejido en la mucosa labial. Consideramos muy interesante la descripción de este caso, por no haber encontrado reporte similar en la literatura revisada.

  8. Formation of category representations in superior temporal sulcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. Van der; Turennout, M. van; Indefrey, P.

    2010-01-01

    The human brain contains cortical areas specialized in representing object categories. Visual experience is known to change the responses in these category-selective areas of the brain. However, little is known about how category training specifically affects cortical category selectivity. Here, we

  9. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

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    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  10. Anatomo-radiological study of the Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crovetto, M., E-mail: macdlt@telefonica.net [Otolaryngology Department, Hospital de Basurto, University of the Basque Country, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain); Whyte, J., E-mail: jwhite@unizar.es [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Zaragoza, C/Domingo Mirall s/n, Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, O.M., E-mail: OLIVIAMARIA.RODRIGUEZSANVICENT@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Lecumberri, I., E-mail: INIGO.LECUMBERRICORTES@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida Montevideo 18, Bilbao 498013 (Spain); Martinez, C., E-mail: claudiorayosx@yahoo.es [Hospital General de la Defensa, Via Iberica s/n Zaragoza (Spain); Elexpuru, J., E-mail: jelexpuru@mac.com [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to determine the radiological incidence of Superior (SSCD) and Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (PSCD) and to compare radiologic SSCD to the incidence of this condition on cadaver specimen. We have also analysed the relation between the ossification state of the semicircular canals and the degree of mastoid pneumatization and integrity of Tegmen Tympani. Material and methods: Temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan on patients and direct observation on cadaver specimen, respectively. Results: 604 ears and 160 cadaver temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan and direct observation, respectively. 3.6% and 0.3% of the studied ears had SSCD and PSCD, respectively, on CT scan. Only 0.6% of the cadaver specimen ears did have anatomical SSCD. Degree of pneumatization of the mastoid bone is related to the mean thickness of bone overlying the Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal. Radiological absence of Tegmen Tympani is more frequent in ears that also have radiologic SSCD. Conclusion: CT scanning gives higher incidence figures of SSCD than anatomical studies, 3.6% vs. 0.6%. We also found a 0.6% incidence of radiological PSCD in the studied ears. There is a direct relation between the degree of ossification of Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal and certain temporal bone anatomic features: temporal bone pneumatization and absence/presence of Tegmen Tympani or Antri.

  11. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    into account. This may require investments in new project management technologies. Originality/value – This paper adds to the literatures on project temporalities and stakeholder theory by connecting them to the question of non-human stakeholders and to project management technologies.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...

  12. Decoding the superior parietal lobule connections of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, A; Sair, H I; Radmanesh, A; Hasan, K M

    2014-09-26

    The temporo-parietal (TP) white matter connections between the inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus as part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus (SLF/AF) or middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF) have been studied in prior diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) studies. However, few studies have been focusing on the higher TP connections of the superior parietal lobule with the temporal lobe. These higher TP connections have been shown to have a role in core processes such as attention, memory, emotions, and language. Our most recent study, for the first time, hinted to the possibility of a long white matter connection interconnecting the superior parietal lobule (SPL) with the posterior temporal lobe in human brain which we call the SLF/AF TP-SPL and for a shorter abbreviation, the TP-SPL. We decided to further investigate this white matter connection using fiber assignment by continuous tracking deterministic tractography and high spatial resolution diffusion tensor imaging on 3T. Five healthy right-handed men (age range 24-37 years) were studied. We delineated the SPL connections of the SLF/AF TP bilaterally in five normal adult human brains. Using a high resolution DTT technique, we demonstrate for the first time, the trajectory of a long fiber bundle connectivity between the SPL and posterior temporal lobe, called the SLF/AF TP-SPL (or the TP-SPL), bilaterally in five healthy adult human brains. We also demonstrate the trajectory of the vertically oriented posterior TP connections, interconnecting the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) with the posterior temporal lobe (TP-IPL) in relation to the TP-SPL, arcuate fasciculus and other major language pathways. In the current study, for the first time, we categorized the TP connections into the anterior and posterior connectivity groups and subcategorized each one into the SPL or IPL connections. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  14. Superior Memorizers Employ Different Neural Networks for Encoding and Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eMallow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL to memorize large amounts of information. The method of loci, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, fMRI data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  15. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles and responsibilities. DATES... of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee members; Election of... Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  16. [The superior laryngeal nerve and the superior laryngeal artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J; Nachbaur, S; Fischer, K; Vogel, E

    1987-01-01

    Length, diameter and anastomoses of the nervus vagus and its ganglion inferius were measured 44 halved heads. On the average, 8.65 fiber bundles of the vagus nerve leave the retro-olivary area. In the area of the jugular foramen is the near superior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve. In this area were found 1.48 (mean value) anastomoses with the 9th cranial nerve. 11.34 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea branches off the ramus internus of the accessory nerve which has a length of 9.75 mm. Further anastomoses with the 10th cranial nerve were found. The inferior ganglion of the 10th nerve had a length of 25.47 mm and a diameter of 3.46 mm. Five mm below the ganglion the 10th nerve had a width of 2.9 and a thickness of 1.5 mm. The mean length of the superior sympathetic ganglion was 26.6 mm, its width 7.2 and its thickness 3.4 mm. In nearly all specimens anastomoses of the superior sympathetic ganglion with the ansa cervicalis profunda and the inferior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve were found. The superior laryngeal nerve branches off about 36 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea. The width of this nerve was 1.9 mm, its thickness 0.8 mm on the right and 1.0 mm on the left side. The division in the internal and external rami was found about 21 mm below its origin. Between the n. vagus and thyreohyoid membrane the ramus internus had a length of 64 mm, the length of external ramus between the vagal nerve and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle was 89 mm. Its mean length below the thyreopharyngeal part was 10.7 mm, 8.6 branchlets to the cricothyroid muscle were counted. The superior laryngeal artery had its origin in 80% of cases in the superior thyroideal artery, in 6.8% this vessel was a branch of the external carotid artery. Its average outer diameter was 1.23 mm on the right side and 1.39 mm on the left. The length of this vessel between its origin and the thyreohyoid membrane was 34 mm. In 7% on the right side and in 13% on the left, the superior

  17. Anthropogenic climate change has altered primary productivity in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, M. D.; Werne, J. P.; Hecky, R. E.; Johnson, T. C.; Katsev, S.; Reavie, E. D.

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has the potential to alter many facets of Earth's freshwater resources, especially lacustrine ecosystems. The effects of anthropogenic changes in Lake Superior, which is Earth's largest freshwater lake by area, are not well documented (spatially or temporally) and predicted future states in response to climate change vary. Here we show that Lake Superior experienced a slow, steady increase in production throughout the Holocene using (paleo)productivity proxies in lacustrine sediments to reconstruct past changes in primary production. Furthermore, data from the last century indicate a rapid increase in primary production, which we attribute to increasing surface water temperatures and longer seasonal stratification related to longer ice-free periods in Lake Superior due to anthropogenic climate warming. These observations demonstrate that anthropogenic effects have become a prominent influence on one of Earth's largest, most pristine lacustrine ecosystems.

  18. What are Millian Qualitative Superiorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Riley

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In an article published in Prolegomena 2006, Christoph Schmidt-Petri has defended his interpretation and attacked mine of Mill’s idea that higher kinds of pleasure are superior in quality to lower kinds, regardless of quantity. Millian qualitative superiorities as I understand them are infinite superiorities. In this paper, I clarify my interpretation and show how Schmidt-Petri has misrepresented it and ignored the obvious textual support for it. As a result, he fails to understand how genuine Millian qualitative superiorities determine the novel structure of Mill’s pluralistic utilitarianism, in which a social code of justice that distributes equal rights and duties takes absolute priority over competing considerations. Schmidt-Petri’s own interpretation is a non-starter, because it does noteven recognize that Mill is talking about different kinds of pleasant feelings, such that the higher kinds are intrinsically more valuable than the lower. I conclude by outlining why my interpretation is free of any metaphysical commitment to the “essence” of pleasure.

  19. Isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Palle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA dissection without involvement of the aorta and the SMA origin is unusual. We present a case of an elderly gentleman who had chronic abdominal pain, worse after meals. CT angiography, performed on a 64-slice CT scanner, revealed SMA dissection with a thrombus. A large artery of Drummond was also seen. The patient was managed conservatively.

  20. A escrita no Ensino Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição Pillon Christofoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198464445865 O presente artigo trata de apresentar resultados oriundos de pesquisa realizada no Ensino Superior, enfocando a escrita em contextos universitários. Depoimentos por parte dos acadêmicos evidenciam certa resistência ao ato de escrever, o que acaba muitas vezes distanciando o sujeito da produção de um texto. Assim sendo, mesmo que parciais, os resultados até então analisados dão conta de que: pressuposto 1 – há ruptura da ideia de coerência entre o que pensamos, o que conseguimos escrever, o que entende nosso interlocutor; pressuposto 2 – a autocorreção de textos como exercício de pesquisa é imprescindível para a qualificação da escrita; pressuposto 3 – os diários de aula representam rico instrumento para a qualificação da escrita no Ensino Superior; pressuposto 4 – há necessidade de que o aluno do Ensino Superior escreva variados tipos de escrita, ainda que a universidade cumpra com seu papel, enfatizando a escrita acadêmica; pressuposto 5 – o trabalho com a escrita no Ensino Superior deve enfatizar os componentes básicos da expressão escrita: o código escrito e a composição da escrita. Palavras-chave: Escrita; Ensino Superior; formação de professores.

  1. Neural evidence for the use of digit-image mnemonic in a superior memorist: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jun eYin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some superior memorists demonstrated exceptional memory for reciting a large body of information. The underlying neural correlates, however, are seldom addressed. C.L., the current holder of Guinness World Record for reciting 67,890 digits in π, participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study. Thirteen participants without any mnemonics training were included as controls. Our previous studies suggested that C.L. used a digit-image mnemonic in studying and recalling lists of digits, namely associating 2-digit groups of ‘00’ to ‘99’ with images and generating vivid stories out of them (Hu, Ericsson, Yang & Lu, 2009. Thus, 2-digit condition was included, with 1-digit numbers and letters as control conditions. We hypothesized that 2-digit condition in C.L. should elicit the strongest activity in the brain regions which are associated with his mnemonic. Functional MRI results revealed that bilateral frontal poles (FPs, BA10, left superior parietal lobule (SPL, left premotor cortex (PMC, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, were more engaged in both the study and recall phase of 2-digit condition for C.L. relative to controls. Moreover, the left middle/inferior frontal gyri (M/IFG and intraparietal sulci (IPS were less engaged in the study phase of 2-digit condition for C.L. (vs. controls. These results suggested that C.L. relied more on brain regions that are associated with episodic memory other than verbal rehearsal while he used his mnemonic strategies. This study supported theoretical accounts of restructured cognitive mechanisms for the acquisition of superior memory performance.

  2. Pensamiento Superior y Desarrollo Territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Racancoj Alonzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta reflexión pretende explicar el papel, fundamental, que juega el pensamiento superior, en la formulación y la práctica de modelos de desarrollo territorial local; para que contribuyan de forma sustantiva, en la transformación de las condiciones socioeconómicas adversas que hoy viven comunidades indígenas y rurales de muchos países, como Guatemala, situación que puede resumirse en altos índices de pobreza y desnutrición. Pero, el pensamiento superior, debe ser competencia de la población con pertenencia a lo local, pues si y solo si esta condición existe, se dará validez y viabilidad al desarrollo territorial. Para alcanzar competencias de pensamiento superior, en los espacios locales, se tiene que superar obstáculos en el modelo de universidad, que hoy estamos familiarizados a ver y pensar; modelos que tienen las características de: herencia colonial, disfunción con la problemática económica, cultural, social y política de la sociedad y la negación de los saberes ancestrales.

  3. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach.

  4. Combined cataract and glaucoma procedures using temporal cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, J L; Van der Karr, M A; Sanders, V

    1996-12-01

    To evaluate whether separating the procedures in a combined procedure by performing a temporal cataract incision and superior trabeculectomy induces the lower astigmatism of a temporal cataract incision without sacrificing intraocular pressure (IOP) control. EyeSight Associates, Warner Robins, Georgia. This study evaluated 50 consecutive eyes receiving a superior cataract incision with a superonasal trabeculectomy and 65 eyes receiving a temporal cataract incision with a superonasal trabeculectomy. After 3 months, a substantially greater proportion of temporal incision cases had controlled IOP without medication. A substantially higher proportion in the superior incision group had uncontrolled IOP at each time period. Mean surgically induced cylinder was higher in the superior incision group at every time period. The superior group had early with-the-rule mean induced cylinder that decayed to against-the-rule, with a mean induced cylinder with keratometry at the final available visit (more than 3 months) of -1.01 diopter (D). The temporal group started with a negligible induced cylinder (-0.13 D) that drifted slightly with the rule to a final mean induced cylinder of +0.49 D. At the last visit, 31% in the superior incision group and 57% in the temporal incision group had an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 72% and 94%, respectively, had a best corrected acuity of 20/40 or better. Separating the cataract and glaucoma procedures frees the surgeon to use newer astigmatically neutral techniques for the cataract incision.

  5. Entidades fiscalizadoras superiores y accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    OBJETIVOS DE LA TESIS: El objetivo general del trabajo es establecer el nivel de eficacia de las Entidades Fiscalizadoras Superiores (EFS) como agencia asignada y herramienta de accountability horizontal, a través de la valoración de su diseño institucional y de la calidad de sus productos finales, los informes de auditoría, estableciéndose los siguientes objetivos específicos: 1. Relevar las nociones de accountability, actualizando el Estado del Arte de la cuestión. 2. Analizar la ...

  6. The sentence superiority effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    A sentence superiority effect was investigated using post-cued word-in-sequence identification with the rapid parallel visual presentation (RPVP) of four horizontally aligned words. The four words were presented for 200ms followed by a post-mask and cue for partial report. They could form a grammatically correct sentence or were formed of the same words in a scrambled agrammatical sequence. Word identification was higher in the syntactically correct sequences, and crucially, this sentence superiority effect did not vary as a function of the target's position in the sequence. Cloze probability measures for words at the final, arguably most predictable position, revealed overall low values that did not interact with the effects of sentence context, suggesting that these effects were not driven by word predictability. The results point to a level of parallel processing across multiple words that enables rapid extraction of their syntactic categories. These generate a sentence-level representation that constrains the recognition process for individual words, thus facilitating parallel word processing when the sequence is grammatically sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Department of the Navy Superior Supplier Incentive Program AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... policy that will establish a Superior Supplier Incentive Program (SSIP). Under the SSIP, contractors that..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors...

  8. superior en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mureddu Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo desarrolla algunos de los retos que ha traído consigo el acceso a la información existente en la red de Internet y lo que ello supone. Se abordan principalmente las consecuencias de la presencia actual de una sociedad llamada del conocimiento, si se mantiene la confusión entre conocimiento e información. Por ello, la sola gestión de la información no puede ser tomada como definitoria respecto a la función de educación superior confiada a las universidades. Hacerlo sería cometer un error aún más grave que la confusión teórica entre los términos mencionados.

  9. Temporal Difference Updating without a Learning Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    We derive an equation for temporal difference learning from statistical principles. Specifically, we start with the variational principle and then bootstrap to produce an updating rule for discounted state value estimates. The resulting equation is similar to the standard equation for temporal difference learning with eligibility traces, so called TD(lambda), however it lacks the parameter alpha that specifies the learning rate. In the place of this free parameter there is now an equation for the learning rate that is specific to each state transition. We experimentally test this new learning rule against TD(lambda) and find that it offers superior performance in various settings. Finally, we make some preliminary investigations into how to extend our new temporal difference algorithm to reinforcement learning. To do this we combine our update equation with both Watkins' Q(lambda) and Sarsa(lambda) and find that it again offers superior performance without a learning rate parameter.

  10. Dissection technique for the study of the cerebral sulci, gyri and ventricles Técnica de dissecação para o estudo dos sulcos, giros e ventriculos cerebrais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Mattos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroanatomy in addition to neurophysiology, are the basic areas for the proper formation from health students to specialized professionals in neuroscience. A step by step guide for practical studies of neuroanatomy is required for this kind of knowledge to become more acceptable among medical students, neurosurgeons, neurologists, neuropediatricians and psychiatric physicians. Based on the well known courses of sulci, gyri and ventricles offered by Beneficência Portuguesa Hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, two times a year, since 1994, totalizing more than 20 complete courses, and answering the request of many neuroscience students and professionals whose asked for a practical guide to the neuroanatomy study, the authors suggest a protocol for the study of superficial and deep brain structures showing how to approach the more structures as possible with minimum damage to the anatomic piece and with the smaller number of brains.Neuroanatomia e a neurofisiologia são as áreas básicas para a adequada formação desde estudantes na área da saúde a profissionais especializados em neurociências. Um guia prático, passo a passo, para o estudo de neuroanatomia é necessário para tornar esse conhecimento mais acessível entre estudantes de medicina, neurologistas, neurofisiologistas, neurocirurgiões, neuropediatras e psiquiatras. Baseados em cursos reconhecidos nacional e internacionalmente a respeito dos sulcos, giros e ventrículos cerebrais elaborados e realizados pelo Instituto de Ciências Neurológicas (ICNE no Hospital de Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, Brasil, duas vezes ao ano, totalizando mais de 20 cursos já realizados, os autores apresentam um protocolo de dissecação para o estudo das estruturas superficiais e profundas do encéfalo, mostrando como expor o máximo de estruturas com um mínimo de manipulação e dano à peça anatômica e utilizando o menor número de encéfalos possíveis.

  11. Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wei, Haiyang; Reed, Jamie L; Bickford, Martha E; Petry, Heywood M; Kaas, Jon H

    2013-05-01

    The visuomotor functions of the superior colliculus depend not only on direct inputs from the retina, but also on inputs from neocortex. As mammals vary in the areal organization of neocortex, and in the organization of the number of visual and visuomotor areas, patterns of corticotectal projections vary. Primates in particular have a large number of visual areas projecting to the superior colliculus. As tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and they are also highly visual, we studied the distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus by injecting anatomical tracers into the colliculus. Since projections from visuotopically organized visual areas are expected to match the visuotopy of the superior colliculus, injections at different retinotopic locations in the superior colliculus provide information about the locations and organization of topographic areas in extrastriate cortex. Small injections in the superior colliculus labeled neurons in locations within areas 17 (V1) and 18 (V2) that are consistent with the known topography of these areas and the superior colliculus. In addition, the separate locations of clusters of labeled cells in temporal visual cortex provide evidence for five or more topographically organized areas. Injections that included deeper layers of the superior colliculus also labeled neurons in medial frontal cortex, likely in premotor cortex. Only occasional labeled neurons were observed in somatosensory or auditory cortex. Regardless of tracer injection location, we found that, unlike primates, a substantial projection to the superior colliculus from posterior parietal cortex is not a characteristic of tree shrews.

  12. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  13. Standardization of experimental animals temporal bone sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dalian Ding; Jintao Yu; Peng Li; Kelei Gao; Haiyan Jiang; Wenjuan Zhang; Hong Sun; Shankai Yin; Richard Salvi

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of the temporal bone for light microscopy is an important step in histological studies of the inner ear. Due to the complexity of structures of the inner ear, it is difficult to measure or compare structures of interest without a commonly accepted standardized measure of temporal bone sections. Therefore, standardization of temporal bone sections is very important for histological assessment of sensory hair cells and peripheral ganglion neurons in the cochlear and vestibular systems. The standardized temporal bone sectioning is oriented to a plane parallel to the outer and internal auditory canals. Sections are collected from the epitympanum to the hypotympanum to reveal layers in the order of the crista ampullaris of the superior and lateral semicircular canals, macula utriculi and macula sacculi, superior vestibular ganglion neurons, macula of saccule and inferior vestibular ganglion neurons, cochlear modiolus, endolymphatic duct and endolymphatic sac, and finally the crista ampullaris of the posterior semicircular canal. Moreover, technical details of preparing for temporal bone sectioning including fixation, decalcification, whole temporal bone staining, embedding penetration, and embedding orientation are also discussed.

  14. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  15. Paso superior en una ladera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, O.

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available The Redwood highway, through the Californian forest, runs on a viaduct, as it crosses a mountain slope of about 45° inclination. The firm ground is fairly deep, and as an additional constructional difficulty, it was necessary to respect the natural beauty of the countryside. A structure of portal frames were built, forming a number of short spans. These spans were bridged with metal girders, on which a 19 m wide deck was placed. The columns are hollow and have a transversal cross beam, to join each pair. There was difficulty in excavating the foundations for the columns, as it was necessary to dig through the soft top soil, and also prevent this soil from hurting the trunks of the forest trees. Another significant difficulty in the construction of this viaduct was the access to the working site, since there were no suitable platforms from which to operate the appropriate machinery. This made it necessary to do a lot of the work by manual operation. As one of the edges of the deck is very close to the mountain side, a supporting beam was erected on this side. It was made of concrete, on metal piles. The formwork for the deck structure was placed on the concrete stems of the supporting piles.La autopista denominada Redwood (California salva, con un paso superior, la ladera de un bosque cuya pendiente es del 1/1. El terreno firme se halla a bastante profundidad, añadiéndose, a los naturales problemas de la construcción, el imperativo de respetar la belleza agreste del paraje. La solución adoptada consiste en una estructura porticada, con varios tramos de pequeñas luces, salvados con vigas metálicas, sobre los que se coloca la losa del tablero, de 19 m de anchura total. Los soportes están constituidos por pórticos de dos montantes huecos (con bases de hormigón en masa por debajo del suelo, hasta el firme coronados por un cabezal. La perforación de pozos para el hormigonado de los montantes presentaba la dificultad de atravesar el terreno

  16. Pseudodisplacements of superior vena cava catheter in the persistent left superior vena cava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantsch, H.; Draxler, V.; Muhar, U.; Schlemmer, M.; Waneck, R.

    1983-01-01

    Pseudodisplacement of a left sided superior vena cava catheter in a persistent superior vena cava may be expected in adults in 0,37% and in a group of children with congenital heart disease in 2,5%. Embryology, anatomy and clinical implications is discussed on the basis of our own cases. The vena cava superior sinistra persitents is depending on a sufficient calibre a suitable vessel for a superior cava catheter.

  17. Cognitive Temporal Document Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetz, M.H.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal information retrieval exploits temporal features of document collections and queries. Temporal document priors are used to adjust the score of a document based on its publication time. We consider a class of temporal document priors that is inspired by retention functions considered in cogn

  18. Improved quantification of brain perfusion using FAIR with active suppression of superior tagging (FAIR ASST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiufeng; Sarkar, Subhendra N; Purdy, David E; Haley, Robert W; Briggs, Richard W

    2011-11-01

    To address two problems for perfusion studies in the middle or inferior brain regions: (1) to reduce venous artifacts due to the intrinsic superior labeling of FAIR; (2) to alleviate the discrepancy of the existence of both superior and inferior boluses, but with only the inferior bolus having a temporally defined bolus width with Q2TIPs or QUIPSS. Superior tagging suppression methods for FAIR with different combinations of pre- and postinversion superior saturation pulses were evaluated and compared with FAIR with Q2TIPS for producing perfusion maps of superior, middle, and inferior brain regions. One preinversion plus two postinversion superior saturation radio frequency pulses effectively suppressed the superior tagging of FAIR and sufficiently eliminated venous artifacts without negative effects, avoiding the overestimations of cerebral blood flow that can occur in FAIR. FAIR ASST improves FAIR with Q2TIPS and provides more reliable and accurate blood flow estimations for perfusion studies of middle and lower brain regions. FAIR ASST confers the advantages of asymmetric PASL techniques, such as PICORE, in which only the inferiorly labeled blood is used for perfusion quantification, to the symmetric PASL technique FAIR, while preserving the robustness of FAIR against MT effects. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Superiority in value and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    James Griffin has considered a weak form of superiority in value a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this paper, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into a stronger form of superiority. And in a context where value is non-additive, weak...... superiority does not amount to a radical value difference at all. I then spell out the consequences of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest....

  20. Temporal Non-locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filk, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In this article I investigate several possibilities to define the concept of "temporal non-locality" within the standard framework of quantum theory. In particular, I analyze the notions of "temporally non-local states", "temporally non-local events" and "temporally non-local observables". The idea of temporally non-local events is already inherent in the standard formalism of quantum mechanics, and Basil Hiley recently defined an operator in order to measure the degree of such a temporal non-locality. The concept of temporally non-local states enters as soon as "clock-representing states" are introduced in the context of special and general relativity. It is discussed in which way temporally non-local measurements may find an interesting application for experiments which test temporal versions of Bell inequalities.

  1. Intracranially protruded bilateral posterior and superior SCCs with multiple dehiscences in a patient with positional vertigo: CT and MR imaging findings and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nischal G Kundaragi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of intracranially protruded posterior and superior semicircular canals beyond the margins of temporal bone with bony roof dehiscence in bilateral posterior and left superior semicircular canals in a patient with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV.

  2. Millian superiorities and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2008-01-01

    James Griffin has considered a form of superiority in value that is weaker than lexical priority as a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this article, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into the stronger form of superiority. And in a ......James Griffin has considered a form of superiority in value that is weaker than lexical priority as a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this article, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into the stronger form of superiority...... of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest....

  3. Measuring Financial Gains from Genetically Superior Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Dutrow; Clark Row

    1976-01-01

    Planting genetically superior loblolly pines will probably yield high profits.Forest economists have made computer simulations that predict financial gains expected from a tree improvement program under actual field conditions.

  4. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome causing growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and lifethreateningclinical condition caused by the compressionof the third portion of the duodenum between the aortaand the superior mesenteric artery’s proximal part. Thiscompression may lead to chronic intermittent, acute totalor partial obstruction. Sudden weight-loss and the relateddecrease in the fat tissue are considered to be the etiologicalreason of acute stenosis. Weight-loss accompaniedby nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, andbloating are the leading complaints. Barium radiographs,computerized tomography, conventional angiography,tomographic and magnetic resonance angiography areused in the diagnosis. There are medical and surgical approachesto treatment. We hereby present the case ofa patient with superior mesenteric artery syndrome withdelayed diagnosis.Key words: superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nausea-vomiting, anorexia

  5. Leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaumont, Arthus; Pierret, Charles; de Kerangal, Xavier; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Laborde, François

    2014-08-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava is a very rare tumor and only a few cases have been reported, with various techniques of vascular reconstruction. We describe a new case of leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava in a 61-year-old woman with extension to the brachiocephalic arterial trunk. Resection and vascular reconstruction were performed using, respectively, polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene terephtalate vascular grafts.

  6. Superior mesenteric artery compression syndrome - case report

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Rocha França Neto; Rodrigo de Almeida Paiva; Antônio Lacerda Filho; Fábio Lopes de Queiroz; Teon Noronha

    2011-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is an entity generally caused by the loss of the intervening mesenteric fat pad, resulting in compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery. This article reports the case of a patient with irremovable metastatic adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon, that evolved with intense vomiting. Intestinal transit was carried out, which showed important gastric dilation extended until the third portion of the duodenum, compatible wi...

  7. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Zaknun, John J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Maes, Alex [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina [Fleni Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, Nuclear Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bal, C.S. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); Ospedale Maggiore, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  8. Superior oblique surgery: when and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Şekeroğlu H

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hande Taylan Şekeroğlu,1 Ali Sefik Sanac,1 Umut Arslan,2 Emin Cumhur Sener11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Biostatistics, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyBackground: The purpose of this paper is to review different types of superior oblique muscle surgeries, to describe the main areas in clinical practice where superior oblique surgery is required or preferred, and to discuss the preferred types of superior oblique surgery with respect to their clinical outcomes.Methods: A consecutive nonrandomized retrospective series of patients who had undergone superior oblique muscle surgery as a single procedure were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis, clinical features, preoperative and postoperative vertical deviations in primary position, type of surgery, complications, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. The primary outcome measures were the type of strabismus and the type of superior oblique muscle surgery. The secondary outcome measure was the results of the surgeries.Results: The review identified 40 (20 male, 20 female patients with a median age of 6 (2–45 years. Nineteen patients (47.5% had Brown syndrome, eleven (27.5% had fourth nerve palsy, and ten (25.0% had horizontal deviations with A pattern. The most commonly performed surgery was superior oblique tenotomy in 29 (72.5% patients followed by superior oblique tuck in eleven (27.5% patients. The amount of vertical deviation in the fourth nerve palsy and Brown syndrome groups (P = 0.01 for both and the amount of A pattern in the A pattern group were significantly reduced postoperatively (P = 0.02.Conclusion: Surgery for the superior oblique muscle requires experience and appropriate preoperative evaluation in view of its challenging nature. The main indications are Brown syndrome, fourth nerve palsy, and A pattern deviations. Superior oblique surgery may be effective in terms of pattern collapse and correction of vertical deviations in primary

  9. Mnemonic Training Reshapes Brain Networks to Support Superior Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Martin; Shirer, William R; Konrad, Boris N; Müller, Nils C J; Wagner, Isabella C; Fernández, Guillén; Czisch, Michael; Greicius, Michael D

    2017-03-08

    Memory skills strongly differ across the general population; however, little is known about the brain characteristics supporting superior memory performance. Here we assess functional brain network organization of 23 of the world's most successful memory athletes and matched controls with fMRI during both task-free resting state baseline and active memory encoding. We demonstrate that, in a group of naive controls, functional connectivity changes induced by 6 weeks of mnemonic training were correlated with the network organization that distinguishes athletes from controls. During rest, this effect was mainly driven by connections between rather than within the visual, medial temporal lobe and default mode networks, whereas during task it was driven by connectivity within these networks. Similarity with memory athlete connectivity patterns predicted memory improvements up to 4 months after training. In conclusion, mnemonic training drives distributed rather than regional changes, reorganizing the brain's functional network organization to enable superior memory performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Whisker-related afferents in superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A; Favero, Morgana

    2016-05-01

    Rodents use their whiskers to explore the environment, and the superior colliculus is part of the neural circuits that process this sensorimotor information. Cells in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus integrate trigeminotectal afferents from trigeminal complex and corticotectal afferents from barrel cortex. Using histological methods in mice, we found that trigeminotectal and corticotectal synapses overlap somewhat as they innervate the lower and upper portions of the intermediate granular layer, respectively. Using electrophysiological recordings and optogenetics in anesthetized mice in vivo, we showed that, similar to rats, whisker deflections produce two successive responses that are driven by trigeminotectal and corticotectal afferents. We then employed in vivo and slice experiments to characterize the response properties of these afferents. In vivo, corticotectal responses triggered by electrical stimulation of the barrel cortex evoke activity in the superior colliculus that increases with stimulus intensity and depresses with increasing frequency. In slices from adult mice, optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-expressing trigeminotectal and corticotectal fibers revealed that cells in the intermediate layers receive more efficacious trigeminotectal, than corticotectal, synaptic inputs. Moreover, the efficacy of trigeminotectal inputs depresses more strongly with increasing frequency than that of corticotectal inputs. The intermediate layers of superior colliculus appear to be tuned to process strong but infrequent trigeminal inputs and weak but more persistent cortical inputs, which explains features of sensory responsiveness, such as the robust rapid sensory adaptation of whisker responses in the superior colliculus. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    Since the emergence of the practice turn in social sciences (Golsorkhi et al. 2010), studies have shown a number of institutionally relevant aspects as achievements across time and by means of various resources (human and non-human) (Taylor & van Every 2000, Cooren et al. 2006). Such a process view...... on organizational practices relates closely to an increased focus on communication as being constitutive of the organization in general and the superior-subordinate relationship in specific. The current study aims to contribute to this line of research by investigating micro-practices involved in establishing...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...

  12. Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan is an expression of the best professional judgment of the members of the Lake Superior Task Force as to what is necessary to protect Lake Superior from new aquatic invasive species.

  13. Endovascular treatment of superior vena cava syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvnjak, Stevo; Andersen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    Abstract AIM: The aim of this study was to report our experience with palliative stent treatment of superior vena cava syndrome. METHODS: Between January 2008 and December 2009, 30 patients (mean age 60.7 years) were treated with stents because of stenosed superior vena cava. All patients presented...... there was an immediate clinical improvement with considerable reduction in the edema of upper extremities and head. There was, however, continous dyspnea in five patients (17%) and two patients (7%) had persistent visible collateral venous circulations on the upper chest. There were no stent associated complications...

  14. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence associated with external, middle, and inner ear abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jenny R; Parnes, Lorne S

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of bilateral superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) in a 38-year-old man who presented with congenital hearing loss without vestibular symptoms. This case is unusual due to the association of SSCD with multiple congenital anomalies of the external, middle, and inner ears, but without any other craniofacial or systemic developmental anomalies. Findings of multiple malformations of temporal bone structures in this case lend support to the theory that SSCD may have an underlying developmental or congenital etiology.

  15. Three-Dimensional Printed Prosthesis for Repair of Superior Canal Dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Cheng, Song; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Outcomes following repair of superior canal dehiscence (SCD) are variable, and surgery carries a risk of persistent or recurrent SCD symptoms, as well as a risk of hearing loss and vestibulopathy. Poor outcomes may occur from inadequate repair of the SCD or mechanical insult to the membranous labyrinth. Repair of SCD using a customized, fixed-length prosthesis may address current operative limitations and improve surgical outcomes. We aim to 3-dimensionally print customized prostheses to resurface or occlude bony SCD defects. Dehiscences were created along the arcuate eminence of superior semicircular canals in cadaveric temporal bones. Prostheses were designed and created using computed tomography and a 3-dimensional printer. The prostheses occupied the superior semicircular canal defect, reflected in postrepair computed tomography scans. This novel approach to SCD repair could have advantages over current techniques. Refinement of prosthesis design and materials will be important if this approach is translated into clinical use.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of meniscoid superior labrum: normal variant or superior labral tear*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Marcelo Novelino; Vinson, Emily N.; Spritzer, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of a "meniscoid" superior labrum. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of 582 magnetic resonance imaging examinations of shoulders. Of those 582 examinations, 110 were excluded, for a variety of reasons, and the final analysis therefore included 472 cases. Consensus readings were performed by three musculoskeletal radiologists using specific criteria to diagnose meniscoid labra. Results A meniscoid superior labrum was identified in 48 (10.2%) of the 472 cases evaluated. Arthroscopic proof was available in 21 cases (43.8%). In 10 (47.6%) of those 21 cases, the operative report did not include the mention a superior labral tear, thus suggesting the presence of a meniscoid labrum. In only one of those cases were there specific comments about a mobile superior labrum (i.e., meniscoid labrum). In the remaining 11 (52.4%), surgical correlation demonstrated superior labral tears. Conclusion A meniscoid superior labrum is not an infrequent finding. Depending upon assumptions and the requirement of surgical proof, the prevalence of a meniscoid superior labrum in this study was between 2.1% (surgically proven) and 4.8% (projected). However, superior labral tears are just as common and are often confused with meniscoid labra. PMID:27777474

  17. Semantics of Temporal Models with Multiple Temporal Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    Semantics of temporal models with multi temporal dimensions are examined progressing from non-temporal models unto uni-temporal, and further unto bi- and tri-temporal models. An example of a uni-temporal model is the valid time model, an example of a bi-temporal model is the valid time/transactio......Semantics of temporal models with multi temporal dimensions are examined progressing from non-temporal models unto uni-temporal, and further unto bi- and tri-temporal models. An example of a uni-temporal model is the valid time model, an example of a bi-temporal model is the valid time....../transaction time model, and finally an example of a tri-temporal model is a model with valid time, decision time and transaction time dimensions. The semantics are at first specified at the highest conceptual level possible by a graphical notation. Next, the conceptual models are translated into lower level models...

