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Sample records for superior temporal pole

  1. Human middle longitudinal fascicle: Segregation and behavioral-clinical implications of two distinct fiber connections linking temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus with the angular gyrus or superior parietal lobule using multi-tensor tractography

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    Makris, N.; Preti, M.G.; Wassermann, D.; Rathi, Y.; Papadimitriou, G. M.; Yergatian, C.; Dickerson, B. C.; Shenton, M. E.; Kubicki, M.

    2013-01-01

    The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a major fiber connection running principally between the superior temporal gyrus and the parietal lobe, neocortical regions of great biological and clinical interest. Although one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts it has only recently been discovered in humans. In this high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delineated the two major fiber connections of the human MdLF, by examining morphology, topography, cortical connections, biophysical measures, volume and length in seventy-four brains. These two fiber connections course together through the dorsal temporal pole and the superior temporal gyrus maintaining a characteristic topographic relationship in the mediolateral and ventrodorsal dimensions. As these pathways course towards the parietal lobe, they split to form separate fiber pathways, one following a ventrolateral trajectory and connecting with the angular gyrus and the other following a dorsomedial route and connecting with the superior parietal lobule. Based on the functions of their cortical affiliations, we suggest that the superior temporal-angular connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)AG plays a role in language and attention, whereas the superior temporal-superior parietal connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)SPL is involved in visuospatial and integrative audiovisual functions. Furthermore, the MdLF may have clinical implications in neurodegenerative disorders such as primary progressive aphasia, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy, corticobulbar degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease as well as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:23686576

  2. Coding of multisensory temporal patterns in human superior temporal sulcus

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    Toemme eNoesselt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists have long been interested in how the temporal aspects of perception are represented in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of the temporal perception of synchrony/asynchrony for audiovisual speech stimuli using functional magnetic imaging (fMRI. Subjects judged the temporal relation of (asynchronous audiovisual speech streams, and indicated any changes in their perception of the stimuli over time. Differential hemodynamic responses for synchronous versus asynchronous stimuli were observed in the multisensory superior temporal sulcus complex (mSTS-c and prefrontal cortex. Within mSTS-c we found adjacent regions expressing an enhanced BOLD-response to the different physical (asynchrony conditions. These regions were further modulated by the subjects’ perceptual state. By calculating the distances between the modulated regions within mSTS-c in single-subjects we demonstrate that the ‘auditory’ and ‘visual leading areas’ lie closer to ‘synchrony areas’ than to each other. Moreover, analysis of interregional connectivity indicates a stronger functional connection between multisensory prefrontal cortex and mSTS-c during the perception of asynchrony. Taken together, these results therefore suggest the presence of distinct sub-regions within the human STS-c for the maintenance of temporal relations for audiovisual speech stimuli plus differential functional connectivity with prefrontal regions. The respective local activity in mSTS-c is dependent both upon the physical properties of the stimuli presented and upon the subjects’ perception of (asynchrony.

  3. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

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    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories.

  4. Rare sleeve fracture of the superior patella pole in an adult due to forceful passive physiotherapy following cast immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyung-Han; Park, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Myo-Jong; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2014-03-01

    Sleeve fractures are generally restricted to children or adolescents, and usually occur at the lower patella pole. Here we report on a superior pole sleeve fracture in an adult that occurred following forceful passive physiotherapy after cast immobilization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a superior pole sleeve fracture in an otherwise healthy adult. The case highlighted that a diagnosis of a superior patella pole sleeve fracture in an adult can easily be missed because it is a rare injury, and hence is unlikely to be suspected by physicians. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Osteochondrosis of the Superior Pole of the Patella: Two Cases with Histologic Correlation

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    Tyler, Wakenda; McCarthy, Edward F

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of osteochondrosis of the superior pole of the patella are reported with histologic findings. Both patients were young girls; one had mild cerebral palsy. Sixteen cases of this disorder have been documented but without histologic study. The histologic features of these two cases showed osteonecrosis with reparative changes. These findings support that this entity is similar to other osteochondroses of the quadriceps mechanism: Osgood-Schlatter disease and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease. PMID:12180619

  6. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  7. Biological Motion Task Performance Predicts Superior Temporal Sulcus Activity

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    Herrington, John D.; Nymberg, Charlotte; Schultz, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies implicate superior temporal sulcus (STS) in the perception of human movement. More recent theories hold that STS is also involved in the "understanding" of human movement. However, almost no studies to date have associated STS function with observable variability in action understanding. The present study directly associated STS…

  8. Preference for Audiovisual Speech Congruency in Superior Temporal Cortex.

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    Lüttke, Claudia S; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A J; de Lange, Floris P

    2016-01-01

    Auditory speech perception can be altered by concurrent visual information. The superior temporal cortex is an important combining site for this integration process. This area was previously found to be sensitive to audiovisual congruency. However, the direction of this congruency effect (i.e., stronger or weaker activity for congruent compared to incongruent stimulation) has been more equivocal. Here, we used fMRI to look at the neural responses of human participants during the McGurk illusion--in which auditory /aba/ and visual /aga/ inputs are fused to perceived /ada/--in a large homogenous sample of participants who consistently experienced this illusion. This enabled us to compare the neuronal responses during congruent audiovisual stimulation with incongruent audiovisual stimulation leading to the McGurk illusion while avoiding the possible confounding factor of sensory surprise that can occur when McGurk stimuli are only occasionally perceived. We found larger activity for congruent audiovisual stimuli than for incongruent (McGurk) stimuli in bilateral superior temporal cortex, extending into the primary auditory cortex. This finding suggests that superior temporal cortex prefers when auditory and visual input support the same representation.

  9. Smaller superior temporal gyrus volume specificity in schizotypal personality disorder

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    Goldstein, Kim E.; Hazlett, Erin A.; New, Antonia S.; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Newmark, Randall E.; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Passarelli, Vincent; Weinstein, Shauna R.; Canfield, Emily L.; Meyerson, David A.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.; Siever, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22) volume is reduced in schizophrenia and to a milder degree in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), representing a less severe disorder in the schizophrenia-spectrum. SPD and Borderline personality disorder (BPD) are severe personality disorders characterized by social and cognitive dysfunction. However, while SPD is characterized by social withdrawal/anhedonia, BPD is marked by hyper-reactivity to interpersonal stimuli and hyper-emotionality. This is the first morphometric study to directly compare SPD and BPD patients in temporal volume. Methods We compared three age-gender- and education-matched groups: 27 unmedicated SPD individuals with no BPD traits, 52 unmedicated BPD individuals with no SPD traits, and 45 healthy controls. We examined gray matter volume of frontal and temporal lobe Brodmann areas (BAs), and dorsal/ventral amygdala from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Results In the STG, an auditory association area reported to be dysfunctional in SPD and BPD, the SPD patients had significantly smaller volume than healthy controls and BPD patients. No group differences were found between BPD patients and controls. Smaller BA22 volume was associated with greater symptom severity in SPD patients. Reduced STG volume may be an important endophenotype for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. SPD is distinct from BPD in terms of STG volume abnormalities which may reflect different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and could help discriminate between them. PMID:19473820

  10. Accelerated long-term forgetting in temporal lobe epilepsy: evidence of improvement after left temporal pole lobectomy.

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    Gallassi, Roberto; Sambati, Luisa; Poda, Roberto; Stanzani Maserati, Michelangelo; Oppi, Federico; Giulioni, Marco; Tinuper, Paolo

    2011-12-01

    Accelerated long term forgetting (ALF) is a characteristic cognitive aspect in patients affected by temporal lobe epilepsy that is probably due to an impairment of memory consolidation and retrieval caused by epileptic activity in hippocampal and parahippocampal regions. We describe a case of a patient with TLE who showed improvement in ALF and in remote memory impairment after an anterior left temporal pole lobectomy including the uncus and amygdala. Our findings confirm that impairment of hippocampal functioning leads to pathological ALF, whereas restoration of hippocampal functioning brings ALF to a level comparable to that of controls.

  11. Phonetic Feature Encoding in Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

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    Mesgarani, Nima; Cheung, Connie; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    During speech perception, linguistic elements such as consonants and vowels are extracted from a complex acoustic speech signal. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) participates in high-order auditory processing of speech, but how it encodes phonetic information is poorly understood. We used high-density direct cortical surface recordings in humans while they listened to natural, continuous speech to reveal the STG representation of the entire English phonetic inventory. At single electrodes, we found response selectivity to distinct phonetic features. Encoding of acoustic properties was mediated by a distributed population response. Phonetic features could be directly related to tuning for spectrotemporal acoustic cues, some of which were encoded in a nonlinear fashion or by integration of multiple cues. These findings demonstrate the acoustic-phonetic representation of speech in human STG. PMID:24482117

  12. Phonetic feature encoding in human superior temporal gyrus.

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    Mesgarani, Nima; Cheung, Connie; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F

    2014-02-28

    During speech perception, linguistic elements such as consonants and vowels are extracted from a complex acoustic speech signal. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) participates in high-order auditory processing of speech, but how it encodes phonetic information is poorly understood. We used high-density direct cortical surface recordings in humans while they listened to natural, continuous speech to reveal the STG representation of the entire English phonetic inventory. At single electrodes, we found response selectivity to distinct phonetic features. Encoding of acoustic properties was mediated by a distributed population response. Phonetic features could be directly related to tuning for spectrotemporal acoustic cues, some of which were encoded in a nonlinear fashion or by integration of multiple cues. These findings demonstrate the acoustic-phonetic representation of speech in human STG.

  13. [Human interaction, social cognition, and the superior temporal sulcus].

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    Brunelle, Francis; Saitovitch, Anna; Boddaert, Nathalie; Grevent, David; Cambier, Jean; Lelord, Gilbert; Samson, Yves; Zilbovicius, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are social animals. This ability to live together is ensured by cognitive functions, the neuroanatomical bases of which are starting to be unraveled by MRI-based studies. The regions and network engaged in this process are known as the "social brain ". The core of this network is the superior temporal sulcus (STS), which integrates sensory and emotional inputs. Modeling studies of healthy volunteers have shown the role of the STS.in recognizing others as biological beings, as well as facial and eye-gaze recognition, intentionality and emotions. This cognitive capacity has been described as the "theory of mind ". Pathological models such as autism, in which the main clinical abnormality is altered social abilities and communication, have confirmed the role of the STS in the social brain. Conceptualisation of this empathic capacity has been described as "meta cognition ", which forms the basis of human social organizationand culture.

  14. Temporal pole activity during understanding other persons' mental states correlates with neuroticism trait.

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    Jimura, Koji; Konishi, Seiki; Asari, Tomoki; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2010-04-30

    Comprehension of other persons' mental states is one of the representative cognitive functions involved in social situations. It has been suggested that this function sometimes recruits emotional processes. The present fMRI study examined the neural mechanisms associated with understanding others' mental states, and the conditions that determine the recruitment of the emotional processes. The false belief paradigm, a traditional behavioral paradigm to investigate comprehension of others, was applied to an event-related fMRI analysis, allowing for the extraction of brain activity time-locked to successful understanding of others' mental states. Prominent brain activity was observed in multiple cortical regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, temporo-parietal junction, precuneus, and temporal pole. Then, correlational analyses were performed between the activations and individuals' scores of neuroticism, a personality trait that reflects emotional instability in daily life. It was revealed that the neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the activity in the temporal pole region, but not in the other regions. These results suggest that the emotional processes implemented in the temporal pole are recruited during successful understanding of other persons' mental states, and that the recruitment may be modulated by an emotional personality trait of individual subjects.

  15. Temporal pole activity during perception of sad faces, but not happy faces, correlates with neuroticism trait.

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    Jimura, Koji; Konishi, Seiki; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2009-03-27

    It is known that the temporal cortex is involved in perception of emotional facial expressions, and the involvement is relatively independent of the emotional valence of those expressions. The present study revealed a valence-dependent aspect of the temporal cortex through individual differences analyses involving the neuroticism trait, one of the representative affective personality traits. Functional MRI was administered while subjects classified expressions of faces, and neuroticism scores were obtained from individual subjects. Significant brain activity was observed in the temporal pole (TP) during perception of both happy and sad expressions relative to neutral expressions. Correlational analyses revealed that TP activity during perception of sad expressions, but not happy expressions, correlated with the neuroticism scores. These results demonstrate differential roles for the temporal cortex in perception of happy and sad faces, and suggest that TP recruitment during understanding of negative emotions is dependent on the personality of the individuals.

  16. Vowel sound extraction in anterior superior temporal cortex.

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    Obleser, Jonas; Boecker, Henning; Drzezga, Alexander; Haslinger, Bernhard; Hennenlotter, Andreas; Roettinger, Michael; Eulitz, Carsten; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2006-07-01

    We investigated the functional neuroanatomy of vowel processing. We compared attentive auditory perception of natural German vowels to perception of nonspeech band-passed noise stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). More specifically, the mapping in auditory cortex of first and second formants was considered, which spectrally characterize vowels and are linked closely to phonological features. Multiple exemplars of natural German vowels were presented in sequences alternating either mainly along the first formant (e.g., [u]-[o], [i]-[e]) or along the second formant (e.g., [u]-[i], [o]-[e]). In fixed-effects and random-effects analyses, vowel sequences elicited more activation than did nonspeech noise in the anterior superior temporal cortex (aST) bilaterally. Partial segregation of different vowel categories was observed within the activated regions, suggestive of a speech sound mapping across the cortical surface. Our results add to the growing evidence that speech sounds, as one of the behaviorally most relevant classes of auditory objects, are analyzed and categorized in aST. These findings also support the notion of an auditory "what" stream, with highly object-specialized areas anterior to primary auditory cortex. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Morphological study of surgical approach by superior temporal sulcus-temporal horn of lateral ventricle approach using volume rendering.

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    Sun, Wei; Jia, Linpei; Dong, Yidian; Zhao, Hang; Liu, Haoyuan; Yang, Kerong; Li, Youqiong

    2014-03-01

    In this research, we acquired the length of the superior temporal sulcus, the shortest distance from the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, and the approach angle between the median sagittal plane and the shortest segment from the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle measuring 98 specimens by magnetic resonance imaging volume rendering. At the same time, we preliminarily oriented the point of the superior temporal sulcus, which is closest to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, aimed at finding out the best entrance point of surgical approach through the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and reducing the damage to optic radiation as well as other nerve fibers during the operation. The results indicate that the point at the front side 3/5 of the superior temporal sulcus may be the ideal surgical approach entrance point, and there is no difference between 2 cerebral hemispheres (P < 0.05).

  18. Focal temporal pole atrophy and network degeneration in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia.

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    Collins, Jessica A; Montal, Victor; Hochberg, Daisy; Quimby, Megan; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Makris, Nikos; Seeley, William W; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2017-02-01

    A wealth of neuroimaging research has associated semantic variant primary progressive aphasia with distributed cortical atrophy that is most prominent in the left anterior temporal cortex; however, there is little consensus regarding which region within the anterior temporal cortex is most prominently damaged, which may indicate the putative origin of neurodegeneration. In this study, we localized the most prominent and consistent region of atrophy in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia using cortical thickness analysis in two independent patient samples (n = 16 and 28, respectively) relative to age-matched controls (n = 30). Across both samples the point of maximal atrophy was located in the same region of the left temporal pole. This same region was the point of maximal atrophy in 100% of individual patients in both semantic variant primary progressive aphasia samples. Using resting state functional connectivity in healthy young adults (n = 89), we showed that the seed region derived from the semantic variant primary progressive aphasia analysis was strongly connected with a large-scale network that closely resembled the distributed atrophy pattern in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia. In both patient samples, the magnitude of atrophy within a brain region was predicted by that region's strength of functional connectivity to the temporopolar seed region in healthy adults. These findings suggest that cortical atrophy in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia may follow connectional pathways within a large-scale network that converges on the temporal pole. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Superior Temporal Activation as a Function of Linguistic Knowledge: Insights from Deaf Native Signers Who Speechread

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    Capek, Cheryl M.; Woll, Bencie; MacSweeney, Mairead; Waters, Dafydd; McGuire, Philip K.; David, Anthony S.; Brammer, Michael J.; Campbell, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Studies of spoken and signed language processing reliably show involvement of the posterior superior temporal cortex. This region is also reliably activated by observation of meaningless oral and manual actions. In this study we directly compared the extent to which activation in posterior superior temporal cortex is modulated by linguistic…

  20. Diffusion Entropy: A Potential Neuroimaging Biomarker of Bipolar Disorder in the Temporal Pole.

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    Spuhler, Karl; Bartlett, Elizabeth; Ding, Jie; DeLorenzo, Christine; Parsey, Ramin; Huang, Chuan

    2017-09-28

    Despite much research, bipolar depression remains poorly understood, with no clinically useful biomarkers for its diagnosis. The paralimbic system has become a target for biomarker research, with paralimbic structural connectivity commonly reported to distinguish bipolar patients from controls in tractography-based diffusion MRI studies, despite inconsistent findings in voxel-based studies. The purpose of this analysis was to validate existing findings with traditional diffusion MRI metrics and investigate the utility of a novel diffusion MRI metric, entropy of diffusion, in the search for bipolar depression biomarkers. We performed group-level analysis on 9 un-medicated (6 medication-naïve; 3 medication-free for at least 33 days) bipolar patients in a major depressive episode and 9 matched healthy controls to compare: (1) average mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) and; (2) MD and FA histogram entropy-a statistical measure of distribution homogeneity-in the amygdala, hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole. We also conducted classification analyses with leave-one-out and separate testing dataset (N=11) approaches. We did not observe statistically significant differences in average MD or FA between the groups in any region. However, in the temporal pole, we observed significantly lower MD entropy in bipolar patients; this finding suggests a regional difference in MD distributions in the absence of an average difference. This metric allowed us to accurately characterize bipolar patients from controls in leave-one-out (accuracy=83%) and prediction (accuracy=73%) analyses. This novel application of diffusion MRI yielded not only an interesting separation between bipolar patients and healthy controls, but also accurately classified bipolar patients from controls. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Functional Organization of Social Perception and Cognition in the Superior Temporal Sulcus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deen, Ben; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is considered a hub for social perception and cognition, including the perception of faces and human motion, as well as understanding others' actions, mental states, and language...

  2. Person perception involves functional integration between the extrastriate body area and temporal pole.

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    Greven, Inez M; Ramsey, Richard

    2017-02-01

    The majority of human neuroscience research has focussed on understanding functional organisation within segregated patches of cortex. The ventral visual stream has been associated with the detection of physical features such as faces and body parts, whereas the theory-of-mind network has been associated with making inferences about mental states and underlying character, such as whether someone is friendly, selfish, or generous. To date, however, it is largely unknown how such distinct processing components integrate neural signals. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and connectivity analyses, we investigated the contribution of functional integration to social perception. During scanning, participants observed bodies that had previously been associated with trait-based or neutral information. Additionally, we independently localised the body perception and theory-of-mind networks. We demonstrate that when observing someone who cues the recall of stored social knowledge compared to non-social knowledge, a node in the ventral visual stream (extrastriate body area) shows greater coupling with part of the theory-of-mind network (temporal pole). These results show that functional connections provide an interface between perceptual and inferential processing components, thus providing neurobiological evidence that supports the view that understanding the visual environment involves interplay between conceptual knowledge and perceptual processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Reward system and temporal pole contributions to affective evaluation during a first person shooter video game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber René

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violent content in video games evokes many concerns but there is little research concerning its rewarding aspects. It was demonstrated that playing a video game leads to striatal dopamine release. It is unclear, however, which aspects of the game cause this reward system activation and if violent content contributes to it. We combined functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI with individual affect measures to address the neuronal correlates of violence in a video game. Results Thirteen male German volunteers played a first-person shooter game (Tactical Ops: Assault on Terror during fMRI measurement. We defined success as eliminating opponents, and failure as being eliminated themselves. Affect was measured directly before and after game play using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS. Failure and success events evoked increased activity in visual cortex but only failure decreased activity in orbitofrontal cortex and caudate nucleus. A negative correlation between negative affect and responses to failure was evident in the right temporal pole (rTP. Conclusions The deactivation of the caudate nucleus during failure is in accordance with its role in reward-prediction error: it occurred whenever subject missed an expected reward (being eliminated rather than eliminating the opponent. We found no indication that violence events were directly rewarding for the players. We addressed subjective evaluations of affect change due to gameplay to study the reward system. Subjects reporting greater negative affect after playing the game had less rTP activity associated with failure. The rTP may therefore be involved in evaluating the failure events in a social context, to regulate the players' mood.

  4. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

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    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  5. Emotional intelligence moderates the relationship between regional gray matter volume in the bilateral temporal pole and critical thinking disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaonan; Yuan, Shuge; Yang, Wenjing; Chen, Qunlin; Wei, Dongtao; Hou, Yuling; Zhang, Lijie; Qiu, Jiang; Yang, Dong

    2017-03-29

    Critical thinking enables people to form sound beliefs and provides a basis for emotional life. Research has indicated that individuals with better critical thinking disposition can better recognize and regulate their emotions, though the neuroanatomical mechanisms involved in this process remain to be elucidated. Further, the influence of emotional intelligence on the relationship between brain structure and critical thinking disposition has not been examined. The present study utilized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate the neural structures underlying critical thinking disposition in a large sample of college students (N = 296). Regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the bilateral temporal pole, which reflects an individual's ability to process social and emotional information, was negatively correlated with critical thinking disposition. In addition, rGMV in bilateral para hippocampal regions -regions involved in contextual association/emotional regulation-exhibited negative correlation with critical thinking disposition. Further analysis revealed that emotional intelligence moderated the relationship between rGMV of the temporal pole and critical thinking disposition. Specifically, critical thinking disposition was associated with decreased GMV of the temporal pole for individuals who have relatively higher emotional intelligence rather than lower emotional intelligence. The results of the present study indicate that people who have higher emotional intelligence exhibit more effective and automatic processing of emotional information and tend to be strong critical thinkers.

  6. Spectral and temporal auditory processing in the superior colliculus of aged rats.

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    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2017-09-01

    Presbyacusis reflects dysfunctions present along the central auditory pathway. Given that the topographic representation of the auditory directional spatial map is deteriorated in the superior colliculus of aged animals, therefore, are spectral and temporal auditory processes altered with aging in the rat's superior colliculus? Extracellular single-unit recordings were conducted in the superior colliculus of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats. In the spectral domain, level thresholds in aged rats were significantly increased when superior colliculus auditory neurons were stimulated with pure tones or Gaussian noise bursts. The sharpness of the frequency response tuning curve at 10 dB SPL above threshold was also significantly broader among the aged rats. Furthermore, in the temporal domain, the minimal silent gap thresholds to Gaussian noises were significantly longer in aged rats. Hence, these results highlight that spectral and temporal auditory processing in the superior colliculus are impaired during aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Superior Temporal Activation in Response to Dynamic Audio-Visual Emotional Cues

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    Robins, Diana L.; Hunyadi, Elinora; Schultz, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Perception of emotion is critical for successful social interaction, yet the neural mechanisms underlying the perception of dynamic, audio-visual emotional cues are poorly understood. Evidence from language and sensory paradigms suggests that the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STS/STG) play a key role in the integration of auditory and visual…

  8. Increased Activation in Superior Temporal Gyri as a Function of Increment in Phonetic Features

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    Osnes, Berge; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hjelmervik, Helene; Specht, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    A common assumption is that phonetic sounds initiate unique processing in the superior temporal gyri and sulci (STG/STS). The anatomical areas subserving these processes are also implicated in the processing of non-phonetic stimuli such as music instrument sounds. The differential processing of phonetic and non-phonetic sounds was investigated in…

  9. Increased Activation in Superior Temporal Gyri as a Function of Increment in Phonetic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnes, Berge; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hjelmervik, Helene; Specht, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    A common assumption is that phonetic sounds initiate unique processing in the superior temporal gyri and sulci (STG/STS). The anatomical areas subserving these processes are also implicated in the processing of non-phonetic stimuli such as music instrument sounds. The differential processing of phonetic and non-phonetic sounds was investigated in…

  10. Superior temporal gyrus volume reduction and P300 in schizophrenia prior to treatment

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    Hirayasu, Akira; Hokama, Hiroto; Ogura, Chikara; Ohta, Hirokazu; Arakaki, Hajime; Asato, Naohiko; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro [Ryukyus Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1998-07-01

    Authors measured the superior temporal gyrus volume by 3D MRI imaging for the schizophrenics and simultaneously recorded the P300 component during the auditory odd-ball exercise. Subjects were 8 cases of schizophrenics and the sex- and age-matched healthy control adults. In schizophrenics, the superior temporal gyrus volume reduction was found. When the superior temporal gyrus was divided into two parts, the anterior part containing the primary auditory area, and the posterior part containing the planum temporale and the Wernicle speech area, the volume reduction of left side in the posterior part was remarkable. There was no difference in the latent time and the P300 amplitude between schizophrenics and healthy controls, suggesting that the superior temporal gyrus abnormalities will appear prior to P300 abnormalities. We could not find any correlation between findings of MRI and P300 and psychic symptoms. We discuss the possible contribution on the elucidation of the pathogenesis of the schizophrenia by simultaneous recordings of 3D MRI imaging and the event-related potentials. (K.H.)

  11. [Towards an integrated approach to infantile autism: the superior temporal lobe between neurosciences and psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golse, Bernard; Robel, Laurence

    2009-02-01

    The superior temporal lobe is currently at the focus of intensive research in infantile autism, a psychopathologic disorder apparently representing the severest failure of access to intersubjectivity, i.e. the ability to accept that others exist independently of oneself. Access to intersubjectivity seems to involve the superior temporal lobe, which is the seat of several relevant functions such as face and voice recognition and perception of others' movements, and coordinates the different sensory inputs that identify an object as being "external". The psychoanalytic approach to infantile autism and recent cognitive data are now converging, and intersubjectivity is considered to result from "mantling" or comodalization of sensory inputs from external objects. Recent brain neuroimaging studies point to anatomic and functional abnormalities of the superior temporal lobe in autistic children. Dialogue is therefore possible between these different disciplines, opening the way to an integrated view of infantile autism in which the superior temporal lobe holds a central place--not necessarily as a primary cause of autism but rather as an intermediary or a reflection of autistic functioning

  12. Right anterior superior temporal activation predicts auditory sentence comprehension following aphasic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that recovery of speech comprehension after left hemisphere infarction may depend on a mechanism in the right hemisphere. However, the role that distinct right hemisphere regions play in speech comprehension following left hemisphere stroke has not been established. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate narrative speech activation in 18 neurologically normal subjects and 17 patients with left hemisphere stroke and a history of aphasia. Activation for listening to meaningful stories relative to meaningless reversed speech was identified in the normal subjects and in each patient. Second level analyses were then used to investigate how story activation changed with the patients' auditory sentence comprehension skills and surprise story recognition memory tests post-scanning. Irrespective of lesion site, performance on tests of auditory sentence comprehension was positively correlated with activation in the right lateral superior temporal region, anterior to primary auditory cortex. In addition, when the stroke spared the left temporal cortex, good performance on tests of auditory sentence comprehension was also correlated with the left posterior superior temporal cortex (Wernicke's area). In distinct contrast to this, good story recognition memory predicted left inferior frontal and right cerebellar activation. The implication of this double dissociation in the effects of auditory sentence comprehension and story recognition memory is that left frontal and left temporal activations are dissociable. Our findings strongly support the role of the right temporal lobe in processing narrative speech and, in particular, auditory sentence comprehension following left hemisphere aphasic stroke. In addition, they highlight the importance of the right anterior superior temporal cortex where the response was dissociated from that in the left posterior temporal lobe.

  13. Superior Temporal Activity for the Retrieval Process of Auditory-Word Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimune Kambara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that learning multisensory associations involves the superior temporal regions (Tanabe et al, 2005. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the retrieval of multi-sensory associations were unclear. This functional MRI (fMRI study investigated brain activations during the retrieval of multi-sensory associations. Eighteen right-handed college-aged Japanese participants learned associations between meaningless pictures and words (Vw, meaningless sounds and words (Aw, and meaningless sounds and visual words (W. During fMRI scanning, participants were presented with old and new words and were required to judge whether the words were included in the conditions of Vw, Aw, W or New. We found that the left superior temporal region showed greater activity during the retrieval of words learned in Aw than in Vw, whereas no region showed greater activity for the Vw condition versus the Aw condition (k > 10, p < .001, uncorrected. Taken together, the left superior temporal region could play an essential role in the retrieval process of auditory-word associations.

  14. Aberrant Functional Connectivity between the Amygdala and the Temporal Pole in Drug-Free Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cui, Huiru; Zhu, Zhipei; Kong, Li; Guo, Qian; Zhu, Yikang; Hu, Qiang; Zhang, Lanlan; Li, Hui; Li, Qingwei; Jiang, Jiangling; Meyers, Jordan; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Jijun; Yang, Zhi; Li, Chunbo

    2016-01-01

    The amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) play important roles in "emotion dysregulation," which has a profound impact on etiologic research of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The present study analyzed both eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) of 43 subjects (21 GAD patients with medicine free and 22 matched healthy controls). The amygdala and the DLPFC were defined as regions of interest (ROI) to analyze functional connectivity (FC) in GAD patients compared with healthy controls. The main findings revealed GAD patients had increased FC between the amygdala and the temporal pole compared to healthy controls, which was found in both eyes-open and eyes-closed rs-fMRI. And altered FC between the ROIs and brain regions that mainly belonged to the default mode network (DMN) were found. These findings suggest that the abnormal FC between the amygdala and the temporal pole may contribute to the pathophysiology of GAD, and provide insights into the current understanding of the emotion dysregulation of anxiety disorders.

  15. Aberrant functional connectivity between the amygdala and the temporal pole in drug-free generalized anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC play important roles in emotion dysregulation, which has a profound impact on etiologic research of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD. The present study analyzed both eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI of 43 subjects (21 GAD patients with medicine free and 22 matched healthy controls. The amygdala and the DLPFC were defined as regions of interest (ROI to analyze functional connectivity (FC in GAD patients compared with healthy controls. The main findings revealed GAD patients had increased FC between the amygdala and the temporal pole compared to healthy controls, which was found in both eyes-open and eyes-closed rs-fMRI. And altered FC between the ROIs and brain regions that mainly belonged to the default mode network (DMN were found. These findings suggest that the abnormal FC between the amygdala and the temporal pole may contribute to the pathophysiology of GAD, and provide insights into the current understanding of the emotion dysregulation of anxiety disorders.

  16. Right superior temporal gyrus volume in adolescents with a history of suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lisa A; Ramos, Lisa; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Brent, David A; Phillips, Mary L

    2015-04-01

    The extent to which observed differences in emotion processing and regulation neural circuitry in adolescents with a history of suicide attempt are paralleled by structural differences is unknown. We measured brain cortical thickness and grey- and white-matter volumes in 100 adolescents: 28 with a history of suicide attempt and major depressive disorder (MDD); 31 with a history of MDD but no suicide attempt; and a healthy control group (n = 41). The first group compared with controls showed reduction in grey-matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus (BA38), a region important for social emotion processing. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  17. New human-specific brain landmark: the depth asymmetry of superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, François; Cai, Qing; Bogart, Stephanie L; Dubois, Jessica; Coulon, Olivier; Monzalvo, Karla; Fischer, Clara; Glasel, Hervé; Van der Haegen, Lise; Bénézit, Audrey; Lin, Ching-Po; Kennedy, David N; Ihara, Aya S; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Poupon, Cyril; Brysbaert, Marc; Roberts, Neil; Hopkins, William D; Mangin, Jean-François; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2015-01-27

    Identifying potentially unique features of the human cerebral cortex is a first step to understanding how evolution has shaped the brain in our species. By analyzing MR images obtained from 177 humans and 73 chimpanzees, we observed a human-specific asymmetry in the superior temporal sulcus at the heart of the communication regions and which we have named the "superior temporal asymmetrical pit" (STAP). This 45-mm-long segment ventral to Heschl's gyrus is deeper in the right hemisphere than in the left in 95% of typical human subjects, from infanthood till adulthood, and is present, irrespective of handedness, language lateralization, and sex although it is greater in males than in females. The STAP also is seen in several groups of atypical subjects including persons with situs inversus, autistic spectrum disorder, Turner syndrome, and corpus callosum agenesis. It is explained in part by the larger number of sulcal interruptions in the left than in the right hemisphere. Its early presence in the infants of this study as well as in fetuses and premature infants suggests a strong genetic influence. Because this asymmetry is barely visible in chimpanzees, we recommend the STAP region during midgestation as an important phenotype to investigate asymmetrical variations of gene expression among the primate lineage. This genetic target may provide important insights regarding the evolution of the crucial cognitive abilities sustained by this sulcus in our species, namely communication and social cognition.

  18. Timescales of sensory- and decision-related activity in the middle temporal and medial superior temporal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Nicholas S C; Born, Richard T

    2010-10-20

    The contribution of sensory neurons to perceptual decisions about external stimulus events has received much attention, but it is less clear how sensory responses are integrated over time to produce decisions that are both rapid and reliable. To address this issue, we recorded from middle temporal area and medial superior temporal area neurons in rhesus macaques performing a task requiring the detection and discrimination of unpredictable speed changes. We examined how neuronal activity encoded the sign of the speed change and predicted the animals' behavioral judgments and reaction times, with a focus on the timescales over which neuronal activity is informative. False detection trials, on which animals reported a speed change even though none had occurred, were grouped according to the animals' discrimination judgment. By comparing the neuronal responses between the two groups of false detection trials, we were able to predict the animals' choices from the sensory activity of single neurons at levels significantly better than chance. These choice probability measurements were strongest using spike counts in an 80 ms window ending 150 ms before a choice saccade began, but significant choice probabilities were observed in windows as short as 10 ms. While the maximum deviation in spiking rate following a speed change is evident in the transient response, averaging neuronal activity in longer time windows can be more informative about both the stimulus and the animals' behavioral judgments. Thus the timescales found in this study represent a trade-off between producing rapid reactions and overcoming the noise inherent in short time windows.

  19. Differential roles for left inferior frontal and superior temporal cortex in multimodal integration of action and language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.M.; Özyürek, A.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies indicate that both posterior superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus (pSTS/MTG) and left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) are involved in integrating information from different modalities. Here we investigated the respective roles of these two areas in integration of action and l

  20. Vowel-specific mismatch responses in the anterior superior temporal gyrus: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Alexander P; Iverson, Paul; Schofield, Thomas M; Kilner, James M; Crinion, Jennifer T; Friston, Karl J; Price, Cathy J

    2009-04-01

    There have been many functional imaging studies that have investigated the neural correlates of speech perception by contrasting neural responses to speech and "speech-like" but unintelligible control stimuli. A potential drawback of this approach is that intelligibility is necessarily conflated with a change in the acoustic parameters of the stimuli. The approach we have adopted is to take advantage of the mismatch response elicited by an oddball paradigm to probe neural responses in temporal lobe structures to a parametrically varied set of deviants in order to identify brain regions involved in vowel processing. Thirteen normal subjects were scanned using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm while they listened to continuous trains of auditory stimuli. Three classes of stimuli were used: 'vowel deviants' and two classes of control stimuli: one acoustically similar ('single formants') and the other distant (tones). The acoustic differences between the standard and deviants in both the vowel and single-formant classes were designed to match each other closely. The results revealed an effect of vowel deviance in the left anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). This was most significant when comparing all vowel deviants to standards, irrespective of their psychoacoustic or physical deviance. We also identified a correlation between perceptual discrimination and deviant-related activity in the dominant superior temporal sulcus (STS), although this effect was not stimulus specific. The responses to vowel deviants were in brain regions implicated in the processing of intelligible or meaningful speech, part of the so-called auditory "what" processing stream. Neural components of this pathway would be expected to respond to sudden, perhaps unexpected changes in speech signal that result in a change to narrative meaning.

  1. Lipoestructura y relleno del polo superior de la mama frente a implantes Structural fat graft and lipofilling of mammary upper pole versus mammary implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Cervilla Lozano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La lipoestructura mamaria ofrece nuevas alternativas de tratamiento en la cirugía estética de aumento mamario, cumpliendo en algunos casos las expectativas esperadas y en otros no. Analizamos este hecho en 4 tipos de aplicación de lipoestructura mamaria que hemos venido realizando en los últimos años, centrándonos en un aspecto importante de esta cirugía que es el relleno del polo superior de la mama. Los tipos de aplicación empleados son: aumento mamario simple mediante lipoestructura en comparación con implantes; pexia más lipoestructura frente a pexia más implantes mamarios; reconstrucción de mama tuberosa mediante lipoestructura o implantes y finalmente, relleno periprotésico mediante lipoestructura en mamas sometidas a cirugía de aumento mamario con implantes. En definitiva, podríamos resumir este trabajo en una frase diciendo que la lipoestructura mamaria, a nuestro juicio, no sirve si lo que prima es conseguir el relleno del polo superior de la mama, siendo en este caso de elección la colocación de implantes mamarios. No obstante, en alguno de los casos señalados no solo es una alternativa, sino que obtiene resultados superiores a los logrados sólamente con implantes.The mammary structural fat graft offers news treatment options in breast augmentation cosmetic surgery, but it sometimes meets expectations and sometimes doesn´t. We analyze 4 different types of lipostructure mammary applications that we have been using in the last years, focused in an important aspect of this surgery as it´s the filling of the upper mammary pole. These applications are: mammary augmentation by simple structural fat compared with the use of mammary implants; structural fat graft and mastopexy versus implants and mastopexy; tuberous breast reconstruction using structural fat graft or implants and finally, periprosthetic filling in breast augmentation with mammary implants using structural fat graft. In short, we could summarize this paper

  2. Spectral organization of the human lateral superior temporal gyrus revealed by intracranial recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourski, Kirill V; Steinschneider, Mitchell; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Jones, Robert D; Howard, Matthew A

    2014-02-01

    The place of the posterolateral superior temporal (PLST) gyrus within the hierarchical organization of the human auditory cortex is unknown. Understanding how PLST processes spectral information is imperative for its functional characterization. Pure-tone stimuli were presented to subjects undergoing invasive monitoring for refractory epilepsy. Recordings were made using high-density subdural grid electrodes. Pure tones elicited robust high gamma event-related band power responses along a portion of PLST adjacent to the transverse temporal sulcus (TTS). Responses were frequency selective, though typically broadly tuned. In several subjects, mirror-image response patterns around a low-frequency center were observed, but typically, more complex and distributed patterns were seen. Frequency selectivity was greatest early in the response. Classification analysis using a sparse logistic regression algorithm yielded above-chance accuracy in all subjects. Classifier performance typically peaked at 100-150 ms after stimulus onset, was comparable for the left and right hemisphere cases, and was stable across stimulus intensities. Results demonstrate that representations of spectral information within PLST are temporally dynamic and contain sufficient information for accurate discrimination of tone frequencies. PLST adjacent to the TTS appears to be an early stage in the hierarchy of cortical auditory processing. Pure-tone response patterns may aid auditory field identification.

  3. Posterior superior temporal sulcus responses predict perceived pleasantness of skin stroking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Davidovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Love and affection is expressed through a range of physically intimate gestures, including caresses. Recent studies suggest that posterior temporal lobe areas typically associated with visual processing of social cues also respond to interpersonal touch. Here, we asked whether these areas are selective to caress-like skin stroking. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from 23 healthy participants and compared brain responses to skin stroking and vibration. We did not find any significant differences between stroking and vibration in the posterior temporal lobe; however, right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS responses predicted healthy participant's perceived pleasantness of skin stroking, but not vibration. These findings link right pSTS responses to individual variability in perceived pleasantness of caress-like tactile stimuli. We speculate that the right pSTS may play a role in the translation of tactile stimuli into positively valenced, socially relevant interpersonal touch and that this system may be affected in disorders associated with impaired attachment.

  4. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Said

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  5. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Moore, Christopher D; Norman, Kenneth A; Haxby, James V; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  6. Mapping auditory core, lateral belt, and parabelt cortices in the human superior temporal gyrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweet, Robert A; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Lewis, David A

    2005-01-01

    the location of the lateral belt and parabelt with respect to gross anatomical landmarks. Architectonic criteria for the core, lateral belt, and parabelt were readily adapted from monkey to human. Additionally, we found evidence for an architectonic subdivision within the parabelt, present in both species......The goal of the present study was to determine whether the architectonic criteria used to identify the core, lateral belt, and parabelt auditory cortices in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) could be used to identify homologous regions in humans (Homo sapiens). Current evidence indicates...... that auditory cortex in humans, as in monkeys, is located on the superior temporal gyrus (STG), and is functionally and structurally altered in illnesses such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used serial sets of adjacent sections processed for Nissl substance, acetylcholinesterase...

  7. Pure word deafness with auditory object agnosia after bilateral lesion of the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Riedel, Bernhard; Bartsch, Andreas; Brandt, Tobias; Vogt-Schaden, Marlies

    2015-12-01

    Based on results from functional imaging, cortex along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to subserve phoneme and pre-lexical speech perception. For vowel classification, both superior temporal plane (STP) and STS areas have been suggested relevant. Lesion of bilateral STS may conversely be expected to cause pure word deafness and possibly also impaired vowel classification. Here we studied a patient with bilateral STS lesions caused by ischemic strokes and relatively intact medial STPs to characterize the behavioral consequences of STS loss. The patient showed severe deficits in auditory speech perception, whereas his speech production was fluent and communication by written speech was grossly intact. Auditory-evoked fields in the STP were within normal limits on both sides, suggesting that major parts of the auditory cortex were functionally intact. Further studies showed that the patient had normal hearing thresholds and only mild disability in tests for telencephalic hearing disorder. Prominent deficits were discovered in an auditory-object classification task, where the patient performed four standard deviations below the control group. In marked contrast, performance in a vowel-classification task was intact. Auditory evoked fields showed enhanced responses for vowels compared to matched non-vowels within normal limits. Our results are consistent with the notion that cortex along STS is important for auditory speech perception, although it does not appear to be entirely speech specific. Formant analysis and single vowel classification, however, appear to be already implemented in auditory cortex on the STP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Christoph D; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual representations in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) benefit from acoustic information. To this end, we recorded neural responses in alert monkeys passively watching audio-visual scenes, and quantified the impact of simultaneously presented sounds on responses elicited by the presentation of naturalistic visual scenes. Using methods of stimulus decoding and information theory, we then asked whether the responses of STS neurons become more reliable and informative in multisensory contexts. Our results demonstrate that STS neurons are indeed sensitive to the modality composition of the sensory stimulus. Importantly, information provided by STS neurons' responses about the particular visual stimulus being presented was highest during congruent audio-visual and unimodal visual stimulation, but was reduced during incongruent bimodal stimulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that higher visual representations in the STS not only convey information about the visual input but also depend on the acoustic context of a visual scene.

  9. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Dahl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual representations in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS benefit from acoustic information. To this end, we recorded neural responses in alert monkeys passively watching audio-visual scenes, and quantified the impact of simultaneously presented sounds on responses elicited by the presentation of naturalistic visual scenes. Using methods of stimulus decoding and information theory, we then asked whether the responses of STS neurons become more reliable and informative in multisensory contexts. Our results demonstrate that STS neurons are indeed sensitive to the modality composition of the sensory stimulus. Importantly, information provided by STS neurons’ responses about the particular visual stimulus being presented was highest during congruent audio-visual and unimodal visual stimulation, but was reduced during incongruent bimodal stimulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that higher visual representations in the STS not only convey information about the visual input but also depend on the acoustic context of a visual scene.

  10. Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine eFoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The auditory cortex is well known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of 8 patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70-150 Hz frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75-200ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity towards dissonance.

  11. The Elusive Role of the Left Temporal Pole (BA38 in Language: A Preliminary Meta-Analytic Connectivity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ardila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the left temporal pole (Brodmann area 38 (BA38 participates in diverse language functions, including semantic processing, speech comprehension, and naming. Utilizing the activation likelihood estimation (ALE, a meta-analytic connectivity study was conducted to further our understanding on the role of BA38 in language. Departing from the BrainMap functional database, 11 papers corresponding to 12 paradigms including 201 participants were selected. Initially, P<0.01 was employed as the significance level, resulting in the presence of four different activation clusters. However, when the significance level was lowered to P<0.05, sixteen activation clusters appeared, including classical language areas such as Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. It was concluded that (1 this meta-analytic connectivity study suggests the presence of two major connection circuits involving BA38; one is related to language, while the other may be involved in visuospatial and integrative audiovisual functions. Furthermore, (2 BA38 also contributes to various brain networks supporting linguistic processes related not only to language comprehension but also to language production.

  12. Mouth and Voice: A Relationship between Visual and Auditory Preference in the Human Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin L; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2017-03-08

    Cortex in and around the human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is known to be critical for speech perception. The pSTS responds to both the visual modality (especially biological motion) and the auditory modality (especially human voices). Using fMRI in single subjects with no spatial smoothing, we show that visual and auditory selectivity are linked. Regions of the pSTS were identified that preferred visually presented moving mouths (presented in isolation or as part of a whole face) or moving eyes. Mouth-preferring regions responded strongly to voices and showed a significant preference for vocal compared with nonvocal sounds. In contrast, eye-preferring regions did not respond to either vocal or nonvocal sounds. The converse was also true: regions of the pSTS that showed a significant response to speech or preferred vocal to nonvocal sounds responded more strongly to visually presented mouths than eyes. These findings can be explained by environmental statistics. In natural environments, humans see visual mouth movements at the same time as they hear voices, while there is no auditory accompaniment to visual eye movements. The strength of a voxel's preference for visual mouth movements was strongly correlated with the magnitude of its auditory speech response and its preference for vocal sounds, suggesting that visual and auditory speech features are coded together in small populations of neurons within the pSTS.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans interacting face to face make use of auditory cues from the talker's voice and visual cues from the talker's mouth to understand speech. The human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a brain region known to be important for speech perception, is complex, with some regions responding to specific visual stimuli and others to specific auditory stimuli. Using BOLD fMRI, we show that the natural statistics of human speech, in which voices co-occur with mouth movements, are reflected in the neural architecture of

  13. Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Francine; King-Stephens, David; Weber, Peter; Laxer, Kenneth; Parvizi, Josef; Knight, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    The auditory cortex is well-known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of eight patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70-150 Hz) frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75 and 200 ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords, and a positive correlation between changes in γhigh power and the degree of stimulus roughness was observed in both hemispheres. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity toward dissonance.

  14. The impact of vascular factors on language localization in the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M

    2014-08-01

    The left superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been shown in numerous functional imaging studies to be a critical region for language processing, as it is reliably activated when language comprehension is compared with acoustically matched control conditions. Studies in non-human primates have demonstrated several subdivisions in the STS, yet the precise region(s) within the STS that are important for language remain unclear, in large part because the presence of draining veins in the sulcus makes it difficult to determine whether neural activity is localized to the dorsal or ventral bank of the sulcus. We used functional MRI to localize language regions, and then acquired several additional sequences in order to account for the impact of vascular factors. A breath-holding task was used to induce hypercapnia in order to normalize voxel-wise differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responsivity, and veins were identified on susceptibility-weighted and T2*-weighted BOLD images, and masked out. We found that the precise locations of language areas in individual participants were strongly influenced by vascular factors, but that these vascular effects could be ameliorated by hypercapnic normalization and vein masking. After these corrections were applied, the majority of regions activated by language processing were localized to the dorsal bank of the STS.

  15. Representation of Glossy Material Surface in Ventral Superior Temporal Sulcal Area of Common Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Naohisa; Banno, Taku; Abe, Hiroshi; Tani, Toshiki; Suzuki, Wataru; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2017-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array. Out of 143 visually responsive multiunits recorded from four animals, 29% had significant main effect only of the material, 3% only of the shape and 43% of both the material and the shape. Furthermore, we found neuronal cluster(s), in which most cells: (1) showed a significant main effect in material appearance; (2) the best stimulus was a glossy material (glass or metal); and (3) had reduced response to the pixel-shuffled version of the glossy material images. The location of the gloss-selective area was in agreement with previous macaque studies, showing activation in the ventral bank of STS. Our results suggest that perception of gloss is an important ability preserved across wide range of primate species.

  16. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform–amygdalar effective connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H.; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-01-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform–amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. PMID:24298171

  17. Functional Organization of Social Perception and Cognition in the Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Ben; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is considered a hub for social perception and cognition, including the perception of faces and human motion, as well as understanding others' actions, mental states, and language. However, the functional organization of the STS remains debated: Is this broad region composed of multiple functionally distinct modules, each specialized for a different process, or are STS subregions multifunctional, contributing to multiple processes? Is the STS spatially organized, and if so, what are the dominant features of this organization? We address these questions by measuring STS responses to a range of social and linguistic stimuli in the same set of human participants, using fMRI. We find a number of STS subregions that respond selectively to certain types of social input, organized along a posterior-to-anterior axis. We also identify regions of overlapping response to multiple contrasts, including regions responsive to both language and theory of mind, faces and voices, and faces and biological motion. Thus, the human STS contains both relatively domain-specific areas, and regions that respond to multiple types of social information. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in impaired social perception in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Eun; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Hyeongrae; Shin, Young Seok; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-04-03

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by impairments in diverse thinking and emotional responses, which are related to social perception dysfunction. This fMRI study was designed to investigate a neurobiological basis of social perception deficits of patients with schizophrenia in various social situations of daily life and their relationship with clinical symptoms and social dysfunction. Seventeen patients and 19 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, during which participants performed a virtual social perception task, containing an avatar's speech with positive, negative or neutral emotion in a virtual reality space. Participants were asked to determine whether or not the avatar's speech was appropriate to each situation. The significant group×appropriateness interaction was seen in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), resulting from lower activity in patients in the inappropriate condition, and left DLPFC activity was negatively correlated with the severity of negative symptoms and positively correlated with the level of social functioning. The significant appropriateness×emotion interaction observed in the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) was present in controls, but absent in patients, resulting from the existence and absence of a difference between the inappropriate positive and negative conditions, respectively. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the DLPFC-STS network may underlie patients' abnormal social perception in various social situations of daily life. Abnormal functioning of this network may contribute to increases of negative symptoms and decreases of social functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform-amygdalar effective connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrs, Corinna; Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-11-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform-amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala.

