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Sample records for superior parietal lobe

  1. Xenomelia: a new right parietal lobe syndrome.

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    McGeoch, Paul D; Brang, David; Song, Tao; Lee, Roland R; Huang, Mingxiong; Ramachandran, V S

    2011-12-01

    Damage to the right parietal lobe has long been associated with various disorders of body image. The authors have recently suggested that an unusual behavioural condition in which otherwise rational individuals desire the amputation of a healthy limb might also arise from right parietal dysfunction. Four subjects who desired the amputation of healthy legs (two right, one left and one, at first, bilateral and then left only) were recruited and underwent magnetoencephalography (MEG) scans during tactile stimulation of sites above and below the desired amputation line. Regions of interest (ROIs) in each hemisphere (superior parietal lobule (SPL), inferior parietal lobule, S1, M1, insula, premotor cortex and precuneus) were defined using FreeSurfer software. Analysis of average MEG activity across the 40-140 ms post-stimulation timeframe was carried out using an unpaired t test. This revealed significantly reduced activation only in the right SPL ROI for the subjects' affected legs when compared with both subjects' unaffected legs and that of controls. The right SPL is a cortical area that appears ideally placed to unify disparate sensory inputs to create a coherent sense of having a body. The authors propose that inadequate activation of the right SPL leads to the unnatural situation in which the sufferers can feel the limb in question being touched without it actually incorporating into their body image, with a resulting desire for amputation. The authors introduce the term 'xenomelia' as a more appropriate name than apotemnophilia or body integrity identity disorder, for what appears to be an unrecognised right parietal lobe syndrome.

  2. The mirror mechanism in the parietal lobe.

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    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Rozzi, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The mirror mechanism is a basic mechanism that transforms sensory representations of others' actions into motor representations of the same actions in the brain of the observer. The mirror mechanism plays an important role in understanding actions of others. In the present chapter we discuss first the basic organization of the posterior parietal lobe in the monkey, stressing that it is best characterized as a motor scaffold, on the top of which sensory information is organized. We then describe the location of the mirror mechanism in the posterior parietal cortex of the monkey, and its functional role in areas PFG, and anterior, ventral, and lateral intraparietal areas. We will then present evidence that a similar functional organization is present in humans. We will conclude by discussing the role of the mirror mechanism in the recognition of action performed with tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of explicit memory cues following parietal lobe lesions.

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    Dobbins, Ian G; Jaeger, Antonio; Studer, Bettina; Simons, Jon S

    2012-11-01

    The putative role of the lateral parietal lobe in episodic memory has recently become a topic of considerable debate, owing primarily to its consistent activation for studied materials during functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of recognition. Here we examined the performance of patients with parietal lobe lesions using an explicit memory cueing task in which probabilistic cues ("Likely Old" or "Likely New"; 75% validity) preceded the majority of verbal recognition memory probes. Without cues, patients and control participants did not differ in accuracy. However, group differences emerged during the "Likely New" cue condition with controls responding more accurately than parietal patients when these cues were valid (preceding new materials) and trending towards less accuracy when these cues were invalid (preceding old materials). Both effects suggest insufficient integration of external cues into memory judgments on the part of the parietal patients whose cued performance largely resembled performance in the complete absence of cues. Comparison of the parietal patients to a patient group with frontal lobe lesions suggested the pattern was specific to parietal and adjacent area lesions. Overall, the data indicate that parietal lobe patients fail to appropriately incorporate external cues of novelty into recognition attributions. This finding supports a role for the lateral parietal lobe in the adaptive biasing of memory judgments through the integration of external cues and internal memory evidence. We outline the importance of such adaptive biasing through consideration of basic signal detection predictions regarding maximum possible accuracy with and without informative environmental cues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Temporal order processing of syllables in the left parietal lobe.

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    Moser, Dana; Baker, Julie M; Sanchez, Carmen E; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2009-10-07

    Speech processing requires the temporal parsing of syllable order. Individuals suffering from posterior left hemisphere brain injury often exhibit temporal processing deficits as well as language deficits. Although the right posterior inferior parietal lobe has been implicated in temporal order judgments (TOJs) of visual information, there is limited evidence to support the role of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in processing syllable order. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the left inferior parietal lobe is recruited during temporal order judgments of speech stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected on 14 normal participants while they completed the following forced-choice tasks: (1) syllable order of multisyllabic pseudowords, (2) syllable identification of single syllables, and (3) gender identification of both multisyllabic and monosyllabic speech stimuli. Results revealed increased neural recruitment in the left inferior parietal lobe when participants made judgments about syllable order compared with both syllable identification and gender identification. These findings suggest that the left inferior parietal lobe plays an important role in processing syllable order and support the hypothesized role of this region as an interface between auditory speech and the articulatory code. Furthermore, a breakdown in this interface may explain some components of the speech deficits observed after posterior damage to the left hemisphere.

  5. Kinesthetic alexia due to left parietal lobe lesions.

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    Ihori, Nami; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Araki, Shigeo; Kawachi, Juro

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the neuropsychological mechanisms of kinesthetic alexia, we asked 7 patients who showed kinesthetic alexia with preserved visual reading after damage to the left parietal region to perform tasks consisting of kinesthetic written reproduction (writing down the same letter as the kinesthetic stimulus), kinesthetic reading aloud, visual written reproduction (copying letters), and visual reading aloud of hiragana (Japanese phonograms). We compared the performance in these tasks and the lesion sites in each patient. The results suggested that deficits in any one of the following functions might cause kinesthetic alexia: (1) the retrieval of kinesthetic images (motor engrams) of characters from kinesthetic stimuli, (2) kinesthetic images themselves, (3) access to cross-modal association from kinesthetic images, and (4) cross-modal association itself (retrieval of auditory and visual images from kinesthetic images of characters). Each of these factors seemed to be related to different lesion sites in the left parietal lobe. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Short parietal lobe connections of the human and monkey brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catani, Marco; Robertsson, Naianna; Beyh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    projections were reconstructed for both species and results compared to identify similarities or differences in tract anatomy (i.e., trajectories and cortical projections). In addition, post-mortem dissections were performed in a human brain. The largest tract identified in both human and monkey brains...... and angular gyri of the inferior parietal lobule in humans but only to the supramarginal gyrus in the monkey brain. The third tract connects the postcentral gyrus to the anterior region of the superior parietal lobule and is more prominent in monkeys compared to humans. Finally, short U-shaped fibres...... and monkeys with some differences for those areas that have cytoarchitectonically distinct features in humans. The overall pattern of intraparietal connectivity supports the special role of the inferior parietal lobule in cognitive functions characteristic of humans....

  7. Gyri of the human parietal lobe: Volumes, spatial extents, automatic labelling, and probabilistic atlases.

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    Heather M Wild

    Full Text Available Accurately describing the anatomy of individual brains enables interlaboratory communication of functional and developmental studies and is crucial for possible surgical interventions. The human parietal lobe participates in multimodal sensory integration including language processing and also contains the primary somatosensory area. We describe detailed protocols to subdivide the parietal lobe, analyze morphological and volumetric characteristics, and create probabilistic atlases in MNI152 stereotaxic space. The parietal lobe was manually delineated on 3D T1 MR images of 30 healthy subjects and divided into four regions: supramarginal gyrus (SMG, angular gyrus (AG, superior parietal lobe (supPL and postcentral gyrus (postCG. There was the expected correlation of male gender with larger brain and intracranial volume. We examined a wide range of anatomical features of the gyri and the sulci separating them. At least a rudimentary primary intermediate sulcus of Jensen (PISJ separating SMG and AG was identified in nearly all (59/60 hemispheres. Presence of additional gyri in SMG and AG was related to sulcal features and volumetric characteristics. The parietal lobe was slightly (2% larger on the left, driven by leftward asymmetries of the postCG and SMG. Intersubject variability was highest for SMG and AG, and lowest for postCG. Overall the morphological characteristics tended to be symmetrical, and volumes also tended to covary between hemispheres. This may reflect developmental as well as maturation factors. To assess the accuracy with which the labels can be used to segment newly acquired (unlabelled T1-weighted brain images, we applied multi-atlas label propagation software (MAPER in a leave-one-out experiment and compared the resulting automatic labels with the manually prepared ones. The results showed strong agreement (mean Jaccard index 0.69, corresponding to a mean Dice index of 0.82, average mean volume error of 0.6%. Stereotaxic

  8. Visuo-spatial construction in patients with frontal and parietal lobe lesions

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    Himani Kashyap

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial construction, traditionally viewed as a putative parietal function, also requires sustained attention, planning, organization strategies and error correction, and hence frontal lobe mediation. The relative contributions of the frontal and parietal lobes are poorly understood. To examine the contributions of parietal, frontal lobes, as well as right and left cerebral hemispheres to visuospatial construction. The Stick Construction Test for two-dimensional construction and the Block Construction Test for three-dimensional construction were administered pre-surgically to patients with lesions in the parietal lobe (n =9 and the frontal lobe (n=11, along with normal control subjects (n =20 matched to the patients on age (+/- 3 years, gender, education (+/- 3 years and handedness. The patients were significantly slower than the controls on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests. Patients with parietal lesions were slower than those with frontal lesions on the test of three-dimensional construction. Within each lobe patients with right and left sided lesions did not differ significantly. It appears that tests of three-dimensional construction might be most sensitive to visuospatial construction deficits. Visuospatial construction involves the mediation of both frontal and parietal lobes. The function does not appear to be lateralized. The networks arising from the parieto-occipital areas and projecting to the frontal cortices (e.g., occipito-frontal fasciculus may be the basis of the mediation of both lobes in visuospatial construction. The present findings need replication from studies with larger sample sizes.

  9. Central and peripheral components of writing critically depend on a defined area of the dominant superior parietal gyrus.

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    Magrassi, Lorenzo; Bongetta, Daniele; Bianchini, Simonetta; Berardesca, Marta; Arienta, Cesare

    2010-07-30

    Classical neuropsychological models of writing separate central (linguistic) processes common to oral spelling, writing and typing from peripheral (motor) processes that are modality specific. Damage to the left superior parietal gyrus, an area of the cortex involved in peripheral processes specific to handwriting, should generate distorted graphemes but not misspelled words, while damage to other areas of the cortex like the frontal lobe should produce alterations in written and oral spelling without distorted graphemes. We describe the clinical and neuropsychological features of a patient with combined agraphia for handwriting and typewriting bearing a small glioblastoma in the left parietal lobe. His agraphia resolved after antiedema therapy and we tested by bipolar cortical stimulation his handwriting abilities during an awake neurosurgical procedure. We found that we could reversibly re-induce the same defects of writing by stimulating during surgery a limited area of the superior parietal gyrus in the same patient and in an independent patient that was never agraphic before the operation. In those patients stimulation caused spelling errors, poorly formed letters and in some cases a complete cessation of writing with minimal or no effects on oral spelling. Our results suggest that stimulating a specific area in the superior parietal gyrus we can generate different patterns of agraphia. Moreover, our findings also suggest that some of the central processes specific for typing and handwriting converge with motor processes at least in the limited portion of the superior parietal gyrus we mapped in our patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effects of Maternal Hyperthyroidism on Histologic Changes in Parietal Lobe in Rat Embryos

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    Fatemeh Mirsafi; Gholamreza Kaka; Mahnaz Azarnia

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal hyperthyroidism causes developmental defects on the nervous system of fetuses. Objectives The present study was designed to study the effects of maternal hyperthyroidism on the development of the parietal lobe in the brain of rat embryos. Methods In this experimental study, thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. The control group rec...

  11. [Successive subcortical hemorrhages in the superior parietal lobule and postcentral gyrus in a 23-year-old female].