  18. Human temporal lobe activation by speech and nonspeech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, J R; Frost, J A; Hammeke, T A; Bellgowan, P S; Springer, J A; Kaufman, J N; Possing, E T

    2000-05-01

    Functional organization of the lateral temporal cortex in humans is not well understood. We recorded blood oxygenation signals from the temporal lobes of normal volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging during stimulation with unstructured noise, frequency-modulated (FM) tones, reversed speech, pseudowords and words. For all conditions, subjects performed a material-nonspecific detection response when a train of stimuli began or ceased. Dorsal areas surrounding Heschl's gyrus bilaterally, particularly the planum temporale and dorsolateral superior temporal gyrus, were more strongly activated by FM tones than by noise, suggesting a role in processing simple temporally encoded auditory information. Distinct from these dorsolateral areas, regions centered in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally were more activated by speech stimuli than by FM tones. Identical results were obtained in this region using words, pseudowords and reversed speech, suggesting that the speech-tones activation difference is due to acoustic rather than linguistic factors. In contrast, previous comparisons between word and nonword speech sounds showed left-lateralized activation differences in more ventral temporal and temporoparietal regions that are likely involved in processing lexical-semantic or syntactic information associated with words. The results indicate functional subdivision of the human lateral temporal cortex and provide a preliminary framework for understanding the cortical processing of speech sounds.

  19. Advances in temporal logic

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham

    2000-01-01

    Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...

  20. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Temporal steering is a form of temporal correlation between the initial and final state of a quantum system. It is a temporal analogue of the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (spatial) steering. We demonstrate, by measuring the photon polarization, that temporal steering allows two parties to verify if they have been interacting with the same particle, even if they have no information about what happened with the particle in between the measurements. This is the first experimental study of temporal steering. We also performed experimental tests, based on the violation of temporal steering inequalities, of the security of two quantum key distribution protocols against individual attacks. Thus, these results can lead to applications for secure quantum communications and quantum engineering. PMID:27901121

  1. Computational temporal ghost imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Devaux, Fabrice; Denis, Severine; Lantz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a very simple device, inspired by computational ghost imaging, that allows the re- trieval of a single non-reproducible, periodic or non-periodic, temporal signal. The reconstruction is performed by a single shot, spatially multiplexed, measurement of the spatial intensity correlations between computer-generated random images and the images modulated by the temporal signal, recorded and summed on a chip CMOS camera used with no temporal resolution.

  2. Mentalizing and the Role of the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus in Sharing Others' Embarrassment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulus, Frieder Michel; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Jansen, Andreas; Gazzola, V.; Krach, Sören

    2015-01-01

    The experience of embarrassment provides a highly salient cue for the human moral apparatus. Interestingly, people also experience embarrassment on behalf of others' inappropriate conditions. The perceiver's embarrassment often lacks an equivalent expression of embarrassment in the social counterpar

  3. A Role for the Right Superior Temporal Sulcus in Categorical Perception of Musical Chords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mike E.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Categorical perception (CP) is a mechanism whereby non-identical stimuli that have the same underlying meaning become invariantly represented in the brain. Through behavioral identification and discrimination tasks, CP has been demonstrated to occur broadly across the auditory modality, including in perception of speech (e.g. phonemes) and music…

  4. Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Francine eFoo; David eKing-Stephens; Peter eWeber; Kenneth eLaxer; Josef eParvizi; Robert T Knight

    2016-01-01

    The auditory cortex is well-known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals di...

  5. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    Since the emergence of the practice turn in social sciences (Golsorkhi et al. 2010), studies have shown a number of institutionally relevant aspects as achievements across time and by means of various resources (human and non-human) (Taylor & van Every 2000, Cooren et al. 2006). Such a process view...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...... are shaped, (re)confirmed and re-evaluated. This paper pursues the better understanding of the latter aspect by looking at one substantial and recurrent activity in PAIs: the evaluation of employee performance. One resource for doing the evaluation work is making assessments (e.g. Goodwin & Goodwin, 1987...

  6. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold...... for perception of words, or a higher speed of processing for words than letters. We have investigated the WSE using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention. In an experiment using single stimuli (words or letters) presented centrally, we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual...... processing speed: words are simply processed faster than single letters. It is also clear from this experiment, that the word superiority effect can be observed at a large range of exposure durations, from the perceptual threshold to ceiling performance. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented...

  7. Resolution of superior oblique myokymia with memantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Saurabh; Farooq, Shegufta J; Gottlob, Irene

    2008-02-01

    We describe a novel treatment of superior oblique myokymia. A 40-year-old woman was treated with gabapentin for this disorder with partial success and reported significant side effects including loss of libido and weight gain. After a drug holiday, memantine therapy was initiated resulting in a substantial improvement in her symptoms with far fewer side effects and stability on long-term maintenance therapy.

  8. Locked Superior Dislocation of the Acromioclavicular Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Eltoum Elamin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acromioclavicular (AC joint injuries account for approximately 3–5% of shoulder girdle injuries (Rockwood et al., 1998. Depending on severity of injury and direction of displacement these are classified using Rockwood classification system for AC joint dislocation. We present an unusual case presenting with locked superior dislocation of the AC joint highlighting the presentation and subsequent successful surgical management of such case. To our knowledge this has not been reported previously in literature.

  9. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  10. Temporal properties of stereopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gheorghiu, E.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate temporal properties of disparity processing and depth perception in human subjects, in response to dynamic stimuli. The results presented in various chapters, reporting findings about different temporal aspects of disparity

  11. Approximate Qualitative Temporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Bettini, X. Wang, and S. Jajodia. A general framework for time granularity and its application to temporal reasoning. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial...Temporal representation and reasoning in artificial intelligence: Issues and approaches. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 28, 2000...Quantum mereotopology. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelli- gence, to appear. [42] A. C. Varzi. On the boundary between mereology and topology

  12. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  13. [Mitral surgery by superior biatrial septotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, A; Delepine, G; Lemaitre, C; Baehrel, B

    1995-01-01

    The superior biatrial septotomy approach consists of two semicircular right atrial and septal incisions joined at the superior end of the interatrial septum and extended across the dome of the left atrium, allowing exposure of the mitral valve by reflecting the ventricular side using stay sutures. From 1991 to 1993, 81 patients underwent mitral valve surgery by this technic. Mitral valve operation was combined with other cardiac procedures in 30 patients (37%) and was performed as a second operation in 21 patients (25.9%). Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic occlusion was not significantly different from that of patients operated via a conventional left atrial approach. The five hospital deaths (6.2%) were not related to this operative approach. Only 2 patients (3.3%) with preoperative in sinus rythm were discharged in atrial fibrillation after operation. In one patient (1.6%), atrioventricular block appeared at late follow-up. There were no cases of bleeding, atrioventricular nodal dysfunction or intra-atrial shunting related to the approach. This approach provides excellent exposure of the mitral valve even in unfavorable situations such as a small left atrium, dense adhesions from previous procedures or a previously implanted aortic prosthesis, without damage to various cardiac structures due to excessive traction. No retractor or vena cava repair are required. These data support a wide application of the superior biatrial septotomy approach in mitral valve surgery.

  14. Superior mesenteric artery compression syndrome - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rocha França Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is an entity generally caused by the loss of the intervening mesenteric fat pad, resulting in compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery. This article reports the case of a patient with irremovable metastatic adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon, that evolved with intense vomiting. Intestinal transit was carried out, which showed important gastric dilation extended until the third portion of the duodenum, compatible with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Considering the patient's nutritional condition, the medical team opted for the conservative treatment. Four months after the surgery and conservative measures, the patient did not present vomiting after eating, maintaining previous weight. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is uncommon and can have unspecific symptoms. Thus, high suspicion is required for the appropriate clinical adjustment. A barium examination is required to make the diagnosis. The treatment can initially require gastric decompression and hydration, besides reversal of weight loss through adequate nutrition. Surgery should be adopted only in case of clinical treatment failure.A síndrome da artéria mesentérica superior é uma entidade clínica causada geralmente pela perda do tecido adiposo mesentérico, resultando na compressão da terceira porção do duodeno pela artéria mesentérica superior. Esse artigo relata o caso clínico de uma paciente portadora de adenocarcinoma de cólon sigmoide metastático irressecável, que evoluiu com vômitos incoercíveis. Realizou-se, então, trânsito intestinal que evidenciou dilatação gástrica importante, que se prolongava até a terceira porção duodenal, quadro radiológico compatível com pinçamento da artéria mesentérica superior. Diante da condição nutricional da paciente, foi optado por iniciar medidas conservadoras (porções alimentares pequenas e mais frequentes, além de dec

  15. Temporal properties of stereopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, E.

    2005-03-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate temporal properties of disparity processing and depth perception in human subjects, in response to dynamic stimuli. The results presented in various chapters, reporting findings about different temporal aspects of disparity processing, are based on psychophysical experiments and computational model analysis. In chapter 1 we investigated which processes of binocular depth perception in dynamic random-dot stereograms (DRS), i.e., tolerance for interocular delays and temporal integration of correlation, are responsible for the temporal flexibility of the stereoscopic system. Our results demonstrate that (i) disparities from simultaneous monocular inputs dominate those from interocular delayed inputs; (ii) stereopsis is limited by temporal properties of monocular luminance mechanisms; (iii) depth perception in DRS results from cross-correlation-like operation on two simultaneous monocular inputs that represent the retinal images after having been subjected to a process of monocular temporal integration of luminance. In chapter 2 we examined what temporal information is exploited by the mechanisms underlying stereoscopic motion in depth. We investigated systematically the influence of temporal frequency on binocular depth perception in temporally correlated and temporally uncorrelated DRS. Our results show that disparity-defined depth is judged differently in temporally correlated and uncorrelated DRS above a temporal frequency of about 3 Hz. The results and simulations indicate that: (i) above about 20 Hz, the complete absence of stereomotion is caused by temporal integration of luminance; (ii) the difference in perceived depth in temporally correlated and temporally uncorrelated DRS for temporal frequencies between 20 and 3 Hz, is caused by temporal integration of disparity. In chapter 3 we investigated temporal properties of stereopsis at different spatial scales in response to sustained and

  16. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    of previous ccp work by establishing an expressive power hierarchy of several temporal ccp languages which were proposed in the literature by other authors. These languages, represented in this dissertation as variants of ntcc, differ in their way of defining infinite behavior (i.e., replication or recursion....../undecidability results give a clear distinction among the various temporal ccp languages. Also, the distinction between static and dynamic scoping helps to clarify the situation in thee (untimed) ccp family of languages. Moreover, the methods used in the decidability results may provide a framework to perform further...... systematic investigations of temporal ccp languages....

  17. [Duration and temporality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouks, L; Guibert, S; Cardon; Montot

    1990-01-01

    The notion of temporality in living is in perpetual motion between passive temporality and creative conscience. Human existence is not purely immanent, a flow of transcedence continually runs through it. Melancholia is a lose of creativity accompanied by a feeling that time as lived has stopped, time being lived as a new mode of space. Maniac temporality is an improductive and unsociable furious flight toward. The melancholic feeling out of time is crushed by the problematic of alterity, sin and eternity. The maniac lives an imaginary and deceptive problematic. The ambivalent ideal of the schizophrenic is both a return to biological life as well as a fascination by formal thought.

  18. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold for perc...... simultaneously we find a different pattern: In a whole report experiment with six stimuli (letters or words), letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity....

  19. de educación media superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cerón Ferrer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo presenta los resultados obtenidos en relación al conocimiento y manejo que sobre matemáticas tienen los estudiantes de educación media superior, de los Centros de Estudios Tecnológicos y de Servicios del Distrito Federal, de diferentes carreras que se imparten en estos centros escolares, durante el año 2005. El instrumento de análisis es un cuestionario que contestaron los alumnos, la metodología utilizada es de tipo longitudinal y comparativa.

  20. Neural correlates associated with superior tactile symmetry perception in the early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Corinna; Yazzolino, Lindsay; Hirsch, Gabriella; Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2015-02-01

    Symmetry is an organizational principle that is ubiquitous throughout the visual world. However, this property can also be detected through non-visual modalities such as touch. The role of prior visual experience on detecting tactile patterns containing symmetry remains unclear. We compared the behavioral performance of early blind and sighted (blindfolded) controls on a tactile symmetry detection task. The tactile patterns used were similar in design and complexity as in previous visual perceptual studies. The neural correlates associated with this behavioral task were identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In line with growing evidence demonstrating enhanced tactile processing abilities in the blind, we found that early blind individuals showed significantly superior performance in detecting tactile symmetric patterns compared to sighted controls. Furthermore, comparing patterns of activation between these two groups identified common areas of activation (e.g. superior parietal cortex) but key differences also emerged. In particular, tactile symmetry detection in the early blind was also associated with activation that included peri-calcarine cortex, lateral occipital (LO), and middle temporal (MT) cortex, as well as inferior temporal and fusiform cortex. These results contribute to the growing evidence supporting superior behavioral abilities in the blind, and the neural correlates associated with crossmodal neuroplasticity following visual deprivation.

  1. Temporal lobotomy in the surgical management of epilepsy: technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph R; VanderGriff, Alex; Fountas, Kostas

    2004-06-01

    To describe the technique of temporal lobotomy and demonstrate that it may produce results equivalent to anterior temporal lobectomy in the control of drug-resistant complex partial seizures of anterior temporal lobe origin. Patient selection and evaluation was similar to that for other patients undergoing anterior temporal lobectomy, with the exception that the 10 selected patients all demonstrated extensive lobar or hemispheral atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic scans. The lobotomy technique involved posterior and superior disconnection, each of which was broken down into lateral and mesial components. At last follow-up, seven patients were seizure-free, one had rare seizures, and two had a less than 90% decrease in seizures. These outcomes are similar to those in our overall temporal lobectomy series. One patient who underwent left-sided temporal lobotomy had a speech fluency deficit postoperatively. Temporal lobotomy seems to be an effective disconnective procedure in the treatment of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Larger series will be needed to better define its role in the management of this condition.

  2. Optimizing Temporal Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David; Bowman, Ivan Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Recent research in the area of temporal databases has proposed a number of query languages that vary in their expressive power and the semantics they provide to users. These query languages represent a spectrum of solutions to the tension between clean semantics and efficient evaluation. Often......, these query languages are implemented by translating temporal queries into standard relational queries. However, the compiled queries are often quite cumbersome and expensive to execute even using state-of-the-art relational products. This paper presents an optimization technique that produces more efficient...... translated SQL queries by taking into account the properties of the encoding used for temporal attributes. For concreteness, this translation technique is presented in the context of SQL/TP; however, these techniques are also applicable to other temporal query languages....

  3. Optimizing Temporal Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David; Bowman, Ivan Thomas

    2003-01-01

    translated SQL queries by taking into account the properties of the encoding used for temporal attributes. For concreteness, this translation technique is presented in the context of SQL/TP; however, these techniques are also applicable to other temporal query languages......., these query languages are implemented by translating temporal queries into standard relational queries. However, the compiled queries are often quite cumbersome and expensive to execute even using state-of-the-art relational products. This paper presents an optimization technique that produces more efficient......Recent research in the area of temporal databases has proposed a number of query languages that vary in their expressive power and the semantics they provide to users. These query languages represent a spectrum of solutions to the tension between clean semantics and efficient evaluation. Often...

  4. Neocortical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Eduard; Kumar, Balagobal Santosh; Mirsattari, Seyed M.

    2012-01-01

    Complex partial seizures (CPSs) can present with various semiologies, while mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a well-recognized cause of CPS, neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy (nTLE) albeit being less common is increasingly recognized as separate disease entity. Differentiating the two remains a challenge for epileptologists as many symptoms overlap due to reciprocal connections between the neocortical and the mesial temporal regions. Various studies have attempted to correctly localize the seizure focus in nTLE as patients with this disorder may benefit from surgery. While earlier work predicted poor outcomes in this population, recent work challenges those ideas yielding good outcomes in part due to better localization using improved anatomical and functional techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the diagnostic workup, particularly the application of recent advances in electroencephalography and functional brain imaging, in neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22953057

  5. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  6. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with early superior mesenteric artery dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Fei Xu; Zuo-Jin Liu; Jian-Ping Gong

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death and is one of the most aggressive human tumors. At present, surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment. Early neck division is inadequate when invasion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is suspected or in cases of replaced or accessory right hepatic artery. Malignant periampullary tumors often invade retroperitoneal peripancreatic tissues and a positive resection margin is associated with a poor long-term survival. DATA SOURCES: English-language medical databases, PubMed, ELSEVIER and SPRINGERLINK, were searched for articles on"posterior approach pancreaticoduodenectomy","superior mesenteric artery ifrst approach", "retroperitoneal tissue","hanging maneuver", and related topics. RESULTS:The modiifcation allowed the surgeon to early identify the nonresectability of a replaced right hepatic artery if present, enabling complete dissection of the right side of the SMA and portal vein as well as complete excision of the retroportal pancreatic lamina. CONCLUSION: Pancreaticoduodenectomy with early retro-pancreatic dissection is a useful and safe technical variant, which is indicated for the improvement of the safety and curative effect of the procedure.

  7. Radiation treatment of superior sulcus lung carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.; Ball, D.; Worotniuk, V.; Smith, J.; Crennan, E.; Bishop, M. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Inst., East Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    The survival of patients with superior sulcus lung carcinoma and the effects of treatment were reviewed. From a prospective database of 4123 consecutive new patients with lung carcinoma, 131 (3.2%) cases of superior sulcus lung carcinoma were identified. Seventy-four patients were planned to receive radiation with palliative intent, 53 radical radiotherapy and one was observed only. The remaining three patients, with small-cell carcinoma, were treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Of the 53 radically treated patients, nine were treated with pre-operative radiation prior to intended radical resection. Analysis was carried out on the effect on survival of performance status, nodal involvement, weight loss, vertebral body or rib involvement, treatment intent and radical combined modality treatment compared with radical radiation alone. The estimated median survival for the whole group was 7.6 months; for those treated radically it was 18.3 months, while for the palliatively treated patients it was 3.7 months. Radically treated patients with no initial nodal involvement had an estimated median survival of 22 months, while radically treated patients with nodal involvement had an estimated median survival of 8.4 months (P = 0.003). There were no statistically significant differences in survival between radically treated patients grouped according to initial weight loss, performance status, or vertebral body and rib involvement. Patients treated with pre-operative radiation did not survive significantly longer than patients treated with radiation alone, although the numbers are small. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. Studies on zooplankton of Lago Paione Superiore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia COMOLI

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available We report here the results of a three year study on the zooplankton of Lago Paione Superiore, an acid sensitive lake above the tree line in the Italian Alps. The research was carried out within MOLAR, an EC-founded Project on “Measuring and Modeling the dynamic response of remote mountain lakes ecosystems to environmental change”. This study comes after a series of investigations on the effects of acidification, in which we documented the changes occurred with decreasing water pHs, by comparing the recent situation with that in the literature of the 40s, and reconstructed the beginning of anthropogenic disturbance through an analysis of the past cladocera assemblages archived in the lake sediments. A characteristic pattern in seasonal periodicity is a transition from a community dominated by small zooplankton (August to a community where the large particle-feeder Daphnia longispina dominates. This is a typical pattern observed in fishless, copepod-cladocera lakes. Regardless from which food is able to exploit, Daphnia population of Lago Paione Superiore is composed by well-fed organisms, visually rich in lipids, able to produce more than one generation/ year of parthenogenetic females at density levels which are rather high in an oligotrophic high mountain lake.

  9. The Superior Transvelar Approach to the Fourth Ventricle and Brainstem

    OpenAIRE

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Bollam, Papireddy; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Objective The superior transvelar approach is used to access pathologies located in the fourth ventricle and brainstem. The surgical path is below the venous structures, through the superior medullary velum. Following splitting the tentorial edge, near the tentorial apex, the superior medullary velum is split in the cerebello-mesencephalic fissure. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial, transtentorial or parietal interhemispheric routes, the superior medullary velum is approached. Splittin...

  10. Virtual Temporal Bone Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Background The Visible Human Project(VHP) initiated by the U.S. National Library of Medicine has drawn much attention and interests from around the world. The Visible Chinese Human (VCH) project has started in China. The current study aims at acquiring a feasible virtual methodology for reconstructing the temporal bone of the Chinese population, which may provide an accurate 3-D model of important temporal bone structures that can be used in teaching and patient care for medical scientists and clinicians. Methods A series of sectional images of the temporal bone were generated from section slices of a female cadaver head. On each sectional image, SOIs (structures of interest) were segmented by carefully defining their contours and filling their areas with certain gray scale values. The processed volume data were then inducted into the 3D Slicer software(developed by the Surgical Planning Lab at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the MIT AI Lab) for resegmentation and generation of a set of tagged images of the SOIs. 3D surface models of SOIs were then reconstructed from these images. Results The temporal bone and structures in the temporal bone, including the tympanic cavity, mastoid cells, sigmoid sinus and internal carotid artery, were successfully reconstructed. The orientation of and spatial relationship among these structures were easily visualized in the reconstructed surface models. Conclusion The 3D Slicer software can be used for 3-dimensional visualization of anatomic structures in the temporal bone, which will greatly facilitate the advance of knowledge and techniques critical for studying and treating disorders involving the temporal bone.

  11. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned power...

  12. Superiority: China Mobile in the competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The market share between China Mobile and China Unicom has stabilized since 2002.It is found that China Mobile has the superiority in the competition, for example, the scissors movement between its revenue and cost indicates that it has a strong profit generating ability and there is enough room for it to reduce the price.The ratio between its price (marginal income) and marginal cost indicates that there is a very distant limit for it to reduce the price.Its demand is obviously flexible with the price, but it does not use the price weapon abundantly.The reason for the stabilization of the market is that China Mobile withdrew from the competition.

  13. MRI manifestations of enlarged superior ophthalmic vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Rui-li; MA Xiao-ye; CAI Ji-ping; ZHU Huang

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To assess MRI in the evaluation of enlarged superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). Methods: MRI manifestations and etiology of forty-six patients with enlarged SOV were analyzed. Results: SOV enlargement was noted to occur in carotid-cavernous fistula, ophthalmic Graves'disease, Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, inflammation at the apex of the orbit, orbital pseudotumor and thrombosis of cavernous sinus. The dilated vein appeared as signal void tubular shadows on both T1 and T2 weighted images. The diameter of the enlarged vein was 3.5-6.0 mm. Extraocular muscle enlargement, orbital pathologies, enlarged carotid cavernous sinus etc were also revealed by MRI. Conclusion: The dilated SOV may be well demonstrated by MRI. The etiological diagnosis of enlarged SOV can be made in combination with the associated findings.

  14. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  15. Analgesia em modelo animal superior para ortopedia

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira MT, Maria Teresa; Potes, José Alberto; Queiroga, Cristina; Castro, José António; Pereira, Alfredo; Reis, Joana

    2015-01-01

    O teste de novos biomateriais para aplicações clínicas em ortopedia, ou noutras áreas da medicina, em modelos animais vivos e sencientes, em prol do benefício humano, deve ser objecto de planeamento cuidado e ponderado, dado o conflito ético que se coloca. Compete-nos a nós, enquanto investigadores, garantir que as condições de vida, saúde e bem-estar são asseguradas. O uso de ovinos como modelo superior pré-clínico, para investigação em Ortopedia, tem-se evidenciado devido às suas caracterís...

  16. Superior vena cava syndrome in hemodialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeb Molhem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstruction of blood flow in the superior vena cava (SVC results in symptoms and signs of SVC syndrome. SVC obstruction can be caused either by invasion or external compression of the SVC by contagious pathologic processes involving the right lung, lymph nodes, and other mediastinal structures, or by thrombosis of blood within the SVC. Occasionally, both mechanisms co-exist. We hereby report a case of a 28-year-old male, Saudi patient who was diagnosed with end-stage renal disease and was maintained on regular hemodiaysis via right jugular vein dual lumen catheter for ten months. Three years later, the patient presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of SVC obstruction that was successfully managed with SVC stenting.

  17. [Surgical treatment of superior thoracic outlet syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaibov, A D; Kakhorov, A Z; Sadriev, O N; Yunusov, Kh A

    2015-01-01

    The authors present immediate and long-term results of treatment of 117 patients with superior thoracic outlet syndrome (STOS). There were different reasons for compression of neu- rovascular fascicle in outlet of the thorax. The costaclavicular syndrome was a reason in 48 patients, additional cervical ribs had 36 patients. Skalenus syndrome was noted in 26 cases, rudimentary cervical ribs or hypertrophy of cervical vertebrae C7 had 7 patients. Raynaud's syndrome took place in 19 cases. The required volume of diagnostic procedures and surgical treatment of STOS were determined according to the cause of the syndrome. Differentiated approach to the different forms of STOS was used in relation to dominant symptoms of the disease and reasons for compression of neurovascular fascicle. This allowed getting positive results in majority of patients (90,4%) in long- term period.

  18. ANATOMIC RESEARCH OF SUPERIOR CLUNIAL NERVE TRAUMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In order to find the mechanism of superior clunial nerve (SCN) trauma, we dissected and revealed SCN from 12 corpses (24 sides). Combining 100 sides of SCN trauma, we inspected the course of SCN, the relation between SCN and it's neighbour tissues with the situation of SCN when being subjected to force. We found that the following special anatomic characteristics and mechanical elements such as the course of SCN, it's turning angles, the bony fibrous tube at the iliac crest, the posterior layer of the lumbodorsal fascia and SCN neighbour adipose tissue, are the causes of external force inducing SCN trauma. The anatomic revealment is the guidance of SCN trauma treatment with edged needle.

  19. Superiorization: An optimization heuristic for medical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, G T; Davidi, R; Censor, Y

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and mathematically validate the superiorization methodology, which is a recently-developed heuristic approach to optimization, and to discuss its applicability to medical physics problem formulations that specify the desired solution (of physically given or otherwise obtained constraints) by an optimization criterion. Methods: The underlying idea is that many iterative algorithms for finding such a solution are perturbation resilient in the sense that, even if certain kinds of changes are made at the end of each iterative step, the algorithm still produces a constraints-compatible solution. This property is exploited by using permitted changes to steer the algorithm to a solution that is not only constraints-compatible, but is also desirable according to a specified optimization criterion. The approach is very general, it is applicable to many iterative procedures and optimization criteria used in medical physics. Results: The main practical contribution is a procedure for automatically p...

  20. Superior calcium homeostasis of extraocular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Ulrike; Mitchell, Claire H; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2010-11-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) are a unique group of skeletal muscles with unusual physiological properties such as being able to undergo rapid twitch contractions over extended periods and escape damage in the presence of excess intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD). Enhanced Ca(2+) buffering has been proposed as a contributory mechanism to explain these properties; however, the mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated mechanisms modulating Ca(2+) levels in EOM and tibialis anterior (TA) limb muscles. Using Fura-2 based ratiometric Ca(2+) imaging of primary myotubes we found that EOM myotubes reduced elevated Ca(2+) ˜2-fold faster than TA myotubes, demonstrating more efficient Ca(2+) buffering. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blotting revealed higher expression of key components of the Ca(2+) regulation system in EOM, such as the cardiac/slow isoforms sarcoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase 2 (Serca2) and calsequestrin 2 (Casq2). Interestingly EOM expressed monomeric rather than multimeric forms of phospholamban (Pln), which was phosphorylated at threonine 17 (Thr17) but not at the serine 16 (Ser16) residue. EOM Pln remained monomeric and unphosphorylated at Ser16 despite protein kinase A (PKA) treatment, suggesting differential signalling and modulation cascades involving Pln-mediated Ca(2+) regulation in EOM. Increased expression of Ca(2+)/SR mRNA, proteins, differential post-translational modification of Pln and superior Ca(2+) buffering is consistent with the improved ability of EOM to handle elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels. These characteristics provide mechanistic insight for the potential role of superior Ca(2+) buffering in the unusual physiology of EOM and their sparing in DMD.

  1. The management of superior sulcus tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, J.D.; Putnam, J.B. Jr [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Anderson Cancer Center] (and others)

    2001-09-01

    Superior sulcus tumors are a rare type of lung cancer arising in the apex of the lung above the sulcus and cause specific symptoms and signs depending on the location and whether the tumor extends into the surrounding structures. Because of the closeness of critical structures to the tumor (e.g., the subclavian artery for anterior lesions, the brachial plexus for lesions in the middle location, and the sympathetic stellate ganglion causing Horner's syndrome [Pancoast's tumor], the vertebral bodies, nerve foramen, and spinal cord for posterior lesions), superior sulcus tumors were often considered marginally respectable or unresectable. Therefore, for many years, preoperative radiation therapy was considered routine treatment for those tumors. However, with the evolution in our understanding of these tumors and modern imaging techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) and surgical techniques, there is now considerable debate about the roles and timing of surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with these tumors. If mediastinoscopy reveals microscopic mediastinal lymph node involvement, the patient can be treated with preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. If there was a gross mediastinal lymph node involvement (N2) on CT, N3 or T4 lesions, the patient can be treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy with a curative intent; the outcome of such treatment appears to be better than that of sequential chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy. Whenever possible, without compromising the patient's quality of life, surgery should be considered to improve outcome. (author)

  2. STEREO Superior Solar Conjunction Mission Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossing, Daniel A.; Wilson, Daniel; Balon, Kevin; Hunt, Jack; Dudley, Owen; Chiu, George; Coulter, Timothy; Reese, Angel; Cox, Matthew; Srinivasan, Dipak; hide

    2017-01-01

    With its long duration and high gain antenna (HGA) feed thermal constraint; the NASA Solar-TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) solar conjunction mission phase is quite unique to deep space operations. Originally designed for a two year heliocentric orbit mission to primarily study coronal mass ejection propagation, after 8 years of continuous science data collection, the twin STEREO observatories entered the solar conjunction mission phase, for which they were not designed. Nine months before entering conjunction, an unforeseen thermal constraint threatened to stop daily communications and science data collection for 15months. With a 3.5 month long communication blackout from the superior solar conjunction, without ground commands, each observatory will reset every 3 days, resulting in 35 system resets at an Earth range of 2 AU. As the observatories will be conjoined for the first time in 8 years, a unique opportunity for calibrating the same instruments on identical spacecraft will occur. As each observatory has lost redundancy, and with only a limited fidelity hardware simulator, how can the new observatory configuration be adequately and safely tested on each spacecraft? Without ground commands, how would a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft safely manage the ever accumulating system momentum without using propellant for thrusters? Could science data still be collected for the duration of the solar conjunction mission phase? Would the observatories survive? In its second extended mission, operational resources were limited at best. This paper discusses the solutions to the STEREO superior solar conjunction operational challenges, science data impact, testing, mission operations, results, and lessons learned while implementing.

  3. A corticostriatal neural system enhances auditory perception through temporal context processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Eveline; Notter, Michael; Gabrieli, John D E

    2012-05-02

    The temporal context of an acoustic signal can greatly influence its perception. The present study investigated the neural correlates underlying perceptual facilitation by regular temporal contexts in humans. Participants listened to temporally regular (periodic) or temporally irregular (nonperiodic) sequences of tones while performing an intensity discrimination task. Participants performed significantly better on intensity discrimination during periodic than nonperiodic tone sequences. There was greater activation in the putamen for periodic than nonperiodic sequences. Conversely, there was greater activation in bilateral primary and secondary auditory cortices (planum polare and planum temporale) for nonperiodic than periodic sequences. Across individuals, greater putamen activation correlated with lesser auditory cortical activation in both right and left hemispheres. These findings suggest that temporal regularity is detected in the putamen, and that such detection facilitates temporal-lobe cortical processing associated with superior auditory perception. Thus, this study reveals a corticostriatal system associated with contextual facilitation for auditory perception through temporal regularity processing.

  4. Temporal Lorentzian spectral triples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    We present the notion of temporal Lorentzian spectral triple which is an extension of the notion of pseudo-Riemannian spectral triple with a way to ensure that the signature of the metric is Lorentzian. A temporal Lorentzian spectral triple corresponds to a specific 3 + 1 decomposition of a possibly noncommutative Lorentzian space. This structure introduces a notion of global time in noncommutative geometry. As an example, we construct a temporal Lorentzian spectral triple over a Moyal-Minkowski spacetime. We show that, when time is commutative, the algebra can be extended to unbounded elements. Using such an extension, it is possible to define a Lorentzian distance formula between pure states with a well-defined noncommutative formulation.

  5. Comparing spatial and temporal transferability of hydrological model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sopan D.; Stieglitz, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Operational use of hydrological models requires the transfer of calibrated parameters either in time (for streamflow forecasting) or space (for prediction at ungauged catchments) or both. Although the effects of spatial and temporal parameter transfer on catchment streamflow predictions have been well studied individually, a direct comparison of these approaches is much less documented. Here, we compare three different schemes of parameter transfer, viz., temporal, spatial, and spatiotemporal, using a spatially lumped hydrological model called EXP-HYDRO at 294 catchments across the continental United States. Results show that the temporal parameter transfer scheme performs best, with lowest decline in prediction performance (median decline of 4.2%) as measured using the Kling-Gupta efficiency metric. More interestingly, negligible difference in prediction performance is observed between the spatial and spatiotemporal parameter transfer schemes (median decline of 12.4% and 13.9% respectively). We further demonstrate that the superiority of temporal parameter transfer scheme is preserved even when: (1) spatial distance between donor and receiver catchments is reduced, or (2) temporal lag between calibration and validation periods is increased. Nonetheless, increase in the temporal lag between calibration and validation periods reduces the overall performance gap between the three parameter transfer schemes. Results suggest that spatiotemporal transfer of hydrological model parameters has the potential to be a viable option for climate change related hydrological studies, as envisioned in the "trading space for time" framework. However, further research is still needed to explore the relationship between spatial and temporal aspects of catchment hydrological variability.

  6. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence in East Asian women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD may cause Tullio phenomenon (sound-induced vertigo or Hennebert sign (valsalva-induced vertigo due to the absence of bone overlying the SSC. We document a case series of elderly East Asian women with atypical SSCD symptoms, radiologically confirmed dehiscence and concurrent osteoporosis. Methods A retrospective record review was performed on patients with dizziness, vertigo, and/or imbalance from a neurology clinic in a community health center serving the East Asian population in Boston. SSCD was confirmed by multi-detector, high-resolution CT of the temporal bone (with Pöschl and Stenvers reformations and osteoporosis was documented by bone mineral density (BMD scans. Results Of the 496 patients seen in the neurology clinic of a community health center from 2008 to 2010, 76 (17.3% had symptoms of dizziness, vertigo, and/or imbalance. Five (6.6% had confirmed SSCD by multi-detector, high-resolution CT of the temporal bone with longitudinal areas of dehiscence along the long axis of SSC, ranging from 0.4 to 3.0 mm, as seen on the Pöschl view. Two of the 5 patients experienced motion-induced vertigo, two fell due to disequilibrium, and one had chronic dizziness. None had a history of head trauma, otologic surgery, or active intracerebral disease. On neurological examination, two patients had inducible vertigo on Dix-Hallpike maneuver and none experienced cerebellar deficit, Tullio phenomenon, or Hennebert sign. All had documented osteoporosis or osteopenia by BMD scans. Three of them had definite osteoporosis, with T-scores  Conclusions We describe an unusual presentation of SSCD without Tullio phenomenon or Hennebert sign in a population of elderly, East Asian women. There may be an association of SSCD and osteoporosis in this population. Further research is needed to determine the incidence and prevalence of this disorder, as well as the relationship of age, race

  7. Information and Temporality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flender, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Being able to give reasons for what the world is and how it works is one of the defining characteristics of modernity. Mathematical reason and empirical observation brought science and engineering to unprecedented success. However, modernity has reached a post-state where an instrumental view of technology needs revision with reasonable arguments and evidence, i.e. without falling back to superstition and mysticism. Instrumentally, technology bears the potential to ease and to harm. Easing and harming can't be controlled like the initial development of technology is a controlled exercise for a specific, mostly easing purpose. Therefore, a revised understanding of information technology is proposed based upon mathematical concepts and intuitions as developed in quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics offers unequaled opportunities because it raises foundational questions in a precise form. Beyond instrumentalism it enables to raise the question of essences as that what remains through time what it is. The essence of information technology is acausality. The time of acausality is temporality. Temporality is not a concept or a category. It is not epistemological. As an existential and thus more comprehensive and fundamental than a concept or a category temporality is ontological; it does not simply have ontic properties. Rather it exhibits general essences. Datability, significance, spannedness and openness are general essences of equiprimordial time (temporality).

  8. Temporal Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny;

    2010-01-01

    The finite frame rate also used in computer animated films is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively, co...