  20. Representation of Glossy Material Surface in Ventral Superior Temporal Sulcal Area of Common Marmosets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Naohisa; Banno, Taku; Abe, Hiroshi; Tani, Toshiki; Suzuki, Wataru; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2017-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array. Out of 143 visually responsive multiunits recorded from four animals, 29% had significant main effect only of the material, 3% only of the shape and 43% of both the material and the shape. Furthermore, we found neuronal cluster(s), in which most cells: (1) showed a significant main effect in material appearance; (2) the best stimulus was a glossy material (glass or metal); and (3) had reduced response to the pixel-shuffled version of the glossy material images. The location of the gloss-selective area was in agreement with previous macaque studies, showing activation in the ventral bank of STS. Our results suggest that perception of gloss is an important ability preserved across wide range of primate species. PMID:28367117

  1. Deciphering phonemes from syllables in blood oxygenation level-dependent signals in human superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingtian; Hu, Xiaolin; Luo, Huan; Li, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Linguistic units such as phonemes and syllables are important for speech perception. How the brain encodes these units is not well understood. Many neuroimaging studies have found distinct representations of consonant-vowel syllables that shared one phoneme and differed in the other phoneme (e.g. /ba/ and /da/), but it is unclear whether this discrimination ability is due to the neural coding of phonemes or syllables. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivariate pattern analysis to explore this question. Subjects listened to nine Mandarin syllables in a consonant-vowel form. We successfully decoded phonemes from the syllables based on the blood oxygenation level-dependent signals in the superior temporal gyrus (STG). Specifically, a classifier trained on the cortical patterns elicited by a set of syllables, which contained two phonemes, could distinguish the cortical patterns elicited by other syllables that contained the two phonemes. The results indicated that phonemes have unique representations in the STG. In addition, there was a categorical effect, i.e. the cortical patterns of consonants were similar, and so were the cortical patterns of vowels. Further analysis showed that phonemes exhibited stronger encoding specificity in the mid-STG than in the anterior STG.

  2. Mental representations of vowel features asymmetrically modulate activity in superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Domahs, Ulrike; Klein, Elise; Domahs, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Research in auditory neuroscience illustrated the importance of superior temporal sulcus (STS) for speech sound processing. However, evidence for abstract processing beyond the level of phonetics in STS has remained elusive. In this study, we follow an underspecification approach according to which the phonological representation of vowels is based on the presence vs. absence of abstract features. We hypothesized that phonological mismatch in a same/different task is governed by underspecification: A less specified vowel in second position of same/different minimal pairs (e.g. [e]) compared to its more specified counterpart in first position (e.g. [o]) should result in stronger activation in STS than in the reverse presentation. Whole-brain analyses confirmed this hypothesis in a bilateral cluster in STS. However, this effect interacted with the feature-distance between first and second vowel and was most pronounced for a minimal, one-feature distance, evidencing the benefit of phonological information for processing acoustically minimal sound differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Paradoxical vocal changes in a trained singer by focally cooling the right superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlowitz, Kalman A; Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W; Long, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    The production and perception of music is preferentially mediated by cortical areas within the right hemisphere, but little is known about how these brain regions individually contribute to this process. In an experienced singer undergoing awake craniotomy, we demonstrated that direct electrical stimulation to a portion of the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) selectively interrupted singing but not speaking. We then focally cooled this region to modulate its activity during vocalization. In contrast to similar manipulations in left hemisphere speech production regions, pSTG cooling did not elicit any changes in vocal timing or quality. However, this manipulation led to an increase in the pitch of speaking with no such change in singing. Further analysis revealed that all vocalizations exhibited a cooling-induced increase in the frequency of the first formant, raising the possibility that potential pitch offsets may have been actively avoided during singing. Our results suggest that the right pSTG plays a key role in vocal sensorimotor processing whose impact is dependent on the type of vocalization produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Positive symptoms associate with cortical thinning in the superior temporal gyrus via the ENIGMA Schizophrenia consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, E; Hibar, D P; van Erp, T G M; Potkin, S G; Roiz-Santiañez, R; Crespo-Facorro, B; Suarez-Pinilla, P; Van Haren, N E M; de Zwarte, S M C; Kahn, R S; Cahn, W; Doan, N T; Jørgensen, K N; Gurholt, T P; Agartz, I; Andreassen, O A; Westlye, L T; Melle, I; Berg, A O; Mørch-Johnsen, L; Faerden, A; Flyckt, L; Fatouros-Bergman, H; Jönsson, E G; Hashimoto, R; Yamamori, H; Fukunaga, M; Preda, A; De Rossi, P; Piras, F; Banaj, N; Ciullo, V; Spalletta, G; Gur, R E; Gur, R C; Wolf, D H; Satterthwaite, T D; Beard, L M; Sommer, I E; Koops, S; Gruber, O; Richter, A; Krämer, B; Kelly, S; Donohoe, G; McDonald, C; Cannon, D M; Corvin, A; Gill, M; Di Giorgio, A; Bertolino, A; Lawrie, S; Nickson, T; Whalley, H C; Neilson, E; Calhoun, V D; Thompson, P M; Turner, J A; Ehrlich, S

    2017-05-01

    Based on the role of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in auditory processing, language comprehension and self-monitoring, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between STG cortical thickness and positive symptom severity in schizophrenia. This prospective meta-analysis includes data from 1987 individuals with schizophrenia collected at seventeen centres around the world that contribute to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. STG thickness measures were extracted from T1-weighted brain scans using FreeSurfer. The study performed a meta-analysis of effect sizes across sites generated by a model predicting left or right STG thickness with a positive symptom severity score (harmonized SAPS or PANSS-positive scores), while controlling for age, sex and site. Secondary models investigated relationships between antipsychotic medication, duration of illness, overall illness severity, handedness and STG thickness. Positive symptom severity was negatively related to STG thickness in both hemispheres (left: βstd = -0.052; P = 0.021; right: βstd = -0.073; P = 0.001) when statistically controlling for age, sex and site. This effect remained stable in models including duration of illness, antipsychotic medication or handedness. Our findings further underline the important role of the STG in hallmark symptoms in schizophrenia. These findings can assist in advancing insight into symptom-relevant pathophysiological mechanisms in schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Activity in the superior temporal sulcus highlights learning competence in an interaction game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruno, Masahiko; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2009-04-08

    During behavioral adaptation through interaction with human and nonhuman agents, marked individual differences are seen in both real-life situations and games. However, the underlying neural mechanism is not well understood. We conducted a neuroimaging experiment in which subjects maximized monetary rewards by learning in a prisoner's dilemma game with two computer agents: agent A, a tit-for-tat player who repeats the subject's previous action, and agent B, a simple stochastic cooperator oblivious to the subject's action. Approximately 1/3 of the subjects (group I) learned optimally in relation to both A and B, while another 1/3 (group II) did so only for B. Post-experiment interviews indicated that group I exploited the agent strategies more often than group II. Significant differences in learning-related brain activity between the two groups were only found in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) for both A and B. Furthermore, the learning performance of each group I subject was predictable based on this STS activity, but not in the group II subjects. This differential activity could not be attributed to a behavioral difference since it persisted in relation to agent B for which the two groups behaved similarly. In sharp contrast, the brain structures for reward processing were recruited similarly by both groups. These results suggest that STS provides knowledge of the other agent's strategies for association between action and reward and highlights learning competence during interactive reinforcement learning.

  6. BOLD temporal dynamics of rat superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus following short duration visual stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condon Lau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The superior colliculus (SC and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN are important subcortical structures for vision. Much of our understanding of vision was obtained using invasive and small field of view (FOV techniques. In this study, we use non-invasive, large FOV blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD fMRI to measure the SC and LGN's response temporal dynamics following short duration (1 s visual stimulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments are performed at 7 tesla on Sprague Dawley rats stimulated in one eye with flashing light. Gradient-echo and spin-echo sequences are used to provide complementary information. An anatomical image is acquired from one rat after injection of monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION, a blood vessel contrast agent. BOLD responses are concentrated in the contralateral SC and LGN. The SC BOLD signal measured with gradient-echo rises to 50% of maximum amplitude (PEAK 0.2±0.2 s before the LGN signal (p<0.05. The LGN signal returns to 50% of PEAK 1.4±1.2 s before the SC signal (p<0.05. These results indicate the SC signal rises faster than the LGN signal but settles slower. Spin-echo results support these findings. The post-MION image shows the SC and LGN lie beneath large blood vessels. This subcortical vasculature is similar to that in the cortex, which also lies beneath large vessels. The LGN lies closer to the large vessels than much of the SC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The differences in response timing between SC and LGN are very similar to those between deep and shallow cortical layers following electrical stimulation, which are related to depth-dependent blood vessel dilation rates. This combined with the similarities in vasculature between subcortex and cortex suggest the SC and LGN timing differences are also related to depth-dependent dilation rates. This study shows for the first time that BOLD responses in the rat SC and LGN following short duration visual stimulation are

  7. Functional integration of the posterior superior temporal sulcus correlates with facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2016-05-01

    Face perception is essential for daily and social activities. Neuroimaging studies have revealed a distributed face network (FN) consisting of multiple regions that exhibit preferential responses to invariant or changeable facial information. However, our understanding about how these regions work collaboratively to facilitate facial information processing is limited. Here, we focused on changeable facial information processing, and investigated how the functional integration of the FN is related to the performance of facial expression recognition. To do so, we first defined the FN as voxels that responded more strongly to faces than objects, and then used a voxel-based global brain connectivity method based on resting-state fMRI to characterize the within-network connectivity (WNC) of each voxel in the FN. By relating the WNC and performance in the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test across participants, we found that individuals with stronger WNC in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) were better at recognizing facial expressions. Further, the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the rpSTS and right occipital face area (rOFA), early visual cortex (EVC), and bilateral STS were positively correlated with the ability of facial expression recognition, and the FCs of EVC-pSTS and OFA-pSTS contributed independently to facial expression recognition. In short, our study highlights the behavioral significance of intrinsic functional integration of the FN in facial expression processing, and provides evidence for the hub-like role of the rpSTS for facial expression recognition. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1930-1940, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Auditory, Visual and Audiovisual Speech Processing Streams in Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezia, Jonathan H; Vaden, Kenneth I; Rong, Feng; Maddox, Dale; Saberi, Kourosh; Hickok, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) is responsive to visual and auditory information, including sounds and facial cues during speech recognition. We investigated the functional organization of STS with respect to modality-specific and multimodal speech representations. Twenty younger adult participants were instructed to perform an oddball detection task and were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech stimuli, as well as auditory and visual nonspeech control stimuli in a block fMRI design. Consistent with a hypothesized anterior-posterior processing gradient in STS, auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli produced the largest BOLD effects in anterior, posterior and middle STS (mSTS), respectively, based on whole-brain, linear mixed effects and principal component analyses. Notably, the mSTS exhibited preferential responses to multisensory stimulation, as well as speech compared to nonspeech. Within the mid-posterior and mSTS regions, response preferences changed gradually from visual, to multisensory, to auditory moving posterior to anterior. Post hoc analysis of visual regions in the posterior STS revealed that a single subregion bordering the mSTS was insensitive to differences in low-level motion kinematics yet distinguished between visual speech and nonspeech based on multi-voxel activation patterns. These results suggest that auditory and visual speech representations are elaborated gradually within anterior and posterior processing streams, respectively, and may be integrated within the mSTS, which is sensitive to more abstract speech information within and across presentation modalities. The spatial organization of STS is consistent with processing streams that are hypothesized to synthesize perceptual speech representations from sensory signals that provide convergent information from visual and auditory modalities.

  9. Perceived communicative intent in gesture and language modulates the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Velnoskey, Kayla R; Rowe, Meredith L

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral evidence and theory suggest gesture and language processing may be part of a shared cognitive system for communication. While much research demonstrates both gesture and language recruit regions along perisylvian cortex, relatively less work has tested functional segregation within these regions on an individual level. Additionally, while most work has focused on a shared semantic network, less has examined shared regions for processing communicative intent. To address these questions, functional and structural MRI data were collected from 24 adult participants while viewing videos of an experimenter producing communicative, Participant-Directed Gestures (PDG) (e.g., "Hello, come here"), noncommunicative Self-adaptor Gestures (SG) (e.g., smoothing hair), and three written text conditions: (1) Participant-Directed Sentences (PDS), matched in content to PDG, (2) Third-person Sentences (3PS), describing a character's actions from a third-person perspective, and (3) meaningless sentences, Jabberwocky (JW). Surface-based conjunction and individual functional region of interest analyses identified shared neural activation between gesture (PDGvsSG) and language processing using two different language contrasts. Conjunction analyses of gesture (PDGvsSG) and Third-person Sentences versus Jabberwocky revealed overlap within left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). Conjunction analyses of gesture and Participant-Directed Sentences to Third-person Sentences revealed regions sensitive to communicative intent, including the left middle and posterior STS and left inferior frontal gyrus. Further, parametric modulation using participants' ratings of stimuli revealed sensitivity of left posterior STS to individual perceptions of communicative intent in gesture. These data highlight an important role of the STS in processing participant-directed communicative intent through gesture and language. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3444-3461, 2016. © 2016 Wiley

  10. Gray matter changes in right superior temporal gyrus in criminal psychopaths. Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jürgen L; Gänssbauer, Susanne; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Weber, Tatjana; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Hajak, Göran

    2008-08-30

    "Psychopathy" according to the PCL-R describes a specific subgroup of antisocial personality disorder with a high risk for criminal relapses. Lesion and imaging studies point towards frontal or temporal brain regions connected with disturbed social behavior, antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy. Morphologically, some studies described a reduced prefrontal brain volume, whereas others reported on temporal lobe atrophy. To further investigate whether participants with psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Version (PCL-R) show abnormalities in brain structure, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate region-specific changes in gray matter in 17 forensic male inpatients with high PCL-R scores (PCL-R>28) and 17 male control subjects with low PCL-R scores (PCLright superior temporal gyrus. This is the first study to show that psychopathy is associated with a decrease in gray matter in both frontal and temporal brain regions, in particular in the right superior temporal gyrus, supporting the hypothesis that a disturbed frontotemporal network is critically involved in the pathogenesis of psychopathy.

  11. Temporal pole signal abnormality on MR imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis: a fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery study; Anormalidade de sinal na imagem por RM do polo temporal na epilepsia do lobo temporal com esclerose hipocampal: um estudo pela sequencia inversao recuperacao com supressao da agua livre (FLAIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrete Junior, Henrique; Abdala, Nitamar; Szjenfeld, Jacob; Nogueira, Roberto Gomes [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Lin, Katia; Caboclo, Luis Otavio; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Sakamoto, Americo Ceiki; Yacubian, Elza Marcia Targas [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia e Neurocirurgia

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To determine the frequency and regional involvement of temporal pole signal abnormality (TPA) in patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) using fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging, and to correlate this feature with history. Method: Coronal FLAIR images of the temporal pole were assessed in 120 patients with HS and in 30 normal subjects, to evaluate gray-white matter demarcation. Results: Ninety (75%) of 120 patients had associated TPA. The HS side made difference regarding the presence of TPA, with a left side prevalence (p=0.04, {chi}{sup 2} test). The anteromedial zone of temporal pole was affected in 27 (30%) out of 90 patients. In 63 (70%) patients the lateral zone were also affected. Patients with TPA were younger at seizure onset (p=0.018), but without association with duration of epilepsy. Conclusion: Our FLAIR study show temporal pole signal abnormality in 3/4 of patients with HS, mainly seen on the anteromedial region, with a larger prevalence when the left hippocampus was involved. (author)

  12. Comparison of the Keratometric Corneal Astigmatic Power after Phacoemulsification: Clear Temporal Corneal Incision versus Superior Scleral Tunnel Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi He

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This is prospective randomized control trial to compare the mean keratometric corneal astigmatism diopter power (not surgical induced astigmatism among preop and one-month and three-month postop phacoemulcification of either a clear temporal corneal incision or a superior scleral tunnel Incision, using only keratometric astigmatic power reading to evaluate the difference between the two cataract surgery incisions. Methods. 120 patients (134 eyes underwent phacoemulcification were randomly assigned to two groups: Group A, the clear temporal corneal incision group, and Group B, the superior scleral tunnel incision group. SPSS11.5 Software was used for statistical analysis to compare the postsurgical changes of cornea astigmatism on keratometry. Results. The changes of corneal astigmatic diopter in Groups A and B after 3 month postop from keratometric reading were 1.04 + 0.76 and 0.94 + 0.27, respectively (=.84>.05, which showed no statistic significance difference. Conclusion. The incision through either temporal clear cornea or superior scleral tunnel in phacoemulcification shows no statistic difference in astigmatism change on keratometry 3-month postop.

  13. fMR-adaptation indicates selectivity to audiovisual content congruency in distributed clusters in human superior temporal cortex

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    Blomert Leo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient multisensory integration is of vital importance for adequate interaction with the environment. In addition to basic binding cues like temporal and spatial coherence, meaningful multisensory information is also bound together by content-based associations. Many functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies propose the (posterior superior temporal cortex (STC as the key structure for integrating meaningful multisensory information. However, a still unanswered question is how superior temporal cortex encodes content-based associations, especially in light of inconsistent results from studies comparing brain activation to semantically matching (congruent versus nonmatching (incongruent multisensory inputs. Here, we used fMR-adaptation (fMR-A in order to circumvent potential problems with standard fMRI approaches, including spatial averaging and amplitude saturation confounds. We presented repetitions of audiovisual stimuli (letter-speech sound pairs and manipulated the associative relation between the auditory and visual inputs (congruent/incongruent pairs. We predicted that if multisensory neuronal populations exist in STC and encode audiovisual content relatedness, adaptation should be affected by the manipulated audiovisual relation. Results The results revealed an occipital-temporal network that adapted independently of the audiovisual relation. Interestingly, several smaller clusters distributed over superior temporal cortex within that network, adapted stronger to congruent than to incongruent audiovisual repetitions, indicating sensitivity to content congruency. Conclusions These results suggest that the revealed clusters contain multisensory neuronal populations that encode content relatedness by selectively responding to congruent audiovisual inputs, since unisensory neuronal populations are assumed to be insensitive to the audiovisual relation. These findings extend our previously revealed mechanism for

  14. Structure and Function of the Superior Temporal Plane in Adult Males with Cleft Lip and Palate: Pathologic Enlargement with No Relationship to Childhood Hearing Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, A. S.; Canady, J.; Richman, L.; Andreasen, N. C.; Nopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In a previous study from our lab, adult males with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) were shown to have significantly lower temporal lobe gray matter volume than matched controls. The current study was designed to begin a regional analysis of specific subregions of the temporal lobe. The superior temporal plane (STP) is a…

  15. Structure and Function of the Superior Temporal Plane in Adult Males with Cleft Lip and Palate: Pathologic Enlargement with No Relationship to Childhood Hearing Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, A. S.; Canady, J.; Richman, L.; Andreasen, N. C.; Nopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In a previous study from our lab, adult males with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) were shown to have significantly lower temporal lobe gray matter volume than matched controls. The current study was designed to begin a regional analysis of specific subregions of the temporal lobe. The superior temporal plane (STP) is a…

  16. Morphologic Study of Superior Temporal Sulcus-Amygdaloid Body and Lateral Fissure-Amygdaloid Body Surgical Approach by Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yuan; Ren, Bichen; Chang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jinnan; Li, Youqiong; Duan, Haobo; Cheng, Kailiang; Wang, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    In this research, 83 patients were measured by magnetic resonance imaging volume rendering technique. The authors acquired the curve length of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure on the cerebral hemisphere, the shortest distance from the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure to the center of amygdaloid body separately, the vertical diameter, the transversal diameter, and the anteroposterior diameter of the amygdaloid body and the 2 approach angles between the median sagittal plane and the shortest segment from the superior temporal sulcus to the center of amygdaloid body and the shortest segment from lateral fissure to the center of the amygdaloid body. At the same time, we preliminarily oriented the 2 points of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure, which are closest to the center of amygdaloid body, aimed at finding out the best entrance points of surgical approach through the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure to the amygdaloid body and reducing the damage to the nerve fibers or blood vessels during the operation. The results indicate that the point at the front side 1/4 of the superior temporal sulcus may be the ideal surgical approach entrance point and the point at the front side 1/3 of the lateral fissure. There is no difference between 2 cerebral hemispheres (P < 0.05).

  17. Development from childhood to adulthood increases morphological and functional inter-individual variability in the right superior temporal cortex.

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    Bonte, Milene; Frost, Martin A; Rutten, Sanne; Ley, Anke; Formisano, Elia; Goebel, Rainer

    2013-12-01

    We study the developmental trajectory of morphology and function of the superior temporal cortex (STC) in children (8-9 years), adolescents (14-15 years) and young adults. We analyze cortical surface landmarks and functional MRI (fMRI) responses to voices, other natural categories and tones and examine how hemispheric asymmetry and inter-subject variability change across age. Our results show stable morphological asymmetries across age groups, including a larger left planum temporale and a deeper right superior temporal sulcus. fMRI analyses show that a rightward lateralization for voice-selective responses is present in all groups but decreases with age. Furthermore, STC responses to voices change from being less selective and more spatially diffuse in children to highly selective and focal in adults. Interestingly, the analysis of morphological landmarks reveals that inter-subject variability increases during development in the right--but not in the left--STC. Similarly, inter-subject variability of cortically-realigned functional responses to voices, other categories and tones increases with age in the right STC. Our findings reveal asymmetric developmental changes in brain regions crucial for auditory and voice perception. The age-related increase of inter-subject variability in right STC suggests that anatomy and function of this region are shaped by unique individual developmental experiences.

  18. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency

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    Christoph Dahl; Nikos K Logothetis; Christoph Kayser

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual ...

  19. Modulation of Visual Responses in the Superior Temporal Sulcus by Audio-Visual Congruency

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Christoph D.; Nikos K Logothetis; Kayser, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual ...

  20. Ventral simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia for unfamiliar faces due to a right posterior superior temporal sulcus and angular gyrus lesion.

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    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Hamada, Kensuke; Tsugawa, Naoya; Sugimoto, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with ventral simultanagnosia, prosopagnosia for "unfamiliar faces" (dorsal prosopagnosia), spatial agraphia, and constructional disorder, particularly on the left spatial side, due to a lesion in the right posterior superior and middle temporal gyri and angular gyrus. The patient showed impairment of fundamental visual and visuospatial recognition, such as in object size, configuration, and horizontal point location, which probably underlay the mechanism of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia. This case also suggests that the coexistence of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia results from a right hemispheric insult, and damage to the temporoparietal area interrupts the incorporation of spatial information into object recognition. This disconnection of information flow, together with impaired object recognition per se, may impair the parallel processing of multiple objects, leading to object-by-object or part-by-part recognition.

  1. Time course of the involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum in emotional prosody perception.

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    Marjolijn Hoekert

    Full Text Available In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional prosody perception. Here, we used triple-pulse repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to shed light on the precise time course of involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum. We hypothesized that information would be processed in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus before being processed in the right fronto-parietal operculum. Right-handed healthy subjects performed an emotional prosody task. During listening to each sentence a triplet of TMS pulses was applied to one of the regions at one of six time points (400-1900 ms. Results showed a significant main effect of Time for right anterior superior temporal gyrus and right fronto-parietal operculum. The largest interference was observed half-way through the sentence. This effect was stronger for withdrawal emotions than for the approach emotion. A further experiment with the inclusion of an active control condition, TMS over the EEG site POz (midline parietal-occipital junction, revealed stronger effects at the fronto-parietal operculum and anterior superior temporal gyrus relative to the active control condition. No evidence was found for sequential processing of emotional prosodic information from right anterior superior temporal gyrus to the right fronto-parietal operculum, but the results revealed more parallel processing. Our results suggest that both right fronto-parietal operculum and right anterior superior temporal gyrus are critical for emotional prosody perception at a relatively late time period after sentence onset. This may reflect that emotional cues can still be ambiguous at the beginning of sentences, but become

  2. Plasticity in bilateral superior temporal cortex: Effects of deafness and cochlear implantation on auditory and visual speech processing.

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    Anderson, Carly A; Lazard, Diane S; Hartley, Douglas E H

    2017-01-01

    While many individuals can benefit substantially from cochlear implantation, the ability to perceive and understand auditory speech with a cochlear implant (CI) remains highly variable amongst adult recipients. Importantly, auditory performance with a CI cannot be reliably predicted based solely on routinely obtained information regarding clinical characteristics of the CI candidate. This review argues that central factors, notably cortical function and plasticity, should also be considered as important contributors to the observed individual variability in CI outcome. Superior temporal cortex (STC), including auditory association areas, plays a crucial role in the processing of auditory and visual speech information. The current review considers evidence of cortical plasticity within bilateral STC, and how these effects may explain variability in CI outcome. Furthermore, evidence of audio-visual interactions in temporal and occipital cortices is examined, and relation to CI outcome is discussed. To date, longitudinal examination of changes in cortical function and plasticity over the period of rehabilitation with a CI has been restricted by methodological challenges. The application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in studying cortical function in CI users is becoming increasingly recognised as a potential solution to these problems. Here we suggest that fNIRS offers a powerful neuroimaging tool to elucidate the relationship between audio-visual interactions, cortical plasticity during deafness and following cochlear implantation, and individual variability in auditory performance with a CI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Time course of superior temporal sulcus activity in response to eye gaze: a combined fMRI and MEG study

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    Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2008-01-01

    The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to be involved in gaze processing, but temporal data regarding this issue are lacking. We investigated this topic by combining fMRI and MEG in four normal subjects. Photographs of faces with either averted or straight eye gazes were presented and subjects passively viewed the stimuli. First, we analyzed the brain areas involved using fMRI. A group analysis revealed activation of the STS for averted compared to straight gazes, which was confirmed in all subjects. We then measured brain activity using MEG, and conducted a 3D spatial filter analysis. The STS showed higher activity in response to averted versus straight gazes during the 150–200 ms period, peaking at around 170 ms, after stimulus onset. In contrast, the fusiform gyrus, which was detected by the main effect of stimulus presentations in fMRI analysis, exhibited comparable activity across straight and averted gazes at about 170 ms. These results indicate involvement of the human STS in rapid processing of the eye gaze of another individual. PMID:19015114

  4. Naturalistic fMRI Mapping Reveals Superior Temporal Sulcus as the Hub for the Distributed Brain Network for Social Perception

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    Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Glerean, Enrico; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a set of 137 short (approximately 16 s each, total 27 min) audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech) and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action, and non-human sounds) lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: (1) a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, (2) a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion, and pain, (3) a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction, and speech, and (4) a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the pSTS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life. PMID:22905026

  5. Naturalistic FMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnakoski, Juha M; Glerean, Enrico; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a set of 137 short (approximately 16 s each, total 27 min) audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech) and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action, and non-human sounds) lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: (1) a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, (2) a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion, and pain, (3) a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction, and speech, and (4) a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the pSTS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life.

  6. Naturalistic fMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Marko Lahnakoski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-tesla functional magnetic imaging (fMRI, a set of 137 short (~16 s each, total 27 min audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action and non-human sounds lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: 1 a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, 2 a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion and pain, 3 a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction and speech, and 4 a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the posterior STS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life.

  7. Involvement of the superior temporal cortex and the occipital cortex in spatial hearing: evidence from repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewald, Jörg; Meister, Ingo G; Weidemann, Jürgen; Töpper, Rudolf

    2004-06-01

    The processing of auditory spatial information in cortical areas of the human brain outside of the primary auditory cortex remains poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the occipital cortex (OC) in spatial hearing using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The right STG is known to be of crucial importance for visual spatial awareness, and has been suggested to be involved in auditory spatial perception. We found that rTMS of the right STG induced a systematic error in the perception of interaural time differences (a primary cue for sound localization in the azimuthal plane). This is in accordance with the recent view, based on both neurophysiological data obtained in monkeys and human neuroimaging studies, that information on sound location is processed within a dorsolateral "where" stream including the caudal STG. A similar, but opposite, auditory shift was obtained after rTMS of secondary visual areas of the right OC. Processing of auditory information in the OC has previously been shown to exist only in blind persons. Thus, the latter finding provides the first evidence of an involvement of the visual cortex in spatial hearing in sighted human subjects, and suggests a close interconnection of the neural representation of auditory and visual space. Because rTMS induced systematic shifts in auditory lateralization, but not a general deterioration, we propose that rTMS of STG or OC specifically affected neuronal circuits transforming auditory spatial coordinates in order to maintain alignment with vision.

  8. Cross-frequency power correlations reveal the right superior temporal gyrus as a hub region during working memory maintenance.

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    Park, Hyojin; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Kim, June Sic; Jensen, Ole; Chung, Chun Kee; Lee, Dong Soo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we characterized within- and cross-frequency power correlations from magnetoencephalography (MEG) data in order to understand how different brain regions cooperate as a network to maintain working memory representations with several features. The working memory items were composed of spatially arranged dots supposedly requiring both the dorsal and the ventral stream to be engaged during maintenance. Using a beamforming technique, we localized memory-dependent sources in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands. After the single-trial power values were extracted from these frequency bands with respect to each source, we calculated the correlations within- and cross-frequency bands. The following general picture emerged: gamma power in right superior temporal gyrus (STG) during working memory maintenance was correlated with numerous other sources in the alpha band in prefrontal, parietal, and posterior regions. In addition, the power correlations within the alpha band showed correlations across posterior-parietal-frontal regions. From these findings, we suggest that the STG dominated by gamma activity serves as a hub region for the network nodes responsible for the retention of the stimulus used in this study, which is likely to depend on both the "where-" and the "what-" visual system simultaneously. The present study demonstrates how oscillatory dynamics reflecting the interaction between cortical areas can be investigated by means of cross-frequency power correlations in source space. This methodological framework could be of general utility when studying functional network properties of the working brain.

  9. Familiarity for famous faces and names is not equally subtended by the right and left temporal poles. Evidence from an rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, F; Ferraccioli, M; Stampanoni Bassi, M; Musumeci, G; Di Lazzaro, V; Gainotti, G; Marra, C

    2015-11-01

    The aims of the present experiment was to investigate: (a) if transient disruption of neural activity in the right (RTP) or left temporal pole (LTP) can interfere with the development of a familiarity feeling to the presentation of faces/written names of famous/unknown people; and (b) if this interference specifically affects the familiarity for faces after inhibition of the RTP and for names after inhibition of the LTP. Twenty healthy volunteers took part in the study. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was administered online; it disrupted the neural activity of the right or left TP in concomitance with the presentation of each face and name whose familiarity had to be assessed. Furthermore, in a control group, each participant was submitted to a single experimental session in which rTMS was delivered to the vertex in association with the presentation of faces and written names. Since previous rTMS studies have shown that the temporary inactivation of the right and left TP influences the response latencies, but not the number of correct responses, in this study we took into account both the number of correct responses obtained in different experimental conditions and the corresponding response latencies. A three-way factorial ANOVA carried out on the Response Scores showed only a general effect of the Type of Stimuli, due to better performances on names than on faces. This greater familiarity of names is consistent with previous data reported in the literature. In the three-way factorial ANOVA carried out on the Latency Scores, post-hoc analyses showed an increased latency of responses to faces after right stimulation in Latency Total, Latency on Correct responses and Latency on Unfamiliar faces. None of these results were obtained in the control group. These data suggest that rTMS at the level of the RTP preferentially affects the development of familiarity feelings to the presentation of faces of famous people.

  10. Altered activity and functional connectivity of superior temporal gyri in anxiety disorders: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

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    Zhao, Xiaohu; Xi, Qian; Wang, Peijun; Li, Chunbo [Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai (China); He, Hongjian [Bio-X lab, Dept. of Physics, Zhe Jiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-08-15

    The prior functional MRI studies have demonstrated significantly abnormal activity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) of anxiety patients. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether the abnormal activity in these regions was related to a loss of functional connectivity between these regions. Ten healthy controls and 10 anxiety patients underwent noninvasive fMRI while actively listening to emotionally neutral words alternated by silence (Task 1) or threat-related words (Task 2). The participants were instructed to silently make a judgment of each word's valence (i.e., unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral). A coherence analysis was applied to the functional MRI data to examine the functional connectivity between the left and the right STG, which was selected as the primary region of interest on the basis of our prior results. The data demonstrated that the anxiety patients exhibited significantly increased activation in the bilateral STG than the normal controls. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that the patient group showed significantly decreased degree of connectivity between the bilateral STG during processing Task 2 compared to Task 1 (t = 2.588, p = 0.029). In addition, a significantly decreased connectivity was also observed in the patient group compared to the control group during processing Task 2 (t = 2.810, p = 0.012). Anxiety patients may exhibit increased activity of the STG but decreased functional connectivity between the left and right STG, which may reflect the underlying neural abnormality of anxiety disorder, and this will provide new insights into this disease.

  11. Responses in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus show a feature-based response to facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Tessa R; Andrews, Timothy J; Hymers, Mark; Al-Mosaiwi, Mohammed; Marsden, Samuel P; Strachan, James W A; Trakulpipat, Chayanit; Wang, Liang; Wu, Tian; Young, Andrew W

    2015-08-01

    The face-selective region of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) plays an important role in analysing facial expressions. However, it is less clear how facial expressions are represented in this region. In this study, we used the face composite effect to explore whether the pSTS contains a holistic or feature-based representation of facial expression. Aligned and misaligned composite images were created from the top and bottom halves of faces posing different expressions. In Experiment 1, participants performed a behavioural matching task in which they judged whether the top half of two images was the same or different. The ability to discriminate the top half of the face was affected by changes in the bottom half of the face when the images were aligned, but not when they were misaligned. This shows a holistic behavioural response to expression. In Experiment 2, we used fMR-adaptation to ask whether the pSTS has a corresponding holistic neural representation of expression. Aligned or misaligned images were presented in blocks that involved repeating the same image or in which the top or bottom half of the images changed. Increased neural responses were found in the right pSTS regardless of whether the change occurred in the top or bottom of the image, showing that changes in expression were detected across all parts of the face. However, in contrast to the behavioural data, the pattern did not differ between aligned and misaligned stimuli. This suggests that the pSTS does not encode facial expressions holistically. In contrast to the pSTS, a holistic pattern of response to facial expression was found in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Together, these results suggest that pSTS reflects an early stage in the processing of facial expression in which facial features are represented independently.

  12. Facial expression recognition takes longer in the posterior superior temporal sulcus than in the occipital face area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, David

    2014-07-02

    Neuroimaging studies have identified a face-selective region in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) that responds more strongly during facial expression recognition tasks than during facial identity recognition tasks, but precisely when the rpSTS begins to causally contribute to expression recognition is unclear. The present study addressed this issue using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In Experiment 1, repetitive TMS delivered over the rpSTS of human participants, at a frequency of 10 Hz for 500 ms, selectively impaired a facial expression task but had no effect on a matched facial identity task. In Experiment 2, participants performed the expression task only while double-pulse TMS (dTMS) was delivered over the rpSTS or over the right occipital face area (rOFA), a face-selective region in lateral occipital cortex, at different latencies up to 210 ms after stimulus onset. Task performance was selectively impaired when dTMS was delivered over the rpSTS at 60-100 ms and 100-140 ms. dTMS delivered over the rOFA impaired task performance at 60-100 ms only. These results demonstrate that the rpSTS causally contributes to expression recognition and that it does so over a longer time-scale than the rOFA. This difference in the length of the TMS induced impairment between the rpSTS and the rOFA suggests that the neural computations that contribute to facial expression recognition in each region are functionally distinct.

  13. Coding for stimulus velocity by temporal patterning of spike discharges in visual cells of cat superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, G

    1993-07-01

    Statistical analyses, performed on extracellularly recorded spike trains generated by 69 single motion sensitive visual cells in the intermediate layers of superior colliculi of pretrigeminal cat preparations, revealed that--even in the unstimulated condition (38/69)--most neuronal spike discharge patterns tended to switch between two stochastically distinct states, in the form of rapidly alternating "bursting" (high frequency) and "resting" (low frequency) episodes. The numbers of consecutive interspike intervals within a given state were, as a rule, independent integer-valued random variables with discrete probability distributions, in essential agreement with the semi-Markov model proposed by Ekholm and Hyvärinen [(1970) Biophysical Journal, 10, 773-796]. The introduction of visual stimuli (47/69) moving with velocities of 2-160 deg/sec caused systematic and reproducible changes in the ratio of bursting to resting activities, decreases in overall discharge variability, and increases in signal transinformation flow. Moreover, with one group of stimulated cells (28/47), increasing stimulus velocity caused increasingly precise ("stimulus-forced") synchronization of bursting episodes with specific phases of stimulus movement; while for a smaller group (12/47), stimulus-related alternations between bursting and resting states assumed the form of semi-rhythmical burst discharges within the characteristic 60-80 Hz "gamma oscillation" range ("stimulus-induced" synchronization). For a minority of cells (7/47), switching between bursting and resting states--although characteristically modified by stimulus velocity--remained largely desynchronized with all phases of stimulus transit. It was argued that such temporal patterns of discharge may constitute elements of a candidate "distribution" code for movement detection by the cat visual system.

  14. Virtual lesion of right posterior superior temporal sulcus modulates conscious visual perception of fearful expressions in faces and bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidi, Matteo; Stienen, Bernard M C; Aglioti, Salvatore M; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-04-01

    The posterior Superior Temporal Suclus (pSTS) represents a central hub in the complex cerebral network for person perception and emotion recognition as also suggested by its heavy connections with face- and body-specific cortical (e.g., the fusiform face area, FFA and the extrastriate body area, EBA) and subcortical structures (e.g., amygdala). Information on whether pSTS is causatively involved in sustaining conscious visual perception of emotions expressed by faces and bodies is lacking. We explored this issue by combining a binocular rivalry procedure (where emotional and neutral face and body postures rivaled with house images) with off-line, 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We found that temporary inhibition of the right pSTS reduced perceptual dominance of fearful faces and increased perceptual dominance of fearful bodies, while leaving unaffected the perception of neutral face and body images. Inhibition of the vertex had no effect on conscious visual perception of neutral or emotional face or body stimuli. Thus, the right pSTS plays a causal role in shortening conscious vision of fearful faces and in prolonging conscious vision of fearful bodies. These results suggest that pSTS selectively modulates the activity of segregated networks involved in the conscious visual perception of emotional faces or bodies. We speculate that the opposite role of the right pSTS for conscious perception of fearful face and body may be explained by the different connections that this region entertains with face- and body-selective visual areas as well as with amygdalae and premotor regions.

  15. Poor Receptive Joint Attention Skills Are Associated with Atypical Grey Matter Asymmetry in the Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes

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    William eHopkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental data have implicated the posterior superior temporal gyrus as an important cortical region in the processing of socially relevant stimuli such as gaze following, eye direction, and head orientation. Gaze following and responding to different socio-communicative signals is an important and highly adaptive skill in primates, including humans. Here, we examined whether individual differences in responding to socio-communicative cues was associated with variation in either grey matter volume and asymmetry in a sample of chimpanzees. MRI scans and behavioral data on receptive joint attention (RJA was obtained from a sample of 191 chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees that performed poorly on the RJA task had more rightward asymmetries in the posterior but not anterior superior temporal gyrus. We further found that middle-aged and elderly chimpanzee performed more poorly on the RJA task and had significantly less grey matter than young-adult and sub-adult chimpanzees. The results are consistent with previous studies implicating the posterior temporal gyrus in the processing of socially relevant information.

  16. Pantomiming tool use with an imaginary tool in hand as compared to demonstration with tool in hand specifically modulates the left middle and superior temporal gyri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausberg, Hedda; Kazzer, Philipp; Heekeren, Hauke R; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2015-10-01

    Neuropsychological lesion studies evidence the necessity to differentiate between various forms of tool-related actions such as real tool use, tool use demonstration with tool in hand and without physical target object, and pantomime without tool in hand. However, thus far, neuroimaging studies have primarily focused only on investigating tool use pantomimes. The present fMRI study investigates pantomime without tool in hand as compared to tool use demonstration with tool in hand in order to explore patterns of cerebral signal modulation associated with acting with imaginary tools in hand. Fifteen participants performed with either hand (i) tool use pantomime with an imaginary tool in hand in response to visual tool presentation and (ii) tool use demonstration with tool in hand in response to visual-tactile tool presentation. In both conditions, no physical target object was present. The conjunction analysis of the right and left hands executions of tool use pantomime relative to tool use demonstration yielded significant activity in the left middle and superior temporal lobe. In contrast, demonstration relative to pantomime revealed large bihemispherically distributed homologous areas of activity. Thus far, fMRI studies have demonstrated the relevance of the left middle and superior temporal gyri in viewing, naming, and matching tools and related actions and contexts. Since in our study all these factors were equally (ir)relevant both in the tool use pantomime and the tool use demonstration conditions, the present findings enhance the knowledge about the function of these brain regions in tool-related cognitive processes. The two contrasted conditions only differ regarding the fact that the pantomime condition requires the individual to act with an imaginary tool in hand. Therefore, we suggest that the left middle and superior temporal gyri are specifically involved in integrating the projected mental image of a tool in the execution of a tool-specific movement

  17. Temporal pole signal abnormality on MR imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis: a fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery study Anormalidade de sinal na imagem por RM do pólo temporal na epilepsia do lobo temporal com esclerose hipocampal: um estudo pela seqüência inversão recuperação com supressão da água livre (FLAIR

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    Henrique Carrete Junior

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and regional involvement of temporal pole signal abnormality (TPA in patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS using fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR MR imaging, and to correlate this feature with history. METHOD: Coronal FLAIR images of the temporal pole were assessed in 120 patients with HS and in 30 normal subjects, to evaluate gray-white matter demarcation. RESULTS: Ninety (75% of 120 patients had associated TPA. The HS side made difference regarding the presence of TPA, with a left side prevalence (p=0.04, chi2 test. The anteromedial zone of temporal pole was affected in 27 (30% out of 90 patients. In 63 (70% patients the lateral zone were also affected. Patients with TPA were younger at seizure onset (p=0.018, but without association with duration of epilepsy. CONCLUSION: Our FLAIR study show temporal pole signal abnormality in 3/4 of patients with HS, mainly seen on the anteromedial region, with a larger prevalence when the left hippocampus was involved.OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência e o envolvimento regional da anormalidade de sinal do pólo temporal (APT em pacientes com esclerose hipocampal (EH utilizando seqüência inversão recuperação com supressão da água (FLAIR por RM, e correlacioná-la com a história. MÉTODO: Foram analisadas as imagens coronais FLAIR dos pólos temporais de 120 pacientes com EH e de 30 indivíduos normais, para avaliar a demarcação entre substâncias branca e cinzenta. RESULTADOS: Noventa (75% dos 120 pacientes tinham APT associada. Houve prevalência do lado esquerdo (p=0.04, chi2 teste na relação entre APT e o lado da EH. A zona ântero-medial estava acometida em 27 (30% destes pacientes. Em 63 (70% pacientes também a zona lateral estava acometida. Pacientes com APT apresentaram início da epilepsia quando mais jovens (p=0.018, porém sem associação com a sua duração. CONCLUSÃO: A seqüência FLAIR mostra haver ATP em 3/4 dos pacientes com EH

  18. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: A possible trait marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHoman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The left superior temporal gyrus (STG has been suggested to play a key role in auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Eleven medicated subjects with schizophrenia and medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations and 19 healthy controls underwent perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling. Three additional repeated measurements were conducted in the patients. Patients underwent a treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS between the first 2 measurements. The main outcome measure was the pooled cerebral blood flow (CBF, which consisted of the regional CBF measurement in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG and the global CBF measurement in the whole brain.Results: Regional CBF in the left STG in patients was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.0001 and to the global CBF in patients (p < 0.004 at baseline. Regional CBF in the left STG remained significantly increased compared to the global CBF in patients across time (p < 0.0007, and it remained increased in patients after TMS compared to the baseline CBF in controls (p < 0.0001. After TMS, PANSS (p = 0.003 and PSYRATS (p = 0.01 scores decreased significantly in patients.Conclusions: This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  19. Signed words in the congenitally deaf evoke typical late lexicosemantic responses with no early visual responses in left superior temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Matthew K; Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Torres, Christina; Travis, Katherine E; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I; Halgren, Eric

    2012-07-11

    Congenitally deaf individuals receive little or no auditory input, and when raised by deaf parents, they acquire sign as their native and primary language. We asked two questions regarding how the deaf brain in humans adapts to sensory deprivation: (1) is meaning extracted and integrated from signs using the same classical left hemisphere frontotemporal network used for speech in hearing individuals, and (2) in deafness, is superior temporal cortex encompassing primary and secondary auditory regions reorganized to receive and process visual sensory information at short latencies? Using MEG constrained by individual cortical anatomy obtained with MRI, we examined an early time window associated with sensory processing and a late time window associated with lexicosemantic integration. We found that sign in deaf individuals and speech in hearing individuals activate a highly similar left frontotemporal network (including superior temporal regions surrounding auditory cortex) during lexicosemantic processing, but only speech in hearing individuals activates auditory regions during sensory processing. Thus, neural systems dedicated to processing high-level linguistic information are used for processing language regardless of modality or hearing status, and we do not find evidence for rewiring of afferent connections from visual systems to auditory cortex.

  20. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P.; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. PMID:26350727

  1. Refinamientos en la reconstrucción del tercio superior auricular con la técnica de Davis: Estudio anatómico y serie clínica Refinements on reconstruction of auricular upper pole defects with Davi's technique: Anatomical study and clinical series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Llanos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los defectos del tercio superior auricular son un desafío reconstructivo. Están descritas diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas para este fin con resultados a veces desfavorables Realizamos un estudio anatómico en cadáveres frescos que mostró la presencia constante de un pedículo neurovascular que penetra la raíz del hélix. Mostramos la localización y los diámetros de los vasos. Basándonos en este estudio anatómico, presentamos una serie de 10 casos consecutivos tratados por el autor principal. Analizamos la etiología, técnica quirúrgica, complicaciones y resultado a largo plazo. La técnica del autor introduce refinamientos a la técnica de Davis, el cual usa un colgajo condrocutáneo de concha auricular basado en la rama superior de la arteria temporal superficial y un colgajo cutáneo axial de base superior basado en la arteria retroauricular, para crear el nuevo hélix auricular superior. El aspecto posterior de este colgajo condrocutáneo se cubre con un injerto de piel total. En un segundo tiempo empleamos una zetaplastia de la base del hélix que nos dará una mejor forma. El estudio anatómico demostró la presencia de un pedículo neurovascular que penetra la raíz del hélix. La serie clínica está compuesta por 8 defectos postraumáticos, una quemadura eléctrica y un tumor de piel. Todos los colgajos condrocutáneos de concha auricular sobrevivieron comprobándose la seguridad del pedículo del hélix. Dos colgajos retroauriculares presentaron sufrimiento vascular transitorio distal, uno de ellos con recuperación completa y otro con necrosis distal mínima. Dos casos sufrieron pérdida parcial del injerto de piel total. Durante el desarrollo de la serie descubrimos algunos detalles de la técnica quirúrgica, que ahora discutimos en el artículo. Todos los pacientes recuperaron el contorno auricular, obteniendo los mejores resultados en aquellos en los que se aplicaron los refinamientos descritos. En conclusión, creemos

  2. Lower pole calculi larger than one centimeter: Retrograde intrarenal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas J Gross

    2008-01-01

    The technical developments in laser technology as well as significant improvement in flexible renoscopes have made RIRS for larger lower pole stones possible. The low complication rate gives RIRS for lower pole stones superiority over the invasive percutaneous approach, which is associated with significant morbidity, even in experienced hands.

  3. The Impact of Single Session Intermittent Theta-Burst Stimulation over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus on Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Chang Ni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, a patterned repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, was applied over the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC to explore its impact in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Among 25 adults with ASD, 19 (mean age: 20.8 years completed the randomized, sham-controlled, crossover trial. Every participant received iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC, bilateral pSTS and inion (as a sham control stimulation in a randomized order with a 1-week interval. Neuropsychological functions were assessed using the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Behavioral outcomes were measured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS. In comparison to that in the sham stimulation, the reaction time in the CCPT significantly decreased following single DLPFC session (p = 0.04, effect size = 0.71 while there were no significant differences in the CCPT and WCST following single pSTS session. Besides, the results in behavioral outcomes were inconsistent and had discrepancy between reports of parents and patients. In conclusion, a single session of iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC may alter the neuropsychological function in adults with ASD. The impacts of multiple-sessions iTBS over the DLPFC or pSTS deserve further investigations.