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    Sato, K; Yoshikawa, H; Komai, K; Takamori, M

    1998-04-01

    We report a non-hypertensive 23-year-old female with successive hemorrhages in parietal subcortical regions. She had first experienced a transient pain in the left upper extremity one month before admission. She noticed dysesthesia in the same limb and weakness on her left hand, and, five days after, visited our hospital because of suddenly developed convulsion in the limb and loss of consciousness for a few minutes. Neurological examination revealed distal dominant flaccid paresis, positive pathological reflex and touch and position sense disturbances in the affected limb. Brain CT detected two high-density areas in the parietal lobe. Brain MRI demonstrated an acute phase subcortical hematoma in the left postcentral gyrus and a subacute phase one in the left superior parietal lobule. SPECT indicated hypoperfusion in the left frontal and parietal cortex. Cerebral angiography showed no abnormal findings. Her symptoms gradually improved, but left ulnar-type pseudoradicular sensory impairment remained on discharge. We considered the hemorrhage in this patient have arisen from rupture of cavernous hemangioma, because she was relatively young, the hematomas were oval in shape and successively developed in the left parietal lobe. Our patient suggests that a subcortical hemorrhage in the post-central gyrus causes flaccid paresis and pyramidal tract involvement.

  12. Metabolic Hyperactivity of the Medial Posterior Parietal Lobes in Psychogenic Tremor

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    Peter Hedera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathophysiology of psychogenic movement disorders, including psychogenic tremor (PT, is only emerging. Case Report: This is a single case report of a patient who met diagnostic criteria for PT. He underwent positron emission tomography (PET of brain with 18F-deoxyglucose at resting state. His PET study showed symmetrically increased 18F-deoxyglucose uptake in both posterior medial parietal lobes. There was no corresponding abnormality on structural imaging. Discussion: Hypermetabolism of the medial aspects of posterior parietal lobes bilaterally may reflect abnormal activity of sensory integration that is important in the pathogenesis of PT. This further supports the idea that non-organic movement disorders may be associated with detectable functional brain abnormalities.

  13. Multimodal responses induced by cortical stimulation of the parietal lobe: a stereo-electroencephalography study.

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    Balestrini, Simona; Francione, Stefano; Mai, Roberto; Castana, Laura; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Marino, Daniela; Provinciali, Leandro; Cardinale, Francesco; Tassi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The functional complexity of the parietal lobe still represents a challenge for neurophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies. While the somatosensory functions of the anterior parietal cortex are well established, the posterior parietal cortex has a relevant role in processing the sensory information, including visuo-spatial perception, visual attention, visuo-motor transformations and other complex and not completely understood functions. We retrospectively analysed all the clinical manifestations induced by intracerebral bipolar electrical stimulation in 172 patients suffering from drug-resistant focal epilepsy (mean age 25.6, standard deviation 11.6; 44% females and 56% males) with at least one electrode stereotactically implanted in the parietal cortex. A total of 1186 electrical stimulations were included in the analysis, of which 88 were subsequently excluded because of eliciting pathological electric activity or inducing ictal symptomatology. In the dominant parietal lobe, clinical responses were observed for 56 (25%) of the low-frequency stimulations and for 76 (50%) of the high-frequency stimulations. In the non-dominant parietal lobe, 111 (27%) low-frequency and 176 (55%) high-frequency stimulations were associated with a clinical response. Body scheme alteration was the only clinical effect showing a lateralization, as they were evoked only in the non-dominant hemisphere. The occurrence of somatosensory sensations, motor symptoms, dysarthria and multimodal responses were significantly associated with stimulation of the postcentral gyrus (odds ratio: 5.83, P < 0.001; odds ratio: 8.77, P < 0.001; odds ratio: 5.44, P = 0.011; odds ratio: 8.33, P = 0.006; respectively). Stimulation of the intraparietal sulcus was associated with the occurrence of sensory illusions or hallucinations (odds ratio: 8.68, P < 0.001) and eyeball/eyelid movements or sensations (odds ratio: 4.35, P = 0.047). To our knowledge, this is the only currently available complete

  14. Acute parietal lobe infarction presenting as Gerstmann’s syndrome and cognitive decline mimicking senile dementia

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    Chen TY

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tien-Yu Chen,1 Chun-Yen Chen,1,3 Che-Hung Yen,2,3 Shin-Chang Kuo,1,3 Yi-Wei Yeh,1,3 Serena Chang,1 San-Yuan Huang1,31Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Neurology, Tri-Service General Hospital, School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, 3Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaAbstract: Gerstmann’s syndrome encompasses the tetrad of finger agnosia, agraphia, acalculia, and right-left confusion. An elderly man with a history of several cardiovascular diseases was initially brought to the psychiatric outpatient department by his family because of worsening of recent memory, executive function, and mixed anxious-depressive mood. Gerstmann’s syndrome without obvious motor function impairment and dementia-like features could be observed at first. Emergent brain computed tomography scan revealed new left-middle cerebral artery infarction over the left posterior parietal lobe. This case reminds us that acute cerebral infarction involving the parietal lobe may present as Gerstmann’s syndrome accompanied by cognitive decline mimicking dementia. As a result, emergent organic workups should be arranged, especially for elderly patients at high risk for cerebral vascular accident.Keywords: Gerstmann’s syndrome, dementia, parietal lobe infarction

  15. Differential Medial Temporal Lobe and Parietal Cortical Contributions to Real-world Autobiographical Episodic and Autobiographical Semantic Memory.

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    Brown, Thackery I; Rissman, Jesse; Chow, Tiffany E; Uncapher, Melina R; Wagner, Anthony D

    2018-04-18

    Autobiographical remembering can depend on two forms of memory: episodic (event) memory and autobiographical semantic memory (remembering personally relevant semantic knowledge, independent of recalling a specific experience). There is debate about the degree to which the neural signals that support episodic recollection relate to or build upon autobiographical semantic remembering. Pooling data from two fMRI studies of memory for real-world personal events, we investigated whether medial temporal lobe (MTL) and parietal subregions contribute to autobiographical episodic and semantic remembering. During scanning, participants made memory judgments about photograph sequences depicting past events from their life or from others' lives, and indicated whether memory was based on episodic or semantic knowledge. Results revealed several distinct functional patterns: activity in most MTL subregions was selectively associated with autobiographical episodic memory; the hippocampal tail, superior parietal lobule, and intraparietal sulcus were similarly engaged when memory was based on retrieval of an autobiographical episode or autobiographical semantic knowledge; and angular gyrus demonstrated a graded pattern, with activity declining from autobiographical recollection to autobiographical semantic remembering to correct rejections of novel events. Collectively, our data offer insights into MTL and parietal cortex functional organization, and elucidate circuitry that supports different forms of real-world autobiographical memory.

  16. Noninvasive brain stimulation of the parietal lobe for improving neurologic, neuropsychologic, and neuropsychiatric deficits.

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    Bolognini, Nadia; Miniussi, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electric stimulation (tES) are noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) tools that are now widely used in neuroscientific research in humans. The fact that both TMS and tES are able to modulate brain plasticity and, in turn, affect behavior is opening up new horizons in the treatment of brain circuit and plasticity disorders. In the present chapter, we will first provide the reader with a brief background on the basic principles of NIBS, describing the electromagnetic and physical foundations of TMS and tES, as well as the current knowledge of the neurophysiologic basis of their effects on brain activity and plasticity. In the main part, we will outline studies aimed at improving persistent symptoms and deficits in patients suffering from neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders featured by dysfunction of the parietal lobe. The emerging view is that NIBS of parietal areas holds the promise to overcome various sensory, motor, and cognitive disorders that are often refractory to standard medical or behavioral therapies. The chapter closes with an outlook on further developments in this realm, discussing novel therapeutic approaches that could lead to more effective rehabilitation procedures, better suited for the specific parietal lobe dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Recency Effects in the Inferior Parietal Lobe during Verbal Recognition Memory

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    Bradley Russell Buchsbaum

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The most recently encountered information is often most easily remembered in psychological tests of memory. Recent investigations of the neural basis of such recency effects have shown that activation in the lateral inferior parietal cortex (LIPC tracks the recency of a probe item when subjects make recognition memory judgments. A key question regarding recency effects in the LIPC is whether they fundamentally reflect the storage (and strength of information in memory, or whether such effects are a consequence of task difficulty or an upswing in resting state network activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI we show that recency effects in the LIPC are independent of the difficulty of recognition memory decisions, that they are not a by-product of an increase in resting state network activity, and that they appear to dissociate from regions known to be involved in verbal working memory maintenance. We conclude with a discussion of two alternative explanations – the memory strength and expectancy hypotheses, respectively -- of the parietal lobe recency effect.

  18. The Effects of Maternal Hyperthyroidism on Histologic Changes in Parietal Lobe in Rat Embryos

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    Fatemeh Mirsafi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Maternal hyperthyroidism causes developmental defects on the nervous system of fetuses. Objectives The present study was designed to study the effects of maternal hyperthyroidism on the development of the parietal lobe in the brain of rat embryos. Methods In this experimental study, thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. The control group received no injections, the sham group received intraperitoneal injections of distilled water solution containing salt and polysorbate (solvent of levothyroxine, and the experimental group received once-daily, intraperitoneal injections of 0.5 mg/kg levothyroxine for a 10-day period to become hyperthyroid rats. The hyperthyroid rats were then mated, and all pregnant rats were killed on the 20th day of gestation. Fetuses were removed, fixed, and processed for histological procedures. The fetuses were sagitally sectioned at 5 µ thickness and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H and E technique. The sections were examined using a light microscope and Motic software. Results The results showed no significant difference in the studied variables between the sham and control groups. A significantly increase in body weight and a significant decrease in crown-rump length of embryos was observed in the experimental group when compared to the control group. The mean total thickness of the parietal cortex, ventricular layer, and intermediate layer of embryos showed a significant decrease in the experimental group compared to the control and sham groups. The mean number of cells also showed a significant decrease in the intermediate and ventricular layers in the experimental group compared to the control and sham groups. Conclusions This study showed that maternal hyperthyroidism leads to a reduction in development of the parietal cortex in embryos. Maternal hyperthyroidism can disturb the growth and development of embryos.

  19. Sustained attention is associated with right superior longitudinal fasciculus and superior parietal white matter microstructure in children

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    Klarborg, Brith; Skak Madsen, Kathrine; Vestergaard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sustained attention develops during childhood and has been linked to the right fronto-parietal cortices in functional imaging studies; however, less is known about its relation to white matter (WM) characteristics. Here we investigated whether the microstructure of the WM underlying and connecting...... the right fronto-parietal cortices was associated with sustained attention performance in a group of 76 typically developing children aged 7-13 years. Sustained attention was assessed using a rapid visual information processing paradigm. The two behavioral measures of interest were the sensitivity index d......' and the coefficient of variation in reaction times (RT(CV) ). Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was extracted from the WM underlying right dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and parietal cortex (PC), and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), as well as equivalent...

  20. Human middle longitudinal fascicle: segregation and behavioral-clinical implications of two distinct fiber connections linking temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus with the angular gyrus or superior parietal lobule using multi-tensor tractography.

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    Makris, N; Preti, M G; Wassermann, D; Rathi, Y; Papadimitriou, G M; Yergatian, C; Dickerson, B C; Shenton, M E; Kubicki, M

    2013-09-01

    The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a major fiber connection running principally between the superior temporal gyrus and the parietal lobe, neocortical regions of great biological and clinical interest. Although one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts, it has only recently been discovered in humans. In this high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delineated the two major fiber connections of the human MdLF, by examining morphology, topography, cortical connections, biophysical measures, volume and length in seventy-four brains. These two fiber connections course together through the dorsal temporal pole and the superior temporal gyrus maintaining a characteristic topographic relationship in the mediolateral and ventrodorsal dimensions. As these pathways course towards the parietal lobe, they split to form separate fiber pathways, one following a ventrolateral trajectory and connecting with the angular gyrus and the other following a dorsomedial route and connecting with the superior parietal lobule. Based on the functions of their cortical affiliations, we suggest that the superior temporal-angular connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)AG plays a role in language and attention, whereas the superior temporal-superior parietal connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)SPL is involved in visuospatial and integrative audiovisual functions. Furthermore, the MdLF may have clinical implications in neurodegenerative disorders such as primary progressive aphasia, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy, corticobulbar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease as well as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia.