  9. Information and Temporality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Flender

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Being able to give reasons for what the world is and how it works is one of the defining characteristics of modernity. Mathematical reason and empirical observation brought science and engineering to unprecedented success. However, modernity has reached a post-state where an instrumental view of technology needs revision with reasonable arguments and evidence, i.e. without falling back to superstition and mysticism. Instrumentally, technology bears the potential to ease and to harm. Easing and harming can't be controlled like the initial development of technology is a controlled exercise for a specific, mostly easing purpose. Therefore, a revised understanding of information technology is proposed based upon mathematical concepts and intuitions as developed in quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics offers unequaled opportunities because it raises foundational questions in a precise form. Beyond instrumentalism it enables to raise the question of essences as that what remains through time what it is. The essence of information technology is acausality. The time of acausality is temporality. Temporality is not a concept or a category. It is not epistemological. As an existential and thus more comprehensive and fundamental than a concept or a category temporality is ontological; it does not simply have ontic properties. Rather it exhibits general essences. Datability, significance, spannedness and openness are general essences of equiprimordial time (temporality.

  10. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  11. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  12. Temporal Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe; Erleben, Kenny;

    2010-01-01

    The frame rate also used in computer animated is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively, constituting a ...

  13. Communication, Technology, Temporality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Martinez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a media studies that foregrounds technological objects as communicative and historical agents. Specifically, I take the digital computer as a powerful catalyst of crises in communication theories and certain key features of modernity. Finally, the computer is the motor of “New Media” which is at once a set of technologies, a historical epoch, and a field of knowledge. As such the computer shapes “the new” and “the future” as History pushes its origins further in the past and its convergent quality pushes its future as a predominate medium. As treatment of information and interface suggest, communication theories observe computers, and technologies generally, for the mediated languages they either afford or foreclose to us. My project describes the figures information and interface for the different ways they can be thought of as aspects of communication. I treat information not as semantic meaning, formal or discursive language, but rather as a physical organism. Similarly an interface is not a relationship between a screen and a human visual intelligence, but is instead a reciprocal, affective and physical process of contact. I illustrate that historically there have been conceptions of information and interface complimentary to mine, fleeting as they have been in the face of a dominant temporality of mediation. I begin with a theoretically informed approach to media history, and extend it to a new theory of communication. In doing so I discuss a model of time common to popular, scientific, and critical conceptions of media technologies especially in theories of computer technology. This is a predominate model with particular rules of temporal change and causality for thinking about mediation, and limits the conditions of possibility for knowledge production about communication. I suggest a new model of time as integral to any event of observation and analysis, and that human mediation does not exhaust the

  14. Medial Superior Olivary Neurons Receive Surprisingly Few Excitatory and Inhibitory Inputs with Balanced Strength and Short-Term Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Couchman, Kiri; Grothe, Benedikt; Felmy, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) process microsecond interaural time differences, the major cue for localizing low-frequency sounds, by comparing the relative arrival time of binaural, glutamatergic excitatory inputs. This coincidence detection mechanism is additionally shaped by highly specialized glycinergic inhibition. Traditionally, it is assumed that the binaural inputs are conveyed by many independent fibers, but such an anatomical arrangement may decrease temporal precision. ...

  15. Heterogeneity in the spatial receptive field architecture of multisensory neurons of the superior colliculus and its effects on multisensory integration

    OpenAIRE

    Ghose, Dipanwita; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Multisensory integration has been widely studied in neurons of the mammalian superior colliculus (SC). This has led to the description of various determinants of multisensory integration, including those based on stimulus- and neuron-specific factors. The most widely characterized of these illustrate the importance of the spatial and temporal relationships of the paired stimuli as well as their relative effectiveness in eliciting a response in determining the final integrated output. Although...

  16. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  17. Dynamics of Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Activity in Human Temporal and Frontal Cortical Areas During Music Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-14

    REPORT Dynamics of electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity in human temporal and frontal cortical areas during music listening 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...information about the sound intensity of music . ECoG activity in the high gamma band recorded from the posterior part of the superior temporal 1. REPORT...ECoG) activity in human temporal and frontal cortical areas during music listening Report Title ABSTRACT Previous studies demonstrated that brain

  18. Carbon phosphide monolayers with superior carrier mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaoxue; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P.

    2016-04-01

    Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great promise for applications in high-performance electronics and optoelectronics.Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great

  19. Absent right superior caval vein in situs solitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Sundberg, Karin; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    no postnatal complications. All children were found to have healthy hearts at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In all cases, the findings proved to be a benign condition with no clinical manifestations or complications. Although isolated absent right superior caval vein does not seem to affect the outcome, associated......Introduction In up to 0.07% of the general population, the right anterior cardinal vein obliterates and the left remains open, creating an absent right superior caval vein and a persistent left superior caval vein. Absent right superior caval vein is associated with additional congenital heart...... disease in about half the patients. We wished to study the consequences of absent right superior caval vein as an incidental finding on prenatal ultrasonic malformation screening. Material and methods This is a retrospective case series study of all foetuses diagnosed with absent right superior caval vein...

  20. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William

    2015-08-04

    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  1. Coronary artery bypass and superior vena cava syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, T V; Masrani, K; Thomas, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Superior vena cava syndrome is the obstruction of the superior vena cava or its main tributaries by benign or malignant lesions. The syndrome causes edema and engorgement of the vessels on the face, neck, and arms, nonproductive cough, and dyspnea. We discuss the case of a 48-year-old obese diabetic woman who was admitted with unstable angina. She had previously been diagnosed with superior vena cava syndrome. Urgent coronary artery bypass grafting was necessary Although thousands of coronary...

  2. Superiorization of incremental optimization algorithms for statistical tomographic image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, E. S.; Zibetti, M. V. W.; Miqueles, E. X.

    2017-04-01

    We propose the superiorization of incremental algorithms for tomographic image reconstruction. The resulting methods follow a better path in its way to finding the optimal solution for the maximum likelihood problem in the sense that they are closer to the Pareto optimal curve than the non-superiorized techniques. A new scaled gradient iteration is proposed and three superiorization schemes are evaluated. Theoretical analysis of the methods as well as computational experiments with both synthetic and real data are provided.

  3. 77 FR 48856 - Safety Zone; Superior Bay, Duluth, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... spectators during the Superior Man Triathlon. DATES: This rule is effective from 6 a.m. to 8:30 a.m. on... Triathlon, which are discussed further below. Under 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3), the Coast Guard finds that good... inaugural Superior Man Triathlon will occur along the Bay of Lake Superior. The 1.2 mile swim leg of...

  4. Temporal bone chondroblastoma totally invisible on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraumi, Harukazu; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Norio; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Ito, Juichi

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of temporal bone chondroblastoma that was totally invisible on MRI. The patient was a 64-year-old man who presented with several months history of vertigo. The CT scan with bone window setting showed destruction of the temporomandibular joint, the floor of the middle cranial fossa, and the superior semicircular canal. Calcific foci were seen within the tumor. On MR imaging, the tumor, situating mainly medial to the temporomandibular joint, showed no signal on both T1- and T2-weighted images. The tumor was not enhanced with gadolinium. In summary, the tumor was totally signal negative or "invisible" on pre- and postcontrast T1- and T2-weighted images. The tumor was resected through transpetrosal - transzygomatic approach.

  5. Coverage centralities for temporal networks*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yano, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex based on the fastest temporal paths which use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bottleneck time at which most information sent in the temporal network passes through a small number of temporal vertices, which suggests an important role of these temporal vertices in spreading phenomena. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Temporal Network Theory and Applications", edited by Petter Holme.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-60498-7

  6. Temporal Bone Localized Chondroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Hasan; Acioğlu, Engin; Durna, Yusuf Muhammed; Yiğit, Özgür; Bozkurt, Erol Rüştü; Karagöz, Yeşim

    2015-11-01

    Chondroblastoma is a highly destructive tumor originating from immature cartilage cells. Although chondroblastoma is defined as a benign tumor, it may exhibit malign tumor behaviors such as invasion or metastasis on neighboring structures. Magnetic resonance (MR) image is a solid mass lesion, which included heterogeneous hypointense in T2A and heterogeneous minimal hyperintense in T1A with destructive expansile characteristics and millimetric calcifications. Temporal bone chondroblastomas may complicate the diagnosis because of their different histologic characteristics. Microscopically, chondroblastic cell nests and calcification of locally "chicken wire" type around the cells are observed. These tumors secrete s-100 and vimentin and are used for differential diagnosis. In this study, a temporal bone localized chondroblastoma case is presented.

  7. Temporal lobe epilepsy semiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert D G

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy represents a multifaceted group of disorders divided into two broad categories, partial and generalized, based on the seizure onset zone. The identification of the neuroanatomic site of seizure onset depends on delineation of seizure semiology by a careful history together with video-EEG, and a variety of neuroimaging technologies such as MRI, fMRI, FDG-PET, MEG, or invasive intracranial EEG recording. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest form of focal epilepsy and represents almost 2/3 of cases of intractable epilepsy managed surgically. A history of febrile seizures (especially complex febrile seizures) is common in TLE and is frequently associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (the commonest form of TLE). Seizure auras occur in many TLE patients and often exhibit features that are relatively specific for TLE but few are of lateralizing value. Automatisms, however, often have lateralizing significance. Careful study of seizure semiology remains invaluable in addressing the search for the seizure onset zone.

  8. ADHD and temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    According to the official diagnostic manual, ADHD is defined by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and patterns of behaviour are characterized as failure to pay attention to details, excessive talking, fidgeting, or inability to remain seated in appropriate situations (DSM-5......). In this paper, however, I will ask if we can understand what we call ADHD in a different way than through the symptom descriptions and will advocate for a complementary, phenomenological understanding of ADHD as a certain being in the world – more specifically as a matter of a phenomenological difference...... in temporal experience and/or rhythm. Inspired by both psychiatry’s experiments with people diagnosed with ADHD and their assessment of time and phenomenological perspectives on mental disorders and temporal disorientation I explore the experience of ADHD as a disruption in the phenomenological experience...

  9. Optimal Temporal Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fuat eBalcı; David eFreestone; Patrick eSimen; Laura edeSouza; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Philip eHolmes

    2011-01-01

    Time is an essential feature of most decisions, because the reward earned from decisions frequently depends on the temporal statistics of the environment (e.g., on whether deci- sions must be made under deadlines). Accordingly, evolution appears to have favored a mechanism that predicts intervals in the seconds to minutes range with high accuracy on average, but significant variability from trial to trial. Importantly, the subjective sense of time that results is sufficiently impre...

  10. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  11. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: An Infrequent Complication of Scoliosis Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Keskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare condition that causes a proximal small intestinal obstruction due to contraction of the angle between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta. Scoliosis surgery is one of the 15 reasons for superior mesenteric artery syndrome, which can present with acute or chronic manifestations. Although conservative treatment is usually possible, surgical treatment is required in certain cases that cannot be treated using conservative methods. In this paper, we describe a patient who developed superior mesenteric artery syndrome after scoliosis surgery and was treated with duodenojejunostomy due to failure and complications of conservative treatment.

  12. Superior Vena Cava Thrombosis in a Case of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superior vena cava syndrome is a common presentation of bronchogenic carcinoma. The mechanism of obstruction is by compression of superior vena cava by the bronchogenic tumor itself or enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However obstruction due to intravascular thrombosis is extremely uncommon. Here, we report a rare case of a 65-year-old male smoker who presented with superior vena cava syndrome and bilateral pleural and pericardial effusion with thrombotic occlusion of the superior vena cava in adenocarcinoma of the lung. He was given chemotherapy with carboplatin and gemcitabine with anticoagulant therapy.

  13. Virtual temporal bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Ming-guo; ZHANG Shao-xiang; LIU Zheng-jin; TAN Li-wen; WANG Yu-su; DENG Jun-hui; TANG Ze-sheng

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To provide the virtual model of the temporal bone for improving 3-dimension (3D) visualization of the inner ear. Methods: Plastination technique was used to make equidistant serial thin sections 1.0 mm in thickness. On SGI workstation, a Contours+Marching Cubes algorithm was selected to reconstruct the temporal bone and intratemporal structures in 3D, then to view the middle ear, inner ear, and intratemporal structures which imitate the scenes observed by the traditional endoscopy. Results: The virtual model of the temporal bone was successfully constructed, with all reconstructed structures being represented individually or jointly and being rotated continuously in any plane. Virtual endoscopy improved 3D visualization of the middle ear, inner ear, and intratemporal structures. Conclusion: The reconstructed model can be used for the medical students to rehearse or review the surgeries on this part and for the surgeons to develop a new approach for operation. Virtual otoscopy stands as a promising new visualization technique for elucidating the structure and relation of the middle ear, inner ear, and intratemporal structures.

  14. Observation of superior oblique musule at the scleral insertion%上斜肌止端前缘解剖部位的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德海; 甘晓玲

    2001-01-01

    目的 了解上斜肌止端前缘的解剖部位。方法 在19例DVD病人(24眼)上直肌后徙手术中对上斜肌的止端进行测量、记录。结果 上斜肌止端前缘距上直肌止端距离为4.0~10.00mm,水平方向从偏鼻侧4.0mm到偏颞侧2.0mm。结论 上斜肌止端解剖部位变异大,在行上直肌和上斜肌手术时应该注意。%Objective To observe superior oblique muscle at the scleral insertion. Methods The superior oblique muscle at the scleral insertion in 18 cases (22 eyes) was measured during the recession procedure of superior rectus. Results The front end of superior oblique musule at the scleral insertion is 4~9.5mm behind the temproal insertion of superior rectus, from 4mm nasal to 2mm temporal. Conclusions The superior oblique muscle at the scleral insertion varies greatly in anatomy, therefore attention should be paid during operation of superior obliqe and superior rectus.

  15. Molecular and genetic determinants of the NMDA receptor for superior learning and memory functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Jacobs

    Full Text Available The opening-duration of the NMDA receptors implements Hebb's synaptic coincidence-detection and is long thought to be the rate-limiting factor underlying superior memory. Here, we investigate the molecular and genetic determinants of the NMDA receptors by testing the "synaptic coincidence-detection time-duration" hypothesis vs. "GluN2B intracellular signaling domain" hypothesis. Accordingly, we generated a series of GluN2A, GluN2B, and GluN2D chimeric subunit transgenic mice in which C-terminal intracellular domains were systematically swapped and overexpressed in the forebrain excitatory neurons. The data presented in the present study supports the second hypothesis, the "GluN2B intracellular signaling domain" hypothesis. Surprisingly, we found that the voltage-gated channel opening-durations through either GluN2A or GluN2B are sufficient and their temporal differences are marginal. In contrast, the C-terminal intracellular domain of the GluN2B subunit is necessary and sufficient for superior performances in long-term novel object recognition and cued fear memories and superior flexibility in fear extinction. Intriguingly, memory enhancement correlates with enhanced long-term potentiation in the 10-100 Hz range while requiring intact long-term depression capacity at the 1-5 Hz range.

  16. Molecular and genetic determinants of the NMDA receptor for superior learning and memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Stephanie; Cui, Zhenzhong; Feng, Ruiben; Wang, Huimin; Wang, Deheng; Tsien, Joe Z

    2014-01-01

    The opening-duration of the NMDA receptors implements Hebb's synaptic coincidence-detection and is long thought to be the rate-limiting factor underlying superior memory. Here, we investigate the molecular and genetic determinants of the NMDA receptors by testing the "synaptic coincidence-detection time-duration" hypothesis vs. "GluN2B intracellular signaling domain" hypothesis. Accordingly, we generated a series of GluN2A, GluN2B, and GluN2D chimeric subunit transgenic mice in which C-terminal intracellular domains were systematically swapped and overexpressed in the forebrain excitatory neurons. The data presented in the present study supports the second hypothesis, the "GluN2B intracellular signaling domain" hypothesis. Surprisingly, we found that the voltage-gated channel opening-durations through either GluN2A or GluN2B are sufficient and their temporal differences are marginal. In contrast, the C-terminal intracellular domain of the GluN2B subunit is necessary and sufficient for superior performances in long-term novel object recognition and cued fear memories and superior flexibility in fear extinction. Intriguingly, memory enhancement correlates with enhanced long-term potentiation in the 10-100 Hz range while requiring intact long-term depression capacity at the 1-5 Hz range.

  17. [Catheter in the superior vena cava for hemodialysis as a last resort in superior hemithorax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo Valencia, C A; Buritica Barragán, C M; Arango, A

    2010-01-01

    We report four patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing haemodialysis therapy, which had exhausted conventional venous access (internal jugular, subclavian) and non-conventional access (axillary, innominate) in the upper hemithorax for haemodialysis. This was primarily due to thrombosis of these veins caused by previous catheterisation. These patients did not qualify for peritoneal dialysis. Using the technique recommended by Archundia et al., 4 indwelling catheters were implanted directly in the superior vena cava in each of the patients with subsequent subcutaneous tunneling. The catheters operated correctly and are currently permeable after being used for an average of 19 months.

  18. Temporal preparation in athletes: a comparison of tennis players and swimmers with sedentary controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hao; Chang, Che-Chien; Liang, Yen-Ming; Shih, Chun-Ming; Muggleton, Neil G; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2013-01-01

    The authors aimed to investigate the effects of different sporting experience on nonspecific temporal preparation. They evaluated temporal preparation in tennis players (an open-skill sport) and their athletic (swimmers, a closed skill-sport) and nonathletic (sedentary students) controls using a go/no-go variable foreperiod paradigm in which one simple condition and two go/no-go conditions (central-go and mixed-go) were included, which can be used to study the temporal aspects of nonspecific preparation with decision making in inhibition with different levels of cognitive load. Tennis players responded faster than nonathletic controls while there was no significant difference relative to the athletic controls. Additionally, the main finding of the present study is that the difference in reaction time between tennis players and nonathletic controls was found selectively for short foreperiods in which temporal uncertainty is higher and less temporal preparation can occur. Moreover, correlation analysis revealed that superior temporal preparation was positively associated with enhanced go/no-go decision making in the higher difficulty condition. Our findings are consistent with tennis players showing superior temporal processing. The absence of a significant effect in athletic controls suggests that there is a specific benefit from tennis training and indicates that temporal preparation may be susceptible to modulation by fitness and appropriate training.

  19. Fatal pericardial tamponade after superior vena cava stenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegmakers, M.J.M.; Rutten, M.J.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a fatal complication of percutaneous superior vena cava (SVC) self-expandable stent placement in a patient with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). The SVCS was caused by a malignant mediastinal mass with total occlusion of the SVC. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, the patient died

  20. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw of the S82 bridge, mile 6.3, in Cameron...

  1. [Superior vena cava syndrome--surgical solution--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galie, N; Vasile, R; Savu, C; Petreanu, C; Grigorie, V; Tabacu, E

    2010-01-01

    The patient of 52-year-old smoker was admitted in emergency with headaches, dyspnea, oedema and cyanosis of the cephalic extremity and of the superior members. This signs and symptoms suggest a superior vena cava sindrom. Thoracic CT scan shows the thrombosis of the superior vena cava and a tumor localized in the Bariety's Lodge of about 30/40 mm witch is around the right lateral wall of the traheea.This tumor is also tangent to the superior the superior vena cava. The patient was operated by total median sternotomy. By this approach we performed a complete excision of the mediastinal tumor mass. After that we effected a longitudinal cavotomy, we took out the endoluminal clot and we sutured the superior vena cava. The histological diagnosis of the mediastinal tumor was adenocarcinoma tubular-papillary moderately differentiated. The evolution post operative period was favorable the superior vena cava sindrom was a complet remission. The thoracic CT scan control after 9 months later didn't show a local relapse and blood flow was normally throw the superior vena cava.

  2. Fatal pericardial tamponade after superior vena cava stenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegmakers, M.J.M.; Rutten, M.J.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a fatal complication of percutaneous superior vena cava (SVC) self-expandable stent placement in a patient with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). The SVCS was caused by a malignant mediastinal mass with total occlusion of the SVC. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, the patient died

  3. Interpreting sulci on hominin endocasts: Old hypotheses and new findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean eFalk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Paleoneurologists analyze internal casts (endocasts of fossilized braincases, which provide information about the size, shape and, to a limited degree, sulcal patterns reproduced from impressions left by the surface of the brain. When interpreted in light of comparative data from the brains of living apes and humans, sulcal patterns reproduced on hominin endocasts provide important information for studying the evolution of the cerebral cortex and cognition in human ancestors. Here, new evidence is discussed for the evolution of sulcal patterns associated with cortical reorganization in three parts of the hominin brain: (1 the parietotemporo-occipital association cortex, (2 Broca’s speech area, and (3 dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex. Of the three regions, the evidence regarding the last is the clearest. Compared to great apes, Australopithecus endocasts reproduce a clear middle frontal sulcus in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that is derived toward the human condition. This finding is consistent with data from comparative cytoarchitectural studies of ape and human brains as well as shape analyses of australopithecine endocasts. The comparative and direct evidence for all three regions suggests that hominin brain reorganization was underway by at least the time of Australopithecus africanus (~ 2.5 to 3.0 mya, despite the ape-sized brains of these hominins, and that it entailed expansion of both rostral and caudal association cortices.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF SULCI & GYRI AT DIFFERENT FOETAL AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The human nervous system is the most complex, widely investigated and yet poorly understood physical system known to mankind. The study of the development of human brain in utero is possible with investigations like ultrasound scanning and magnetic resonance imaging during pregnancy. At what week of gestation which part of brain is forming is known now. Progress of neuronal growth is assessed. It follows a predictable timetable. AIM: The aim is provide certain anatomical standards of neural developmental growth comparing already available imaging studies by physical dissection of fetuses and adult brains. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 50 fetuses (from 20 weeks of gestation and 10 adult brains were dissected, formalin prepared and studied. Weight and volume also recorded. OBSERVATIONS: Are tabulated. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: Results are comparable with results of imaging studies.

  5. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    structures, robotic devises, multi-agent systems and music applications. The calculus is provided with a denotational semantics that captures the reactive computations of processes in the presence of arbitrary environments. The denotation is proven to be fully-abstract for a substantial fragment....../undecidability results give a clear distinction among the various temporal ccp languages. Also, the distinction between static and dynamic scoping helps to clarify the situation in thee (untimed) ccp family of languages. Moreover, the methods used in the decidability results may provide a framework to perform further...

  6. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina;

    2015-01-01

    Interaction design is distinguished from most other design disciplines through its temporal form. Temporal form is the computational structure that enables and demands a temporal expression in the resulting design. Temporal form is what enables poetry. In music, temporal form is the composition...... of tones, pauses, and timbre arranged into harmonies and rhythms. In interaction design it is, for instance, the behaviors of pixels on a screen or the movements in shape-changing interfaces. In this paper we show the power of working explicitly with temporal form in designing computational things. We give...... temporal forms by letting a series of expert designers reflect upon them. We borrow a framework from Boorstin’s film theory in which he distinguishes between the voyeuristic, the vicarious, and the visceral experience. We show how to use rhythms, complexity, gentle or forceful behavior, etc., to create...

  7. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  8. The superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle and brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Bollam, Papireddy; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Objective The superior transvelar approach is used to access pathologies located in the fourth ventricle and brainstem. The surgical path is below the venous structures, through the superior medullary velum. Following splitting the tentorial edge, near the tentorial apex, the superior medullary velum is split in the cerebello-mesencephalic fissure. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial, transtentorial or parietal interhemispheric routes, the superior medullary velum is approached. Splitting this velum provides a detailed view of the fourth ventricle and its floor. Materials and Methods A total of 10 formalin-fixed specimens were dissected in a stepwise manner to simulate the superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle. The exposure gained the distance from the craniotomy site and the ease of access was assessed for each of the routes. We also present an illustrative case, operated by the senior author (AN). Results The superior transvelar approach provides access to the entire length of the fourth ventricle floor, from the aqueduct to the obex, when using the parietal interhemispheric route. In addition, this approach provides access to the entire width of the floor of the fourth ventricle; however, this requires retracting the superior cerebellar peduncle. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial route gives a limited exposure of the superior part of the fourth ventricle. The occipital interhemispheric route is a compromise between these two. Conclusion The superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle provides a route for approaching the fourth ventricle from above. This approach does not require opening the posterior fossa in the traditional way, and provides a reasonable alternative for accessing the superior fourth ventricle.

  9. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Semiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. G. Blair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy represents a multifaceted group of disorders divided into two broad categories, partial and generalized, based on the seizure onset zone. The identification of the neuroanatomic site of seizure onset depends on delineation of seizure semiology by a careful history together with video-EEG, and a variety of neuroimaging technologies such as MRI, fMRI, FDG-PET, MEG, or invasive intracranial EEG recording. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is the commonest form of focal epilepsy and represents almost 2/3 of cases of intractable epilepsy managed surgically. A history of febrile seizures (especially complex febrile seizures is common in TLE and is frequently associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (the commonest form of TLE. Seizure auras occur in many TLE patients and often exhibit features that are relatively specific for TLE but few are of lateralizing value. Automatisms, however, often have lateralizing significance. Careful study of seizure semiology remains invaluable in addressing the search for the seizure onset zone.

  10. Distributed Processing and Cortical Specialization for Speech and Environmental Sounds in Human Temporal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Robert; Saygin, Ayse Pinar

    2011-01-01

    Using functional MRI, we investigated whether auditory processing of both speech and meaningful non-linguistic environmental sounds in superior and middle temporal cortex relies on a complex and spatially distributed neural system. We found that evidence for spatially distributed processing of speech and environmental sounds in a substantial…

  11. Temporal summaries: supporting temporal categorical searching, aggregation and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taowei David; Plaisant, Catherine; Shneiderman, Ben; Spring, Neil; Roseman, David; Marchand, Greg; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Smith, Mark

    2009-01-01

    When analyzing thousands of event histories, analysts often want to see the events as an aggregate to detect insights and generate new hypotheses about the data. An analysis tool must emphasize both the prevalence and the temporal ordering of these events. Additionally, the analysis tool must also support flexible comparisons to allow analysts to gather visual evidence. In a previous work, we introduced align, rank, and filter (ARF) to accentuate temporal ordering. In this paper, we present temporal summaries, an interactive visualization technique that highlights the prevalence of event occurrences. Temporal summaries dynamically aggregate events in multiple granularities (year, month, week, day, hour, etc.) for the purpose of spotting trends over time and comparing several groups of records. They provide affordances for analysts to perform temporal range filters. We demonstrate the applicability of this approach in two extensive case studies with analysts who applied temporal summaries to search, filter, and look for patterns in electronic health records and academic records.

  12. Síndrome de Deiscência de Canal Semicircular Superior Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane da Cunha Ferreira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome de Deiscência de Canal Semicircular Superior (SDCSS, primeiramente descrita em 1998 por Minor et al., caracteriza-se por vertigem associada à presença de nistagmo, relacionados à exposição a estímulos sonoros intensos ou a modificações de pressão dentro da orelha média ou intracraniana. Disacusia, em sua maioria de padrão condutivo à audiometria tonal, também pode estar presente. Nesta revisão da literatura objetivou-se abordar a SDCSS, com seus principais sinais e sintomas, achados diagnósticos e tratamento, assim como enfatizar a importância de sua inclusão dentre as causas de vertigem, visto tratar-se de acometimento ainda pouco conhecido até mesmo entre especialistas. O diagnóstico correto, além de possibilitar seu tratamento, impede que abordagens diagnósticas e terapêuticas inapropriadas sejam realizadas.The Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome (SCDS was first reported by Minor at. Al. (1998, and has been characterized by vertigo and vertical-torsional eye movements related to loud sounds or stimuli that change middle ear or intracranial pressure. Hearing loss, for the most part with conductive patterns on audiometry, may be present in this syndrome. We performed a literature survey in order to to present symptoms, signs, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the SCDS, also aiming at stressing the great importance of including this syndrome among the tractable cause of vertigo. We should emphasize that this is a recent issue, still unknown by some specialists. The Correct SCDS diagnosis, besides enabling patient treatment, precludes misdiagnosis and inadequate therapeutic approaches.

  13. Dissociable spatial and temporal effects of inhibition of return.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Wang

    Full Text Available Inhibition of return (IOR refers to the relative suppression of processing at locations that have recently been attended. It is frequently explored using a spatial cueing paradigm and is characterized by slower responses to cued than to uncued locations. The current study investigates the impact of IOR on overt visual orienting involving saccadic eye movements. Using a spatial cueing paradigm, our experiments have demonstrated that at a cue-target onset asynchrony (CTOA of 400 ms saccades to the vicinity of cued locations are not only delayed (temporal cost but also biased away (spatial effect. Both of these effects are basically no longer present at a CTOA of 1200 ms. At a shorter 200 ms CTOA, the spatial effect becomes stronger while the temporal cost is replaced by a temporal benefit. These findings suggest that IOR has a spatial effect that is dissociable from its temporal effect. Simulations using a neural field model of the superior colliculus (SC revealed that a theory relying on short-term depression (STD of the input pathway can explain most, but not all, temporal and spatial effects of IOR.

  14. Exploring the spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Xu, Yang; Jew, Carol A; Pyles, John A; Kass, Robert E; Tarr, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Humans are experts at face individuation. Although previous work has identified a network of face-sensitive regions and some of the temporal signatures of face processing, as yet, we do not have a clear understanding of how such face-sensitive regions support learning at different time points. To study the joint spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning, we trained subjects to categorize two groups of novel faces and recorded their neural responses using magnetoencephalography (MEG) throughout learning. A regression analysis of neural responses in face-sensitive regions against behavioral learning curves revealed significant correlations with learning in the majority of the face-sensitive regions in the face network, mostly between 150-250 ms, but also after 300 ms. However, the effect was smaller in nonventral regions (within the superior temporal areas and prefrontal cortex) than that in the ventral regions (within the inferior occipital gyri (IOG), midfusiform gyri (mFUS) and anterior temporal lobes). A multivariate discriminant analysis also revealed that IOG and mFUS, which showed strong correlation effects with learning, exhibited significant discriminability between the two face categories at different time points both between 150-250 ms and after 300 ms. In contrast, the nonventral face-sensitive regions, where correlation effects with learning were smaller, did exhibit some significant discriminability, but mainly after 300 ms. In sum, our findings indicate that early and recurring temporal components arising from ventral face-sensitive regions are critically involved in learning new faces.

  15. Acquired Brown Syndrome Treated With Traction of Superior Oblique Tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwang Hoon; Paik, Hae Jung; Chi, Mijung

    2016-03-01

    Brown syndrome is a rare strabismic disease characterized by a limited elevation in adduction of the eye. The lengthening/weakening of superior oblique muscle is the main way of surgical intervention for this disease. A 7-year-old boy was diagnosed as having acquired Brown syndrome in his right eye after injury in his face. We experienced successful release of this Brown syndrome through mere pulling outward of superior oblique tendon during surgical exploration. We briefly discuss why this manipulation of superior oblique tendon that we performed was successful.

  16. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Batisse, Alain [Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, Paris (France); Vouhe, Pascal [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Ou, Phalla [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

    2008-08-15

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  17. Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J.

    2017-06-01

    Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  18. Time, Temporality, Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Ruhnau, Eva

    The essays in this topical volume inquire into one of the most fundamental issues of philosophy and of the cognitive and natural sciences: the riddle of time. The central feature is the tension between the experience and the conceptualization of time, reflecting an apparently unavoidable antinomy of subjective first-person accounts and objective traditional science. Is time based in the physics of inanimate matter, or does it originate in the operation of our minds? Is it essential for the constitution of reality, or is it just an illusion? Issues of time, temporality, and nowness are paradigms for interdisciplinary work in many contemporary fields of research. The authors of this volume discuss profoundly the mutual relationships and inspiring perspectives. They address a general audience.

  19. Temporal dark polariton solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V

    2016-01-01

    We predict that strong coupling between waveguide photons and excitons of quantum well embedded into waveguide results in the formation of hybrid dark and anti-dark light-matter solitons. Such temporal solitons exist due to interplay between repulsive excitonic nonlinearity and giant group velocity dispersion arising in the vicinity of excitonic resonance. Such fully conservative states do not require external pumping to counteract losses and form continuous families parameterized by the power-dependent phase shift and velocity of their motion. Dark solitons are stable in the considerable part of their existence domain, while anti-dark solitons are always unstable. Both families exist outside forbidden frequency gap of the linear system.

  20. Persistent Temporal Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, David; Ramachandran, Umakishore

    Distributed continuous live stream analysis applications are increasingly common. Video-based surveillance, emergency response, disaster recovery, and critical infrastructure protection are all examples of such applications. They are characterized by a variety of high- and low-bandwidth streams as well as a need for analyzing both live and archived streams. We present a system called Persistent Temporal Streams (PTS) that supports a higher-level, domain-targeted programming abstraction for such applications. PTS provides a simple but expressive stream abstraction encompassing transport, manipulation and storage of streaming data. In this paper, we present a system architecture for implementing PTS. We provide an experimental evaluation which shows the system-level primitives can be implemented in a lightweight and high-performance manner, and an application-based evaluation designed to show that a representative high-bandwidth stream analysis application can be implemented relatively simply and with good performance.

  1. Join Operations in Temporal Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    this need for efficient join evaluation in temporal databases. Our purpose is twofold. We first survey all previously proposed temporal join operators. While many temporal join operators have been defined in previous work, this work has been done largely in isolation from competing proposals, with little......Joins are arguably the most important relational operators. Poor implementations are tantamount to computing the Cartesian product of the input relations. In a temporal database, the problem is more acute for two reasons. First, conventional techniques are designed for the evaluation of joins...... with equality predicates rather than the inequality predicates prevalent in valid-time queries. Second, the presence of temporally varying data dramatically increases the size of a database. These factors indicate that specialized techniques are needed to efficiently evaluate temporal joins. We address...

  2. Hypersexuality after Temporal Lobe Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amee D.; Wilson, Sarah J.; Bladin, Peter F.; Saling, Michael M.; Reutens, David C.

    2002-04-01

    Hypersexuality has occasionally been reported in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy following temporal lobe resection. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon is poorly understood. We describe seven patients who spontaneously reported dramatic postoperative changes in sexual behavior after unilateral temporal lobe resection. Five of the seven patients showed evidence of bilateral temporal lobe abnormalities. All of the patients had significant difficulties with postoperative psychosocial adjustment that preceded the onset of hypersexuality. Five of the patients were completely seizure-free and one reported postoperative auras. Recurrent complex partial seizures occurred at a reduced frequency in one patient after 6 months. In this patient, the period of seizure freedom did not directly correlate with the period of hypersexuality. These cases suggest that hypersexuality following unilateral temporal lobe resection is more likely to occur in the presence of psychosocial difficulties and contralateral temporal lobe abnormalities. Neurophysiological processes associated with seizure cessation alone do not appear to account for postoperative hypersexuality.

  3. Join Operations in Temporal Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    Joins are arguably the most important relational operators. Poor implementations are tantamount to computing the Cartesian product of the input relations. In a temporal database, the problem is more acute for two reasons. First, conventional techniques are designed for the evaluation of joins...... with equality predicates rather than the inequality predicates prevalent in valid-time queries. Second, the presence of temporally varying data dramatically increases the size of a database. These factors indicate that specialized techniques are needed to efficiently evaluate temporal joins. We address...... this need for efficient join evaluation in temporal databases. Our purpose is twofold. We first survey all previously proposed temporal join operators. While many temporal join operators have been defined in previous work, this work has been done largely in isolation from competing proposals, with little...

  4. [Temporal meaning of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porée, J

    2015-09-01

    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  5. Infrared moving point target detection based on spatial-temporal local contrast filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lizhen; Zhu, Hu; Tao, Chao; Wei, Yantao

    2016-05-01

    Infrared moving point target detection is a challenging task. In this paper, we define a novel spatial local contrast (SLC) and a novel temporal local contrast (TLC) to enhance the target's contrast. Based on the defined spatial local contrast and temporal local contrast, we propose a simple but powerful spatial-temporal local contrast filter (STLCF) to detect moving point target from infrared image sequences. In order to verify the performance of spatial-temporal local contrast filter on detecting moving point target, different detection methods are used to detect the target from several infrared image sequences for comparison. The experimental results show that the proposed spatial-temporal local contrast filter has great superiority in moving point target detection.