  4. Activity changes in the left superior temporal sulcus reflect the effects of childcare training on young female students' perceptions of infants' negative facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ayahito; Niwano, Katsuko; Tanabe, Motoko; Sato, Yosuke; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2017-09-12

    In many developed countries, the number of infants who experience non-parent childcare is increasing, and the role of preschool teachers is becoming more important. However, little attention has been paid to the effects of childcare training on students who are studying to become preschool teachers. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether and how childcare training affects brain responses to infants' facial expressions among young females studying to become preschool teachers. Twenty-seven subjects who attended a childcare training session (i.e., the experimental group) and 28 subjects who did not attend the training (i.e., the control group) participated in this study. The participants went through fMRI scanning twice: before and after the childcare training session. They were presented with happy, neutral, and sad infant faces one by one during fMRI scanning. The present neuroimaging results revealed that the activity patterns of the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) for sad faces were modulated by the interaction between the time point of the data collection and group differences. The present results are the first to highlight the effects of childcare training on the human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Action word Related to Walk Heard by the Ears Activates Visual Cortex and Superior Temporal Gyrus: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Osaka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience of language of action processing is one of the interesting issues on the cortical “seat” of word meaning and related action (Pulvermueller, 1999 Behavioral Brain Sciences 22 253–336. For example, generation of action verbs referring to various arm or leg actions (e.g., pick or kick differentially activate areas along the motor strip that overlap with those areas activated by actual movement of the fingers or feet (Hauk et al., 2004 Neuron 41 301–307. Meanwhile, mimic words like onomatopoeia have the other potential to selectively and strongly stimulate specific brain regions having a specified “seat” of action meaning. In fact, mimic words highly suggestive of laughter and gaze significantly activated the extrastriate visual /premotor cortices and the frontal eye field, respectively (Osaka et al., 2003 Neuroscience Letters 340 127–130; 2009 Neuroscience Letters 461 65–68. However, the role of a mimic word related to walk on specific brain regions has not yet been investigated. The present study showed that a mimic word highly suggestive of human walking, heard by the ears with eyes closed, significantly activated the visual cortex located in extrastriate cortex and superior temporal gyrus while hearing non-sense words that did not imply walk under the same task did not activate these areas. These areas would be a critical region for generating visual images of walking and related action.

  6. A moving-barber-pole illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Chubb, Charles; Sperling, George

    2014-05-01

    In the barber-pole illusion (BPI), a diagonally moving grating is perceived as moving vertically because of the shape of the vertically oriented window through which it is viewed-a strong shape-motion interaction. We introduce a novel stimulus-the moving barber pole-in which a diagonal, drifting sinusoidal carrier is windowed by a raised, vertical, drifting sinusoidal modulator that moves independently of the carrier. In foveal vision, the moving-barber-pole stimulus can be perceived as several active barber poles drifting horizontally but also as other complex dynamic patterns. In peripheral vision, pure vertical motion (the moving-barber-pole illusion [MBPI]) is perceived for a wide range of conditions. In foveal vision, the MBPI is observed, but only when the higher-order modulator motion is masked. Theories to explain the BPI make indiscriminable predictions in a standard barber-pole display. But, in moving-barber-pole stimuli, the motion directions of features (e.g., end stops) of the first-order carrier and of the higher-order modulator are all different from the MBPI. High temporal frequency stimuli viewed peripherally greatly reduce the effectiveness of higher-order motion mechanisms and, ideally, isolate a single mechanism responsible for the MBPI. A three-stage motion-path integration mechanism that (a) computes local motion energies, (b) integrates them for a limited time period along various spatial paths, and (c) selects the path with the greatest motion energy, quantitatively accounts for these high-frequency data. The MBPI model also accounts for the perceived motion-direction in peripherally viewed moving-barber-pole stimuli that do and do not exhibit the MBPI over the entire range of modulator (0-10 Hz) and carrier (2.5-10 Hz) temporal frequencies tested.

  7. RELN-expressing neuron density in layer I of the superior temporal lobe is similar in human brains with autism and in age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2014-09-05

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A case of double depressor palsy followed by pursuit deficit due to sequential infarction in bilateral thalamus and right medial superior temporal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Yeom, Myeong In; Lee, Seung Uk

    2016-12-05

    We present a unique case of a patient who suffered two rare events affecting the supranuclear control, first of the vertical and second of the horizontal eye movements. The first event involved bilateral thalamic infarcts that resulted in double depressor palsy. The second event occurred 1 year later and it involved supranuclear control of horizontal eye movements creating pursuit deficit. A 47-year-old male presented with complaints of diplopia upon awakening. He had atrial fibrillation, mitral valve regurgitation, aortic valve regurgitation, and a history of spleen infarction 1 year ago. His right eye was hypertrophic and right eye downgaze was limited unilaterally of equal degree in adduction and abduction. The patient was diagnosed with double depressor palsy of the right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed an old infarction of the left thalamus, and diffusion MRI showed acute infarction of the right thalamus. The patient's daily warfarin dose was 2 mg and it was increased to 5 mg with cilostazol 75 mg twice a day. Seven weeks later, the patient's ocular movement revealed near normal muscle action, and subjectively, the patient was diplopia free. At follow-up 12 months later, the patient revisited the hospital because of sudden onset of blurred vision on right gaze. He was observed to have smooth pursuit deficit to the right side, and orthophoric position of the eyes in primary gaze. MRI of the brain showed an acute infarction in the right medial superior temporal area. The patient experienced very rare abnormal eyeball movements twice. This case highlights the importance of evaluating vertical movement of the eyes and vascular supplies when patients present with depressor deficit and supports the theory of a supranuclear function in patients who present with pursuit deficit.

  9. Lower pole stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanguedolce, Francesco; Breda, Alberto; Millan, Felix

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess efficacy and safety of prone- and supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for the treatment of lower pole kidney stones. METHODS: Data from patients affected by lower pole kidney stones and treated with PCNL between December 2005 and August 2010 were collected retrospectivel...

  10. Absent activation in medial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction but not superior temporal sulcus during the perception of biological motion in schizophrenia: a functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Naoki Hashimoto,1,2 Atsuhito Toyomaki,1 Masahiro Hirai,3 Tamaki Miyamoto,1 Hisashi Narita,1 Ryo Okubo,1 Ichiro Kusumi1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 2Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Center for Development of Advanced Medical Technology, Jichi Medical University, Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan Background: Patients with schizophrenia show disturbances in both visual perception and social cognition. Perception of biological motion (BM is a higher-level visual process, and is known to be associated with social cognition. BM induces activation in the “social brain network”, including the superior temporal sulcus (STS. Although deficits in the detection of BM and atypical activation in the STS have been reported in patients with schizophrenia, it remains unclear whether other nodes of the “social brain network” are also atypical in patients with schizophrenia.Purpose: We aimed to explore whether brain regions other than STS were involved during BM perception in patients with schizophrenia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI.Methods and patients: Seventeen patients with schizophrenia, and 17 age- and sex- matched healthy controls, underwent fMRI scanning during a one-back visual task, containing three experimental conditions: (1 BM, (2 scrambled motion (SM, and (3 static condition. We used one-sample t-tests to examine neural responses selective to BM versus SM within each group, and two-sample t-tests to directly compare neural patterns to BM versus SM in schizophrenics versus controls.Results: We found significant activation in the STS region when BM was contrasted with SM in both groups, with no significant difference between groups. On the contrary, significant activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC and bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ was found only in the

  11. Vertical and temporal variability in concentration and distribution of thaumarchaeotal tetraether lipids in Lake Superior and the implications for the application of the TEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, M.; Werne, J.P.; Kish, J.L.; Hicks, R.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the vertical and temporal distribution of Thaumarchaeota derived core isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids through sampling and analysis of both suspended particulate matter from the water column at different times in the annual cycle and a 3 year lon

  12. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia: The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-José van Tol

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: Results suggest that STG GM abnormalities underlie the general susceptibility to experience psychotic symptoms and that additional abnormalities in a network of medial temporal, ventrolateral, putaminal, and parietal regions related to verbal memory and speech production may specifically increase the likelihood of experiencing AVH. Future studies should clarify the meaning of morphometry abnormalities for functional interregional communication.

  13. Time Course of the Involvement of the Right Anterior Superior Temporal Gyrus and the Right Fronto-Parietal Operculum in Emotional Prosody Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekert, Marjolijn; Bais, Leonie; Kahn, Rene S.; Aleman, Andre

    2008-01-01

    In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody) conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional

  14. Rad Pole Cam Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckendorn, F. M.; Odell, D. M. C; Harpring, L. J.; Peterson, K. D.

    2005-10-05

    The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations.

  15. Constraining gluon poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Anikin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we revise the QED gauge invariance for the hadron tensor of Drell–Yan type processes with the transversely polarized hadron. We perform our analysis within the Feynman gauge for gluons and make a comparison with the results obtained within the light-cone gauge. We demonstrate that QED gauge invariance leads, first, to the need of a non-standard diagram and, second, to the absence of gluon poles in the correlators 〈ψ¯γ⊥A+ψ〉 related traditionally to dT(x,x/dx. As a result, these terms disappear from the final QED gauge invariant hadron tensor. We also verify the absence of such poles by analyzing the corresponding light-cone Dirac algebra.

  16. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  17. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  18. Induction Motor with Switchable Number of Poles and Toroidal Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU, A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of an induction motor provided with toroidal stator winding. The ring-type coils offer a higher versatility in obtaining a different number of pole pairs by means of delta/star and series/parallel connections respectively. As consequence, the developed torque can vary within large limits and the motor can be utilized for applications that require, for example, high load torque values for a short time. The study involves experimental tests and FEM simulation for an induction machine with three configurations of pole pairs. The conclusions attest the superiority of the toroidal winding for certain applications such as electric vehicles or lifting machines.

  19. Application of MRI volume rendering in surgical approach by superior temporal sulcus-temporal horn of lateral ventricle%MRI容量重建技术在颞上沟-侧脑室颞角手术入路选择中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白芃; 刘彩霞; 贾林沛; 刘浩源; 苏略; 孙维; 李幼琼

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过测量经颞上沟-侧脑室颞角手术入路的相关数据,初步定位大脑背外侧面颞上沟进入侧脑室最短距离的点,寻找经颞上沟进入侧脑室颞角的最佳手术入路点。方法:选取120例成年人脑部 MRI扫描标本,利用容量重建技术构建大脑三维立体模型,测得颞上沟的长度 S1。沿垂直于颞叶长轴的方向以1.0 mm间距切割得到多个冠状切面,依次测量颞上沟到侧脑室颞角的距离并确定最短距离S2,同时测量颞上沟的深度S3,测量大脑颞上沟表面相对应的最短距离点到颞上沟前端起始部的距离 S4,计算 S4与 S1的比值 M,同时测量最短距离与正中矢状位方向之间的夹角α。所有样本进行双侧测量,对比两侧的测量结果。结果:120例国人的 S1左侧为(159.56±17.55)mm,右侧为(164.35±15.07)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);S2左侧为(8.18±0.96)mm,右侧为(7.81±0.90)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);S3左侧为(12.19±1.43)mm,右侧为(11.57±1.33)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);S4左侧为(100.88±16.09)mm,右侧为(104.15±14.49)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);M左侧为(0.63±0.07),右侧为(0.63±0.06),左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);α左侧为(55.80±3.64)°,右侧为(56.46±4.17)°,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:颞上沟前端3/5处可能为理想的手术入路点,由该点进入侧脑室颞角距离最短,提示实施颞上沟-侧脑室颞角手术时该入路可减少对脑组织损伤。%Objective To acquire some related data of surgical approach through brain superior temporal sulcus to temporal horn of lateral ventricle by MRI volume rendering, and to orientate the point of superior temporal sulcus on the lateral

  20. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  1. The South Pole Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ruhl, J E; Carlstrom, J E; Cho, H M; Crawford, T; Dobbs, M; Greer, C H; Halverson, W; Holzapfel, W L; Lanting, T M; Lee, A T; Leong, J; Leitch, E M; Lu, W; Lueker, M; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C L; Schwan, D; Sharp, M K; Runyan, M C; Spieler, H; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A

    2004-01-01

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency...

  2. Contributions to singing ability by the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus of the non-language-dominant hemisphere: first evidence from subdural cortical stimulation, Wada testing, and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Ralph O; Golby, Alexandra; Whalen, Stephen; Sato, Susumu; Theodore, William H; Kufta, Conrad V; Devinsky, Orrin; Balish, Marshall; Bromfield, Edward B

    2010-03-01

    Although the substrates that mediate singing abilities in the human brain are not well understood, invasive brain mapping techniques used for clinical decision making such as intracranial electro-cortical testing and Wada testing offer a rare opportunity to examine music-related function in a select group of subjects, affording exceptional spatial and temporal specificity. We studied eight patients with medically refractory epilepsy undergoing indwelling subdural electrode seizure focus localization. All patients underwent Wada testing for language lateralization. Functional assessment of language and music tasks was done by electrode grid cortical stimulation. One patient was also tested non-invasively with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Functional organization of singing ability compared to language ability was determined based on four regions-of-interest (ROIs): left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and left and right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG). In some subjects, electrical stimulation of dominant pSTG can interfere with speech and not singing, whereas stimulation of non-dominant pSTG area can interfere with singing and not speech. Stimulation of the dominant IFG tends to interfere with both musical and language expression, while non-dominant IFG stimulation was often observed to cause no interference with either task; and finally, that stimulation of areas adjacent to but not within non-dominant pSTG typically does not affect either ability. Functional fMRI mappings of one subject revealed similar music/language dissociation with respect to activation asymmetry within the ROIs. Despite inherent limitations with respect to strictly research objectives, invasive clinical techniques offer a rare opportunity to probe musical and language cognitive processes of the brain in a select group of patients. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  3. Surmanuhtlusele pole kohta / Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikko, Marianne, 1961-

    2008-01-01

    Surmanuhtlusest kui inimõiguste rängimast rikkumisest. Lisatud: surmanuhtlus arvudes. Ilmunud ka Hiiu Leht 14. okt. 2008, lk. 2 ; Põhjarannik 16. okt. 2008, lk. 4 ; Pärnu Postimees 11. okt. 2008, lk. 19 ; Hiiu Leht : Nädalalõpp 14. nov. 2008, lk. 6, pealkiri kujul: surmanuhtlusele pole Euroopas kohta ; Meie Maa : Nädalalõpp 14. nov. 2008, lk. 6, pealkiri kujul: surmanuhtlusele pole Euroopas kohta

  4. Visual Field Map Clusters in High-Order Visual Processing: Organization of V3A/V3B and a New Cloverleaf Cluster in the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Brian; Brewer, Alyssa A

    2017-01-01

    The cortical hierarchy of the human visual system has been shown to be organized around retinal spatial coordinates throughout much of low- and mid-level visual processing. These regions contain visual field maps (VFMs) that each follows the organization of the retina, with neighboring aspects of the visual field processed in neighboring cortical locations. On a larger, macrostructural scale, groups of such sensory cortical field maps (CFMs) in both the visual and auditory systems are organized into roughly circular cloverleaf clusters. CFMs within clusters tend to share properties such as receptive field distribution, cortical magnification, and processing specialization. Here we use fMRI and population receptive field (pRF) modeling to investigate the extent of VFM and cluster organization with an examination of higher-level visual processing in temporal cortex and compare these measurements to mid-level visual processing in dorsal occipital cortex. In human temporal cortex, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) has been implicated in various neuroimaging studies as subserving higher-order vision, including face processing, biological motion perception, and multimodal audiovisual integration. In human dorsal occipital cortex, the transverse occipital sulcus (TOS) contains the V3A/B cluster, which comprises two VFMs subserving mid-level motion perception and visuospatial attention. For the first time, we present the organization of VFMs in pSTS in a cloverleaf cluster. This pSTS cluster contains four VFMs bilaterally: pSTS-1:4. We characterize these pSTS VFMs as relatively small at ∼125 mm(2) with relatively large pRF sizes of ∼2-8° of visual angle across the central 10° of the visual field. V3A and V3B are ∼230 mm(2) in surface area, with pRF sizes here similarly ∼1-8° of visual angle across the same region. In addition, cortical magnification measurements show that a larger extent of the pSTS VFM surface areas are devoted to the peripheral

  5. T'ain't what you say, it's the way that you say it--left insula and inferior frontal cortex work in interaction with superior temporal regions to control the performance of vocal impersonations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Manly, Tom; Wisbey, Duncan; Scott, Sophie K

    2013-11-01

    Historically, the study of human identity perception has focused on faces, but the voice is also central to our expressions and experiences of identity [Belin, P., Fecteau, S., & Bedard, C. Thinking the voice: Neural correlates of voice perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 129-135, 2004]. Our voices are highly flexible and dynamic; talkers speak differently, depending on their health, emotional state, and the social setting, as well as extrinsic factors such as background noise. However, to date, there have been no studies of the neural correlates of identity modulation in speech production. In the current fMRI experiment, we measured the neural activity supporting controlled voice change in adult participants performing spoken impressions. We reveal that deliberate modulation of vocal identity recruits the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus, supporting the planning of novel articulations. Bilateral sites in posterior superior temporal/inferior parietal cortex and a region in right middle/anterior STS showed greater responses during the emulation of specific vocal identities than for impressions of generic accents. Using functional connectivity analyses, we describe roles for these three sites in their interactions with the brain regions supporting speech planning and production. Our findings mark a significant step toward understanding the neural control of vocal identity, with wider implications for the cognitive control of voluntary motor acts.

  6. Characteristics of the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of China’s Superiority Olympic Events%我国奥运优势项目时空演变发展特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓林; 任德利; 袁锋

    2015-01-01

    In the present project,we looked at the number of gold medals that China has won at the Olympic Sum-mer and Winter Games,the places of origin of the gold medalists,and the characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of the gold-winning sports events. Temporally,we found a wave-like upward pattern in the number of gold medals,and that superiority events are mainly distributed among six events,i. e. ,weightlifting,gymnastics div-ing,shooting,table tennis and badminton, in four major subgroups of events:the speed-and-power-demanding, the difficulty-and-beauty-demanding,the accuracy-demanding,and the net events,the first subgroup being based on fit-ness and the latter three on skill. The superiority Olympic events have contributed 74. 6%of all gold medals won by China at the Olympic Games,with an uneven regional distribution,showing a difference in quality longitudinally and one in quantity latitudinally. These events are distributed over three regions,which are rated as strong,fairly strong and weak respectively. For the comprehensive upgrade of China’s competitiveness in the Olympic events,we suggest deepening the priority development strategy,seizing the opportunity for national coordinated regional development to promote coordinated regional development of competitive sports,working for an even distribution and development of the superiority Olympic events,and broadening development paths.%利用文献资料法、数理统计法与比较研究法等,对我国所参加的历届夏季奥运会与冬季奥运会所获金牌数量、金牌运动员籍贯以及金牌项目的时空分布特征进行研究。结果表明:我国奥运会金牌总数在时间分布上呈现波浪式前进态势;我国奥运优势项目主要分布在体能主导类的快速力量性,技能主导类的表现难美性、表现准确性、隔网对抗性四大亚项群的举重、体操与跳水、射击、乒乓球与羽毛球六个项目;奥运优势

  7. Cochlear implant outcomes in patients with superior canal dehiscence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Roberts, Daniel S.; Niesten, Marlien E F; Dilger, Amanda E.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether adult cochlear implant (CI) users with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) or asymptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) have different surgical, vestibular, and audiologic outcomes when compared to CI users with normal temporal bone anatomy. Meth

  8. Low loss pole configuration for multi-pole homopolar magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakun, Claef F. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A new pole configuration for multi-pole homopolar bearings proposed in this invention reduces rotational losses caused by eddy-currents generated when non-uniform flux distributions exist along the rotor surfaces. The new homopolar magnetic bearing includes a stator with reduced pole-to-pole and exhibits a much more uniform rotor flux than with large pole-to-pole gaps. A pole feature called a pole-link is incorporated into the low-loss poles to provide a uniform pole-to-pole gap and a controlled path for pole-to-pole flux. In order to implement the low-loss pole configuration of magnetic bearings with small pole-to-pole gaps, a new stator configuration was developed to facilitate installation of coil windings. The stator was divided into sector shaped pieces, as many pieces as there are poles. Each sector-shaped pole-piece can be wound on a standard coil winding machine, and it is practical to wind precision layer wound coils. To achieve maximum actuation efficiency, it is desirable to use all the available space for the coil formed by the natural geometric configuration. Then, the coils can be wound in a tapered shape. After winding, the sectored-pole-pieces are installed into and fastened by bonding or other means, to a ring of material which encloses the sectored-pole-pieces, forming a complete stator.

  9. Calligraphic Poling for WGM Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohageg, Makan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Ilchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-01

    By engineering the geometry of a nonlinear optical crystal, the effective efficiency of all nonlinear optical oscillations can be increased dramatically. Specifically, sphere and disk shaped crystal resonators have been used to demonstrate nonlinear optical oscillations at sub-milliwatt input power when cs light propagates in a Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) of such a resonant cavity. in terms of both device production and experimentation in quantum optics, some nonlinear optical effects with naturally high efficiency can occult the desired nonlinear scattering process. the structure to the crystal resonator. In this paper, I will discuss a new method for generating poling structures in ferroelectric crystal resonators called calligraphic poling. The details of the poling apparatus, experimental results and speculation on future applications will be discussed.

  10. Calligraphic Poling of Ferroelectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohageg, Makan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Adrey; Maleki, Lute; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Calligraphic poling is a technique for generating an arbitrary, possibly complex pattern of localized reversal in the direction of permanent polarization in a wafer of LiNbO3 or other ferroelectric material. The technique is so named because it involves a writing process in which a sharp electrode tip is moved across a surface of the wafer to expose the wafer to a polarizing electric field in the desired pattern. The technique is implemented by use of an apparatus, denoted a calligraphic poling machine (CPM), that includes the electrode and other components as described in more detail below.

  11. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  12. Kool pole vabrik / Peeter Kreitzberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreitzberg, Peeter, 1948-2011

    2003-01-01

    Riigikogu liige Peeter Kreitzberg nimetab Res Publica kavandatavat koolireformi kirvereformiks, mis ei lähtu hariduse põhiprobleemidest. Autor pooldab haridusvõimaluste regionaalset võrdsust ning leiab, et hariduses pole vaja võistlust mõttetult õhutada

  13. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  14. Kool pole vabrik / Peeter Kreitzberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreitzberg, Peeter, 1948-2011

    2003-01-01

    Riigikogu liige Peeter Kreitzberg nimetab Res Publica kavandatavat koolireformi kirvereformiks, mis ei lähtu hariduse põhiprobleemidest. Autor pooldab haridusvõimaluste regionaalset võrdsust ning leiab, et hariduses pole vaja võistlust mõttetult õhutada

  15. Resonance poles in three-body systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, B. C.; Afnan, I. R.

    1984-12-01

    We develop a method for finding resonance poles in Faddeev equations. The method is computationally simpler than previous methods and is based on the rotation of contour technique. It is applied to πd elastic scattering with coupling to the NΔ channel. The position of the pole is compared with predictions based on Argand diagram and speed analysis. We find that the conventional methods are unreliable if the pole is further from the real axis than the Δ resonance pole.

  16. Mechanical behaviour of cross-country ski racing poles during double poling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Karlöf, Lars

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of cross-country ski poles during double poling on a treadmill using three-dimensional kinematics. The results were compared with standard laboratory tests of the pole manufacturers. A total of 18 skiers were analysed at two speeds (85% and 95% of the maximal speed) at grades of 1.5% and 7%. Variables describing cycle characteristics, bending stiffness, bending behaviour, and trajectories of the pole markers were analysed. Triangular-shaped poles demonstrated the greatest stiffness and lowest variability in maximal bending. Softer poles demonstrated greater variability in bending behaviour and lost ground contact at high skiing speeds, which for some skiers resulted in failure to complete high-speed tests. Considerable variations in pole behaviour for similar poles between skiers were observed, which might be attributed to differences in technique, indicating that mechanical properties of the poles did not exclusively determine pole behaviour in the dynamic situation. The greatest magnitude of pole bending was in the middle part of the pole, which differed from the standard static pole analysis of the manufacturer. Increases in grade demonstrated the greatest effect on pole bending. Distinct differences from the pole manufacturers' laboratory measures were apparent, suggesting that basic pole testing might be adapted.

  17. 精神分裂症患者颞上回的大麻素受体密度没有显著性变化%No changes in densities of cannabinoid receptors in the superior temporal gyrus in schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓超; 韩玫; 黄旭枫

    2007-01-01

    目的 近年来研究发现,在精神分裂症患者的内源性大麻素递质系统会出现异常变化,而颞上回在精神分裂症的病理生理机制中和幻听症状密切相关.因此,对照正常人群,我们研究了精神分裂症患者颞上回大麻素CB-1受体的密度变化.方法 采用定量放射自显影技术,通过[3H]SR141716A(CB-1受体选择性拮抗剂)和[3H]CP-55940(CB-1受体激动剂)检测颞上回CB-1受体密度水平.死后脑组织由澳大利亚新南威尔士州组织资源中心提供.结果 先前研究发现,精神分裂症患者与认知功能失常相关的额前叶,前、后扣带回皮质的CB-1受体密度水平有异常改变.与此相反,本研究发现在精神分裂症患者的由[3H]SR141716A和[3H]CP-55940检测的颞上回大麻素受体密度水平和对照组比较没有显著变化.结论 我们认为颞上回大麻素CB-1受体和精神分裂症患者的发病及幻听症状无关.%Objective In recent years, abnormal changes in the endocannabinoid system have been found in schizophrenia.The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, particularly with regards to auditory hallucinations. In this study, we investigated the binding density of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the STG of schizophrenia patients compared to control subjects. Methods Quantitative autoradiography was used to investigate the binding densities of [3H]SR141716A (a selective antagonist) and [3H]CP-55940 (an agonist) to the CB1 receptors in the STG. Post-mortem brain tissue was obtained from the NSW Tissue Resource Centre (Australia). Results Contrasting to previous findings in the alterations of CB1 receptor densities in the prefrontal, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex of schizophrenia, which were suggested to be associated to impairment of cognition function, no significant difference was found between the schizophrenia and control cases in both [3H]SR141716A and [3H]CP-55940

  18. The North Ecliptic Pole Supercluster

    OpenAIRE

    Mullis, C. R.; Henry, J. P.; Gioia, I. M.; Boehringer, H.; Briel, U. G.; Voges, W.; Huchra, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    We have used the ROSAT All-Sky Survey to detect a known supercluster at z=0.087 in the North Ecliptic Pole region. The X-ray data greatly improve our understanding of this supercluster's characteristics, approximately doubling our knowledge of the structure's spatial extent and tripling the cluster/group membership compared to the optical discovery data. The supercluster is a rich structure consisting of at least 21 galaxy clusters and groups, 12 AGN, 61 IRAS galaxies, and various other objec...

  19. The North Ecliptic Pole Supercluster

    CERN Document Server

    Mullis, C R; Gioia, I M; Böhringer, H; Briel, U G; Voges, W; Huchra, J P

    2001-01-01

    We have used the ROSAT All-Sky Survey to detect a known supercluster at z=0.087 in the North Ecliptic Pole region. The X-ray data greatly improve our understanding of this supercluster's characteristics, approximately doubling our knowledge of the structure's spatial extent and tripling the cluster/group membership compared to the optical discovery data. The supercluster is a rich structure consisting of at least 21 galaxy clusters and groups, 12 AGN, 61 IRAS galaxies, and various other objects. A majority of these components were discovered with the X-ray data, but the supercluster is also robustly detected in optical, IR, and UV wavebands. Extending 129 x 102 x 67 (1/h50 Mpc)^3, the North Ecliptic Pole Supercluster has a flattened shape oriented nearly edge-on to our line-of-sight. Owing to the softness of the ROSAT X-ray passband and the deep exposure over a large solid angle, we have detected for the first time a significant population of X-ray emitting galaxy groups in a supercluster. These results demon...

  20. New pole placement algorithm - Polynomial matrix approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafai, B.; Keel, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    A simple and direct pole-placement algorithm is introduced for dynamical systems having a block companion matrix A. The algorithm utilizes well-established properties of matrix polynomials. Pole placement is achieved by appropriately assigning coefficient matrices of the corresponding matrix polynomial. This involves only matrix additions and multiplications without requiring matrix inversion. A numerical example is given for the purpose of illustration.

  1. Characterization of thermally poled germanosilicate thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, A.; Digonnet, M.J.F.; Kino, G.S.; Ay, F.; Aydinli, A.

    2004-01-01

    We report measurements of the nonlinearity profile of thermally poled low-loss germanosilicate films deposited on fused-silica substrates by PECVD, of interest as potential electro-optic devices. The profiles of films grown and poled under various conditions all exhibit a sharp peak similar to0.5 mu

  2. Macro Fiber Piezocomposite Actuator Poling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlink, Rudy J.; Bryant, Robert G.; Manos, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    The performance and advantages of Piezocomposite Actuators are to provide a low cost, in-situ actuator/sensor that is flexible, low profile and high strain per volt performance in the same plane of poled voltage. This paper extends reported data for the performance of these Macrofiber Composite (MFC) Actuators to include 4 progressively narrower Intedigitized electrode configurations with several line widths and spacing ratios. Data is reported for max free strain, average strain per applied volt, poling (alignment of the electric dipoles of the PZT ceramic) voltage vs. strain and capacitance, time to poling voltage 95% saturation. The output strain per volt progressively increases as electrode spacing decreases, with saturation occurring at lower poling voltages. The narrowest spacing ratio becomes prone to voltage breakdown or short circuits limiting the spacing width with current fabrication methods. The capacitance generally increases with increasing poling voltage level but has high sensitivity to factors such as temperature, moisture and time from poling which limit its usefulness as a simple indicator. The total time of applied poling voltage to saturate or fully line up the dipoles in the piezoceramic was generally on the order of 5-20 seconds. Less sensitivity to poling due to the applied rate of voltage increase over a 25 to 500 volt/second rate range was observed.

  3. Miks pole Eestis edukat keskklassi? / Heimar Lenk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lenk, Heimar, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Riigikogu liikme sõnul pole Eesti häda mitte rikaste rikkuses, vaid selles, et meil pole välja kujunenud keskklassi. Eestis puudub keskklass seetõttu, et rahvas on majanduslikult liialt kihistunud, tugevalt paremale kaldu poliitika on soodustanud vaid kitsa kildkonna rikastumist

  4. Characterization of thermally poled germanosilicate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, A.; Digonnet, M. J. F.; Kino, G. S.; Ay, F.; Aydinli, A.

    2004-10-01

    We report measurements of the nonlinearity profile of thermally poled low-loss germanosilicate films deposited on fused-silica substrates by PECVD, of interest as potential electro-optic devices. The profiles of films grown and poled under various conditions all exhibit a sharp peak ~0.5 μm beneath the anode surface, followed by a weaker pedestal of approximately constant amplitude down to a depth of 13-16 μm, without the sign reversal typical of poled undoped fused silica. These features suggest that during poling, the films significantly slow down the injection of positive ions into the structure. After local optimization, we demonstrate a record peak nonlinear coefficient of ~1.6 pm/V, approximately twice as strong as the highest reliable value reported in thermally poled fused silica glass, a significant improvement that was qualitatively expected from the presence of Ge.

  5. Pole placement with constant gain output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, B.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Given a linear time invariant multivariable system with m inputs and p outputs, it was shown that p closed loop poles of the system can be preassigned arbitrarily using constant gain output feedback provided (A circumflex, B circumflex) is controllable. These data show that if (A circumflex, B circumflex, C circumflex) is controllable and observable, and Rank B circumflex = m, Rank C circumflex = p, then max (m,p) poles of the system can be assigned arbitarily using constant gain output feedback. Further, it is shown that in some cases more than max (m,p) poles can be arbitrarily assigned. A least square design technique is outlined to approximate the desired pole locations when it is not possible to place all the poles.

  6. Baryon transition form factors at the pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiator, L.; Döring, M.; Workman, R. L.; Hadžimehmedović, M.; Osmanović, H.; Omerović, R.; Stahov, J.; Švarc, A.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic resonance properties are uniquely defined at the pole and do not depend on the separation of the resonance from background or the decay channel. Photon-nucleon branching ratios are nowadays often quoted at the pole, and we generalize the considerations to the case of virtual photons. We derive and compare relations for nucleon to baryon transition form factors both for the Breit-Wigner and the pole positions. Using the MAID2007 and SAID SM08 partial wave analyses of pion electroproduction data, we compare the GM, GE, and GC form factors for the Δ (1232 ) resonance excitation at the Breit-Wigner resonance and pole positions up to Q2=5 GeV2 . We also explore the E /M and S /M ratios as functions of Q2. For pole and residue extraction, we apply the Laurent + Pietarinen method.

  7. Baryon transition form factors at the pole

    CERN Document Server

    Tiator, L; Workman, R L; Hadžimehmedović, M; Osmanović, H; Omerović, R; Stahov, J; Švarc, A

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic resonance properties are uniquely defined at the pole and do not depend on the separation of the resonance from background or the decay channel. Photon-nucleon branching ratios are nowadays often quoted at the pole, and we generalize the considerations to the case of virtual photons. We derive and compare relations for nucleon to baryon transition form factors both for the Breit-Wigner and the pole positions. Using the MAID2007 and SAID SM08 partial wave analyses of pion electroproduction data, we compare the $G_M$, $G_E$, and $G_C$ form factors for the $\\Delta(1232)$ resonance excitation at the Breit-Wigner resonance and pole positions up to $Q^2=5$ GeV$^2$. We also explore the $E/M$ and $S/M$ ratios as functions of $Q^2$. For pole and residue extraction, we apply the Laurent + Pietarinen method.

  8. Planar glass devices for efficient periodic poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that frequency-converting devices of high quality can be realised with glass poling. The devices, made with silica-on-silicon technology, are poled with periodic, embedded electrodes, and used for second-harmonic generation. We obtain precise control of the quasi phase-matching wav......We demonstrate that frequency-converting devices of high quality can be realised with glass poling. The devices, made with silica-on-silicon technology, are poled with periodic, embedded electrodes, and used for second-harmonic generation. We obtain precise control of the quasi phase......-matching wavelength and bandwidth, and a normalised conversion efficiency of 1.4×10-3 %/W/cm2 which, to our knowledge, is the highest obtained so far with periodic glass poling....

  9. Baryon transition form factors at the pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiator, L.; Döring, M.; Workman, R. L.; Hadžimehmedović, M.; Osmanović, H.; Omerović, R.; Stahov, J.; Švarc, A.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic resonance properties are uniquely defined at the pole and do not depend on the separation of the resonance from background or the decay channel. Photon-nucleon branching ratios are nowadays often quoted at the pole, and we generalize the considerations to the case of virtual photons. We derive and compare relations for nucleon to baryon transition form factors both for the Breit-Wigner and the pole positions. Using the MAID2007 and SAID SM08 partial wave analyses of pion electroproduction data, we compare the $G_M$, $G_E$, and $G_C$ form factors for the $\\Delta(1232)$ resonance excitation at the Breit-Wigner resonance and pole positions up to $Q^2=5$ GeV$^2$. We also explore the $E/M$ and $S/M$ ratios as functions of $Q^2$. For pole and residue extraction, we apply the Laurent + Pietarinen method.

  10. Cambio climático y dinámica temporal del paisaje y de los hábitats en las ecorregiones del NW de la Península Ibérica durante el Pleistoceno superior

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Sobrino, C.; Iriarte, M. J.; Ramil-Rego, P.; L. Gómez-Orellana

    2005-01-01

    En los últimos 60 años los modelos propuestos para la interpretación de las condiciones ambientales a lo largo del Pleistoceno Superior Final han sufrido numerosos cambios determinados tanto por la adopción de nuevos conceptos científicos, como por la mejora de los métodos analíticos y sobre todo por un mayor número de registros disponibles. Del uniformismo ambiental y biogeográfico imperante a finales de la década de los ochenta, se ha pasado a incrementar el valor que las configuraciones de...

  11. Intervenção em fisioterapia, baseada no conceito de Bobath, consegue influenciar a relação neural entre o membro superior e o membro inferior, na linha temporal dos APAS's?

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Joana Cristina Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: A atividade de músculos e /ou grupos musculares que se ativam de forma estereotipada no decorrer de tarefas funcionais continua pouco compreendida nos indivíduos pós acidente vascular encefálico (AVE). A relação neural atípica entre o membro inferior (MI) e o membro superior (MS) expressa-se frequentemente através de um predomínio da atividade extensora no MI associada a componentes flexores no MS. Objectivo(s): Face ao exposto, importa perceber se em sujeitos com componente flexo...

  12. Holography with a Landau pole

    CERN Document Server

    Faedo, Anton F; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrio, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is $d=4$, $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills coupled to $N_f$ quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale $\\Lambda_{LP}$. The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies $E \\ll \\Lambda_{LP}$ no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales $E \\lesssim \\Lambda_{LP}$ the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures $T \\lesssim \\Lambda_{LP}$ the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singular...

  13. Feynman rules of higher-order poles in CHY construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rijun; Feng, Bo; Luo, Ming-xing; Zhu, Chuan-Jie

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we generalize the integration rules for scattering equations to situations where higher-order poles are present. We describe the strategy to deduce the Feynman rules of higher-order poles from known analytic results of simple CHY-integrands, and propose the Feynman rules for single double pole and triple pole as well as duplex-double pole and triplex-double pole structures. We demonstrate the validation and strength of these rules by ample non-trivial examples.

  14. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  15. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  16. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  17. VT Green Mountain Power Pole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Green Mountain Power (GMP) pole and OVERHEAD linear distribution/sub-transmission model data. THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION LAYER ONLY INCLUDES OVERHEAD...

  18. Endistel ajateenijatel pole karistust karta / Holger Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roonemaa, Holger

    2007-01-01

    Kevadtormi õppusel kaitseväe korda rikkunud Kuperjanovi pataljoni endistel ajateenijatel pole karistust karta, sest karistust saab määrata vaid teenistusaja jooksul. Lisa: Kuperjanovis oli vähe korda

  19. NATO poliitik : Eestil pole venelastega probleeme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    NATO Parlamentaarse Assamblee poliitik Niki Bettendorf, kes kontrollis Eestis Venemaa etteheiteid, nagu rikutaks Eestis ja Lätis vene vähemuse õigusi, kinnitas, et Eestis pole suuri probleeme vene vähemusega

  20. A Comparative Analysis of the New Five-Pole and Three-Pole Active Magnet Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Vakili

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more attention has been given to the active AMBs thanks to their low maintenance cost, suitability for clean environments, and high speed. One of the popular types of AMBs is the three-pole type with integrated and separate cores. Some deficiencies of this type of bearing are its high oscillation, low stability and low efficiency. This paper seeks to analyse the three-pole AMBs and describe their deficiencies and introduce and analyse a new five-pole AMB. The model thus proposed has lower oscillation as well as more stability and efficiency. The five-pole AMB has been simulated by a controller in the presence of disturbance. The results of simulation demonstrate lower vibration and oscillation in the five-pole AMB in comparison with the three-pole model.

  1. Upper mesosphere dynamical behavior near South Pole

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Gonzalo; Smith,Roger W.

    1997-01-01

    Recent ground-based measurements of the neutral winds and temperatures at mesospheric heights near the Earth's rotational pole, at Amundsen-Scott Station, show that the neutral atmosphere has a restricted zonal wavenumber behavior at very-high latitudes. This can be interpreted as the natural response of the atmosphere to the boundary conditions at the rotational pole (s). Experimentally, mostly planetary-scale waves have been observed during the austral winter.

  2. Self Assembly and Pyroelectric Poling for Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    ozone or nitrogen oxides) and energetic species from corona discharge . These problems can strongly inhibit the efficient poling and large-scale...respectively. In this idealized model , a modest temperature change (10 to 50 °C) will lead to a considerably large electrostatic field in a thin film dielectric...measurement); (e) contact poling. 4. Systematically analyze electrostatics models to quantify electric field generation from commonly used pyroelectric

  3. Poles apart: Scott, Amundsen and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Edward J

    2011-12-01

    One hundred years ago, teams led by Roald Amundsen and Robert Scott may have been heading in the same direction but they were poles apart in the way they sought their goals. Amundsen led a five-person team of expert Nordic skiers and dog-sledders with a single goal: getting to the South Pole first. He planned and executed the effort brilliantly. Scott, in contrast, led a complex and multi-faceted Antarctic expedition with 33 explorers and scientists, many of whom were focused on ambitious and often taxing scientific research projects that had nothing whatsoever to do with reaching the Pole. Although Scott failed to reach the South Pole first and died with four men on the return trip, his expedition made significant contributions to Antarctic science. Indeed, at least some of Scott's failure to reach the Pole first and the subsequent death of his polar party on the return trip can be attributed to burden of trying to do too much and not focusing on reaching the pole.

  4. Pole movement in electronic and optoelectronic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Pal, S.; Biswas, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    An RLC circuit with poles on the left half of the complex frequency plane is capable of executing transient oscillations. During this period, energy conversion from potential to kinetic and from kinetic to potential continuously goes on, until the stored energy is lost in dissipation through the resistance. On the other hand, in an electronic or opto-electronic oscillator with an embedded RLC circuit, the poles are forcibly placed on the right-half plane (RHP) and as far as practicable away from the imaginary axis in order to help the growth of oscillation as quickly as possible. And ultimately, it is imagined that, like the case of an ideal linear harmonic oscillator, the poles are frozen on the imaginary axis so that the oscillation neither grows nor decays. The authors feel that this act of holding the poles right on the imaginary axis is a theoretical conjecture in a soft or hard self-excited oscillator. In this article, a detailed discussion on pole movement in an electronic and opto-electronic oscillator is carried out from the basic concept. A new analytical method for estimating the time-dependent part of the pole is introduced here.

  5. Assessment of structural integrity of wooden poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Ian A.; Thackery, Steve; Redstall, Martin; Thomas, Matthew R.

    2000-05-01

    Despite recent advances in the development of new materials, wood continues to be used globally for the support of overhead cable networks used by telecommunications and electrical utility companies. As a natural material, wood is subject to decay and will eventually fail, causing disruption to services and danger to public and company personnel. Internal decay, due to basidomycetes fungi or attack by termites, can progress rapidly and is often difficult to detect by casual inspection. The traditional method of testing poles for decay involves hitting them with a hammer and listening to the sound that results. However, evidence suggests that a large number of poles are replaced unnecessarily and a significant number of poles continue to fail unexpectedly in service. Therefore, a more accurate method of assessing the structural integrity of wooden poles is required. Over the last 25 years there have been a number of attempts at improving decay detection. Techniques such as ultrasound, drilling X rays etc. have been developed but have generally failed to improve upon the practicality and accuracy of the traditional testing method. The paper describes the use of signal processing techniques to analyze the acoustic response of the pole and thereby determine the presence of decay. Development of a prototype meter is described and the results of initial tests on several hundred poles are presented.

  6. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data interpretation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paras R Pujari; Rambhatla G Sastry

    2003-03-01

    Using analytic signal method, interpretation of pole-pole secondary electric potentials due to 2D conductive/resistive prisms is presented. The estimated parameters are the location, lateral extent or width and depth to top surface of the prism. Forward modelling is attempted by 2D-Finite Difference method. The proposed stabilised analytic signal algorithm (RES2AS) uses Tikhonov's regularization scheme and FFT routines. The algorithm is tested on three theoretical examples and field data from the campus of Roorkee University. The stability of RES2AS is also tested on synthetic error prone secondary pole-pole potential data.

  7. Clouds Over the North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 29 June 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. Like yesterday's image, the linear 'ripples' are water-ice clouds. As spring is deepening at the North Pole these clouds are becoming more prevalent. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.9, Longitude 135.5 East (224.5 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are

  8. PERSISTENT LEFT SUPERIOR VENACAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A Persistent Left Superior Venacava (PLSVC is the most common variation of the thoracic venous system and rare congenital vascular anomaly and is prevalent in 0.3% of the population. It may be associated with other cardiovascular abnormalities including atrial septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of aorta, coronary sinus ostial atresia, and cor triatriatum. Incidental rotation of a dilated coronary sinus on echocardiography should raise the suspicion of PLSVC. The diagnosis should be confirmed by saline contrast echocardiography. Condition is usually asymptomatic. Here we present a rare case of persistent left superior vena cava presented in OPD with dyspnoea & palpitations.

  9. Cambio climático y dinámica temporal del paisaje y de los hábitats en las ecorregiones del NW de la Península Ibérica durante el Pleistoceno superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Muñoz Sobrino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 60 años los modelos propuestos para la interpretación de las condiciones ambientales a lo largo del Pleistoceno Superior Final han sufrido numerosos cambios determinados tanto por la adopción de nuevos conceptos científicos, como por la mejora de los métodos analíticos y sobre todo por un mayor número de registros disponibles. Del uniformismo ambiental y biogeográfico imperante a finales de la década de los ochenta, se ha pasado a incrementar el valor que las configuraciones de carácter local y regional, que afectan tanto al clima como a la composición y distribución de los ecosistemas terrestres ; y por tanto a los recursos naturales renovables que el hombre pudo haber aprovechado en cada momento. A su vez, las configuraciones locales y regionales se intregran en los modelos climáticos globales, elaborados a patir del estudio de isótopos y elementos traza obtenidos en depósitos con gran amplitud cronológica y un ritmo de deposición conocido. La integracion de la información paleoambiental a diferentes escalas temporales y espaciales obliga a rechazar, o en su caso limitar, la información paleoambiental que muestre un elevado grado de incertidumbre en relación al origen geográfico de sus componentes, o bien derivado de una tafocenosis heterogénea, o vinculado con una deposición intermitente o con mezclas de los distintos niveles.

  10. Counterclockwise barber-pole sign on CT: SMA/SMV variance without midgut malrotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Paul [Tripler Army Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States); Ruess, Lynne [Tripler Army Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences and Pediatrics, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2005-11-01

    We report on a 10-year-old girl who presented with worsening pain and anorexia after blunt trauma to the abdomen. Contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen was performed, and a counterclockwise rotation of the superior mesenteric vein around the superior mesenteric artery was seen. An upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series with small-bowel follow-through demonstrated a normally located duodenal-jejunal junction. This is the first case report of a counterclockwise barber-pole sign seen by CT with UGI that was negative for malrotation or volvulus. (orig.)

  11. Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, S. J.; Adriani, Alberto; Adumitroaie, V.

    2017-01-01

    On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter's poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn's poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars,...

  12. Reorientation of the early lunar pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Futoshi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Matsushima, Masaki

    2014-06-01

    Palaeomagnetic measurements suggest that an active core dynamo operated on the Moon from 4.2 to 3.56 billion years ago. Since the Apollo era, many magnetic anomalies have been observed on the Moon. The magnetization of the lunar crust in some of these regions could preserve the signature of an early dipolar magnetic field generated by a core dynamo. Thus, the magnetic anomalies may yield information about the position of the palaeomagnetic pole during the time that the dynamo operated. Here we present a comprehensive survey of magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface using magnetometer data obtained by the Lunar Prospector and Kaguya lunar orbiters. We extract magnetization vectors from 24 magnetic anomalies using an iterative inversion method and derive the palaeomagnetic poles. We find that the north poles, as well as the antipodal south poles, cluster in two distinct locations: one near the present rotation axis and the other at mid-latitude. The clustering is consistent with a dipole-dominated magnetic field generated in the lunar core by a dynamo that was reversing, much like that of Earth. Furthermore, the two pole clusters imply that the Moon experienced a polar wander event during its ancient history due to the reorientation of the Moon with respect to its spin axis by 45°-60°.

  13. Industry in growth poles of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Iacoboaea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A competitive industry can reduce costs and prices, can create new products, thus contributing significantly to productivity growth throughout the economy. The industry is also the main source of innovation necessary for society to meet the challenges faced. Growth poles have the ability to spread economic development in adjacent areas and contributes significantly to the territorial development of the country. This article aims to analyze the current state of industry growth poles of Romania, in terms of number of employees, distribution of sub-industries and density of firms in industry. It also highlights business structures and industry clusters located in the growth poles, as solutions for boosting economic growth and creation of added value. Analysis performed leads to the conclusion that all growth poles are engines of economical development in the industry for the regios of origin. We distinguish growth poles Timişoara and Cluj-Napoca whose economic advantage is given by the favorable position close to the markets of the European Union.

  14. A method to determine asteroid poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deangelis, G.

    1993-01-01

    The determination of spin axis and shape is well known to be of fundamental importance for studies about the rotational and physical properties of asteroids. In particular, knowledge that the pole coordinate distribution is random or not could indicate the probable non-Maxwellian distribution of asteroid spin axes, while the distribution in terms of size and shape could place important constraints on the theories about the collisional history of some individual asteroids, of asteroid families, and of the asteroid population as a whole. Many kinds of methods have been developed to determine pole coordinates. An EA method is presented, from which it is possible to obtain the solution with no trial poles, but with a simultaneous least square fit on both the E and A part. Results for rotational and shape parameters were obtained for 18 asteroids: the values of the obtained parameters are generally in close agreement with those of others.

  15. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  16. The 10 Meter South Pole Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Carlstrom, J. E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aird, K. A.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Busetti, S.; Chang, C. L.; Chauvin, E; Cho, H. -M.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Halverson, N. W.; Heimsath, S.; Holzapfel, W. L.

    2009-01-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, multi-color, millimeter-wave, bolometer camera. It is located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station in Antarctica. The design of the SPT emphasizes careful control of spillover and scattering, to minimize noise and false signals due to ground pickup. The key initial project is a large-area survey at wavelengths of 3, 2 and 1.3 mm, to detect clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zeldov...

  17. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  18. Pole solutions for flame front propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with solving mathematically the unsteady flame propagation equations. New original mathematical methods for solving complex non-linear equations and investigating their properties are presented. Pole solutions for flame front propagation are developed. Premixed flames and filtration combustion have remarkable properties: the complex nonlinear integro-differential equations for these problems have exact analytical solutions described by the motion of poles in a complex plane. Instead of complex equations, a finite set of ordinary differential equations is applied. These solutions help to investigate analytically and numerically properties of the flame front propagation equations.