  1. Visual processing of multiple elements in the dyslexic brain: evidence for a superior parietal dysfunction

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    Muriel Anne Lobier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The visual attention (VA span deficit hypothesis of developmental dyslexia posits that impaired multiple element processing can be responsible for poor reading outcomes. In VA span impaired dyslexic children, poor performance on letter report tasks is associated with reduced parietal activations for multiple letter processing. While this hints towards a non-specific, attention-based dysfunction, it is still unclear whether reduced parietal activity generalizes to other types of stimuli. Furthermore, putative links between reduced parietal activity and reduced ventral occipito-temporal (vOT in dyslexia have yet to be explored. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in 12 VA span impaired dyslexic adults and 12 adult skilled readers while they carried out a categorization task on single or multiple alphanumeric or non-alphanumeric characters. While healthy readers activated parietal areas more strongly for multiple than single element processing (right-sided for alphanumeric and bilateral for non-alphanumeric, similar stronger multiple element right parietal activations were absent for dyslexic participants. Contrasts between skilled and dyslexic readers revealed significantly reduced right superior parietal lobule (SPL activity for dyslexic readers regardless of stimuli type. Using a priori anatomically defined ROI, we showed that neural activity was reduced for dyslexic participants in both SPL and vOT bilaterally. Finally, we used multiple regressions to test whether SPL activity could predict vOT activity in each group. In the left hemisphere, SPL activity modulated vOT activity for both normal and dyslexic readers. In contrast, in the right hemisphere, SPL activity modulated vOT activity only for dyslexic readers. These results bring critical support to the visual attention interpretation of the VA Span deficit. In addition, they offer a new insight on how deficits in automatic vOT based word recognition could arise in developmental dyslexia.

  2. CT evaluation of decrease in attenuation in the superior segment of the left lower lobe

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    Inaoka, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koji; Ono, Hidetoshi

    2003-01-01

    We occasionally see decrease in attenuation in the superior segment of the left lower lobe on normal chest CT and notice that this finding could be seen in elder population. Then, we assessed the frequency, age distribution and cause of decrease in attenuation in the superior segment of the left lower lobe. Chest CT scans of 246 patients without lung or cardiac disorders were retrospectively reviewed. Segmental low attenuation area in the superior segment of the left lower lobe was identified in 12 patients (4.9%), which were 65-92 years old with mean age of 77.2 years old. In all of them, chest CT demonstrated that the tortuous descending aorta compressed directly the superior segmental bronchus of the left lower lobe. It is concluded that the lateral tortuousity of the descending aorta could cause decrease in attenuation in the superior segment of the left lower lobe. (author)

  3. The Neuroanatomical Basis for Posterior Superior Parietal Lobule Control Lateralization of visuospatial Attention

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    Yan eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The right hemispheric dominance in visuospatial attention in human brain has been well established. Converging evidence has documented that ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC plays an important role in visuospatial attention. The role of dorsal PPC subregions, especially the superior parietal lobule (SPL in visuospatial attention is still controversial. In the current study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques to test the role of posterior SPL in visuospatial attention and to investigate the potential neuroanatomical basis for right hemisphere dominance in visuospatial function. TMS results unraveled that the right SPL predominantly mediated visuospatial attention compared to left SPL. Anatomical connections analyses between the posterior SPL and the intrahemispheric frontal subregions and the contralateral PPC revealed that right posterior SPL has stronger anatomical connections with the ipsilateral middle frontal gyrus, with the ipsilateral inferior frontal gyrus, and with contralateral PPC than that of the left posterior SPL. Furthermore, these asymmetric anatomical connections were closely related to behavioral performances. Our findings indicate that SPL plays a crucial role in regulating visuospatial attention, and dominance of visuospatial attention results from unbalanced interactions between the bilateral fronto-parietal networks and the interhemispheric parietal network.

  4. Temporo-Parietal and Fronto-Parietal Lobe Contributions to Theory of Mind and Executive Control: An fMRI Study of Verbal Jokes

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    Yu-Chen eChan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘Getting a joke’ always requires resolving an apparent incongruity but the particular cognitive operations called upon vary depending on the nature of the joke itself. Previous research has identified the primary neural correlates of the cognitive and affective processes called upon to respond to humor generally, but little work has been done on the substrates underlying the distinct cognitive operations required to comprehend particular joke types. This study explored the neural correlates of the cognitive processes required to successfully comprehend three joke types: bridging-inference jokes, exaggeration jokes and ambiguity jokes. For all joke types, the left dlPFC appeared to support common cognitive mechanisms, such as script-shifting, while the vACC was associated with affective appreciation. The temporo-parietal lobe (TPJ and MTG was associated with bridging-inference jokes, suggesting involvement of these regions with ‘theory of mind’ processing. The ventral fronto-parietal lobe (IPL and IFG was associated with both exaggeration and ambiguity jokes, suggesting that it supports executive control processes such as retrieval from episodic memory, self-awareness, and language-based decoding. The social-affective appreciation of verbal jokes was associated with activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC, and parahippocampal gyrus. These results allow a more precise account of the neural

  5. Exercise Training Increases Parietal Lobe Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Stroke: An Observational Study

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    Andrew D. Robertson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is increasingly recommended as an essential component of stroke rehabilitation, yet uncertainty remains with respect to its direct effect on the cerebral vasculature. The current study first demonstrated the repeatability of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in older adults with stroke, and then investigated the change in cerebrovascular function following a 6-month cardiovascular rehabilitation program. In the repeatability study, 12 participants at least 3 months post-stroke underwent two ASL imaging scans 1 month apart. In the prospective observational study, eight individuals underwent ASL imaging and aerobic fitness testing before and after a 6-month cardiovascular rehabilitation program. Cerebral blood flow (CBF and the spatial coefficient of variation of CBF (sCoV were quantified to characterize tissue-level perfusion and large cerebral artery transit time properties, respectively. In repeat scanning, intraclass correlation (ICC indicated moderate test-retest reliability for global gray matter CBF (ICC = 0.73 and excellent reliability for sCoV (ICC = 0.94. In the observational study, gray matter CBF increased after training (baseline: 40 ± 13 vs. 6-month: 46 ± 12 ml·100 g−1·min−1, P = 0.036. The greatest change occurred in the parietal lobe (+18 ± 12%. Gray matter sCoV, however, did not change following training (P = 0.31. This study provides preliminary evidence that exercise-based rehabilitation in chronic stroke enhances tissue-level perfusion, without changing the relative hemodynamic properties of the large cerebral arteries.

  6. Exercise Training Increases Parietal Lobe Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Stroke: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew D.; Marzolini, Susan; Middleton, Laura E.; Basile, Vincenzo S.; Oh, Paul I.; MacIntosh, Bradley J.

    2017-01-01

    Exercise is increasingly recommended as an essential component of stroke rehabilitation, yet uncertainty remains with respect to its direct effect on the cerebral vasculature. The current study first demonstrated the repeatability of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in older adults with stroke, and then investigated the change in cerebrovascular function following a 6-month cardiovascular rehabilitation program. In the repeatability study, 12 participants at least 3 months post-stroke underwent two ASL imaging scans 1 month apart. In the prospective observational study, eight individuals underwent ASL imaging and aerobic fitness testing before and after a 6-month cardiovascular rehabilitation program. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the spatial coefficient of variation of CBF (sCoV) were quantified to characterize tissue-level perfusion and large cerebral artery transit time properties, respectively. In repeat scanning, intraclass correlation (ICC) indicated moderate test-retest reliability for global gray matter CBF (ICC = 0.73) and excellent reliability for sCoV (ICC = 0.94). In the observational study, gray matter CBF increased after training (baseline: 40 ± 13 vs. 6-month: 46 ± 12 ml·100 g−1·min−1, P = 0.036). The greatest change occurred in the parietal lobe (+18 ± 12%). Gray matter sCoV, however, did not change following training (P = 0.31). This study provides preliminary evidence that exercise-based rehabilitation in chronic stroke enhances tissue-level perfusion, without changing the relative hemodynamic properties of the large cerebral arteries. PMID:29033829

  7. Does shape discrimination by the mouth activate the parietal and occipital lobes? - near-infrared spectroscopy study.

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    Tomonori Kagawa

    Full Text Available A cross-modal association between somatosensory tactile sensation and parietal and occipital activities during Braille reading was initially discovered in tests with blind subjects, with sighted and blindfolded healthy subjects used as controls. However, the neural background of oral stereognosis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether the parietal and occipital cortices are activated during shape discrimination by the mouth using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. Following presentation of the test piece shape, a sham discrimination trial without the test pieces induced posterior parietal lobe (BA7, extrastriate cortex (BA18, BA19, and striate cortex (BA17 activation as compared with the rest session, while shape discrimination of the test pieces markedly activated those areas as compared with the rest session. Furthermore, shape discrimination of the test pieces specifically activated the posterior parietal cortex (precuneus/BA7, extrastriate cortex (BA18, 19, and striate cortex (BA17, as compared with sham sessions without a test piece. We concluded that oral tactile sensation is recognized through tactile/visual cross-modal substrates in the parietal and occipital cortices during shape discrimination by the mouth.

  8. Modulation of Speech Motor Learning with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Inferior Parietal Lobe

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    Mickael L. D. Deroche

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The inferior parietal lobe (IPL is a region of the cortex believed to participate in speech motor learning. In this study, we investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the IPL could influence the extent to which healthy adults (1 adapted to a sensory alteration of their own auditory feedback, and (2 changed their perceptual representation. Seventy subjects completed three tasks: a baseline perceptual task that located the phonetic boundary between the vowels /e/ and /a/; a sensorimotor adaptation task in which subjects produced the word “head” under conditions of altered or unaltered feedback; and a post-adaptation perceptual task identical to the first. Subjects were allocated to four groups which differed in current polarity and feedback manipulation. Subjects who received anodal tDCS to their IPL (i.e., presumably increasing cortical excitability lowered their first formant frequency (F1 by 10% in opposition to the upward shift in F1 in their auditory feedback. Subjects who received the same stimulation with unaltered feedback did not change their production. Subjects who received cathodal tDCS to their IPL (i.e., presumably decreasing cortical excitability showed a 5% adaptation to the F1 alteration similar to subjects who received sham tDCS. A subset of subjects returned a few days later to reiterate the same protocol but without tDCS, enabling assessment of any facilitatory effects of the previous tDCS. All subjects exhibited a 5% adaptation effect. In addition, across all subjects and for the two recording sessions, the phonetic boundary was shifted toward the vowel /e/ being repeated, consistently with the selective adaptation effect, but a correlation between perception and production suggested that anodal tDCS had enhanced this perceptual shift. In conclusion, we successfully demonstrated that anodal tDCS could (1 enhance the motor adaptation to a sensory alteration, and (2 potentially affect the

  9. Differential contributions of the superior and inferior parietal cortex to feedback versus feedforward control of tools.