  6. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  7. Comparing spatial and temporal transferability of hydrological model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sopan; Stieglitz, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Operational use of hydrological models requires the transfer of calibrated parameters either in time (for streamflow forecasting) or space (for prediction at ungauged catchments) or both. Although the effects of spatial and temporal parameter transfer on catchment streamflow predictions have been well studied individually, a direct comparison of these approaches is much less documented. In our view, such comparison is especially pertinent in the context of increasing appeal and popularity of the "trading space for time" approaches that are proposed for assessing the hydrological implications of anthropogenic climate change. Here, we compare three different schemes of parameter transfer, viz., temporal, spatial, and spatiotemporal, using a spatially lumped hydrological model called EXP-HYDRO at 294 catchments across the continental United States. Results show that the temporal parameter transfer scheme performs best, with lowest decline in prediction performance (median decline of 4.2%) as measured using the Kling-Gupta efficiency metric. More interestingly, negligible difference in prediction performance is observed between the spatial and spatiotemporal parameter transfer schemes (median decline of 12.4% and 13.9% respectively). We further demonstrate that the superiority of temporal parameter transfer scheme is preserved even when: (1) spatial distance between donor and receiver catchments is reduced, or (2) temporal lag between calibration and validation periods is increased. Nonetheless, increase in the temporal lag between calibration and validation periods reduces the overall performance gap between the three parameter transfer schemes. Results suggest that spatiotemporal transfer of hydrological model parameters has the potential to be a viable option for climate change related hydrological studies, as envisioned in the "trading space for time" framework. However, further research is still needed to explore the relationship between spatial and temporal

  8. Attention modulations on the perception of social hierarchy at distinct temporal stages: an electrophysiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Tian, Tengxiang; Feng, Xue; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2015-04-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroscientific studies have revealed the preferential processing of superior-hierarchy cues. However, it remains poorly understood whether top-down controlled mechanisms modulate temporal dynamics of neurocognitive substrates underlying the preferential processing of these biologically and socially relevant cues. This was investigated in the current study by recording event-related potentials from participants who were presented with superior or inferior social hierarchy. Participants performed a hierarchy-judgment task that required attention to hierarchy cues or a gender-judgment task that withdrew their attention from these cues. Superior-hierarchy cues evoked stronger neural responses than inferior-hierarchy cues at both early (N170/N200) and late (late positive potential, LPP) temporal stages. Notably, the modulations of top-down attention were identified on the LPP component, such that superior-hierarchy cues evoked larger LPP amplitudes than inferior-hierarchy cues only in the attended condition; whereas the modulations of the N170/N200 component by hierarchy cues were evident in both attended and unattended conditions. These findings suggest that the preferential perception of superior-hierarchy cues involves both relatively automatic attentional bias at the early temporal stage as well as flexible and voluntary cognitive evaluation at the late temporal stage. Finally, these hierarchy-related effects were absent when participants were shown the same stimuli which, however, were not associated with social-hierarchy information in a non-hierarchy task (Experiment 2), suggesting that effects of social hierarchy at early and late temporal stages could not be accounted for by differences in physical attributes between these social cues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 2010 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Bathymetric Lidar: Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained in this file contain hydrographic and topographic data collected by the Fugro LADS Mk II system along the Lake Superior coast of Minnessota,...

  10. 28 CFR 2.60 - Superior program achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2... or a case with both superior program achievement and minor disciplinary infraction(s)). Advancements...

  11. Coronary artery bypass and superior vena cava syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T V; Masrani, K; Thomas, J L

    1999-01-01

    Superior vena cava syndrome is the obstruction of the superior vena cava or its main tributaries by benign or malignant lesions. The syndrome causes edema and engorgement of the vessels on the face, neck, and arms, nonproductive cough, and dyspnea. We discuss the case of a 48-year-old obese diabetic woman who was admitted with unstable angina. She had previously been diagnosed with superior vena cava syndrome. Urgent coronary artery bypass grafting was necessary Although thousands of coronary artery bypasses are performed every year, there are not many reports on patients with superior vena cava syndrome who successfully undergo cardiopulmonary bypass and coronary artery grafting with an internal mammary artery as the conduit. The results of the case and alternative recommended methods are discussed.

  12. Temporal Adverbials in Text Structuring: On Temporal Text Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Tuija

    This paper discusses clause-initial adverbials of time functioning as signals of the temporal text strategy. A chain of such markers creates cohesion and coherence by forming continuity in the text and also signals textual boundaries that occur on different hierarchic levels. The temporal text strategy is closely associated with narrative text.…

  13. Spatial and Temporal Habitat Segregation of Mosquitoes in Urban Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms fostering coexistence between invasive and resident species is important in predicting ecological, economic, or health impacts of invasive species. The non-native mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus have been resident in the southeastern United States for over a century. They coexist at some urban sites with the more recent invasive Aedes albopictus, which is usually superior in interspecific competition. We tested predictions of temporal and spatial habitat segregation that foster coexistence of these resident species with the superior invasive competitor. We measured spatial and temporal patterns of site occupancy and abundance for all three species among standard oviposition traps in metropolitan Tampa, Florida. Consistent with the condition-specific competition hypothesis, A. albopictus and A. aegypti abundances were greater and C. quinquefasciatus abundance was lower late (September) versus early (June) in the rainy season, and the proportional increase of A. albopictus abundance was greater than that of A. aegypti. These results are postulated to result from greater dry-season egg mortality and associated greater rainy-season competitive superiority of larvae of A. albopictus, followed by A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Spatial partitioning among landscape variables was also evident among species, with A. albopictus more likely to oviposit across a range of open grass landscapes whereas A. aegypti were mostly restricted to cemeteries. Culex quinquefasciatus showed a shift in abundance from cemeteries early in the rainy season to developed areas characterized by built environments with large proportions of impervious surfaces late in the rainy season, where A. albopictus was not in its highest abundance. These results suggest that both temporal and spatial variation, and their interaction, may contribute to local coexistence between Aedes and Culex mosquito species in urban areas. PMID:24621592

  14. Differential diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy and superior pulmonary sulcus tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Rui; KANG Ming-yang; GAO Zhong-li; ZHAO Jian-wu; WANG Jin-cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The result would be disastrous if the superior pulmonary sulcus tumor (Pancoast tumor) was misdiagnosed as degenerative cervical spine diseases.The aim of this study was to investigate the differential diagnosis methods of cervical radiculopathy and superior pulmonary sulcus tumor.Methods Clinical manifestations,physical,and radiological findings of 10 patients,whose main complaints were radiating shoulder and arm pain and later were diagnosed with superior pulmonary sulcus tumor,were reviewed and compared with those of cervical radiculopathy.Results Superior pulmonary sulcus tumor patients have shorter mean history and fewer complaints of neck pain or limitation of neck movement.Physical examination showed almost normal cervical spine range of motion.Spurling's neck compression test was negative in all patients.Anteroposterior cervical radiographs showed the lack of pulmonary air at the top of the affected lung in all cases and first rib encroachment in one case.The diagnosis of superior pulmonary sulcus tumor can be further confirmed by CT and MRI.Conclusions By the method of combination of history,physical examination,and radiological findings,superior pulmonary sulcus tumor can be efficiently differentiated from cervical radiculopathy.Normal motion range of the cervical spine,negative Spurling's neck compression test,and the lack of pulmonary air at the top of the affected lung in anteroposterior cervical radiographs should be considerad as indications for further chest radiograph examinations.

  15. Carbon mineralization and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, Lake Superior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiying; Crowe, Sean Andrew; Miklesh, David

    2012-01-01

    To understand carbon and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, we investigated eight locations (160–318-m depth) throughout Lake Superior. Despite the 2–4 weight percent organic carbon content, oxygen penetrated into the sediment by 3.5 to > 12 cm at all locations. Such deep...... penetration is explained by low sedimentation rates (0.01–0.04 cm yr−1), high solubility of oxygen in freshwater, and a shallow (∼ 2 cm) bioturbation zone. In response mainly to oxygen variations in the bottom waters, the sediment oxygen penetration varied seasonally by as much as several centimeters......, suggesting that temporal variability in deeply oxygenated sediments may be greater than previously acknowledged. The oxygen uptake rates (4.4–7.7 mmol m−2 d−1, average 6.1 mmol m−2 d−1) and carbon mineralization efficiency (∼ 90% of deposited carbon) were similar to those in marine hemipelagic and pelagic...

  16. A qualidade da educação superior e o complexo exercício de propor indicadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARILIA COSTA MOROSINI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo sintetiza algunas reflexiones acerca de la calidad de la educación superior realizadas por el Projeto Observatório da Educação Superior, de sarrollado por la Rede Sulbrasileira de Investigadores de Educação Superior – RIES/CAPES/INEP. La metodología, con diferentes procedimientos cuanti-cualitativos, apunta la complejidad de proponerse indicadores de evaluación que asumen el carácter contextualizado y temporal de la universidad y la multirreferencialidad como valor. La análisis de los datos es acompañada de interpretación teórica general del proyecto y específica de ejes que relacionan la calidad de la educación superior a los temas de internacionalización, gestión, enseñanza de grado, innovación, formación y desarrollo profesional docente. De esta manera, se construyen indicadores que auxilian la percepción acerca de la calidad y ofrecen contribuciones.

  17. Veia cava superior esquerda anômala com ausência de veia cava superior direita: achados de imagem Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava: image findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrillo Rodrigues de Araújo Júnior

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A persistência da veia cava superior esquerda com ausência da veia cava superior direita é uma anomalia rara, com menos de 150 casos descritos na literatura. A não-obliteração e regressão da veia cardinal anterior esquerda durante o desenvolvimento embriológico promove uma variação sistêmica de retorno venoso ao coração, com persistência da veia cava superior esquerda. Sua incidência varia de 0,3% em pacientes sem alterações cardíacas congênitas concomitantes a 4,3% naqueles com cardiopatias. Na maioria das vezes coexiste a veia cava superior direita, porém se houver regressão e degeneração da veia cardinal anterior direita, implicará a sua ausência e a drenagem venosa para o coração será feita pela veia cava superior esquerda ao átrio direito, através do seio coronariano. Mostramos um caso de um paciente submetido a radiografia de tórax e tomografia computadorizada para avaliação de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, tendo como achado a persistência da veia cava superior esquerda com ausência da direita, sem qualquer cardiopatia associada e com a drenagem cardíaca sendo feita, através do seio coronariano, para o átrio direito.Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava is a rare anomaly, with less than 150 cases reported in the literature. Congenitally persistent left superior vena cava is the most common variant of systemic venous return to the heart, resulting embryologically from failure of the left anterior cardinal vein to become obliterated. Its incidence varies from 0.3% in patients with otherwise normal heart to 4.3% in patients with congenital heart disease. In the majority of the patients, a right superior vena cava is present as well, but rarely the right anterior cardinal vein degenerates resulting in the absence of the normal right superior vena cava. The blood from the right side is carried by the persistent left superior vena cava to the right atrium through the

  18. Bleeding 'downhill' esophageal varices associated with benign superior vena cava obstruction: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, Michael; Anderson, Sharon; Schlansky, Barry

    2016-10-24

    Proximal or 'downhill' esophageal varices are a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Unlike the much more common distal esophageal varices, which are most commonly a result of portal hypertension, downhill esophageal varices result from vascular obstruction of the superior vena cava (SVC). While SVC obstruction is most commonly secondary to malignant causes, our review of the literature suggests that benign causes of SVC obstruction are the most common cause actual bleeding from downhill varices. Given the alternative pathophysiology of downhill varices, they require a unique approach to management. Variceal band ligation may be used to temporize acute variceal bleeding, and should be applied on the proximal end of the varix. Relief of the underlying SVC obstruction is the cornerstone of definitive treatment of downhill varices. A young woman with a benign superior vena cava stenosis due to a tunneled internal jugular vein dialysis catheter presented with hematemesis and melena. Urgent upper endoscopy revealed multiple 'downhill' esophageal varices with stigmata of recent hemorrhage. As there was no active bleeding, no endoscopic intervention was performed. CT angiography demonstrated stenosis of the SVC surrounding the distal tip of her indwelling hemodialysis catheter. The patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the stenotic SVC segment with resolution of her bleeding and clinical stabilization. Downhill esophageal varices are a distinct entity from the more common distal esophageal varices. Endoscopic therapies have a role in temporizing active variceal bleeding, but relief of the underlying SVC obstruction is the cornerstone of treatment and should be pursued as rapidly as possible. It is unknown why benign, as opposed to malignant, causes of SVC obstruction result in bleeding from downhill varices at such a high rate, despite being a less common etiology of SVC obstruction.

  19. Post-traumatic temporal lobe lesions: surgical decision making based on CT scan findings Lesões traumáticas do lobo temporal: indicações cirúrgicas baseadas na tomografia computadorizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Varella Giannetti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The indication for surgical treatment of post-traumatic parenchymal lesions in the temporal lobe remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: We reviewd the tomographic parameters that might be useful in making surgical decisions. METHOD: The tomographic findings of 69 patients were analyzed in a retrospective manner considering: 1 the effects of the lesion (classified into 4 variables: midline shift, status of the cisterns, status of the ventricles, and status of the peripheral sulci; and 2 the characteristics of the lesion: anterior, posterior or anteroposterior location (as defined by a coronal plane tangent to the cerebral peduncles and its mediolateral diameter. RESULTS: When none or only one of the aforementioned variables was found to be altered, conservative treatment was instituted (22 out of 38 lesions. In two cases, all four variables were altered, and surgery was performed in both. Anterior, anteroposterior and posterior lesions measuring 21, 23 and 28 mm in diameter, respectively, had a 50% chance of surgical removal. CONCLUSION: Amongst the patients who underwent surgical intervention, the more anterior the location of the temporal lobe lesion, the smaller the diameter.INTRODUÇÃO: A indicação do tratamento cirúrgico das lesões parenquimatosas temporais de origem traumática é controversa. Analisaram-se os parâmetros tomográficos que poderiam ser úteis nesta decisão terapêutica. MÉTODO: Os achados tomográficos de 69 patientes foram analisados retrospectivamente em relação a: 1 efeitos das lesões (classificados em 4 variáveis: desvio de estruturas medianas, estado das cisternas, dos ventrículos e dos sulcos periféricos; e 2 características das lesões: localização anterior, posterior ou ântero-posterior (definida por um plano coronal tangente aos pedúnculos cerebrais e diâmetro médio-lateral. RESULTADOS: Quando nenhuma ou uma das variáveis acima mencionadas foi encontrada alterada, foi instituído o

  20. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Waidyasekara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intracranial extension of cholesteatoma is rare. This may occur de novo or recur some time later either contiguous with or separate to the site of the original cholesteatoma. Presentation of Case. A 63-year-old female presented to a tertiary referral hospital with a fluctuating level of consciousness, fever, headache, and right-sided otorrhoea, progressing over several days. Her past medical history included surgery for right ear cholesteatoma and drainage of intracranial abscess 23 years priorly. There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma. The patient underwent a combined transmastoid/middle fossa approach for removal of the cholesteatoma and repair of the tegmen dehiscence. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remains well over 12 months later. Conclusion. This case presentation details a large intracranial cholesteatoma which had extended through a tegmen tympani dehiscence from recurrent right ear cholesteatoma treated by modified radical mastoidectomy over two decades priorly. There was a completely asymptomatic progression of disease until several weeks prior to this presentation.

  1. Coverage centralities for temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex by the proportion of (normal) vertex pairs, the quickest routes between which can (or should) use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bo...

  2. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina;

    2015-01-01

    a nuanced account of what temporal form is in interaction design, and we look at related work synthesizing what we already know of the temporal concerns in interaction design and HCI. In the second part we present a design experiment through which we explore the experiential qualities of a set of 11 simple...

  3. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaro, de Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle

    2005-01-01

    Temporal logic is two-valued: formulas are interpreted as either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We

  4. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaro, de Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle

    2004-01-01

    Temporal logic is two-valued: formulas are interpreted as either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We

  5. Laozi:Temporality of Dao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈忠良

    2016-01-01

    Dao is the essential concept in Laozi’s philosophy. This paper explores temporality of dao by analyzing the word“heng (恒)” and the notion death in the classic book Laozi. Laozi’s perception that dao is immortal and humans are on their way from birth to death implies temporality of dao.

  6. Temporal shape manipulation of adiabatons

    CERN Document Server

    Arkhipkin, V G

    2005-01-01

    We describe how to control the temporal shape of adiabaton using peculiarities of propagation dynamics under coherent population trapping. Temporal compression is demonstrated as a special case of pulse shaping. The general case of unequal oscillator strengths of two optical transitions in atom is considered.

  7. Ivory Osteoma Of Temporal Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Meher

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteomas are slow growing bony tumors common in fronto-ethmoid regions and rare in temporal bone. These are usually asymptomatic and require treatment mainly for cosmetic reasons. We describe a case of temporal bone osteoma in a female.

  8. Memory skills mediating superior memory in a world-class memorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, K Anders; Cheng, Xiaojun; Pan, Yafeng; Ku, Yixuan; Ge, Yi; Hu, Yi

    2017-10-01

    Laboratory studies have investigated how individuals with normal memory spans attained digit spans over 80 digits after hundreds of hours of practice. Experimental analyses of their memory skills suggested that their attained memory spans were constrained by the encoding time, for the time needed will increase if the length of digit sequences to be memorised becomes longer. These constraints seemed to be violated by a world-class memorist, Feng Wang (FW), who won the World Memory Championship by recalling 300 digits presented at 1 digit/s. In several studies we examined FW's memory skills underlying his exceptional performance. First FW reproduced his superior memory span of 200 digits under laboratory condition, and we obtained his retrospective reports describing his encoding/retrieval processes (Experiment 1). Further experiments used self-paced memorisation to identify temporal characteristics of encoding of digits in 4-digit clusters (Experiment 2), and explored memory encoding at presentation speeds much faster than 1 digit/s (Experiment 3). FW's superiority over previous digit span experts is explained by his acquisition of well-known mnemonic techniques and his training that focused on rapid memorisation. His memory performance supports the feasibility of acquiring memory skills for improved working memory based on storage in long-term memory.

  9. PCB decline in settling particles and benthic recycling of PCBs and PAHs in Lake Superior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremiason, J.D. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences]|[Chesapeake Biological Lab., Solomons, MD (United States); Eisenreich, S.J. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Baker, J.E. [Chesapeake Biological Lab., Solomons, MD (United States); Eadie, B.J. [NOAA, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab.

    1998-11-01

    Sediment traps were deployed at fives sites in Lake Superior at multiple depths during lake stratification in 1987 and 1991. Mass, organic carbon, PCB, and PAH fluxes were determined. PCB concentrations on settling solids declined from 1984 to 1991 with a first-order rate constant of 0.26 yr{sup {minus}1} similar to reported water column concentration decreases. Total PCB settling fluxes from the upper 35 m of water averaged 121 {+-} 40 ng/m{sup 2}{center_dot}d in 1987 and 48 {+-} 23 ng/m{sup 2}{center_dot}d in 1991. Settling fluxes are greater than reported wet and dry deposition fluxes and demonstrate the intense recycling of PCBs within the lake. A large fraction of the total Lake Superior water PCB burden is transported each year by settling particles to within 5 m of the lake bottom, but only 2--5% of settling PCBs accumulate in bottom sediments. Thus, most of the PCBs are recycled in the benthic region, possibly representing a major entry point for PCBs into higher trophic levels through the benthic food web. Benthic recycling of PAH compounds with three and four rings occurred, but a larger fraction of these settling PAHs accumulated in bottom sediments. No consistent temporal trends were observed in PAH concentrations on settling particles from 1984 to 1991.

  10. Reassessment of the predatory effects of rainbow smelt on ciscoes in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jared T.; Jones, Michael L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from small lakes suggests that predation on larval ciscoes Coregonus artedi by nonnative rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax can lead to cisco suppression or extirpation. However, evidence from larger lakes has led to equivocal conclusions. In this study, we examine the potential predation effects of rainbow smelt in two adjacent but contrasting embayments in Lake Superior (Thunder and Black bays, Ontario). During May 2006, we sampled the ichthyoplankton, pelagic fish communities, and diet composition of rainbow smelt in both bays. Using acoustics and midwater trawling, we estimated rainbow smelt densities to be 476 ± 34/ha (mean ± SE) in Thunder Bay and 3,435 ± 460/ha in Black Bay. We used a bioenergetics model to estimate the proportion of cisco larvae consumed by rainbow smelt. Our results suggest that predation by rainbow smelt accounts for 15–52% and 37–100% of the mortality of larval ciscoes in Thunder and Black bays, respectively, depending on the predator feeding rate and the scale of predator–prey overlap. We also examined the sensitivity of past conclusions (based on 1974 field collections) to assumptions of temporal overlap between rainbow smelt and larval ciscoes and estimates of rainbow smelt abundance derived from bottom trawl samples. After adjusting these parameters to reflect current understanding, we found that the previous predation estimates may have been conservative. We conclude that rainbow smelt may have been a more important contributor to the demise and slow recovery of ciscoes in Lake Superior than previously thought.

  11. Re-examining "temporal niche".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarr, Benjamin L; Schwartz, Michael D; Wotus, Cheryl; de la Iglesia, Horacio O

    2013-07-01

    The circadian system temporally organizes physiology and behavior throughout the 24-h day. At the core of this organization lies a network of multiple circadian oscillators located within the central nervous system as well as in virtually every peripheral organ. These oscillators define a 24-h temporal landscape of mutually interacting circadian rhythms that is known as the temporal niche of a species. This temporal niche is constituted by the collective phases of all biological rhythms emerging from this multi-oscillatory system. We review evidence showing that under different environmental conditions, this system can adopt different harmonic configurations. Thus, the classic chronobiological approach of searching for "the" circadian phase of an animal-typically by studying circadian rhythms of locomotor activity-represents a narrow look into the circadian system of an animal. We propose that the study of hormonal rhythms may lead to a more insightful assessment of a species' temporal niche.

  12. Spatial-temporal data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrajac, Dragoljub Milos

    Spatial-temporal data mining techniques have become increasingly important in emerging fields such as remote sensing, precision agriculture, geoscience and brain imaging. In this Thesis, novel spatial-temporal data mining methods and algorithms are presented. After the introductory remarks, modeling spatial-temporal attributes with short observation history using spatial-temporal autoregressive models on uniform grid is explored. Model specifications (including covariance structure and stationarity) are discussed as well as issues in model identification, estimation and forecasting on three different sampling schedules. The proposed technique is experimentally evaluated on simulated spatial-temporal processes that confirm to model assumptions as well as on real-life agricultural data. Subsequently, we proceed with spatial-temporal prediction of a response variable with a partial observability of influential attributes. After mathematical definition of the proposed model, evaluation of the estimation technique on synthetic data that conform to the modeling assumptions is performed and a model is assessed on simulated realistic spatial-temporal data, obtained using the proposed data generator. The following part of the Thesis is dedicated to spatial-temporal profit optimization using neural network modeling. Profit optimization is proposed using a two-phase process that consists of estimation of response/attribute dependence and profit optimization for a particular tuple of attribute values. The proposed method is evaluated on simulated precision agriculture data. Next, we introduce a spatial-temporal data simulator, which is an important tool for evaluation of knowledge discovery methods for spatial-temporal domains. Various aspects of the proposed data generator are discussed, including generation of features and simulation of response variable as well as a practical implementation of the proposed method and its application on experiments with simulated data. The

  13. Thicker temporal cortex associates with a developmental trajectory for psychopathic traits in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Yang

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is a clinical condition characterized by a failure in normal social interaction and morality. Recent studies have begun to reveal brain structural abnormalities associated with psychopathic tendencies in children. However, little is known about whether variations in brain morphology are linked to the developmental trajectory of psychopathic traits over time. In this study, structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI data from 108 14-year-old adolescents with no history of substance abuse (54 males and 54 females were examined to detect cortical thickness variations associated with psychopathic traits and individual rates of change in psychopathic traits from ages 9 to 18. We found cortical thickness abnormalities to correlate with psychopathic traits both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Specifically, at age 14, higher psychopathic scores were correlated with thinner cortex in the middle frontal gyrus, particularly in females, and thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus, particularly in males. Longitudinally, individual rates of change in psychopathic tendency over time were correlated with thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and posterior cingulate gyrus, particularly in males. Findings suggest that abnormal cortical thickness may reflect a delay in brain maturation, resulting in disturbances in frontal and temporal functioning such as impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and emotional dysregulation in adolescents. Thus, findings provide initial evidence supporting that abnormal cortical thickness may serve as a biomarker for the development of psychopathic propensity in adolescents.

  14. Migración de estudiantes: un aspecto del comercio internacional de servicios de educación superior

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Rodríguez Gómez

    2005-01-01

    El presente artículo explora una de las dimensiones del proceso de internacionalización de la educación superior, aquélla que concierne a la migración temporal de estudiantes con propósitos de formación profesional y obtención de grados. Se analizan algunos rasgos del panorama internacional, se hace referencia al estado actual del debate sobre el tema, se reflexiona sobre los indicadores relevantes para el caso de México, y se incluye una comparación entre el consumo en el extranjero de servi...

  15. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome: Lessons from the First 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan K. Ward

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome was first reported by Lloyd Minor and colleagues in 1998. Patients with a dehiscence in the bone overlying the superior semicircular canal experience symptoms of pressure or sound-induced vertigo, bone conduction hyperacusis, and pulsatile tinnitus. The initial series of patients were diagnosed based on common symptoms, a physical examination finding of eye movements in the plane of the superior semicircular canal when ear canal pressure or loud tones were applied to the ear, and high-resolution computed tomography imaging demonstrating a dehiscence in the bone over the superior semicircular canal. Research productivity directed at understanding better methods for diagnosing and treating this condition has substantially increased over the last two decades. We now have a sound understanding of the pathophysiology of third mobile window syndromes, higher resolution imaging protocols, and several sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. Furthermore, we have a treatment (surgical occlusion of the superior semicircular canal that has demonstrated efficacy. This review will highlight some of the fundamental insights gained in SCDS, propose diagnostic criteria, and discuss future research directions.

  16. La educación superior como eje del desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Afanador Vargas

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Este documento analiza cómo ha sido la interacción entre la política educativa y las estrategiasde desarrollo en Colombia, a lo largo del siglo XX. Se presenta una revisión del estadoactual de la educación en Colombia, tanto a nivel de educación básica y media, como de laeducación superior. Para ello se toman tres criterios básicos que son la cobertura, la calidady la equidad en el acceso a la educación. Para el caso de la educación superior, se comparala oferta de cupos con la demanda existente, se clasifican los distintos segmentos en que sedivide la educación superior y se hace una breve reseña sobre el recurso humano con que secuenta en la educación superior colombiana. Así mismo, se expone una conceptualización delos retos que enfrenta la educación superior, sobretodo para lograr una cohesión de la sociedad,evitando que algunos de sus integrantes sean excluidos y permitiendo que todos losestamentos de la sociedad puedan compartir los mismos ideales y los consideren asequibles.Finalmente, se presentan unas conclusiones que se derivan del estudio y se proponen algunasrecomendaciones de política .

  17. Cortical gyrification and sulcal spans in early stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by an insidious onset of progressive cerebral atrophy and cognitive decline. Previous research suggests that cortical folding and sulcal width are associated with cognitive function in elderly individuals, and the aim of the present study was to investigate these morphological measures in patients with AD. The sample contained 161 participants, comprising 80 normal controls, 57 patients with very mild AD, and 24 patients with mild AD. From 3D T1-weighted brain scans, automated methods were used to calculate an index of global cortex gyrification and the width of five individual sulci: superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure. We found that global cortex gyrification decreased with increasing severity of AD, and that the width of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus was greater in patients with mild AD than in controls. We also found that cognitive functioning, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores, decreased as global cortex gyrification decreased. MMSE scores also decreased in association with a widening of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus. The results suggest that abnormalities of global cortex gyrification and regional sulcal span are characteristic of patients with even very mild AD, and could thus facilitate the early diagnosis of this condition.

  18. Complementarity in temporal ghost interference and temporal quantum eraser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kiyoung; Noh, Jaewoo

    2015-06-01

    We present a theory for the complementarity in temporal interference and quantum erasure. We consider the case of entangled biphoton where we can get the information of single photon's arrival time without making a disturbing measurement. We find a mathematical equation for the complementary relation for a temporal double slit experiment. We also propose a quantum eraser scheme that will elucidate that the complementarity is originated from the quantum entanglement.

  19. Temporal and structural heterogeneities emerging in adaptive temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Takaaki; Gross, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a model of adaptive temporal networks whose evolution is regulated by an interplay between node activity and dynamic exchange of information through links. We study the model by using a master equation approach. Starting from a homogeneous initial configuration, we show that temporal and structural heterogeneities, characteristic of real-world networks, spontaneously emerge. This theoretically tractable model thus contributes to the understanding of the dynamics of human activity and interaction networks.

  20. Out of sight but not out of mind : The neurophysiology of iconic memory in the superior temporal sulcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, C; Xiao, DK; Foldiak, P; Perrett, DI

    2005-01-01

    Iconic memory, the short-lasting visual memory of a briefly flashed stimulus, is an important component of most models of visual perception. Here we investigate what physiological mechanisms underlie this capacity by showing rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequences with and without intersti

  1. On the Same Wavelength: Predictable Language Enhances Speaker–Listener Brain-to-Brain Synchrony in Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikker, Suzanne; Silbert, Lauren; Hasson, Uri; Zevin, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the degree to which speakers and listeners exhibit similar brain activity patterns during human linguistic interaction is correlated with communicative success. Here, we used an intersubject correlation approach in fMRI to test the hypothesis that a listener's ability

  2. Design of a fifth generation air superiority fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atique, Md. Saifuddin Ahmed; Barman, Shuvrodeb; Nafi, Asif Shahriar; Bellah, Masum; Salam, Md. Abdus

    2016-07-01

    Air Superiority Fighter is considered to be an effective dogfighter which is stealthy & highly maneuverable to surprise enemy along with improve survivability against the missile fire. This new generation fighter aircraft requires fantastic aerodynamics design, low wing loading (W/S), high thrust to weight ratio (T/W) with super cruise ability. Conceptual design is the first step to design an aircraft. In this paper conceptual design of an Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft is proposed to carry 1 crew member (pilot) that can fly at maximum Mach No of 2.3 covering a range of 1500 km with maximum ceiling of 61,000 ft. Payload capacity of this proposed aircraft is 6000 lb that covers two advanced missiles & one advanced gun. The Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft was designed to undertake all the following missions like: combat air petrol, air to air combat, maritime attack, close air support, suppression, destruction of enemy air defense and reconnaissance.

  3. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramendi, José I; Rey, Estibaliz; Hamzeh, Gadah; Crespo, Alejandro; Luis, Maite; Voces, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    We describe the surgical technique of reimplantation of the right superior pulmonary vein into the left atrium in 2 patients with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava without atrial septal defect. A right axillary minithoracotomy is done through the fourth intercostal space. The pulmonary vein is detached from its origin in the superior vena cava. This is sutured with 6-0 reabsorbable polydioxanone suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ). A lateral clamp is applied to the left atrium, and the pulmonary vein is reimplanted. The patient is extubated in the operating room. Neither cardiopulmonary bypass nor blood transfusion was required. It is simple, safe, and reproducible. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolated abscess in superior rectus muscle in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushank Ashok Bhalerao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyomyositis is a primary bacterial infection of striated muscles nearly always caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Development of the intramuscular abscess involving the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs remains an extremely rare process. We herein present a case of isolated EOM pyomyositis involving superior rectus muscle in a 2-year male child who was referred with complaints of swelling in left eye (LE and inability to open LE since last 1-month. Orbital computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined, hypo-dense, peripheral rim-enhancing lesion in relation to left superior rectus muscle suggestive of left superior rectus abscess. The abscess was drained through skin approach. We concluded that pyomyositis of EOM should be considered in any patient presenting with acute onset of orbital inflammation and characteristic CT or magnetic resonance imaging features. Management consists of incision and drainage coupled with antibiotic therapy.

  5. Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J

    2017-08-06

    Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. INFORMATION ASSURANCE - INTELLIGENCE - INFORMATION SUPERIORITY RELATIONSHIP WITHIN NATO OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BOARU, Ioan-Mihai ILIEŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a tight relationship between information assurance, the intelligence cycle and information superiority within NATO operations. The intelligence cycle has a discrete architecture and provides on-time and relevant intelligence products to the joint force commanders and to other authorized users in a specifi c joint area of operations. The intelligence cycle must follow the evolution of the operation. A permanent intelligence estimate will be performed during the military decision making process and operations execution. Information superiority is one of the most powerful intelligence cycle achievements. and decisively infuences the success of NATO joint operations. Information superiority must be preserved and enhanced through information assurance. Information assurance is an information operation that must be planned by the military in charge of operation security or by non-military experts, executed by all personnel during the entire intelligence cycle life time and employed during the planning and execution of NATO joint operations.

  7. Status of the shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Michael H.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    The shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) was historically found in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior, but has been extirpated in Lakes Huron and Michigan apparently as the result of commercial overharvest. During 1999-2001, we conducted an assessment of shortjaw cisco abundance in five areas, spanning the U.S. waters of Lake Superior, and compared our results with the abundance measured at those areas in 1921-1922. The shortjaw cisco was found at four of the five areas sampled, but abundances were so low that they were not significantly different from zero. In the four areas where shortjaw ciscoes were found, abundance declined significantly by 99% from the 1920s to the present. To increase populations of this once economically and ecologically important species in Lake Superior, an interagency rehabilitation effort is needed. Population monitoring is recommended to assess population trends and to evaluate success of rehabilitation efforts.

  8. Insular epilepsy: similarities to temporal lobe epilepsy case report Epilepsia insular: similaridades à epilepsia do lobo temporal - relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR CUKIERT

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Insular epilepsy has been rarely reported and its clinical and electrographic features are poorly understood. The electrographic study of the insula is difficult since it is hidden from the brain surface by the frontal and temporal lobe. A 48 years-old woman started having simple partial autonomic and complex partial seizures with automatisms and ictal left arm paresis 8 years prior to admission. Seizure's frequency was 1 per week. Pre-operative EEG showed a right temporal lobe focus. Neuropsychological testing disclosed right fronto-temporal dysfunction. MRI showed a right anterior insular cavernous angioma. Intraoperative ECoG obtained after spliting of the sylvian fissure showed independent spiking from the insula and temporal lobe and insular spikes that spread to the temporal lobe. The cavernous angioma and the surrounding gliotic tissue were removed and the temporal lobe was left in place. Post-resection ECoG still disclosed independent temporal and insular spiking with a lower frequency. The patient has been seizure-free since surgery. Insular epilepsy may share many clinical and electroencephalographic features with temporal lobe epilepsy.A epilepsia insular tem sido raramente relatada e suas características clínicas e eletrencefalográficas são pobremente conhecidas. O estudo eletrográfico da ínsula é difícil já que ela se encontra recoberta pelos lobos frontal e temporal. Uma paciente, de 48 anos, começou a ter crises parciais simples autonômicas e crises parciais complexas com automatismos e paresia crítica de membro superior esquerdo 8 anos antes desta internação. A frequência de crises era de 1/semana . O EEG pré-operatório mostrou foco temporal direito. Testagem neuropsicológica demonstrou disfunção fronto-temporal direita. RMN demonstrou cavernoma insular anterior direito. A eletrocorticografia intraoperatória obtida após a abertura da fissura sylviana demonstrou a presença de espículas independentes na

  9. Explaining the high voice superiority effect in polyphonic music: evidence from cortical evoked potentials and peripheral auditory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J; Marie, Céline; Bruce, Ian C; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2014-02-01

    Natural auditory environments contain multiple simultaneously-sounding objects and the auditory system must parse the incoming complex sound wave they collectively create into parts that represent each of these individual objects. Music often similarly requires processing of more than one voice or stream at the same time, and behavioral studies demonstrate that human listeners show a systematic perceptual bias in processing the highest voice in multi-voiced music. Here, we review studies utilizing event-related brain potentials (ERPs), which support the notions that (1) separate memory traces are formed for two simultaneous voices (even without conscious awareness) in auditory cortex and (2) adults show more robust encoding (i.e., larger ERP responses) to deviant pitches in the higher than in the lower voice, indicating better encoding of the former. Furthermore, infants also show this high-voice superiority effect, suggesting that the perceptual dominance observed across studies might result from neurophysiological characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Although musically untrained adults show smaller responses in general than musically trained adults, both groups similarly show a more robust cortical representation of the higher than of the lower voice. Finally, years of experience playing a bass-range instrument reduces but does not reverse the high voice superiority effect, indicating that although it can be modified, it is not highly neuroplastic. Results of new modeling experiments examined the possibility that characteristics of middle-ear filtering and cochlear dynamics (e.g., suppression) reflected in auditory nerve firing patterns might account for the higher-voice superiority effect. Simulations show that both place and temporal AN coding schemes well-predict a high-voice superiority across a wide range of interval spacings and registers. Collectively, we infer an innate, peripheral origin for the higher-voice superiority observed in human

  10. The postdiction superiority effect in metacomprehension of text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, B H; Smith, S M

    2001-01-01

    Metacomprehension accuracy for texts was greater after, rather than before, answering test questions about the texts-a postdiction superiority effect. Although postdiction superiority was found across successive sets of test questions and across successive texts, there was no improvement in metacomprehension accuracy after participants had taken more tests. Neither prediction nor postdiction gamma correlations with test performance improved with successive tests. Although the results are consistent with retrieval hypotheses, they contradict predictions made by test knowledge hypotheses, which state that increasing knowledge of the nature of the tests should increase metacomprehension accuracy.