  19. POLES OF ZETA FUNCTIONS OF COMPLETE INTERSECTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A vanishing theorem is proved for -adic cohomology with compact support on an affine (singular) complete intersection. As an application, it is shown that for an affine complete intersection defined over a finite field of q elements, the reciprocal "poles" of the zeta function are always divisible by q as algebraic integers. A p-adic proof is also given, which leads to further q-divisibility of the poles or equivalently an improvement of the polar part of the AxKatz theorem for an affine complete intersection. Similar results hold for a projective complete intersection.

  20. On the design of pole modules for inverse systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, B. F.; Sain, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    When a linear dynamical system admits more than one inverse, it is known that the pole module of any inverse must contain, either as a submodule or as a factor module, a module of fixed poles isomorphic to the zero module of the original system. Design of the pole module for such an inverse system is resolved by introducing a variable pole module for the inverse, by determining necessary and sufficient conditions for a desired module to be a variable pole module, and by studying the manner in which the fixed and variable modules assemble into the pole module of the inverse. If the fixed and variable pole spectra are disjoint, the pole module of the inverse system is a direct sum of the fixed- and variable-pole modules; if not, procedures for addressing the Jordan structure are presented.

  1. PolyPole-1: An accurate numerical algorithm for intra-granular fission gas release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzocri, D.; Rabiti, C.; Luzzi, L.; Barani, T.; Van Uffelen, P.; Pastore, G.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a new numerical algorithm (called PolyPole-1) to efficiently solve the equation for intra-granular fission gas release in nuclear fuel. The work was carried out in collaboration with Politecnico di Milano and Institute for Transuranium Elements. The PolyPole-1 algorithms is being implemented in INL's fuels code BISON code as part of BISON's fission gas release model. The transport of fission gas from within the fuel grains to the grain boundaries (intra-granular fission gas release) is a fundamental controlling mechanism of fission gas release and gaseous swelling in nuclear fuel. Hence, accurate numerical solution of the corresponding mathematical problem needs to be included in fission gas behaviour models used in fuel performance codes. Under the assumption of equilibrium between trapping and resolution, the process can be described mathematically by a single diffusion equation for the gas atom concentration in a grain. In this work, we propose a new numerical algorithm (PolyPole-1) to efficiently solve the fission gas diffusion equation in time-varying conditions. The PolyPole-1 algorithm is based on the analytic modal solution of the diffusion equation for constant conditions, with the addition of polynomial corrective terms that embody the information on the deviation from constant conditions. The new algorithm is verified by comparing the results to a finite difference solution over a large number of randomly generated operation histories. Furthermore, comparison to state-of-the-art algorithms used in fuel performance codes demonstrates that the accuracy of the PolyPole-1 solution is superior to other algorithms, with similar computational effort. Finally, the concept of PolyPole-1 may be extended to the solution of the general problem of intra-granular fission gas diffusion during non-equilibrium trapping and resolution, which will be the subject of future work.

  2. Numerical pole assignment by eigenvalue Jacobian inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevaston, George E.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical procedure for solving the linear pole placement problem is developed which operates by the inversion of an analytically determined eigenvalue Jacobian matrix. Attention is given to convergence characteristics and pathological situations. It is not concluded that the algorithm developed is suitable for computer-aided control system design with particular reference to the scan platform pointing control system for the Galileo spacecraft.

  3. NATO pole suutnud Gaddafit murda / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Liibüa diktaatori Muammar Gaddafi režiim pole langenud, Lääneriigid jätkavad sõjalisi operatsioone tsiviilelanike kaitseks. Kolm võimalikku lahendust Liibüa kriisile, BBC diplomaatiakorrespondendi Jonathan Marcuse hinnang

  4. Kosovo : kannatlikkusele lootmine pole plaan / Chris Patten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Patten, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Autor leiab, et arvestades Kosovo elanike ülekaalukat soovi olla vaba Serbiast, riigist, mis üritas nad kõrvaldada, ning alternatiivi täielikku puudumist Belgradi poolt, pole rahvusvahelisel kogukonnal muud võimalust kui anda Kosovole iseseisvus

  5. NATO pole suutnud Gaddafit murda / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Liibüa diktaatori Muammar Gaddafi režiim pole langenud, Lääneriigid jätkavad sõjalisi operatsioone tsiviilelanike kaitseks. Kolm võimalikku lahendust Liibüa kriisile, BBC diplomaatiakorrespondendi Jonathan Marcuse hinnang

  6. Ulysses Passes South Pole of Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程林

    1995-01-01

    On the 14th of September,1994, the fastest scientific instrument in space passed the south pole of the Sun,a place where no human-made object has been before. A spaceprobe called Ulysses made the polar pass at about midday as it continued to collect data on the solar wind,a stream of high-energy sub-atomic

  7. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laihem, Karim; IceCube Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    New detection techniques for (GZK) neutrinos are required for instrumenting a large detector volume needed to observe the low neutrino fluxes at the EeV energy range. Studies on a larger IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole have been intensively investigated in the last decade. A larger effective volume at a reasonable cost is possible if an acoustic array is a part of a large hybrid detector which includes radio and the existing optical array. The feasibility and the physics capabilities of an acoustic array at the South Pole depend on the knowledge of the acoustic properties of the ice such as the sound speed, the attenuation length, the background noise level and the transient rate. To investigate the ice properties, the first three acoustic strings of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) have been deployed in the austral summer 2006/2007, then completed with an additional string in 2007/2008. With its four strings SPATS was able to evaluate in situ the acoustic properties of the South Pole ice in the 10-100 kHz frequency range. In this paper the performance of SPATS is described, results on the acoustic ice properties are presented and a new drilling method to deploy acoustic strings in ice is introduced.

  8. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laihem, Karim, E-mail: karim.laihem@physik.rwth-aachen.de [III Physikalisches Institut B, Physikzentrum, RWTH Aachen University, Otto-Blumenthal Strasse, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2012-11-11

    New detection techniques for (GZK) neutrinos are required for instrumenting a large detector volume needed to observe the low neutrino fluxes at the EeV energy range. Studies on a larger IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole have been intensively investigated in the last decade. A larger effective volume at a reasonable cost is possible if an acoustic array is a part of a large hybrid detector which includes radio and the existing optical array. The feasibility and the physics capabilities of an acoustic array at the South Pole depend on the knowledge of the acoustic properties of the ice such as the sound speed, the attenuation length, the background noise level and the transient rate. To investigate the ice properties, the first three acoustic strings of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) have been deployed in the austral summer 2006/2007, then completed with an additional string in 2007/2008. With its four strings SPATS was able to evaluate in situ the acoustic properties of the South Pole ice in the 10-100 kHz frequency range. In this paper the performance of SPATS is described, results on the acoustic ice properties are presented and a new drilling method to deploy acoustic strings in ice is introduced.

  9. Kosovo : kannatlikkusele lootmine pole plaan / Chris Patten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Patten, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Autor leiab, et arvestades Kosovo elanike ülekaalukat soovi olla vaba Serbiast, riigist, mis üritas nad kõrvaldada, ning alternatiivi täielikku puudumist Belgradi poolt, pole rahvusvahelisel kogukonnal muud võimalust kui anda Kosovole iseseisvus

  10. Stabilization, Pole Placement, and Regular Implementability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belur, Madhu N.; Trentelman, H.L.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we study control by interconnection of linear differential systems. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for regular implementability of a given linear differential system. We formulate the problems of stabilization and pole placement as problems of finding a suitable, regularl

  11. Recent advances in poled optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruneri, V.; Margulis, W.; Myrén, N.

    2005-01-01

    A second-order nonlinearity can be induced in optical fibres through poling. We describe accomplishments of the EU project GLAMOROUS in making low-cost high performance electrooptic and nonlinear optical fibre- and waveguide-based components. In particular a comparison with more traditional...

  12. Recent advances in poled optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruneri, V.; Margulis, W.; Myrén, N.;

    2005-01-01

    A second-order nonlinearity can be induced in optical fibres through poling. We describe accomplishments of the EU project GLAMOROUS in making low-cost high performance electrooptic and nonlinear optical fibre- and waveguide-based components. In particular a comparison with more traditional...

  13. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  14. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  15. Ring modulator small-signal response analysis based on pole-zero representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimelahi, Samira; Sheikholeslami, Ali

    2016-04-04

    We present a closed-form expression for the small-signal response of a depletion-mode ring modulator and verify it by measurement results. Both electrical and optical behavior of micro-ring modulator as well as the loss variation due to the index modulation is considered in the derivation. This expression suggests that a ring modulator is a third-order system with one real pole, one zero and a pair of complex-conjugate poles. The exact positions of the poles/zero are given and shown to be dependent upon parameters such as electrical bandwidth, coupling condition, optical loss, and sign/value of laser detunings. We show that the location of zero is different for positive and negative detuning, and therefore, the ring modulator frequency response is asymmetric. We use the gain-bandwidth product as a figure of merit and calculate it for various pole/zero locations. We show that gain-bandwidth for the over-coupled ring modulator is superior compared to other coupling conditions. Also, we show that the gain-bandwidth product can be increased to a limit by increasing the electrical bandwidth.

  16. PolyPole-1: An accurate numerical algorithm for intra-granular fission gas release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzocri, D.; Rabiti, C.; Luzzi, L.; Barani, T.; Van Uffelen, P.; Pastore, G.

    2016-09-01

    The transport of fission gas from within the fuel grains to the grain boundaries (intra-granular fission gas release) is a fundamental controlling mechanism of fission gas release and gaseous swelling in nuclear fuel. Hence, accurate numerical solution of the corresponding mathematical problem needs to be included in fission gas behaviour models used in fuel performance codes. Under the assumption of equilibrium between trapping and resolution, the process can be described mathematically by a single diffusion equation for the gas atom concentration in a grain. In this paper, we propose a new numerical algorithm (PolyPole-1) to efficiently solve the fission gas diffusion equation in time-varying conditions. The PolyPole-1 algorithm is based on the analytic modal solution of the diffusion equation for constant conditions, combined with polynomial corrective terms that embody the information on the deviation from constant conditions. The new algorithm is verified by comparing the results to a finite difference solution over a large number of randomly generated operation histories. Furthermore, comparison to state-of-the-art algorithms used in fuel performance codes demonstrates that the accuracy of PolyPole-1 is superior to other algorithms, with similar computational effort. Finally, the concept of PolyPole-1 may be extended to the solution of the general problem of intra-granular fission gas diffusion during non-equilibrium trapping and resolution, which will be the subject of future work.

  17. Statistics of superior records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistics of records in a sequence of random variables. These identical and independently distributed variables are drawn from the parent distribution ρ. The running record equals the maximum of all elements in the sequence up to a given point. We define a superior sequence as one where all running records are above the average record expected for the parent distribution ρ. We find that the fraction of superior sequences SN decays algebraically with sequence length N, SN˜N-β in the limit N→∞. Interestingly, the decay exponent β is nontrivial, being the root of an integral equation. For example, when ρ is a uniform distribution with compact support, we find β=0.450265. In general, the tail of the parent distribution governs the exponent β. We also consider the dual problem of inferior sequences, where all records are below average, and find that the fraction of inferior sequences IN decays algebraically, albeit with a different decay exponent, IN˜N-α. We use the above statistical measures to analyze earthquake data.

  18. Frenillo labial superior doble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Albornoz López del Castillo

    Full Text Available El frenillo labial superior doble no sindrómico es una anomalía del desarrollo que no hemos encontrado reportada en la revisión bibliográfica realizada. Se presenta una niña de 11 años de edad que fue remitida al servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "Eduardo Agramonte Piña", de Camagüey, por presentar un frenillo labial superior doble de baja inserción. Se describen los síntomas clínicos asociados a esta anomalía y el tratamiento quirúrgico utilizado para su solución: una frenectomía y plastia sobre la banda muscular frénica anormal que provocaba exceso de tejido en la mucosa labial. Consideramos muy interesante la descripción de este caso, por no haber encontrado reporte similar en la literatura revisada.

  19. Elliptical Chandler pole motions of the Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yury; Ferrandiz, Jose

    2010-05-01

    will well be coordinated to similar estimations of other authors for models of elastic planet in 200-212 d (Konopliv et al., 2006; Zharkov, Gudkova, 2009). The values of eccentricity and ellipticity of Chandler pole motion of the Earth will be coordinated to earlier estimations e=0.096-0.098 and ɛ=0.0046-0.0048 (Barkin, 1998; Barkin, Ferrandiz, 2004), and for Mars have been obtained for the first time. The account of influence of a liquid core on considered parameters of motion of poles of planet with elastic mantle also is discussed in report on the base of author's approach developed in the paper (Ferrandiz, Barkin, 2001). The Barkin's work partially was finacially accepted by Spanish grants, Japanise-Russian grant N-09-02-92113-JF and by RFBR grant N 08-02-00367. References Barkin Yu.V., Ferrandiz J.M., J. Getino (1996) About Applications Angle-Action Variables in Rotation Dynamics of the Deformable Celestial Bodies. (Eds. S. Ferraz-Mello, B. Morrando, J.-E. Arlot) Dynamics, ephemerides and astrometry of the solar system. Proceedings. 172 nd Symposium of the International Astronomical Union, Paris ( France), 3-8 Jul. 1995. 1996, pp. 243-244. Barkin Yu.V. (1998) Unperturbed Chandler's Motion and Perturbation Theory of the Rotational Motion of the Deformable Celestial Bodies. Astronomical and Astrophysical Transactions, v. 17, N3, pp. 431-475. Barkin Yu.V., Ferrandiz J.M. (2004) Some dynamical effects in unperturbed and perturbed Earth rotation caused by elastic properties of the mantle. Journees 2004 'Systems de reference spatio temporals' (20-22 September, 2004, Paris, France). Fundamental Astronomy: New concepts and models for high accuracy observations. Book of abstracts, Observatoire de Paris, pp. 15-16. Ferrandiz, J.M. and Barkin, Yu.V. (2001) Dynamics of the rotational motion of the planet with the elastic mantle, liquid core and with the changeable external shell. Proceedings of International Conference «AstroKazan-2001». Astronomy and geodesy in new

  20. Positive and Negative Thermal Poling of Germanosilicate Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, D.; Wu, W.; Arentoft, Jesper;

    1999-01-01

    In situ measurements of thermal poling of germanosilicate fibers under positive and negative poling voltages show different dynamics of a linear electro-optic effect induced into fibers. The mechanism for the induced electro-optic effect is addressed......In situ measurements of thermal poling of germanosilicate fibers under positive and negative poling voltages show different dynamics of a linear electro-optic effect induced into fibers. The mechanism for the induced electro-optic effect is addressed...

  1. Determination of pole orientations and shapes of asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Per; Barucci, M. Antonietta; Drummond, Jack D.; Lumme, Kari; Ostro, Steven J.

    1989-01-01

    The principles of asteroid light-curve inversion are discussed together with basic principles involved in approaches for deriving asteroid pole and shape parameters from photometry data. The merits of various pole determination techniques are described and compared. Results obtained so far on the pole orientations and shapes of asteroids are presented.

  2. SIMULATION OF EARTH'S POLES DYNAMICS USING ASK-ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Cherednychenko N. A.; Lutsenko Y. V.; Trunev A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Based on local semantic information models, we have examined the dependence of the dynamics of the displacement of the pole positions of celestial objects. We have also developed and differentiated an analysis of ASK-pole modeling of dynamics within sixty-year cycles of reference points and substantiated reasons for the population inversion and singular states in the dynamics of the pole

  3. 30 CFR 56.12048 - Communication conductors on power poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication conductors on power poles. 56... Electricity § 56.12048 Communication conductors on power poles. Telegraph, telephone, or signal wires shall not be installed on the same crossarm with power conductors. When carried on poles...

  4. 30 CFR 57.6701 - Tamping and loading pole requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tamping and loading pole requirements. 57.6701 Section 57.6701 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... poles shall be of wood or other nonconductive, nonsparking material. Couplings for poles shall...

  5. Economics of Red Pine Management for Utility Pole Timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald H. Grossman; Karen Potter-Witter

    1991-01-01

    Including utility poles in red pine management regimes leads to distinctly different management recommendations. Where utility pole markets exist, managing for poles will maximize net returns. To do so, plantations should be maintained above 110 ft2/ac, higher than usually recommended. In Michigan's northern lower peninsula, approximately...

  6. Formation of category representations in superior temporal sulcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. Van der; Turennout, M. van; Indefrey, P.

    2010-01-01

    The human brain contains cortical areas specialized in representing object categories. Visual experience is known to change the responses in these category-selective areas of the brain. However, little is known about how category training specifically affects cortical category selectivity. Here, we

  7. The 10 Meter South Pole Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Carlstrom, J E; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Busetti, S; Chang, C L; Chauvin, E; Cho, H -M; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Dobbs, M A; Halverson, N W; Heimsath, S; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Joy, M; Keisler, R; Lanting, T M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leong, J; Lu, W; Lueker, M; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Schwan, D; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Vieira, K Vanderlinde J D

    2009-01-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, multi-color, millimeter-wave, bolometer camera. It is located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station in Antarctica. The design of the SPT emphasizes careful control of spillover and scattering, to minimize noise and false signals due to ground pickup. The key initial project is a large-area survey at wavelengths of 3, 2 and 1.3 mm, to detect clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect and to measure the high-l angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The data will be used to characterize the primordial matter power spectrum and to place constraints on the equation of state of dark energy.

  8. Pole Placement with Fields of Positive Characteristic

    CERN Document Server

    Gorla, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    The pole placement problem belongs to the classical problems of linear systems theory. It is often assumed that the ground field is the real numbers R or the complex numbers C. The major result over the complex numbers derived in 1981 by Brockett and Byrnes states that arbitrary static pole placement is possible for a generic set of m-inputs, p-outputs and McMillan degree n system as soon as mp>=n. Moreover the number of solutions in the situation mp=n is an intersection number first computed by Hermann Schubert in the 19th century. In this paper we show that the same result with slightly different proofs holds over any algebraically closed field.

  9. Pole Inflation - Shift Symmetry and Universal Corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Broy, Benedict J; Roest, Diederik; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    An appealing explanation for the Planck data is provided by inflationary models with a non-canonical kinetic term: a Laurent expansion of the kinetic function translates into a potential with a nearly shift-symmetric plateau in canonical fields. The shift symmetry can be broken at large field values by including higher-order poles. We show that the resulting corrections to the inflationary dynamics and predictions are universal at lowest order, and can induce power loss at large angular scales. At lowest order there are no corrections from a pole of one order higher; this is referred to as extended no-scale in string theory and we explain why this is a general phenomenon. Finally, we outline which other corrections may arise as string loop corrections.

  10. Pole Assignment for Second-Order Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHU, E. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contains some results for pole assignment problems for the second-order system M ẍ(t)+D ẋ(t)+K x (t)=B u (t) . Specifically, Algorithm 0 constructs feedback matrices F1 and F2 such that the closed-loop quadratic pencil Pc( λ)= λ2M+ λ ( D+ BF2)+( K+ BF1) has a desired set of eigenvalues and the associated eigenvectors are well-conditioned. The method is a modification of the SVD-based method proposed by Juang and Maghami [1, 2] which is a second-order adaptation of the well-known robust eigenvalue assignment method by Kautsky et al. [3] for first-order systems. Robustness is achieved by minimising some not-so-well-known condition numbers of the eigenvalues of the closed-loop second-order pencil. We next consider the partial pole assignment problem. In 1997, Datta, Elhay and Ram proposed three biorthogonality relations for eigenvectors of symmetric definite quadratic pencils [4]. One of these relations was used to derive an explicit solution to the partial pole assignment problem by state feedback for the related single-input symmetric definite second-order control system. The solution shed new light on the stabilisation and control of large flexible space structures, for which only one small subset of the spectrum needs to be reassigned while retaining the complementary part of the spectrum. In this paper, the method has been generalised for multi-input and non-symmetric quadratic pencils. Finally, we discuss briefly the output feedback pole assignment problem.

  11. Efficient iterative adaptive pole placement algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊民; 李靖; 杨磊

    2004-01-01

    An iterative adaptive pole placement algorithm is presented. The stability and the convergence of the algorithm are respectively established. Since one-step iterative formulation in computing controller's parameters is used, the on-line computation cost is greatly reduced with respected to the traditional algorithm. The algorithm with the feed-forward can follow arbitrarily bounded output. The algorithm is also extended to multivariate case. Simulation examples show the efficiency and robustness of the algorithm.

  12. Development of a neurofeedback protocol targeting the frontal pole using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Akihide; Takizawa, Ryu; Yahata, Noriaki; Homae, Fumitaka; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Sakakibara, Eisuke; Kawasaki, Shingo; Nishimura, Yukika; Koike, Shinsuke; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-11-01

    Neurofeedback has been studied with the aim of controlling cerebral activity. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique used for measuring hemoglobin concentration changes in cortical surface areas with high temporal resolution. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful for neurofeedback, which requires real-time feedback of repeated brain activation measurements. However, no study has specifically targeted neurofeedback, using near-infrared spectroscopy, in the frontal pole cortex. We developed an original near-infrared spectroscopy neurofeedback system targeting the frontal pole cortex. Over a single day of testing, each healthy participant (n = 24) received either correct or incorrect (Sham) feedback from near-infrared spectroscopy signals, based on a crossover design. Under correct feedback conditions, significant activation was observed in the frontal pole cortex (P = 0.000073). Additionally, self-evaluation of control and metacognitive beliefs were associated with near-infrared spectroscopy signals (P = 0.006). The neurofeedback system developed in this study might be useful for developing control of frontal pole cortex activation. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  13. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. Social conceptual impairments in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with right anterior temporal hypometabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Roland; Moll, Jorge; Iyengar, Vijeth; Huey, Edward D; Tierney, Michael; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-03-01

    Inappropriate social behaviours are early and distinctive symptoms of the temporal and frontal variants of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Knowledge of social behaviour is essential for appropriate social conduct. It is unknown, however, in what way this knowledge is degraded in FTLD. In a recent functional MRI study, we have identified a right-lateralized superior anterior temporal lobe (aTL) region showing selective activation for 'social concepts' (i.e. concepts describing social behaviour: e.g. 'polite', 'stingy') as compared with concepts describing less socially relevant animal behaviour ('animal function concepts': e.g. 'trainable', 'nutritious'). In a further fMRI study, superior aTL activation was independent of the context of actions and feelings associated with these social concepts. Here, we investigated whether the right superior sector of the aTL is necessary for context-independent knowledge of social concepts. We assessed neuronal glucose uptake using 18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and a novel semantic discrimination task which probed knowledge of social and animal function concepts in patients with FTLD (n = 29) and corticobasal syndrome (n = 18). FTLD and corticobasal syndrome groups performed equally poorly on animal function concepts but FTLD patients showed more pronounced impairments on social concepts than corticobasal syndrome patients. FTLD patients with right superior aTL hypometabolism, as determined on individual ROI analyses, were significantly more impaired on social concepts than on animal function concepts. FTLD patients with selective impairments for social concepts, as determined on individual neuropsychological profiles, showed higher levels of inappropriate social behaviours ('disinhibition') and demonstrated more pronounced hypometabolism in the right superior aTL, the left temporal pole and the right lateral orbitofrontal and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex as compared with FTLD patients

  15. Pole-placement with constant gain output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, B.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    Davison (1970) has demonstrated that it is possible to assign max (m, p) poles of a linear time-invariant controllable and observable multivariable system arbitrarily close to desired locations by using constant gain output feedback. A new proof of Davison's theorem on pole placement is developed, and a system design procedure is described which offers some advantages over Davison's method. It is shown that in some cases more than max (m, p) poles can be assigned arbitrarily, and a least square design procedure is proposed to approximate the desired pole locations when it is not possible to place all the poles.

  16. Growth Poles - an Alternative to Reducing Regional Disparities. Case Study-Iaşi Growth Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA MONICA MUSTĂȚEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current development of the European Union is based on the cohesion policy which focuses on the attenuation of regional disparities. For this purpose, the idea of growth poles emerged in Romania, and its role became more than familiar: the determination of an internal socio-economic cohesion. Polycentrism becomes a concept of territorial planning increasingly promoted. Development of growth poles aims to reduce the attraction force of large centres and to balance the location of activities generating functions across a territory. This was the idea that led to the formation of Iaşi Metropolitan Area, territorial unit that is intended to be the main regional centre of the North-East Region, thus polarizing the surrounding areas. Iaşi Growth Pole objectives are represented by economic competitiveness, the development of regional connectivity and the promotion of regional cooperation. One of the major assets of the growth pole in achieving these goals is the cross-border position near the eastern border of the European Union. This paper examines to what extent Iași Growth Pole can rise to the required standards, while the peripheral position seems to be rather a disadvantage and the uncertain functionality of the metropolitan area shows that the main problem remains the reduced economic competitiveness.

  17. The science of the lunar poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    It was the great geochemist Harold Urey who first called attention to peculiar conditions at the poles of the Moon where the very small inclination of the lunar spin axis with respect to the sun causes craters and other depressions to be permanently shaded from sunlight allowing very low temperatures. Urey suggested that the expected low temperature surfaces could cold trap and collect any vapors that might transiently pass through the lunar environment. Urey's notion has led to studies of the poles as a new research area in lunar science. The conditions and science of the poles are utterly unlike those of the familiar Moon of Neil Armstrong, and the study of the poles is similar to our understanding of the Moon itself at the dawn of the space age, with possibilities outweighing current understanding. Broadly, we can treat the poles as a dynamic system of input, transport, trapping, and loss. Volatile sources range from continuous, including solar wind, the Earth's polar fountain and micrometeorites, to episodic, including comets and wet asteroids, to nearly unique events including late lunar outgassing and passage through giant molecular clouds. The lunar exosphere transports volatiles to the poles, complicated by major perturbances to the atmosphere by volatile-rich sources. Trapping includes cold trapping, but also in situ creation of more refractory species such as organics, clathrates and water-bearing minerals, as well as sequester by regolith overturn or burial by larger impacts. Finally, volatiles are lost to space by ionization and sweeping. Spacecraft results have greatly added to the understanding of the polar system. Temperatures have been precisely measured by LRO, and thermal models now allow determination of temperature over the long evolution of the lunar orbit, and show very significant changes in temperature and temperature distribution with time and depth. Polar topography is revealed in detail by Selene and LRO laser altimeters while direct

  18. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  19. Purification of fluorescently labeled Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spindle Pole Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Trisha N.

    2016-01-01

    Centrosomes are components of the mitotic spindle responsible for organizing microtubules and establishing a bipolar spindle for accurate chromosome segregation. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the centrosome is called the spindle pole body, a highly organized tri-laminar structure embedded in the nuclear envelope. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the purification of fluorescently labeled spindle pole bodes from S. cerevisiae. Spindle pole bodies are purified from yeast using a TAP-tag purification followed by velocity sedimentation. This highly reproducible TAP-tag purification method improves upon previous techniques and expands the scope of in vitro characterization of yeast spindle pole bodies. The genetic flexibility of this technique allows for the study of spindle pole body mutants as well as the study of spindle pole bodies during different stages of the cell cycle. The ease and reproducibility of the technique makes it possible to study spindle pole bodies using a variety of biochemical, biophysical, and microscopic techniques. PMID:27193850

  20. Modified π π amplitude with σ pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydžovský, P.; Kamiński, R.; Nazari, V.

    2014-12-01

    A set of well-known once subtracted dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition is used to modify unitary multichannel S (π π , K K ¯, and η η ) and P (π π , ρ 2 π , and ρ σ ) wave amplitudes mostly below 1 GeV. Before the modifications, these amplitudes significantly did not satisfy the crossing symmetry condition and did not describe the π π threshold region. Moreover, the pole of the S wave amplitude related with the f0(500 ) meson (former f0(600 ) or σ ) had much smaller imaginary part and bigger real one in comparison with those in the newest Particle Data Group Tables. Here, these amplitudes are supplemented by near threshold expansion polynomials and refitted to the experimental data in the effective two pion mass from the threshold to 1.8 GeV and to the dispersion relations up to 1.1 GeV. In result the self consistent, i.e., unitary and fulfilling the crossing symmetry condition, S and P wave amplitudes are formed and the σ pole becomes much narrower and lighter. To eliminate doubts about the uniqueness of the so obtained sigma pole position short and purely mathematical proof of the uniqueness of the results is also presented. This analysis is addressed to a wide group of physicists and aims at providing a very effective and easy method of modification of, many presently used, π π amplitudes with a heavy and broad σ meson without changing of their original mathematical structure.

  1. Perturbing rational harmonic functions by poles

    CERN Document Server

    Sète, Olivier; Liesen, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    We study how adding certain poles to rational harmonic functions of the form $R(z)-\\bar{z}$, with $R(z)$ rational and of degree $d\\geq 2$, affects the number of zeros of the resulting functions. Our results are motivated by and generalize a construction of Rhie derived in the context of gravitational microlensing (ArXiv e-print 2003). Of particular interest is the construction and the behavior of rational functions $R(z)$ that are {\\em extremal} in the sense that $R(z)-\\bar{z}$ has the maximal possible number of $5(d-1)$ zeros.

  2. Tent-Poles of the Bestseller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa; Vistisen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for understanding and analysing how the passive audience of a media event turns into active stakeholders. The starting point is the cross-media content quadrant (Jensen and Vistisen, 2012), which shows how the producer’s control is distributed on social media pla...... platforms, while storytelling evolves around a tent-pole, for example, a bestseller or blockbuster. To further explain how the audience engages, a three-step rhetoric model largely based on Bitzer (1998) and Tolkien (1971) is developed and explained....

  3. Gauge invariance, causality and gluonic poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.V., E-mail: anikin@theor.jinr.r [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Teryaev, O.V., E-mail: teryaev@theor.jinr.r [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-05

    We explore the electromagnetic gauge invariance of the hadron tensor of the Drell-Yan process with one transversely polarized hadron. The special role is played by the contour gauge for gluon fields. The prescription for the gluonic pole in the twist 3 correlator is related to causality property and compared with the prescriptions for exclusive hard processes. As a result we get the extra contributions, which naively do not have an imaginary phase. The single spin asymmetry for the Drell-Yan process is accordingly enhanced by the factor of two.

  4. The Pole Orientation, Pole Precession, and Moment of Inertia Factor of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. A.; French, R. G.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M.; Colwell, J. E.; Marouf, E.; Rappaport, N.; McGhee, C.; Sepersky, T.; Lonergan, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses our determination of the Saturn's pole orientation and precession using a combination of Earthbased and spacecraft based observational data. From our model of the polar motion and the observed precession rate we obtain a value for Saturn's polar moment of inertia

  5. a New Ediacaran Pole from Easternmost Baltica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meert, J. G.; Levashova, N. M.; Kuznetsov, N. B.; Sergeeva, N. D.; Golovanova, I. V.; Danukalov, K. N.; Bazhenov, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Ediacaran paleogeography is notoriously messy due to equally confusing paleomagnetic data from both Laurentia and Baltica. Ediacaran (~Vendian) rocks have been studied from several localities from Baltica, but the so far published poles can be used to place the Baltic craton at nearly any latitude and orientation [Meert et al., 2007]. At the same time, it is challenging to understand the paleogeography of the Ediacaran world given all the biologic, climatic and tectonic changes during the time interval from 635-542 Ma. We present preliminary paleomagnetic and geochronological data from (late?) Ediacaran sediments from the deformed (low metamorphic grade) peri-Uralian margin of Baltica. We successfully isolated a dual-polarity high-temperature component from eleven sites; the primary origin of this remanence is strongly supported by a positive reversal test (class B). The corresponding paleomagnetic pole is in close agreement with the coeval results from the Winter Coast of northern Baltica [Popov et al., 2002; 2005; Iglesia Llanos et al., 2005], despite a ~1600 km separation between two study areas. These data jointly indicate a very low (<10 degrees N or S) paleolatitude for eastern Baltica in Ediacaran time. Paleogeographic implications of these new data will be discussed in the context of Ediacaran-Cambrian tectonic models. This study is supported by RFBR grant 11-05-00037 and NSF grant EAR11-19038.

  6. Dynamics of Enceladus South Pole Ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Martin; Schmidt, J.; Spahn, F.

    2007-10-01

    The Saturnian moon Enceladus was recently found to be a potent source of gas and dust particles. There was an active region observed on the south pole of Enceladus with jets spraying material in the space. The ejected dust particles are considered to be the main source of the faint E ring. In our work we investigate the long-term dynamics of icy particles ejected from the south pole of Enceladus. The motion of the ejected grains, being subject to many perturbation forces, strongly depends on particle properties (e.g. size, charge etc.). We study the resulting spatial distribution of particles in the E ring. Primarily we focus on the structure of the ring in the vicinity of Enceladus. In our study we also concentrated on processes limiting particle lifetime. These are mainly collisions with Enceladus and other Saturnian satellites or main ring, as well as the sputtering of particles by plasma ions bombardment. Modeling the equilibrium between particle sources and sinks we found the size distribution which is expected to be observed in the E ring.

  7. Helioseismology from the South Pole: 1987 campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferies, S.; Pomerantz, M.A. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (USA)); Duvall, T.L. Jr. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA)); Harvey, J.W.; Jaksha, D. (National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Helioseismology is the study of the Sun's interior by means of observations of its global oscillations. The Sun constantly oscillates, at periods of about 5 minutes, in millions of different modes which probe different depth and latitude ranges. Helioseismological observations have been made from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station nearly every year since 1980. This site offers the unique advantage of uninterrupted sunlight during the austral summer (except for clouds, of course) and otherwise generally good atmospheric conditions for astronomical observations. Thus, it is possible to measure oscillations without long nighttime gaps which confuse measurements made at low-latitude observatories. Measurements from the South Pole and elsewhere have shown that the solar interior is roughly similar to the predictions of the theory of stellar structure and evolution. This theory is one of the key foundations of our present picture of the universe. It is, therefore, disturbing that there are small, but highly significant, discrepancies between theory and observations and that these discrepancies have not been resolved by reasonable adjustments of theoretical parameters and physics. Currently, the source of these discrepancies is not at all clear. Helioseismology, however, not only revealed the problem but offers excellent prospects for solving it.

  8. Landau pole in the pyramid scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tom; Fortin, Jean-François; Kathrein, Scott

    2010-12-01

    We revisit the problem of the hidden sector Landau pole in the pyramid scheme. There is a fixed line in the plane of hidden sector gauge coupling and Yukawa couplings between the trianon fields. We postulate that the couplings flow to this line, at a point where the hidden sector gauge coupling is close to the strong coupling edge of its perturbative regime. Below the masses of the heavier trianons, the model quickly flows to a confining NF=NC=3 supersymmetric gauge theory, as required by phenomenological considerations. We study possible discrete R symmetries, which guarantee, among other things, that the basin of attraction of the fixed line has full codimension in the space of R-allowed couplings. The Yukawa couplings required to get the fixed line violate the pyrma-baryon symmetries we invoked in previous work to find a dark matter candidate. Omitting one of them, we have a dark matter candidate, and an acceptable renormalization group flow down from the unification scale, if the confinement scale of the hidden sector group is lowered from 5 to 2 TeV. However, we cannot find anomaly-free symmetries, which guarantee a set of pyrma-baryon violating couplings that eliminate the Landau pole, but do not allow a supersymmetry preserving vacuum of the model. We can do this with only one pyrma-baryon violating coupling, but this lowers the confinement scale to 900 GeV, which may already be ruled out due to light hidden sector baryons.

  9. Effects of pole compliance and step frequency on the biomechanics and economy of pole carrying during human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Eric R; Lieberman, Graham M; McCarty, Logan S; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates whether a flexible pole can be used as an energy-saving method for humans carrying loads. We model the carrier and pole system as a driven damped harmonic oscillator and predict that the energy expended by the carrier is affected by the compliance of the pole and the ratio between the pole's natural frequency and the carrier's step frequency. We tested the model by measuring oxygen consumption in 16 previously untrained male participants walking on a treadmill at four step frequencies using two loaded poles: one made of bamboo and one of steel. We found that when the bamboo pole was carried at a step frequency 20% greater than its natural frequency, the motions of the centers of mass of the load and carrier were approximately equal in amplitude and opposite in phase, which we predicted would save energy for the carrier. Carrying the steel pole, however, resulted in the carrier and loads oscillating in phase and with roughly equal amplitude. Although participants were less economical using poles than predicted costs using conventional fixed-load techniques (such as backpacks), the bamboo pole was on average 5.0% less costly than the steel pole. When allowed to select their cadence, participants also preferred to carry the bamboo pole at step frequencies of ∼2.0 Hz. This frequency, which is significantly higher than the preferred unloaded step frequency, is most economical. These experiments suggest that pole carriers can intuitively adjust their gaits, or choose poles with appropriate compliance, to increase energetic savings.

  10. Nonlinear effect induced in thermally poled glass waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yi-tao

    2006-01-01

    Thermally poled germanium-doped channel waveguides are presented. Multilayer waveguides containing a silicon oxynitride layer were used as charge trapper in this investigation on the effect of the internal field inside the waveguide. Compared to waveguides without the trapping layer, experimental results showed that the induced linear electro-optic (EO) coefficient increases about 20% after poling, suggesting strongly that the internal field is relatively enhanced, and showed it is a promising means for improving nonlinearity by poling in waveguides.

  11. Least Square Approximation by Linear Combinations of Multi(Poles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    ID-R134 069 LEAST SQUARE APPROXIMATION BY LINEAR COMBINATIONS OF i/i MULTI(POLES). 1U OHIO STATE UNIV COLUMBUS DEPT OF GEODETIC SCIENCE AND SURVEY...TR-83-0 117 LEAST SQUARE APPROXIMATION BY LINEAR COMBINATIONS OF (MULTI)POLES WILLI FREEDEN DEPARTMENT OF GEODETIC SCIENCE AND SURVEYING THE OHIO...Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED LEAST SQUARE APPROXIMATION BY LINEAR Scientific Report No. 3 COMBINATIONS OF (MULTI)POLES 6. PERFORMING ORG

  12. SIMULATION OF EARTH'S POLES DYNAMICS USING ASK-ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherednychenko N. A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on local semantic information models, we have examined the dependence of the dynamics of the displacement of the pole positions of celestial objects. We have also developed and differentiated an analysis of ASK-pole modeling of dynamics within sixty-year cycles of reference points and substantiated reasons for the population inversion and singular states in the dynamics of the pole

  13. Charge quantisation without magnetic poles: a topological approach to electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Solha, Romero

    2014-01-01

    The present work provides a theoretical explanation for the quantisation of electric charges, an open problem since Millikan's oil drop experiment in 1909. This explanation is based solely on Maxwell's theory, it recasts Electromagnetic theory under the language of complex line bundles; therefore, neither magnetic poles nor quantum mechanics are invoked. The existence of magnetic poles was essentially the only theoretical explanation for charge quantisation (e.g. Dirac's magnetic pole), and t...

  14. South Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the south polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic, centered on the south pole. The Schrodinger Basin (320 km in diameter) is located in the lower right of the mosaic. Amundsen-Ganswindt is the more subdued circular basin between Schrodinger and the pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole.

  15. Effects of poling process on KNN-modified piezoceramic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Rubio, F.; Romero, J. J.; Ochoa Guerrero, Diego A.; García García, José Eduardo; Pérez Pérez, Rafael; Fernández, José Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the orthorhombic to tetragonal phase transition near room temperature in the poling process of KNN-modified piezoceramics was studied. Poling temperatures of 25° and 120°C were used. The percentage of 90° domains reorientation induced by poling was evaluated trough X-ray diffraction analysis. The improvement of the piezoelectric properties when the poling temperature was 25°C could not be explained by the reorientation of 90° domains alone. Raman spectroscopy evidenced that t...

  16. Generalized Pole Inflation: Hilltop, Natural, and Chaotic Inflationary Attractors

    CERN Document Server

    Terada, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    A new paradigm for inflationary model building appeared recently, in which inflationary observables are determined by the structure of a pole in the inflaton kinetic term rather than the shape of the inflaton potential. We comprehensively study this framework with an arbitrary order of the pole taking into account possible additional poles in the kinetic term or in the potential. Depending on the setup, the canonical potential becomes the form of hilltop or plateau models, variants of natural inflation, or monomial or polynomial chaotic inflation. We demonstrate attractor behavior of these models and compute corrections from the additional poles to the inflationary observables.

  17. Electromechanical properties of a disc-type salient-pole brushless DC motor with different pole numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaniszyn, M.; Jagiela, M.; Wrobel, R.

    2003-04-16

    A brushless, permanent magnet, three-phase disc-type salient-pole DC motor with co-axial flux in the stator is considered. Electromechanical properties of a basic eight-pole motor are compared with those for a 16-pole one of the same volume, in order to contrast the two potential candidates for variable-speed, low-cost drives. As a basis of the comparative analysis, 3D FEM magnetic field modelling and circuit analysis considering an electronic commutator are employed. Increasing the number of poles results in unfavourable raising in the switching frequency. The eight-pole motor construction has been shown in simulations to have higher efficiency and lower power losses than its 16-pole counterpart. (Author)

  18. Pole assignment in descriptor periodic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Hung-Yuan; LIN; Wen-Wei; XU; Shufang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a pole assignment problem is considered for the descriptor linear discrete-time periodic systems, which is using the periodic proportional-derivative feedback to modify a given system such that the closed loop system has a specified selfconjugate set of eigenvalues. It is shown that the complete reachability of an open loop periodic system is equivalent to the possibility of assigning an arbitrary set of the eigenvalues to the system by choosing the suitable periodic proportional-derivative feedback.A computational approach is also proposed to solve the problem, which uses the reliable numerical techniques based on the orthogonal transformations. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Spherical harmonics, invariant theory and Maxwell's poles

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, J S

    2008-01-01

    I discuss the relation between harmonic polynomials and invariant theory and show that homogeneous, harmonic polynomials correspond to ternary forms that are apolar to a base conic (the absolute). The calculation of Schlesinger that replaces such a form by a polarised binary form is reviewed. It is suggested that Sylvester's theorem on the uniqueness of Maxwell's pole expression for harmonics is renamed the Clebsch-Sylvester theorem. The relation between certain constructs in invariant theory and angular momentum theory is enlarged upon and I resurrect the Joos--Weinberg matrices. Hilbert's projection operators are considered and their generalisations by Story and Elliott are related to similar, more recent constructions in group theory and quantum mechanics, the ternary case being equivalent to SU(3).

  20. CMB Observations with the South Pole Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisler, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    I will describe a program of cosmological research centered on using measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) to address questions relevant to physics: What is the absolute mass scale of neutrinos? How many species of neutrino-like particles were present in the early Universe? How does gravity behave on cosmological scales? Did inflation occur, and, if so, at what energy scale? A new generation of CMB experiments is targeting these questions, and I will focus on recent results from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The SPT is a ground-based mm-wave observatory located at the geographic south pole in Antarctica, and in 2011 finished its initial, 2500 square-degree ``SPT-SZ'' survey. The data from this survey provided an unprecedented combination of resolution, area, and sensitivity, and has been used to make ground-breaking measurements of the CMB anisotropy and the gravitational lensing of the CMB. These measurements have, in conjunction with data from the WMAP satellite, led to strong constraints on the number of neutrino-like particle species present in the early universe and the shape of the power spectrum of primordial density fluctuations. The SPT-SZ data overlaps with the ongoing Dark Energy Survey (DES) footprint, and the joint dataset will provide new probes of large-scale structure, such as the relative velocities of massive galaxy clusters. In 2012, a new polarization-sensitive camera, SPTpol, was installed on the SPT, and I will summarize its performance and prospects for detecting the B-mode CMB polarization pattern. Finally, I will touch on what will be possible with a third-generation camera, SPT-3G. The leap in sensitivity provided by this camera will yield, for example, a constraint on the sum of the neutrino masses relevant for exploring the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  1. Swing phase kinematics of horses trotting over poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S; Stubbs, N C; Kaiser, L J; Lavagnino, M; Clayton, H M

    2015-01-01

    Trotting over poles is used therapeutically to restore full ranges of limb joint motion. The mechanics of trotting over poles have not yet been described, hence quantitative evidence for the presumed therapeutic effects is lacking. To compare limb kinematics in horses trotting over level ground, over low poles and over high poles to determine changes in joint angulations and hoof flight arcs. Repeated measures experimental study in sound horses. Standard motion analysis procedures with skin-fixed reflective markers were used to measure swing phase kinematics from 8 horses trotting on level ground, over low (11 cm) and high (20 cm) poles spaced 1.05 ± 0.05 m apart. Spatiotemporal variables and peak swing phase joint flexion angles were compared using repeated measures ANOVA (Plow poles (fore: 30.9 ± 4.9 cm; hind: 24.9 ± 3.7 cm) and to high poles (fore: 41.0 ± 3.9 cm; hind: 32.7 ± 4.0 cm). All joints of the fore- and hindlimbs contributed to the increase in hoof height through increased swing phase flexion. The hooves cleared the poles due to increases in joint flexion rather than by raising the body higher during the suspension phases of the stride. The increases in swing phase joint flexions indicate that trotting over poles is effective for activating and strengthening the flexor musculature. Unlike the use of proprioceptive stimulation devices in which the effects decrease over time due to habituation, the horse is required to elevate the hooves to ensure clearance whenever poles are present. The need to raise the limbs sufficiently to clear the poles and place the hooves accurately requires visuomotor coordination, which may be useful in the rehabilitation of neurological cases. The Summary is available in Chinese - see Supporting information. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Anatomo-radiological study of the Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crovetto, M., E-mail: macdlt@telefonica.net [Otolaryngology Department, Hospital de Basurto, University of the Basque Country, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain); Whyte, J., E-mail: jwhite@unizar.es [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Zaragoza, C/Domingo Mirall s/n, Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, O.M., E-mail: OLIVIAMARIA.RODRIGUEZSANVICENT@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Lecumberri, I., E-mail: INIGO.LECUMBERRICORTES@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida Montevideo 18, Bilbao 498013 (Spain); Martinez, C., E-mail: claudiorayosx@yahoo.es [Hospital General de la Defensa, Via Iberica s/n Zaragoza (Spain); Elexpuru, J., E-mail: jelexpuru@mac.com [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to determine the radiological incidence of Superior (SSCD) and Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (PSCD) and to compare radiologic SSCD to the incidence of this condition on cadaver specimen. We have also analysed the relation between the ossification state of the semicircular canals and the degree of mastoid pneumatization and integrity of Tegmen Tympani. Material and methods: Temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan on patients and direct observation on cadaver specimen, respectively. Results: 604 ears and 160 cadaver temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan and direct observation, respectively. 3.6% and 0.3% of the studied ears had SSCD and PSCD, respectively, on CT scan. Only 0.6% of the cadaver specimen ears did have anatomical SSCD. Degree of pneumatization of the mastoid bone is related to the mean thickness of bone overlying the Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal. Radiological absence of Tegmen Tympani is more frequent in ears that also have radiologic SSCD. Conclusion: CT scanning gives higher incidence figures of SSCD than anatomical studies, 3.6% vs. 0.6%. We also found a 0.6% incidence of radiological PSCD in the studied ears. There is a direct relation between the degree of ossification of Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal and certain temporal bone anatomic features: temporal bone pneumatization and absence/presence of Tegmen Tympani or Antri.

  3. Alterations of lateral temporal cortical gray matter and facial memory as vulnerability indicators for schizophrenia: an MRI study in youth at familial high-risk for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Benjamin K.; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Holt, Daphne J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Makris, Nikos; Tsuang, Ming T.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Structural alterations of the lateral temporal cortex (LTC) in association with memory impairments have been reported in schizophrenia. This study investigated whether alterations of LTC structure were linked with impaired facial and/or verbal memory in young first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia and, thus, may be indicators of vulnerability to the illness. Methods Subjects included 27 non-psychotic, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients, and 48 healthy controls, between the ages of 13 and 28. Participants underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5 Tesla. The LTC was parcellated into superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, and temporal pole. Total cerebral and LTC volumes were measured using semi-automated morphometry. The Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition and the Children’s Memory Scale – Third Edition assessed facial and verbal memory. General linear models tested for associations among LTC subregion volumes, familial risk and memory. Results Compared with controls, relatives had significantly smaller bilateral middle temporal gyri. Moreover, right middle temporal gyral volume showed a significant positive association with delayed facial memory in relatives. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that smaller middle temporal gyri are related to the genetic liability to schizophrenia and may be linked with reduced facial memory in persons at genetic risk for the illness. The findings add to the growing evidence that children at risk for schizophrenia on the basis of positive family history have cortical and subcortical structural brain abnormalities well before psychotic illness occurs. PMID:26621001

  4. Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, S. J.; Adriani, A.; Adumitroaie, V.; Allison, M.; Anderson, J.; Atreya, S.; Bloxham, J.; Brown, S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; DeJong, E.; Folkner, W.; Gautier, D.; Grassi, D.; Gulkis, S.; Guillot, T.; Hansen, C.; Hubbard, W. B.; Iess, L.; Ingersoll, A.; Janssen, M.; Jorgensen, J.; Kaspi, Y.; Levin, S. M.; Li, C.; Lunine, J.; Miguel, Y.; Mura, A.; Orton, G.; Owen, T.; Ravine, M.; Smith, E.; Steffes, P.; Stone, E.; Stevenson, D.; Thorne, R.; Waite, J.; Durante, D.; Ebert, R. W.; Greathouse, T. K.; Hue, V.; Parisi, M.; Szalay, J. R.; Wilson, R.

    2017-05-01

    On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter's poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn's poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars, dominated by an ammonia-rich, narrow low-latitude plume resembling a deeper, wider version of Earth's Hadley cell. Near-infrared mapping reveals the relative humidity within prominent downwelling regions. Juno's measured gravity field differs substantially from the last available estimate and is one order of magnitude more precise. This has implications for the distribution of heavy elements in the interior, including the existence and mass of Jupiter's core. The observed magnetic field exhibits smaller spatial variations than expected, indicative of a rich harmonic content.