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    Macuga, Kristen L; Frey, Scott H

    2014-05-15

    Damage to the superior and/or inferior parietal lobules (SPL, IPL) (Sirigu et al., 1996) or cerebellum (Grealy and Lee, 2011) can selectively disrupt motor imagery, motivating the hypothesis that these regions participate in predictive (i.e., feedforward) control. If so, then the SPL, IPL, and cerebellum should show greater activity as the demands on feedforward control increase from visually-guided execution (closed-loop) to execution without visual feedback (open-loop) to motor imagery. Using fMRI and a Fitts' reciprocal aiming task with tools directed at targets in far space, we found that the SPL and cerebellum exhibited greater activity during closed-loop control. Conversely, open-loop and imagery conditions were associated with increased activity within the IPL and prefrontal areas. These results are consistent with a superior-to-inferior gradient in the representation of feedback-to-feedforward control within the posterior parietal cortex. Additionally, the anterior SPL displayed greater activity when aiming movements were performed with a stick vs. laser pointer. This may suggest that it is involved in the remapping of far into near (reachable) space (Maravita and Iriki, 2004), or in distalization of the end-effector from hand to stick (Arbib et al., 2009). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anatomical substrates of the alerting, orienting and executive control components of attention: focus on the posterior parietal lobe.

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    Xuntao Yin

    Full Text Available Both neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies have identified that the posterior parietal lobe (PPL is critical for the attention function. However, the unique role of distinct parietal cortical subregions and their underlying white matter (WM remains in question. In this study, we collected both magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data in normal participants, and evaluated their attention performance using attention network test (ANT, which could isolate three different attention components: alerting, orienting and executive control. Cortical thickness, surface area and DTI parameters were extracted from predefined PPL subregions and correlated with behavioural performance. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS was used for the voxel-wise statistical analysis. Results indicated structure-behaviour relationships on multiple levels. First, a link between the cortical thickness and WM integrity of the right inferior parietal regions and orienting performance was observed. Specifically, probabilistic tractography demonstrated that the integrity of WM connectivity between the bilateral inferior parietal lobules mediated the orienting performance. Second, the scores of executive control were significantly associated with the WM diffusion metrics of the right supramarginal gyrus. Finally, TBSS analysis revealed that alerting performance was significant correlated with the fractional anisotropy of local WM connecting the right thalamus and supplementary motor area. We conclude that distinct areas and features within PPL are associated with different components of attention. These findings could yield a more complete understanding of the nature of the PPL contribution to visuospatial attention.

  11. Visual Short-Term Memory Activity in Parietal Lobe Reflects Cognitive Processes beyond Attentional Selection.

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    Sheremata, Summer L; Somers, David C; Shomstein, Sarah

    2018-02-07

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and attention are distinct yet interrelated processes. While both require selection of information across the visual field, memory additionally requires the maintenance of information across time and distraction. VSTM recruits areas within human (male and female) dorsal and ventral parietal cortex that are also implicated in spatial selection; therefore, it is important to determine whether overlapping activation might reflect shared attentional demands. Here, identical stimuli and controlled sustained attention across both tasks were used to ask whether fMRI signal amplitude, functional connectivity, and contralateral visual field bias reflect memory-specific task demands. While attention and VSTM activated similar cortical areas, BOLD amplitude and functional connectivity in parietal cortex differentiated the two tasks. Relative to attention, VSTM increased BOLD amplitude in dorsal parietal cortex and decreased BOLD amplitude in the angular gyrus. Additionally, the tasks differentially modulated parietal functional connectivity. Contrasting VSTM and attention, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) 1-2 were more strongly connected with anterior frontoparietal areas and more weakly connected with posterior regions. This divergence between tasks demonstrates that parietal activation reflects memory-specific functions and consequently modulates functional connectivity across the cortex. In contrast, both tasks demonstrated hemispheric asymmetries for spatial processing, exhibiting a stronger contralateral visual field bias in the left versus the right hemisphere across tasks, suggesting that asymmetries are characteristic of a shared selection process in IPS. These results demonstrate that parietal activity and patterns of functional connectivity distinguish VSTM from more general attention processes, establishing a central role of the parietal cortex in maintaining visual information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and

  12. Differential roles of polar orbital prefrontal cortex and parietal lobes in logical reasoning with neutral and negative emotional content.

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    Eimontaite, Iveta; Goel, Vinod; Raymont, Vanessa; Krueger, Frank; Schindler, Igor; Grafman, Jordan

    2018-05-14

    To answer the question of how brain pathology affects reasoning about negative emotional content, we administered a disjunctive logical reasoning task involving arguments with neutral content (e.g. Either there are tigers or women in NYC, but not both; There are no tigers in NYC; There are women in NYC) and emotionally laden content (e.g. Either there are pedophiles or politicians in Texas, but not both; There are politicians in Texas; There are no pedophiles in Texas) to 92 neurological patients with focal lesions to various parts of the brain. A Voxel Lesion Symptom Mapping (VLSM) analysis identified 16 patients, all with lesions to the orbital polar prefrontal cortex (BA 10 & 11), as being selectively impaired in the emotional reasoning condition. Another 17 patients, all with lesions to the parietal cortex, were identified as being impaired in the neutral content condition. The reasoning scores of these two patient groups, along with 23 matched normal controls, underwent additional analysis to explore the effect of belief bias. This analysis revealed that the differences identified above were largely driven by trials where there was an incongruency between the believability of the conclusion and the validity of the argument (i.e. valid argument /false conclusion or invalid argument /true conclusion). Patients with lesions to polar orbital prefrontal cortex underperformed in incongruent emotional content trials and over performed in incongruent neutral content trials (compared to both normal controls and patients with parietal lobe lesions). Patients with lesions to parietal lobes underperformed normal controls (at a trend level) in neutral trials where there was a congruency between the believability of the conclusion and the validity of the argument (i.e. valid argument/true conclusion or invalid argument/false conclusion). We conclude that lesions to the polar orbital prefrontal cortex (i) prevent these patients from enjoying any emotionally induced cognitive

  13. Parietal Lobe Volume Deficits in Adolescents with Schizophrenia and Adolescents with Cannabis Use Disorders

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    Kumra, Sanjiv; Robinson, Paul; Tambyraja, Rabindra; Jensen, Daniel; Schimunek, Caroline; Houri, Alaa; Reis, Tiffany; Lim, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), the earliest structural brain volumetric abnormalities appear in the parietal cortices. Early exposure to cannabis may represent an environmental risk factor for developing schizophrenia. This study characterized cerebral cortical gray matter structure in adolescents in regions of interest (ROIs) that…

  14. The Role of the Parietal Lobe in Visual Extinction Studied with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

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    Battelli, Lorella; Alvarez, George A.; Carlson, Thomas; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    Interhemispheric competition between homologous areas in the human brain is believed to be involved in a wide variety of human behaviors from motor activity to visual perception and particularly attention. For example, patients with lesions in the posterior parietal cortex are unable to selectively track objects in the contralesional side of…

  15. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

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    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A. [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Hidaka General Hospital, Wakayama (Japan); Roger, P. [School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-02-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  16. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A.; Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H.; Roger, P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  17. Emotion unfolded by motion: a role for parietal lobe in decoding dynamic facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkheil, Pegah; Goebel, Rainer; Schneider, Frank; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Facial expressions convey important emotional and social information and are frequently applied in investigations of human affective processing. Dynamic faces may provide higher ecological validity to examine perceptual and cognitive processing of facial expressions. Higher order processing of emotional faces was addressed by varying the task and virtual face models systematically. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 healthy volunteers while viewing and evaluating either emotion or gender intensity of dynamic face stimuli. A general linear model analysis revealed that high valence activated a network of motion-responsive areas, indicating that visual motion areas support perceptual coding for the motion-based intensity of facial expressions. The comparison of emotion with gender discrimination task revealed increased activation of inferior parietal lobule, which highlights the involvement of parietal areas in processing of high level features of faces. Dynamic emotional stimuli may help to emphasize functions of the hypothesized 'extended' over the 'core' system for face processing.

  18. Convergent functional architecture of the superior parietal lobule unraveled with multimodal neuroimaging approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaojian; Yang, Yong; Fan, Lingzhong; Xu, Jinping; Li, Changhai; Liu, Yong; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-01-01

    The superior parietal lobule (SPL) plays a pivotal role in many cognitive, perceptive, and motor-related processes. This implies that a mosaic of distinct functional and structural subregions may exist in this area. Recent studies have demonstrated that the ongoing spontaneous fluctuations in the brain at rest are highly structured and, like coactivation patterns, reflect the integration of cortical locations into long-distance networks. This suggests that the internal differentiation of a complex brain region may be revealed by interaction patterns that are reflected in different neuroimaging modalities. On the basis of this perspective, we aimed to identify a convergent functional organization of the SPL using multimodal neuroimaging approaches. The SPL was first parcellated based on its structural connections as well as on its resting-state connectivity and coactivation patterns. Then, post hoc functional characterizations and connectivity analyses were performed for each subregion. The three types of connectivity-based parcellations consistently identified five subregions in the SPL of each hemisphere. The two anterior subregions were found to be primarily involved in action processes and in visually guided visuomotor functions, whereas the three posterior subregions were primarily associated with visual perception, spatial cognition, reasoning, working memory, and attention. This parcellation scheme for the SPL was further supported by revealing distinct connectivity patterns for each subregion in all the used modalities. These results thus indicate a convergent functional architecture of the SPL that can be revealed based on different types of connectivity and is reflected by different functions and interactions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Preliminary evidence for performance enhancement following parietal lobe stimulation in Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuculano, Teresa; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 7% of the population exhibit difficulties in dealing with numbers and performing arithmetic, a condition named Developmental Dyscalculia (DD), which significantly affects the educational and professional outcomes of these individuals, as it often persists into adulthood. Research has mainly focused on behavioral rehabilitation, while little is known about performance changes and neuroplasticity induced by the concurrent application of brain-behavioral approaches. It has been shown that numerical proficiency can be enhanced by applying a small-yet constant-current through the brain, a non-invasive technique named transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). Here we combined a numerical learning paradigm with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in two adults with DD to assess the potential benefits of this methodology to remediate their numerical difficulties. Subjects learned to associate artificial symbols to numerical quantities within the context of a trial and error paradigm, while tDCS was applied to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The first subject (DD1) received anodal stimulation to the right PPC and cathodal stimulation to the left PPC, which has been associated with numerical performance's improvements in healthy subjects. The second subject (DD2) received anodal stimulation to the left PPC and cathodal stimulation to the right PPC, which has been shown to impair numerical performance in healthy subjects. We examined two indices of numerical proficiency: (i) automaticity of number processing; and (ii) mapping of numbers onto space. Our results are opposite to previous findings with non-dyscalculic subjects. Only anodal stimulation to the left PPC improved both indices of numerical proficiency. These initial results represent an important step to inform the rehabilitation of developmental learning disabilities, and have relevant applications for basic and applied research in cognitive neuroscience, rehabilitation, and education.