  11. Imaging Evaluation of Superior Labral Anteroposterior (SLAP) Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubin, Jeremy; Maderazo, Alex; Fitzpatrick, Darren

    2015-10-01

    Superior labral anteroposterior (SLAP) tears are common injuries that are best evaluated with magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA), as it provides the most detailed evaluation of the bicipital labral complex. Given the variety and complexity of SLAP tears, distention of the joint with intra-articular dilute gadolinium contrast properly separates the intra-articular biceps tendon, superior labrum, glenoid cartilage and glenohumeral ligaments to optimize assessment of these structures. This allows for increased diagnostic confidence of the interpreting radiologist and provides a better road map for the surgeon prior to arthroscopy. Indirect MRA and high-field magnetic resonance imaging are sensitive and specific alternative modalities if MRA cannot be performed.

  12. SUPERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY SYNDROME - AN UNUSUAL CAUSE OF DUODENAL OBSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu SK, , , , , , ,; Singh PK; Ray J; Uniyal M; Sharma C; Sekhar C; Kapruwan H; Sachan PK

    2012-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arising from aorta at the level of first lumbar vertebra usually takes an angular downward course from ventral surface of aorta. It is through this vascular angle that the 3rd part of duodenum passes at the level of 4th lumbar vertebra. Fat and lymphatics around SMA maintains the angle at 25° to 60° with a mean of 450 and provide protection against duodenal compression. In Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome, the SMA-aorta angle in narrowed down to 7° to 22° w...

  13. The relationship between temporal phase discrimination ability and the frequency doubling illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallam, Kunjam; Metha, Andrew B

    2007-12-20

    The frequency doubling illusion (FDI) occurs when a low spatial frequency sinusoidal grating is modulated at high temporal frequencies--its apparent spatial frequency increases. A recent study suggests that this illusion is perceived due to a frequency-dependent loss of temporal phase encoding ability. We sought to elucidate the relationship between temporal phase encoding and the FDI by exploring the spatiotemporal characteristics of temporal phase discrimination (TPD) thresholds using a novel stimulus comprising three grating patches presented simultaneously in a triangular pattern. A reference grating was presented superiorly, and six degrees below two gratings (one a copy of the reference) were each randomly presented in one of two fixed positions. The odd grating had abutting regions of spatial half-cycles with alternate half-cycles locked in temporal phase. The temporal phase difference between adjoining half-cycles was varied between 0 degrees and 180 degrees via QUEST staircase--subjects had to identify which lower stimulus appeared different from the reference grating. TPD thresholds were measured for 0.25, 0.50, and 2.20 cpd stimulus at six temporal frequencies (1 to 28 Hz) at 2x, 4x, and 8x orientation identification contrast thresholds. For all subjects, thresholds were variable at low contrasts. At higher contrasts, TPD thresholds increase for 0.25 and 0.50 cpd gratings with increasing flicker rate. These data support the idea that frequency-dependent loss of temporal phase encoding ability could possibly underlie the FDI.

  14. Localized spatio-temporal constraints for accelerated CMR perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçakaya, Mehmet; Basha, Tamer A; Pflugi, Silvio; Foppa, Murilo; Kissinger, Kraig V; Hauser, Thomas H; Nezafat, Reza

    2014-09-01

    To develop and evaluate an image reconstruction technique for cardiac MRI (CMR) perfusion that uses localized spatio-temporal constraints. CMR perfusion plays an important role in detecting myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. Breath-hold k-t-based image acceleration techniques are typically used in CMR perfusion for superior spatial/temporal resolution and improved coverage. In this study, we propose a novel compressed sensing-based image reconstruction technique for CMR perfusion, with applicability to free-breathing examinations. This technique uses local spatio-temporal constraints by regularizing image patches across a small number of dynamics. The technique was compared with conventional dynamic-by-dynamic reconstruction, and sparsity regularization using a temporal principal-component (pc) basis, as well as zero-filled data in multislice two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) CMR perfusion. Qualitative image scores were used (1 = poor, 4 = excellent) to evaluate the technique in 3D perfusion in 10 patients and five healthy subjects. On four healthy subjects, the proposed technique was also compared with a breath-hold multislice 2D acquisition with parallel imaging in terms of signal intensity curves. The proposed technique produced images that were superior in terms of spatial and temporal blurring compared with the other techniques, even in free-breathing datasets. The image scores indicated a significant improvement compared with other techniques in 3D perfusion (x-pc regularization, 2.8 ± 0.5 versus 2.3 ± 0.5; dynamic-by-dynamic, 1.7 ± 0.5; zero-filled, 1.1 ± 0.2). Signal intensity curves indicate similar dynamics of uptake between the proposed method with 3D acquisition and the breath-hold multislice 2D acquisition with parallel imaging. The proposed reconstruction uses sparsity regularization based on localized information in both spatial and temporal domains for highly accelerated CMR perfusion with potential use

  15. Power and reduced temporal discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Priyanka D; Fast, Nathanael J

    2013-04-01

    Decision makers generally feel disconnected from their future selves, an experience that leads them to prefer smaller immediate gains to larger future gains. This pervasive tendency is known as temporal discounting, and researchers across disciplines are interested in understanding how to overcome it. Following recent advances in the power literature, we suggest that the experience of power enhances one's connection with the future self, which in turn results in reduced temporal discounting. In Study 1, we found that participants assigned to high-power roles were less likely than participants assigned to low-power roles to display temporal discounting. In Studies 2 and 3, priming power reduced temporal discounting in monetary and nonmonetary tasks, and, further, connection with the future self mediated the relation between power and reduced discounting. In Study 4, experiencing a general sense of power in the workplace predicted actual lifetime savings. These results have important implications for future research.

  16. Hyperbolically Discounted Temporal Difference Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, William H.; Brown, Joshua W.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperbolic discounting of future outcomes is widely observed to underlie choice behavior in animals. Additionally, recent studies (Kobayashi & Schultz, 2008) have reported that hyperbolic discounting is observed even in neural systems underlying choice. However, the most prevalent models of temporal discounting, such as temporal difference learning, assume that future outcomes are discounted exponentially. Exponential discounting has been preferred largely because it is able to be expressed r...

  17. Osteoradionecrosois of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornley, G.D.; Gullane, P.J.; Ruby, R.R.; Heeneman, H.

    1979-10-01

    Six cases of osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone are described. Persistent symptoms of otitis externa refractory to local treatment measures should alert the physician to the possibility of underlying osteoradionecrosis. Treatment of superficial parotidectomy and partial temporal bone resection with preservation of the facial nerve is indicated if local aggressive conservative measures fail to control the disease. Benign mixed tumors of the parotid gland should be treated surgically with avoidance of radiotherapy.

  18. Síndrome de veia cava superior Superior vena cava syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMUEL ZUÍNGLIO DE BIASI CORDEIRO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A obstrução ao fluxo sanguíneo na VCS e suas manifestações clínicas têm hoje como causa principal o câncer de pulmão. A história relata que no século XVIII a sífilis e a tuberculose eram responsáveis por 40% dos casos conhecidos. O conhecimento das alterações hemodinâmicas compreendidas nesta síndrome assim como a apuração das técnicas de diagnóstico de imagem e de citopatologia permitem hoje que o médico possa tratar de seu paciente com mais segurança e conforto do que há 10 anos. A TC contrastada e a RM auxiliam no diagnóstico de localização da obstrução e técnicas mais antigas como a cavografia puderam ser abandonadas. O diagnóstico de obstrução da VCS e o estudo por Doppler realizado à beira do leito em muito contribuem para a realização de procedimentos de desobstrução como a angioplastia transluminal percutânea nos casos de trombose ou estenose do vaso. Também a utilização de próteses como PTFE é de importância fundamental na condução de casos de lesão traumática da VCS durante cirurgias para câncer pulmonar ou mediastinal. No campo da radioterapia, a técnica de fracionamento permite que altas doses de irradiação sejam administradas aos pacientes portadores de neoplasias malignas, com benefícios em 70% dos casos.Lung cancer is now the main cause of blood flow obstruction in the superior vena cava and of its clinical manifestations. History tells that in the 18th Century, syphilis and tuberculosis were responsible for 40% of the known cases. The knowledge of hemodynamic changes seen in this syndrome and the improvement of diagnostic and cytopathologic techniques allow for a safer and more comfortable treatment of the patient than 10 years ago. Contrast CT and MR added to the identification and location of the obstruction, and older techniques such as cavography could be abandoned. SVC obstruction diagnosis and Doppler studies carried out at the bed of the patient contribute to

  19. Working memory network plasticity after anterior temporal lobe resection: a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Jason; Sidhu, Meneka K.; Winston, Gavin P.; Bartlett, Philippa; McEvoy, Andrew W.; Symms, Mark R.; Koepp, Matthias J.; Thompson, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    progressive increase of activation in the right superior parietal lobe at 3 and 12 months after surgery. There was greater deactivation of the right hippocampal remnant compared to controls between 3 and 12 months after right anterior temporal lobe resection that was associated with lesser improvement in task performance. Working memory improved after anterior temporal lobe resection, particularly following left-sided resections. Postoperative working memory was reliant on the functional capacity of the hippocampal remnant and, following left resections, the functional reserve of the right hippocampus. These data suggest that working memory following temporal lobe resection is dependent on the engagement of the posterior medial temporal lobes and eloquent cortex. PMID:24691395

  20. Temporal yoking in continuous multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Swallow, Khena M

    2014-12-01

    Continuous tasks such as baggage screening often involve selective gating of sensory information when "targets" are detected. Previous research has shown that temporal selection of behaviorally relevant information triggers changes in perception, learning, and memory. However, it is unclear whether temporal selection has broad effects on concurrent tasks. To address this question, we asked participants to view a stream of faces and encoded faces of a particular gender for a later memory test. At the same time, they listened to a sequence of tones, pressing a button for specific pitched tones. We manipulated the timing of temporal selection such that target faces and target tones could be unrelated, perfectly correlated, or anticorrelated. Temporal selection was successful when the temporally coinciding stimuli were congruent (e.g., both were targets), but not when they were incongruent (i.e., only 1 was a target). This pattern suggests that attentional selection for separate tasks is yoked in time-when the attentional gate opens for 1 task it also opens for the other. Temporal yoking is a unique form of dual-task interaction.

  1. Semicircular canal dehiscence: Frequency and distribution on temporal bone CT and its relationship with the clinical outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmali, Muzaffer, E-mail: muzafel@yahoo.com.tr [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Polat, Ahmet Veysel, E-mail: veyselp@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Kucuk, Harun, E-mail: hardrmd@yahoo.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Atmaca, Sinan, E-mail: sinanatmaca@yahoo.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Aksoy, Ahmet, E-mail: toxocara47@hotmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of SCD and its distribution and relationship with clinical outcomes on thin-section CT of the temporal bone. Materials and methods: Digital temporal bone CT images of 850 consecutive patients (1700 temporal bone CTs, 5100 SCs) who presented with a range of complaints such as vertigo, deafness, ear pain, fullness, and discharge between January 2008 and December 2011 were re-evaluated. Axial and oblique coronal reconstruction images of the temporal bone were made with a reconstruction thickness of 0.5 mm. Additionally, superior SC was evaluated in two perpendicular planes. Results: Out of 850 patients, 70 had completely normal temporal bone CT. Ninety-three patients had at least one SCD. In the temporal bone-based evaluation, 119 (26 bilateral, 67 unilateral) of 1700 temporal bones (7%) showed dehiscence. The SC-based evaluation revealed 125 SCD (2.5%) in 5100 SCs. The total number and rates of SCD were as follows: superior 103 (82.4%), posterior 13 (10.4%), and lateral nine (7.2%). Twenty of the 93 patients with SCD (21.5%) revealed no other findings on their temporal bone CTs. We determined a significant correlation between vestibular complaints, conductive hearing loss and SCD but there was no correlation between mixed, sensorineural hearing loss and SCD. Conclusion: We determined the frequency of SCD in 11% of patients and 7% of temporal bones. With regards to the distribution, the superior SC showed the highest dehiscence rate (82.4%). We found a significant correlation between vestibular symptoms, conductive hearing loss and SCD.

  2. O MARKETING NO ENSINO SUPERIOR: COMPARATIVO BRASIL-PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Alves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao abordar o marketing aplicado ao ensino superior, este estudo tem como objetivos discutir os conceitos teóricos do marketing educacional e aplicálos aos contextos brasileiro e português. Tendo em consideração que o marketing educacional tem a sua maior expressão nos E.U.A., a sua aplicação a diferentes realidades e culturas requer adaptações. Inicialmente, fez-se uma revisão dos conceitos tradicionais de marketing educacional, com ênfase nas vantagens, desvantagens e no marketing-mix aplicado à educação. Posteriormente realizou-se uma caraterização dos contextos atuais do ensino superior no Brasil e em Portugal, e fez-se uma comparação da aplicação do marketing educacional nas realidades brasileira e portuguesa, focando as análises no marketing-mix educacional. Percebeu-se que o ensino superior no Brasil tem caraterísticas muito diversas do ensino superior em Portugal e ambos divergem na aplicação dos conceitos mais tradicionais do marketing à educação. Desta forma, faz-se necessária a construção de abordagens teóricas específicas para a aplicação do marketing educacional a diferentes nações.

  3. Organizational Self-Awareness in the Key to Knowledge Superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    a divisionalized bureaucracy (Mintzberg 1981). Designed as an innovation center, it is responsible for, among other things, forecasting and...the system, which prioritizes the needs and selection criteria for that system. 14. SUBJECT TERMS knowledge superiority, innovation , organizational...competitive advantage, knowledge is the critical element needed for any organization to innovate and succeed (Porter and Millar 1985). Its timely and

  4. Radiologic classification of superior canal dehiscence : Implications for surgical repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lookabaugh, Sarah; Kelly, Hillary R.; Carter, Margaret S.; Niesten, Marlien E F; McKenna, Michael J.; Curtin, Hugh; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Surgical access to repair a superior canal dehiscence (SCD) is influenced by the location of the bony defect and its relationship to surrounding tegmen topography as seen on computed tomography. There are currently no agreed-upon methods of characterizing these radiologic findings. We

  5. Mnemonic Training Reshapes Brain Networks to Support Superior Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresler, M.; Shirer, W.R.; Konrad, B.N.; Muller, N.C.J.; Wagner, I.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Czisch, M.; Greicius, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Memory skills strongly differ across the general population; however, little is known about the brain characteristics supporting superior memory performance. Here we assess functional brain network organization of 23 of the world's most successful memory athletes and matched controls with fMRI

  6. Perturbation resilience and superiorization methodology of averaged mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongjin; Xu, Hong-Kun

    2017-04-01

    We first prove the bounded perturbation resilience for the successive fixed point algorithm of averaged mappings, which extends the string-averaging projection and block-iterative projection methods. We then apply the superiorization methodology to a constrained convex minimization problem where the constraint set is the intersection of fixed point sets of a finite family of averaged mappings.

  7. Measurement of ocular torsion variation following superior oblique tenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Lana Ducca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purposes: To objectively evaluate the torsional effect of the superior oblique muscle-weakening surgery using the tenectomy technique proposed by Souza-Dias. Methods: The present prospective study included 10 patients (20 eyes with horizontal strabismus, bilateral superior oblique overaction and A-pattern of 15 to 30 prism diopters who underwent superior oblique tenectomy. Objective assessment of ocular torsion was performed by retinography immediately before and one month after surgery. The amount of ocular torsion was determined by measuring the angle formed by a horizontal line drawn across the geometric center of the optic disc and a second line connecting this point to the fovea. Results: The median preoperative angle was 5.56° in the right eyes and -3.43° in the left eyes. The median postoperative angle was 1.84° in the right eyes and -3.12° in the left eyes. The angle variation was statistically significant in both eyes (p=0.012 and p=0.01, respectively. Conclusion: The present study suggests that superior oblique tenectomy has an extorter effect, decreasing the intorsion detected on overaction of this muscle.

  8. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome in a Young Military Basic Trainee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    patients with severe anorexia nervosa .10 Severe cases may require surgery or parenteral feeding because of food avoidance leading to further loss of...2012. 10. Gwee K, Teh A, Huang C: Acute superior mesenteric artery syndrome and pancreatitis in anorexia nervosa . Australas Psychiatry 2010; 18(6): 523

  9. Morphological variation of siscowet lake trout in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, C.R.; Moore, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, Lake Superior has contained many morphologically distinct forms of the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that have occupied specific depths and locations and spawned at specific times of the year. Today, as was probably the case historically, the siscowet morphotype is the most abundant. Recent interest in harvesting siscowets to extract oil containing omega-3 fatty acids will require additional knowledge of the biology and stock structure of these lightly exploited populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether shape differences exist among siscowet populations across Lake Superior and whether these shape differences can be used to infer stock structure. Morphometric analysis (truss protocol) was used to differentiate among siscowets sampled from 23 locations in Lake Superior. We analyzed 31 distance measurements among 14 anatomical landmarks taken from digital images of fish recorded in the field. Cluster analysis of size-corrected data separated fish into three geographic groups: The Isle Royale, eastern (Michigan), and western regions (Michigan). Finer scales of stock structure were also suggested. Discriminant function analysis demonstrated that head measurements contributed to most of the observed variation. Cross-validation classification rates indicated that 67–71% of individual fish were correctly classified to their region of capture. This is the first study to present shape differences associated with location within a lake trout morphotype in Lake Superior.

  10. El contexto virtual en la educación superior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vera Quintana, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    ... técnicos, organizativos y metodológicos, por tanto, la virtualización de la educación superior durante su relativa corta vida, ha sido ese nuevo paradigma educativo resultante del uso de las tecnologías...

  11. Evaluation of the Superior Gluteal Nerve During Proximal Femoral Nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sonmez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The superior gluteal nerve may be compromised during hip surgery. We retrospectively evaluated the patients who underwent proximal femoral nailing for unstable trochanteric fractures in order to investigate the presence of superior gluteal nerve injury and its clinical findings. Material and Method: Twenty five patients (14 women, 11 men were included in the study who had femoral nailing between January 2004 and March 2010 at Hamidiye Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital Department of Orthopaedics. Two different types of nails which have similar designs and surgical techniques were used for fracture fixation. Patients who had a history of cerebrovascular disease, electromyography findings of polyneuropathy, or degenerative vertebral disease were excluded from the study. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically. Findings related to acute denervation in the gluteus medius muscle and motor unit action potential changes were accepted as signs of superior gluteal nerve injury. Results: Eight patients were using support during walking and three of these patients had positive Trendelenburg sign, but only one patient had acute denervation signs of the superior gluteal nerve. Discussion: Based on the present study the incidence of iatrogenic nerve injury is a rare complication of proximal femoral nailing. Elderly patients, regardless of whether they have nerve injury, may limp and need to use a walking support.

  12. The effect of superior auditory skills on vocal accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ofer; Amir, Noam; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2003-02-01

    The relationship between auditory perception and vocal production has been typically investigated by evaluating the effect of either altered or degraded auditory feedback on speech production in either normal hearing or hearing-impaired individuals. Our goal in the present study was to examine this relationship in individuals with superior auditory abilities. Thirteen professional musicians and thirteen nonmusicians, with no vocal or singing training, participated in this study. For vocal production accuracy, subjects were presented with three tones. They were asked to reproduce the pitch using the vowel /a/. This procedure was repeated three times. The fundamental frequency of each production was measured using an autocorrelation pitch detection algorithm designed for this study. The musicians' superior auditory abilities (compared to the nonmusicians) were established in a frequency discrimination task reported elsewhere. Results indicate that (a) musicians had better vocal production accuracy than nonmusicians (production errors of 1/2 a semitone compared to 1.3 semitones, respectively); (b) frequency discrimination thresholds explain 43% of the variance of the production data, and (c) all subjects with superior frequency discrimination thresholds showed accurate vocal production; the reverse relationship, however, does not hold true. In this study we provide empirical evidence to the importance of auditory feedback on vocal production in listeners with superior auditory skills.

  13. Visuospatial Superiority in Developmental Dyslexia: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Marzano, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence indicates that dyslexia is positively associated with superior visuospatial ability but empirical evidence is inconsistent. We explicitly tested the hypothesis that dyslexia is associated with visuospatial advantage in 20 dyslexic and 21 unimpaired adult readers using paper-and-pencil measures and tests of "everyday"…

  14. Early detection of non-indigenous fishes in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species pose a serious threat to the ecological stability of the Great Lakes warranting continual monitoring for the arrival of new species. Three locations in Lake Superior were identified as “high risk” for new introductions: St. Louis River near Duluth, M...

  15. Preference for concentric orientations in the mouse superior colliculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadlou, Mehran; Heimel, J Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The superior colliculus is a layered structure important for body- and gaze-orienting responses. Its superficial layer is, next to the lateral geniculate nucleus, the second major target of retinal ganglion axons and is retinotopically organized. Here we show that in the mouse there is also a

  16. Funciones superiores en pacientes con accidente cerebro vascular

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felipe Rodríguez; Alfonso Urzúa

    2009-01-01

    .... Con base a esto el objetivo de esta investigación fue elaborar un perfil de deterioro neuropsicológico de las diversas funciones cerebrales superiores causado por un ACV, en un grupo de 50 pacientes de la Unidad de Medicina...

  17. Absence of the superior petrosal veins and sinus: Surgical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Matsushima

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In cases in which the superior petrosal sinus and veins are absent, care should be directed to preserving the collateral drainage through the galenic and tentorial tributaries. Although surgical strategies for intraoperative management and preservation of venous structures are still controversial, knowledge of the possible anatomical variations is considered to be essential to improve surgical outcomes.

  18. Repetition suppression in auditory-motor regions to pitch and temporal structure in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Chen, Joyce L; Hollinger, Avrum; Penhune, Virginia B; Palmer, Caroline; Zatorre, Robert J

    2013-02-01

    Music performance requires control of two sequential structures: the ordering of pitches and the temporal intervals between successive pitches. Whether pitch and temporal structures are processed as separate or integrated features remains unclear. A repetition suppression paradigm compared neural and behavioral correlates of mapping pitch sequences and temporal sequences to motor movements in music performance. Fourteen pianists listened to and performed novel melodies on an MR-compatible piano keyboard during fMRI scanning. The pitch or temporal patterns in the melodies either changed or repeated (remained the same) across consecutive trials. We expected decreased neural response to the patterns (pitch or temporal) that repeated across trials relative to patterns that changed. Pitch and temporal accuracy were high, and pitch accuracy improved when either pitch or temporal sequences repeated over trials. Repetition of either pitch or temporal sequences was associated with linear BOLD decrease in frontal-parietal brain regions including dorsal and ventral premotor cortex, pre-SMA, and superior parietal cortex. Pitch sequence repetition (in contrast to temporal sequence repetition) was associated with linear BOLD decrease in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) while pianists listened to melodies they were about to perform. Decreased BOLD response in IPS also predicted increase in pitch accuracy only when pitch sequences repeated. Thus, behavioral performance and neural response in sensorimotor mapping networks were sensitive to both pitch and temporal structure, suggesting that pitch and temporal structure are largely integrated in auditory-motor transformations. IPS may be involved in transforming pitch sequences into spatial coordinates for accurate piano performance.

  19. Task-modulated activation and functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas during speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Q; Zhang, L; Xu, G; Shu, H; Li, P

    2013-05-01

    There is general consensus in the literature that a distributed network of temporal and frontal brain areas is involved in speech comprehension. However, how active versus passive tasks modulate the activation and the functional connectivity of the critical brain areas is not clearly understood. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify intelligibility and task-related effects in speech comprehension. Participants performed a semantic judgment task on normal and time-reversed sentences, or passively listened to the sentences without making an overt response. The subtraction analysis demonstrated that passive sentence comprehension mainly engaged brain areas in the left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG), whereas active sentence comprehension recruited bilateral frontal regions in addition to the aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG regions. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that during passive sentence comprehension, the left aSTS/MTG was functionally connected with the left Heschl's gyrus (HG) and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) but no area was functionally connected with the left pSTS/MTG; during active sentence comprehension, however, both the left aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG were functionally connected with bilateral superior temporal and inferior frontal areas. While these results are consistent with the view that the ventral stream of the temporo-frontal network subserves semantic processing, our findings further indicate that both the activation and the functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas are modulated by task demands. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lake Superior supports novel clusters of cyanobacterial picoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanikova, Natalia V; Popels, Linda C; McKay, R Michael L; Bullerjahn, George S

    2007-06-01

    Very little is known about the biodiversity of freshwater autotrophic picoplankton (APP) in the Laurentian Great Lakes, a system comprising 20% of the world's lacustrine freshwater. In this study, the genetic diversity of Lake Superior APP was examined by analyzing 16S rRNA gene and cpcBA PCR amplicons from water samples. By neighbor joining, the majority of 16S rRNA gene sequences clustered within the "picocyanobacterial clade" consisting of freshwater and marine Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus. Two new groups of Synechococcus spp., the pelagic Lake Superior clusters I and II, do not group with any of the known freshwater picocyanobacterial clusters and were the most abundant species (50 to 90% of the sequences) in samples collected from offshore Lake Superior stations. Conversely, at station Portage Deep (PD), located in a nearshore urbanized area, only 4% of the sequences belonged to these clusters and the remaining clones reflected the freshwater Synechococcus diversity described previously at sites throughout the world. Supporting the 16S rRNA gene data, the cpcBA library from nearshore station PD revealed a cosmopolitan diversity, whereas the majority of the cpcBA sequences (97.6%) from pelagic station CD1 fell within a unique Lake Superior cluster. Thus far, these picocyanobacteria have not been cultured, although their phylogenetic assignment suggests that they are phycoerythrin (PE) rich, consistent with the observation that PE-rich APP dominate Lake Superior picoplankton. Lastly, flow cytometry revealed that the summertime APP can exceed 10(5) cells ml-1 and suggests that the APP shifts from a community of PE and phycocyanin-rich picocyanobacteria and picoeukaryotes in winter to a PE-rich community in summer.

  1. [Examination of the hypothesis 'the factors and mechanisms of superiority'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Fitzgerald, O; Quevedo-Caicedo, J; López-Calderón, M G

    INTRODUCTION. The hypothesis of Geschwind and Galaburda suggests that specific cognitive superiority arises as a result of an alteration in development of the nervous system. In this article we review the co existence of superiority and inferiority . PATIENTS AND METHODS. A study was made of six children aged between 6 and 8 years old at the Instituto de Belles Artes Antonio Maria Valencia in Cali,Columbia with an educational level between second and third grade at a primary school and of medium low socio economic status. The children were considered to have superior musical ability by music experts, which is the way in which the concept of superiority was to be tested. The concept of inferiority was tested by neuropsychological tests = 1.5 DE below normal for the same age. We estimated the perinatal neurological risk in each case. Subsequently the children s general intelligence and specific cognitive abilities were evaluated. In the first case the WISC R and MSCA were used. The neuropsychological profiles were obtained by broad evaluation using a verbal fluency test, a test using counters, Boston vocabulary test, the Wechster memory scale, sequential verbal memory test, super imposed figures test, Piaget Head battery, Rey Osterrieth complex figure and the Wisconsin card classification test. The RESULTS showed slight/moderate deficits in practical construction ability and mild defects of memory and concept abilities. In general the results supported the hypothesis tested. The mechanisms of superiority proposed in the classical hypothesis mainly involve the contralateral hemisphere: in this study the ipsilateral mechanism was more important.

  2. CT-scanning of the temporal bone in an inner ear malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, K.; Hosoi, H.; Isono, M.; Ohta, F. (Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan))

    1982-05-01

    CT-scanning of the temporal bone revealed a fine contour of the inner ear anomaly in a 8-year-old boy with total deafness on the right. In the inner ear there was a globular mass with a small protrusion anteriorly and with a probably immature superior semi-circular canal. The globular mass was considered to be the utriculosaccular capsule, and the anterior protrusion to be an incipient cochlear duct. CT-scanning of the temporal bone may bring significant progress in diagnosis of inner ear anomalies. Detailed configuration of an inner ear may be shown before histological examination.

  3. Envelhecimento do processamento temporal auditivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Tôrres das Neves

    Full Text Available O presente artigo faz uma revisão breve da literatura sobre envelhecimento auditivo, abordando os estudos sobre o envelhecimento do processamento temporal auditivo, especificamente, estudos sobre detecção de interrupções em sons, por sujeitos adultos de mais idade. São apresentadas definições e descrições da presbiacusia, suas conseqüências, e sua prevalência. São descritos os procedimentos experimentais para estudo de processamento temporal envolvendo a detecção de interrupções em ruídos com faixas amplas de freqüência, a discriminação de sons com reversão temporal, a detecção de mudanças na amplitude de sons, a detecção de interrupções em sons com faixas estreitas de freqüências, a detecção de diferenças de duração entre dois estímulos, bem como a discriminação da ordem temporal de diferentes canais de freqüência componentes de tons complexos. São revisados, adicionalmente, estudos que descrevem as características psicofísicas do processamento auditivo temporal em idosos. Finalmente, são apresentadas sugestões sobre direções futuras para pesquisa.

  4. Bioaccumulation of toxaphene congeners in the lake superior food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, D.C.G.; Whittle, D.M.; De Vault, D. S.; Bronte, C.R.; Karlsson, H.; Backus, S.; Teixeira, C.

    2004-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of toxaphene was examined in the food webs of Lake Superior and Siskiwit Lake (Isle Royale) using congener specific analysis as well as stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to characterize food webs. Toxaphene concentrations (calculated using technical toxaphene) in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the western basin of Lake Superior (N = 95) averaged (±SD) 889 ± 896 ng/g wet wt and 60 ± 34 ng/g wet wt in Siskiwit Lake. Major congeners in lake trout were B8-789 (P38), B8-2226 (P44), B9-1679 (P50), and B9-1025 (P62). Toxaphene concentrations were found to vary seasonally, especially in lower food web organisms in Lake Superior and to a lesser extent in Siskiwit Lake. Toxaphene concentrations declined significantly in lake herring (Coregonus artedii), rainbow smelt (Omerus mordax), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) as well as in zooplankton (> 102 &mn;m) and Mysis (Mysis relicta) between May and October. The seasonal variation may reflect seasonal shifts in the species abundance within the zooplankton community. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) derived from regressions of toxaphene congener concentrations versus δ15N were > 1 for most octa- and nonachlorobornanes in Lake Superior except B8-1413 (P26) and B9-715. Log bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for toxaphene congeners in lake trout (ng/g lipid/ng/L dissolved) ranged from 4.54 to 9.7 and were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficients. TMFs observed for total toxaphene and congener B9-1679 in Lake Superior were similar to those in Arctic lakes, as well as to previous studies in the Great Lakes, which suggests that the bioaccumulation behavior of toxaphene is similar in pelagic food webs of large, cold water systems. However, toxaphene concentrations were lower in lake trout from Siskiwit Lake and lakes in northwestern Ontario than in Lake Superior possibly because of shorter food chains and greater reliance on zooplankton or

  5. Subgraph Isomorphism in Temporal Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Redmond, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Temporal information is increasingly available as part of large network data sets. This information reveals sequences of link activations between network entities, which can expose underlying processes in the data. Examples include the dissemination of information through a social network, the propagation of musical ideas in a music sampling network, and the spread of a disease via contacts between infected and susceptible individuals. The search for these more meaningful patterns may be formulated as a time-respecting subgraph isomorphism problem. Our set of query graphs include an enumeration of small random graphs and fan-out-fan-in structures, all composed of time-respecting paths. We explore three methods of solving the problem, which differ in how they exploit temporal and topological information. One approach extracts all subgraphs that have the temporal properties we require and then performs subgraph isomorphism testing on each subgraph. Another approach performs subgraph isomorphism testing first wi...

  6. Temporal interpolation in Meteosat images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Hansen, Johan Dore; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    a threshold between clouds and land/water. The temperature maps are estimated using observations from the image sequence itself at cloud free pixels and ground temperature measurements from a series of meteor ological observation stations in Europe. The temporal interpolation of the images is bas ed on a path...... in such animated films are perceived as being jerky due to t he low temporal sampling rate in general and missing images in particular. In order to perform a satisfactory temporal interpolation we estimate and use the optical flow corresponding to every image in the sequenc e. The estimation of the optical flow...... is based on images sequences where the clouds are segmented from the land/water that might a lso be visible in the images. Because the pixel values measured correspond directly to temperature and because clouds (normally) are colder than land/water we use an estimated lan d temperature map to perform...

  7. Contact process with temporal disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghathi, Hatem; Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the influence of time-varying environmental noise, i.e., temporal disorder, on the nonequilibrium phase transition of the contact process. Combining a real-time renormalization group, scaling theory, and large scale Monte-Carlo simulations in one and two dimensions, we show that the temporal disorder gives rise to an exotic critical point. At criticality, the effective noise amplitude diverges with increasing time scale, and the probability distribution of the density becomes infinitely broad, even on a logarithmic scale. Moreover, the average density and survival probability decay only logarithmically with time. This infinite-noise critical behavior can be understood as the temporal counterpart of infinite-randomness critical behavior in spatially disordered systems, but with exchanged roles of space and time. We also analyze the generality of our results, and we discuss potential experiments.

  8. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.; Moseley, Brian D.; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2012-01-01

    The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome. PMID:22957247

  9. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C. Nickels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome.

  10. A model of the temporal dynamics of multisensory enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Benjamin A; Stein, Barry E

    2014-04-01

    The senses transduce different forms of environmental energy, and the brain synthesizes information across them to enhance responses to salient biological events. We hypothesize that the potency of multisensory integration is attributable to the convergence of independent and temporally aligned signals derived from cross-modal stimulus configurations onto multisensory neurons. The temporal profile of multisensory integration in neurons of the deep superior colliculus (SC) is consistent with this hypothesis. The responses of these neurons to visual, auditory, and combinations of visual-auditory stimuli reveal that multisensory integration takes place in real-time; that is, the input signals are integrated as soon as they arrive at the target neuron. Interactions between cross-modal signals may appear to reflect linear or nonlinear computations on a moment-by-moment basis, the aggregate of which determines the net product of multisensory integration. Modeling observations presented here suggest that the early nonlinear components of the temporal profile of multisensory integration can be explained with a simple spiking neuron model, and do not require more sophisticated assumptions about the underlying biology. A transition from nonlinear "super-additive" computation to linear, additive computation can be accomplished via scaled inhibition. The findings provide a set of design constraints for artificial implementations seeking to exploit the basic principles and potency of biological multisensory integration in contexts of sensory substitution or augmentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Left temporal lobe structural and functional abnormality underlying auditory hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Hugdahl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review recent findings from our laboratory that auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia are internally generated speech mis-representations lateralized to the left superior temporal gyrus and sulcus. Such experiences are, moreover, not cognitively suppressed due to enhanced attention to the voices and failure of fronto-parietal executive control functions. An overview of diagnostic questionnaires for scoring of symptoms is presented, together with a review of behavioural, structural and functional MRI data. Functional imaging data have either shown increased or decreased activation depending on whether patients have been presented an external stimulus or not during scanning. Structural imaging data have shown reduction of grey matter density and volume in the same areas in the temporal lobe. The behavioral and neuroimaging findings are moreover hypothesized to be related to glutamate hypofunction in schizophrenia. We propose a model for the understanding of auditory hallucinations that trace the origin of auditory hallucinations to uncontrolled neuronal firing in the speech areas in the left temporal lobe, which is not suppressed by volitional cognitive control processes, due to dysfunctional fronto-parietal executive cortical networks.