  5. Zero Assignment in Multivariable System Using Pole Assignment Method

    OpenAIRE

    Smagina, Ye.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper we consider the invariant zero assignment problem in a linear multivariable system with several inputs/outputs by constructing a system output matrix. The problem is reduced to the pole assignment problem by a state feedback (modal control) in a descriptor system or a regular one. It is shown that the zero assignment and pole assignment are mathematically equivalent problems.

  6. 30 CFR 57.12048 - Communication conductors on power poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication conductors on power poles. 57... MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12048 Communication conductors on power poles. Telegraph, telephone, or signal wires shall not be installed on the same crossarm with power conductors. When...

  7. pbx is required for pole and eye regeneration in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh G; Wang, Irving E; Reddien, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Planarian regeneration involves regionalized gene expression that specifies the body plan. After amputation, planarians are capable of regenerating new anterior and posterior poles, as well as tissues polarized along the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial-lateral axes. Wnt and several Hox genes are expressed at the posterior pole, whereas Wnt inhibitory genes, Fgf inhibitory genes, and prep, which encodes a TALE-family homeodomain protein, are expressed at the anterior pole. We found that Smed-pbx (pbx for short), which encodes a second planarian TALE-family homeodomain transcription factor, is required for restored expression of these genes at anterior and posterior poles during regeneration. Moreover, pbx(RNAi) animals gradually lose pole gene expression during homeostasis. By contrast, pbx was not required for initial anterior-posterior polarized responses to wounds, indicating that pbx is required after wound responses for development and maintenance of poles during regeneration and homeostatic tissue turnover. Independently of the requirement for pbx in pole regeneration, pbx is required for eye precursor formation and, consequently, eye regeneration and eye replacement in homeostasis. Together, these data indicate that pbx promotes pole formation of body axes and formation of regenerative progenitors for eyes.

  8. Kolm aastat hiljem : ühisrinnet pole / Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bahovski, Erkki, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Autori hinnangul pole kolm aastat tagasi suurriikide juhtide poolt avaldatud soov koostööks rahvusvahelise terrorismi vastu võitlemisel tänaseks teostunud. Samuti pole suudetud kõrvale tõrjuda riikide omavahelisi huvisid ning ajaloolisi tüliküsimusi

  9. Kremli insaider : Putinil pole peaministri kohta vaja / Jaanus Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirsalu, Jaanus, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Moskvas arvatakse, et kui president Vladimir Putin on otsustanud saada peaministriks, pole enam eriti oluline järgmise riigipea isik. Kõige suuremaks peetakse Viktor Zubkovi shansse riigipea kohale. Politoloog Gleb Pavlovski hinnangul pole peaministriks saamine Putinile praegu üldse ahvatlev. Lisa: Kas Zhirinovski pääseb uude riigiduumasse?

  10. Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J.A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.; Alba, J.L.B.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J.J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J.K.; Becker, K.H.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D.Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D.J.; Bohm, C.; Boser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D.F.; D'Agostino, M.V.; Danninger, M.; Clercq, C. De; Demirors, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; Vries-Uiterweerd, G. de; DeYoung, T.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J.P.; Duvoort, M.R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Engdegard, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P.A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A.R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M.M.; Fox, B.D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glusenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J.A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Gross, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R.M.; Gurtner, M.; Gustafsson, L.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G.C.; Hoffman, K.D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Lafebre, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) and a retrievable transmitter deployed in holes drilled for the IceCube experiment, we have measured the attenuation of acoustic signals by South Pole ice at depths between 190 m and 500 m. Three data sets, using different acoustic sources, have been

  11. Secondary electron emission yield on poled silica based thick films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, D.; Poumellec, B.; Cannas, V.;

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the distribution of the electric field produced by a thermal poling process in a layer of Ge-doped silica on silicon substrate, by using secondary electron emission yield (SEEY) measurements () are presented. Comparing 0 between poled and unpoled areas, the SEEY at the origin of electron...

  12. Pole distribution of PVI transcendents close to a critical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, Davide

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of the poles of Painlevé VI transcendents associated to semi-simple Frobenius manifolds is determined close to a critical point. It is shown that the poles accumulate at the critical point, asymptotically along two rays. As an example, the Frobenius manifold given by the quantum cohomology of CP2 is considered. The general PVI is also considered.

  13. 49 CFR 229.81 - Emergency pole; shoe insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency pole; shoe insulation. 229.81 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Electrical System § 229.81 Emergency pole; shoe insulation. (a) Each locomotive equipped with a pantograph...

  14. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    into account. This may require investments in new project management technologies. Originality/value – This paper adds to the literatures on project temporalities and stakeholder theory by connecting them to the question of non-human stakeholders and to project management technologies.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...

  15. Decoding the superior parietal lobule connections of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, A; Sair, H I; Radmanesh, A; Hasan, K M

    2014-09-26

    The temporo-parietal (TP) white matter connections between the inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus as part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus (SLF/AF) or middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF) have been studied in prior diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) studies. However, few studies have been focusing on the higher TP connections of the superior parietal lobule with the temporal lobe. These higher TP connections have been shown to have a role in core processes such as attention, memory, emotions, and language. Our most recent study, for the first time, hinted to the possibility of a long white matter connection interconnecting the superior parietal lobule (SPL) with the posterior temporal lobe in human brain which we call the SLF/AF TP-SPL and for a shorter abbreviation, the TP-SPL. We decided to further investigate this white matter connection using fiber assignment by continuous tracking deterministic tractography and high spatial resolution diffusion tensor imaging on 3T. Five healthy right-handed men (age range 24-37 years) were studied. We delineated the SPL connections of the SLF/AF TP bilaterally in five normal adult human brains. Using a high resolution DTT technique, we demonstrate for the first time, the trajectory of a long fiber bundle connectivity between the SPL and posterior temporal lobe, called the SLF/AF TP-SPL (or the TP-SPL), bilaterally in five healthy adult human brains. We also demonstrate the trajectory of the vertically oriented posterior TP connections, interconnecting the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) with the posterior temporal lobe (TP-IPL) in relation to the TP-SPL, arcuate fasciculus and other major language pathways. In the current study, for the first time, we categorized the TP connections into the anterior and posterior connectivity groups and subcategorized each one into the SPL or IPL connections. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic adaptation to speed and resistance in double poling cross country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johnny; Tinmark, Fredrik; Halvorsen, Kjartan; Arndt, Anton

    2013-06-01

    This study incorporated variations in speed and the horizontal resistance acting upon elite female skiers during double poling (DP) on a treadmill and specifically analyzed biomechanical adaptations to these variations. Whole body kinematics and pole force data were recorded and used to calculate the moment of force acting on the shoulder and elbow joints. Data were obtained with a 3D optoelectronic system using reflective markers at given anatomical landmarks. Forces along the long axis of the right pole were measured with a piezoelectric force transducer. Surface electrodes were used to record EMG activity in the rectus femoris, rectus abdominis, latissimus dorsi and triceps brachii muscles. In a first set of recordings, the participants double poled with zero elevation at five different speeds from 8 to 17 km h(-1). In a second set of recordings, horizontal resistance was added by weights (0.4-1.9 kg) attached to a pulley system pulling the skier posteriorly during DP at 14 km h(-1). Results showed increasing relative duration of the thrust phase with increasing resistance, but not with speed. Significant kinematic differences occurred with increase in both speed and resistance. The mean (±SD) horizontal force components ranged between 1.7 (±1.3) and 2.8 (±1.1) percent (%) bodyweight (BW) in the speed adaptation and 3.1 (±0.6) and 4.0 (±1.3) % BW in the adaptation to horizontal resistance. Peak muscle activity showed a central to peripheral (proximo-distal) activation sequence. The temporal cycle phase pattern in the adaptation to speed and horizontal resistance differed.

  17. Pole Dancing Auto-ethnography – Practice, Pedagogy, Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Patricia Cadwallader

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the author addresses the following four questions: 1 What are the implications of bringing pole dancing into concert dance, not as a caricature or theatrical version of what is performed in strip clubs, but as its own, free-standing art form? 2 In what ways will years of ballet and modern dance training influence the type of dancing that emerges from dancers when poles and other apparatuses are introduced? 3 How can the author create an original pole dancing style and pedagogical methods for teaching it? 4 Who participates in pole fitness classes and how does the demographic change based on location? What about when pole fitness classes are offered in an academic setting? The author shares first-hand experiences of investigating pole dancing in fitness classes, attending performances, engaging in a rehearsal process with highly trained dancers, and teaching pole dancing to movers with a wide range of abilities. The author addresses how research plans changed as she encountered limitations of budget and time constraints. The author also elaborates on the creative process that she engaged in with her thesis cast, collaborators, and supporting designers in the making of Super-beneath, a theatrical dance work that uses five, free-standing poles. She outline the vignettes, overall structure, and narrative of the work. The author then discusses where this research fits into the larger field of pole dancing, and the even larger field of dance. In the final sections of this paper, the author describes her pedagogical practices relating to pole classes, what “practice as research” means to her, and how she would like to continue on this research trajectory in the future.

  18. Specialized prefrontal auditory fields: organization of primate prefrontal-temporal pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eMedalla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No other modality is more frequently represented in the prefrontal cortex than the auditory, but the role of auditory information in prefrontal functions is not well understood. Pathways from auditory association cortices reach distinct sites in the lateral, orbital, and medial surfaces of the prefrontal cortex in rhesus monkeys. Among prefrontal areas, frontopolar area 10 has the densest interconnections with auditory association areas, spanning a large antero-posterior extent of the superior temporal gyrus from the temporal pole to auditory parabelt and belt regions. Moreover, auditory pathways make up the largest component of the extrinsic connections of area 10, suggesting a special relationship with the auditory modality. Here we review anatomic evidence showing that frontopolar area 10 is indeed the main frontal auditory field as the major recipient of auditory input in the frontal lobe and chief source of output to auditory cortices. Area 10 is thought to be the functional node for the most complex cognitive tasks of multitasking and keeping track of information for future decisions. These patterns suggest that the auditory association links of area 10 are critical for complex cognition. The first part of this review focuses on the organization of prefrontal-auditory pathways at the level of the system and the synapse, with a particular emphasis on area 10. Then we explore ideas on how the elusive role of area 10 in complex cognition may be related to the specialized relationship with auditory association cortices.

  19. Changes in performance and poling kinetics during cross-country sprint skiing competition using the double-poling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Jussi; Laaksonen, Marko S; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Nummela, Ari; Linnamo, Vesa

    2013-11-01

    In this study, changes in skiing performance and poling kinetics during a simulated cross-country sprint skiing competition were investigated. Twelve elite male cross-country skiers performed simulated sprint competition (4 x 1,150 m heat with 20 min recovery between the heats) using the double-poling technique. Vertical and horizontal pole forces and cycle characteristics were measured using a force plate system (20-m long) during the starting spurt, racing speed, and finishing spurt of each heat. Moreover, heat and 20-m phase velocities were determined. Vertical and horizontal pole impulses as well as mean cycle length were calculated. The velocities of heats decreased by 2.7 +/- 1.7% (p = 0.003) over the simulated competition. The 20-m spurting velocity decreased by 16 +/- 5% (p < 0.002) and poling time increased by 18 +/- 9% (p < 0.003) in spurt phases within heats. Vertical and horizontal poling impulses did not change significantly during the simulation; however, the mean forces decreased (p < 0.039) (vertical by 24 +/- 11% and horizontal by 20 +/- 10%) within heats but not between the heats. Decreased heat velocities over the simulated sprint and spurting velocities within heats indicated fatigue among the skiers. Fatigue was also manifested by decreased pole force production and increased poling time.

  20. Glacier melt on the Third Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, T.

    2015-12-01

    With an average elevation above 4,000 metres, the Third Pole (TP) is a unique region with many high mountains centered on the Tibetan Plateau stretching over 5 million square kilometers. Major environmental changes are taking place on the TP characterized by complex interactions of atmospheric, cryospheric, hydrological, geological and environmental processes. These processes are critical for the well-being of the three billion people inhabiting the plateau and the surrounding regions. Glacier melt is one of the most significant environmental changes observed on the TP. Over the past decade, most of the glaciers on the TP have undergone considerable melt. The Third Pole Environment (TPE) has focused on the causes of the glacier melt by conducting large-scale ground in-situ observation and monitoring, analyzing satellite images and remote sensing data, and applying numerical modeling to environmental research on the TP. The studies of long-term record of water stable isotopes in precipitation and ice core throughout the TP have revealed different features with regions, thus proposing significant influence of atmospheric circulations on spatial precipitation pattern over the TP. Validation of the result by isotope-equipped general circulation models confirms the spatial distribution of different atmospheric circulation dominances on the TP, with northern part dominated by the westerlies, southern part by the summer monsoon, and central part featuring the influences of both circulation systems. Such unique circulation patterns also bear directly on the status of glaciers and lakes over the TP and its surroundings. The studies therefore found the largest glacier melt in the monsoon-dominated southern part, moderate melt in the central part of transition, and the least melt, or even slight advance in the westerlies-dominated northern TP. It is clear that some mountains on the TP are undergoing rapid melt and the consequence of without ice and snow will be very soon. The

  1. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  2. Heavy Cratering near Callisto's South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Images from NASA's Galileo spacecraft provide new insights into this region near Callisto's south pole. This two frame mosaic shows a heavily cratered surface with smooth plains in the areas between craters. North is to the top of the image. The smoothness of the plains appears to increase toward the south pole, approximately 480 kilometers (293 miles) south of the bottom of the image. This smoothness of Callisto's surface was not evident in images taken during the 1979 flyby of NASA's Voyager spacecraft because the resolution was insufficient to show the effect. This smooth surface, and the process(es) that cause it, are among the most intriguing aspects of Callisto. Although not fully understood, the process(es) responsible for this smoothing could include erosion by tiny meteorites and energetic ions. Some craters, such as Keelut, the 47 kilometer (29 mile) crater in the lower right corner, have sharp, well defined rims. Keelut contains an inner ring surrounding a central depression about 17 kilometers (11 miles) in diameter. Keelut, and the more irregularly shaped, degraded Reginleif, the 32 kilometer (19.5 mile) crater in the top center of the image, are very shallow and have flat floors. Crater forms can be seen down to less than 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) in diameter in the image. Each picture element (pixel) in this image is approximately 0.68 kilometers (0.41 miles) across.This image which was taken by the Galileo spacecraft's solid state imaging (CCD) system during its eighth orbit around Jupiter, on May 6th, 1997. The center of the image is located at 71.3 degrees south latitude, 97.6 degrees west longitude, and was taken when the spacecraft was approximately 35,470 kilometers (21,637 miles) from Callisto.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http

  3. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  4. Superior Memorizers Employ Different Neural Networks for Encoding and Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eMallow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL to memorize large amounts of information. The method of loci, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, fMRI data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  5. Bilingualism protects anterior temporal lobe integrity in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Canini, Matteo; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Sheung, Lo Ping; Green, David W; Weekes, Brendan S

    2014-09-01

    Cerebral gray-matter volume (GMV) decreases in normal aging but the extent of the decrease may be experience-dependent. Bilingualism may be one protective factor and in this article we examine its potential protective effect on GMV in a region that shows strong age-related decreases-the left anterior temporal pole. This region is held to function as a conceptual hub and might be expected to be a target of plastic changes in bilingual speakers because of the requirement for these speakers to store and differentiate lexical concepts in 2 languages to guide speech production and comprehension processes. In a whole brain comparison of bilingual speakers (n = 23) and monolingual speakers (n = 23), regressing out confounding factors, we find more extensive age-related decreases in GMV in the monolingual brain and significantly increased GMV in left temporal pole for bilingual speakers. Consistent with a specific neuroprotective effect of bilingualism, region of interest analyses showed a significant positive correlation between naming performance in the second language and GMV in this region. The effect appears to be bilateral though because there was a nonsignificantly different effect of naming performance on GMV in the right temporal pole. Our data emphasize the vulnerability of the temporal pole to normal aging and the value of bilingualism as both a general and specific protective factor to GMV decreases in healthy aging.

  6. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles and responsibilities. DATES... of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee members; Election of... Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  7. [The superior laryngeal nerve and the superior laryngeal artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J; Nachbaur, S; Fischer, K; Vogel, E

    1987-01-01

    Length, diameter and anastomoses of the nervus vagus and its ganglion inferius were measured 44 halved heads. On the average, 8.65 fiber bundles of the vagus nerve leave the retro-olivary area. In the area of the jugular foramen is the near superior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve. In this area were found 1.48 (mean value) anastomoses with the 9th cranial nerve. 11.34 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea branches off the ramus internus of the accessory nerve which has a length of 9.75 mm. Further anastomoses with the 10th cranial nerve were found. The inferior ganglion of the 10th nerve had a length of 25.47 mm and a diameter of 3.46 mm. Five mm below the ganglion the 10th nerve had a width of 2.9 and a thickness of 1.5 mm. The mean length of the superior sympathetic ganglion was 26.6 mm, its width 7.2 and its thickness 3.4 mm. In nearly all specimens anastomoses of the superior sympathetic ganglion with the ansa cervicalis profunda and the inferior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve were found. The superior laryngeal nerve branches off about 36 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea. The width of this nerve was 1.9 mm, its thickness 0.8 mm on the right and 1.0 mm on the left side. The division in the internal and external rami was found about 21 mm below its origin. Between the n. vagus and thyreohyoid membrane the ramus internus had a length of 64 mm, the length of external ramus between the vagal nerve and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle was 89 mm. Its mean length below the thyreopharyngeal part was 10.7 mm, 8.6 branchlets to the cricothyroid muscle were counted. The superior laryngeal artery had its origin in 80% of cases in the superior thyroideal artery, in 6.8% this vessel was a branch of the external carotid artery. Its average outer diameter was 1.23 mm on the right side and 1.39 mm on the left. The length of this vessel between its origin and the thyreohyoid membrane was 34 mm. In 7% on the right side and in 13% on the left, the superior

  8. GUIDELESS SPATIAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY BASED ON CODING POLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Min; QIU Zongming; QU Jiamin; LIU Hongzhao

    2008-01-01

    A new method of guideless spatial coordinate measurement technology based on coding pole and vision measurement is proposed. Unequal spacing of bar code is adopted to pole, so that the code combination of pole image in measuring field is unique. Holographic characteristics of numeric coding pole are adopted to obtain pole pose and pole probe position by any section of bar code on the pole. Spatial coordinates of measuring points can be obtained by coordinate transform. The contradiction between high resolution and large visual field of image sensor is resolved, thereby providing a new concept for surface shape measurement of large objects with high precision. The measurement principles of the system are expounded and mathematic model is established. The measurement equation is evaluated by simulation experiments and the measurement precision is analyzed. Theoretical analysis and simulation experiments prove that this system is characterized by simple structure and wide measurement range. Therefore it can be used in the 3-dimentional coordinate measurement of large objects.

  9. Anthropogenic climate change has altered primary productivity in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, M. D.; Werne, J. P.; Hecky, R. E.; Johnson, T. C.; Katsev, S.; Reavie, E. D.

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has the potential to alter many facets of Earth's freshwater resources, especially lacustrine ecosystems. The effects of anthropogenic changes in Lake Superior, which is Earth's largest freshwater lake by area, are not well documented (spatially or temporally) and predicted future states in response to climate change vary. Here we show that Lake Superior experienced a slow, steady increase in production throughout the Holocene using (paleo)productivity proxies in lacustrine sediments to reconstruct past changes in primary production. Furthermore, data from the last century indicate a rapid increase in primary production, which we attribute to increasing surface water temperatures and longer seasonal stratification related to longer ice-free periods in Lake Superior due to anthropogenic climate warming. These observations demonstrate that anthropogenic effects have become a prominent influence on one of Earth's largest, most pristine lacustrine ecosystems.

  10. What are Millian Qualitative Superiorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Riley

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In an article published in Prolegomena 2006, Christoph Schmidt-Petri has defended his interpretation and attacked mine of Mill’s idea that higher kinds of pleasure are superior in quality to lower kinds, regardless of quantity. Millian qualitative superiorities as I understand them are infinite superiorities. In this paper, I clarify my interpretation and show how Schmidt-Petri has misrepresented it and ignored the obvious textual support for it. As a result, he fails to understand how genuine Millian qualitative superiorities determine the novel structure of Mill’s pluralistic utilitarianism, in which a social code of justice that distributes equal rights and duties takes absolute priority over competing considerations. Schmidt-Petri’s own interpretation is a non-starter, because it does noteven recognize that Mill is talking about different kinds of pleasant feelings, such that the higher kinds are intrinsically more valuable than the lower. I conclude by outlining why my interpretation is free of any metaphysical commitment to the “essence” of pleasure.

  11. Isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Palle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA dissection without involvement of the aorta and the SMA origin is unusual. We present a case of an elderly gentleman who had chronic abdominal pain, worse after meals. CT angiography, performed on a 64-slice CT scanner, revealed SMA dissection with a thrombus. A large artery of Drummond was also seen. The patient was managed conservatively.

  12. A escrita no Ensino Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição Pillon Christofoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198464445865 O presente artigo trata de apresentar resultados oriundos de pesquisa realizada no Ensino Superior, enfocando a escrita em contextos universitários. Depoimentos por parte dos acadêmicos evidenciam certa resistência ao ato de escrever, o que acaba muitas vezes distanciando o sujeito da produção de um texto. Assim sendo, mesmo que parciais, os resultados até então analisados dão conta de que: pressuposto 1 – há ruptura da ideia de coerência entre o que pensamos, o que conseguimos escrever, o que entende nosso interlocutor; pressuposto 2 – a autocorreção de textos como exercício de pesquisa é imprescindível para a qualificação da escrita; pressuposto 3 – os diários de aula representam rico instrumento para a qualificação da escrita no Ensino Superior; pressuposto 4 – há necessidade de que o aluno do Ensino Superior escreva variados tipos de escrita, ainda que a universidade cumpra com seu papel, enfatizando a escrita acadêmica; pressuposto 5 – o trabalho com a escrita no Ensino Superior deve enfatizar os componentes básicos da expressão escrita: o código escrito e a composição da escrita. Palavras-chave: Escrita; Ensino Superior; formação de professores.

  13. Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchmanj, David L; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L; Murray, Alison E

    2012-10-23

    The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation.

  14. Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific and South Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries project contains landings, logbooks, and size composition data from U.S.A. troll and...

  15. A Totem Pole Represents Native Culture at Seattle Pacific University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, Kenneth

    1980-01-01

    The article describes a totem pole carved by a Tlingit artist using traditional symbols to illustrate the history and mission of Seattle Pacific University. The article also reports the 1979 dedication ceremony. (SB)

  16. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated...... whole-genome and exome data from probands of 34 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. We found a novel germline mutation, POLE p.(Trp347Cys), in a 7-case cutaneous melanoma family....... Functional assays in S. pombe showed that this mutation led to an increased DNA mutation rate comparable to that seen with a Pol ε mutant with no exonuclease activity. We then performed targeted sequencing of POLE in 1243 cutaneous melanoma cases and found that a further ten probands had novel or rare...

  17. The Achievements of the GLAMOROUS Project on Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margulis, Walter; Myrén, N.; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob;

    2005-01-01

    The GLAMOROUS project had as objective to demonstrate the feasibility of fibre and waveguide components with a second order nonlinearity induced by poling. The accomplishments of this nine-partners European Research Project are described....

  18. China Becomes Growth Pole of Global Milk Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was recently learnt from China Association of Milk Industry, the developing trend of the global milk industry indicates that,China has become the growth pole of the future development of the global milk industry.

  19. Asymmetric spindle pole formation in CPAP-depleted mitotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miseon; Chang, Jaerak; Chang, Sunghoe; Lee, Kyung S; Rhee, Kunsoo

    2014-02-21

    CPAP is an essential component for centriole formation. Here, we report that CPAP is also critical for symmetric spindle pole formation during mitosis. We observed that pericentriolar material between the mitotic spindle poles were asymmetrically distributed in CPAP-depleted cells even with intact numbers of centrioles. The length of procentrioles was slightly reduced by CPAP depletion, but the length of mother centrioles was not affected. Surprisingly, the young mother centrioles of the CPAP-depleted cells are not fully matured, as evidenced by the absence of distal and subdistal appendage proteins. We propose that the selective absence of centriolar appendages at the young mother centrioles may be responsible for asymmetric spindle pole formation in CPAP-depleted cells. Our results suggest that the neural stem cells with CPAP mutations might form asymmetric spindle poles, which results in premature initiation of differentiation.

  20. Forbush Effects on the Martian Surface and Earth's Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, A.; Guo, J.; Heber, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Zeitlin, C.; Zheng, Y.; MacNeice, P. J.; Odstrcil, D.; Rastaetter, L.; Steigies, C. T.; Andrews, J. P.; Appel, J. K.; Beaujean, R.; Berger, L.; Boettcher, S. I.; Brinza, D. E.; Bullock, M.; Burmeister, S.; Cucinotta, F.; Dresing, N.; Drews, C.; Ehresmann, B.; Epperly, M. E.; Hassler, D.; Herbst, K.; Kim, M. H. Y.; Kohler, J.; Kühl, P.; Lohf, H.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Müller-Mellin, R.; Neal, K.; Rafkin, S. C.; Reitz, G.; Smith, K. D.; Tyler, Y.; weigle, G., II

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed MSL/RAD observation of Forbush effects on the surface of Mars over a full Mars year from landing through the Mars opposition period in 2014. For the extended Mars opposition phase we compared the observed Forbush effects with those identified at Earth's south pole utilizing observations of the South Pole neutron monitor. Identification of the drivers of Forbush effects, recurrent and transient solar wind structures in the inner heliosphere, is aided by WSA-ENLIL simulations. We show that a remarkable correlations of count rates of (secondary) cosmic rays at Mars' surface and at the Earth's south pole is established for a minimum duration of 6 months around the Mars opposition, in particular when time shifted with propagation and/or corotation delays of the drivers of cosmic ray decreases in the solar wind. Moreover, the magnitude of Forbush effects on Mars is larger statistically than the equivalent near Earth's poles.

  1. TOUGHENING OF FERROELECTRICS BY THE OUT-OF-PLANE POLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫; 方菲

    2003-01-01

    Subjected to the prior out-of-plane poling, the ferroelectrics can be toughened considerably. The present paper describes the variation of the stress intensity factor (SIF) by 90° switching in ferroelectrics. The analysis is carried out for the combined mechanical and electrical loading, with simple relations obtained for the case of the purely electrical loading. The out-of-plane poling is found to raise the SIF for the crack initiation, but appreciably reduces the SIF for the crack growth in a steady state. More stable fracture resistance curves can be achieved by the out-of-plane poling. This prediction is supported quantitatively by the testing data of SENB specimens of PZT-5 samples, when the toughening effects of polings in three orthogonal directions are compared.

  2. Results from the South Pole InfraRed EXplorer Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Rathborne, J.M.; Burton, M. G.

    2003-01-01

    The SPIREX telescope, located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, was a prototype system developed to exploit the excellent conditions for IR observing at the South Pole. Observations over two winter seasons achieved remarkably deep, high-resolution, wide-field images in the 3-5um wavelength regime. Several star forming complexes were observed, including NGC 6334, Chamaeleon I, eta Chamaeleontis, the Carina Nebula, 30 Doradus, RCW 57, RCW 38, as well as the Galactic Centre. Images were ...

  3. Decentralized-feedback pole placement of linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Martin, C. F.; Gilliam, D.; Byrnes, C. I.

    1992-01-01

    A projectile product spaces model is used to analyze decentralized systems. The degree of the pole placement map is computed. The conditions under which the degree is odd are also given. Twin lift systems are studied. It is proved that the poles of a twin lift system can be assigned to any values by local static and local dynamic feedback laws if and only if the system is jointly controllable.

  4. On Design of Automatic Choosing Control by Pole Placement

    OpenAIRE

    高田, 等; 提, 祐樹; 八野, 知博; TAKATA, Hitoshi; Sage, Yuki; HACHINO, Tomohiro

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with design of an augmented automatic choosing control (AACC) for nonlinear systems. The AACC is synthesized by smoothly uniting a set of sectionwise linear controls, in which pole placement approach is used. An observer theory is applied to it in a case that the state vector includes some unmeasurable variables directly. Control and observer's gains are obtained by the pole placement method.

  5. Stability of pole solutions for planar propagating flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahibe, M.; Aubry, N.; Sivashinsky, G. I.

    1996-11-01

    It is well-known that the partial differential equation (PDE)footnote G. I. Sivashinsky, Acta Astronautica, 4, 1177 (1977). describing the dynamics of hydrodynamically unstable planar flame front admits exact pole solutions exhibiting cusps in physical space. For such solutions, the original PDE can be reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) which describe the dynamics of poles in the complex plane. The situation, however, is paradoxical since the steady solutions obtained by numerically integrating the PDE differ, in general, from the exact solutions governed by the ODEs. In physical space, new cusps appear and/or the height of existing cusps increases with time for the PDE and not for the ODEs. In this study, we show that these phenomena are due to the fact that most exact steady pole solutions are unstable for the PDE. In certain cases, such solutions are unstable for the ODEs, in other cases, they are neutrally stable for the ODEs but unstable for the PDE. The only steady pole solutions which are neutrally stable for both the ODEs and the PDE correspond to small interval lengths; both their number of poles and propagation speed are maximal and all their poles are aligned on the same vertical axis in the complex plane.

  6. GENETIC BASED PLUS INTEGRAL CONTROLLER FOR PMBLDC MOTOR CONTROL USING RESONANT POLE INVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muruganantham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Permanent Magnet Brushless DC (PMBLDC motor drives are increasingly popular in industrial applications due to rapid progress of technologies in power electronics and the growing demand for energy saving. The increasing demand of energy saving from society is the external force for the development of PMBLDC motor drives. It is however driven by a hard-switching Pulse Width Modulation (PWM inverter, which has low switching frequency, high switching loss, high Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI, high acoustic noise and low efficiency, etc. To solve these problems of the hard-switching inverter, many soft-switching inverters have been designed in the past. Unfortunately, high device voltage stress, large dc link voltage ripples, complex control scheme and so on are noticed in the soft-switching inverters. This study introduces a novel genetic-proportional Plus Integral (PI controller based resonant pole inverter using transformer, which can generate dc link voltage notches during chopping which minimize the drawbacks of soft-switching. Hence all switches work in zero-voltage switching condition. The performance of the genetic-based PI controller is compared with conventional PI controller. The experimental results show that the genetic-based PI controller renders a better transient response than the conventional PI controller resulting in negligible overshoot, smaller settling time and rise time. Moreover the proposed controller provides low torque ripples and high starting torque. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to show the superiority of the proposed GA-PI controller based resonant pole inverter.

  7. International Youth Conference on the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. K.; Kuhn, T. S.; Baeseman, J.; Garmulewicz, A.; Raymond, M.; Salmon, R.

    2006-12-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) is an international effort, involving more than 50 countries, to focus research in both the sciences and social sciences on the world's Polar Regions. In order to secure youth involvement in the IPY, the Youth Steering Committee (YSC) has been formed, aiming specifically to network young polar researchers from all backgrounds enabling collaboration and to involve this group in outreach focused towards other young people. A conference targeted directly at an audience of early career researchers and international youth will be central to fulfilling these aims. The YSC has therefore developed the concept of the International Youth Conference on the Poles (IYCP). Proposed for 2008, this conference will bring together youth from a diverse set of backgrounds and nationalities to discuss the issues affecting the Polar Regions, their effects on a global scale and ways of addressing these issues. The conference will also serve to highlight ongoing IPY research, especially research being undertaken by young researchers, and provide a perennial framework for youth involvement in polar research and policies. The IYCP will run for three days in May 2008, attracting an international youth audience, as well as representatives from polar organizations, teachers, politicians, policy makers, the general public and media. The IYCP will be divided into three sections. Youth Roundtable Discussions will bring youth together to discuss issues affecting the Polar Regions and potential solutions to these. A Young Researchers Conference will provide the opportunity for young researchers working in the Polar Regions to present their work to an interdisciplinary audience. The Polar Fair will provide an interactive environment for youth to learn about the Polar Regions. The IYCP will be of great importance to the IPY because it will serve as the principle venue during the Polar Year where youth from many different disciplines, backgrounds and countries will

  8. The grounding of temporal metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Vicky T.; Desai, Rutvik H.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (Her seminar stretches across the afternoon) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (Her backyard stretches across the desert) and literal motion (Her arm stretches across the table), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus. These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional. PMID:26854961

  9. Variation of the Pole Length in Pole-Oriented Bonded Rings due to the Location and Number of Injection Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina H. Kurth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer bonded magnets are compounds consisting of a polymer matrix with embedded hard magnetic filler particles. These materials are mainly used in applications in actor or sensor technology. One example is the application as multipolar encoder wheel in magnetic sensors. Depending on the application different requirements have to be fulfilled, such as a high pole length accuracy and repeatability. This investigation deals with the production of multipolar rings in the injection molding process for sensor applications and influences of the design of the gating system on the pole length accuracy. It is shown that the number of injection points and developing weld lines, as well as the positioning of the injection points, has a major influence on the magnetization characteristics of the molded rings. In general, a positioning of injection points and weld lines in the pole pitch and higher number of injection points lead to rings with a high reproduction accuracy of the pole length of the mold.

  10. Poles of the S-matrix in Woods-Saxon and Salamon-Vertse potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertse, T.; Lovas, R. G.; Salamon, P.; Rácz, A.

    2012-10-01

    The motions of the l = 0 poles of the S-matrix with varying potential strength is calculated in a cut-off Woods-Saxon (CWS) potential and in the Salamon-Vertse (SV) potential [3]. Both potentials are zero beyond a certain finite distance but the CWS potential has a jump at the cut while the SV potential goes to zero smoothly. The jump of the CWS potential might cause a strange circling of the trajectories at their starting region. This feature does not appear with the SV potential. Starting points of the trajectories depend on the ranges of the potentials. For CWS these points do depend on the unphysical cut-off radius. In this respect the SV potential seems to be superior to the CWS potential.

  11. An innovative fixed-pole numerical approximation for fractional order systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yiheng; Tse, Peter W; Du, Bin; Wang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    A novel numerical approximation scheme is proposed for fractional order systems by the concept of identification. An identical equation is derived firstly, from which one can obtain the exact state space model of fractional order systems. It reveals the nature of the approximation problem, and then provides an effective scheme to obtain the desired model. This research project also focuses on solving a knotty but crucial issue, i.e., the initial value problem of fractional order systems. The results generated by the study prove that it can reduce to the Caputo case by selecting some specific initial values. A careful simulation study is reported to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. To exhibit the superiority clearly, the results are compared with that of the published fixed-pole finite model method.

  12. Pensamiento Superior y Desarrollo Territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Racancoj Alonzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta reflexión pretende explicar el papel, fundamental, que juega el pensamiento superior, en la formulación y la práctica de modelos de desarrollo territorial local; para que contribuyan de forma sustantiva, en la transformación de las condiciones socioeconómicas adversas que hoy viven comunidades indígenas y rurales de muchos países, como Guatemala, situación que puede resumirse en altos índices de pobreza y desnutrición. Pero, el pensamiento superior, debe ser competencia de la población con pertenencia a lo local, pues si y solo si esta condición existe, se dará validez y viabilidad al desarrollo territorial. Para alcanzar competencias de pensamiento superior, en los espacios locales, se tiene que superar obstáculos en el modelo de universidad, que hoy estamos familiarizados a ver y pensar; modelos que tienen las características de: herencia colonial, disfunción con la problemática económica, cultural, social y política de la sociedad y la negación de los saberes ancestrales.

  13. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach.

  14. The practice of pole dance as a leisure activity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andorra Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the how pole dance is practiced as a form of leisure activity in Denmark. The methodical approach is qualitative and inspired by ethnography. I have conducted a field study where I have observed and participated in the pole dance culture in Copenhagen from May...... to October 2014. Furthermore, I have conducted five interviews with pole studio owners and 14 shorter interviews with pole dancers. The study showed that the pole dance culture is complex; there is more than one way to practice pole dance both in terms of movements, attire, and attitude. This article...... addresses the difference between a focus on dance and a focus on tricks in pole dancing as well as it examines the different opinions pole studio owners have concerning ‘sexiness’ in pole dance and how this affects the way pole dance is practiced....

  15. Combined cataract and glaucoma procedures using temporal cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, J L; Van der Karr, M A; Sanders, V

    1996-12-01

    To evaluate whether separating the procedures in a combined procedure by performing a temporal cataract incision and superior trabeculectomy induces the lower astigmatism of a temporal cataract incision without sacrificing intraocular pressure (IOP) control. EyeSight Associates, Warner Robins, Georgia. This study evaluated 50 consecutive eyes receiving a superior cataract incision with a superonasal trabeculectomy and 65 eyes receiving a temporal cataract incision with a superonasal trabeculectomy. After 3 months, a substantially greater proportion of temporal incision cases had controlled IOP without medication. A substantially higher proportion in the superior incision group had uncontrolled IOP at each time period. Mean surgically induced cylinder was higher in the superior incision group at every time period. The superior group had early with-the-rule mean induced cylinder that decayed to against-the-rule, with a mean induced cylinder with keratometry at the final available visit (more than 3 months) of -1.01 diopter (D). The temporal group started with a negligible induced cylinder (-0.13 D) that drifted slightly with the rule to a final mean induced cylinder of +0.49 D. At the last visit, 31% in the superior incision group and 57% in the temporal incision group had an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 72% and 94%, respectively, had a best corrected acuity of 20/40 or better. Separating the cataract and glaucoma procedures frees the surgeon to use newer astigmatically neutral techniques for the cataract incision.

  16. Reward system and temporal pole contributions to affective evaluation during a first person shooter video game

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathiak, Krystyna A; Klasen, Martin; Weber, René; Ackermann, Hermann; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Mathiak, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    .... It was demonstrated that playing a video game leads to striatal dopamine release. It is unclear, however, which aspects of the game cause this reward system activation and if violent content contributes...

  17. Entidades fiscalizadoras superiores y accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    OBJETIVOS DE LA TESIS: El objetivo general del trabajo es establecer el nivel de eficacia de las Entidades Fiscalizadoras Superiores (EFS) como agencia asignada y herramienta de accountability horizontal, a través de la valoración de su diseño institucional y de la calidad de sus productos finales, los informes de auditoría, estableciéndose los siguientes objetivos específicos: 1. Relevar las nociones de accountability, actualizando el Estado del Arte de la cuestión. 2. Analizar la ...

  18. THE ESTIMATION OF ORDERING DEGREE OF CORONA-POLED NONLINEAR OPTICAL POLYMER FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Cheng; DONG Haiou; WANG Jiafu

    1992-01-01

    The investigation of electrochromic effect of corona-poled nonlinear optical polymer films is an effective method for the estimation of poling level and the selection of poling conditions. The poling electric field Ep and orientational order parameter φ, which are the important parameters to predict d33 of poled tilms, can be calculated by a simple operation from the number of red shift of charge transfer absorption band. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Poles in the Dutch Cape Colony 1652-1814

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Mariusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Poles to the colonisation and development of the Dutch Cape Colony is not commonly known. Yet, Poles have been appearing in this colony since its very inception (1652. During the entire period considered here the presence of Poles was the result of the strong economic ties between Poland and the Netherlands. At the end of this period there was an increase in their share, in connection with the presence of numerous alien military units on the territory of the Colony, because of Poles having served in these units. Numerous newcomers from Poland settled in South Africa for good, established families, and their progeny made up part of the local society. The evidence of this phenomenon is provided by the present-day Afrikaner families of, for instance, Drotsky, Kitshoff, Kolesky, Latsky, Masuriek, Troskie, Zowitsky, and others. A quite superficial estimation implies that the settlers coming from Poland could make up a bit over 1% of the ancestors of the present-day Afrikaners. Poles would also participate in the pioneering undertakings within the far-off fringes of the Colony, including the robbery-and-trade expedition of 1702.

  20. Assessment of Pole Erosion in a Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Ortega, Alejandro L.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster called H6 have been performed to quantify the erosion rate at the inner pole. The assessments have been made in two versions of the thruster, namely the unshielded (H6US) and magnetically shielded (H6MS) configurations. The simulations have been performed with the 2-D axisymmetric code Hall2De which employs a new multi-fluid ion algorithm to capture the presence of low-energy ions in the vicinity of the poles. It is found that the maximum computed erosion rate at the inner pole of the H6MS exceeds the measured rate of back-sputtered deposits by 4.5 times. This explains only part of the surface roughening that was observed after a 150-h wear test, which covered most of the pole area exposed to the plasma. For the majority of the pole surface the computed erosion rates are found to be below the back-sputter rate and comparable to those in the H6US which exhibited little to no sputtering in previous tests. Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed.

  1. Development of a multi-pole magnetorheological brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Yaojung; Nguyen, Quang-Anh

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach in the design and optimization of a novel multi-pole magnetorheological (MR) brake that employs magnetic flux more effectively on the surface of the rotor. MR brakes with conventional single ring-type electromagnetic poles have reached the limits of torque enhancement. One major reason is the limitation of the magnetic field strength within the active area of the MR fluid due to the geometric constraints of the coil. The multi-pole MR brake design features multiple electromagnetic poles surrounded by several coils. As a result, the active chaining areas for the MR fluid are greatly increased, and significant brake torque improvement is achieved. The coil structure, as a part of the stator, becomes flexible and customizable in terms of space usage for the winding and bobbin design. In addition, this brake offers extra options in its dimensions for torque enhancement because either the radial or the axial dimensions of the rotor can be increased. Magnetic circuit analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of the design parameters on the field torque. After that, simulations were done to find the optimal design under all major geometric constraints with a given power supply. The results show that the multi-pole MR brake provides a considerable braking torque increase while maintaining a compact and solid design. This is confirmation of its feasibility in actual braking applications.

  2. A nondestructive characterization system of periodically poled crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaixi; Zhou, Huang; Chen, Liyuan; Zou, Xiaolin; Miao, Long; Feng, Xinkai; Li, Guangwei; Liang, Wanguo

    2015-08-01

    Periodically poled crystals are widely used as SHG, DFG, SFG, OPO and THz generation, and there is a broad application prospect in some areas such as the laser display, optical fiber communication, atmospheric exploration and military confrontation. At present, to get the parameters of periodically poled crystals, like duty ratio, the main method is chemical etching of the samples. In this paper, we present a nondestructive characterization system of periodically poled crystals. When we apply a proper high voltage on both sides of the periodically poled crystal, the refractive index difference of positive and negative domain will be increased and we can observe a clear domain pattern by the a microscope so as to obtain general information. Then a single frequency laser is prepared to radiate on +z surface of the periodically poled crystal, we can get some orders of diffraction according to diffraction optics principle. Finally, we can measure the parameters such as period, duty ratio by use of numerical analysis. The testing sample size of this system can be up to 60mm, The accuracy of the testing period can be 0.1μm, and the measurement range of duty ratio is 20%-50%.

  3. Two-pole structure of the D0* (2400)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaladejo, Miguel; Fernandez-Soler, Pedro; Guo, Feng-Kun; Nieves, Juan

    2017-04-01

    The so far only known charmed non-strange scalar meson is dubbed as D0* (2400) in the Review of Particle Physics. We show, within the framework of unitarized chiral perturbation theory, that there are in fact two (I = 1 / 2 ,JP =0+) poles in the region of the D0* (2400) in the coupled-channel Dπ, Dη and Ds K bar scattering amplitudes. With all the parameters previously fixed, we predict the energy levels for the coupled-channel system in a finite volume, and find that they agree remarkably well with recent lattice QCD calculations. This successful description of the lattice data is regarded as a strong evidence for the two-pole structure of the D0* (2400). With the physical quark masses, the poles are located at (2105-8+6 - i102-12+10) MeV and (2451-26+36 - i134-8+7) MeV, with the largest couplings to the Dπ and Ds K bar channels, respectively. Since the higher pole is close to the Ds K bar threshold, we expect it to show up as a threshold enhancement in the Ds K bar invariant mass distribution. This could be checked by high-statistic data in future experiments. We also show that the lower pole belongs to the same SU(3) multiplet as the Ds0 * (2317) state. Predictions for partners in the bottom sector are also given.

  4. Assessment of Pole Erosion in a Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Ortega, Alejandro L.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster called H6 have been performed to quantify the erosion rate at the inner pole. The assessments have been made in two versions of the thruster, namely the unshielded (H6US) and magnetically shielded (H6MS) configurations. The simulations have been performed with the 2-D axisymmetric code Hall2De which employs a new multi-fluid ion algorithm to capture the presence of low-energy ions in the vicinity of the poles. It is found that the maximum computed erosion rate at the inner pole of the H6MS exceeds the measured rate of back-sputtered deposits by 4.5 times. This explains only part of the surface roughening that was observed after a 150-h wear test, which covered most of the pole area exposed to the plasma. For the majority of the pole surface the computed erosion rates are found to be below the back-sputter rate and comparable to those in the H6US which exhibited little to no sputtering in previous tests. Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed.

  5. A new method of subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves’ disease leaving a unilateral remnant based on the upper pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Liu, Bin; Liu, Rui-Lei; Jiang, Hua; Huang, Ze-Nan; Huang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this prospective randomized study was to evaluate the feasibility of subtotal thyroidectomy with leaving a unilateral remnant based on the upper pole. Methods: Patients who underwent the subtotal thyroidectomy and isthmusectomy leaving either a unilateral remnant based on the upper pole (Group I, 79 patients) or the bilateral dorsal thyroid tissue remained (Group II, 89 patients) were compared in operation time, blood loss, recurrence, and postoperative complications. Results: Among 168 patients analyzed, the operation time remained similar, but the blood loss, the reoperation time, and recurrence in Group I were much less than Group II. In addition, no postoperative hemorrhage occurred in Group I. Two patients (2.28%) in Group II underwent recurrent laryngeal nerve damages. Four patients (5.06%) in Group I and 3 patients (3.37%) in Group II experienced transient hypocalcemia. Recurrence only occurred in Group II. Conclusion: In terms of blood loss, reoperation time, postoperative complication, and the recurrence, subtotal thyroidectomy with recurrent laryngeal nerves identification and the unilateral superior pole remnant of the gland provides a better outcome than subtotal thyroidectomy with bilateral dorsal thyroid tissue remnant. PMID:28178132

  6. The sentence superiority effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    A sentence superiority effect was investigated using post-cued word-in-sequence identification with the rapid parallel visual presentation (RPVP) of four horizontally aligned words. The four words were presented for 200ms followed by a post-mask and cue for partial report. They could form a grammatically correct sentence or were formed of the same words in a scrambled agrammatical sequence. Word identification was higher in the syntactically correct sequences, and crucially, this sentence superiority effect did not vary as a function of the target's position in the sequence. Cloze probability measures for words at the final, arguably most predictable position, revealed overall low values that did not interact with the effects of sentence context, suggesting that these effects were not driven by word predictability. The results point to a level of parallel processing across multiple words that enables rapid extraction of their syntactic categories. These generate a sentence-level representation that constrains the recognition process for individual words, thus facilitating parallel word processing when the sequence is grammatically sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. H∞ LPV Control with Pole Placement Constraints for Synchronous Buck Converters with Piecewise-Constant Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanyub Joo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the output regulation problem of synchronous buck converters with piecewise-constant load fluctuations via linear parameter varying (LPV control scheme. To this end, an output-error state-space model is first derived in the form of LPV systems so that it can involve a mismatch error that temporally arises from the process of generating a feedforward control. Then, to attenuate the mismatch error in parallel with improving the transient behavior of the converter, this paper proposes an LMI-based stabilization condition capable of achieving both H∞ and pole-placement objectives. Finally, the simulation and experimental results are provided to show the validity of our approach.

  8. Inconsistent Regolith Thermal Control of Hydrogen Distributions at the Moons South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Litvak, M.; Livengood, Tim; Sanin, A.; Starr, R. D.; Su, Jian; Hamara, D.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: For over fifty years, intense interest has focused on determining if, where, and how much hydrogen (H) may be found near the Moons poles [1]. Driving the ongoing interest has been the critical role that H volatiles must play as a resource for human missions [2]. Now, with several lines of evidence consistently indicating that H concentrations are enhanced in some permanently shadowed regions (PSRs), plus the possibility of diurnally-dependent volatile H concentrations [3-8], investigations are shifting towards understanding the sources of H and factors that govern concentrations. For the last seven-plus years, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has collected an unparalleled temporal and spatial record of geophysical factors that may govern the Moons H distribution [9]. XXXX

  9. Acoustic noise in deep ice and environmental conditions at the South Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Karg, Timo

    2008-01-01

    To study the acoustic properties of the Antarctic ice the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) was installed in the upper part of drill holes for the IceCube neutrino observatory. An important parameter for the design of a future acoustic neutrino telescope is the acoustic background noise in the ice and its spatial and temporal variations. We study the absolute noise level depth profile from SPATS data and discuss systematic uncertainties. The measured noise is very stable over one year of data taking, and we estimate the absolute noise level to be < 10 mPa in the frequency range from 10 kHz to 50 kHz at depths below 200 m. This noise level is of the same order of magnitude as observed by ocean based acoustic neutrino detection projects in good weather conditions.

  10. Quasinormal modes and Regge poles of the canonical acoustic hole

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Sam R; Crispino, Luis C B

    2014-01-01

    We compute the quasinormal mode frequencies and Regge poles of the canonical acoustic hole (a black hole analogue), using three methods. First, we show how damped oscillations arise by evolving generic perturbations in the time domain using a simple finite-difference scheme. We use our results to estimate the fundamental QN frequencies of the low multipolar modes $l=1, 2, \\ldots$. Next, we apply an asymptotic method to obtain an expansion for the frequency in inverse powers of $l+1/2$ for low overtones. We test the expansion by comparing against our time-domain results, and (existing) WKB results. The expansion method is then extended to locate the Regge poles. Finally, to check the expansion of Regge poles we compute the spectrum numerically by direct integration in the frequency domain. We give a geometric interpretation of our results and comment on experimental verification.