  20. Preliminary evidence for performance enhancement following parietal lobe stimulation in Developmental Dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eIuculano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 7% of the population exhibit difficulties in dealing with numbers and performing arithmetic, a condition named Developmental Dyscalculia (DD, which significantly affects the educational and professional outcomes of these individuals, as it often persists into adulthood. Research has mainly focused on behavioral rehabilitation, while little is known about performance changes and neuroplasticity induced by the concurrent application of brain-behavioral approaches. It has been shown that numerical proficiency can be enhanced by applying a small – yet constant – current through the brain, a non-invasive technique named transcranial electrical stimulation (tES. Here we combined a numerical learning paradigm with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in two adults with DD to assess the potential benefits of this methodology to remediate their numerical difficulties. Subjects learned to associate artificial symbols to numerical quantities within the context of a trial and error paradigm, while tDCS was applied to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC. The first subject (DD1 received anodal stimulation to the right PPC and cathodal stimulation to the left PPC, which has been associated with numerical performance’s improvements in healthy subjects. The second subject (DD2 received anodal stimulation to the left PPC and cathodal stimulation to the right PPC, which has been shown to impair numerical performance in healthy subjects. We examined two indices of numerical proficiency: (i automaticity of number processing; and (ii mapping of numbers onto space. Our results are opposite to previous findings with non-dyscalculic subjects. Only anodal stimulation to the left PPC improved both indices of numerical proficiency. These initial results represent an important step to inform the rehabilitation of developmental learning disabilities, and have relevant applications for basic and applied research in cognitive neuroscience, rehabilitation

  1. Elaboration versus suppression of cued memories: influence of memory recall instruction and success on parietal lobe, default network, and hippocampal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Sarah I; Brewer, James B

    2014-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of episodic memory retrieval consistently report task-evoked and memory-related activity in the medial temporal lobe, default network and parietal lobe subregions. Associated components of memory retrieval, such as attention-shifts, search, retrieval success, and post-retrieval processing also influence regional activity, but these influences remain ill-defined. To better understand how top-down control affects the neural bases of memory retrieval, we examined how regional activity responses were modulated by task goals during recall success or failure. Specifically, activity was examined during memory suppression, recall, and elaborative recall of paired-associates. Parietal lobe was subdivided into dorsal (BA 7), posterior ventral (BA 39), and anterior ventral (BA 40) regions, which were investigated separately to examine hypothesized distinctions in sub-regional functional responses related to differential attention-to-memory and memory strength. Top-down suppression of recall abolished memory strength effects in BA 39, which showed a task-negative response, and BA 40, which showed a task-positive response. The task-negative response in default network showed greater negatively-deflected signal for forgotten pairs when task goals required recall. Hippocampal activity was task-positive and was influenced by memory strength only when task goals required recall. As in previous studies, we show a memory strength effect in parietal lobe and hippocampus, but we show that this effect is top-down controlled and sensitive to whether the subject is trying to suppress or retrieve a memory. These regions are all implicated in memory recall, but their individual activity patterns show distinct memory-strength-related responses when task goals are varied. In parietal lobe, default network, and hippocampus, top-down control can override the commonly identified effects of memory strength.

  2. Elaboration versus suppression of cued memories: influence of memory recall instruction and success on parietal lobe, default network, and hippocampal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah I Gimbel

    Full Text Available Functional imaging studies of episodic memory retrieval consistently report task-evoked and memory-related activity in the medial temporal lobe, default network and parietal lobe subregions. Associated components of memory retrieval, such as attention-shifts, search, retrieval success, and post-retrieval processing also influence regional activity, but these influences remain ill-defined. To better understand how top-down control affects the neural bases of memory retrieval, we examined how regional activity responses were modulated by task goals during recall success or failure. Specifically, activity was examined during memory suppression, recall, and elaborative recall of paired-associates. Parietal lobe was subdivided into dorsal (BA 7, posterior ventral (BA 39, and anterior ventral (BA 40 regions, which were investigated separately to examine hypothesized distinctions in sub-regional functional responses related to differential attention-to-memory and memory strength. Top-down suppression of recall abolished memory strength effects in BA 39, which showed a task-negative response, and BA 40, which showed a task-positive response. The task-negative response in default network showed greater negatively-deflected signal for forgotten pairs when task goals required recall. Hippocampal activity was task-positive and was influenced by memory strength only when task goals required recall. As in previous studies, we show a memory strength effect in parietal lobe and hippocampus, but we show that this effect is top-down controlled and sensitive to whether the subject is trying to suppress or retrieve a memory. These regions are all implicated in memory recall, but their individual activity patterns show distinct memory-strength-related responses when task goals are varied. In parietal lobe, default network, and hippocampus, top-down control can override the commonly identified effects of memory strength.

  3. Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding of Discrepant Fractional Anisotropy Between the Frontal and Parietal Lobes After Whole-Brain Irradiation in Childhood Medulloblastoma Survivors: Reflection of Regional White Matter Radiosensitivity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Deqiang; Kwong, Dora; Chan, Godfrey; Leung, Lucullus; Khong, P.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that fractional anisotropy (FA) is more severely reduced in white matter of the frontal lobe compared with the parietal lobe after receiving the same whole-brain irradiation dose in a cohort of childhood medulloblastoma survivors. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two medulloblastoma survivors (15 male, mean [± SD] age = 12.1 ± 4.6 years) and the same number of control subjects (15 male, aged 12.0 ± 4.2 years) were recruited for diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging scans. Using an automated tissue classification method and the Talairach Daemon atlas, FA values of frontal and parietal lobes receiving the same radiation dose, and the ratio between them were quantified and denoted as FFA, PFA, and FA f/p , respectively. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test for significant differences of FFA, PFA, and FA f/p between medulloblastoma survivors and control subjects. Results: Frontal lobe and parietal lobe white matter FA were found to be significantly less in medulloblastoma survivors compared with control subjects (frontal p = 0.001, parietal p = 0.026). Moreover, these differences were found to be discrepant, with the frontal lobe having a significantly larger difference in FA compared with the parietal lobe. The FA f/p of control and medulloblastoma survivors was 1.110 and 1.082, respectively (p = 0.029). Conclusion: Discrepant FA changes after the same irradiation dose suggest radiosensitivity of the frontal lobe white matter compared with the parietal lobe. Special efforts to address the potentially vulnerable frontal lobe after treatment with whole-brain radiation may be needed so as to balance disease control and treatment-related morbidity

  4. Time course of the involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum in emotional prosody perception.

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    Marjolijn Hoekert

    Full Text Available In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional prosody perception. Here, we used triple-pulse repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to shed light on the precise time course of involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum. We hypothesized that information would be processed in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus before being processed in the right fronto-parietal operculum. Right-handed healthy subjects performed an emotional prosody task. During listening to each sentence a triplet of TMS pulses was applied to one of the regions at one of six time points (400-1900 ms. Results showed a significant main effect of Time for right anterior superior temporal gyrus and right fronto-parietal operculum. The largest interference was observed half-way through the sentence. This effect was stronger for withdrawal emotions than for the approach emotion. A further experiment with the inclusion of an active control condition, TMS over the EEG site POz (midline parietal-occipital junction, revealed stronger effects at the fronto-parietal operculum and anterior superior temporal gyrus relative to the active control condition. No evidence was found for sequential processing of emotional prosodic information from right anterior superior temporal gyrus to the right fronto-parietal operculum, but the results revealed more parallel processing. Our results suggest that both right fronto-parietal operculum and right anterior superior temporal gyrus are critical for emotional prosody perception at a relatively late time period after sentence onset. This may reflect that emotional cues can still be ambiguous at the beginning of sentences, but become

  5. Time course of the involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum in emotional prosody perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekert, Marjolijn; Bais, Leonie; Kahn, René S; Aleman, André

    2008-05-21

    In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody) conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional prosody perception. Here, we used triple-pulse repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to shed light on the precise time course of involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum. We hypothesized that information would be processed in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus before being processed in the right fronto-parietal operculum. Right-handed healthy subjects performed an emotional prosody task. During listening to each sentence a triplet of TMS pulses was applied to one of the regions at one of six time points (400-1900 ms). Results showed a significant main effect of Time for right anterior superior temporal gyrus and right fronto-parietal operculum. The largest interference was observed half-way through the sentence. This effect was stronger for withdrawal emotions than for the approach emotion. A further experiment with the inclusion of an active control condition, TMS over the EEG site POz (midline parietal-occipital junction), revealed stronger effects at the fronto-parietal operculum and anterior superior temporal gyrus relative to the active control condition. No evidence was found for sequential processing of emotional prosodic information from right anterior superior temporal gyrus to the right fronto-parietal operculum, but the results revealed more parallel processing. Our results suggest that both right fronto-parietal operculum and right anterior superior temporal gyrus are critical for emotional prosody perception at a relatively late time period after sentence onset. This may reflect that emotional cues can still be ambiguous at the beginning of sentences, but become more apparent half

  6. Low-frequency rTMS in the superior parietal cortex affects the working memory in horizontal axis during the spatial task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jéssica Alves; Marinho, Francisco Victor Costa; Rocha, Kaline; Magalhães, Francisco; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Cagy, Mauricio; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Gupta, Daya; Teixeira, Silmar

    2018-03-01

    Spatial working memory has been extensively investigated with different tasks, treatments, and analysis tools. Several studies suggest that low frequency of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the parietal cortex may influence spatial working memory (SWM). However, it is not yet known if after low-frequency rTMS applied to the superior parietal cortex, according to Pz electroencephalography (EEG) electrode, would change the orientation interpretation about the vertical and horizontal axes coordinates in an SWM task. The current study aims at filling this gap and obtains a better understanding of the low-frequency rTMS effect in SWM. In this crossover study, we select 20 healthy subjects in two conditions (control and 1-Hz rTMS). The subjects performed an SWM task with two random coordinates. Our results presented that low-frequency rTMS applied over the superior parietal cortex may influence the SWM to lead to a larger distance of axes interception point (p low-frequency rTMS over the superior parietal cortex (SPC) changes the SWM performance, and it has more predominance in horizontal axis.

  7. Evaluating the roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule in deductive reasoning: an rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Sakatani, Kaoru; Masuda, Sayako; Akiyama, Takekazu; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2011-09-15

    This study used off-line repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to examine the roles of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in a deductive reasoning task. Subjects performed a categorical syllogistic reasoning task involving congruent, incongruent, and abstract trials. Twenty four subjects received magnetic stimulation to the SPL region prior to the task. In the other 24 subjects, TMS was administered to the IFG region before the task. Stimulation lasted for 10min, with an inter-pulse frequency of 1Hz. We found that bilateral SPL (Brodmann area (BA) 7) stimulation disrupted performance on abstract and incongruent reasoning. Left IFG (BA 45) stimulation impaired congruent reasoning performance while paradoxically facilitating incongruent reasoning performance. This resulted in the elimination of the belief-bias. In contrast, right IFG stimulation only impaired incongruent reasoning performance, thus enhancing the belief-bias effect. These findings are largely consistent with the dual-process theory of reasoning, which proposes the existence of two different human reasoning systems: a belief-based heuristic system; and a logic-based analytic system. The present findings suggest that the left language-related IFG (BA 45) may correspond to the heuristic system, while bilateral SPL may underlie the analytic system. The right IFG may play a role in blocking the belief-based heuristic system for solving incongruent reasoning trials. This study could offer an insight about functional roles of distributed brain systems in human deductive reasoning by utilizing the rTMS approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. At the intersection of attention and memory: the mechanistic role of the posterior parietal lobe in working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Marian E.; Chein, Jason; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2011-01-01

    Portions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) play a role in working memory (WM) yet the precise mechanistic function of this region remains poorly understood. The pure storage hypothesis proposes that this region functions as a short-lived modality-specific memory store. Alternatively, the internal attention hypothesis proposes that the PPC functions as an attention-based storage and refreshing mechanism deployable as an alternative to material-specific rehearsal. These models were tested in patients with bilateral PPC lesions. Our findings discount the pure storage hypothesis because variables indexing storage capacity and longevity were not disproportionately affected by PPC damage. Instead, our data support the internal attention account by showing that (a) normal participants tend to use a rehearsal-based WM maintenance strategy for recall tasks but not for recognition tasks; (b) patients with PPC lesions performed normally on WM tasks that relied on material-specific rehearsal strategies but poorly on WM tasks that relied on attention-based maintenance strategies and patient strategy usage could be shifted by task or instructions; (c) patients’ memory deficits extended into the long-term domain. These findings suggest that the PPC maintains or shifts internal attention among the representations of items in WM. PMID:21345344

  9. At the intersection of attention and memory: the mechanistic role of the posterior parietal lobe in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Marian E; Chein, Jason; Olson, Ingrid R