  12. Risk of progressive hearing loss in untreated superior semicircular canal dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neil S; Hunter, Jacob B; O'Connell, Brendan P; Bertrand, Natalie M; Wanna, George B; Carlson, Matthew L

    2017-05-01

    Patients with incidental or minimally symptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) are usually observed, without surgical repair. However, it remains unknown whether a labyrinthine fistula of the superior semicircular canal is associated with progressive conductive or sensorineural hearing loss over time. Retrospective review at two tertiary care academic referral centers. Adults analyzed were diagnosed with SSCD by high-resolution temporal bone computed tomography and vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing and observed with a minimum of two sequential audiograms. Patients with other potential causes of hearing impairment were excluded. A total of 40 ears in 30 adult patients (median age: 59 years; 63% female) were analyzed. Median audiometric follow-up was 23 months (range 1-136 months). None experienced a sudden hearing loss over the follow-up period. In patients with audiometric follow-up of at least 20 months (median 34 months), the median change in air-conduction pure tone average and air-bone gap was 0.9 decibels (dB) per year (interquartile range [IQR] 0-2.1) and 0.7 dB per year (IQR 0-2.0), respectively. Speech discrimination scores did not differ when comparing median initial (100%) and median final (98%) scores (P = 0.77). There was no statistically significant change in bone-conduction thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz over the period of observation. The risk of progressive hearing loss with observed SSCD is low during short- and intermediate-term follow-up. Further studies are necessary to determine whether late hearing loss occurs. Such information may be critical toward patient counseling regarding the need for and timing of surgery. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1181-1186, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Can linear superiorization be useful for linear optimization problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censor, Yair

    2017-04-01

    Linear superiorization (LinSup) considers linear programming problems but instead of attempting to solve them with linear optimization methods it employs perturbation resilient feasibility-seeking algorithms and steers them toward reduced (not necessarily minimal) target function values. The two questions that we set out to explore experimentally are: (i) does LinSup provide a feasible point whose linear target function value is lower than that obtained by running the same feasibility-seeking algorithm without superiorization under identical conditions? (ii) How does LinSup fare in comparison with the Simplex method for solving linear programming problems? Based on our computational experiments presented here, the answers to these two questions are: ‘yes’ and ‘very well’, respectively.

  14. Anterior superior instability with rotator cuff tearing: SLAC lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, F H; Field, L D; Atchinson, S

    2001-07-01

    Anterosuperior instability of the shoulder may occur from a variety of pathologic lesions. We describe a specific entity, the SLAC (superior labrum, anterior cuff) lesion that involves an association of anterior-superior labral tear with a partial supraspinatus tear. We retrospectively isolated a group of 40 patients with this lesion. The presenting complaints, physical examination findings, surgical findings, and results were isolated. Overhead activities were the most common etiology; load and shift instability testing and whipple rotator cuff testing were the most common physical examination findings. Surgical repair was successful in 37 of the 40 patients. The SLAC lesion is a definable clinical entity with predictable history, examination, surgical pathology, and satisfactory results from surgery.

  15. Superior gluteal nerve entrapment between two bellies of piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Y

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A double belly composition of piriformis muscle with superior gluteal nerve entrapment between the two muscle masses was detected. Piriformis muscle and its relation to sciatic nerve has been suggested as a cause of piriformis syndrome. Patients suffering from buttock pain are most often diagnosed as having piriformis syndrome, where anatomical variation of the piriformis is an important contributor. The present variation showed two distinct bellies of piriformis muscle. Interestingly the superior gluteal nerve was interposed between the two bellies. Such incidental findings on cadavers may help the clinicians to establish a rare yet important cause of piriformis syndrome. Furthermore, such observations are also relevant to the radiologists while interpreting MRI scans in cases of undiagnosed chronic gluteal pain.

  16. Laparoscopic Pancreaticoduodenectomy: Right Posterior Superior Mesenteric Artery "First" Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittau, Gabriella; Sànchez-Cabùs, Santiago; Laurenzi, Andrea; Gelli, Maximiliano; Cunha, Antonio Sa

    2015-12-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is considered one of the most challenging abdominal operations for several reasons, including the anatomy, which is surrounded by vital vascular structures and also because of the serious complications that are possible in the postoperative period. Nowadays, thanks to the development of minimally invasive surgery and improvement of patients' selection, laparoscopic pancreatic resections have been proven to be technically feasible and safe especially in the case of left pancreatectomies. More recently, many series of laparoscopic PD for adenocarcinoma have been published demonstrating the feasibility of this technique. In pancreatic cancer, the advantage of superior mesenteric artery "first approach" is already known to achieve an oncological resection. The purpose of this video is to describe the different technical aspects of the laparoscopic superior mesenteric artery first approach in the right posterior fashion.

  17. Surgical approach to the superior mid-orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn-Hansen, Dag; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Meling, Torstein R; Haaskjold, Erling

    2013-09-01

    Access to the superior mid-orbit is required for procedures on the levator muscle in the correction of upper eyelid ptosis and in surgery aimed at local lesions in this region. The purpose with this human cadaver study was to clarify the anatomical substrate for a surgical approach to the levator muscle and the upper mid-orbit structures, in which the orbital septum and the retroseptal fat pad is not harmed during surgery. Macro-anatomical dissections and histological examinations were performed on five human orbits from three formalin embalmed cadaver heads. It was found that the orbital septum extends posteriorly from its junction with the levator aponeurosis. This posterior continuation of the orbital septum encloses the superior orbital fat pad and separates this from the anterior surface of the levator muscle. In between the orbital septum and the levator, there is a dissection space that provides a minimal invasive access corridor to the structures in the upper mid-orbit.

  18. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J; LePort, Aurora K R; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M; Stark, Craig E L; McGaugh, James L; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2013-12-24

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes.

  19. Genomes for jeans: cotton genomics for engineering superior fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Shahid; Paterson, Andrew H

    2012-10-01

    Twenty years ago, scientists predicted that better understanding of fiber development would lead to novel ways to engineer superior cotton fiber. Advances in genetic resources, DNA markers, DNA sequence information, and gene expression data have indeed provided new insights into fiber initiation, elongation and maturation. Many exciting applications of this knowledge offer the potential to select better cotton genotypes more effectively in mainstream breeding programs or engineer genotypes with improved agronomic and/or quality traits. Here, we discuss recent progress in understanding genes involved in fiber development, and their regulation and manipulation to engineer improved fibers. Better understanding of quantitative trait loci/gene interactions that influence fiber quality and yield may help to tailor superior cotton genotypes to diverse environments.

  20. Tullio phenomenon in superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Cronin, Scott J; Heidenreich, Katherine D

    2014-03-18

    Tullio phenomenon refers to eye movements induced by sound.(1) This unusual examination finding may be seen in superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) syndrome.(2) This disorder is due to absent bone over the superior semicircular canal (figure). Patients complain of dizziness triggered by loud sound, aural fullness, autophony, and pulsatile tinnitus. When Tullio phenomenon exists in SSCD syndrome, the patient develops a mixed vertical-torsional nystagmus in which the slow phase rotates up and away from the affected ear (video on the Neurology® Web site at Neurology.org). This pattern of nystagmus aligns in the plane of the dehiscent semicircular canal and is due to excitation of its afferent nerves.

  1. Querying and Manipulating Temporal Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mkaouar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Many works have focused, for over twenty five years, on the integration of the time dimension indatabases (DB. However, the standard SQL3 does not yet allow easy definition, manipulation andquerying of temporal DBs. In this paper, we study how we can simplify querying and manipulatingtemporal facts in SQL3, using a model that integrates time in a native manner. To do this, we proposenew keywords and syntax to define different temporal versions for many relational operators andfunctions used in SQL. It then becomes possible to perform various queries and updates appropriate totemporal facts. We illustrate the use of these proposals on many examples from a real application.

  2. Transition constraints for temporal attributes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ongoma, EAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available over time as the object migrates from one class to the next. Research on transition constraints has covered only object migration [3] and relation migration [14]. However, to efficiently represent and reason over data, we need to also look at attribute... transition, which is the migration of attributes along an object’s life cycle. Temporal attributes have been used and studied less in comparison to classes and relations. Yet in databases, we have a direct contact with attributes, and if those (temporal...

  3. Temporal processing in schizophrenia: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Alústiza

    2015-12-01

    Summary: This review aims to summarize the main findings of the neuroscientific and cognitive literature on temporality in schizophrenia. First, we will provide a brief introduction regarding the theoretical and conceptual issues and then will delve into the importance of their disturbance in this disorder, particularly underlying brain structures and the interactions they have with other cognitive dysfunctions and psychopathological symptoms. This review includes different studies that describe both behavioral and neuroscientific approaches, although it focuses especially on tasks of temporal discrimination on the milliseconds scale and on the studies that use functional neuroimaging techniques.

  4. CURRENT COLLOIDAL DISPERSION GELS ARE NOT SUPERIOR TO POLYMER FLOODING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seright Randy; Han Peihui; Wang Dongmei

    2006-01-01

    The suggestion that the colloidal-dispersion-gel (CDG) process is superior to normal polymer flooding is misleading and generally incorrect. Colloidal dispersion gels, in their present state of technological development, should not be advocated as an improvement to, or substitute for, polymer flooding. Gels made from aluminum-citrate crosslinked polyacrylamides can act as conventional gels and provide effective conformance improvement in treating some types of excess water production problems if sound scientific and engineering principles are respected.

  5. Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery following polytrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dennis [Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia and Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Legiehn, Gerald M. [Vancouver General Hospital, Interventional Radiology, University of British Columbia and Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Munk, Peter L. [Vancouver General Hospital, MSK Section, University of British Columbia and Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    Gluteal artery aneurysms are rare and often secondary to pelvic fractures, blunt or penetrating trauma. We describe a case of a superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm that presented as back pain with numbness and weakness of the lower extremities. Diagnosis was confirmed by color Doppler sonography and angiography. A proximal and distal control was obtained over the aneurysm neck via coil embolization with excellent hemostasis within the pseudoaneurysm and maintenance of perfusion to the left pelvis. (orig.)

  6. [Superior gluteal nerve: a new block on the block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Miguel; Graça, Rita; Reis, Hugo; Cardoso, José Miguel; Sampaio, José; Pinheiro, Célia; Machado, Duarte

    2017-05-24

    The superior gluteal nerve is responsible for innervating the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and tensor fascia latae muscles, all of which can be injured during surgical procedures. We describe an ultrasound-guided approach to block the superior gluteal nerve which allowed us to provide efficient analgesia and anesthesia for two orthopedic procedures, in a patient who had significant risk factors for neuraxial techniques and deep peripheral nerve blocks. An 84-year-old female whose regular use of clopidogrel contraindicated neuraxial techniques or deep peripheral nerve blocks presented for urgent bipolar hemiarthroplasty in our hospital. Taking into consideration the surgical approach chosen by the orthopedic team, we set to use a combination of general anesthesia and superficial peripheral nerve blocks (femoral, lateral cutaneous of thigh and superior gluteal nerve) for the procedure. A month and a half post-discharge the patient was re-admitted for debriding and correction of suture dehiscence; we performed the same blocks and light sedation. She remained comfortable in both cases, and reported no pain in the post-operative period. Deep understanding of anatomy and innervation empowers anesthesiologists to solve potentially complex cases with safer, albeit creative, approaches. The relevance of this block in this case arises from its innervation of the gluteus medius muscle and posterolateral portion of the hip joint. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an ultrasound-guided superior gluteal nerve block with an analgesic and anesthetic goal, which was successfully achieved. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Superior gluteal nerve entrapment between two bellies of piriformis muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav Y; Mehta V; Roy S; Suri R; Rath G

    2010-01-01

    A double belly composition of piriformis muscle with superior gluteal nerve entrapment between the two muscle masses was detected. Piriformis muscle and its relation to sciatic nerve has been suggested as a cause of piriformis syndrome. Patients suffering from buttock pain are most often diagnosed as having piriformis syndrome, where anatomical variation of the piriformis is an important contributor. The present variation showed two distinct bellies of piriformis muscle. Interestingly the sup...

  8. Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery following polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dennis; Legiehn, Gerald M; Munk, Peter L

    2007-09-01

    Gluteal artery aneurysms are rare and often secondary to pelvic fractures, blunt or penetrating trauma. We describe a case of a superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm that presented as back pain with numbness and weakness of the lower extremities. Diagnosis was confirmed by color Doppler sonography and angiography. A proximal and distal control was obtained over the aneurysm neck via coil embolization with excellent hemostasis within the pseudoaneurysm and maintenance of perfusion to the left pelvis.

  9. Superior vesical fissure concealed by giant omphalocele: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danial Hayek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect characterized by exteriorization of abdominal viscera that is covered by a membrane. Omphalocele has a well-known association with chromosome abnormalities. Here we present a case of a superior vesical fissure (SVF initially disguised as a giant omphalocele in a newborn with trisomy 18. We also show unique prenatal imaging and discuss the importance and limitations of prenatal genetic testing.

  10. Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics Information management and especially geoscience information delivery is a very delicate task. If it is carried out successfully, geoscientific data will provide the main foundation of Information Superiority. However, improper implementation of geodata generation, assimilation, distribution or storage will not only waste valuable resources like manpower or money, but could also give rise to crucial deficiency in knowledge and might lead to potentially extremely harmful disasters or wrong decisions. Comprehensive Approach, Effect Based Operations and Network Enabled Capabilities are the current buzz terms in the security regime. However, they also apply to various interdisciplinary tasks like catastrophe relief missions, civil task operations or even in day to day business operations where geo-science data is used. Based on experience in the application of geoscience data for defence applications the following procedure or tool box for generating geodata should lead to the desired information superiority: 1. Understand and analyse the mission, the task and the environment for which the geodata is needed 2. Carry out a Information Exchange Requirement between the user or customer and the geodata provider 3. Implementation of current interoperability standards and a coherent metadata structure 4. Execute innovative data generation, data provision, data assimilation and data storage 5. Apply a cost-effective and reasonable data life cycle 6. Implement IT security by focusing of the three pillar concepts Integrity, Availability and Confidentiality of the critical data 7. Draft and execute a service level agreement or a memorandum of understanding between the involved parties 8. Execute a Continuous Improvement Cycle These ideas from the IT world should be transferred into the geoscience community and applied in a wide set of scenarios. A standardized approach of how to generate, provide

  11. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: An Infrequent Complication of Scoliosis Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Keskin; Turgut Akgül; Adem Bayraktar; Fatih Dikici; Emre Balık

    2014-01-01

    Case Report Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: An Infrequent Complication of Scoliosis Surgery Metin Keskin,1 Turgut Akgül,2 Adem Bayraktar,1 Fatih Dikici,2 and Emre BalJk3 1 General Surgery Department, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Capa, Millet Caddesi, 34093 Istanbul, Turkey 2Orthopedic Department, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Capa, Millet Caddesi, 34093 Istanbul, Turkey 3 General Surgery Department, School of Medicine, Koc¸ Uni...

  12. São os membros superiores na Paralisia Cerebral negligenciados?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubiratan Brum Castro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar se num serviço de atendimento especializado, o membro superior é preterido ou negligenciado no tratamento das alterações motoras da Paralisia Cerebral. Casuística e métodos: Foram analisados 80 pacientes portadores de Paralisia Cerebral menores de dezessete anos tratados institucionalmente. Foram avaliados pelo mesmo examinador quanto à classificação e tratamentos (cirúrgico ou não do aparelho locomotor. Resultados: O membro superior teve a seguinte abordagem terapêutica considerando o grupo de mão comprometida, 1 (2% foi submetido a transferência tendinosa no punho e 53 (98% não foram operados. Quanto a órteses, 9 (17% usavam estabilizadores de punho e 45 (83% não usavam. Quanto à toxina botulínica não houve aplicação nos membros superiores. Nos membros inferiores, considerando o total de pacientes, 16 (20% foram submetidos à cirurgia e 64(80% não foram operados. As cirurgias foram um tratamento cirúrgico de luxação do quadril, 7 a alongamentos múltiplos em membros inferiores, 5 alongamento de tendão calcâneo, 3 tenotomia de adutores. Quanto ao uso de órteses, 49 (61% faziam uso e 31(39% não utilizavam. Dos pacientes que faziam uso de órteses, 48 usavam tala estabilizadora de tornozelo, um usava estabilizador de joelho. Quanto à  o uso de toxina botulínica: 32 tiveram aplicação (40% e 48 não receberam aplicação (60%. Conclusão: No presente estudo, o tratamento do membro superior foi negligenciado.

  13. Effect of bilateral superior oblique split lengthening on torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Jethani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Superior oblique split lengthening (SOSL is done for weakening of superior oblique. It corrects the superior oblique overaction (SOOA and A pattern. Its effect on the torsion of the eye is not known. We present our data on the effect of this particular procedure on torsion. Materials and Methods: We did a study of 16 patients (32 eyes who underwent bilateral SOSL and compared the disc foveal angle (DFA preoperatively and postoperatively. The split lengthening was done from 4 mm to 7 mm depending upon the overaction of superior oblique. Results: The mean age was 15.3 ± 8.4 years. Mean preoperative DFA in the right eye (RE was −3.9° and in the left eye (LE was −2.9°. Mean postoperative DFA in RE was 0.2° and in LE was 0.9°. The mean change in the DFA for RE was 4.1° ± 1.3° and for LE was 3.8° ± 1.2°. All the patients were aligned horizontally within 6 prism diopter and no pattern and no diplopia postoperatively. The A pattern was corrected in all the patient postsurgery. For each mm of surgery, an improvement of 0.8° was seen in the DFA. Conclusion: We report the effect of SOSL on torsion. The SOSL reduces intorsion postsurgery and is, therefore, a valuable procedure in SOOA where both pattern and in torsion needs to be corrected.

  14. A Rare Complication of Acute Appendicitis: Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Koncoro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric vein (SMV thrombosis caused by acute appendicitis is quite rare nowadays. These conditions occurs secondary to infection in the region drained by the portal venous system. In this case, we report a successfully treated case of SMV thrombosis and liver abscess associated with appendicitis with antibiotics and anticoagulant.Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are basic to a favorable clinical course.

  15. Superior Gas Sensing Properties of Monolayer PtSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Sajjad, Muhammad

    2016-12-15

    First-principles calculations of the structural and electronic properties of monolayer 1T-PtSe2 with adsorbed (a) NO2, (b) NO, (c) NH3, (d) H2O, (e) CO2, and (f) CO molecules are discussed. The results point to great potential of the material in gas sensor applications. Superior sensitivity is demonstrated by transport calculations using the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method.

  16. Temporal Lobe Structures and Facial Emotion Recognition in Schizophrenia Patients and Nonpsychotic Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M.; MacDonald, Angus W.; Sponheim, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal lobe abnormalities and emotion recognition deficits are prominent features of schizophrenia and appear related to the diathesis of the disorder. This study investigated whether temporal lobe structural abnormalities were associated with facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and related to genetic liability for the disorder. Twenty-seven schizophrenia patients, 23 biological family members, and 36 controls participated. Several temporal lobe regions (fusiform, superior temporal, middle temporal, amygdala, and hippocampus) previously associated with face recognition in normative samples and found to be abnormal in schizophrenia were evaluated using volumetric analyses. Participants completed a facial emotion recognition task and an age recognition control task under time-limited and self-paced conditions. Temporal lobe volumes were tested for associations with task performance. Group status explained 23% of the variance in temporal lobe volume. Left fusiform gray matter volume was decreased by 11% in patients and 7% in relatives compared with controls. Schizophrenia patients additionally exhibited smaller hippocampal and middle temporal volumes. Patients were unable to improve facial emotion recognition performance with unlimited time to make a judgment but were able to improve age recognition performance. Patients additionally showed a relationship between reduced temporal lobe gray matter and poor facial emotion recognition. For the middle temporal lobe region, the relationship between greater volume and better task performance was specific to facial emotion recognition and not age recognition. Because schizophrenia patients exhibited a specific deficit in emotion recognition not attributable to a generalized impairment in face perception, impaired emotion recognition may serve as a target for interventions. PMID:20484523

  17. Superior parathyroid gland approach to the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Ezzeddin

    2017-07-01

    The superior parathyroid gland is known to be almost constant in its location under the false thyroid capsule. Could it be a landmark to point to the site of incision of the false thyroid capsule and find the plane of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) during thyroidectomy? The study included 48 patients with benign goiter scheduled for hemithyroidectomy or total thyroidectomy; there were 16 cases of solitary thyroid nodules, 27 cases of multinodular goiter, and 5 cases of toxic goiter. This study included 80 lobectomies. All patients showed no evidence of postoperative RLN palsy, bleeding, or hypoparathyroidism. The superior parathyroid gland was consistently found within the false capsule in all cases, whereas the inferior parathyroid was found within the same layer in 64 sides (80%). The described approach can accurately guide dissection between true and false capsules of the thyroid to reach and preserve both the RLN and the superior parathyroid gland. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 1287-1290, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hacia una educación superior inclusiva en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lucia Arizabaleta Dominguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan concepciones teórico-conceptuales básicas que subyacen a la educación superior inclusiva, en el marco de los Lineamientos de la Política de Educación Superior Inclusiva del Ministerio de Educación Nacional de Colombia (men. Además, se plantean los desafíos que deben asumir las instituciones de educación superior (ies en la identificación de barreras de aprendizaje de su población estudiantil y la promoción de estrategias que garanticen la accesibilidad, permanencia, pertinencia académica y la graduación. Esta situación lleva a las ies a reflexionar y repensarse a partir de los procesos de autoevaluación institucional para crear estrategias participativas que promuevan la gestión inclusiva en un sistema educativo equitativo, pertinente y de calidad

  19. Relative superiority analysis of Garut lamb and its crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to evaluate the relative superiority of Garut lamb and its crosses with St. Croix and Moulton Charollais. The research was conducted at Animal Research Station, Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor, Indonesia. The data used for this paper was collected from 1995 to 2002. The results revealed that individual lamb weight at birth, at weaning, preweaning daily gain, at 6, 9 and 12 months of age of the composite sheep (HG = 50% St. Croix : 50% Garut, MG = 50% M. Charollais : 50% Garut, MHG (MG X HG dan HMG (HG X MG = 25% St. Croix : 25% M. Charollais : 50% Garut were higher than Garut sheep. The relative superiority were 6.7-13.1% for lamb weight at birth, 6.6- 15.6% for lamb weight at weaning, 3.2-20.8% for preweaning daily gain dan 6.2-17.9% for lamb weight at 9 month of age, respectively. The superiority of composite sheep were obtained in good and limited feed condition. Lamb growth parameters were also affected by feed condition, parity, sex, and rearing type.

  20. Superior metallic alloys through rapid solidification processing (RSP) by design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flinn, J.E. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Rapid solidification processing using powder atomization methods and the control of minor elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon can provide metallic alloys with superior properties and performance compared to conventionally processing alloys. Previous studies on nickel- and iron-base superalloys have provided the baseline information to properly couple RSP with alloy composition, and, therefore, enable alloys to be designed for performance improvements. The RSP approach produces powders, which need to be consolidated into suitable monolithic forms. This normally involves canning, consolidation, and decanning of the powders. Canning/decanning is expensive and raises the fabrication cost significantly above that of conventional, ingot metallurgy production methods. The cost differential can be offset by the superior performance of the RSP metallic alloys. However, without the performance database, it is difficult to convince potential users to adopt the RSP approach. Spray casting of the atomized molten droplets into suitable preforms for subsequent fabrication can be cost competitive with conventional processing. If the fine and stable microstructural features observed for the RSP approach are preserved during spray casing, a cost competitive product can be obtained that has superior properties and performance that cannot be obtained by conventional methods.

  1. Stomatitis sub-prosthesis in patients with superior dental prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Martina Francisco Local

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stomatitis sub-prosthesis is one of the most frequent changes in hard palate mucous membrane in patients with mucous-supported dental prosthesis. It can be caused by multiple factors, which makes its study and prognosis more difficult. Objective: To describe the occurrence of stomatitis sub-prosthesis and its causes in patients with superior dental prosthesis. Method: Descriptive study including all the patients with superior dental prosthesis examined in the odontology consultation “Barrio Adentro” in the state of Miranda, Venezuela, from November, 2005 to March, 2006. The analysed variables were: age, sex, stomatitis level, teeth brushing frequency, prosthesis condition and use, palate mucous condition and frequency of odontology consultations. Results: 89 patients were attended, more 50% of them had superior dental prosthesis and presented stomatitis sub-prosthesis; the group between 35 and 59 years was the most affected, mainly females. Sub-prosthesis stomatitis type II was the most common and the main causes included constant use of the prosthesis and loose prosthesis. Buccal hygiene was not adequate in these patients. Most of them declared never attending to the dentist, or just when presenting some particular problem. Conclusion: Stomatitis prevalence was related with incorrect hygiene habits and lack of knowledge; it shows the importance of performing educative tasks to reduce this disease incidence.  

  2. Water quality of streams tributary to Lakes Superior and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jerome W.

    1968-01-01

    Water quality of streams tributary to Lakes Superior and Michigan was analyzed for 142 stations on 99 streams tributary to Lake Superior and 83 stations on 56 streams tributary to Lake Michigan during 1962-65. Concentrations of aluminum, copper, and iron were not affected greatly by flow or season. Magnesium, calcium, chlorides, total alkalinity, total hardness, and conductivity varied with the flow, temperature, and season; the lowest values were during the spring runoff and heavy rains, and the highest were during low water in late summer and the colder periods of winter. Concentrations of nitrate, silica, and sulfates were lowest in the spring and summer. Concentrations of tanninlike and ligninlike compounds were highest during the spring runoff and other high-water periods, and were lowest during freezeup when surface runoff was minimal. The pH values were highest from June to September and lowest during the spring runoff. Phenolphthalein alkalinity was detected primarily in the summer and coincided occasionally with low flows just before the spring thaw. Total hardness usually was lower in streams tributary to Lake Superior than in streams tributary to Lake Michigan. The total hardness was higher in the streams in Wisconsin than in the streams in Michigan along the west shore of Lake Michigan. It was lowest in the northernmost streams. The water quality of the streams in an area was related to the geological characteristics of the land.

  3. Cooperation between ligninolytic enzymes produced by superior mixed flora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-lei; LI Zong-yi; GUO Wei-yun; WANG Zhen-yu; PAN Feng

    2005-01-01

    Since the ability to degrade lignin with one kind of white-rot fungi or bacteria was very limited, superior mixed flora's ability to degrade lignin was investigated by an orthogonal experiment in this paper. The results showed that superior mixed flora reinforced the ability to degrade lignin, the degradation rates of both sample 9 and 10 were beyond 80% on the day 9. The cooperation between lignin peroxidase(LiP), Mn-dependent peroxidase(MnP) and laccase (Lac) for lignin degradation was also studied. By examining the activities of three enzymes produced by superior mixed flora, it was found that Lac was a key enzyme in the process of biological degradation of lignin but Lip was not; the enzyme activity ratios of Lac/MnP and Lac/LiP were significantly correlative with the degradation rate of lignin at the 0.01 level; and the ratio of MnP/LiP was an important factor affecting the degradation rate of lignin.

  4. Temporal feature integration for music genre classification

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Anders; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    Temporal feature integration is the process of combining all the feature vectors in a time window into a single feature vector in order to capture the relevant temporal information in the window. The mean and variance along the temporal dimension are often used for temporal feature integration, but they capture neither the temporal dynamics nor dependencies among the individual feature dimensions. Here, a multivariate autoregressive feature model is proposed to solve this problem for music ge...

  5. Dynamic Responses of Intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Inferior-to-Superior Loading at the Pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Moore, Jason; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-11-01

    During certain events such as underbody blasts due to improvised explosive devices, occupants in military vehicles are exposed to inferior-to-superior loading from the pelvis. Injuries to the pelvis-sacrum-lumbar spine complex have been reported from these events. The mechanism of load transmission and potential variables defining the migration of injuries between pelvis and or spinal structures are not defined. This study applied inferior-to-superior impacts to the tuberosities of the ischium of supine-positioned five post mortem human subjects (PMHS) using different acceleration profiles, defined using shape, magnitude and duration parameters. Seventeen tests were conducted. Overlay temporal plots were presented for normalized (impulse momentum approach) forces and accelerations of the sacrum and spine. Scatter plots showing injury and non-injury data as a function of peak normalized forces, pulse characteristics, impulse and power, loading rate and sacrum and spine accelerations were evaluated as potential metrics related to pathological outcomes with the focus of examining the role of the pulse characteristics from inferior-to-superior loading of the pelvis-sacrum-lumbar spine complex. Interrelationships were explored between non-fracture and fracture outcomes, and fracture patterns with a focus on migration of injuries from the hip-only to hip and spine to spine-only regions. Observations indicate that injury to the pelvis and or spine from inferior-to-superior loading is associated with pulse and not just peak velocity. The role of the effect of mass recruitment and injury migration parallel knee-thigh-hip complex studies, suggest a wider application of the recruitment concept and the role of the pulse characteristics.

  6. Otic capsule dehiscence syndrome: Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome with no radiographically visible dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackym, P Ashley; Wood, Scott J; Siker, David A; Carter, Dale M

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of two cohorts of patients who had superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome (SSCDS); one group had radiographically confirmed superior canal dehiscence (SCD), and the other exhibited no identified otic capsule dehiscence on imaging (no-iOCD). We compiled data obtained from prospective structured symptomatology interviews; diagnostic studies; three-dimensional, high-resolution, temporal bone computed tomography; and a retrospective case review from our tertiary care referral center. Eleven adults and 1 child with SSCDS were identified, surgically managed, and followed. Six of these patients-1 man and 5 women, aged 29 to 54 years at first surgery (mean: 41.8)-had radiologically confirmed SCD. The other 6 patients-1 man, 4 women, and 1 girl, aged 1 to 51 years (mean: 32.2)-had no-iOCD. The 6 adults with SCD underwent surgery via a middle cranial fossa approach with plugging procedures. The 5 adults and 1 child with no-iOCD underwent round window reinforcement (RWR) surgery. One SCD patient developed no-iOCD 1.5 years after SCD surgery, and she subsequently underwent RWR surgery. Our main outcome measures were patient symptomatology (with video documentation) and the results of diagnostic studies. Other than the character of migraine headaches, there was no difference in preoperative symptomatology between the two groups. Postoperatively, resolution of SSCDS symptoms ultimately occurred in all patients. Both the SCD and the no-iOCD groups experienced a highly significant improvement in postural control following treatment (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p syndrome more accurately reflects the clinical syndrome of SSCDS since it includes both superior semicircular canal dehiscence and no-iOCD, as well as posterior and lateral semicircular canal dehiscence, all of which can manifest as SSCDS. We have also included links to videos in which 4 of the SSCDS patients with no-iOCD in this study discussed their symptoms and the

  7. Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ glows in superior cervical ganglion neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-jun YAO; Cai-hong WU; Jie LIU; Zhuan ZHOU; He-ping CHENG; Gang WANG; Kun-fu OU-YANG; Chao-liang WEI; Xian-hua WANG; Shi-rong WANG; Wei YAO; Hong-ping HUANG; Jian-hong LUO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an integral component of neuronal Ca2+ signaling. The present study is to investigate properties of local Ca2+ release events in superior cervical ganglion (SCO) neurons. Methods: Primary cultured SCO neurons were prepared from neonatal rats (P3-P7). Low concentration of caffeine was used to induce Ca2+ release from the ER Ca2+ store, and intracellular Ca2+ was recorded by high-resolution line scan confocal imaging and the Ca2+ indicator Fluo-4. Results: Two populations of local Ca2+ release events with distinct temporal characteristics were evoked by 1.5 mmol/L caffeine near the surface membrane in the soma and the neurites of SCG neurons. Brief events similar to classic Ca2+ sparks lasted a few hundreds of milliseconds, whereas long-lasting events displayed duration up to tens of seconds. Typical somatic and neurite sparks were of 0.3- and 0.52-fold increase in local Fluo-4 fluorescence, respectively. Typical Ca2+ glows were brighter (△F/F0 approximately 0.6), but were highly confined in space. The half maximum of full duration of neurite sparks was much longer than those in the soma (685 vs 381 ms). Conclusion: Co-existence of Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ glows in SCG neurons indicates distinctive local regulation of Ca2+ release kinetics. The local Ca2+ signals of variable, site-specific temporal length may bear important implications in encoding a "memory" of the trigger signal.

  8. Temporal factors in resource dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, L; Poortinga, W; van der Kooij, R

    2001-01-01

    The conflict between present and future consumption lies at the heart of resource dilemmas (RDs), yet the role of time has received little attention in this research area. Emphasis was on factors related to the social rather than the temporal conflict inherent in an RD. We propose a model that deals

  9. Temporal structures in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, F.

    2001-01-01

    The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent Gledzer, Ohkitani, and Yamada shell-model is completely characterized by a single type of burstlike structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell...

  10. A Temporal Web Ontology Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Milea (Viorel); F. Frasincar (Flavius); U. Kaymak (Uzay)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe Web Ontology Language (OWL) is the most expressive standard language for modeling ontologies on the Semantic Web. In this paper, we present a temporal extension of the very expressive fragment SHIN(D) of the OWL-DL language resulting in the tOWL language. Through a layered approach w

  11. Auditory Temporal Conditioning in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, W. K.; And Others

    Twenty normal newborns, approximately 36 hours old, were tested using an auditory temporal conditioning paradigm which consisted of a slow rise, 75 db tone played for five seconds every 25 seconds, ten times. Responses to the tones were measured by instantaneous, beat-to-beat heartrate; and the test trial was designated as the 2 1/2-second period…

  12. Algorithms for Simple Temporal Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planken, L.R.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes research into new methods for automated temporal reasoning. For this purpose, several frameworks are available in literature. Chapter 1 presents a concise literature survey that provides a new overview of their interrelation. In the remainder of the dissertation, the f

  13. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina

    2015-01-01

    of tones, pauses, and timbre arranged into harmonies and rhythms. In interaction design it is, for instance, the behaviors of pixels on a screen or the movements in shape-changing interfaces. In this paper we show the power of working explicitly with temporal form in designing computational things. We give...

  14. Navigability of multiplex temporal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Song, Qiao-Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Real world complex systems have multiple levels of relationships and in many cases, they need to be modeled as multiplex networks where the same nodes can interact with each other in different layers, such as social networks. However, social relationships only appear at prescribed times so the temporal structures of edge activations can also affect the dynamical processes located above them. To consider both factors are simultaneously, we introduce multiplex temporal networks and propose three different walk strategies to investigate the concurrent dynamics of random walks and the temporal structure of multiplex networks. Thus, we derive analytical results for the multiplex centrality and coverage function in multiplex temporal networks. By comparing them with the numerical results, we show how the underlying topology of the layers and the walk strategy affect the efficiency when exploring the networks. In particular, the most interesting result is the emergence of a super-diffusion process, where the time scale of the multiplex is faster than that of both layers acting separately.

  15. Temporal Processing Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christine A.; Boggs, Jennifer; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Shekhar, Anantha; Hetrick, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia may be associated with a fundamental disturbance in the temporal coordination of information processing in the brain, leading to classic symptoms of schizophrenia such as thought disorder and disorganized and contextually inappropriate behavior. Despite the growing interest and centrality of time-dependent conceptualizations of the…

  16. Temporal scaling in information propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-06-18

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  17. Temporal Processing Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christine A.; Boggs, Jennifer; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Shekhar, Anantha; Hetrick, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia may be associated with a fundamental disturbance in the temporal coordination of information processing in the brain, leading to classic symptoms of schizophrenia such as thought disorder and disorganized and contextually inappropriate behavior. Despite the growing interest and centrality of time-dependent conceptualizations of the…

  18. Temporal scaling in information propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-06-01

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  19. Temporal context for authorship attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Dalum; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger;

    2014-01-01

    A study of temporal aspects of authorship attribution - a task which aims to distinguish automatically between texts written by different authors by measuring textual features. This task is important in a number of areas, including plagiarism detection in secondary education, which we study...