  11. Ising Spectroscopy II: Particles and poles at T>Tc

    CERN Document Server

    Zamolodchikov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    I discuss particle content of the Ising field theory (the scaling limit of the Ising model in a magnetic field), in particular the evolution of its mass spectrum under the change of the scaling parameter. I consider both real and pure imaginary magnetic field. Here I address the high-temperature regime, where the spectrum of stable particles is relatively simple (there are from one to three particles, depending on the parameter). My goal is to understand analytic continuations of the masses to the domain of the parameter where they no longer exist as the stable particles. I use the natural tool -- the $2\\to 2$ elastic scattering amplitude, with its poles associated with the stable particles, virtual and resonance states in a standard manner. Concentrating attention on the "real" poles (those corresponding to stable and virtual states) I propose a scenario on how the pattern of the poles evolves from the integrable point $T=T_c,\\ H\

  12. A HIGH PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR POLE BALANCING PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır KARASULU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available High performance computing techniques can be used effectively for solution of the complex scientific problems. Pole balancing problem is a basic benchmark tool of robotic field, which is an important field of Artificial Intelligence research areas. In this study, a solution is developed for pole balancing problem using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and high performance computation technique. Algorithm, that basis of the Reinforcement Learning method which is used to find the force of pole's balance, is transfered to parallel environment. In Implementation, C is preferred as programming language and Message Passing Interface (MPI is used for parallel computation technique. Self–Organizing Map (SOM ANN model's neurons (artificial neural nodes and their weights are distributed to six processors of a server computer which equipped with each quad core processor (total 24 processors. In this way, performance values are obtained for different number of artificial neural nodes. Success of method based on results is discussed.

  13. Global plate tectonics and the secular motion of the pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, T.

    1977-01-01

    Astronomical data compiled during the last 70 years by the international organizations providing the coordinates of the instantaneous pole clearly shows a persistent drift of the mean pole. The differential contributions to the earth's second-order tensor of inertia were obtained and applied, resulting in no significant displacement of the earth's principal axis. In view of the above, the effect that theoretical geophysical models for absolute plate velocities may have on an apparent displacement of the mean pole as a consequence of station drifting was analyzed. The investigation also reports new values for the crustal tensor of inertia (assuming an ellipsoidal earth) and the orientation of its axis of figure, reopening the old speculation of a possible sliding of the whole crustover the upper mantle, including the supporting geophysical and astronomic evidence.

  14. PLANNING THE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR TIMISOARA GROWTH POLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Livia POPA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that planning the quality of life at local level through economic development can be a new approach for policy makers and community in improving quality of life. In this purpose, the Quality Function Deployment (QFD model will be use to planning the quality of life and to identify the main directions of economic development to support improving the quality of life at the level of Timisoara Growth Pole from Romania. The dimensions of quality of life are analyzed starting from the point of view of inhabitants. The results include a new approach in which the dimensions of quality of life are the key element that orients economic development in order to improve the quality of life of human being. The case study results refer to the main elements of quality of life at Timisoara Growth Pole and the relevant directions of economic development to improve the quality of life for Timisoara Growth Pole.

  15. Electromagnetic Radial Forces in a Hybrid Eight-Stator-Pole, Six-Rotor-Pole Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Siebert, Mark W.; Ho, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis and experimental measurement of the electromagnet force loads on the hybrid rotor in a novel bearingless switched-reluctance motor (BSRM) have been performed. A BSRM has the combined characteristics of a switched-reluctance motor and a magnetic bearing. The BSRM has an eight-pole stator and a six-pole hybrid rotor, which is composed of circular and scalloped lamination segments. The hybrid rotor is levitated using only one set of stator poles. A second set of stator poles imparts torque to the scalloped portion of the rotor, which is driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by a processor. Analysis was done for nonrotating rotor poles that were oriented to achieve maximum and minimum radial force loads on the rotor. The objective is to assess whether simple one-dimensional magnetic circuit analysis is sufficient for preliminary evaluation of this machine, which may exhibit strong three-dimensional electromagnetic field behavior. Two magnetic circuit geometries, approximating the complex topology of the magnetic fields in and around the hybrid rotor, were employed in formulating the electromagnetic radial force equations. Reasonable agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions was obtained with typical magnetic bearing derating factors applied to the predictions.

  16. Bacterial scaffold directs pole-specific centromere segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptacin, Jerod L; Gahlmann, Andreas; Bowman, Grant R; Perez, Adam M; von Diezmann, Alexander R S; Eckart, Michael R; Moerner, W E; Shapiro, Lucy

    2014-05-13

    Bacteria use partitioning systems based on the ParA ATPase to actively mobilize and spatially organize molecular cargoes throughout the cytoplasm. The bacterium Caulobacter crescentus uses a ParA-based partitioning system to segregate newly replicated chromosomal centromeres to opposite cell poles. Here we demonstrate that the Caulobacter PopZ scaffold creates an organizing center at the cell pole that actively regulates polar centromere transport by the ParA partition system. As segregation proceeds, the ParB-bound centromere complex is moved by progressively disassembling ParA from a nucleoid-bound structure. Using superresolution microscopy, we show that released ParA is recruited directly to binding sites within a 3D ultrastructure composed of PopZ at the cell pole, whereas the ParB-centromere complex remains at the periphery of the PopZ structure. PopZ recruitment of ParA stimulates ParA to assemble on the nucleoid near the PopZ-proximal cell pole. We identify mutations in PopZ that allow scaffold assembly but specifically abrogate interactions with ParA and demonstrate that PopZ/ParA interactions are required for proper chromosome segregation in vivo. We propose that during segregation PopZ sequesters free ParA and induces target-proximal regeneration of ParA DNA binding activity to enforce processive and pole-directed centromere segregation, preventing segregation reversals. PopZ therefore functions as a polar hub complex at the cell pole to directly regulate the directionality and destination of transfer of the mitotic segregation machine.

  17. Poles Living in Ireland and their Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka NOLKA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth of Ireland resulted in a significant number of Poles migrating to Ireland following the EU enlargement in 2004. The article explores the quality of life of Poles living in Ireland. Using data from a preliminary survey conducted in 2006, several dimensions of living conditions are analysed, including interpersonal relations, material security, health and healthcare. The study shows that evaluations of almost all aspects of quality of life improved, apart from components such as healthcare and the ability to acquire help from social organisations. Also interpersonal relations, contrary to the initial assumption, were enhanced by migration to Ireland.

  18. Express method of construction of accurate inverse pole figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovich, Yu; Isaenkova, M.; Fesenko, V.

    2016-04-01

    With regard to metallic materials with the FCC and BCC crystal lattice a new method for constructing the X-ray texture inverse pole figures (IPF) by using tilt curves of spinning sample, characterized by high accuracy and rapidity (express), was proposed. In contrast to the currently widespread method to construct IPF using orientation distribution function (ODF), synthesized in several partial direct pole figures, the proposed method is based on a simple geometrical interpretation of a measurement procedure, requires a minimal operating time of the X-ray diffractometer.

  19. Multiobjective H2/H? Control Design with Regional Pole Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Junaidi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents multiobjective H2/H? control design with regional pole constraints. The state feedback gain can be obtained by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI feasibility problem that robustly assigns the closed-loop poles in a prescribed LMI region. The proposed technique is illustrated with applications to the design of stabilizer for a typical single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB power system. The LMI-based control ensures adequate damping for widely varying system operating conditions. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed stabilizer.

  20. Regional pole assignment for uncertain delta-operator systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man LIU; Yuanwei JING; Siying ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The pole assignment in a specified disk by state feedback for uncertain delta-operator systems is studied.By making use of algebra Riccati equations,a sufficient and necessary condition of pole assignment for a kind of parameter uncertain delta-operator system in a specified disk by state feedback is presented.And the design method of state feedback controller is also developed.The proposed method can unify some previous related results of continuous and discrete time systems into the delta framework.The efficiency of the design method is illustrated by a numerical example.

  1. Multichannel Anomaly of the Resonance Pole Parameters Resolved

    OpenAIRE

    Ceci, Sasa; Stahov, Jugoslav; Svarc, Alfred; Watson, Shon; Zauner, Branimir

    2006-01-01

    Inspired by anomalies which the standard scattering matrix pole-extraction procedures have produced in a mathematically well defined coupled-channel model, we have developed a new method based solely on the assumption of partial-wave analyticity. The new method is simple and applicable not only to theoretical predictions but to the empirical partial-wave data as well. Since the standard pole-extraction procedures turn out to be the lowest-order term of the proposed method the anomalies are un...

  2. Model for Formation of Dunes at the North Martian Pole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jie; CHEN Chu-Xin

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera(MOC)took images of a series of strange horseshoe-shaped dunes at the North Martian pole in 2004.These dunes would be formed due to the strong Martian winds whose pattern is different from that on the Earth.We study the cause of the formation of these dunes and make a model for them.In this model,wind speed near the north Martian pole can be evaluated based on the shape of the dunes.We also estimate the surpassing speed of dunes of different sizes.

  3. Multichannel Anomaly of the Resonance Pole Parameters Resolved

    CERN Document Server

    Ceci, S; Svarc, A; Watson, S; Zauner, B; Ceci, Sasa; Stahov, Jugoslav; Svarc, Alfred; Watson, Shon; Zauner, Branimir

    2006-01-01

    Inspired by anomalies which the standard scattering matrix pole-extraction procedures have produced in a mathematically well defined coupled-channel model, we have developed a new method based solely on the assumption of partial-wave analyticity. The new method is simple and applicable not only to theoretical predictions but to the empirical partial-wave data as well. Since the standard pole-extraction procedures turn out to be the lowest-order term of the proposed method the anomalies are understood and resolved.

  4. Role of pion pole in hard exlusive meson leptoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goloskokov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    We consider the pion pole contribution and transversity effects determined by the $H_T$ and $\\bar E_T$ Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) which are essential in hard pseudoscalar and vector meson leptoproduction. We investigate spin effects in the $\\omega$ and $\\rho^0$ reactions. It is shown that the pion pole contribution is very important in the $\\omega$ production. Such effects in the $\\rho^0$ channel are much smaller. Our results on spin asymmetries and spin density matrix elements in these reactions were found to be in good agreement with HERMES data.

  5. Nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the distal pole of the scaphoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavuk Garg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Post traumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of scaphoid is very rare. We present a case of 34 years old male, drill operator by occupation with nontraumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of the scaphoid. The patient was managed conservatively and was kept under regular follow-up every three months. The patient was also asked to change his profession. Two years later, the patient had no pain and had mild restriction of wrist movements (less than 15 degrees in either direction. The radiographs revealed normal density of the scaphoid suggesting revascularization.

  6. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Department of the Navy Superior Supplier Incentive Program AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... policy that will establish a Superior Supplier Incentive Program (SSIP). Under the SSIP, contractors that..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors...

  7. superior en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mureddu Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo desarrolla algunos de los retos que ha traído consigo el acceso a la información existente en la red de Internet y lo que ello supone. Se abordan principalmente las consecuencias de la presencia actual de una sociedad llamada del conocimiento, si se mantiene la confusión entre conocimiento e información. Por ello, la sola gestión de la información no puede ser tomada como definitoria respecto a la función de educación superior confiada a las universidades. Hacerlo sería cometer un error aún más grave que la confusión teórica entre los términos mencionados.

  8. Temporal Difference Updating without a Learning Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    We derive an equation for temporal difference learning from statistical principles. Specifically, we start with the variational principle and then bootstrap to produce an updating rule for discounted state value estimates. The resulting equation is similar to the standard equation for temporal difference learning with eligibility traces, so called TD(lambda), however it lacks the parameter alpha that specifies the learning rate. In the place of this free parameter there is now an equation for the learning rate that is specific to each state transition. We experimentally test this new learning rule against TD(lambda) and find that it offers superior performance in various settings. Finally, we make some preliminary investigations into how to extend our new temporal difference algorithm to reinforcement learning. To do this we combine our update equation with both Watkins' Q(lambda) and Sarsa(lambda) and find that it again offers superior performance without a learning rate parameter.

  9. From 'third pole' to north pole: a Himalayan origin for the arctic fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Li, Qiang; Takeuchi, Gary T; Xie, Guangpu

    2014-07-22

    The 'third pole' of the world is a fitting metaphor for the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau, in allusion to its vast frozen terrain, rivalling the Arctic and Antarctic, at high altitude but low latitude. Living Tibetan and arctic mammals share adaptations to freezing temperatures such as long and thick winter fur in arctic muskox and Tibetan yak, and for carnivorans, a more predatory niche. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first evolutionary link between an Early Pliocene (3.60-5.08 Myr ago) fox, Vulpes qiuzhudingi new species, from the Himalaya (Zanda Basin) and Kunlun Mountain (Kunlun Pass Basin) and the modern arctic fox Vulpes lagopus in the polar region. A highly hypercarnivorous dentition of the new fox bears a striking resemblance to that of V. lagopus and substantially predates the previous oldest records of the arctic fox by 3-4 Myr. The low latitude, high-altitude Tibetan Plateau is separated from the nearest modern arctic fox geographical range by at least 2000 km. The apparent connection between an ancestral high-elevation species and its modern polar descendant is consistent with our 'Out-of-Tibet' hypothesis postulating that high-altitude Tibet was a training ground for cold-environment adaptations well before the start of the Ice Age.

  10. Temporal Cortex Morphology in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients and Their Asymptomatic Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusaini, Saud; Whelan, Christopher D; Doherty, Colin P; Delanty, Norman; Fitzsimons, Mary; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L

    2016-03-01

    Temporal cortex abnormalities are common in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS) and believed to be relevant to the underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we set out to determine the familiarity of temporal cortex morphologic alterations in a cohort of MTLE+HS patients and their asymptomatic siblings. A surface-based morphometry (SBM) method was applied to process MRI data acquired from 140 individuals (50 patients with unilateral MTLE+HS, 50 asymptomatic siblings of patients, and 40 healthy controls). Using a region-of-interest approach, alterations in temporal cortex morphology were determined in patients and their asymptomatic siblings by comparing with the controls. Alterations in temporal cortex morphology were identified in MTLE+HS patients ipsilaterally within the anterio-medial regions, including the entorhinal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and temporal pole. Subtle but similar pattern of morphology changes with a medium effect size were also noted in the asymptomatic siblings. These localized alterations were related to volume loss that appeared driven by shared contractions in cerebral cortex surface area. These findings indicate that temporal cortex morphologic alterations are common to patients and their asymptomatic siblings and suggest that such localized traits are possibly heritable.

  11. Non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy before and after anterior temporal lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Bidet-Caulet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For patients with pharmaco-resistant temporal epilepsy, unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL - i.e. the surgical resection of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the temporal pole and the most anterior part of the temporal gyri - is an efficient treatment. There is growing evidence that anterior regions of the temporal lobe are involved in the integration and short-term memorization of object-related sound properties. However, non-verbal auditory processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE has raised little attention. To assess non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy both before and after unilateral ATL, we developed a set of non-verbal auditory tests, including environmental sounds. We could evaluate auditory semantic identification, acoustic and object-related short-term memory, and sound extraction from a sound mixture. The performances of 26 TLE patients before and/or after ATL were compared to those of 18 healthy subjects. Patients before and after ATL were found to present with similar deficits in pitch retention, and in identification and short-term memorisation of environmental sounds, whereas not being impaired in basic acoustic processing compared to healthy subjects. It is most likely that the deficits observed before and after ATL are related to epileptic neuropathological processes. Therefore, in patients with drug-resistant TLE, ATL seems to significantly improve seizure control without producing additional auditory deficits.

  12. Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wei, Haiyang; Reed, Jamie L; Bickford, Martha E; Petry, Heywood M; Kaas, Jon H

    2013-05-01

    The visuomotor functions of the superior colliculus depend not only on direct inputs from the retina, but also on inputs from neocortex. As mammals vary in the areal organization of neocortex, and in the organization of the number of visual and visuomotor areas, patterns of corticotectal projections vary. Primates in particular have a large number of visual areas projecting to the superior colliculus. As tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and they are also highly visual, we studied the distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus by injecting anatomical tracers into the colliculus. Since projections from visuotopically organized visual areas are expected to match the visuotopy of the superior colliculus, injections at different retinotopic locations in the superior colliculus provide information about the locations and organization of topographic areas in extrastriate cortex. Small injections in the superior colliculus labeled neurons in locations within areas 17 (V1) and 18 (V2) that are consistent with the known topography of these areas and the superior colliculus. In addition, the separate locations of clusters of labeled cells in temporal visual cortex provide evidence for five or more topographically organized areas. Injections that included deeper layers of the superior colliculus also labeled neurons in medial frontal cortex, likely in premotor cortex. Only occasional labeled neurons were observed in somatosensory or auditory cortex. Regardless of tracer injection location, we found that, unlike primates, a substantial projection to the superior colliculus from posterior parietal cortex is not a characteristic of tree shrews.

  13. Catapult effect in pole vaulting: is muscle coordination determinant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, Julien; Göpfert, Beat; Hug, François; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-Chollet, Claire

    2012-02-01

    This study focused on the phase between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height (HP) of vaulter and aimed at determining the catapult effect in pole vaulting on HP. Seven experienced vaulters performed 5-10 vaults recorded by two video cameras, while the surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of 10 upper limbs muscles was recorded. HP was compared with an estimated maximum height (HP(est)) allowing the computation of a push-off index. Muscle synergies were extracted from the sEMG activity profiles using a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. No significant difference (p>0.47) was found between HP(est) (4.64±0.21m) and HP (4.69±0.23m). Despite a high inter-individual variability in sEMG profiles, two muscle synergies were extracted for all the subjects which accounted for 96.1±2.9% of the total variance. While, the synergy activation coefficients were very similar across subjects, a higher variability was found in the muscle synergy vectors. Consequently, whatever the push-off index among the pole vaulters, the athletes used different muscle groupings (i.e., muscle synergy vectors) which were activated in a similar fashion (i.e., synergy activation coefficients). Overall, these results suggested that muscle coordination adopted between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height does not have a major influence on HP.

  14. Design and performance of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup

    CERN Document Server

    Abdou, Yasser; Berdermann, Jens; Bissok, Martin; Bohm, Christian; Boeser, Sebastian; Bothe, Martin; Carson, Michael; Descamps, Freija; Fischer-Wolfarth, Jan-Hendrik; Gustafsson, Leif; Hallgren, Allan; Heinen, Dirk; Helbing, Klaus; Heller, Reinhart; Hundertmark, Stephan; Karg, Timo; Krieger, Kevin; Laihem, Karim; Meures, Thomas; Nahnhauer, Rolf; Naumann, Uwe; Oberson, Filip; Paul, Larissa; Pohl, Mario; Price, Buford; Ribordy, Mathieu; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Schunck, Matthias; Semburg, Benjamin; Stegmaier, Jutta; Sulanke, Karl-Heinz; Tosi, Delia; Vandenbroucke, Justin; Wiebusch, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) was built to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of the South Pole ice in the 10 kHz to 100 kHz frequency range, for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of an acoustic neutrino detection array at the South Pole. The SPATS hardware consists of four vertical strings deployed in the upper 500 m of the South Pole ice cap. The strings form a trapezoidal array with a maximum baseline of 543 m. Each string has 7 stages equipped with one transmitter and one sensor module. Sound is detected or generated by piezoelectric ceramic elements inside the modules. Analogue signals are sent to the surface on electric cables where they are digitized by a PC-based data acquisition system. The data from all strings are collected on a central computer in the IceCube Laboratory from where they are send to a central data storage facility via a satellite link or stored locally on tape. A technical overview of SPATS and its performance is presented.

  15. Families of Poles in the Netherlands (FPN) survey. Wave 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpinska, K.; Dykstra, P.A.; Fokkema, T.

    2016-01-01

    The release of formal restrictions on the free movement of Central and Eastern Europeans that started with the end of the Cold War and the eastward enlargement of the European Union in the 2000s have led to new migration flows in Europe. In the Netherlands, in absolute terms, Poles are the largest g

  16. Liz Taylor : minu van Gogh pole natsidele kuulunud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Elizabeth Taylor palus kohtult otsust, et talle kuuluvat 15 miljonit dollarit maksvat Vincent van Goghi maali "Vaade Saint-Remy varjupaigale" pole natsid Margarete Mauthneri juudiperekonna käest vägivaldselt ära võtnud. E. Taylori isa ostis maali 1963. a. Londonis oksjonilt

  17. Pole-Based Approximation of the Fermi-Dirac Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LIN; Jianfeng LU; Lexing YING; Weinan E

    2009-01-01

    Two approaches for the efficient rational approximation of the Fermi-Dirac function are discussed: one uses the contour integral representation and conformal map-ping, and the other is based on a version of the multipole representation of the Fermi-Dirac function that uses only simple poles. Both representations have logarithmic computational complexity. They are of great interest for electronic structure calculations.

  18. ENPA endine juht seisukohti muutnud pole / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    Eelmisel aastal Eestit vähemuste diskrimineerimises süüdistanud Euroopa Nõukogu Parlamentaarse Assamblee endine esimees Rene van der Linden pole oma seisukohta muutnud ning usub endiselt, et tema jutt inimõiguste rikkumiste kohta Eestis peab paika. Vt. samas: Van der Linden

  19. Liz Taylor : minu van Gogh pole natsidele kuulunud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Elizabeth Taylor palus kohtult otsust, et talle kuuluvat 15 miljonit dollarit maksvat Vincent van Goghi maali "Vaade Saint-Remy varjupaigale" pole natsid Margarete Mauthneri juudiperekonna käest vägivaldselt ära võtnud. E. Taylori isa ostis maali 1963. a. Londonis oksjonilt

  20. Poling process optimization of piezo nano composite PZT/polimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridlo, M. Rosyid; Lestari, Titik; Mardiyanto, Oemry, Achiar

    2013-09-01

    The objective of poling process is to make the electric dipole directions to be parallel in the inside perovskite crystal of piezo materials. In simply way, poling was carried out by giving the two sides of a piezo material by highly electrical potential. More parallel of electrical dipoles, it is more strength the piezo characteristics. The optimization involved control of temperature, time depth and the electrical voltage. The samples was prepared by solgel method with precursor tetrabutyl titanat Ti(OC4H9)4, zirconium nitrat Zr(NO3)4ṡ5H2O, Pb(CH3COO)2ṡ3H2O and solution ethylene glycol. Molar ratio Pb:Zr:Ti = 1,1:0,52:0,48 with concidering lossed Pb. Result of solgel process is nano powder PZT. The formed nano powder PZT was then mixed with polimer PVDF and pressed 10 MPa at 150 °C with the size 15 mm in diameter. After poling, piezoelectric constant d33 was measured. The highest d33 = 45 pC/N was found at poling parameters V = 5 kV/ mm, T = 120 °C dan time depth = 1 hours.

  1. Design and performance of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, Y. [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Berdermann, J. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Bissok, M. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Bohm, C. [Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Boeser, S.; Bothe, M. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Carson, M. [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Descamps, F., E-mail: Freija.Descamps@icecube.wisc.edu [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Fischer-Wolfarth, J.-H. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Gustafsson, L.; Hallgren, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinen, D. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Helbing, K. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Heller, R. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Hundertmark, S. [Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Karg, T. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Krieger, K. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Laihem, K.; Meures, T. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); and others

    2012-08-11

    The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) was built to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of the South Pole ice in the 10-100 kHz frequency range, for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of an acoustic neutrino detection array at the South Pole. The SPATS hardware consists of four vertical strings deployed in the upper 500 m of the South Pole ice cap. The strings form a trapezoidal array with a maximum baseline of 543 m. Each string has seven stages equipped with one transmitter and one sensor module (glaciophone). Sound is detected or generated by piezoelectric ceramic elements inside the modules. Analogue signals are sent to the surface on electric cables where they are digitized by a PC-based data acquisition system. The data from all strings are collected on a central computer in the IceCube Laboratory from where they are sent to a central data storage facility via a satellite link or stored locally on tape. A technical overview of SPATS and its performance is presented.

  2. Design and performance of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Y.; Becker, K.-H.; Berdermann, J.; Bissok, M.; Bohm, C.; Böser, S.; Bothe, M.; Carson, M.; Descamps, F.; Fischer-Wolfarth, J.-H.; Gustafsson, L.; Hallgren, A.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Heller, R.; Hundertmark, S.; Karg, T.; Krieger, K.; Laihem, K.; Meures, T.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Oberson, F.; Paul, L.; Pohl, M.; Price, B.; Ribordy, M.; Ryckbosch, D.; Schunck, M.; Semburg, B.; Stegmaier, J.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Tosi, D.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Wiebusch, C.

    2012-08-01

    The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) was built to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of the South Pole ice in the 10-100 kHz frequency range, for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of an acoustic neutrino detection array at the South Pole. The SPATS hardware consists of four vertical strings deployed in the upper 500 m of the South Pole ice cap. The strings form a trapezoidal array with a maximum baseline of 543 m. Each string has seven stages equipped with one transmitter and one sensor module (glaciophone). Sound is detected or generated by piezoelectric ceramic elements inside the modules. Analogue signals are sent to the surface on electric cables where they are digitized by a PC-based data acquisition system. The data from all strings are collected on a central computer in the IceCube Laboratory from where they are sent to a central data storage facility via a satellite link or stored locally on tape. A technical overview of SPATS and its performance is presented.

  3. Simple Regge pole model for Compton scattering of protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem

    1978-08-01

    It is shown that by a phenomenological choice of the residue functions, the differential cross section for ..gamma.. p ..-->.. ..gamma.. p, including the very recent measurements up to /sup -/t=4.3 (GeV/c)/sup 2/, can be explained at all measured energies greater than 2 GeV with simple Regge pole model.

  4. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  5. Finite element analysis of boron diffusion in wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl;

    2004-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved by the f...... by the finite element method and, finally, results showing the effect of different treatment strategies are presented....

  6. Finite Element Analysis of Boron Diffusion in Wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl;

    2004-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved by the f...... by the finite element method and, finally, results showing the effect of different treatment strategies are presented....

  7. Finite Element Analysis of Boron Diffusion in Wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, P.; Bechgaard, C.;

    2003-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved by the f...... by the finite element method and, finally, results showing the effect of different treatment strategies are presented....

  8. Charge quantisation without magnetic poles: A topological approach to electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solha, Romero

    2016-01-01

    The present work provides a theoretical explanation for the quantisation of electric charges, an open problem since Millikan's oil drop experiment in 1909. This explanation is based solely on Maxwell's theory, it recasts Electromagnetic theory under the language of complex line bundles; therefore, neither magnetic poles nor quantum mechanics are invoked.

  9. Poled-glass devices: Influence of surfaces and interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Devices in periodically poled glass must have a large periodic variation of the built-in field. We show that the periodic variation can be severely degraded by charge dynamics taking place at the external (glass–air) interface or at internal (glass–glass) interfaces if the interfaces have imperfe...

  10. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  11. Standardization of experimental animals temporal bone sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dalian Ding; Jintao Yu; Peng Li; Kelei Gao; Haiyan Jiang; Wenjuan Zhang; Hong Sun; Shankai Yin; Richard Salvi

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of the temporal bone for light microscopy is an important step in histological studies of the inner ear. Due to the complexity of structures of the inner ear, it is difficult to measure or compare structures of interest without a commonly accepted standardized measure of temporal bone sections. Therefore, standardization of temporal bone sections is very important for histological assessment of sensory hair cells and peripheral ganglion neurons in the cochlear and vestibular systems. The standardized temporal bone sectioning is oriented to a plane parallel to the outer and internal auditory canals. Sections are collected from the epitympanum to the hypotympanum to reveal layers in the order of the crista ampullaris of the superior and lateral semicircular canals, macula utriculi and macula sacculi, superior vestibular ganglion neurons, macula of saccule and inferior vestibular ganglion neurons, cochlear modiolus, endolymphatic duct and endolymphatic sac, and finally the crista ampullaris of the posterior semicircular canal. Moreover, technical details of preparing for temporal bone sectioning including fixation, decalcification, whole temporal bone staining, embedding penetration, and embedding orientation are also discussed.

  12. Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children: just a normal variant?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H.; Vogelius, Esben S.; Orth, Robert C.; Guillerman, R.P.; Jadhav, Siddharth P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, E.B. Singleton Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella is often dismissed as a normal variant in children younger than 10 years of age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fragmentary inferior patellar pole ossification is a normal variant or is associated with symptoms or signs of pathology using MRI and clinical exam findings as reference. A retrospective review was performed on 150 patients ages 5-10 years who underwent 164 knee radiography and MRI exams (45.1% male, mean age: 7.8 years). The presence or absence of inferior patellar pole fragmentation on radiography was correlated with the presence or absence of edema-like signal on MR images. Clinical notes were reviewed for the presence of symptoms or signs referable to the inferior patellar pole. These data were compared with a 1:1 age- and sex-matched control group without inferior pole fragmentation. Statistical analysis was performed using two-tailed t-tests. Forty of 164 (24.4%) knee radiographs showed fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella. Of these 40 knees, 62.5% (25/40) had edema-like signal of the inferior patellar bone marrow compared with 7.5% (3/40) of controls (P = 0.035). Patients with fragmentary ossification at the inferior patella had a significantly higher incidence of documented focal inferior patellar pain compared with controls (20% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.015). Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children 5 to 10 years of age may be associated with localized symptoms and bone marrow edema-like signal and should not be routinely dismissed as a normal variant of ossification. (orig.)

  13. Acute effects of flexible pole exercise on heart rate dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Letícia Santana; Moreira, Patrícia S; Antonio, Ana M; Cardoso, Marco A; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Navega, Marcelo T; Raimundo, Rodrigo D; Valenti, Vitor E

    2015-01-01

    Exercise with flexible poles provides fast eccentric and concentric muscle contractions. Although the literature reports significant muscle chain activity during this exercise, it is not clear if a single bout of exercise induces cardiac changes. In this study we assessed the acute effects of flexible pole exercise on cardiac autonomic regulation. The study was performed on 22 women between 18 and 26 years old. We assessed heart rate variability (HRV) in the time (SDNN, RMSSD and pNN50) and frequency (HF, LF and LF/HF ratio) domains and geometric indices of HRV (RRTri, TINN, SD1, SD2 and SD1/SD2 ratio). The subjects remained at rest for 10 min and then performed the exercises with the flexible poles. Immediately after the exercise protocol, the volunteers remained seated at rest for 60 min and HRV was analyzed. We observed no significant changes in time domain (SDNN: p=0.72; RMSSD: p=0.94 and pNN50: p=0.92) or frequency domain indices (LF [nu]: p=0.98; LF [ms(2)]: p=0.72; HF [nu]: p=0.98; HF [ms(2)]: p=0.82 and LF/HF ratio: p=0.7) or in geometric indices (RRTri: p=0.54; TINN: p=0.77; SD1: p=0.94; SD2: p=0.67 and SD/SD2: p=0.42) before and after a single bout of flexible pole exercise. A single bout of flexible pole exercise did not induce significant changes in cardiac autonomic regulation in healthy women. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Geologic Mapping of the Lunar South Pole, Quadrangle LQ-30: Volcanic History and Stratigraphy of Schroedinger Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Petro, N. E.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we use recent images and topographic data to map the geology and geomorphology of the lunar South Pole quadrangle (LQ-30) at 1:2.5M scale [1-4] in accordance with the Lunar Geologic Mapping Program. Mapping of LQ-30 began during Mest's postdoctoral appointment and has continued under the PG&G Program, from which funding became available in February 2009. Preliminary map-ping and analyses have been done using base materials compiled by Mest, but properly mosaicked and spatially registered base materials are being compiled by the USGS and should be received by the end of June 2009. The overall objective of this research is to constrain the geologic evolution of the lunar South Pole (LQ-30: 60deg -90deg S, 0deg - +/-180deg ) with specific emphasis on evaluation of a) the regional effects of basin formation on the structure and composition of the crust and b) the spatial distribution of ejecta, in particular resulting from formation of the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin and other large basins. Key scientific objectives include: 1) Constraining the geologic history of the lunar South Pole and examining the spatial and temporal variability of geologic processes within the map area. 2) Constraining the vertical and lateral structure of the lunar regolith and crust, assessing the distribution of impact-generated materials, and determining the timing and effects of major basin-forming impacts on crustal structure and stratigraphy in the map area. And 3) assessing the distribution of resources (e.g., H, Fe, Th) and their relationships with surface materials.

  15. An inventory of glacial lakes in the Third Pole region and their changes in response to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Y.; Zhang, G.; Yao, T.; Xie, H.

    2015-12-01

    No glacial lake census exists for the Third Pole region, which includes the Pamir-Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, comprehensive information is lacking about the distribution of and changes in glacial lakes caused by current global warming conditions. In this study, the first glacial lake inventories for the Third Pole were conducted for ~1990, 2000, and 2010 using Landsat TM/ETM+ data. Glacial lake spatial distributions, corresponding areas and temporal changes were examined. The significant results are as follows. (1) There were 4602, 4981, and 5701 glacial lakes (> 0.003 km2) covering areas of 553.9 ± 90, 581.2 ± 97, and 682.4 ± 110 km2 in ~1990, 2000, and 2010, respectively; these lakes are primarily located in the Brahmaputra (39%), Indus (28%), and Amu Darya (10%) basins. (2) Small lakes (Lakes closer to glaciers and at higher altitudes, particularly those connected to glacier termini, have undergone larger area changes. (4) Glacier-fed lakes are dominant in both quantity and area (> 70%) and exhibit faster expansion trends overall compared to non-glacier-fed lakes. We conclude that glacier meltwater may play a dominant role in the areal expansion of most glacial lakes in the Third Pole. In addition, the patterns of the glacier-fed lakes correspond well with warming temperature trends and negative glacier mass balance patterns. This paper presents an important database of glacial lakes and provides a basis for long-term monitoring and evaluation of outburst flood disasters primarily caused by glacial lakes in the Third Pole.

  16. Frequency doubling of incoherent light from a superluminescent diode in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzke, Henning; Kiethe, Jan; Heuer, Axel; Jechow, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    The amplified spontaneous emission from a superluminescent diode was frequency doubled in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide crystal. The temporally incoherent radiation of such a superluminescent diode is characterized by a relatively broad spectral bandwidth and thermal-like photon statistics, as the measured degree of second order coherence, {{g}(2)}(0)=1.9+/- 0.1 , indicates. Despite the non-optimized scenario in the spectral domain, we achieve six orders of magnitude higher conversion efficiency than previously reported with truly incoherent light. This is possible by using single spatial mode radiation and quasi phase matched material with a waveguide architecture. This work is a principle step towards efficient frequency conversion of temporally incoherent radiation in one spatial mode to access wavelengths where no radiation from superluminescent diodes is available, especially with tailored quasi phase matched crystals. The frequency doubled light might find application in imaging, metrology and quantum optics experiments.

  17. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  18. Amplitude-phase calculations of Regge poles obtained from coupled radial Dirac equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thylwe, K-E [KTH-Mechanics, Royal lnstitute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); McCabe, P, E-mail: ket@mech.kth.se [CCDC, 12 Union Road, CB2 1EZ, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-08

    A recently developed amplitude-phase method for spinor-wave solutions is applied to the calculations of Regge pole positions and residues of Dirac particles. At a given energy the Dirac spin causes two sets of Regge poles that tend to coalesce in the non-relativistic limit. For the particular case of equal Lorentz-type vector and scalar potentials there is only one pole string, located very close to the non-relativistic pole string.

  19. Double Trouble: A Rare Case of Bilateral Upper Pole Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Peters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old girl presented with bilateral back pain caused by bilateral upper pole ureteropelvic junction obstructions; an extremely rare phenomenon. Bilateral robotically assisted upper pole pyeloplasties were preformed at the same setting with an excellent clinical response. Although rare, upper pole ureteropelvic junction obstruction is a defined entity that urologists should be aware of.

  20. Effect of Materials and Manufacturing on the Bending Stiffness of Vaulting Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP)…

  1. Finite element modeling of small-scale tapered wood-laminated composite poles with biomimicry features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse

    2008-01-01

    Tapered composite poles with biomimicry features as in bamboo are a new generation of wood laminated composite poles that may some day be considered as an alternative to solid wood poles that are widely used in the transmission and telecommunication fields. Five finite element models were developed with ANSYS to predict and assess the performance of five types of...

  2. Is it possible to reduce the knee joint compression force during level walking with hiking poles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S B; Henriksen, M; Aaboe, J;

    2010-01-01

    Walking with hiking poles has become a popular way of exercising. Walking with poles is advocated as a physical activity that significantly reduces the loading of the hip, knee and ankle joints. We have previously observed that pole walking does not lead to a reduction of the load on the knee joi...

  3. Late maturation of adult-born neurons in the temporal dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Snyder

    Full Text Available Hippocampal function varies along its septotemporal axis, with the septal (dorsal pole more frequently involved in spatial learning and memory and the temporal (ventral pole playing a greater role in emotional behaviors. One feature that varies across these subregions is adult neurogenesis. New neurons are more numerous in the septal hippocampus but are more active in the temporal hippocampus during water maze training. However, many other aspects of adult neurogenesis remain unexplored in the context of septal versus temporal subregions. In addition, the dentate gyrus contains another functionally important anatomical division along the transverse axis, with the suprapyramidal blade showing greater experience-related activity than the infrapyramidal blade. Here we ask whether new neurons differ in their rates of survival and maturation along the septotemporal and transverse axes. We found that neurogenesis is initially higher in the infrapyramidal than suprapyramidal blade, but these cells are less likely to survive, resulting in similar densities of neurons in the two blades by four weeks. Across the septotemporal axis, neurogenesis was higher in septal than temporal pole, while the survival rate of new neurons did not differ. Maturation was assessed by immunostaining for the neuronal marker, NeuN, which increases in expression level with maturation, and for the immediate-early gene, Arc, which suggests a neuron is capable of undergoing activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Maturation occurred approximately 1-2 weeks earlier in the septal pole than in the temporal pole. This suggests that septal neurons may contribute to function sooner; however, the prolonged maturation of new temporal neurons may endow them with a longer window of plasticity during which their functions could be distinct from those of the mature granule cell population. These data point to subregional differences in new neuron maturation and suggest that changes in

  4. Claw-pole Synchronous Generator for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVEL Valentina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a claw-poles generator for compressed air energy storage systems. It is presented the structure of such a system used for compensating of the intermittency of a small wind energy system. For equipping of this system it is chosen the permanent magnet claw pole synchronous generator obtained by using ring NdFeB permanentmagnets instead of excitation coil. In such a way the complexity of the scheme is reduced and the generator become maintenance free. The new magnetic flux density in the air-gap is calculated by magneticreluctance method and by FEM method and the results are compared with measured values in the old and new generator.

  5. Pole assignment for stochastic systems with unknown coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翰馥[1; 曹希仁[2

    2000-01-01

    This paper solves the exact pole assignment problem for the single-input stochastic systems with unknown coefficients under the controllability assumption which is necessary and sufficient for the arbitrary pole assignment for systems with known coefficients. The system noise is required to be mutually independent with zero mean and bounded second moment. Two approaches to solving the problem are proposed: One is the iterative learning approach which can be applied when the state at a fixed time can be repeatedly observed with different feedback gains; the other is the adaptive control approach which works when the trajectories satisfy a nondegeneracy condition. Both methods are essentially based on stochastic approximation, and the feedback gains are recursively given without invoking the certainty-equivalency-principle.

  6. Voronoi poles-based saliency feature detection from point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Wei, Ning; Dong, Fangmin; Yang, Yuanqin

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we represent a novel algorithm for point cloud feature detection. Firstly, the algorithm estimates the local feature for each sample point by computing the ratio of the distance from the inner voronoi pole and the outer voronoi pole to the surface. Then the surface global saliency feature is detected by adding the results of the difference of Gaussian for local feature under different scales. Compared with the state of the art methods, our algorithm has higher computing efficiency and more accurate feature detection for sharp edge. The detected saliency features are applied as the weights for surface mesh simplification. The numerical results for mesh simplification show that our method keeps the more details of key features than the traditional methods.

  7. Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Gustafsson, L.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemming, N.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Knops, S.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Lehmann, R.; Lennarz, D.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Matusik, M.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; IceCube Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) and a retrievable transmitter deployed in holes drilled for the IceCube experiment, we have measured the attenuation of acoustic signals by South Pole ice at depths between 190 m and 500 m. Three data sets, using different acoustic sources, have been analyzed and give consistent results. The method with the smallest systematic uncertainties yields an amplitude attenuation coefficient α = 3.20 ± 0.57 km-1 between 10 and 30 kHz, considerably larger than previous theoretical estimates. Expressed as an attenuation length, the analyses give a consistent result for λ ≡ 1/α of ˜300 m with 20% uncertainty. No significant depth or frequency dependence has been found.

  8. HADES - Hydrophone for Acoustic Detection at South Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Semburg, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) is located in the upper part of the optical neutrino observatory IceCube, currently under construction. SPATS consists of four strings at depths between 80 m and 500 m below the surface of the ice with seven stages per string. Each stage is equipped with an acoustic sensor and a transmitter. Three strings (string A-C) were deployed in the austral summer 2006/07. SPATS was extended by a fourth string (string D) with second generation sensors and transmitters in 2007/08. One second generation sensor type HADES (Hydrophone for Acoustic Detection at South Pole) consists of a ring-shaped piezo-electric element coated with polyurethane. The development of the sensor, optimization of acoustic transmission by acoustic impedance matching and first in-situ results will be discussed.

  9. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Marquard, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nason, P. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Steinhauser, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2016-05-15

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  10. Posttraumatic osteonecrosis and nonunion of distal pole of scaphoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kapoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of scaphoid is an extremely rare with only two reported cases so far. We present a case of a 30-year-old male with a 2-year-old posttraumatic osteonecrosis and nonunion of distal pole of scaphoid left wrist. He presented with complaints of pain and restriction of movements. There was no evidence of radiocarpal arthritis. He was managed with open reduction and internal fixation with k-wires, supplemented by a pronator quadratus based muscle pedicle bone graft. The fracture union was achieved at 6 months. After 2 years, he had almost complete range of wrist motion and had returned to his preinjury level of functional activity. His MRI (magnetic resonance imaging scans showed evidence of revascularization suggesting successful incorporation of bone graft.

  11. Neuromorphic Continuous-Time State Space Pole Placement Adaptive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢钊; 孙明伟

    2003-01-01

    A neuromorphic continuous-time state space pole assignment adaptive controller is proposed, which is particularly appropriate for controlling a large-scale time-variant state-space model due to the parallely distributed nature of neurocomputing. In our approach, Hopfield neural network is exploited to identify the parameters of a continuous-time state-space model, and a dedicated recurrent neural network is designed to compute pole placement feedback control law in real time. Thus the identification and the control computation are incorporated in the closed-loop, adaptive, real-time control system. The merit of this approach is that the neural networks converge to their solutions very quickly and simultaneously.

  12. Direct detection of variable tropospheric clouds near Titan's south pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael E; Bouchez, Antonin H; Griffith, Caitlin A

    Atmospheric conditions on Saturn's largest satellite, Titan, allow the possibility that it could possess a methane condensation and precipitation cycle with many similarities to Earth's hydrological cycle. Detailed imaging studies of Titan have hitherto shown no direct evidence for tropospheric condensation clouds, although there has been indirect spectroscopic evidence for transient clouds. Here we report images and spectra of Titan that show clearly transient clouds, concentrated near the south pole, which is currently near the point of maximum solar heating. The discovery of these clouds demonstrates the existence of condensation and localized moist convection in Titan's atmosphere. Their location suggests that methane cloud formation is controlled seasonally by small variations in surface temperature, and that the clouds will move from the south to the north pole on a 15-year timescale.

  13. Sequential pole dominance model and decay of new mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud

    1976-01-01

    The sequential pole dominance model recently proposed by Freund and Nambu (1975) allows predictions to be made about the decay processes which violate the Zweig-Iizuka rule. Detailed comparison of the model with recent experimental data on the decay modes of psi (3095) and psi '(3684) reveals some quantitative disagreement. A possible decay mechanism which can account for this discrepancy is discussed. (7 refs).

  14. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH GROWTH AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT POLES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefana VARVARI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the Ministry of Development, Public Works and Housing (now the Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration prepared the growth poles policy for Romania, establishing seven growth poles to be financed through the Regional Operational Programme 2007-1013, under the Priority Axis no. 1. For 2007-2013 there were also established 11 urban development poles. At present the Ministry is discussing with the European Commission the new Regional Operational Programme 2014-2020 in which the main policy lines regarding integrated territorial development also take into consideration the improvement of the quality of life and the “appearance” of towns and strengthening their role in the region. The main urban agglomerations (county seats are seen as development engines of the regions. The authors analyze the results obtained and the problems that appeared at regional level in what concerns the projects financed under Axis 1 of the ROP 2007-2013 by answering two main questions: did they really had the estimated impact on the growth and urban development poles and on the regions? and was there really an integrated approach used? Based on the results obtained from the analysis of the previous programming period the authors try to recommend some improvements that could be taken into consideration for the development of the Integrated urban development plans and priority projects that are going to be financed by ESI funds under Axis 4 of the new ROP 2014-2020, recommendations that could be taken into consideration when preparing the Guidelines for applicants for this axis.

  15. Tööpuudus 29%, palavikku pole / Rachel Donadio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donadio, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Lõuna-Hispaanias asuvas Cádizis on töötus 29%, ometi pole eurotsooni kõrgeim tööpuuduse määr tekitanud linnas sügavat sotsiaalset rahutust ega massilisi proteste, sest üsna kõrge elukvaliteedi tagavad töötutele kompleksne turvavõrk, mis koosneb varimajandusest, perekonna toetusest ja valitsuse toetusest

  16. Edgar Savisaar : BRS pole piisavalt investeerinud / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2006-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister on rahul, et riigi ja BRS-iga saavutati kokkulepe ettevõtte aktsiate tagasiostuks, kuid leiab, et BRS pole täitnud võetud investeerimiskohustusi ning seega peab järgnevatel aastatel suunama ettevõtte kaasajastamisse miljardeid kroone. Vt. samas: Jüri Käo: investeeringute kogumaht ületas nõutu; Savisaar: Jüri Käo ajab pada; Pingelised läbirääkimised BRS-iga

  17. Edgar Savisaar : BRS pole piisavalt investeerinud / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2006-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister on rahul, et riigi ja BRS-iga saavutati kokkulepe ettevõtte aktsiate tagasiostuks, kuid leiab, et BRS pole täitnud võetud investeerimiskohustusi ning seega peab järgnevatel aastatel suunama ettevõtte kaasajastamisse miljardeid kroone. Vt. samas: Jüri Käo: investeeringute kogumaht ületas nõutu; Savisaar: Jüri Käo ajab pada; Pingelised läbirääkimised BRS-iga

  18. Detachments of the retinal pigment epithelium at the posterior pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, K G; Levitzky, M J; Carr, R E

    1976-08-01

    Multiple vitelliform cysts of the retina, a disorder of unknown cause in which there are multiple detachments of the retinal pigment epithelium at the posterior pole, occurred in five patients. In four patients all lesions were located outside the parafoveal area while one patient showed bilateral foveal elevations associated with more eccentric detachments. Several patients showed slow resolution of some of the detachments with mild disturbances of the pigment epithelium.

  19. Improvement of Electrochemical Machining Accuracy by Using Dual Pole Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) is one of the best al ternatives for producing complex shapes in advanced materials used in aircraft a nd aerospace industries. However, the reduction of the stray material removal co ntinues to be major challenges for industries in addressing accuracy improvement . This study presents a method of improving machining accuracy in ECM by using a dual pole tool with a metallic bush outside the insulated coating of a cathode tool. The bush is connected with anode and so the el...

  20. Generalised pole-placement control of steam turbine speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del-Busto, R. [ITESM, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias; Munoz, J. [ITESM, Xochimilco (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias

    1996-12-31

    An application of a pole-placement self-tuning predictive control algorithm is developed to regulate speed of a power plant steam turbine model. Two types of system representation (CARMA and CARIMA) are used to test the control algorithm. Simulation results show that when using a CARMA model better results are produced. Two further comparisons are made when using a PI controller and a generalised predictive controller. (author)

  1. Seasonal Evolution of Titan's South Pole 220 cm-1 Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Donald

    2016-06-01

    A cloud of ices that had been seen only in Titan's north during winter began to emerge at the south pole in 2012. Discovered by Voyager IRIS as an emission feature at 220 cm-1, the cloud has been studied extensively in both the north and south by Cassini CIRS. The spectral feature acts as a tracer of the seasonal changes at Titan's poles, relating to evolving composition, temperature structure and dynamics. Although candidates have been proposed, the chemical makeup of the cloud has never been identified. The cloud is composed of condensates derived from gases created at high altitude and transported to the cold, shadowed pole. In the north the cloud has diminished gradually over the Cassini mission as Titan has transitioned from winter to spring. The southern cloud, on the other hand, grew rapidly after 2012. By late 2014 it had developed a complex ring structure that was confined to latitudes poleward of 70°S within the deep temperature well that had formed at the south pole [1]. The location of the cloud coincides in latitude with the HCN cloud reported by ISS and VIMS [2,3]. CIRS also saw enhanced gas emissions at those latitudes [4]. When it first formed, the cloud was abundant at altitudes as high as 250 km, while later it was found mostly at 100-150 km, suggesting that the material that had been deposited from above had gathered at the lower altitudes. Radiance from the southern cloud increased until mid-2015 and since then has decreased. The cloud may be transitioning to the more uniform hood morphology familiar in the north. Taking the north and south together, by the end of the Cassini mission in 2017 we will have observed almost an entire seasonal cycle of the ice cloud.