    2011-04-01

    Portions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) play a role in working memory (WM) yet the precise mechanistic function of this region remains poorly understood. The pure storage hypothesis proposes that this region functions as a short-lived modality-specific memory store. Alternatively, the internal attention hypothesis proposes that the PPC functions as an attention-based storage and refreshing mechanism deployable as an alternative to material-specific rehearsal. These models were tested in patients with bilateral PPC lesions. Our findings discount the pure storage hypothesis because variables indexing storage capacity and longevity were not disproportionately affected by PPC damage. Instead, our data support the internal attention account by showing that (a) normal participants tend to use a rehearsal-based WM maintenance strategy for recall tasks but not for recognition tasks; (b) patients with PPC lesions performed normally on WM tasks that relied on material-specific rehearsal strategies but poorly on WM tasks that relied on attention-based maintenance strategies and patient strategy usage could be shifted by task or instructions; (c) patients' memory deficits extended into the long-term domain. These findings suggest that the PPC maintains or shifts internal attention among the representations of items in WM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus III network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2017-04-21

    Proprioception is somatic sensation that allows us to sense and recognize position, posture, and their changes in our body parts. It pertains directly to oneself and may contribute to bodily awareness. Likewise, one's face is a symbol of oneself, so that visual self-face recognition directly contributes to the awareness of self as distinct from others. Recently, we showed that right-hemispheric dominant activity in the inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF III), is associated with proprioceptive illusion (awareness), in concert with sensorimotor activity. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that visual self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal SLF III network. We scanned brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while twenty-two right-handed healthy adults performed two tasks. One was a proprioceptive illusion task, where blindfolded participants experienced a proprioceptive illusion of right hand movement. The other was a visual self-face recognition task, where the participants judged whether an observed face was their own. We examined whether the self-face recognition and the proprioceptive illusion commonly activated the inferior fronto-parietal cortices connected by the SLF III in a right-hemispheric dominant manner. Despite the difference in sensory modality and in the body parts involved in the two tasks, both tasks activated the right inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are likely connected by the SLF III, in a right-side dominant manner. Here we discuss possible roles for right inferior fronto-parietal activity in bodily awareness and self-awareness. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Resection of the medial temporal lobe disconnects the rostral superior temporal gyrus from some of its projection targets in the frontal lobe and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Monica; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C

    2009-09-01

    Auditory memory in the monkey does not appear to extend beyond the limits of working memory. It is therefore surprising that this ability is impaired by medial temporal lobe (MTL) resections, because such lesions spare working memory in other sensory modalities. To determine whether MTL ablations might have caused the auditory deficit through inadvertent transection of superior temporal gyrus (STG) projections to its downstream targets, and, if so, which targets might have been compromised, we injected anterograde tracer (biotinylated dextran amine) in the STG of both the normal and MTL-lesioned hemispheres of split-brain monkeys. Interhemispheric comparison of label failed to show any effect of the MTL ablation on efferents from caudal STG, which projects to the inferior prefrontal convexity. However, the ablation did consistently interrupt the normally dense projections from rostral STG to both the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and medial thalamic nuclei. The findings support the possibility that the auditory working memory deficit after MTL ablation is due to transection of downstream auditory projections, and indicate that the candidate structures for mediating auditory working memory are the ventral medial prefrontal cortical areas, the medial thalamus, or both.

  12. Microsurgical anatomy of the central lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigeri, Thomas; Paglioli, Eliseu; de Oliveira, Evandro; Rhoton, Albert L

    2015-03-01

    The central lobe consists of the pre- and postcentral gyri on the lateral surface and the paracentral lobule on the medial surface and corresponds to the sensorimotor cortex. The objective of the present study was to define the neural features, craniometric relationships, arterial supply, and venous drainage of the central lobe. Cadaveric hemispheres dissected using microsurgical techniques provided the material for this study. The coronal suture is closer to the precentral gyrus and central sulcus at its lower rather than at its upper end, but they are closest at a point near where the superior temporal line crosses the coronal suture. The arterial supply of the lower two-thirds of the lateral surface of the central lobe was from the central, precentral, and anterior parietal branches that arose predominantly from the superior trunk of the middle cerebral artery. The medial surface and the superior third of the lateral surface were supplied by the posterior interior frontal, paracentral, and superior parietal branches of the pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries. The venous drainage of the superior two-thirds of the lateral surface and the central lobe on the medial surface was predominantly through the superior sagittal sinus, and the inferior third of the lateral surface was predominantly through the superficial sylvian veins to the sphenoparietal sinus or the vein of Labbé to the transverse sinus. The pre- and postcentral gyri and paracentral lobule have a morphological and functional anatomy that differentiates them from the remainder of their respective lobes and are considered by many as a single lobe. An understanding of the anatomical relationships of the central lobe can be useful in preoperative planning and in establishing reliable intraoperative landmarks.

  13. Alteration of functional connectivity within visuospatial working memory-related brain network in patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zong-xia; Huang, Dong-Hong; Ye, Wei; Chen, Zi-rong; Huang, Wen-li; Zheng, Jin-ou

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the resting-state brain network related to visuospatial working memory (VSWM) in patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE). The functional mechanism underlying the cognitive impairment in VSWM was also determined. Fifteen patients with rTLE and 16 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness underwent a 6-min resting-state functional MRI session and a neuropsychological test using VSWM_Nback. The VSWM-related brain network at rest was extracted using multiple independent component analysis; the spatial distribution and the functional connectivity (FC) parameters of the cerebral network were compared between groups. Behavioral data were subsequently correlated with the mean Z-value in voxels showing significant FC difference during intergroup comparison. The distribution of the VSWM-related resting-state network (RSN) in the group with rTLE was virtually consistent with that in the healthy controls. The distribution involved the dorsolateral prefrontal lobe and parietal lobe in the right hemisphere and the partial inferior parietal lobe and posterior lobe of the cerebellum in the left hemisphere (pright superior frontal lobe (BA8), right middle frontal lobe, and right ventromedial prefrontal lobe compared with the controls (pright superior frontal lobe (BA11), right superior parietal lobe, and left posterior lobe of the cerebellum (prights reserved.

  14. Aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Seok; Kang, Mi Jin; Bae, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jin Hae; Lee, Han Bee; Kim, Jae Hyung; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kang, Tae Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant origins of the pulmonary artery are rare anomalies, but are being reported several times in the world literature. Among them, pulmonary artery sling is the most well known anomaly, which is the left pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery. In case of pulmonary artery sling, the left pulmonary artery causes compression of the trachea and esophagus while it courses in between. In this case, we describe a case on incidentally found aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery without any compressions of the esophagus or trachea. In the world literature, aberrant origins of the left pulmonary artery without pulmonary artery sling was reported at one time, but currently, this is the first case of aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery.

  15. Aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Seok; Kang, Mi Jin; Bae, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jin Hae; Lee, Han Bee; Kim, Jae Hyung; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kang, Tae Kyung [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Aberrant origins of the pulmonary artery are rare anomalies, but are being reported several times in the world literature. Among them, pulmonary artery sling is the most well known anomaly, which is the left pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery. In case of pulmonary artery sling, the left pulmonary artery causes compression of the trachea and esophagus while it courses in between. In this case, we describe a case on incidentally found aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery without any compressions of the esophagus or trachea. In the world literature, aberrant origins of the left pulmonary artery without pulmonary artery sling was reported at one time, but currently, this is the first case of aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery.

  16. Comparative proteomic analyses of the parietal lobe from rhesus monkeys fed a high-fat/sugar diet with and without resveratrol supplementation, relative to a healthy diet: Insights into the roles of unhealthy diets and resveratrol on function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swomley, Aaron M; Triplett, Judy C; Keeney, Jeriel T; Warrier, Govind; Pearson, Kevin J; Mattison, Julie A; de Cabo, Rafael; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Butterfield, D Allan

    2017-01-01

    A diet consisting of a high intake of saturated fat and refined sugars is characteristic of a Western-diet and has been shown to have a substantial negative effect on human health. Expression proteomics were used to investigate changes to the parietal lobe proteome of rhesus monkeys consuming either a high fat and sugar (HFS) diet, a HFS diet supplemented with resveratrol (HFS+RSV), or a healthy control diet for 2 years. Here we discuss the modifications in the levels of 12 specific proteins involved in various cellular systems including metabolism, neurotransmission, structural integrity, and general cellular signaling following a nutritional intervention. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which resveratrol functions through the up- or down-regulation of proteins in different cellular sub-systems to affect the overall health of the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intrinsic connections and architectonics of posterior parietal cortex in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, D.N.; Seltzer, B.

    1982-01-01

    By means of autoradiographic and ablation-degeneration techniques, the intrinsic cortical connections of the posterior parietal cortex in the rhesus monkey were traced and correlated with a reappraisal of cerebral architectonics. Two major rostral-to-caudal connectional sequences exist. One begins in the dorsal postcentral gyrus (area 2) and proceeds, through architectonic divisions of the superior parietal lobule (areas PE and PEc), to a cortical region on the medial surface of the parietal lobe (area PGm). This area has architectonic features similar to those of the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG). The second sequence begins in the ventral post/central gyrus (area 2) and passes through the rostral inferior parietal lobule (areas PG and PFG) to reach the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG). Both the superior parietal lobule and the rostral inferior parietal lobule also send projections to various other zones located in the parietal opercular region, the intraparietal sulcus, and the caudalmost portion of the cingulate sulcus. Areas PGm and PG, on the other hand, project to each other, to the cingulate region, to the caudalmost portion of the superior temporal gyrus, and to the upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus. Finally, a reciprocal sequence of connections, directed from caudal to rostral, links together many of the above-mentioned parietal zones. With regard to the laminar pattern of termination, the rostral-to-caudal connections are primarily distributed in the form of cortical ''columns'' while the caudal-to-rostral connections are found mainly over the first cortical cell layer

  18. [Functional mapping using subdural electrodes combined with monitoring during awake craniotomy enabled preservation of function and extensive resection of a glioma adjacent to the parietal lobe language sites: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, Kento; Saito, Taiichi; Nitta, Masayuki; Tamura, Manabu; Maruyama, Takashi; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Surgical resection of gliomas located in the dominant parietal lobe is difficult because this lesion is surrounded by multiple functional areas. Although functional mapping during awake craniotomy is very useful for resection of gliomas adjacent to eloquent areas, the limited time available makes it difficult to sufficiently evaluate multiple functions, such as language, calculative ability, distinction of right and left sides, and finger recognition. Here, we report a case of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, which was successfully treated with a combination of functional mapping using subdural electrodes and monitoring under awake craniotomy for glioma. A 32-year-old man presented with generalized seizure. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a non-enhanced tumor in the left angular and supramarginal gyri. In addition, the tumor showed high accumulation on 11C-methionine positron emission tomography(PET)(tumor/normal brain tissue ratio=3.20). Preparatory mapping using subdural electrodes showed absence of brain function on the tumor lesion. Surgical removal was performed using cortical mapping during awake craniotomy with an updated navigation system using intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). The tumor was resected until aphasia was detected by functional monitoring, and the extent of tumor resection was 93%. The patient showed transient transcortical aphasia and Gerstmann's syndrome after surgery but eventually recovered. The pathological diagnosis was anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and the patient was administered chemo-radiotherapy. The patient has been progression free for more than 2 years. The combination of subdural electrode mapping and monitoring during awake craniotomy is useful in order to achieve preservation of function and extensive resection for gliomas in the dominant parietal lobe.

  19. Anomlus pulmonary venous return aaccompanied by normal superior pulmonary veins in the left upper lobe: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Eon; Kang, Min Jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Bae, Kyung Eun; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kang, Tae Kyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soo Hyun [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return is a rare congenital pulmonary venous anomaly, in which some of the pulmonary veins drain into the systemic circulation rather than the left atrium. Many variants of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return have been reported. We present a rare type of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in which the anomalous left upper lobe pulmonary vein drained into the left innominate vein via the vertical vein, accompanying the left upper lobe pulmonary vein in the normal location.