  20. Algorithms for Simple Temporal Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planken, L.R.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes research into new methods for automated temporal reasoning. For this purpose, several frameworks are available in literature. Chapter 1 presents a concise literature survey that provides a new overview of their interrelation. In the remainder of the dissertation, the f

  1. Temporal Coding of Volumetric Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llull, Patrick Ryan

    'Image volumes' refer to realizations of images in other dimensions such as time, spectrum, and focus. Recent advances in scientific, medical, and consumer applications demand improvements in image volume capture. Though image volume acquisition continues to advance, it maintains the same sampling mechanisms that have been used for decades; every voxel must be scanned and is presumed independent of its neighbors. Under these conditions, improving performance comes at the cost of increased system complexity, data rates, and power consumption. This dissertation explores systems and methods capable of efficiently improving sensitivity and performance for image volume cameras, and specifically proposes several sampling strategies that utilize temporal coding to improve imaging system performance and enhance our awareness for a variety of dynamic applications. Video cameras and camcorders sample the video volume (x,y,t) at fixed intervals to gain understanding of the volume's temporal evolution. Conventionally, one must reduce the spatial resolution to increase the framerate of such cameras. Using temporal coding via physical translation of an optical element known as a coded aperture, the compressive temporal imaging (CACTI) camera emonstrates a method which which to embed the temporal dimension of the video volume into spatial (x,y) measurements, thereby greatly improving temporal resolution with minimal loss of spatial resolution. This technique, which is among a family of compressive sampling strategies developed at Duke University, temporally codes the exposure readout functions at the pixel level. Since video cameras nominally integrate the remaining image volume dimensions (e.g. spectrum and focus) at capture time, spectral (x,y,t,lambda) and focal (x,y,t,z) image volumes are traditionally captured via sequential changes to the spectral and focal state of the system, respectively. The CACTI camera's ability to embed video volumes into images leads to exploration

  2. Síndrome da artéria mesentérica superior Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Haberlandh Sodré Lima; Accyoli Moreira Maia; Antonio Kneipp Pitta de Castro Neto

    2000-01-01

    The Superior Mesenteric Syndrome is a rare and controversial disease. The compression of the duodenum by the mesenteric artery and aorta causes an intermitent obstruction. Preoperative diagnosis is very difficult.We present one case of this syndrome in a pacient with severe weight loss and signs of high intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis was based on clinical and radiologic findings. A duodenojejunostomy was performed after medical treatment failure.This patient died on the 20th posoperati...

  3. The Temporality of Power and the Power of Temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Grey, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends existing understandings of power, resistance and subjectivity in professional service organizations by developing an analysis of how these relate to temporality. Drawing in particular on Hoy’s reading of the Foucauldian account of temporality, we conceive of disciplinary power...... regimes and resistance as inherently future-oriented, or, to use Ybema’s term, postalgic. In moving beyond the extant research focus on self-disciplined and/or counter-resistant professional selves, we draw attention to the imaginary future self as an employee response to disciplinary power. In contrast...... to the future orientation of disciplinary power, this response envisages the future as a discontinuous break with the present which we examine as a form of resistant postalgia. Building on in-depth qualitative data gathered at two professional service firms, we explain how imaginary future selves can shed new...

  4. THE HUMAN SUBJECTIVITY BETWEEN THE SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR TYPES A SUBJETIVIDADE HUMANA ENTRE OS TIPOS SUPERIORES E INFERIORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to solve the following contradiction of Nietzsche's thought: man has a subjective drive constitution, these drives, however, are individuals, and its being (the being of the drives, is constituted for more power fight (the will to power. Nietzsche's superior man (educated and cultivated man is that one, in which there is harmony in the drives, who can give greater freedom to its most terrible drives, without, however, loses the control over them. That is the contradiction: if man has to control the drives, they are not harmonics. There is incompatibility between harmony and control. In other words, the superior man is indeed the man of culture and cultivated man of Nietzsche? If the answer to this question is yes, then, in this man, reigns the drives harmony. If, on the other hand, the answer is no, then, for this man does not become a barbarian destroyer, dangerous to himself and to others it is necessary that a drive dominates the others. However it is not possible to escape the contradiction: either there is harmony in human drive or control.Este artigo busca resolver a seguinte contradição do pensamento de Nietzsche: o homem possui uma constituição subjetiva pulsional, estas pulsões, porém, são individuais, e o seu ser, o das pulsões, constitui-se da luta por mais poder (vontade de poder. O homem superior de Nietzsche (homem culto e cultivado é aquele no qual há harmonia nas pulsões, aquele que pode dar mais liberdade às suas mais terríveis pulsões, sem, no entanto, perder o controle sobre elas. Eis a contradição: se o homem superior exerce controle sobre as pulsões então elas não são harmônicas. Há, aqui, a incompatibilidade entre harmonia e controle. Em outros termos: o homem superior é de fato o homem culto e cultivado de Nietzsche? Se a resposta para esta pergunta for sim, então neste homem reina a harmonia pulsional. Se, por outro lado, a resposta for não, então, para que este homem n

  5. Nondeterministic Temporal Relations in Multimedia Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明禄; 孙永强; 等

    1997-01-01

    Synchronization is an important issue in multimedia systems which integrate a variety of temporally related media objects.One part of synchronization is the representation of temporal information.Wish the emerging interactive multimedia,deterministic temporal models are replaced by nondeterministic ones with more expressiveness.This paper classifies temporal models by their expressiveness,and evealuates relevant nondeterministic temporal relations in multimedia data.Additionally,an interval-based nondeterministic model based on a complete temporal operator set is proposed providing high-leval abstractions and a high degree of expressiveness for interactive multimedia systems.

  6. Effects of Hand Proximity and Movement Direction in Spatial and Temporal Gap Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemers, Michael; Fischer, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on the interplay between static manual postures and visual attention revealed enhanced visual selection near the hands (near-hand effect). During active movements there is also superior visual performance when moving toward compared to away from the stimulus (direction effect). The “modulated visual pathways” hypothesis argues that differential involvement of magno- and parvocellular visual processing streams causes the near-hand effect. The key finding supporting this hypothesis is an increase in temporal and a reduction in spatial processing in near-hand space (Gozli et al., 2012). Since this hypothesis has, so far, only been tested with static hand postures, we provide a conceptual replication of Gozli et al.’s (2012) result with moving hands, thus also probing the generality of the direction effect. Participants performed temporal or spatial gap discriminations while their right hand was moving below the display. In contrast to Gozli et al. (2012), temporal gap discrimination was superior at intermediate and not near hand proximity. In spatial gap discrimination, a direction effect without hand proximity effect suggests that pragmatic attentional maps overshadowed temporal/spatial processing biases for far/near-hand space. PMID:28018268

  7. Superior facet syndrome. Findings on metrizamide CT myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-02-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L5 or/and S1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively. Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L5 roots and 11 S1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome.

  8. QUAL DEMOCRATIZAÇÃO DO ENSINO SUPERIOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Dubet

    Full Text Available Esse artigo, resultante de uma conferência, discute traços do processo de democratização do ensino superior. Procura distinguir analiticamente várias dimensões da democratização, baseadas, por sua vez, em concepções diferentes da justiça: igualdade de oportunidades, meritocracia, utilidades e equidade dos procedimentos. Cada sociedade constrói modelos de democratização desse ensino. A massificação do ensino superior desempenhou papel democrático objetivo, favorável aos grupos sociais antes excluídos. Mas massificação não equivale à democratização. Todas as categorias sociais não se beneficiam da mesma forma da massificação. A democratização do acesso ao ensino superior não depende apenas das famílias. Depende também da estrutura geral do sistema educativo. A meritocracia acadêmica constrói uma hierarquia de competências que é também social, com forte impacto reprodutivo. As desigualdades de utilidade das diferentes formações têm impacto sobre o conjunto das desigualdades sociais. Os sistemas educativos implementam distintos procedimentos de seleção, de concessão de gratuidades, bolsas e auxílios, que podem ser considerados como mais ou menos equitativos segundo as normas de justiça que mobilizam.

  9. Lipid peroxidation following superior mesenteric artery occlusion in rat intestine

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    P. Pasbakhsh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the level of lipid peroxidation and tissue protein after superior mesenteric artery occlusion tissue damage. The effect of melatonin as anti oxidant and free radical scavenger in prevention of tissue damage, were also evaluated. Methods: Thity six young male Wisatr-Albino rats (weight: 80-120 gr, were divided equally in 6 group with different concentrations of melatonin (10,20,30 mg/kg treatment. Group 1was control, group 2 the sham that surgical process was applied until superior mesenteric artery dissection and received vehicle solution only in equally volume by intra muscular route. Group 3 was ischemia- reperfusion (I/R, group 4 was I/R plus melatonin 10 mg/kg, group 5 I/R plus melatonin 20 mg/kg and finally group 6 I/R plus melatonin 30 mg/kg. After laparatomy, a microvascular atraumatic clip was placed across the superior mesenteric artery under general anaesthesia and itbremoved after ischemia for 30 minutes. The first dose of melatonin was applied just beforereperfusion, second dose, after reperfusion and third dose on the second day .On third day rats were killed and their bowels were removed. The level of tissue melandialdehyde (MDA as index of lipid peroxidation and tissue protein was determined. Results: The level of tissue MDA were significantly lower in group 4, 5, 6 than group 3 (p0, 05. Conclusion: These results suggest that melatonin 10 mg/kg has antioxidant effect in prevention of inducing tissue damage during SMA occlusion in rat intestine.

  10. LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR CUBANA: LOGROS Y PERSPECTIVAS

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    Acela Cantero Zayas

    Full Text Available Resumen: El impetuoso desarrollo de la ciencia y la técnica contemporâneo en general y muy específicamente en la realidad cubana, estâ dirigido a satisfacer las necesidades creciente de nuestra sociedad, lo que conlleva a un continuo perfeccionamiento de todo el sistema educativo en correspondencia con las exigencias, demandas y necesidades de nuestro pueblo. En tal sentido, para comprender los resultados que exhibe la Educación cubana y dentro de ella la Educación Superior, se precisa de toda una reflexión histórica, como soporte lógico y metodológico del hecho educativo cubano. En la actualidad, el mayor impacto de nuestra Educación Superior, desde los puntos de vista social, político, económico y en especial formativo, lo constituye, el diseno e implementación del modelo de Universalización, el cual tiene como objetivo supremo la extensión de la Universidad a los distintos municipios del país, con la finalidad de irradiar cultura y saber, que son las únicas modalidades de garantizar un hombre libre y de hecho una sociedad independiente. En el presente trabajo se muestra una panorâmica de la Educación Superior en Cuba, partiendo del elemento histórico hasta la contemporaneidad y en ésta, los nuevos retos impuestos por el contexto socio-político a escala mundial.

  11. LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR CUBANA: LOGROS Y PERSPECTIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acela Cantero Zayas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El impetuoso desarrollo de la ciencia y la técnica contemporáneo en general y muy específicamente en la realidad cubana, está dirigido a satisfacer las necesidades creciente de nuestra sociedad, lo que conlleva a un continuo perfeccionamiento de todo el sistema educativo en correspondencia con las exigencias, demandas y necesidades de nuestro pueblo. En tal sentido, para comprender los resultados que exhibe la Educación cubana y dentro de ella la Educación Superior, se precisa de toda una reflexión histórica, como soporte lógico y metodológico del hecho educativo cubano. En la actualidad, el mayor impacto de nuestra Educación Superior, desde los puntos de vista social, político, económico y en especial formativo, lo constituye, el diseño e implementación del modelo de Universalización, el cual tiene como objetivo supremo la extensión de la Universidad a los distintos municipios del país, con la finalidad de irradiar cultura y saber, que son las únicas modalidades de garantizar un hombre libre y de hecho una sociedad independiente. En el presente trabajo se muestra una panorámica de la Educación Superior en Cuba, partiendo del elemento histórico hasta la contemporaneidad y en ésta, los nuevos retos impuestos por el contexto socio-político a escala mundial.

  12. Computerized Assessment of Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Size using Advanced Morphological Imaging Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Joel S; Lagman, Carlito; Chung, Lawrance K; Bui, Timothy T; Lee, Seung J; Voth, Brittany L; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Gopen, Quinton; Yang, Isaac

    2017-04-01

    Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) describes a pathological aperture at the level of the arcuate eminence. Techniques for quantifying defect size are described with most studies using two-dimensional lengths that underestimate the pathology. The objective of this study is to describe a novel method of measurement that combines manual segmentation of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images of the temporal bone and a morphological skeletonization transform to calculate dehiscence volume. Images were imported into a freely available image segmentation tool: ITK-SNAP (version 3.4.0; available at: http://www.itksnap.org/) software. Coronal and sagittal planes were used to outline the dehiscence in all slices demonstrating the defect using the paintbrush tool. A morphological skeletonization transform derived a single-pixel thick representation of the original delineation. This "sheet" of voxels overlaid the dehiscence. Volume was calculated by counting the number of nonzero image voxels within this "sheet" and multiplying this number by the volume (mm(3)) of each voxel. A total of 70 cases of SSCD were identified. Overall, mean volume was 0.88 mm(3) (standard deviation: 0.57, range: 0.11-2.27). We present a novel technique for measuring SSCD, which we believe provides a more accurate representation of the pathology, and has the potential to standardize measurement of SSCD.

  13. Fusiform superior cerebellar artery aneurysm treated with STA-SCA bypass and trapping

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    Fabricio C Lamis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fusiform aneurysms of cerebellar arteries are rare. Different surgical techniques to address these challenging lesions have been described, and their application depends on whether the goal is to maintain the flow in the parent vessel or to occlude it. Case Description: The authors reported a case of a fusiform aneurysm located in the lateral pontomesencephalic segment of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA in a 32-year-old man who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient was subjected to aneurysm trapping followed by a bypass between the superficial temporal artery (STA and SCA and had an uneventful recovery. Conclusions: Although only a few cases of fusiform aneurysms in the supracerebellar artery have been reported in the literature, the treatment strategies adopted were diverse. In selected cases of patients in good neurological condition with ruptured fusiform aneurysms at the proximal segments of SCA and who have poor evidence of collateral supply, the possibility of a STA-SCA bypass with aneurysm trapping must be considered. A review of the current treatment modalities of this pathology is also presented.

  14. Adult plasticity of spatiotemporal receptive fields of multisensory superior colliculus neurons following early visual deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, David W.; Krueger, Juliane; Fister, Matthew C.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous work has established that the integrative capacity of multisensory neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) matures over a protracted period of postnatal life (Wallace and Stein, 1997), and that the development of normal patterns of multisensory integration depends critically on early sensory experience (Wallace et al., 2004). Although these studies demonstrated the importance of early sensory experience in the creation of mature multisensory circuits, it remains unknown whether the reestablishment of sensory experience in adulthood can reverse these effects and restore integrative capacity. Methods The current study tested this hypothesis in cats that were reared in absolute darkness until adulthood and then returned to a normal housing environment for an equivalent period of time. Single unit extracellular recordings targeted multisensory neurons in the deep layers of the SC, and analyses were focused on both conventional measures of multisensory integration and on more recently developed methods designed to characterize spatiotemporal receptive fields (STRF). Results Analysis of the STRF structure and integrative capacity of multisensory SC neurons revealed significant modifications in the temporal response dynamics of multisensory responses (e.g., discharge durations, peak firing rates, and mean firing rates), as well as significant changes in rates of spontaneous activation and degrees of multisensory integration. Conclusions These results emphasize the importance of early sensory experience in the establishment of normal multisensory processing architecture and highlight the limited plastic potential of adult multisensory circuits. PMID:20404413

  15. The temporal bones from Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). A phylogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, I; Arsuaga, J L

    1997-01-01

    Three well-preserved crania and 22 temporal bones were recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site up to and including the 1994 field season. This is the largest sample of hominid temporal bones known from a single Middle Pleistocene site and it offers the chance to characterize the temporal bone morphology of an European Middle Pleistocene population and to study the phylogenetic relationships of the SH sample with other Upper and Middle Pleistocene hominids. We have carried out a cladistic analysis based on nine traits commonly used in phylogenetic analysis of Middle and Late Pleistocene hominids: shape of the temporal squama superior border, articular eminence morphology, contribution of the sphenoid bone to the median glenoid wall, postglenoid process projection, tympanic plate orientation, presence of the styloid process, mastoid process projection, digastric groove morphology and anterior mastoid tubercle. We have found two autapomorphies on the Home erectus temporal bone: strong reduction of the postglenoid process and absence of the styloid process. Modern humans, Neandertals and the Middle Pleistocene fossils from Europe and Africa constitute a clade characterized by a convex superior border of the temporal squama. The European Middle Pleistocene fossils from Sima de los Huesos, Petralona, Steinheim, Bilzingsleben and Castel di Guido share a Neandertal apomorphy: a relatively flat articular eminence. The fossils from Ehringsdorf, La Chaise Suardi and Biache-Saint-Vaast also display another Neandertal derived trait: an anteriorly obliterated digastric groove. Modern humans and the African Middle Pleistocene fossils share a synapomorphy: a sagittally orientated tympanic plate.

  16. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-02-29

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. CALIDAD Y EXPERIENCIA DOCENTE EN EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Lafuente Guantes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se considera la forma de entender la calidad en la experiencia docente en educación superior a partir de la práctica del profesorado, y en relación con las orientaciones educativas hoy al uso. Se analiza en tres trabajos: las nociones en que se basa esta experiencia, su valor en el proceso docente, qué condiciones se requieren para lograr que la creencia en la calidad alcance su efectuación.

  18. A standardized surgical technique for rat superior cervical ganglionectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savastano, Luis Emilio; Castro, Analía Elizabeth; Fitt, Marcos René

    2010-01-01

    injury. Despite having several experimental applications in the rat, a thorough description of a standardized procedure has never been published. Here, we provide a brief review of the principal features and experimental uses of the SCGx, the surgical anatomy of the neck and sympathetic cervical chain......, and a step-by-step description of how to consistently remove the superior cervical ganglia through the omohyoid muscle or the carotid triangle. Furthermore, we suggest procedures and precautions to be taken during and after surgery to optimize results and describe tools to validate surgical success. We...

  19. Superior Valley photovoltaic power processing and system controller evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonn, R.; Ginn, J.; Zirzow, J.; Sittler, G.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management, conducts the photovoltaic balance-of-system program. Under this program, Sandia supports the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research Development Plan, SERDP, which is advancing the use of photovoltaics in operational DoD facilities. This report details the acceptance testing of the first of these photovoltaic hybrid systems: the Superior Valley photovoltaic-diesel hybrid system. This is the first of several photovoltaic installations for the Department of Defense. The system hardware tested at Sandia included an inverter, maximum power trackers, and a system controller.

  20. Study on evaluation system of high & new technology superior enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the globalization of economy and science & technology, high & new technology enterprises have become the point of Chinese economic growth and the important basis for constructing innovative country. By analyzing the characteristics of high & new technology superior enterprises and the influential factors, the evaluation index and method based on Grey Relation Analysis are designed. Some high & new technology enterprises in Heilongjiang province are evaluated and application tactics of evaluation system are proposed. This study provides scientific method and basis for government to obtain development state about high & new technology enterprises and design planning and policies of high & new technology industry.

  1. Viabilidade de uma rede social no ensino superior do Turismo

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Manuel; Faria, César

    2010-01-01

    O artigo estuda a organização da rede de instituições presentes no ensino superior do Turismo em Portugal e o interesse de criar uma rede social neste âmbito. No seguimento apresenta-se o projecto Observatório Nacional de Educação em Turismo, que constituirá uma plataforma tecnológica de trabalho para esta comunidade académica, com vista à sua organização e funcionamento eficiente em rede, partilhando conhecimento e experiências relevantes a nível nacional e regional, gerando valor acrescenta...

  2. El lenguaje y la educación superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vergara Silva

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea el análisis de algunos retos que genera la relación entre el lenguaje y la educación superior en una sociedad digital; así mismo, se establece cómo los usuarios de las nuevas tecnologías exigen al docente universitario un manejo efectivo de los lenguajes hipertextuales a fin de superar el esquema de "transmisor de información", heredado de los modelos tradicionales de educación.

  3. El volcanismo del Terciario superior del sur de Mendoza

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    F. E. Nullo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe por primera vez la petrografía y geoquímica de unidades volcánicas terciarias del sur de la provincia de Mendoza. Se analizan la nomenclatura estratigráfica y sus edades, estableciéndose una secuencia de eventos magmáticos ocurridos durante el Neógeno, comenzando con la evolución de un retro-arco, seguido por un arco magmático más joven. Se intenta respetar la nomenclatura estratigráfica existente, sin embargo, la definición de unidades se ha realizado sobre la base de las edades radimétricas y sus edades de cristalización, más sobre sus características petrográficas. La actividad magmática se extiende desde el Oligoceno superior al Mioceno superior, correspondiendo a el Ciclo Eruptivo Molle y el Ciclo Eruptivo Huincán, y comenzó con un episodio magmático basáltico inicial (CEM. Esta actividad se generó en la corteza inferior dominada por la concentración de gabros, dioritas y rocas híbridas (granulitas máficas. Debido a un engrosamiento de la corteza como consecuencia de la actividad tectónica durante Mioceno superior o por el estancamiento de magmas o por la combinación de ambos procesos, la formación de granulitas granatíferas resultó un producto distintivo de la corteza inferior. Con el desarrollo del arco magmático (CEH en el Mioceno superior, los magmas ascendieron desde la fuente mantélica, encontrándose con una corteza inferior granatífera, perdiendo capacidad de ascenso por falta de contraste de densidades, produciéndose una fusión extendida, la homogeinización y el ascenso, en equilibrio con la corteza baja, proceso que caracteriza el volcanismo de un arco magmático.

  4. Polyarteritis nodosa in superior mesenteric artery : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young Lan; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Ho Chul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Lee, Eil Seong; Nam, Eun Sook [Hallym Univ., Choonchun (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a multisystem disease characterized by necrotizing vasculitis of small and medium-sized arteries, and in 50 % of all cases there is gastrointestinal involvement. We describe a patient with PAN involving the gastrointestinal tract. A small bowel series showed nodular fold thickening, submucosal filling defects, shallow ulcerations, segmental luminal narrowing, and decreased peristalsis at the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum; superior mesenteric arteriography showed hypervascularity and microaneurysm. Segmental resection of the small bowel indicated the presence of PAN. (author). 10 refs.,3 figs.

  5. Superior dislocation of the patella: a case report

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    Garcia-Balletbo Montserrat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Superior dislocation of the patella is an uncommon condition that mainly occurs in knees with a high patella and medial femorotibial degenerative arthritis. There are no previous reports of this condition occurring in association with tibial valgus osteotomy. Case report: We report the case of a patient in whom vertical dislocation recurred twice at 4 months after tibial valgus osteotomy. To avert additional recurrence or new dislocations, the patient was treated surgically to remove the existing osteophytes. Conclusions: An arthroscopic approach was decided because of the lower associated morbidity and good results with this technique compared to open surgery.

  6. Enlarged transacromial superior approach with reverse shoulder arthroplasty for fractures

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    Alexandre Poignard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a step-by-step technique for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty using arthrotomy via the enlarged transacromial superior approach. This technique seems ideal for reinsertion of the tuberosities and to ensure adequate postoperative tensional balance of the infraspinatus and the subscapularis, which is critical for the rotator cuffs to function properly and to achieve optimal arthroplasty stability. Reviewing these different steps helps understanding each rotator cuff individual component's contribution to achieve optimal arthroplasty stability and external rotation with a reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

  7. CHALLENGES IN ENGINEERINGS DEGREE BASED ON SUPERIOR EDUCATION COMPETITIONS

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    Maricela Sánchez López

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Nineties are characterized by the sprouting of projects of curricular reform that respond to certain educative demands. UNESCO, indicates that the new generations will have to be prepared with new competitions and new knowledge reason why the education superior faces the formation based on the competitions and the relevance of the curricula that constantly are adapted to the present and future needs of the society for which it requires one better joint with the problems of the society and the enterprise world.

  8. Concomitant Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava and Horseshoe Kidney

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    Faraz Jaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC and horseshoe kidney (HSK are common congenital abnormalities; however presence of both in the same person is extremely rare. A patient with hepatitis C cirrhosis awaiting transplant presented with worsening liver dysfunction, diagnosed with acute renal failure secondary to hepatorenal syndrome, and required X-ray fluoroscopy guided tunneled venous catheter placement for hemodialysis. Review of imaging studies demonstrated coexistence of PLSVC and HSK. PLSVC in adulthood is usually incidental with the most common drainage pattern being without physiologic dysfunction. Isolated horseshoe kidney is still the most common of renal fusion anomalies; however etiology of coexistent PLSVC remains unknown.

  9. Double innervations to the superior belly of omohyoid

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    Rao TR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Awareness in the variations of infrahyoid muscles is useful guide for both in studies of human anatomy and in clinical practice today. The use of muscular flaps as a reconstructive tool requires a thorough anatomical knowledge of its blood supply and innervations. These muscles vary considerably in the extent of their development. The omohyoid is the most frequently absent muscle of this group. We present a rare case of double nerve supply to the superior belly of omohyoid, which was found during our routine anatomical dissection on the right side of the neck of a 55-year-old male cadaver.

  10. [Clinical manifestation and surgical treatment of superior lumbar disc herniation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishin, D N; Dreval', O N; Gorozhanin, A V

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of presentation and surgical treatment of 103 patients with lumbar disc herniation the authors performed comparative assessment of symptoms and therapeutic techniques in patients with higher and lower lumbar disc disease. Short-term and long-term results were evaluated using visual analogue scale and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Statistically significant differences in dynamics of pain and ODI were not present. In spite of differences in clinical presentation, the results of surgical treatment in both groups were similar. They depended on severity of preoperative neurological deficit regardless of level of lesion. Specific features of surgical procedure in superior lumbar disk herniation are described.

  11. I problemi di matematica della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa

    CERN Document Server

    Profeti, Alessandro

    1998-01-01

    Nasce come aggiornamento del volume precedente ("I problemi di Matematica della Scuola Normale", 1984) e raccoglie gli esercizi di matematica assegnati all'esame di ammissione alla Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa dal 1985 al 1997, con la loro risoluzione. Per rendere più efficace lo scopo didattico viene anche presentata una scelta di problemi relativi al periodo precedente (1905-1984). Il libro si rivolge a studenti e docenti della Scuola Secondaria, e si chiude con un Glossario in cui vengono richiamati i termini usati.

  12. Complication of Right Subclavian Vein Catheterization: Superior Vena Cava Perforation

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELİK, B.; KOCAMANOĞLU, S.; BÜYÜKKARABACAK, Y. B.; SARIHASAN, E.

    2013-01-01

    Central venous catheterization is an invasive approach which is routinely used in thoracic surgery operations. Pneumothorax and hemothorax are among the most frequent complications. Vena cava superior (VCS) perforation (0.5 %) is very rarely observed. A 65-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with the complaint of cough. With the examinations performed, he was diagnosed with epidermoid lung cancer located in the right lower lobe of the lung (Stage IB, T2N0M0). To prepare the pat...

  13. Retos y perspectivas de la Educación Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tünnermann Bemheim

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Las características de una educación superior capaz de hacer frente a las demandas de los próximos años, - los primeros de un nuevo siglo y un nuevo milenio, durante los cuales asistimos, además, a un cambio de épocas - , son analizados en este trabajo. Para ello, el autor se apoya en los aportes de diferentes documentos internacionales sobre este asunto, en las reflexiones del ex Director General de la UNESCO, Profesor Federico Mayor Zaragoza y, sobre todo, en su propia dilatadísima experiencia en el ámbito universitario.

  14. Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection after Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy

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    Christos Bakoyiannis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of shockwave lithotripsy is currently the mainstay of treatment in renal calculosis. Several complications including vessel injuries have been implied to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. We report an isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery in a 60-year-old male presenting with abdominal pain which occurred three days after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. The patient was treated conservatively and the abdominal pain subsided 24 hours later. The patient's history, the course of his disease, and the timing may suggest a correlation between the dissection and the ESWL.

  15. Abordagem do marketing de relacionamento no ensino superior

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. A presente dissertação é um estudo exploratório sobre a viabilidade de implementação de uma abordagem de marketing de relacionamento nas universidades privadas e comunitárias do Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Realiza uma análise do atual cenário competitivo do ensino superior brasileiro e catarinense por meio de levantamentos oficiais, com o objetivo ...

  16. Superiority, competition, and opportunism in the evolutionary radiation of dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Benton, Michael J; Ruta, Marcello; Lloyd, Graeme T

    2008-09-12

    The rise and diversification of the dinosaurs in the Late Triassic, from 230 to 200 million years ago, is a classic example of an evolutionary radiation with supposed competitive replacement. A comparison of evolutionary rates and morphological disparity of basal dinosaurs and their chief "competitors," the crurotarsan archosaurs, shows that dinosaurs exhibited lower disparity and an indistinguishable rate of character evolution. The radiation of Triassic archosaurs as a whole is characterized by declining evolutionary rates and increasing disparity, suggesting a decoupling of character evolution from body plan variety. The results strongly suggest that historical contingency, rather than prolonged competition or general "superiority," was the primary factor in the rise of dinosaurs.

  17. An unusual cause of intraoperative acute superior vena cava syndrome

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    Adam W Amundson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intraoperative superior vena cava (SVC syndrome is an exceedingly rare complication in the cardiac surgical population. We describe the case of a 71-year-old female undergoing multi-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting who developed acute intraoperative SVC syndrome following internal thoracic artery harvest retractor placement. Her symptoms included severe plethora, facial engorgement and scleral edema, which was associated with hypotension and severe elevation of central venous pressure. Transesophageal echocardiography was crucial in the diagnosis, management, and optimal retractor placement ensuring adequate SVC flow. Potential causes of intraoperative SVC syndrome are reviewed as well as management options.

  18. Proceso de la educación superior en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eliécer Ruíz

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Que las instituciones presentan características congruentes con la realidad que las sustenta, no es un hallazgo tortuoso ni una verdad cuyo descubrimiento debamos a los esfuerzos dialécticos del marxismo. Desgraciadamente al no contar con una historia confiable de nuestra sociedad y de nuestras instituciones, hemos de apelar a testimonios aislados que nos permitan inferir lo que ha sido la educación, y principalmente la educación superior, dentro del proceso evolutivo de nuestro pueblo.

  19. Continuous nanoscale carbon fibers with superior mechanical strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Yue, Zhongren; Fong, Hao

    2009-03-01

    Continuous nanoscale carbon fibers can be developed by stabilization and carbonization of highly aligned and extensively stretched electrospun polyacrylonitrile copolymer nanofiber precursor under optimal tension. These carbon fibers, with diameters of tens of nanometers, are expected to possess a superior mechanical strength that is unlikely to be achieved through conventional approaches. This is because i) the innovative precursor, with a fiber diameter approximately 100 times smaller than that of conventional counterparts, possesses an extremely high degree of macromolecular orientation and a significantly reduced amount of structural imperfections, and ii) the ultrasmall fiber diameter also effectively prevents the formation of structural inhomogeneity, particularly sheath/core structures during stabilization and carbonization.

  20. Do institutional investors have superior stock selection ability in China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yihong; Deng; Yongxing; Xu

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses unique data on the shareholdings of both institutional and individual investors to directly investigate whether institutional investors have better stock selection ability than individual investors in China.Controlling for other factors,we find that institutional investors increase(decrease)their shareholdings in stocks that subsequently exhibit positive(negative)short-and long-term cumulative abnormal returns.In contrast individual investors decrease(increase)their shareholdings in stocks that subsequently exhibit positive(negative)short-and long-term cumulative abnormal returns.These findings indicate that institutional investors have superior stock selection ability in China.

  1. Experience-dependent learning of auditory temporal resolution: evidence from Carnatic-trained musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manasa R

    2014-01-22

    Musical training and experience greatly enhance the cortical and subcortical processing of sounds, which may translate to superior auditory perceptual acuity. Auditory temporal resolution is a fundamental perceptual aspect that is critical for speech understanding in noise in listeners with normal hearing, auditory disorders, cochlear implants, and language disorders, yet very few studies have focused on music-induced learning of temporal resolution. This report demonstrates that Carnatic musical training and experience have a significant impact on temporal resolution assayed by gap detection thresholds. This experience-dependent learning in Carnatic-trained musicians exhibits the universal aspects of human perception and plasticity. The present work adds the perceptual component to a growing body of neurophysiological and imaging studies that suggest plasticity of the peripheral auditory system at the level of the brainstem. The present work may be intriguing to researchers and clinicians alike interested in devising cross-cultural training regimens to alleviate listening-in-noise difficulties.

  2. Anomia for people's names after left anterior temporal lobe resection--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurimoto, Masanori; Takaiwa, Akiko; Nagai, Shoichi; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Endo, Shunro

    2010-01-01

    A 47-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with an intrinsic brain tumor in the left anterior temporal lobe. Preoperative sodium thiopental test demonstrated left hemispheric dominance. Awake craniotomy was performed for dominant-hemispheric tumor resection using language mapping to identify the stimulation-induced positive language area. The tasks of object naming and repetition were used, along with specific tests for famous people's names. The language area was detected on the superior temporal gyrus and preserved. Following surgery, this patient was unable to retrieve the names of famous individuals (i.e. anomia for people's name) despite preservation of semantic knowledge for those individuals. This anomia for people's names showed no improvement at all for a period of 15 months. This case report and other sporadic cases with this type of deficit reveal the left anterior temporal lobe is an important brain area for retrieving people's names.

  3. Predictive State Temporal Difference Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Boots, Byron

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new approach to value function approximation which combines linear temporal difference reinforcement learning with subspace identification. In practical applications, reinforcement learning (RL) is complicated by the fact that state is either high-dimensional or partially observable. Therefore, RL methods are designed to work with features of state rather than state itself, and the success or failure of learning is often determined by the suitability of the selected features. By comparison, subspace identification (SSID) methods are designed to select a feature set which preserves as much information as possible about state. In this paper we connect the two approaches, looking at the problem of reinforcement learning with a large set of features, each of which may only be marginally useful for value function approximation. We introduce a new algorithm for this situation, called Predictive State Temporal Difference (PSTD) learning. As in SSID for predictive state representations, PSTD finds a line...

  4. Lengthened temporal integration in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Brent D; Gandhi, Shilpa; Aurbach, Elyse L; Williams, Nina; Williams, Micah; Wassef, Adel; Eagleman, David M

    2013-01-01

    Research in schizophrenia has tended to emphasize deficits in higher cognitive abilities, such as attention, memory, and executive function. Here we provide evidence for dysfunction at a more fundamental level of perceptual processing, temporal integration. On a measure of flicker fusion, patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly lower thresholds than age and education matched healthy controls. We reasoned that this finding could result from a longer window of temporal integration or could reflect diminished repetition suppression: if every frame of the repeating stimulus were represented as novel, its perceived duration would be accordingly longer. To tease apart these non-exclusive hypotheses, we asked patients to report the number of stimuli perceived on the screen at once (numerosity) as they watched rapidly flashing stimuli that were either repeated or novel. Patients reported significantly higher numerosity than controls in all conditions, again indicating a longer window of temporal integration in schizophrenia. Further, patients showed the largest difference from controls in the repeated condition, suggesting a possible effect of weaker repetition suppression. Finally, we establish that our findings generalize to several different classes of stimuli (letters, pictures, faces, words, and pseudo-words), demonstrating a non-specific effect of a lengthened window of integration. We conclude that the visual system in schizophrenics integrates input over longer periods of time, and that repetition suppression may also be deficient. We suggest that these abnormalities in the processing of temporal information may underlie higher-level deficits in schizophrenia and account for the disturbed sense of continuity and fragmentation of events in time reported by patients.

  5. Effective Visualization of Temporal Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lihua; Healey, Christopher G; Bass, Steffen A

    2016-01-01

    An ensemble is a collection of related datasets, called members, built from a series of runs of a simulation or an experiment. Ensembles are large, temporal, multidimensional, and multivariate, making them difficult to analyze. Another important challenge is visualizing ensembles that vary both in space and time. Initial visualization techniques displayed ensembles with a small number of members, or presented an overview of an entire ensemble, but without potentially important details. Recently, researchers have suggested combining these two directions, allowing users to choose subsets of members to visualization. This manual selection process places the burden on the user to identify which members to explore. We first introduce a static ensemble visualization system that automatically helps users locate interesting subsets of members to visualize. We next extend the system to support analysis and visualization of temporal ensembles. We employ 3D shape comparison, cluster tree visualization, and glyph based visualization to represent different levels of detail within an ensemble. This strategy is used to provide two approaches for temporal ensemble analysis: (1) segment based ensemble analysis, to capture important shape transition time-steps, clusters groups of similar members, and identify common shape changes over time across multiple members; and (2) time-step based ensemble analysis, which assumes ensemble members are aligned in time by combining similar shapes at common time-steps. Both approaches enable users to interactively visualize and analyze a temporal ensemble from different perspectives at different levels of detail. We demonstrate our techniques on an ensemble studying matter transition from hadronic gas to quark-gluon plasma during gold-on-gold particle collisions.