  2. Langerhans' cell histiocytosis of the temporal fossa: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIANG, CHEN; LIANG, QIANLEI; DU, CHANGWANG; ZHANG, XIAODONG; GUO, SHIWEN

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, varying from an isolated lesion to systemic involvement. The etiology of this disease remains to be elucidated. The present study reports a case of LCH with temporal fossa localization in an 8-year-old male patient, who had exhibited left temporal pain and headache for 1 month. Physical examination revealed slight exophthalmos and conjunctival hemorrhage in the patient's left eye, and non-contrast computed tomography imaging of the head revealed a soft tissue mass with unclear margins located in the left temporal fossa, as well as a wide bony defect. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneously contrast-enhanced mass near the left temporal pole, which eroded into the patient's left orbit and maxillary sinus. The lesion was totally excised and confirmed to be LCH through biopsy. PMID:27073529

  3. An Oscillatory Contractile Pole-Force Component Dominates the Traction Forces Exerted by Migrating Amoeboid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Latorre, Baldomero; Del Álamo, Juan C; Meili, Ruedi; Firtel, Richard A; Lasheras, Juan C

    2011-12-01

    We used principal component analysis to dissect the mechanics of chemotaxis of amoeboid cells into a reduced set of dominant components of cellular traction forces and shape changes. The dominant traction force component in wild-type cells accounted for ~40% of the mechanical work performed by these cells, and consisted of the cell attaching at front and back contracting the substrate towards its centroid (pole-force). The time evolution of this pole-force component was responsible for the periodic variations of cell length and strain energy that the cells underwent during migration. We identified four additional canonical components, reproducible from cell to cell, overall accounting for an additional ~20% of mechanical work, and associated with events such as lateral protrusion of pseudopodia. We analyzed mutant strains with contractility defects to quantify the role that non-muscle Myosin II (MyoII) plays in amoeboid motility. In MyoII essential light chain null cells the polar-force component remained dominant. On the other hand, MyoII heavy chain null cells exhibited a different dominant traction force component, with a marked increase in lateral contractile forces, suggesting that cortical contractility and/or enhanced lateral adhesions are important for motility in this cell line. By compressing the mechanics of chemotaxing cells into a reduced set of temporally-resolved degrees of freedom, the present study may contribute to refined models of cell migration that incorporate cell-substrate interactions. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12195-011-0184-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  4. Effect of poling time and grid voltage on phase transition and piezoelectricity of poly(vinyledene fluoride) thin films using corona poling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeva, Suresha K.; Berring, John; Walus, Konrad; Stoeber, Boris

    2013-07-01

    Corona poling was used to create piezoelectric polyvinylidene flouride (PVDF) thin films and the effects of poling time and grid voltage on the electric and physical properties of the samples was studied. Using x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and direct measurement of piezoelectricity, the phase transition behaviour and piezoelectric constant of stretched and poled PVDF film was investigated. Results indicate that the poling time and grid voltage have no substantial influence on the phase transition behaviour of PVDF. However, they were found to have a significant effect on the piezoelectric charge constant of PVDF.

  5. Narrow-band ELF events observed from South Pole Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavisides, J.; Weaver, C.; Lessard, M.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) waves are typically in the range of 3 Hz - 3 kHz and can play a role in acceleration and pitch-angle scattering of energetic particles in the radiation belts. Observations of a not uncommon, but not well studied ELF phenomenon are presented with ground-based data from South Pole Station. The narrow-band waves last approximately one or two minutes maintaining bandwidth over the course of the event, begin around 100 Hz, decrease to about 70 Hz, and typically show a higher frequency harmonic. The waves have only been documented at four locations - Heacock, 1974 (Alaska); Sentman and Ehring, 1994 (California); Wang et al, 2005 and Wang et al, 2011 (Taiwan); and Kim et al, 2006 (South Pole). The waves observed at the South Pole are not detected when the Sun drops below a 10 degree elevation angle, which is not true for the other locations. We extend the study of Kim et al, 2006, and explore possible generation mechanisms including sunlit ionosphere and ion cyclotron wave modes, as well as correspondence with energetic particle precipitation.

  6. Distribution and anomaly of microwave emission at Lunar South Pole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Investigation on Lunar polar area is almost every lunar mission’s primary objective in recent years. The rationale behind it is that illumination and ice resources in this area can be potentially very helpful for constructing lunar human base. In this paper, we analyze microwave radiometric characteristics of the Moon by using the newly acquired Chang’E-1 Lunar Microwave Sounder (CELMS) data. Microwave brightness temperature at Lunar South Pole (LSP) is distributed regularly with a style of "ring-in-ring", decreasing from equator to pole. Regolith temperature gradient is bigger at lunar equator than at polar area. Brightness temperature diurnal difference decreases with observation frequency. Microwave brightness temperature distribution maps at LSP and Lunar North Pole (LNP) have been made based on the analysis. It is found that microwave brightness temperature becomes to synchronize with elevation beyond -85° latitude. This phenomenon is related to lightening condition and indicates temperature distribution at LSP. The brightness temperature anomaly cold points are potentially cold trap areas for water or ice while hot points imply plenty of illumination resources there.

  7. Universal structure of subleading infrared poles in gauge theory amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, Lance J; Sterman, George

    2008-01-01

    We study the origin of subleading soft and collinear poles of form factors and amplitudes in dimensionally-regulated massless gauge theories. In the case of form factors of fundamental fields, these poles originate from a single function of the coupling, denoted G(alpha_s), depending on both the spin and gauge quantum numbers of the field. We relate G(alpha_s) to gauge-theory matrix elements involving the gluon field strength. We then show that G(alpha_s) is the sum of three terms: a universal eikonal anomalous dimension, a universal non-eikonal contribution, given by the coefficient B_delta (alpha_s) of delta(1 - z) in the collinear evolution kernel, and a process-dependent short-distance coefficient function, which does not contribute to infrared poles. Using general results on the factorization of soft and collinear singularities in fixed-angle massless gauge theory amplitudes, we conclude that all such singularities are captured by the eikonal approximation, supplemented only by the knowledge of B_delta (...

  8. Different pole structures in line shapes of the X(3872)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Xian-Wei; Oller, J.A. [Universidad de Murcia, Departamento de Fisica, Murcia (Spain)

    2017-06-15

    We introduce a near-threshold parameterization that is more general than the effective-range expansion up to and including the effective range because it can also handle a near-threshold zero in the D{sup 0} anti D{sup *0} S-wave. In terms of it we analyze the CDF data on inclusive p anti p scattering to J/ψπ{sup +}π{sup -}, and the Belle and BaBar data on B decays to K J/ψπ{sup +}π{sup -} and KD anti D{sup *0} around the D{sup 0} anti D{sup *0} threshold. It is shown that data can be reproduced with similar quality for X(3872) being a bound and/or a virtual state. We also find that X(3872) might be a higher-order virtual-state pole (double or triplet pole), in the limit in which the small D{sup *0} width vanishes. Once the latter is restored the corrections to the pole position are non-analytic and much bigger than the D{sup *0} width itself. The X(3872) compositeness coefficient in D{sup 0} anti D{sup *0} ranges from nearly 0 up to 1 in the different scenarios. (orig.)

  9. Automatic Pole and Q-Value Extraction for RF Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Potratz, H.-W. Glock, U. van Rienen, F. Marhauser

    2011-09-01

    The experimental characterization of RF structures like accelerating cavities often demands for measuring resonant frequencies of Eigenmodes and corresponding (loaded) Q-values over a wide spectral range. A common procedure to determine the Q-values is the -3dB method, which works well for isolated poles, but may not be applicable directly in case of multiple poles residing in close proximity (e.g. for adjacent transverse modes differing by polarization). Although alternative methods may be used in such cases, this often comes at the expense of inherent systematic errors. We have developed an automation algorithm, which not only speeds up the measurement time significantly, but is also able to extract Eigenfrequencies and Q-values both for well isolated and overlapping poles. At the same time the measurement accuracy may be improved as a major benefit. To utilize this procedure merely complex scattering parameters have to be recorded for the spectral range of interest. In this paper we present the proposed algorithm applied to experimental data recorded for superconducting higher-order-mode damped multi-cell cavities as an application of high importance.

  10. Different pole structures in line shapes of the X(3872)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xian-Wei; Oller, J. A.

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a near-threshold parameterization that is more general than the effective-range expansion up to and including the effective range because it can also handle a near-threshold zero in the D^0\\bar{D}^{*0} S-wave. In terms of it we analyze the CDF data on inclusive p\\bar{p} scattering to J/ψ π ^+π ^-, and the Belle and BaBar data on B decays to K J/ψ π ^+π ^- and K D\\bar{D}^{*0} around the D^0\\bar{D}^{*0} threshold. It is shown that data can be reproduced with similar quality for X(3872) being a bound and/or a virtual state. We also find that X(3872) might be a higher-order virtual-state pole (double or triplet pole), in the limit in which the small D^{*0} width vanishes. Once the latter is restored the corrections to the pole position are non-analytic and much bigger than the D^{*0} width itself. The X(3872) compositeness coefficient in D^0\\bar{D}^{*0} ranges from nearly 0 up to 1 in the different scenarios.

  11. Background studies for acoustic neutrino detection at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Benzvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brown, A. M.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Denger, T.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stössl, A.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Stür, M.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsk, P.

    2012-01-01

    The detection of acoustic signals from ultra-high energy neutrino interactions is a promising method to measure the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos expected on Earth. The energy threshold for this process depends strongly on the absolute noise level in the target material. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), deployed in the upper part of four boreholes of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has monitored the noise in Antarctic ice at the geographic South Pole for more than two years down to 500 m depth. The noise is very stable and Gaussian distributed. Lacking an in situ calibration up to now, laboratory measurements have been used to estimate the absolute noise level in the 10-50 kHz frequency range to be smaller than 20 mPa. Using a threshold trigger, sensors of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup registered acoustic events in the IceCube detector volume and its vicinity. Acoustic signals from refreezing IceCube holes and from anthropogenic sources have been used to test the localization of acoustic events. An upper limit on the neutrino flux at energies Eν > 1011 GeV is derived from acoustic data taken over eight months.

  12. Traditions connected with the pole shift model of the Pleistocene

    CERN Document Server

    Woelfli, Willy

    2010-01-01

    As is well known, during the Last Glacial Maximum, about 20'000 years ago, the ice was asymmetrically distributed around the present North Pole. It reached the region of New York, while east Siberia remained ice free. Mammoths lived in arctic regions of east Siberia, where now their food cannot grow. Therefore the globe must have been turned in such a way that the North Pole was in Greenland. The required rapid geographic pole shift at the end of the ice ages has been shown to be physically possible, on condition that an astronomical object of planetary size in an extremely eccentric orbit existed. In this postulated situation it was red hot and a disk shaped gas cloud reduced the solar radiation on Earth in a time dependent way. A frequent objection to this hypothesis is that the phenomena should be reported in old traditions. This paper quotes such traditions from passages of Platon, Herodotus, Ovid, papyrus Ipuwer, Gilgamesh, the Bible, American Indians and other civilizations. Far from being exhaustive th...

  13. THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRASOV GROWTH POLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida CATANA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demographic dynamics analysed in the context of the relationship between economic development and social inclusion presents an image of the sustainable development of a community as well as the manner how the financial resources have been used. With an allocation of 74.3 million euro in the programming period 2007-2013, the Brasov Growth Pole has pursued the contribution to the achievement of sustainable development since 2005 by the participation in the Agenda 21. The implementation of projects with European financing in areas such as transport, social and educational infrastructure or tourism have generated changes/demographic movements, which this paper proposes to present. The evolution of the stable population, its dynamics at the level of each locality that is part of the Brasov growth pole as well as the dynamics of the number of employees or the development of the unemployment rate are presented by the cluster analysis. The effects of the European financing obtained from Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 are thus reflected in the sustainable development of the Brasov growth pole from the point of view of the dynamics of the population

  14. Manliness and Exploration: The Discovery of the North Pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Americans crowded newsstands in early 1910 to read Robert Peary's firsthand account of his expedition to the North Pole. As they read "The Discovery of the North Pole," serialized exclusively in Hampton's Magazine, few knew that this harrowing, hypermasculine tale was really crafted by New York poet Elsa Barker. Barker's authorship of the North Pole story put her at the center of a large community of explorers, writers, patrons, and fans who were taken with Arctic exploration as much for its national symbolism as for its thrilling tales. The fact that Barker was a woman made her ascent into elite expeditionary circles remarkable. Yet this essay argues that it was also representative: women shaped the ideas and practices of manly exploration at home as well as in the field. Peary's dependence upon women writers, patrons, and audiences came at a time when explorers were breaking away from their traditional base of support: male scientific networks that had promoted their expeditions since the 1850s. Despite the "go-it-alone" ideals of their expedition accounts, explorers adopted masculine roles shaped by the world around them: by the growing influence of women writers, readers, and lecture-goers and, simultaneously, by the declining influence of traditional scientific peers and patrons. Barker and Peary's story, then, reveals a new fault line that opened up between scientists and explorers in the late nineteenth century over the issue of manliness, a fault line still largely uncharted in historical scholarship.

  15. Wind Stress Forcing of the North Sea "Pole Tide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    OConnor, William P.; Chao, Benjamin Fong; Zheng, Dawei; Au, Andrew Y.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted numerical simulations of the wind-forcing of the sea level variations in the North Sea using a barotropic ocean model with realistic geography, bathymetry, and boundary conditions, to examine the forcing of the 14-month "pole tide" which is known to be strong along the Denmark- Netherlands coast. The simulation input is the monthly-mean surface wind stress field from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis for the 40-year period 1958-1997. The output sea level response was then compared with 10 coastal tide gauge records from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). Besides the strong seasonal variations, several prominent quasi-periodicities exist at around 7 years, 3 years, 14 months, 9 months, and 6.5 months. Correlation and spectral analyses show remarkable agreement between the model output and the observations, particularly in the 14-month, or Chandler period band. The latter indicates that the enhanced pole tide found in the North Sea along the Denmark-Netherlands coast is actually the coastal setup response to wind stress forcing with a periodicity of 14 months. We find no need to invoke a geophysical explanation involving resonance-enhancement of pole tide in the North Sea to explain the observations.

  16. Background studies for acoustic neutrino detection at the South Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R; Abu-Zayyad, T; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Alba, J L Bazo; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K -H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdrmann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brown, A M; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Colnard, C; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Demirörs, L; Denger, T; Depaepe, O; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Diaz-Vélez, J C; Dierckxsens, M; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Geisler, M; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Groß, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Herquet, P; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Huelsnitz, W; Hülß, J -P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K -H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kenny, P; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Krings, T; Kroll, G; Kuehn, K; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lafebre, S; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Majumdar, P; Marotta, A; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Nießen, P; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Ono, M; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Heros, C Pérez de los; Petrovic, J; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Porrata, R; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Prikockis, M; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schmidt, T; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Slipak, A; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stephens, G; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stössl, A; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Stür, M; Sullivan, G W; Swillens, Q; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Turčan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P

    2011-01-01

    The detection of acoustic signals from ultra-high energy neutrino interactions is a promising method to measure the tiny flux of cosmogenic neutrinos expected on Earth. The energy threshold for this process depends strongly on the absolute noise level in the target material. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), deployed in the upper part of four boreholes of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has monitored the noise in Antarctic ice at the geographic South Pole for more than two years down to 500 m depth. The noise is very stable and Gaussian distributed. Lacking an in-situ calibration up to now, laboratory measurements have been used to estimate the absolute noise level in the 10 to 50 kHz frequency range to be smaller than 20 mPa. Using a threshold trigger, sensors of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup registered acoustic pulse-like events in the IceCube detector volume and its vicinity. Acoustic signals from refreezing IceCube holes and from anthropogenic sources have been used to localize acoustic e...

  17. Paso superior en una ladera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, O.

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available The Redwood highway, through the Californian forest, runs on a viaduct, as it crosses a mountain slope of about 45° inclination. The firm ground is fairly deep, and as an additional constructional difficulty, it was necessary to respect the natural beauty of the countryside. A structure of portal frames were built, forming a number of short spans. These spans were bridged with metal girders, on which a 19 m wide deck was placed. The columns are hollow and have a transversal cross beam, to join each pair. There was difficulty in excavating the foundations for the columns, as it was necessary to dig through the soft top soil, and also prevent this soil from hurting the trunks of the forest trees. Another significant difficulty in the construction of this viaduct was the access to the working site, since there were no suitable platforms from which to operate the appropriate machinery. This made it necessary to do a lot of the work by manual operation. As one of the edges of the deck is very close to the mountain side, a supporting beam was erected on this side. It was made of concrete, on metal piles. The formwork for the deck structure was placed on the concrete stems of the supporting piles.La autopista denominada Redwood (California salva, con un paso superior, la ladera de un bosque cuya pendiente es del 1/1. El terreno firme se halla a bastante profundidad, añadiéndose, a los naturales problemas de la construcción, el imperativo de respetar la belleza agreste del paraje. La solución adoptada consiste en una estructura porticada, con varios tramos de pequeñas luces, salvados con vigas metálicas, sobre los que se coloca la losa del tablero, de 19 m de anchura total. Los soportes están constituidos por pórticos de dos montantes huecos (con bases de hormigón en masa por debajo del suelo, hasta el firme coronados por un cabezal. La perforación de pozos para el hormigonado de los montantes presentaba la dificultad de atravesar el terreno

  18. A poling study of lead zirconate titanate/polyurethane 0-3 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S. T.; Kwok, K. W.; Shin, F. G.; Kopf, S.

    2007-08-01

    0-3 composites of lead zirconate titanate particles dispersed in a thermoplastic elastomer polyurethane matrix were fabricated. The dielectric permittivity and loss of the composite film were measured and compared to the theoretical values. The composites were polarized by the ac fields at different frequencies. With the application of the Sawyer-Tower circuit, the D-E hysteresis loops of the composites can be measured during the poling process. By decreasing the poling frequency, the composite sample shows a larger "remanent" polarization at the same poling field. To evaluate the poling effectiveness, the pyroelectric coefficients of the poled composite samples were measured by a dynamic method.

  19. Pole-Like Object Extraction from Mobile LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Han; Tan, Feitong; Wang, Ruisheng

    2016-06-01

    Object detection and recognition from LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data has been a research topic in the fields of photogrammetry and computer vision. Unlike point clouds collected in well-controlled indoor environments, point clouds in urban environments are more complex due to complexity of the real world. For example, trees sometimes close to signs or buildings, which will cause occlusions in the point clouds. Current object detection or reconstruction algorithms will have problems when recognizing objects with severe occlusions caused by trees etc. In this paper, a robust vegetation removal method and a DBSCAN based pole-like object detection method are proposed. Based on observation that major difference between vegetation and other rigid objects is their penetrability with respect to LiDAR, we introduce a local roughness measure to differentiate rigid objects from non-rigid ones (vegetation in this paper). First, a local sphere with a small radius is generated for each input point. Three principal components of the local sphere are then calculated, and a plane is determined. The roughness is obtained through calculating the standard deviation of distances from all inside points to the plane by a weighted summation of the normalized distances. The further the point to the plane, the smaller the weight is. Finally, a graph cuts based method is introduced to classify the input point sets into two groups. The data term is defined by the normalized roughness of the current point, and the smoothness term is defined by the normalized distance between the point and its nearest neighbour point. In terms of pole-like object detection, first, a uniformed 2D grid is generated through projecting all the points to the XY-plane. The seed points of the pole-like objects are obtained by determining the x and y coordinates by the centres of the highest density cells of the grid and the z coordinate by the mean height of the point sets of each object. Finally, a DBSCAN

  20. Pseudodisplacements of superior vena cava catheter in the persistent left superior vena cava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantsch, H.; Draxler, V.; Muhar, U.; Schlemmer, M.; Waneck, R.

    1983-01-01

    Pseudodisplacement of a left sided superior vena cava catheter in a persistent superior vena cava may be expected in adults in 0,37% and in a group of children with congenital heart disease in 2,5%. Embryology, anatomy and clinical implications is discussed on the basis of our own cases. The vena cava superior sinistra persitents is depending on a sufficient calibre a suitable vessel for a superior cava catheter.

  1. Water Ice Permafrost at Lunar Poles: Observational Evidence from Lend Instrument Onboard Lro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, I.; Sanin, A.; Litvak, M.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. R.; Milikh, G. M.; Sagdeev, R.; Starr, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    pumping process might depend on local conditions (presence of heated slops nearby, local density of water molecules, depth of permanently cold layer, surface albedo, etc.): therefore, a spot of water ice permafrost might exist in one particular environment, and might not exist in another one. The question should be understood, what is the origin of the water of lunar permafrost. The model has been discussed (i.e. see [5]) that water could be delivered to the Moon by comets. When comets impact with the lunar surface, the vapor of cometary water from the temporal atmospheres condenses at either at temporal or permanent cold traps at poles. Another model has been proposed (i.e. see [5]), which explains the origin of water by chemical reactions between hydrogen of solar wind with oxygen of lunar regolith. The so-called solar water could be produced at the sunlit surface, and than migrate at permanent or temporal cold traps in the local vicinity from the irradiated spot of origin. References: [1] Mitrofanov I. et al. (2010), Science, 330, 483-486. [2] Mitrofanov I. et al. (2012), JGR-Planets, v.117, CiteID E00H27. [3] Colaprete A. (2010), Science, 330, 463. [4] Boynton W. et al. (2012), 43rd LPSC, Abstract#1659. [5] Vondrak R.R. and Crider D.H. (2003), American Scientist, 91, 322-329. [6] Mazarico E. (2011), Icarus, 211, 2, 1066 - 1081.

  2. Cognitive Temporal Document Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetz, M.H.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal information retrieval exploits temporal features of document collections and queries. Temporal document priors are used to adjust the score of a document based on its publication time. We consider a class of temporal document priors that is inspired by retention functions considered in cogn

  3. Autumn at Titan's South Pole: The 220 cm-1 Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Achterberg, R. K.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; de Kok, R. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.

    2015-10-01

    Beginning in 2012 an atmospheric cloud known by its far-infrared emission has formed rapidly at Tit an's South Pole [1, 2]. The build-up of this condensate is a result of deepening temperatures and a gathering of gases as Winter approaches. Emission from the cloud in the south has been doubling each year since 2012, in contrast to the north where it has halved every 3.8 years since 2004. The morphology of the cloud in the south is quite different from that in the north. In the north, the cloud has extended over the whole polar region beyond 55 N, whereas in the south the cloud has been confined to within about 10 degrees of the pole. The cloud in the north has had the form of a uniform hood, whereas the southern cloud has been much more complex. A map from December 2014,recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini, showed the 220 cm-1 emission coming from a distinct ring with a maximum at about 80 S. In contrast, emissions from the gases HC3N, C4H2 and C6H6 peaked near the pole and had a ring at 70 S. The 220 cm-1 ring at 80 S coincided with the minimum in the gas emission pattern. The80 S condensate ring encompassed the vortex cloud seen by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS)[3, 4]. Both the 220 cm-1 ring and the gas "bull's-eye" pattern were centered on a point that was shifted from the geographic South Pole by 4 degrees in the direction of the Sun. This corresponds to the overall tilt of Titan's atmosphere discovered from temperature maps early in the Cassini mission by Achterberg et al. [5]. The tilt may be reinforced by the presumably twice-yearly (north and south) spin-up of the atmosphere at the autumnal pole. The bull's-eye pattern of the gas emissions can be explained by the retrieved abundance distributions, which are maximum near the pole and decrease sharply toward lower latitudes, together with temperatures that are minimum at the pole and increase toward lower latitudes

  4. Understanding the cancelation of double poles in the Pfaffian of CHY-formulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rijun; Du, Yi-Jian; Feng, Bo

    2017-06-01

    For a physical field theory, the tree-level amplitudes should possess only single poles. However, when computing amplitudes with Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formulation, individual terms in the intermediate steps will contribute higher-order poles. In this paper, we investigate the cancelation of higher-order poles in CHY formula with Pfaffian as the building block. We develop a diagrammatic rule for expanding the reduced Pfaffian. Then by organizing diagrams in appropriate groups and applying the cross-ratio identities, we show that all potential contributions to higher-order poles in the reduced Pfaffian are canceled out, i.e., only single poles survive in Yang-Mills theory and gravity. Furthermore, we show the cancelations of higher-order poles in other field theories by introducing appropriate truncations, based on the single pole structure of Pfaffian.

  5. Multidimensional Seismic Control by Tuned Mass Damper with Poles and Torsional Pendulums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the eccentric characteristics and the torsional excitation of multidimensional earthquakes, the dynamic response of asymmetry structure involves the translation-torsion coupling vibration and it is adverse to structural performance. Although the traditional tuned mass damper (TMD is effective for decreasing the translational vibration when the structure is subjected to earthquake, its translation-torsion coupled damping capacity is still deficient. In order to simultaneously control the translational responses and the torsional angle of asymmetry structures, a new type of tuned mass damper with tuned mass blocks, orthogonal poles, and torsional pendulums (TMDPP is proposed. The translation-torsion coupled vibration is tuned by the movement of the mass blocks and the torsional pendulums. According to the composition and the motion mechanism of the TMDPP, the dynamic equation for the total system considering eccentric torsion effect is established. The damping capacity of the TMDPP is verified by the time history analysis of an eccentric structure, and multidimensional earthquake excitations are considered. The damping effect of the traditional TMD and the TMDPP is compared, and the results show that the performance of TMDPP is superior to the traditional TMD. Moreover, the occasional amplitude amplification in TMD control does not appear in the TMDPP control. The main design parameters which affect the damping performance of TMDPP are analyzed.

  6. Barber Pole Sign in CT Angiography, Adult Presentation of Midgut Malrotation: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcelan-Trigo, Juan Arsenio; Tello-Moreno, Manuel; Rabaza-Espigares, Manuel Jesus; Talavera-Martinez, Ildefonso

    2015-01-01

    Adult midgut volvulus is a challenging diagnosis because of its low incidence and nonspecific symptoms. Diagnostic delay and long-term complaints are frequent in this clinical scenario. We reported a patient referred to our diagnostic imaging unit with intermittent abdominal pain, bloating and episodic vomiting for several years. He underwent barium gastrointestinal transit and abdominal ultrasound, which revealed severe gastric dilatation, food retention and slow transit until a depressed duodenojejunal flexure, with malrotation of the midgut and jejunal loops being located in the right upper quadrant. Computed tomography angiography was performed, showing rotation of the small intestine around the mesentery root, suggestive of midgut malrotation. In addition, an abnormal twisted disposition of superior mesenteric artery with corkscrew appearance was seen, shaping the pole-barber sign which was evident in volume rendering three-dimensional reconstructions. The patient underwent scheduled surgical treatment without any complication and had good outcome after hospital discharge and follow-up. Computed tomography plays an important role in evaluation of adult midgut volvulus. In addition, angiographic reconstructions can help us to assess the anatomic disposition of mesenteric vascular supply. Both of these assessments are useful in preoperative management. PMID:26557278

  7. Barber Pole Sign in CT Angiography, Adult Presentation of Midgut Malrotation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcelan-Trigo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adult midgut volvulus is a challenging diagnosis because of its low incidence and nonspecific symptoms. Diagnostic delay and long-term complaints are frequent in this clinical scenario. We reported a patient referred to our diagnostic imaging unit with intermittent abdominal pain, bloating and episodic vomiting for several years. He underwent barium gastrointestinal transit and abdominal ultrasound, which revealed severe gastric dilatation, food retention and slow transit until a depressed duodenojejunal flexure, with malrotation of the midgut and jejunal loops being located in the right upper quadrant. Computed tomography angiography was performed, showing rotation of the small intestine around the mesentery root, suggestive of midgut malrotation. In addition, an abnormal twisted disposition of superior mesenteric artery with corkscrew appearance was seen, shaping the pole-barber sign which was evident in volume rendering three-dimensional reconstructions. The patient underwent scheduled surgical treatment without any complication and had good outcome after hospital discharge and follow-up. Computed tomography plays an important role in evaluation of adult midgut volvulus. In addition, angiographic reconstructions can help us to assess the anatomic disposition of mesenteric vascular supply. Both of these assessments are useful in preoperative management.

  8. Improved quantification of brain perfusion using FAIR with active suppression of superior tagging (FAIR ASST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiufeng; Sarkar, Subhendra N; Purdy, David E; Haley, Robert W; Briggs, Richard W

    2011-11-01

    To address two problems for perfusion studies in the middle or inferior brain regions: (1) to reduce venous artifacts due to the intrinsic superior labeling of FAIR; (2) to alleviate the discrepancy of the existence of both superior and inferior boluses, but with only the inferior bolus having a temporally defined bolus width with Q2TIPs or QUIPSS. Superior tagging suppression methods for FAIR with different combinations of pre- and postinversion superior saturation pulses were evaluated and compared with FAIR with Q2TIPS for producing perfusion maps of superior, middle, and inferior brain regions. One preinversion plus two postinversion superior saturation radio frequency pulses effectively suppressed the superior tagging of FAIR and sufficiently eliminated venous artifacts without negative effects, avoiding the overestimations of cerebral blood flow that can occur in FAIR. FAIR ASST improves FAIR with Q2TIPS and provides more reliable and accurate blood flow estimations for perfusion studies of middle and lower brain regions. FAIR ASST confers the advantages of asymmetric PASL techniques, such as PICORE, in which only the inferiorly labeled blood is used for perfusion quantification, to the symmetric PASL technique FAIR, while preserving the robustness of FAIR against MT effects. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Superiority in value and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    James Griffin has considered a weak form of superiority in value a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this paper, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into a stronger form of superiority. And in a context where value is non-additive, weak...... superiority does not amount to a radical value difference at all. I then spell out the consequences of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest....

  10. Fibreglass as an alternative to wood poles : Transmission and distribution poles and crossarms : use of fiber reinforced composite materials for overhead electric utility lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, J.R. [Shakespeare Composites and Electronics, Newberry, SC (United States)

    2002-07-01

    For over thirty years, Shakespeare Composites and Electronics has manufactured fiberglass composite lighting and utility poles, as well as being the number one maker of composite crossarms. Composite poles have a few advantages, such as being lightweight, they do no rust, are woodpecker and termite resistant, use no harmful chemicals, and have long life. A chart displaying the comparative pole weights is presented. The key design factors of fiberglass composite utility poles are: pole diameter, fiberglass type and wind angle, layers (thickness) of fiberglass, resin type and formulation, resin mix consistency, cure cycle and maximum curing temperature, and others. Two charts were also displayed presenting 40 feet class 4 pole bending strengths and 40 feet class 2 pole bending strengths. The author indicated that composite poles have a better strength consistency than wood, while being as consistent as steel and prestressed concrete. The design is based on an overload factor of safety of 2.5 for numerous installations. Some of the analytical methods used include mechanical testing, finite element modeling, and thermal analysis. The author describes in detail the concerns associated with attachments. Coating consists of a system of ultra violet blockers in the resin followed by an added resin rich polyester veil outer surface. In addition, there is a proprietary coating process with additional ultra violet blockers. Quality control is effected at the plant. The weathering system lasts 80 years. figs.

  11. Temporal Non-locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filk, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In this article I investigate several possibilities to define the concept of "temporal non-locality" within the standard framework of quantum theory. In particular, I analyze the notions of "temporally non-local states", "temporally non-local events" and "temporally non-local observables". The idea of temporally non-local events is already inherent in the standard formalism of quantum mechanics, and Basil Hiley recently defined an operator in order to measure the degree of such a temporal non-locality. The concept of temporally non-local states enters as soon as "clock-representing states" are introduced in the context of special and general relativity. It is discussed in which way temporally non-local measurements may find an interesting application for experiments which test temporal versions of Bell inequalities.

  12. Laparoscopic upper pole heminephroureterectomy in children: Seven-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive surgery is the current approach to perform heminephroureterectomy (HN in children. This can be obtained through a transperitoneal (TP or a retroperitoneal approach. Here, we report our experience using a TP approach. Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2014, 22 TP laparoscopic upper poles HN were performed at our institution. There were nine girls and 13 boys aged between 20 months and 6 years (mean age 3.9. Eight patients were diagnosed prenatally, 17 patients presented with urinary tract infection (UTI and three with vomiting and failure to thrive. The indication for HN was reflux nephropathy and UTI in non-functioning upper pole in 19 patients and cystic dysplasia in 1 patient. The surgical technique involved the following steps: Cystoscopic recognition; positioning of 3-4 trocar (right HN; identification of the kidney (detachment of the colon; isolation and low ligation of the dilated ureter; decrossing from renal vessels; section of the parenchyma by LigaSure; haemostasis with clips and LigaSure; drain. Results: The mean operative time was 154 min (range: 81-220 min. All patients were discharged from the 2 nd to 4 th day. Neither major complication nor conversion was recorded. 1 patient presented leakage of urine for 7 days from the drainage which resolved spontaneously. At ultrasound follow-up, 5 patients showed a secondary perirenal cyst, 2-5 cm diameter that resolved spontaneously. Conclusion: The results indicate that laparoscopic upper pole heminephrectomy is the treatment of choice in cases of non-functioning dilated lower segments of duplicated kidneys. The use of laparoscopic approach offers a good working space, a good visual control of the vessels and allows a very low isolation of the ureteral stump which counterbalance the peritoneal violation.

  13. Energy harvesting using AC machines with high effective pole count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Richard Theodore

    In this thesis, ways to improve the power conversion of rotating generators at low rotor speeds in energy harvesting applications were investigated. One method is to increase the pole count, which increases the generator back-emf without also increasing the I2R losses, thereby increasing both torque density and conversion efficiency. One machine topology that has a high effective pole count is a hybrid "stepper" machine. However, the large self inductance of these machines decreases their power factor and hence the maximum power that can be delivered to a load. This effect can be cancelled by the addition of capacitors in series with the stepper windings. A circuit was designed and implemented to automatically vary the series capacitance over the entire speed range investigated. The addition of the series capacitors improved the power output of the stepper machine by up to 700%. At low rotor speeds, with the addition of series capacitance, the power output of the hybrid "stepper" was more than 200% that of a similarly sized PMDC brushed motor. Finally, in this thesis a hybrid lumped parameter / finite element model was used to investigate the impact of number, shape and size of the rotor and stator teeth on machine performance. A typical off-the-shelf hybrid stepper machine has significant cogging torque by design. This cogging torque is a major problem in most small energy harvesting applications. In this thesis it was shown that the cogging and ripple torque can be dramatically reduced. These findings confirm that high-pole-count topologies, and specifically the hybrid stepper configuration, are an attractive choice for energy harvesting applications.

  14. Intracranially protruded bilateral posterior and superior SCCs with multiple dehiscences in a patient with positional vertigo: CT and MR imaging findings and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nischal G Kundaragi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of intracranially protruded posterior and superior semicircular canals beyond the margins of temporal bone with bony roof dehiscence in bilateral posterior and left superior semicircular canals in a patient with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV.

  15. Millian superiorities and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2008-01-01

    James Griffin has considered a form of superiority in value that is weaker than lexical priority as a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this article, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into the stronger form of superiority. And in a ......James Griffin has considered a form of superiority in value that is weaker than lexical priority as a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this article, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into the stronger form of superiority...... of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest....

  16. Measuring Financial Gains from Genetically Superior Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Dutrow; Clark Row

    1976-01-01

    Planting genetically superior loblolly pines will probably yield high profits.Forest economists have made computer simulations that predict financial gains expected from a tree improvement program under actual field conditions.

  17. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome causing growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and lifethreateningclinical condition caused by the compressionof the third portion of the duodenum between the aortaand the superior mesenteric artery’s proximal part. Thiscompression may lead to chronic intermittent, acute totalor partial obstruction. Sudden weight-loss and the relateddecrease in the fat tissue are considered to be the etiologicalreason of acute stenosis. Weight-loss accompaniedby nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, andbloating are the leading complaints. Barium radiographs,computerized tomography, conventional angiography,tomographic and magnetic resonance angiography areused in the diagnosis. There are medical and surgical approachesto treatment. We hereby present the case ofa patient with superior mesenteric artery syndrome withdelayed diagnosis.Key words: superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nausea-vomiting, anorexia

  18. Evidence of water ice near the lunar poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, W. C. (William C.); Maurice, S. (Sylvestre); Lawrence, David J. (David Jeffery),; Little, R. C. (Robert C.); Lawrence, S. L. (Stefanie L.); Gasnault, O. M. (Olivier M.); Wiens, R. C. (Roger C.); Barraclough, B. L. (Bruce L.); Elphic, Richard C.,; Prettyman, T. H. (Thomas H.); Steinberg, John Tyree; Binder, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    Lunar Prospector epithermal neutron data were studied to evaluate the probable chemical state of enhanced hydrogen, [H], reported previously to be near both lunar poles [1,2]. Improved versions of thermal and epithermal neutron data were developed for this purpose. Most important is the improved spatial resolution obtained by using shortened integration times. A new data set was created, Epi* = [Epithermal - 0.057 x Thermal], to reduce effects of composition variations other than those due to hydrogen. The Epi* counting rates are generally low near both lunar poles and high over terrane near recent impact events such as Tycho and Jackson. However, other lunar features are also associated with high Epi* rates, which represent a wide range of terrane types that seem to have little in common. If we postulate that one property all bright Epi* features do have in common is low [H], then measured Epi* counting rates appear to be quantitatively self consistent. If we assume that [H]=O above the top 98th percentile of Epi* counting rates at 2{sup o} x 2{sup o} spatial resolution, then [H]{sub ave} = 55 ppm for latitudes equatorward of [75{sup o}]. This value is close to the average found in returned lunar soil samples, [H]{sub ave} {approx} 50 ppm [3]. Using the foregoing physical interpretation of Epi* counting rates, we find that the Epi* counts within most of the large craters poleward of {+-}70{sup o} are higher, and therefore [H] is lower, than that in neighboring inter-crater plains, as shown in Figure 1. Fourteen of these craters that have areas larger than the LP epithermal spatial resolution (55 km diameter at 30 km altitude), were singled out for study. [H] is generally found to increase with decreasing distance from the poles (hence decreasing temperature). However, quantitative estimates of the diffusivity of hydrogen at low temperature show that diffusion can not be an important factor in explaining the difference between the relatively low [H] observed within

  19. Bacterial diversity in snow on North Pole ice floes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Stibal, Marek; Bælum, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The microbial abundance and diversity in snow on ice floes at three sites near the North Pole was assessed using quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing. Abundance of 16S rRNA genes in the samples ranged between 43 and 248 gene copies per millilitre of melted snow. A total of 291,331 sequences were...... sites clustered together when compared to the underlying environments of sea ice and ocean water. The Shannon indices ranged from 2.226 to 3.758, and the Chao1 indices showed species richness between 293 and 353 for the three samples. The relatively low abundances and diversity found in the samples...

  20. Ülikoolid pole mängukannid / Sirje Tohver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tohver, Sirje

    2001-01-01

    TPÜ korraldas 16. märtsil̀ 2001 ümarlaua "Ülikoolid pole mängukannid", kus oli arutusel riikliku koolitustellimuse vähenemine avalik-õiguslikele ülikoolidele. Osalesid TPÜ filoloogiateaduskonna dekaan dots. H. Mattisen, kultuuriteaduskonna dekaan prof. A. Avarand, akadeemiline prorektor dots. L. Jõgi, teadus- ja arendusprorektor prof. P. Normak, haridusminister T. Lukas, TPÜ rektor prof. M. Arvisto ja EKA rektor prof. A. Keskküla, TTÜ rektor prof. A. Keevallik, EMA õppeprorektor A. Pung

  1. A new air-Cherenkov array at the South Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, J E; Hart, S P; Hill, G C; Hinton, J A; Lloyd-Evans, J; Potter, D; Pryke, C L; Rochester, K; Schwarz, R; Watson, A A

    2000-01-01

    VULCAN comprises a 9 element array of air-Cherenkov radiation detectors established at the South Pole. VULCAN operates in coincidence with the air-shower array SPASE-2 and the two Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Arrays, AMANDA A and B, supplementing the data gathered by these instruments with a measurement of the lateral distribution of air-Cherenkov light from extensive air-showers. An overview of the aims and methods of the whole coincidence experiment (SPASE-2, VULCAN and AMANDA) can be found in an accompanying paper (Dickinson et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A (1999), to be published).

  2. Ülikoolid pole mängukannid / Sirje Tohver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tohver, Sirje

    2001-01-01

    TPÜ korraldas 16. märtsil̀ 2001 ümarlaua "Ülikoolid pole mängukannid", kus oli arutusel riikliku koolitustellimuse vähenemine avalik-õiguslikele ülikoolidele. Osalesid TPÜ filoloogiateaduskonna dekaan dots. H. Mattisen, kultuuriteaduskonna dekaan prof. A. Avarand, akadeemiline prorektor dots. L. Jõgi, teadus- ja arendusprorektor prof. P. Normak, haridusminister T. Lukas, TPÜ rektor prof. M. Arvisto ja EKA rektor prof. A. Keskküla, TTÜ rektor prof. A. Keevallik, EMA õppeprorektor A. Pung

  3. Bacterial diversity in snow on North Pole ice floes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Stibal, Marek; Bælum, Jacob;

    2014-01-01

    The microbial abundance and diversity in snow on ice floes at three sites near the North Pole was assessed using quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing. Abundance of 16S rRNA genes in the samples ranged between 43 and 248 gene copies per millilitre of melted snow. A total of 291,331 sequences were...... obtained through 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, resulting in 984 OTUs at 97 % identity. Two sites were dominated by Cyanobacteria (72 and 61 %, respectively), including chloroplasts. The third site differed by consisting of 95 % Proteobacteria. Principal component analysis showed that the three...

  4. Are Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies Viewed Pole-on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    0.2’’ respectively. Figure 1 displays the position of each slit over a Barbosa et al. (2009) GMOS IFU image of the [S III] flux (which originates...C. Winge, H. Schmitt: Gemini/ GMOS IFU gas velocity ’tomography’ of the narrow line region of nearby active galaxies, MNRAS, 396 (2009) 2. [2] D...1995) 81. 4 P o S ( N L S 1 ) 0 5 0 Are NLS1s Pole-on? Travis C. Fischer 5 Figure 1: NGC 4051 GMOS IFU image showing integrated [SIII] flux

  5. Bacterial diversity in snow on North Pole ice floes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Stibal, Marek; Bælum, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The microbial abundance and diversity in snow on ice floes at three sites near the North Pole was assessed using quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing. Abundance of 16S rRNA genes in the samples ranged between 43 and 248 gene copies per millilitre of melted snow. A total of 291,331 sequences were...... sites clustered together when compared to the underlying environments of sea ice and ocean water. The Shannon indices ranged from 2.226 to 3.758, and the Chao1 indices showed species richness between 293 and 353 for the three samples. The relatively low abundances and diversity found in the samples...

  6. Plasmon Pole Approximations within a GW Sternheimer implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Vincent; Cote, Michel

    We use an implementation of the GW approximation that exploits a Sternheimer equation and a Lanczos procedure to circumvent the resource intensive sum over all bands and inversion of the dielectric matrix. I will present further improvement of the method that uses Plasmon Pole approximations to evaluate the integral over all frequencies analytically. A comparison study between the von Linden-Horsh and Engel-Farid approaches for energy levels of various molecules along with benchmarking of the computational ressources needed by the method will be discussed.

  7. Leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaumont, Arthus; Pierret, Charles; de Kerangal, Xavier; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Laborde, François

    2014-08-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava is a very rare tumor and only a few cases have been reported, with various techniques of vascular reconstruction. We describe a new case of leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava in a 61-year-old woman with extension to the brachiocephalic arterial trunk. Resection and vascular reconstruction were performed using, respectively, polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene terephtalate vascular grafts.

  8. Superior mesenteric artery compression syndrome - case report

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Rocha França Neto; Rodrigo de Almeida Paiva; Antônio Lacerda Filho; Fábio Lopes de Queiroz; Teon Noronha

    2011-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is an entity generally caused by the loss of the intervening mesenteric fat pad, resulting in compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery. This article reports the case of a patient with irremovable metastatic adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon, that evolved with intense vomiting. Intestinal transit was carried out, which showed important gastric dilation extended until the third portion of the duodenum, compatible wi...

  9. Investigation Effects of Narrowing Rotor Pole Embrace to Efficiency and Cogging Torque at PM BLDC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Ocak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Engineers think that pole embrace size of a PM BLDC motor affects directly the efficiency and the torque. Dealing with theexperimental research, in the studywe have investigated the effects of narrowing rotor pole embrace step by step by changing sizes parametrically. By doing so, high efficiency and low cogging torque would have been obtained for a 20 W PM BLDC motor. In order to do this,pole arc to pole pitch ratio of magnets at the rotor poles has been changed parametrically (0.5 to 1 by genetic algorithm methodfirst. Then the electromagnetic field dispersions, output parameters of the motor, new rotor constructions have been obtained; and new pole embrace has been derived from the variation of pole arc to pole pitch ratio. We have also calculatedthe magnetic flux distribution, output power, torque, cogging torque and efficiency values analytically and the effects of new pole embrace to motor efficiency and torque have been simulated. The developed 18 slots, 6 poles, surface mounted inner runner configuration rotor machine is proposed as to be used insmall dentistry apparatus.

  10. DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF POLE-LIKE OBJECTS FROM MOBILE MAPPING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fukano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser scanners on a vehicle-based mobile mapping system can capture 3D point-clouds of roads and roadside objects. Since roadside objects have to be maintained periodically, their 3D models are useful for planning maintenance tasks. In our previous work, we proposed a method for detecting cylindrical poles and planar plates in a point-cloud. However, it is often required to further classify pole-like objects into utility poles, streetlights, traffic signals and signs, which are managed by different organizations. In addition, our previous method may fail to extract low pole-like objects, which are often observed in urban residential areas. In this paper, we propose new methods for extracting and classifying pole-like objects. In our method, we robustly extract a wide variety of poles by converting point-clouds into wireframe models and calculating cross-sections between wireframe models and horizontal cutting planes. For classifying pole-like objects, we subdivide a pole-like object into five subsets by extracting poles and planes, and calculate feature values of each subset. Then we apply a supervised machine learning method using feature variables of subsets. In our experiments, our method could achieve excellent results for detection and classification of pole-like objects.

  11. Detection and Classification of Pole-Like Objects from Mobile Mapping Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, K.; Masuda, H.

    2015-08-01

    Laser scanners on a vehicle-based mobile mapping system can capture 3D point-clouds of roads and roadside objects. Since roadside objects have to be maintained periodically, their 3D models are useful for planning maintenance tasks. In our previous work, we proposed a method for detecting cylindrical poles and planar plates in a point-cloud. However, it is often required to further classify pole-like objects into utility poles, streetlights, traffic signals and signs, which are managed by different organizations. In addition, our previous method may fail to extract low pole-like objects, which are often observed in urban residential areas. In this paper, we propose new methods for extracting and classifying pole-like objects. In our method, we robustly extract a wide variety of poles by converting point-clouds into wireframe models and calculating cross-sections between wireframe models and horizontal cutting planes. For classifying pole-like objects, we subdivide a pole-like object into five subsets by extracting poles and planes, and calculate feature values of each subset. Then we apply a supervised machine learning method using feature variables of subsets. In our experiments, our method could achieve excellent results for detection and classification of pole-like objects.

  12. Is it possible to reduce the knee joint compression force during level walking with hiking poles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, S B; Henriksen, M; Aaboe, J; Hansen, L; Simonsen, E B; Alkjaer, T

    2011-12-01

    Walking with hiking poles has become a popular way of exercising. Walking with poles is advocated as a physical activity that significantly reduces the loading of the hip, knee and ankle joints. We have previously observed that pole walking does not lead to a reduction of the load on the knee joint. However, it is unclear whether an increased force transmitted through the poles can reduce the load on the knee joint. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if an increased load transmitted through the arms to the poles could reduce the knee joint compression force during level walking with poles. We hypothesized that an increased pole force would result in a reduction of the knee joint compression force. Gait analyses from 10 healthy subjects walking with poles were obtained. The pole force was measured simultaneously during the gait analyses. The knee joint compression forces were estimated by using a biomechanical knee joint model. The results showed that the subjects were able to increase the pole force by 2.4 times the normal pole force. However, this did not lead to a reduction in the knee joint compressive force and we rejected our hypothesis. In conclusion, the use of poles during level walking does not seem to reduce knee joint compressive loads. However, it is possible that the use of poles in other populations (e.g. osteoarthritis patients) and in terrain would unload the knee joint. This should be investigated in the future. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Zaknun, John J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Maes, Alex [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina [Fleni Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, Nuclear Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bal, C.S. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); Ospedale Maggiore, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  14. Effects of slotting and unipolar flux on magnetic pull in a two-pole induction motor with an extra four-pole stator winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinervo, A.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is about the radial magnetic forces between the rotor and stator in twopole induction machines. The magnetic forces arise from rotor eccentricity. The asymmetric air-gap makes the flux density on one side of the rotor stronger than on the opposite side. This produces magnetic pull. The magnetic flux density distribution in the air-gap can be expressed with spatial harmonics, i.e. flux densities with different pole-pair numbers. In two-pole machines, the main part of the magnetic force is produced by the interaction of two- and fourpole flux unless the four-pole flux is damped by parallel paths in the stator winding or an extra four-pole stator winding. The rest of the force comes from the interaction of two-pole and unipolar flux and from the higher harmonics of the air-gap flux of which the slot harmonics are a major part. The force caused by the higher harmonics and the unipolar flux is studied in the case where a four-pole stator winding is used to reduce the four-pole flux. The higher harmonics are found to produce, in addition to the traditional unbalanced magnetic pull, a force similar to the effect of the unipolar flux and the two can be distinguished only by measuring the unipolar flux. In measurements at various operation points, the higher harmonics are found to produce much more force than the unipolar flux and two-pole flux but the unipolar flux is still significant. The four-pole winding also is used to actively control the four-pole flux and the magnetic forces. Designing the controller requires a low order model of the system. Such a model is derived and the effect of the slot harmonics and the unipolar flux are included in the model. Different measurements techniques and methods are presented to identify and validate the control model. The operation point dependence of the system dynamics is studied via measurements. All results are obtained from a 30 kW test motor. The rotor of the test machine has a long flexible shaft on external

  15. The Effect of Polar Vortex Disturbances on Mesopause Gravity Wave Drag in Relation to Mesopause Pole-to-Pole Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, R.; Hibbins, R. E.; Espy, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) play an important role in the dynamics of the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) region, linking the lower to the upper atmosphere. GW filtering by the background zonal wind is furthermore believed to be the fundamental mechanism coupling the winter stratosphere to the summer polar mesopause, in which increased planetary wave (PW) activity in the former is related to enhanced temperatures in the latter through a chain of global MLT temperature anomalies. During major Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) the interaction between PWs and the background flow leads to increased polar stratospheric temperatures and a reversal of the climatological winds from eastward to westward. As a result, large changes in GW filtering conditions occur, making SSWs an excellent tool to empirically test the inter-hemispheric coupling mechanism. In this study, mesopause GW forcing derived from meteor radar observations over Trondheim, Norway (63°N, 10°E) during the January 2013 major SSW is discussed in light of the polar vortex strength and selective filtering conditions over the same location to show the coupling between the polar winter stratosphere and MLT. Global temperature observations obtained with the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are subsequently used to study the temperature signature of the SSW in the MLT region over the winter pole in relation to the observed GW forcing. Furthermore, the temperature effect of the SSW throughout the middle atmosphere is tracked, away from the winter pole toward the summer pole, and compared to the temperature structure expected from the inter-hemispheric coupling mechanism.