  20. Anomlus pulmonary venous return aaccompanied by normal superior pulmonary veins in the left upper lobe: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Eon; Kang, Min Jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Bae, Kyung Eun; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kang, Tae Kyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return is a rare congenital pulmonary venous anomaly, in which some of the pulmonary veins drain into the systemic circulation rather than the left atrium. Many variants of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return have been reported. We present a rare type of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in which the anomalous left upper lobe pulmonary vein drained into the left innominate vein via the vertical vein, accompanying the left upper lobe pulmonary vein in the normal location

  1. MRI in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Kazuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The present study investigated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in temporal lobe epilepsy and correlated them with clinical variables, such as age, illness duration, past history, and the frequency of seizure. Cerebral MRI was performed in 45 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy of unknown etiology, using a 0.5 T and/or a 1.5 T MRI systems. The temporal lobe was seen as high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and/or proton density-weighted images in 6 patients, although it was missed on CT and T1-weighted images. The high intensity area seemed to reflect sclerosis of the temporal lobe. This finding was significantly associated with partial seizure. Of these patients, 3 had a history of febrile convulsions. Ten patients had slight dilatation of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle. They were significantly old at the time of onset and examination, as compared with those without dilatation. Furthermore, 6 patients with unilateral dilatation were significantly younger than the other 4 with bilateral dilatation. Nine patients had small multiple high signal areas in white matter, mainly in the parietal lobe, which suggested vascular origin. These patients were significantly old at the time of onset and examination, as compared with those having no such findings. In depicting high signal intensity areas, a 1.5 T MRI system was not always superior to a 0.5 T MRI system. Proton density-weighted images were better than T2-weighted images in some patients. (N.K.)

  2. Uncertain relational reasoning in the parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Marco; Franzmeier, Imke; Maier, Simon; Knauff, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The psychology of reasoning is currently transitioning from the study of deductive inferences under certainty to inferences that have degrees of uncertainty in both their premises and conclusions; however, only a few studies have explored the cortical basis of uncertain reasoning. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we show that areas in the right superior parietal lobe (rSPL) are necessary for solving spatial relational reasoning problems under conditions of uncertainty. Twenty-four participants had to decide whether a single presented order of objects agreed with a given set of indeterminate premises that could be interpreted in more than one way. During the presentation of the order, 10-Hz TMS was applied over the rSPL or a sham control site. Right SPL TMS during the inference phase disrupted performance in uncertain relational reasoning. Moreover, we found differences in the error rates between preferred mental models, alternative models, and inconsistent models. Our results suggest that different mechanisms are involved when people reason spatially and evaluate different kinds of uncertain conclusions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Neuroanatomy of the Parietal Association Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2016-11-01

    The parietal association cortex comprises the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the precuneus and the cortices in the intraparietal, parietooccipital and lunate sulci. By processing somatic, visual, acoustic and vestibular sensory information, the parietal association cortex plays a pivotal role in spatial cognition and motor control of the eyes and the extremities. Sensory information from the primary and secondary somatosensory areas enters the superior parietal lobule and is transferred to the inferior parietal lobule. Visual information is processed through the dorsal visual pathway and it reaches the inferior parietal lobule, the intraparietal sulcus and the precuneus. Acoustic information is transferred posteriorly from the primary acoustic area, and it reaches the posterior region of the inferior parietal lobule. The areas in the intraparietal sulcus project to the premotor area, the frontal eye fields, and the prefrontal area. These areas are involved in the control of ocular movements, reaching and grasping of the upper extremities, and spatial working memory. The posterior region of the inferior parietal lobule and the precuneus both project either directly, or indirectly via the posterior cingulate gyrus, to the parahippocampal and entorhinal cortices. Both these areas are strongly associated with hippocampal functions for long-term memory formation.

  4. Reduced parietal activation in cervical dystonia after parietal TMS interleaved with fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Paulien M.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Bohning, Daryl E.; Hinson, Vanessa K.; George, Mark S.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    Objective: Clinically normal hand movement with altered cerebral activation patterns in cervical dystonia (CD) may imply cerebral adaptation. Since impaired sensorimotor integration appears to play a role in dystonia, left superior parietal cortex modulation with repetitive transcranial magnetic

  5. Parietal and premotor cortices: activation reflects imitation accuracy during observation, delayed imitation and concurrent imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Britta; Bischoff, Matthias; Blecker, Carlo; Langhanns, Christine; Kindermann, Stefan; Sauerbier, Isabell; Reiser, Mathias; Stark, Rudolf; Munzert, Jörn; Pilgramm, Sebastian

    2014-10-15

    This study investigated whether activation within areas belonging to the action observation and imitation network reveals a linear relation to the subsequent accuracy of imitating a bimanual rhythmic movement measured via a motion capturing system. 20 participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) when asked to imitate observed bimanual movements either concurrently versus with a delay (2s) or simply to observe the movements without imitation. Results showed that action observation relates to activation within classic mirror-related areas. Activation patterns were more widespread when participants were asked to imitate the movement. During observation with concurrent imitation, activation in the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) was associated negatively with imitation accuracy. During observation in the delayed imitation condition, higher subsequent imitation accuracy was coupled with higher activation in the right superior parietal lobe (SPL) and the left parietal operculum (POp). During the delayed imitation itself, a negative association between imitation accuracy and brain activation was revealed in the right ventral premotor cortex (vPMC). We conclude that the IPL is involved in online comparison and visuospatial attention processes during imitation, the SPL provides a kinesthetic blueprint during movement observation, the POp preserves body identity, and the vPMC recruits motor representations--especially when no concurrent visual guidance is possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dissociation of Subtraction and Multiplication in the Right Parietal Cortex: Evidence from Intraoperative Cortical Electrostimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaodan; Chen, Chuansheng; Pu, Song; Wu, Chenxing; Li, Yongnian; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Xinlin

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently shown that the left parietal cortex is critical for numerical processing, but the role of the right parietal lobe has been much less clear. This study used the intraoperative cortical electrical stimulation approach to investigate neural dissociation in the right parietal cortex for subtraction and…

  7. The fMRI study on the front-parietal activation in abacus mental calculation trained children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kunyuan; Wang Bin; Long Jinfeng; Li Lixin; Shen Xiaojun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the difference in front-parietal activation between the trained and untrained children engaged in addition and multiplication with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and to explore the role of abacus mental calculation in brain development. Methods: Twenty-four children trained with abacus mental calculation and twelve untrained children performed mental calculation tasks including addition, multiplication and number-object control judging tasks. Blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) fMRI was performed when they were calculating. All data were analyzed by SPM2 (statistical parametric mapping 2) to generate the brain activation map. Results: The performance of the trained group had better correctness and shorter reaction time than that of the untrained group. The front-parietal activation between two groups had obvious difference. The activation involved less prefrontal cortex in the trained group than in the untrained group (P<0.05). The parietal activation in the trained group was mainly in the posterior superior parietal lobe/ precuneus, whereas the activation areas focused on the inferior parietal lobule in the untrained group. Conclusion: Abacus mental calculation involves multiple functional areas. and these areas may work together as a whole in processing arithmetic problems. Abacus mental calculation not only enhances the information processing in some brain areas and improves the utilization efficiency of neural resources, but also plays an important role in developing brain. (authors)

  8. The extratemporal lobe epilepsies in the epilepsy monitoring unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Deepa; Tripathi, Manjari

    2014-01-01

    Extratemporal lobe epilepsies (ETLE) are characterized by the epileptogenic foci outside the temporal lobe. They have a wide spectrum of semiological presentation depending upon the site of origin. They can arise from frontal, parietal, occipital lobes and from hypothalamic hamartoma. We discuss in this review the semiology of different types of ETLE encountered in the epilepsy monitoring unit. PMID:24791090

  9. Effect of Panax notoginseng saponins on the expression of beta-amyloid protein in the cortex of the parietal lobe and hippocampus, and spatial learning and memory in a mouse model of senile dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenguo Zhong; Dengpan Wu; Liang Lü; Jinsheng Wang; Wenyan Zhang; Zeqiang Qu

    2008-01-01

    immunohistochemistry. The mRNA content of App, tau, acetylcholinesterase, and synaptophysin (Syp) was tested by real time PCR and RT-PCR.RESULTS: The PCR results show that PNS can downregulate the expression of the App gene and upregulate the expression of the Syp gene in the parietal cortex and hippocampus of SAMP8 mice. The therapeutic effects of the PNS high-dosage group were greater than those of the PNS low-dosage group and the huperzine A group (P < 0.05). The results of the Morris water maze and immunohistochemistry indicated that PNS can improve the capacity for spatial learning and memory in SAMP8 mice, and reduce the content of A β1-40,A β1-42 and expression of App in the brains of SAMP8 mice. The therapeutic effects of the PNS high-dosage group were greater than that of the PNS low-dosage group and the huperzine A group (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: These results support the hypothesis that PNS plays a therapeutic and protective role on the pathological lesions and learning dysfunction of Alzheimer's disease. The therapeutic effects of PNS for Alzheimer's disease are possibly achieved through downregulating the expression of the App gene and upregulating the expression of the Syp gene. The therapeutic effects of PNS are dose-dependent and are greater than the effect of huperzine A.

  10. Development of rostral inferior parietal lobule area functional connectivity from late childhood to early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Jilei; Dong, Guangheng; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Haifeng; Du, Xiaoxia

    2017-06-01

    Although the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been extensively studied in monkeys and adult humans, very little is known about its development. Previous studies suggest that the MNS is present by infancy and that the brain and MNS-related cognitive abilities (such as language, empathy, and imitation learning) continue to develop after childhood. In humans, the PFt area of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) seems to particularly correlate with the functional properties of the PF area in primates, which contains mirror neurons. However, little is known about the functional connectivity (FC) of the PFt area with other brain areas and whether these networks change over time. Here, we investigated the FC development of the PFt area-based network in 59 healthy subjects aged 7-26 years at resting-state to study brain development from late childhood through adolescence to early adulthood. The bilateral PFt showed similar core FC networks, which included the frontal lobe, the cingulate gyri, the insula, the somatosensory cortex, the precuneus, the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the temporal lobe, and the cerebellum posterior lobes. Furthermore, the FC between the left PFt and the left IPL exhibited a significantly positive correlation with age, and the FC between the left PFt and the right postcentral gyrus exhibited a significantly negative correlation with age. In addition, the FC between the right PFt and the right putamen exhibited a significantly negative correlation with age. Our findings suggest that the PFt area-based network develops and is reorganized with age. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neural correlates of temporal credit assignment in the parietal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M Gersch

    Full Text Available Empirical studies of decision making have typically assumed that value learning is governed by time, such that a reward prediction error arising at a specific time triggers temporally-discounted learning for all preceding actions. However, in natural behavior, goals must be acquired through multiple actions, and each action can have different significance for the final outcome. As is recognized in computational research, carrying out multi-step actions requires the use of credit assignment mechanisms that focus learning on specific steps, but little is known about the neural correlates of these mechanisms. To investigate this question we recorded neurons in the monkey lateral intraparietal area (LIP during a serial decision task where two consecutive eye movement decisions led to a final reward. The underlying decision trees were structured such that the two decisions had different relationships with the final reward, and the optimal strategy was to learn based on the final reward at one of the steps (the "F" step but ignore changes in this reward at the remaining step (the "I" step. In two distinct contexts, the F step was either the first or the second in the sequence, controlling for effects of temporal discounting. We show that LIP neurons had the strongest value learning and strongest post-decision responses during the transition after the F step regardless of the serial position of this step. Thus, the neurons encode correlates of temporal credit assignment mechanisms that allocate learning to specific steps independently of temporal discounting.