  6. Temporality and modes of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, A

    1995-12-01

    After reviewing some literary, philosophical and psychoanalytic conceptions of time, the author distinguishes between the sensation of time, in which rhythm is all-important, and its representation. The timeless unconscious, which can, however, be rendered temporal through the transference, is contrasted with the sequential chronology of preconscious and conscious functioning. Language, and in particular metaphorical language, is deemed to play a vital part in the structuring of the psyche, and is mediated by the object; the contingency of metaphor is held to be essential because otherwise the object will impose itself too directly, causing the previously undifferentiated death drive to predominate. A primal temporality must, in the author's view, have been laid down in the form of an unrepresentable auto-erotic datum before the individual can perceive himself as a living subject and conceive of lineal and irreversible time with its implications of castration and death; there is no such thing as a timeless subject. All pathologies of temporality are considered by the author to be at the same time pathologies of subjectivation and of language. The paper ends with a clinical illustration in which a key time-related defence of the patient is overcome by an intervention outside the strict time frame of the setting that proves mutative and enables her to recover her personal rhythm as a subject.

  7. Temporal ecology in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkovich, E M; Cook, B I; McLauchlan, K K; Davies, T J

    2014-11-01

    Two fundamental axes - space and time - shape ecological systems. Over the last 30 years spatial ecology has developed as an integrative, multidisciplinary science that has improved our understanding of the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation and loss. We argue that accelerating climate change - the effective manipulation of time by humans - has generated a current need to build an equivalent framework for temporal ecology. Climate change has at once pressed ecologists to understand and predict ecological dynamics in non-stationary environments, while also challenged fundamental assumptions of many concepts, models and approaches. However, similarities between space and time, especially related issues of scaling, provide an outline for improving ecological models and forecasting of temporal dynamics, while the unique attributes of time, particularly its emphasis on events and its singular direction, highlight where new approaches are needed. We emphasise how a renewed, interdisciplinary focus on time would coalesce related concepts, help develop new theories and methods and guide further data collection. The next challenge will be to unite predictive frameworks from spatial and temporal ecology to build robust forecasts of when and where environmental change will pose the largest threats to species and ecosystems, as well as identifying the best opportunities for conservation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. SILAC-based temporal phosphoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, Chiara; Hekmat, Omid; Blagoev, Blagoy; Olsen, Jesper V

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, thanks to advances in Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative proteomics, studies on signaling pathways have moved from a detailed description of individual components to system-wide analysis of entire signaling cascades, also providing spatio-temporal views of intracellular pathways. Quantitative proteomics that combines stable isotope labeling by amino acid in cell culture (SILAC) with enrichment strategies for post-translational modification-bearing peptides and high-performance tandem mass spectrometry represents a powerful and unbiased approach to monitor dynamic signaling events. Here we provide an optimized SILAC-based proteomic workflow to analyze temporal changes in phosphoproteomes, which involve a generic three step enrichment protocol for phosphopeptides. SILAC-labeled peptides from digested whole cell lysates are as a first step enriched for phosphorylated tyrosines by immunoaffinity and then further enriched for phosphorylated serine/threonine peptides by strong cation exchange in combination with titanium dioxide-beads chromatography. Analysis of enriched peptides on Orbitrap-based MS results in comprehensive and accurate reconstruction of temporal changes of signaling networks.

  9. Premature temporal theta (PT theta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J R; Fino, J J; Hart, L A

    1987-07-01

    A distinctive pattern called premature temporal theta (PT theta) was studied in 436 infants, ranging in age from 24 to 46 weeks. The pattern is seen in early prematurity, maximizes at 29-31 weeks and then diminishes and disappears near term. Usually the pattern is found independently on both temporal areas, but with a right-sided preference. Patients without PT theta or with a significantly low amount had either neurological or non-neurological (medical) conditions. With age there is a tendency for an increase in frequency and a decrease in amplitude. Five different peaks in the amount of this pattern are seen at approximately every month. Unilateral PT theta tends to be seen in older babies, more often on the right side and with an abnormal EEG. An abnormal EEG is usually associated with a delay in both the appearance and disappearance of this wave form. PT theta is also associated mainly with REM or active sleep. A polynomial rather than an exponential or power function best describes these data with changes of age. PT theta may arise from the inferior temporal gyrus and/or especially the transverse gyrus.

  10. Cognitive abilities and superior decision making under risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward T. Cokely

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive abilities and skills can predict normatively superior and logically consistent judgments and decisions. The current experiment investigates the processes that mediate individual differences in risky choices. We assessed working memory span, numeracy, and cognitive impulsivity and conducted a protocol analysis to trace variations in conscious deliberative processes. People higher in cognitive abilities made more choices consistent with expected values; however, expected-value choices rarely resulted from expected-value calculations. Instead, the cognitive ability and choice relationship was mediated by the number of simple considerations made during decision making --- e.g., transforming probabilities and considering the relative size of gains. Results imply that, even in simple lotteries, superior risky decisions associated with cognitive abilities and controlled cognition can reflect metacognitive dynamics and elaborative heuristic search processes, rather than normative calculations. Modes of cognitive control (e.g., dual process dynamics and implications for process models of risky decision-making (e.g., priority heuristic are discussed.

  11. Treatment of Superior Lobe Central Lung Cancer with Lung Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulun YANG

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Patients suffering from lung cancer often have poor quality of life after pneumonectomy. It has clinical significances to preserve maximum lobes of the “healthy” lung. The aim of this study is to report the applications of lung replantation in treatment of superior lobe central lung cancer. Methods Three lung cancer cases were included and analysed. The bronchus and margin of lower lung lobe were encroached by cancer. Pulmonary artery was invaded and surrounded by metastatic lymph node. Complete pneumonectomy, antegrade perfusion and retroperfusion with low-potassium dextran (LPD solution in vitro were performed. The retainable lower pulmonary lobe was selected from the isolated lung and superior pulmonary vein was replaced with inferior pulmonary veins. The bronchus and pulmonary artery were inosculated by turns. Results The operative cumulative time ranged from 220 min to 250 min. The isolated time of lobus inferior pulmonary ranged from 120 min to 150 min. The chest tube was pulled out after chest X-ray confirmed the reimplant lung full re-expansion. The patients were followed up for 4 months to 8 months and accomplished adjuvant chemotherapy for 3 or 4 periodicities. The patients had a sound quality of life. Conclusion Lung replantation removing the extensive tumor tissue and retaining the maximum pulmonary normal tissue is an useful method for treatment of lung cancer.

  12. Notas sobre o CNE e a qualidade do ensino superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Silke

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto contém algumas notas a respeito da atuação do Conselho Nacional de Educação (CNE, especialmente da Câmara de Educação Superior, desde a sua criação em 1996 pela Lei 9131/1996. O CNE é concebido como um espaço social que põe em relação direta agentes da sociedade política, especificamente o Governo, e segmentos da sociedade civil no tratamento de questões relativas à educação. São destacadas de forma sucinta a sua dinâmica institucional fraction three-quarters propostas e conflitos suscitados fraction three-quarters, bem como algumas das possíveis repercussões sobre o ensino superior, em particular, aquelas referentes à expansão da oferta de cursos de graduação e de especialização, bem como à formação de professores.

  13. A standardized surgical technique for rat superior cervical ganglionectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Luis Emilio; Castro, Analía Elizabeth; Fitt, Marcos René; Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Romeo, Horacio Eduardo; Muñoz, Estela Maris

    2010-09-30

    Superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx) is a valuable microsurgical model to study the role of the sympathetic nervous system in a vast array of physiological and pathological processes, including homeostatic regulation, circadian biology and the dynamics of neuronal dysfunction and recovery after injury. Despite having several experimental applications in the rat, a thorough description of a standardized procedure has never been published. Here, we provide a brief review of the principal features and experimental uses of the SCGx, the surgical anatomy of the neck and sympathetic cervical chain, and a step-by-step description of how to consistently remove the superior cervical ganglia through the omohyoid muscle or the carotid triangle. Furthermore, we suggest procedures and precautions to be taken during and after surgery to optimize results and describe tools to validate surgical success. We expect that the following standardized and optimized protocol will allow researchers to organize knowledge into a cohesive framework in those areas where the SCGx is applied. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. SUPERIOR MESENTERIC AND PORTAL VEIN THROMBOSIS WITH HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare & life threatening condition. We report a case of 18 years old boy presented to emergency department with pain abdomen, fever, Melena for almost week duration. Bowel sounds were absent since two days. With a preoperative diagnosis of peritonitis Patient was taken up for emergency laparotomy. Resection of gangrenous small bowel and end to end anastomosis was done. Intra operatively thrombus in SMV was found. Coagulation profile was normal except for elevated homocystine levels. Early postoperative period was stormy. Patient was started on LMV Heparin from day - 1. Pregangrenous changes were seen in contrast CT abdomen on Day - 4. We managed conservatively with anticoagulation therapy in the postoperative period. Pregangrenous changes disappeared with conservative management. Patient was shifted to oral warfarin and discharged on 3 rd week. Follow up Doppler USG abdomen revealed a portal vein of normal size & caliber with no evidence of thrombus. On postoperative follow up for one year, patient is doing well. Hyperhomocycteinemia is an independent predisposing factor to superior mesenteric venous thrombus.

  15. Visual sensitivity of deepwater fishes in Lake Superior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Harrington

    Full Text Available The predator-prey interactions in the offshore food web of Lake Superior have been well documented, but the sensory systems mediating these interactions remain unknown. The deepwater sculpin, (Myoxocephalus thompsoni, siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet, and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi inhabit low light level environments. To investigate the potential role of vision in predator-prey interactions, electroretinography was used to determine visual sensitivity for each species. Spectral sensitivity curves revealed peak sensitivity at 525 nm for each species which closely corresponds to the prevalent downwelling light spectrum at depth. To determine if sufficient light was available to mediate predator-prey interactions, visual sensitivity was correlated with the intensity of downwelling light in Lake Superior to construct visual depth profiles for each species. Sufficient daytime irradiance exists for visual interactions to approximately 325 m for siscowet and kiyi and 355 m for the deepwater sculpin during summer months. Under full moon conditions, sufficient irradiance exists to elicit ERG response to light available at approximately 30 m for the siscowet and kiyi and 45 m for the deepwater sculpin. Visual interactions are therefore possible at the depths and times when these organisms overlap in the water column indicating that vision may play a far greater role at depth in deep freshwater lakes than had been previously documented.

  16. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    Full Text Available The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  17. Designing functionally graded materials with superior load-bearing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Ming-Jie; Zhang, Denzil

    2012-03-01

    Ceramic prostheses often fail from fracture and wear. We hypothesize that these failures may be substantially mitigated by an appropriate grading of elastic modulus at the ceramic surface. In this study, we elucidate the effect of elastic modulus profile on the flexural damage resistance of functionally graded materials (FGMs), providing theoretical guidelines for designing FGMs with superior load-bearing property. The Young's modulus of the graded structure is assumed to vary in a power-law relation with a scaling exponent n; this is in accordance with experimental observations from our laboratory and elsewhere. Based on the theory for bending of graded beams, we examine the effect of n value and bulk-to-surface modulus ratio (E(b)/E(s)) on stress distribution through the graded layer. Theory predicts that a low exponent (0.15graded materials with various n values and E(b)/E(s) ratios can be fabricated by infiltrating alumina and zirconia with a low-modulus glass. Flexural tests show that graded alumina and zirconia with suitable values of these parameters exhibit superior load-bearing capacity, 20-50% higher than their homogeneous counterparts. Improving load-bearing capacity of ceramic materials could have broad impacts on biomedical, civil, structural, and an array of other engineering applications.

  18. Origen de la Escuela Normal Superior de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ducoing

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este texto se pretende analizar el origen universitario de la Escuela Normal Superior de México, en el marco del período denominado “porfiriato”, el cual, pese a haberse convertido en una dictadura, enarboló los principios de la ideología liberal, los que unidos al pensamiento positivista cotidiano, posibilitaron el desarrollo económico y social y particularmente, educativo, a través de la creación de instituciones y de programas que potenciaron la conformación de un discurso pedagógico moderno. La Escuela Normal Superior nace, en el seno de la Universidad Nacional, como expresión de un proyecto político-cultural que integra las aspiraciones de la época en materia educativa: la organización y homogeneización de un sistema de formación de profesores que contribuyera a garantizar la ruptura con los postulados y símbolos del régimen colonial, los cuales habrían de ser suplantados por otros: la unidad, la cientificidad, el pragmatismo y la secularidad -entre otros-.

  19. Adjuvant chemotherapy compliance is not superior after thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter B; Schytte, Tine; Jakobsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that patient compliance with adjuvant chemotherapy is superior after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery compared with open lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of evidence for this assumption, however, is limited to single-institution, ......BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that patient compliance with adjuvant chemotherapy is superior after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery compared with open lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of evidence for this assumption, however, is limited to single...... histopathology. A clinical oncologist, who was blinded to the surgical approach, reviewed all medical oncology charts for types of adjuvant chemotherapy, reasons for not initiating or stopping treatment, number of cycles delivered, and time interval from surgery to initial chemotherapy. RESULTS: During a 6-year...... adjuvant chemotherapy and 121 (38.7%) completed all four cycles. Ordinal logistic regression revealed that chemotherapy compliance (none, partial, and full chemotherapy) was significantly reduced by the patient's age (p

  20. Fish community change in Lake Superior, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, Charles R.; Ebener, Mark P.; Schreiner, Donald R.; DeVault, David S.; Petzold, Michael M.; Jensen, Douglas A.; Richards, Carl; Lozano, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in Lake Superior's fish community are reviewed from 1970 to 2000. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) stocks have increased substantially and may be approaching ancestral states. Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) have also recovered, but under sporadic recruitment. Contaminant levels have declined and are in equilibrium with inputs, but toxaphene levels are higher than in all other Great Lakes. Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control, harvest limits, and stocking fostered recoveries of lake trout and allowed establishment of small nonnative salmonine populations. Natural reproduction supports most salmonine populations, therefore further stocking is not required. Nonnative salmonines will likely remain minor components of the fish community. Forage biomass has shifted from exotic rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to native species, and high predation may prevent their recovery. Introductions of exotics have increased and threaten the recovering fish community. Agencies have little influence on the abundance of forage fish or the major predator, siscowet lake trout, and must now focus on habitat protection and enhancement in nearshore areas and prevent additional species introductions to further restoration. Persistence of Lake Superior's native deepwater species is in contrast to other Great Lakes where restoration will be difficult in the absence of these ecologically important fishes.

  1. Medical image of the week: persistent left superior vena cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammode E

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 19 year old man with acute lymphocytic leukemia was admitted to the ICU with septic shock. Due to areas of cellulitis on the right side of the chest and neck and femoral venous thrombi, a left subclavian central access was attempted. The chest x-ray obtained after line placement is shown below (Figure 1. Blood gas done from the line was consistent with venous blood and venous tranduction was seen. A CT of the chest (Figure 2 confirmed the diagnosis of persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC. A persistent left superior vena cava is the most common congenital thoracic venous anomaly, seen in 0.3-0.5% of the population (1. Incidence is increased in patients with congenital heart disease to 5%. In most patients a right sided SVC is also present; hence the term SVC duplication has also been used. Embryologically a PLSVC is formed when the left anterior cardinal vein is ...

  2. Phlegmonous gastritis secondary to superior mesenteric artery syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Nomura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We herein report a case of phlegmonous gastritis secondary to superior mesenteric artery syndrome. An 80-year-old woman visited the hospital emergency department with the chief complaints of epigastric pain and vomiting. She was hospitalized urgently following the diagnosis of superior mesenteric artery syndrome based on abdominal computed tomography findings. Conservative therapy was not effective, and phlegmonous gastritis was diagnosed based on the findings of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy performed on the 12th day of the disease. Undernutrition and reduced physical activity were observed on hospital admission, and proactive nutritional therapy with enteral nutrition was started. An upper gastrointestinal series, performed approximately 1 month later, confirmed the persistence of strictures and impaired gastric emptying. Because conservative therapy was unlikely to improve oral food intake, open total gastrectomy was performed on the 94th day of the disease. Examination of surgically resected specimens revealed marked inflammation and fibrosis, especially in the body of the stomach. Following a good postoperative recovery, the patient was able to commence oral intake and left our hospital on foot approximately 1 month after surgery.

  3. Personality assessment with children of superior intelligence: divergence versus psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, N T

    1989-01-01

    The perceptual and cognitive functioning of children with intelligence quotients greater than 135 was examined with the Rorschach Inkblot Test. A criterion measure, the Child Behavior Checklist, was also administered so as to determine whether deviations for Rorschach variables from age-appropriate norms indicated the presence of psychopathology or were evidence of nonentrenched, novel, or creative styles of encoding and processing information. Rorschach variables indicative of intellectual sophistication, nonentrenched thinking or inaccurate reality perception, and cognitive slippage were reliably elevated for this sample versus norms. Results for the Child Behavior Checklist demonstrated that the incidence of psychopathology in the intellectually superior and average samples were comparable. There was a lack of covariance between Rorschach makers of inaccurate reality perception, cognitive slippages, and schizophrenia, and the sum of behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist. Results for the Rorschach and Child Behavior Checklist variables were comparable for children with intelligence quotients greater than 150 versus between 136 and 140. It was concluded that the intellectually superior children did process the Rorschach stimuli in a manner that was nonentrenched and reliably different from norms, but that these differences should not routinely be considered as indications of psychopathology.

  4. de tomada de decisão em cursos superiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Shitsuka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As empresas têm obtido vantagens competitivas com o uso extensivo dos sistemas de informação. Em sua forma atual, esses sistemas se compõem, principalmente, de tecnologia de informação, organização e pessoas. No presente trabalho, estuda-se o uso, no ensino superior, de ferramentas de planilhas eletrônicas como parte dos sistemas de informação, destinados ao apoio computacional à tomada de decisão. Conta-se, para isso, com a experiência dos autores, como docentes em cursos de bacharelado e tecnologia, nas disciplinas que utilizam esse recurso, e de pesquisas que apontam a tendência para o uso dessas ferramentas. Sugere-se, para os interessados em ingressar na área empresarial, o aprendizado dessas importantes ferramentas computacionais, a exemplo do que vem ocorrendo no ensino superior, com a utilização crescente de planilhas eletrônicas no apoio ao processo de tomada de decisões.

  5. La educación superior en Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Palomar Áviles

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo parte de un análisis de la ubicación geográfica y espacial del departamento de Cundinamarca, destacando la marcada centralización que tiene Bogotá en todos los órdenes, dada su cercanía. Destaca que, a pesar de la metropolización que tiene a ejercer Bogotá, el departamento cuenta con cuatro ciudades intermedias y alternas con la posibilidad de convertirse en polos de desarrollo regional autónomos. Presenta una descripción de la Educación superior en Cundinamarca, tanto en  la modalidad presencial como en la modalidad  a distancia. Concluye que la cobertura de este nivel educativo es casi nula precisamente por la dependencia que existen 900 cupos en 2 instituciones de Educación Superior, ubicadas en 4 ciudades, para atender  una población de 6.800 bachilleres que egresan anualmente.

  6. Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Syndrome – Diagnosis and Surgical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma Diaz, Marite; Cisneros Lesser, Juan Carlos; Vega Alarcón, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome was described by Minor et al in 1998. It is a troublesome syndrome that results in vertigo and oscillopsia induced by loud sounds or changes in the pressure of the external auditory canal or middle ear. Patients may present with autophony, hyperacusis, pulsatile tinnitus and hearing loss. When symptoms are mild, they are usually managed conservatively, but surgical intervention may be needed for patients with debilitating symptoms. Objective The aim of this manuscript is to review the different surgical techniques used to repair the superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Data Sources PubMed and Ovid-SP databases. Data Synthesis The different approaches are described and discussed, as well as their limitations. We also review the advantages and disadvantages of the plugging, capping and resurfacing techniques to repair the dehiscence. Conclusions Each of the surgical approaches has advantages and disadvantages. The middle fossa approach gives a better view of the dehiscence, but comes with a higher morbidity than the transmastoid approach. Endoscopic assistance may be advantageous during the middle cranial fossa approach for better visualization. The plugging and capping techniques are associated with higher success rates than resurfacing, with no added risk of hearing loss. PMID:28382131

  7. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V; Rowland, Lisa J

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  8. The Word Superiority Effect in central and peripheral vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Katrine; Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The Word Superiority Effect (WSE) is a well-known phenomenon in reading research, where words are reported more accurately than single letters or non-words. We report two experiments that investigate the WSE in the central and peripheral visual field, as well as laterality differences in the perc......The Word Superiority Effect (WSE) is a well-known phenomenon in reading research, where words are reported more accurately than single letters or non-words. We report two experiments that investigate the WSE in the central and peripheral visual field, as well as laterality differences...... in the perception of words and letters, using methods based on the Theory of Visual Attention. The results show a WSE in the central visual field, reflected in mean scores, perception thresholds, and processing speed, whereas the effect is eliminated or reversed in the periphery. This may be caused by crowding......, which prevents lexical analysis of a word in the periphery. We conclude that perception of words and letters differs according to location in the visual field. Linking our results to previous studies of crowding effects in patients with reading impairments, we hypothesize that similar mechanisms may...

  9. Cortical inputs to the middle temporal visual area in New World owl monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerkevich CM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Cerkevich,1 Christine E Collins,2 Jon H Kaas2 1Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition and Systems Neuroscience Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: We made eight retrograde tracer injections into the middle temporal visual area (MT of three New World owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae. These injections were placed across the representation of the retina in MT to allow us to compare the locations of labeled cells in other areas in order to provide evidence for any retinotopic organization in those areas. Four regions projected to MT: 1 early visual areas, including V1, V2, V3, the dorsolateral visual area, and the dorsomedial visual area, provided topographically organized inputs to MT; 2 all areas in the MT complex (the middle temporal crescent, the middle superior temporal area, and the fundal areas of the superior temporal sulcus projected to MT. Somewhat variably across injections, neurons were labeled in other parts of the temporal lobe; 3 regions in the location of the medial visual area, the posterior parietal cortex, and the lateral sulcus provided other inputs to MT; 4 finally, projections from the frontal eye field, frontal visual field, and prefrontal cortex were also labeled by our injections. These results further establish the sources of input to MT, and provide direct evidence within and across cases for retinotopic patterns of projections from early visual areas to MT. Keywords: middle temporal area, visual cortex, parietal cortex

  10. Learning Sentence-internal Temporal Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Lapata, M; 10.1613/jair.2015

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a data intensive approach for inferring sentence-internal temporal relations. Temporal inference is relevant for practical NLP applications which either extract or synthesize temporal information (e.g., summarisation, question answering). Our method bypasses the need for manual coding by exploiting the presence of markers like after", which overtly signal a temporal relation. We first show that models trained on main and subordinate clauses connected with a temporal marker achieve good performance on a pseudo-disambiguation task simulating temporal inference (during testing the temporal marker is treated as unseen and the models must select the right marker from a set of possible candidates). Secondly, we assess whether the proposed approach holds promise for the semi-automatic creation of temporal annotations. Specifically, we use a model trained on noisy and approximate data (i.e., main and subordinate clauses) to predict intra-sentential relations present in TimeBank, a corpus anno...

  11. Sustained attention is associated with right superior longitudinal fasciculus and superior parietal white matter microstructure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarborg, Brith; Skak Madsen, Kathrine; Vestergaard, Martin; Skimminge, Arnold; Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C

    2013-12-01

    Sustained attention develops during childhood and has been linked to the right fronto-parietal cortices in functional imaging studies; however, less is known about its relation to white matter (WM) characteristics. Here we investigated whether the microstructure of the WM underlying and connecting the right fronto-parietal cortices was associated with sustained attention performance in a group of 76 typically developing children aged 7-13 years. Sustained attention was assessed using a rapid visual information processing paradigm. The two behavioral measures of interest were the sensitivity index d' and the coefficient of variation in reaction times (RTCV ). Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was extracted from the WM underlying right dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and parietal cortex (PC), and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), as well as equivalent anatomical regions-of-interest (ROIs) in the left hemisphere and mean global WM FA. When analyzed collectively, right hemisphere ROIs FA was significantly associated with d' independently of age. Follow-up analyses revealed that only FA of right SLF and the superior part of the right PC contributed significantly to this association. RTCV was significantly associated with right superior PC FA, but not with right SLF FA. Observed associations remained significant after controlling for FA of equivalent left hemisphere ROIs or global mean FA. In conclusion, better sustained attention performance was associated with higher FA of WM in regions connecting right frontal and parietal cortices. Further studies are needed to clarify to which extent these associations are driven by maturational processes, stable characteristics and/or experience.

  12. Re-examining “Temporal Niche”

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The circadian system temporally organizes physiology and behavior throughout the 24-h day. At the core of this organization lies a network of multiple circadian oscillators located within the central nervous system as well as in virtually every peripheral organ. These oscillators define a 24-h temporal landscape of mutually interacting circadian rhythms that is known as the temporal niche of a species. This temporal niche is constituted by the collective phases of all biological rhythms emerg...

  13. Constructing catalogue of temporal situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Constructing catalogue of temporal situations The paper is aiming to create a common basis for description, comparing, and analysis natural languages. As a subject of comparison we have chosen temporal structures of some languages. For such a choice there exists a perfect tool, describing basic temporal phenomena, namely an ordering of states and events in time, certainty and uncertainty, independency of histories of separate objects, necessity and possibility. This tool is supported by the Petri nets formalism, which seems to be well suited for expressing the above mentioned phenomena. Petri nets are built form three primitive notions: of states, of events that begin or end the states, and so-called flow relation indicating succession of states and events. This simple constituents give rise to many possibilities of representing temporal phenomena; it turns out that such representations are sufficient for many (clearly, not necessarily all temporal situations appearing in natural languages. In description formalisms used till now there is no possibility of expressing such reality phenomena as temporal dependencies in compound statement, or combination of temporality and modality. Moreover, using these formalisms one cannot distinguish between two different sources of uncertainty of the speaker while describing the reality: one, due to the lack of knowledge of the speaker what is going on in outside world, the second, due to objective impossibility of foreseen ways in which some conflict situations will be (or already have been resolved. Petri net formalism seems to be perfectly suited for such differentiations. There are two main description principles that encompassed this paper. First, that assigns meaning to names of grammatical structures in different languages may lead to misunderstanding. Two grammatical structures with apparently close names may describe different reality. Additionally, some grammatical terms used in one language may be

  14. Temporal Phenomena in the Korean Conjunctive Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongmin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize the temporal phenomena in the Korean conjunctive constructions. These constructions consist of three components: a verbal stem, a clause medial temporal suffix, and a clause terminal suffix. This study focuses on both the temporality of the terminal connective suffixes and the grammatical meanings of the…

  15. Can pelagic forage fish and spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) biomass in the western arm of Lake Superior be assessed with a single summer survey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.; Schreiner, D.R.; Evrard, L.M.; Balge, M.; Hrabik, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    Management efforts to rehabilitate lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior have been successful and the recent increase in their numbers has led to interest in measuring biomass of pelagic prey fish species important to these predators. Lake Superior cisco Coregonus artedi currently support roe fisheries and determining the sustainability of these fisheries is an important management issue. We conducted acoustic and midwater trawl surveys of the western arm of Lake Superior during three periods: summer (July-August), October, and November 2006 to determine if a single survey can be timed to estimate biomass of both prey fish and spawning cisco. We evaluated our methods by comparing observed trawl catches of small (cisco increased substantially in November, while small bloater Coregonus hoyi biomass was lower. We compared our summer 2006 estimates of total fish biomass to the results of a summer survey in 1997 and obtained similar results. We conclude that the temporal window for obtaining biomass estimates of pelagic prey species in the western arm of Lake Superior is wide (July through October), but estimating spawning cisco abundance is best done with a November survey.

  16. The Anatomic Course of the First Jejunal Branch of the Superior Mesenteric Vein in Relation to the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos Papavasiliou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study is to determine the anatomic course of the first jejunal branch of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV in relation to the superior mesenteric artery (SMA. Methods. Three hundred consecutive contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT scans were reviewed by a surgical oncologist with confirmation of findings by a radiologist. Results. The overall incidence of a first jejunal branch coursing anterior to the SMA was 41%. There was no correlation between patient gender and position of the jejunal branch. In addition, there was no correlation between size of the first jejunal branch and its location in relation to the SMA. The IMV drained into the SMV in 27% of the patients. The IMV drained into the SMV-portal vein confluence in 17% of patients and inserted into the splenic vein in 54%. An anterior coursing first jejunal branch statistically correlated with an IMV that drained into the SMV-portal vein confluence (=0.009. Conclusion. The first jejunal branch of the SMV has a highly variable course in relation to the SMA and has a higher incidence of an anterior location in this population than previously reported.

  17. Surgical Results in Unilateral Superior Oblique Muscle Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Tenlik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the surgical treatments and results of the patients with superior oblique muscle palsy (SOMP. Materials and Methods: Clinical charts of the patients with unilateral SOMP who were operated in our clinic between 1999 and 2009 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients’ demographics, preoperative signs, surgical procedure, complications, and final results were recorded. Results: Thirty-seven patients were included in the study, [21 (59% male, 15 (41% female]. The mean age was 20.6 years at the time of operation. The mean time interval between diagnosis and operation was 7.3 years. Postoperative follow-up period was 2.04 (ranging 1-10 years. Diplopia was determined in seven (18.9% patients, and abnormal head position in 36 (97.3% patients. Only inferior oblique tenotomy with distal muscle resection was performed in 25 patients. In addition, five patients had recession of the contralateral inferior rectus muscle and two patients had recession of the ipsilateral superior rectus muscle additional to inferior oblique tenotomy. Abnormal head position was completely improved in all of the patients postoperatively. The preoperative average score of the inferior oblique muscle (IOM overaction was +3.3±0.8, and postoperative overaction was found in only two patients (+1.5. There was statistically significant difference between the two periods (p<0.001. The average score of the superior oblique muscle hypofunction was -2.18 preoperatively, and in only three patients, the score was found -1.0 postoperatively. Difference between the two periods was statistically significant (p<0.001. While the preoperative average vertical deviation was 22 PD in primary position, none of the patients had hyperdeviation postoperatively. Diplopia was resolved in all seven affected patients postoperatively. Contralateral IOM hyperfunction was the most common complication (13.5%. Adherence syndrome was seen in none of the patients. Conclusion: It was found

  18. Quadrilobed superior gluteal artery perforator flap for sacrococcygeal defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI Heng-lin; SHEN Chuan-an; CHAI Jia-ke; LI Hua-tao; YU Yong-ming; LI Da-wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Perforator flaps are used extensively in repairing soft tissue defects.Superior gluteal artery perforatorflaps are used for repairing sacral defects,but the tension required for direct closure of the donor area after harvesting ofrelatively large flaps carries a risk of postoperative dehiscence.This research was to investigate a modified superiorgluteal artery perforator flap for repairing sacrococcygeal soft tissue defects.Methods From June 2003 to April 2010,we used our newly designed superior gluteal artery perforator flap for repair of sacrococcygeal soft tissue defects in 10 patients (study group).The wound and donor areas were measured,and the flaps were designed accordingly.Wound healing was assessed over a follow-up period of 6-38 months.From January 1998 to February 2003,twelve patients with sacrococcygeal pressure sores were treated with traditional methods,VY advancement flaps or oblong flaps,as control group.Results After debridement,the soft tissue defects ranged from 12 cm × 10 cm to 26 cm × 22 cm (mean 16.3 cm x 13.5cm).Four patients were treated using right-sided flaps ranging from 15 cm × 11 cm to 25 cm × 20 cm (mean 18.2 cm × 14cm).Four patients were treated using left-sided flaps,and two were treated using both right-and left-sided flaps.Suction drains were removed on postoperative Days 3-21 (mean 5.9) and sutures were removed on postoperative Days 12-14.Each flap included 1-2 perforators for each of the donor and recipient sites.Donor sites were closed directly.All flaps survived.In eight patients,the wounds healed after single-stage surgery.After further debridement,the wounds of the remaining two patients were considered healed on postoperative Days 26 and 33,respectively.The rate of first intention in the study group (80%,8/10) significantly increased than that of control group ((25%,3/12),X2=4.583,P=-0.032).Follow-up examinations found that the flaps had a soft texture without ulceration.In the two patients without

  19. Tissue preserving total hip arthroplasty using superior capsulotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, N; Del Buono, A; Maffulli, N

    2015-08-01

    The goals of a tissue-preserving minimally invasive approach to the hip are to allow early short-term recovery, achieve hip joint stability, minimize muscle strength loss from surgery, spare the peri-articular soft tissues, and allow unrestricted motion in the long term. Hip arthroplasty in patients with no pre-existing hardware, with a sufficient space between the acetabular rim and greater trochanter; management of subcapital femoral fractures in older patients. Protrusio acetabuli. Joint stiffness. This is the main concern when undertaking the superior capsulotomy. Stiffness may result from bone causes, including ankylosis, large osteophytes, bone bridges etc., extra-articular retraction of surrounding soft tissues with capsular contracture of both ligaments and muscles, or a combination of bony and soft tissues causes, resulting in limited adduction. Indeed, maximal adduction is necessary to increase the distance between the apex of the greater trochanter and the superior acetabular edge. In the approach described in the present article, the real limitation is the impossibility to introduce a straight stem through the trochanteric fossa without weakening the trochantericarea. If adduction is restricted, excessive lateralization of the femoral stem would result in postoperative pain and discomfort, especially as we advocate immediate full weight bearing. Even though patients fare better when the trochanteric area is intact, many types of stem such as the GTS (Biomet), or stem Microplasty (Biomet) or even stem Parva (Adler Ortho) may pressurize the internal bone of the trochanteric structures. Therefore, these stems may be implanted in maximal hip adduction. This is the case in coxa profunda or coxa vara, which require more invasive and destabilizing surgical approaches. Lateral position, 5-8 cm incision from the tip of the greater trochanter, identification and transaction of piriformis tendon. Anterior mobilization of the gluteus minimus and exposure of the

  20. Coastal geology and recent origins for Sand Point, Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Krantz, David E.; Castaneda, Mario R.; Loope, Walter L.; Jol, Harry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Higley, Melinda C.; DeWald, Samantha; Hansen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Sand Point is a small cuspate foreland located along the southeastern shore of Lake Superior within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore near Munising, Michigan. Park managers’ concerns for the integrity of historic buildings at the northern periphery of the point during the rising lake levels in the mid-1980s greatly elevated the priority of research into the geomorphic history and age of Sand Point. To pursue this priority, we recovered sediment cores from four ponds on Sand Point, assessed subsurface stratigraphy onshore and offshore using geophysical techniques, and interpreted the chronology of events using radiocarbon and luminescence dating. Sand Point formed at the southwest edge of a subaqueous platform whose base is probably constructed of glacial diamicton and outwash. During the post-glacial Nipissing Transgression, the base was mantled with sand derived from erosion of adjacent sandstone cliffs. An aerial photograph time sequence, 1939–present, shows that the periphery of the platform has evolved considerably during historical time, infl uenced by transport of sediment into adjacent South Bay. Shallow seismic refl ections suggest slump blocks along the leading edge of the platform. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and shallow seismic refl ections to the northwest of the platform reveal large sand waves within a deep (12 m) channel produced by currents fl owing episodically to the northeast into Lake Superior. Ground-penetrating radar profi les show transport and deposition of sand across the upper surface of the platform. Basal radiocarbon dates from ponds between subaerial beach ridges range in age from 540 to 910 cal yr B.P., suggesting that Sand Point became emergent during the last ~1000 years, upon the separation of Lake Superior from Lakes Huron and Michigan. However, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from the beach ridges were two to three times as old as the radiocarbon ages, implying that emergence of Sand Point may have begun