  16. Superior oblique surgery: when and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Şekeroğlu H

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hande Taylan Şekeroğlu,1 Ali Sefik Sanac,1 Umut Arslan,2 Emin Cumhur Sener11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Biostatistics, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyBackground: The purpose of this paper is to review different types of superior oblique muscle surgeries, to describe the main areas in clinical practice where superior oblique surgery is required or preferred, and to discuss the preferred types of superior oblique surgery with respect to their clinical outcomes.Methods: A consecutive nonrandomized retrospective series of patients who had undergone superior oblique muscle surgery as a single procedure were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis, clinical features, preoperative and postoperative vertical deviations in primary position, type of surgery, complications, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. The primary outcome measures were the type of strabismus and the type of superior oblique muscle surgery. The secondary outcome measure was the results of the surgeries.Results: The review identified 40 (20 male, 20 female patients with a median age of 6 (2–45 years. Nineteen patients (47.5% had Brown syndrome, eleven (27.5% had fourth nerve palsy, and ten (25.0% had horizontal deviations with A pattern. The most commonly performed surgery was superior oblique tenotomy in 29 (72.5% patients followed by superior oblique tuck in eleven (27.5% patients. The amount of vertical deviation in the fourth nerve palsy and Brown syndrome groups (P = 0.01 for both and the amount of A pattern in the A pattern group were significantly reduced postoperatively (P = 0.02.Conclusion: Surgery for the superior oblique muscle requires experience and appropriate preoperative evaluation in view of its challenging nature. The main indications are Brown syndrome, fourth nerve palsy, and A pattern deviations. Superior oblique surgery may be effective in terms of pattern collapse and correction of vertical deviations in primary

  17. Refined Rotational Period, Pole Solution & Shape Model for (3200) Phaethon

    CERN Document Server

    Ansdell, Megan; Hainaut, Olivier; Buie, Marc W; Kaluna, Heather; Bauer, James; Dundon, Luke

    2014-01-01

    (3200) Phaethon exhibits both comet- and asteroid-like properties, suggesting it could be a rare transitional object such as a dormant comet or previously volatile-rich asteroid. This justifies detailed study of (3200) Phaethon's physical properties, as a better understanding of asteroid-comet transition objects can provide insight into minor body evolution. We therefore acquired time-series photometry of (3200) Phaethon over 15 nights from 1994 to 2013, primarily using the Tektronix 2048x2048 pixel CCD on the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. We utilized light curve inversion to: (1) refine (3200) Phaethon's rotational period to P=3.6032+/-0.0008 h; (2) estimate a rotational pole orientation of lambda=+85+/-13 degrees and beta=-20+/-10 degrees; and (3) derive a shape model. We also used our extensive light curve dataset to estimate the slope parameter of (3200) Phaethon's phase curve as G~0.06, consistent with C-type asteroids. We discuss how this highly oblique pole orientation with a negative ecliptic ...

  18. Uncertainty maps for asteroid shape and pole solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartczak, Przemyslaw; Dudzinski, Grzegorz

    2016-10-01

    SAGE (Shaping Asteroids with Genetic Evolution) inversion method is based on genetic algorithm to obtain pole solutions, rotation periods and non-convex shapes of asteroids (Bartczak et.al, 2014). During the process computer graphics methods are used to compare model's synthetic lightcurves to photometric observations. The method is suitable for modelling both single and binary objects. A modelling run starts with a sphere, with no assumptions about the shape, and subsequently it converges to a stable spin and shape solution. Center of mas and moment of inertia are calculated for each model.Modelling of an asteroid consists of multiple runs of the process, each of them following different path towards a stable solution. As a result we obtain a family of solutions. If enough data is provided, solutions are consistent with each other and can be used for error estimation.We choose only the best models from a family of solutions, meaning every model that fits 5% threshold above best χ2 found. By comparing them we are able to construct a map of uncertainties for the shape, showing areas in good and poor agreement with chosen models. Such map can then be represented with a 3D visualisation. Moreover, we create a map of errors for pole solutions and periods.

  19. Groebner Basis Solutions to Satellite Trajectory Control by Pole Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukelova, Z.; Krsek, P.; Smutny, V.; Pajdla, T.

    2013-09-01

    Satellites play an important role, e.g., in telecommunication, navigation and weather monitoring. Controlling their trajectories is an important problem. In [1], an approach to the pole placement for the synthesis of a linear controller has been presented. It leads to solving five polynomial equations in nine unknown elements of the state space matrices of a compensator. This is an underconstrained system and therefore four of the unknown elements need to be considered as free parameters and set to some prior values to obtain a system of five equations in five unknowns. In [1], this system was solved for one chosen set of free parameters with the help of Dixon resultants. In this work, we study and present Groebner basis solutions to this problem of computation of a dynamic compensator for the satellite for different combinations of input free parameters. We show that the Groebner basis method for solving systems of polynomial equations leads to very simple solutions for all combinations of free parameters. These solutions require to perform only the Gauss-Jordan elimination of a small matrix and computation of roots of a single variable polynomial. The maximum degree of this polynomial is not greater than six in general but for most combinations of the input free parameters its degree is even lower. [1] B. Palancz. Application of Dixon resultant to satellite trajectory control by pole placement. Journal of Symbolic Computation, Volume 50, March 2013, Pages 79-99, Elsevier.

  20. Results from the South Pole InfraRed EXplorer Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Rathborne, J M

    2003-01-01

    The SPIREX telescope, located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, was a prototype system developed to exploit the excellent conditions for IR observing at the South Pole. Observations over two winter seasons achieved remarkably deep, high-resolution, wide-field images in the 3-5um wavelength regime. Several star forming complexes were observed, including NGC 6334, Chamaeleon I, eta Chamaeleontis, the Carina Nebula, 30 Doradus, RCW 57, RCW 38, as well as the Galactic Centre. Images were obtained of lines at 2.42um H2, 3.29um PAH and 4.05um Bra, as well as 3.5um L-band and 4.7um M-band continuum emission. These data, combined with near-IR, mid-IR, and radio continuum maps, reveal the environments of these star forming sites, as well as any protostars lying within them. The SPIREX project, its observing and reduction methods, and some sample data are summarized here.

  1. Trends in the economic evolution of urban development poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Burtea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities are facing constant and more increasingly changes and challenges. In the light of these changes and challenges, this paper tries to configure the idea of how communities, especially those in urban areas face their problems and initiatives to use existing opportunities to access sustainable and balanced development. An integrated approach to urban development and the concept of cities as centers of power in disseminating positive effects in neighboring territories, led the European Union to structure a policy framework, an institutional and legal framework in order to support this type of events. Doing a little review of the EU and national action and support framework for urban development, this paper aims to highlight the effect of this support on urban development in terms of economic dimension. Approach starts from the assumption that urban areas are able to efficiently use the leverage created by the European Union and accessible nationally through established internal policies, in support of urban development. Proposed research hypothesis applies in a case study upon the urban development poles from Romania’s North-West Region, by linking information from the analysis of the local economic environment with the level of structural funds absorption rate for these poles in the 2007-2013 financial programming.

  2. Severity of seabed spatial competition decreases towards the poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D K A; Neutel, A M

    2016-04-25

    For more than a century ecologists have considered that competitive interactions between species are more intense at low latitudes [1,2]. This is frequently invoked as either an explanation or a consequence of higher species richness in the tropics, also suggesting that competition shifts from intra- to inter-specific towards the tropics [1]. Another common assumption is that within a community, intraspecific competition needs to be relatively strong, compared to inter-specific competition, in order to enable stable coexistence of species [3]. However, many analyses have found no consistent large scale geographic patterns in the intensity of intra- or interspecific competition [4]. Here, we show a clear latitudinal trend in contest competition for space in nearshore marine environments, for bryozoans (sessile, colonial, suspension feeding animals). Bryozoans form species-rich assemblages with other encrusting fauna and flora (corraline algae), and are highly abundant across the globe [5]. We find that whilst the intensity of competition (percentage of bryozoan colonies involved in direct physical spatial interactions with bryozoan or other encrusters) differed little with latitude, its severity (percentage of bryozoan colonies involved in contests with a win/loss outcome, leading to death of the loser) was three times lower at the poles than in the tropics. The cause of this change in severity was a strong shift in taxonomic relatedness of competitors, from interactions between species of different families dominating at lower latitudes, to mainly intraspecific competition at the poles.

  3. Towards a research pole in photonics in Western Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Rominu, Mihai; Miutescu, Eftimie; Burlea, Amelia; Vlascici, Miomir; Gheorghiu, Nicolae; Cira, Octavian; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Mnerie, Corina; Demian, Dorin; Marcauteanu, Corina; Topala, Florin; Rolland, Jannick P.; Voiculescu, Ioana; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-07-01

    We present our efforts in establishing a Research Pole in Photonics in the future Arad-Timisoara metropolitan area projected to unite two major cities of Western Romania. Research objectives and related training activities of various institutions and groups that are involved are presented in their evolution during the last decade. The multi-disciplinary consortium consists principally of two universities, UAVA (Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad) and UMF (Victor Babes Medicine and Pharmacy University of Timisoara), but also of the Arad County Emergency University Hospital and several innovative SMEs, such as Bioclinica S.A. (the largest array of medical analysis labs in the region) and Inteliform S.R.L. (a competitive SME focused on mechatronics and mechanical engineering). A brief survey of the individual and joint projects of these institutions is presented, together with their teaching activities at graduate and undergraduate level. The research Pole collaborates in R&D, training and education in biomedical imaging with universities in USA and Europe. Collaborative activities, mainly on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) projects are presented in a multidisciplinary approach that includes optomechatronics, precision mechanics and optics, dentistry, medicine, and biology.

  4. Elemental Mercury Diffusion Processes and Concentration at the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Frederick; Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft made the first detection of element mercury (Hg) vapor in the lunar exosphere after the Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted into the Cabeus crater in the southern polar region of the Moon. The lunar regolith core samples from the Apollo missions determined that Hg had a devolatilized pattern with a concentration gradient increasing with depth, in addition to a layered pattern suggesting multiple episodes of burial and volatile loss. Hg migration on the lunar surface resulted in cold trapping at the poles. We have modeled the rate at which indigenous Hg is lost from the regolith through diffusion out of lunar grains. We secondly modeled the migration of Hg vapor in the exosphere and estimated the rate of cold-trapping at the poles using a Monte Carlo technique. The Hg vapor may be lost from the exosphere via ionization, Jeans escape, or re-impact into the surface causing reabsorption.

  5. Transient Broad Specular Reflections from Titan's North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Rajani D.; Barnes, Jason W.

    2016-10-01

    In 2014, Cassini observed rough patches or transient broad specular reflections on one of Titan's seas, Punga Mare. These observations were made by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). The rough patches were interpreted to be waves on the surface of the hydrocarbon sea with slopes of 60 ± 10. Although long anticipated, this was an important observation since there was no detection of waves in the initial flybys of north polar lakes and seas until the northern summer approached.We have analyzed several recent VIMS flybys of Titan's north pole looking for these rough surfaces. Our observations are classified as clouds, mudflats, specular reflections, or waves based on VIMS color composites. We observe waves in at least two seas at the north pole, Ligeia Mare and Kraken Mare. In addition, we also observe specular reflections from the shoreline or land, indicating the wet sidewalk effect or mudflat in other flybys. Wet sidewalk observations indicate a recent rainfall event causing diffuse specular reflection.These new observations help us understand more about the weather conditions and sea-wind interaction generating waves on the seas.

  6. Solvent cleaning of pole transformers containing PCB contaminated insulating oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbe, H; Shibuya, M

    2001-01-01

    In 1989, it was discovered that the recycled insulation oil in pole transformers for electric power supply was contaminated with trace amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; maximum 50 mg-PCB/kg-insulation oil). In order to remove the PCBs from transformer components using n-hexane as a solvent, we investigated the relationship between progressive stages of dismantling and cleaning results. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Based on the cleaning test results, we made an estimate of the residual PCB amount on iron and copper components. By dismantling the test pole transformers into the "iron core and coil portion" and cleaning the components, we achieved a residual PCB amount that was below the limit of detection (0.05 mg-PCB/kg-material). To achieve a residual PCB amount below the limit of detection for the transformer paper component, it was necessary to cut the paper into pieces smaller than 5 mm. We were unable to achieve a residual PCB amount below the limit of detection for the wood component. (2) Compared to Japan's stipulated limited concentration standard values for PCBs, the results of the cleaning test show that cleaning iron or copper components with PCBs only on their surface with the solvent n-hexane will satisfy the limited concentration standard values when care is taken to ensure the component surfaces have adequate contact with the cleaning solvent.

  7. Mnemonic Training Reshapes Brain Networks to Support Superior Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Martin; Shirer, William R; Konrad, Boris N; Müller, Nils C J; Wagner, Isabella C; Fernández, Guillén; Czisch, Michael; Greicius, Michael D

    2017-03-08

    Memory skills strongly differ across the general population; however, little is known about the brain characteristics supporting superior memory performance. Here we assess functional brain network organization of 23 of the world's most successful memory athletes and matched controls with fMRI during both task-free resting state baseline and active memory encoding. We demonstrate that, in a group of naive controls, functional connectivity changes induced by 6 weeks of mnemonic training were correlated with the network organization that distinguishes athletes from controls. During rest, this effect was mainly driven by connections between rather than within the visual, medial temporal lobe and default mode networks, whereas during task it was driven by connectivity within these networks. Similarity with memory athlete connectivity patterns predicted memory improvements up to 4 months after training. In conclusion, mnemonic training drives distributed rather than regional changes, reorganizing the brain's functional network organization to enable superior memory performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pole-Like Street Furniture Decompostion in Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i) acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii) pole extraction, (iii) components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  9. Lower Pole Calyceal Stone and Lithotripsy are Issues with Clearance Fact or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hammad Ather

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The lower pole calyceal (LPC stone continues to be an enigma. The complex anatomy of the lower pole collecting system, along with other factors like acute pelvi calyceal angle and narrow and long infundibulum, are some of the complicating factors affecting stone clearance. There have been many studies assessing the impact of collecting system anatomy and most conclude that the complex anatomy of the lower pole collecting system does impact the overall stone-free rate.

  10. Iron Pole Shape Optimization of IPM Motors Using an Integrated Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JABBARI, A.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An iron pole shape optimization method to reduce cogging torque in Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM motors is developed by using the reduced basis technique coupled by finite element and design of experiments methods. Objective function is defined as the minimum cogging torque. The experimental design of Taguchi method is used to build the approximation model and to perform optimization. This method is demonstrated on the rotor pole shape optimization of a 4-poles/24-slots IPM motor.

  11. Development and validation of system for measuring poling forces during Nordic walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krejčí

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, the popularity of Nordic walking (NW has been rising steadily. Many scientific studies researched the promising and beneficial effects of this form of physical activity. However, only a few studies provided data about the forces acting on the poles. We did not find a commercially available system that enables the measurement of the poling forces. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to develop and validate a system for measuring the poling forces during NW. METHODS: Strain gauge force tranducers were mounted below the grips of standard NW poles. The transducer signals were amplified and converted to digital form for transmitting to a personal computer. Special software was developed for processing the measured data and the calculation method of output variables was described. Validation of the system was performed using a Kistler force plate. Poling cycles with peak force of about 150 N were imitated by pressing the pole over a force plate. RESULTS: A function sample of the measurement system was constructed. Validation yielded the mean absolute error of 1.1 N in case of poling cycles without pole impacts or 3.0 N in case of poling cycles with impacts. CONCLUSIONS: The validation result of our system is comparable to the results of similar systems used for measurements during cross-country skiing. The system enables independent measurement of the poling forces on both poles and the duration of measurement can be up to one hour. The system provides a tool that can be used to answer a number of questions that researches raise about NW. Understanding of the biomechanical and physiological aspects of poling action can constitute a scientific basis for promoting, teaching and training of NW.

  12. Whisker-related afferents in superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A; Favero, Morgana

    2016-05-01

    Rodents use their whiskers to explore the environment, and the superior colliculus is part of the neural circuits that process this sensorimotor information. Cells in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus integrate trigeminotectal afferents from trigeminal complex and corticotectal afferents from barrel cortex. Using histological methods in mice, we found that trigeminotectal and corticotectal synapses overlap somewhat as they innervate the lower and upper portions of the intermediate granular layer, respectively. Using electrophysiological recordings and optogenetics in anesthetized mice in vivo, we showed that, similar to rats, whisker deflections produce two successive responses that are driven by trigeminotectal and corticotectal afferents. We then employed in vivo and slice experiments to characterize the response properties of these afferents. In vivo, corticotectal responses triggered by electrical stimulation of the barrel cortex evoke activity in the superior colliculus that increases with stimulus intensity and depresses with increasing frequency. In slices from adult mice, optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-expressing trigeminotectal and corticotectal fibers revealed that cells in the intermediate layers receive more efficacious trigeminotectal, than corticotectal, synaptic inputs. Moreover, the efficacy of trigeminotectal inputs depresses more strongly with increasing frequency than that of corticotectal inputs. The intermediate layers of superior colliculus appear to be tuned to process strong but infrequent trigeminal inputs and weak but more persistent cortical inputs, which explains features of sensory responsiveness, such as the robust rapid sensory adaptation of whisker responses in the superior colliculus. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2012-07-28

    Traditionally, the necessary and sufficient condition for any system to be oscillating is that its poles are located on the imaginary (jω) axis. In this paper, for the first time, we have shown that systems can oscillate with time-domain oscillating poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating resistance and triangular shape of FFT are also demonstrated with mathematical reasoning and simulation results to support the unusual and surprising characteristics. © 2009 IEEE.

  14. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    Since the emergence of the practice turn in social sciences (Golsorkhi et al. 2010), studies have shown a number of institutionally relevant aspects as achievements across time and by means of various resources (human and non-human) (Taylor & van Every 2000, Cooren et al. 2006). Such a process view...... on organizational practices relates closely to an increased focus on communication as being constitutive of the organization in general and the superior-subordinate relationship in specific. The current study aims to contribute to this line of research by investigating micro-practices involved in establishing...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...

  15. Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan is an expression of the best professional judgment of the members of the Lake Superior Task Force as to what is necessary to protect Lake Superior from new aquatic invasive species.

  16. Endovascular treatment of superior vena cava syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvnjak, Stevo; Andersen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    Abstract AIM: The aim of this study was to report our experience with palliative stent treatment of superior vena cava syndrome. METHODS: Between January 2008 and December 2009, 30 patients (mean age 60.7 years) were treated with stents because of stenosed superior vena cava. All patients presented...... there was an immediate clinical improvement with considerable reduction in the edema of upper extremities and head. There was, however, continous dyspnea in five patients (17%) and two patients (7%) had persistent visible collateral venous circulations on the upper chest. There were no stent associated complications...

  17. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence associated with external, middle, and inner ear abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jenny R; Parnes, Lorne S

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of bilateral superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) in a 38-year-old man who presented with congenital hearing loss without vestibular symptoms. This case is unusual due to the association of SSCD with multiple congenital anomalies of the external, middle, and inner ears, but without any other craniofacial or systemic developmental anomalies. Findings of multiple malformations of temporal bone structures in this case lend support to the theory that SSCD may have an underlying developmental or congenital etiology.

  18. Pediatric Scaphoid Proximal Pole Nonunion With Avascular Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Edward W; Smetana, Brandon S; Patterson, J Megan M

    2017-04-01

    A 13-year-old, right hand-dominant, otherwise healthy boy presented with left wrist pain 19 months after a nonmotorized scooter injury. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging at presentation demonstrated proximal pole scaphoid nonunion with avascular necrosis of the proximal fragment. Operative and nonsurgical treatment options were discussed and the family elected for an attempt at nonsurgical management. The patient was placed in a short-arm thumb spica cast, with a window for a bone stimulator, for 14 weeks. At the conclusion of the treatment, the pain had resolved and x-ray and computed tomography scan demonstrated bony union. The authors recommend considering an initial trial of nonsurgical management for treatment of all pediatric scaphoid nonunions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lunar South Pole space water extraction and trucking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuppero, A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.]|[Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Zupp, G. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX (United States). Johnson Space Center; Schnitzler, B.; Larson, T.K.; Rice, J.W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

    1998-03-01

    This concept proposes to use thermal processes alone to extract water from the lunar South Pole and launch payloads to low lunar orbit. Thermal steam rockets would use water propellant for space transportation. The estimated mass of a space water tanker powered by a nuclear heated steam rocket suggests it can be designed for launch in the Space Shuttle bay. The performance depends on the feasibility of a nuclear reactor rocket engine producing steam at 1,100 degrees Kelvin, with a power density of 150 Megawatts per ton of rocket, and operating for thousands of 20 minute cycles. An example uses reject heat from a small nuclear electric power supply to melt 17,800 tons per year of lunar ice. A nuclear heated steam rocket would use the propellant water to launch and deliver 3,800 tons of water per year to a 100 km low lunar orbit.

  20. Persistent parainfluenza virus shedding during isolation at the South Pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchmore, H G; Parkinson, A J; Humphries, J E; Scott, E N; McIntosh, D A; Scott, L V; Cooney, M K; Miles, J A

    1981-01-15

    Persistent parainfluenza virus shedding in healthy young adults occurred throughout the 8 1/2-month winter isolation period at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station during 1978. Two episodes of respiratory illness were observed after 10 and 29 weeks of complete social isolation. Throat swabs collected both routinely, and during each outbreak of respiratory illness, were directly inoculated into cell cultures. Parainfluenza virus types 1 and 3 were recovered from both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects throughout the winter. No other viruses were obtained by these efforts. The presence of parainfluenza virus in these subjects long after the accepted incubation period for viral upper respiratory illness, and when the introduction of new virus to this community was impossible, suggests its persistence in man.

  1. Aerosol measurements at the south pole during 1987. Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodhaine, B.A.; Harris, J.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates an atmospheric monitoring observatory at Amundsen-Scott Station, South Pole. The aerosol measurement program consists of the continuous measurement of condensation nuclei (CN) concentration and aerosol scattering extinction coefficient. During 1987, a special aerosol experiment was conducted that included filter samples for subsequent analysis by the proton induced x-ray emission technique, diffusion battery measurements for size information in the sub-0.1 micrometer size range, and aerosol absorption measurements using an aethalometer. Surface and upper air meteorological data were also available. The purpose of the report is to present all of the aerosol data obtained during 1987.

  2. South Pole submillimeter isotropy measurements of the cosmic microwave background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragovan, M. (Joseph Henry Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (USA)); Platt, S.R.; Pernic, R.J. (The University of Chicago, Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI 531191 (USA)); Stark, A.A. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, NJ 07733 (USA))

    1990-01-15

    Observations were made from the United States Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station during the austral summer of 1988--89 to search for spatial anisotropy in the submillimeter Cosmic Microwave Background. Three 30{prime}{times}30{prime} regions of the sky were observed at 350 {mu}m, 450 {mu}m, and 600 {mu}m with the University of Chicago 32-Channel Submillimeter Photometer and a 1.2-meter off-axis parabolic telescope, designed and constructed at AT T Bell Laboratories. Reimaging optics gave each of the 32 bolometers in the array a 5-arc minute field of view. The search is sensitive to fluctuations on all angular scales between 5- and 30-arc minutes.

  3. Position of the South Magnetic Pole, January 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C. E.

    The present location of the South Magnetic Pole (SMP) in the southern ocean provides an opportunity to determine its position well removed from local (coastal) anomalies. An experiment is being conducted jointly by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources and Antarctic Division, Department of Science to make direct shipboard observations of the position and daily motion of the SMP. The technique involves determination of the horizontal component of the field (H) by using a gimbal-mounted three-axis fluxgate magnetometer. First-order compensation for the magnetic effects of the vessel is provided by a system of Helmholtz coils. During observations, the vessel is spun about a vertical axis so that any residual horizontal field due to the vessel can be eliminated by integration along two horizontal axes fixed in space.

  4. The Reid93 Potential Triton in the Unitary Pole Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, I. R.; Gibson, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Reid93 potential provides a representation of the nucleon-nucleon ( NN) scattering data that rivals that of a partial wave analysis. We present here a unitary pole approximation (UPA) for this contemporary NN potential that provides a rank one separable potential for which the wave function of the deuteron (3S1-3D1) and singlet anti-bound (1S0) state are exactly those of the original potential. Our motivation is to use this UPA potential to investigate the sensitivity of the electric dipole moment for the deuteron and 3H and 3He to the ground state nuclear wave function. We compare the Reid93 results with those for the original Reid (Reid68) potential to illustrate the accuracy of the bound state properties.

  5. The AMANDA South Pole neutrino telescope first light

    CERN Document Server

    Halzen, Francis

    1999-01-01

    We will discuss the performance of natural Antarctic ice between 1 and 2 kilometer depths as a particle detector. We will present a preliminary analysis of the first year of data from a neutrino telescope which uses large volumes of ultra-transparent South Pole ice as a low-noise particle detector, sensing the Cherenkov light from neutrino-induced muons and electrons. This instrument is monitoring the sky for neutrinos from supernovae and gamma ray bursts. We are already performing a first search for neutrino emission from the most energetic cosmic processes involving pulsars, black holes, active galactic nuclei and the like. The detector also has unique capabilities in searching for neutrino mass and dark matter. We will argue however that a high energy neutrino telescope should ultimately have an effective volume of order 1 kilometer cube and will present AMANDA's ongoing and future expansion.

  6. Resonances and poles in isoscattering microwave networks and graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Lawniczak, Michal; Sirko, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    Can one hear the shape of a graph? This is a modification of the famous question of Mark Kac "Can one hear the shape of a drum?" which can be asked in the case of scattering systems such as quantum graphs and microwave networks. It addresses an important mathematical problem whether scattering properties of such systems are uniquely connected to their shapes? Recent experimental results based on a characteristics of graphs such as the cumulative phase of the determinant of the scattering matrices indicate a negative answer to this question (O. Hul, M. Lawniczak, S. Bauch, A. Sawicki, M. Kus, L. Sirko, Phys. Rev. Lett 109, 040402 (2012).). In this paper we consider important local characteristics of graphs such as structures of resonances and poles of the determinant of the scattering matrices. Using these characteristics we study experimentally and theoretically properties of graphs and directly confirm that the pair of graphs considered in the cited paper is isoscattering. The experimental results are compar...

  7. Dynamical origin and the pole structure of X(3872).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilkin, I V; Simonov, Yu A

    2010-09-03

    The dynamical mechanism of channel coupling with the decay channels is applied to the case of coupled charmonium--DD* states with JPC=1++. A pole analysis is done and the DD* production cross section is calculated in qualitative agreement with experiment. The sharp peak at the D0D0* threshold and flat background are shown to be due to Breit-Wigner resonance, shifted by channel coupling from the original position of 3954 MeV for the 23P1, QQ state. A similar analysis, applied to the n=2, 3P2, 1P1, 3P0, allows us to associate the first one with the observed Z(3930) J=2 and explains the destiny of 3P0.

  8. Intermittency of riometer auroral absorption observed at South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M. V.; Antonova, E. E.; Foppiano, A. J.; Rosenberg, T. J.; Ovalle, E. M.

    2005-12-01

    Auroral radio-wave absorption values measured at South Pole for 3 years using a riometer are analyzed in order to test whether they show evidence of intermittency. The properties of the parameters of the probability density functions determined for several magnetic local time sectors are found to be significantly different. The probability density functions for the pre-midnight sector show the typical shape associated to intermittency. No results are given for the afternoon sector because few auroral absorption events meet the selection criteria to give statistically significant results. It is suggested that if the precipitating particle population responsible for the riometer auroral absorption shared the intermittency features of the absorption then the present results would allow the study of the properties of the induction component of magnetospheric turbulence.

  9. Plasmon Pole Approximation within the GW Lanczos approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Vincent; Rousseau, Bruno; Cote, Michel

    2015-03-01

    The well-known DFT gap problem is adressed by computational methods that are more ressource intensive both in terms of memory and time requirements. Amongst other methods, the GW approach has known great success in the field of electronic structure calculations. Addressing the main bottlenecks impeding one shot GW calculations, a sum over all conduction states and an integral over all frequencies must be carried. Within an implementation of the GW method based on the Lanczos algorithm, the sum over conduction states is treated with a Sternheimer method whereas the frequency integral is carried out numerically. In this talk, I will present an implementation of a plasmon-pole model combined with the Lanczos method that allows a treatement of this integral that is computationally favorable.

  10. Alpine tectonics and rotation pole evolution of Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Koen

    1990-12-01

    The geological evolution of the Betic Cordilleras and Pyrenees reflects the Cretaceous and Tertiary rotation pole and kinematic evolution of the Iberian and African plates. New constraints on the Alpine tectonic evolution of the Iberian plate are provided by P- T- t data and regionally consistent stretching lineations from the metamorphic parts of the Betic Cordilleras. High-pressure low-temperature metamorphism in the Betic Cordilleras resulted from continent-continent collision which caused subduction to a maximum depth of 37 km. A preliminary 116 ± 10 Ma radiometric age for this event corresponds to the initiation of seafloor spreading to the west of Iberia which lasted until about 80 Ma. Intracontinental thrusting in the Betics between 99 Ma and 83 Ma took place after subduction ended. E-W to ESE-WNW trending stretching lineations indicate the direction of thrusting, which resulted in extensional strains of 200-600%. The timing of thrusting in the Betics coincides with a 95-80 Ma tectonic phase in northern Africa, during which E-W stretching lineations were formed. The stretching lineations are coincident with the 110-80 Ma motion vector of Africa-Iberia with respect to Eurasia. Thrusting in the Betics and deformation in northern Africa was driven by convergence of Africa-Iberia and Eurasia. Cretaceous deformation is further recorded by terrigeneous sedimentation in the Mauritanian Flysch and by the tectosedimentary evolution of the Malaguide Complex. Crustal thinning, magmatism and metamorphism in the Pyrenees during the 110-85 Ma period is governed by a left-lateral strike-slip of Africa-Iberia with respect to Eurasia around the same rotation pole as thrusting in the Betics. During the 80-54 Ma period the rotation pole was situated west of Gibraltar, near the previous active collision zone. This inhibited large-scale overthrusting and related penetrative deformation in northern Africa and the Betic Cordilleras. Deformation was instead transferred to the

  11. Three-Dimensional Printed Prosthesis for Repair of Superior Canal Dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Cheng, Song; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Outcomes following repair of superior canal dehiscence (SCD) are variable, and surgery carries a risk of persistent or recurrent SCD symptoms, as well as a risk of hearing loss and vestibulopathy. Poor outcomes may occur from inadequate repair of the SCD or mechanical insult to the membranous labyrinth. Repair of SCD using a customized, fixed-length prosthesis may address current operative limitations and improve surgical outcomes. We aim to 3-dimensionally print customized prostheses to resurface or occlude bony SCD defects. Dehiscences were created along the arcuate eminence of superior semicircular canals in cadaveric temporal bones. Prostheses were designed and created using computed tomography and a 3-dimensional printer. The prostheses occupied the superior semicircular canal defect, reflected in postrepair computed tomography scans. This novel approach to SCD repair could have advantages over current techniques. Refinement of prosthesis design and materials will be important if this approach is translated into clinical use.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of meniscoid superior labrum: normal variant or superior labral tear*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Marcelo Novelino; Vinson, Emily N.; Spritzer, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of a "meniscoid" superior labrum. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of 582 magnetic resonance imaging examinations of shoulders. Of those 582 examinations, 110 were excluded, for a variety of reasons, and the final analysis therefore included 472 cases. Consensus readings were performed by three musculoskeletal radiologists using specific criteria to diagnose meniscoid labra. Results A meniscoid superior labrum was identified in 48 (10.2%) of the 472 cases evaluated. Arthroscopic proof was available in 21 cases (43.8%). In 10 (47.6%) of those 21 cases, the operative report did not include the mention a superior labral tear, thus suggesting the presence of a meniscoid labrum. In only one of those cases were there specific comments about a mobile superior labrum (i.e., meniscoid labrum). In the remaining 11 (52.4%), surgical correlation demonstrated superior labral tears. Conclusion A meniscoid superior labrum is not an infrequent finding. Depending upon assumptions and the requirement of surgical proof, the prevalence of a meniscoid superior labrum in this study was between 2.1% (surgically proven) and 4.8% (projected). However, superior labral tears are just as common and are often confused with meniscoid labra. PMID:27777474

  13. Orographic Condensation at the South Pole of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlies, Paul; Hayes, Alexander; Adamkovics, Mate

    2016-10-01

    Although many clouds have been observed on Titan over the past two decades (Griffith et al. 1998, Rodriquez et al 2009, Brown et al. 2010), only a handful of clouds have been analyzed in detail (Griffith et al 2005, Brown et al 2009, Adamkovics et al 2010). In light of new data and better radiative transfer (RT) modelling, we present here a reexamination of one of these cloud systems observed in March 2007, formerly identified as ground fog (Brown et al 2009), using the Cassini VIMS instrument. Combining our analysis with RADAR observations we attempt to understand the connection and correlation between this low altitude atmospheric phenomenon and the local topography, suggesting instead, a topographically driven (orographic) cloud formation mechanism. This analysis would present the first links between cloud formation and topography on Titan, and has valuable implications in understanding additional cloud formation mechanisms, allowing for a better understanding of Titan's atmospheric dynamics.We will also present an update on an ongoing ground based observation campaign looking for clouds on Titan. This campaign, begun back in April 2014, has been (nearly) continuously monitoring Titan for ongoing cloud activity. Although a variety of telescope and instruments have been used in an effort to best capture the onset of cloud activity expected at Titan's North Pole, no cloud outbursts have yet been observed from the ground (though frequent observations have been made with Cassini ISS/VIMS). This is interesting because it further suggests a developing dichotomy between Titan's seasons, since clouds were observable from the ground during southern summer. Thus, monitoring the onset of large scale cloud activity at Titan's North Pole will be crucial to understanding Titan's hydrologic cycle on seasonal timescales.

  14. An atmospheric history of ethane from South Pole firn air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, K. M.; Lang, P.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2009-12-01

    Ethane (C2H6) is the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon in the atmosphere and is important to tropospheric photochemistry. Sources of ethane include natural gas and oil leaks, automotive emissions and biomass burning, with smaller contributions from oceanic, vegetative, and soil emissions. The primary loss pathway for ethane is via reaction with hydroxyl radical, which controls ethane seasonality and lifetime (1-2 months during summer). There is a relatively limited database of atmospheric ethane measurements, which is insufficient to characterize long-term trends in the sources and sinks of this compound or to determine anthropogenic influence on the ethane budget. In this study, an atmospheric history of ethane over the past century is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, in conjunction with a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Eighty firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 season. The flasks were shipped back and analyzed by high resolution GC/MS at UCI. Firn air dating was based on the measured CO2 profile and known atmospheric history of CO2. Ethane levels in the firn increased from about 132 ppt in the deepest sample, to 259 ppt at 106 m, then decreased to 230 ppt at 30 m. Dating based on mean CO2 ages indicates that the ethane levels over Antarctica roughly doubled (from 130 to 260 ppt) between 1930 and the 1980’s. Over this time period, ethane increased at a rate of about 0.7 ppt yr-1 from 1930-1950 and 3.2 ppt yr-1 from 1950-1987. Ethane levels stabilized during the 1980’s and declined by approximately 1.8 ppt yr-1 from 1988-2004. Surface air measurements from several high latitude southern hemisphere sites indicate that the modern mean atmospheric ethane level is approximately 200 ppt.

  15. 一种新型材料电杆的设计研究%Design Study on the Telegraph Pole with New Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菊; 彭兴民

    2015-01-01

    solutions are output. Some concrete data is gained such as deflection, weight of the telegraph poles, maximal stress of steel bar and concrete, steel content of the two different concrete telegraph poles. The data comparison has been analyzed, the result obviously indicates that the telegraph pole that is made of reactive powder concrete is superior to the common concrete telegraph pole in some aspects by the analysis and comparison of the last data. As far as the application of project is concerned, this will have definite referenced value.

  16. Semantics of Temporal Models with Multiple Temporal Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    Semantics of temporal models with multi temporal dimensions are examined progressing from non-temporal models unto uni-temporal, and further unto bi- and tri-temporal models. An example of a uni-temporal model is the valid time model, an example of a bi-temporal model is the valid time/transactio......Semantics of temporal models with multi temporal dimensions are examined progressing from non-temporal models unto uni-temporal, and further unto bi- and tri-temporal models. An example of a uni-temporal model is the valid time model, an example of a bi-temporal model is the valid time....../transaction time model, and finally an example of a tri-temporal model is a model with valid time, decision time and transaction time dimensions. The semantics are at first specified at the highest conceptual level possible by a graphical notation. Next, the conceptual models are translated into lower level models...

  17. Human temporal lobe activation by speech and nonspeech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, J R; Frost, J A; Hammeke, T A; Bellgowan, P S; Springer, J A; Kaufman, J N; Possing, E T

    2000-05-01

    Functional organization of the lateral temporal cortex in humans is not well understood. We recorded blood oxygenation signals from the temporal lobes of normal volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging during stimulation with unstructured noise, frequency-modulated (FM) tones, reversed speech, pseudowords and words. For all conditions, subjects performed a material-nonspecific detection response when a train of stimuli began or ceased. Dorsal areas surrounding Heschl's gyrus bilaterally, particularly the planum temporale and dorsolateral superior temporal gyrus, were more strongly activated by FM tones than by noise, suggesting a role in processing simple temporally encoded auditory information. Distinct from these dorsolateral areas, regions centered in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally were more activated by speech stimuli than by FM tones. Identical results were obtained in this region using words, pseudowords and reversed speech, suggesting that the speech-tones activation difference is due to acoustic rather than linguistic factors. In contrast, previous comparisons between word and nonword speech sounds showed left-lateralized activation differences in more ventral temporal and temporoparietal regions that are likely involved in processing lexical-semantic or syntactic information associated with words. The results indicate functional subdivision of the human lateral temporal cortex and provide a preliminary framework for understanding the cortical processing of speech sounds.

  18. Discrete spatial solitons formed in periodically poled lithium niobate by electro-optical effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Gu (顾希); Xianfeng Chen (陈险峰); Yuping Chen (陈玉萍); Yuxing Xia (夏宇兴); Yingli Chen (陈英礼)

    2003-01-01

    We report the numerical observation of discrete spatial solitons in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide array by applying an electrical field through electro-optical effect. We show that discrete spatial soliton can be controlled by applied voltage in the periodically poled lithium niobate.

  19. 49 CFR 234.243 - Wire on pole line and aerial cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.243 Wire on pole line and aerial cable. Wire... transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts or more shall be placed not less than 4 feet above the... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire on pole line and aerial cable....

  20. Measuring the Electro-Optic Coefficients of Bulk-poled Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    mixture of PMMA and chromophore was dissolved in a common solvent (acetone) and cast into an aluminum tray (45 mm diameter). As the solvent evaporated...smooth surfaces were impressed upon the polymer 6 Figure 3. Poling clamp open, showing polymer plaques (top); poling clamp closed (bottom

  1. Risk Management in the Original Extreme Sporting Event: The Pole Vault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, Jim; Hardin, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The pole vault was considered the ultimate test of physical ability and daring before the advent of modern extreme sports such as skateboarding, snowboarding, and mountain biking. The inherent risks of the pole vault have been well documented. The National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research reported in 2007 that the catastrophic injury…

  2. The practice of pole dance as a leisure activity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andorra Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the how pole dance is practiced as a form of leisure activity in Denmark. The methodical approach is qualitative and inspired by ethnography. I have conducted a field study where I have observed and participated in the pole dance culture in Copenhagen from May...

  3. Least 1-Norm Pole-Zero Modeling with Sparse Deconvolution for Speech Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Liming; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2017-01-01

    . Moreover, to consider the spiky excitation form of the pulse train during voiced speech, the modeling parame- ters and sparse residuals are estimated in an iterative fashion using a least 1-norm pole-zero with sparse deconvolution algorithm. Com- pared with the conventional two-stage least squares pole...

  4. Advances in temporal logic

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham

    2000-01-01

    Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...

  5. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Temporal steering is a form of temporal correlation between the initial and final state of a quantum system. It is a temporal analogue of the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (spatial) steering. We demonstrate, by measuring the photon polarization, that temporal steering allows two parties to verify if they have been interacting with the same particle, even if they have no information about what happened with the particle in between the measurements. This is the first experimental study of temporal steering. We also performed experimental tests, based on the violation of temporal steering inequalities, of the security of two quantum key distribution protocols against individual attacks. Thus, these results can lead to applications for secure quantum communications and quantum engineering. PMID:27901121

  6. Computational temporal ghost imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Devaux, Fabrice; Denis, Severine; Lantz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a very simple device, inspired by computational ghost imaging, that allows the re- trieval of a single non-reproducible, periodic or non-periodic, temporal signal. The reconstruction is performed by a single shot, spatially multiplexed, measurement of the spatial intensity correlations between computer-generated random images and the images modulated by the temporal signal, recorded and summed on a chip CMOS camera used with no temporal resolution.

  7. Membrane recycling at the infranuclear pole of the outer hair cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasztosi, Csaba; Harasztosi, Emese; Gummer, Anthony W.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid endocytic activity of outer hair cells (OHCs) in the guinea-pig cochlea has been already studied using the fluorescent membrane marker FM1-43. It was demonstrated that vesicles were endocytosed at the apical pole of OHCs and transcytosed to the basolateral membrane and through a central strand towards the nucleus. The significance of endocytic activity in the infranuclear region is still not clear. Therefore, in this study endocytic activity at the synaptic pole of OHCs was investigated. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize dye uptake of OHCs isolated from the guinea-pig cochlea. Signal intensity changes were quantified in the apical and basal poles relative to the signal at the membrane. Data showed no significant difference in fluorescent signal intensity changes between the opposite poles of the OHC. These results suggest that endocytic activities in both the basal and the apical poles contribute equally to the membrane recycling of OHCs.

  8. FEM Analysis of Brushless DC Servomotor with Fractional Number of Slots per Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALUTA, G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors present in this paper the analysis with Finite Element Method (FEM of the magnetic circuit for a Brushless DC servomotor with fractional number of slots/pole (9 slots and 10 poles. For this purpose, FEMM 4.2 software package was used for the analysis. To obtain the waveforms of Back-ElectroMotive Forces (BEMFs, electromagnetic and cogging torque for servomotor a program in LUA scripting language (integrated into interactive shell of FEMM4.2 has been created. A comparation with a structure with integer number of slots/pole (18 slots and 6 poles was also realized. The analysis results prove that the structure chosen is an optimal solution: sinusoidal waveforms of BEMFs, improved electromagnetic torque and reduced cogging torque. Therefore, the operating characteristics of the servomotor with 9/10 slots/poles manufactured by Sistem Euroteh Company and included in an integrated electrical drives system are presented in this paper.

  9. Mentalizing and the Role of the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus in Sharing Others' Embarrassment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulus, Frieder Michel; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Jansen, Andreas; Gazzola, V.; Krach, Sören

    2015-01-01

    The experience of embarrassment provides a highly salient cue for the human moral apparatus. Interestingly, people also experience embarrassment on behalf of others' inappropriate conditions. The perceiver's embarrassment often lacks an equivalent expression of embarrassment in the social counterpar

  10. A Role for the Right Superior Temporal Sulcus in Categorical Perception of Musical Chords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mike E.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Categorical perception (CP) is a mechanism whereby non-identical stimuli that have the same underlying meaning become invariantly represented in the brain. Through behavioral identification and discrimination tasks, CP has been demonstrated to occur broadly across the auditory modality, including in perception of speech (e.g. phonemes) and music…

  11. Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Francine eFoo; David eKing-Stephens; Peter eWeber; Kenneth eLaxer; Josef eParvizi; Robert T Knight

    2016-01-01

    The auditory cortex is well-known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals di...

  12. Searching for Terrain Softening near Mercury's North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobian, P. S.; Vilas, F.; Lederer, S. M.; Barlow, N. G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, following the initial discovery of radar bright craters near both poles of Mercury measured the depth-todiameter (d/D) ratios of 170 impact craters in Mariner 10 images covering four different regions on Mercury s surface. Rapid softening of crater structure, indicated by lower d/D ratios, could indicate the possibility of subsurface water ice in Mercury's terrain originating from an internal source in the planet. Their study included 3 specific radar bright craters suggested to contain ice. They concluded that no terrain softening was apparent, and a rapidly emplaced exogenic water source was the most likely source for the proposed ice in these craters. Recent radar observations of the Mercurian North pole have pinpointed many additional radar bright areas with a resolution 10x better than previous radar measurements, and which correlate with craters imaged by Mariner 10. These craters are correlated with regions that are permanently shaded from direct sunlight, and are consistent with observations of clean water ice. We have expanded the initial study by Barlow et al. to include d/D measurements of 12 craters newly identified as radar bright at latitudes poleward of +80o. The radar reflectivity resemblances to Mars south polar cap and echoes from three icy Galilean satellites suggest that these craters too may have polar ice on Mercury. The effect of subsurface H20 on impact craters is a decrease in its d/D ratio, and softening of crater rims over a period of time. The study of Barlow et al., focused on determining the d/D ratios of 170 impact craters in the Borealis (north polar), Tolstoj (equatorial), Kuiper (equatorial), and Bach (south polar) quadrangles. This work focuses on the newly discovered radar bright craters, investigating their d/D ratios as an expansion of the earlier work..We compare our results to the statistical results from Barlow et al. here. With the upcoming Messenger spacecraft mission to Mercury, this is an especially timely study

  13. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    Since the emergence of the practice turn in social sciences (Golsorkhi et al. 2010), studies have shown a number of institutionally relevant aspects as achievements across time and by means of various resources (human and non-human) (Taylor & van Every 2000, Cooren et al. 2006). Such a process view...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...... are shaped, (re)confirmed and re-evaluated. This paper pursues the better understanding of the latter aspect by looking at one substantial and recurrent activity in PAIs: the evaluation of employee performance. One resource for doing the evaluation work is making assessments (e.g. Goodwin & Goodwin, 1987...

  14. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold...... for perception of words, or a higher speed of processing for words than letters. We have investigated the WSE using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention. In an experiment using single stimuli (words or letters) presented centrally, we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual...... processing speed: words are simply processed faster than single letters. It is also clear from this experiment, that the word superiority effect can be observed at a large range of exposure durations, from the perceptual threshold to ceiling performance. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented...

  15. Resolution of superior oblique myokymia with memantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Saurabh; Farooq, Shegufta J; Gottlob, Irene

    2008-02-01

    We describe a novel treatment of superior oblique myokymia. A 40-year-old woman was treated with gabapentin for this disorder with partial success and reported significant side effects including loss of libido and weight gain. After a drug holiday, memantine therapy was initiated resulting in a substantial improvement in her symptoms with far fewer side effects and stability on long-term maintenance therapy.

  16. Locked Superior Dislocation of the Acromioclavicular Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Eltoum Elamin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acromioclavicular (AC joint injuries account for approximately 3–5% of shoulder girdle injuries (Rockwood et al., 1998. Depending on severity of injury and direction of displacement these are classified using Rockwood classification system for AC joint dislocation. We present an unusual case presenting with locked superior dislocation of the AC joint highlighting the presentation and subsequent successful surgical management of such case. To our knowledge this has not been reported previously in literature.

  17. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  18. Temporal properties of stereopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gheorghiu, E.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate temporal properties of disparity processing and depth perception in human subjects, in response to dynamic stimuli. The results presented in various chapters, reporting findings about different temporal aspects of disparity

  19. Approximate Qualitative Temporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Bettini, X. Wang, and S. Jajodia. A general framework for time granularity and its application to temporal reasoning. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial...Temporal representation and reasoning in artificial intelligence: Issues and approaches. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 28, 2000...Quantum mereotopology. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelli- gence, to appear. [42] A. C. Varzi. On the boundary between mereology and topology

  20. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.