  12. Medical image of the week: azygous lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder Natt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 59 year old man underwent chest radiography for evaluation of fever and cough. Imaging showed an accessory azygous lobe. An azygos lobe is found in 1% of anatomic specimens and forms when the right posterior cardinal vein, one of the precursors of the azygos vein, fails to migrate over the apex of the lung (1. Instead, the vein penetrates the lung carrying along pleural layers that entrap a portion of the right upper lobe. The vein appears to run within the lung, but is actually surrounded by both parietal and visceral pleura. The azygos fissure therefore consists of four layers of pleura, two parietal layers and two visceral layers, which wrap around the vein giving the appearance of a tadpole. Apart from an interesting incidental radiological finding, it is of limited clinical importance except that its presence should be recognized during thoracoscopic procedures. This patient was found to have …

  13. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xuming Liu,1 Zhihan Yan,2 Tingyu Wang,1 Xiaokai Yang,1 Feng Feng,3 Luping Fan,1 Jian Jiang4 1Department of Radiology, The Third Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 2Department of Radiology, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 3Peking Union Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 4Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL after normal sleep (NS and after sleep deprivation (SD. Methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight females underwent an fMRI scan twice at random: once following NS and the other following 24 hours’ SD, with an interval of 1 month between the two scans. The fMRI scanning included resting state and acupuncture stimulation. The special activated regions located during the acupuncture stimulation were selected as regions of interest for rsFC analysis. Results: Bilateral CPLs were positively activated by acupuncture stimulation. In the NS group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral CPL, bilateral frontal lobe (BFL, left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, bilateral CPL, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. Compared with the NS group, the

  14. Virtual dissection and comparative connectivity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in chimpanzees and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Erin E.; Gutman, David A.; Bradley, Bruce A.; Preuss, Todd M.; Stout, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Many of the behavioral capacities that distinguish humans from other primates rely on fronto-parietal circuits. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is the primary white matter tract connecting lateral frontal with lateral parietal regions; it is distinct from the arcuate fasciculus, which interconnects the frontal and temporal lobes. Here we report a direct, quantitative comparison of SLF connectivity using virtual in vivo dissection of the SLF in chimpanzees and humans. SLF I, the superior-most branch of the SLF, showed similar patterns of connectivity between humans and chimpanzees, and was proportionally volumetrically larger in chimpanzees. SLF II, the middle branch, and SLF III, the inferior-most branch, showed species differences in frontal connectivity. In humans, SLF II showed greater connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas in chimps SLF II showed greater connectivity with the inferior frontal gyrus. SLF III was right-lateralized and proportionally volumetrically larger in humans, and human SLF III showed relatively reduced connectivity with dorsal premotor cortex and greater extension into the anterior inferior frontal gyrus, especially in the right hemisphere. These results have implications for the evolution of fronto-parietal functions including spatial attention to observed actions, social learning, and tool use, and are in line with previous research suggesting a unique role for the right anterior inferior frontal gyrus in the evolution of human fronto-parietal network architecture. PMID:25534109

  15. Development of parietal bone surrogates for parietal graft lift training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollensteiner Marianne

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently the surgical training of parietal bone graft techniques is performed on patients or specimens. Commercially available bone models do not deliver realistic haptic feedback. Thus customized parietal skull surrogates were developed for surgical training purposes. Two human parietal bones were used as reference. Based on the measurement of insertion forces of drilling, milling and saw procedures suitable material compositions for molding cortical and cancellous calvarial layers were found. Artificial skull caps were manufactured and tested. Additionally microtomograpy images of human and artificial parietal bones were performed to analyze outer table and diploe thicknesses. Significant differences between human and artificial skulls were not detected with the mechanical procedures tested. Highly significant differences were found for the diploe thickness values. In conclusion, an artificial bone has been created, mimicking the properties of human parietal bone thus being suitable for tabula externa graft lift training.

  16. Clinical evidence of parietal cortex dysfunction and correlation with extent of allodynia in CRPS type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H; McCabe, C; Harris, N; Hall, J; Lewis, J; Blake, D R

    2013-04-01

    Unusual symptoms such as digit misidentification and neglect-like phenomena have been reported in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), which we hypothesized could be explained by parietal lobe dysfunction. Twenty-two patients with chronic CRPS attending an in-patient rehabilitation programme underwent standard neurological examination followed by clinical assessment of parietal lobe function and detailed sensory testing. Fifteen (68%) patients had evidence of parietal lobe dysfunction. Six (27%) subjects failed six or more test categories and demonstrated new clinical signs consistent with their parietal testing impairments, which were impacting significantly on activities of daily living. A higher incidence was noted in subjects with >1 limb involvement, CRPS affecting the dominant side and in left-handed subjects. Eighteen patients (82%) had mechanical allodynia covering 3-57.5% of the body surface area. Allochiria (unilateral tactile stimulation perceived only in the analogous location on the opposite limb), sensory extinction (concurrent bilateral tactile stimulation perceived only in one limb), referred sensations (unilateral tactile stimulation perceived concurrently in another discrete body area) and dysynchiria (unilateral non-noxious tactile stimulation perceived bilaterally as noxious) were present in some patients. Greater extent of body surface allodynia was correlated with worse parietal function (Spearman's rho = -0.674, p = 0.001). In patients with chronic CRPS, detailed clinical examination may reveal parietal dysfunction, with severity relating to the extent of allodynia. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  17. Parietal and temporal activity during a multimodal dance video game: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Atsumichi; Noah, J Adam; Bronner, Shaw; Ono, Yumie; Onozuka, Minoru

    2011-10-03

    Using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) we studied how playing a dance video game employs coordinated activation of sensory-motor integration centers of the superior parietal lobe (SPL) and superior temporal gyrus (STG). Subjects played a dance video game, in a block design with 30s of activity alternating with 30s of rest, while changes in oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) levels were continuously measured. The game was modified to compare difficult (4-arrow), simple (2-arrow), and stepping conditions. Oxy-Hb levels were greatest with increased task difficulty. The quick-onset, trapezoidal time-course increase in SPL oxy-Hb levels reflected the on-off neuronal response of spatial orienting and rhythmic motor timing that were required during the activity. Slow-onset, bell-shaped increases in oxy-Hb levels observed in STG suggested the gradually increasing load of directing multisensory information to downstream processing centers associated with motor behavior and control. Differences in temporal relationships of SPL and STG oxy-Hb concentration levels may reflect the functional roles of these brain structures during the task period. NIRS permits insights into temporal relationships of cortical hemodynamics during real motor tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Altered Parietal Activation during Non-symbolic Number Comparison in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri J. Woods

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Number processing is a cognitive domain particularly sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure, which relies on intact parietal functioning. Alcohol-related alterations in brain activation have been found in the parietal lobe during symbolic number processing. However, the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the neural correlates of non-symbolic number comparison and the numerical distance effect have not been investigated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we examined differences in brain activation associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in five parietal regions involved in number processing during a non-symbolic number comparison task with varying degrees of difficulty. fMRI results are presented for 27 Cape Colored children (6 fetal alcohol syndome (FAS/partial FAS, 5 heavily exposed (HE non-sydromal, 16 controls; mean age ± SD = 11.7 ± 1.1 years. Fetal alcohol exposure was assessed by interviewing mothers using a timeline follow-back approach. Separate subject analyses were performed in each of five regions of interest, bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulci (IPS, bilateral posterior superior parietal lobules (PSPL, and left angular gyrus (left AG, using the general linear model with predictors for number comparison and difficulty level. Mean percent signal change for each predictor was extracted for each subject for each region to examine group differences and associations with continuous measures of alcohol exposure. Although groups did not differ in performance, controls activated the right PSPL more during non-symbolic number comparison than exposed children, but this was not significant after controlling for maternal smoking, and the right IPS more than children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS or partial FAS. More heavily exposed children recruited the left AG to a greater extent as task difficulty increased, possibly to compensate, in part, for impairments in function in the PSPL and IPS. Notably, in non

  19. Visual perception is dependent on visuospatial working memory and thus on the posterior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisella, Laure

    2017-06-01

    Visual perception involves complex and active processes. We will start by explaining why visual perception is dependent on visuospatial working memory, especially the spatiotemporal integration of the perceived elements through the ocular exploration of visual scenes. Then we will present neuropsychology, transcranial magnetic stimulation and neuroimaging data yielding information on the specific role of the posterior parietal cortex of the right hemisphere in visuospatial working memory. Within the posterior parietal cortex, neuropsychology data also suggest that there might be dissociated neural substrates for deployment of attention (superior parietal lobules) and spatiotemporal integration (right inferior parietal lobule). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Mirror movement due to the medial frontal lobe lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N; Kawamura, M; Hirayama, K

    1995-01-01

    We reported a case with acquired mirror movement in upper limbs due to the lesion of right medial frontal lobe including supplementary motor area, and also discussed a possible mechanism underlying it. A 59-year-old right-handed woman developed left hemiparesis caused by cerebral hemorrhage in the right frontoparietal lobe, on April 5, 1981. She had right hemiparesis and right hemianopsia due to cerebral hemorrhage in the left parieto-occipital lobe, 13 days later. As the patient was recovering from paresis, mirror movement appeared on upper limbs. The features of the mirror movement of this case are summarized as follows: (1) it appeared when using both proximal and distal region of upper limbs; (2) it appeared on left upper limb when the patient intended to move right upper limb or on right upper limb when intended to move left upper limb, while it appeared predominantly in the former; and (3) it was more remarkably found in habitual movement using gesture and pantomimic movement for the use of objects, and it was found in lower degree when actual object was used or when the patient tried to imitate the gesture of the examiner. The lesions in MRI were found in medial region of right frontal lobe (supplementary motor area, medial region of motor area, and cingulate gyrus), right medial parietal lobe, posterior region of right occipital lobe, and medial regions of left parietal and occipital lobes. There was no apparent abnormality in corpus callosum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Multisensory speech perception without the left superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sarah H; Martin, Randi C; Hamilton, A Cris; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2012-09-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a critical site for multisensory integration of auditory and visual information during speech perception. We report a patient, SJ, who suffered a stroke that damaged the left tempo-parietal area, resulting in mild anomic aphasia. Structural MRI showed complete destruction of the left middle and posterior STS, as well as damage to adjacent areas in the temporal and parietal lobes. Surprisingly, SJ demonstrated preserved multisensory integration measured with two independent tests. First, she perceived the McGurk effect, an illusion that requires integration of auditory and visual speech. Second, her perception of morphed audiovisual speech with ambiguous auditory or visual information was significantly influenced by the opposing modality. To understand the neural basis for this preserved multisensory integration, blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) was used to examine brain responses to audiovisual speech in SJ and 23 healthy age-matched controls. In controls, bilateral STS activity was observed. In SJ, no activity was observed in the damaged left STS but in the right STS, more cortex was active in SJ than in any of the normal controls. Further, the amplitude of the BOLD response in right STS response to McGurk stimuli was significantly greater in SJ than in controls. The simplest explanation of these results is a reorganization of SJ's cortical language networks such that the right STS now subserves multisensory integration of speech. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Frontal Lobe Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of frontal lobe epilepsy remains unknown. Complications Status epilepticus. Frontal lobe seizures tend to occur in clusters and may provoke a dangerous condition called status epilepticus — in which seizure activity lasts much longer than ...

  3. Functional segregation and integration within fronto-parietal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlatini, Valeria; Radua, Joaquim; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Leslie, Anoushka; Simmons, Andy; Murphy, Declan G; Catani, Marco; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Experimental data on monkeys and functional studies in humans support the existence of a complex fronto-parietal system activating for cognitive and motor tasks, which may be anatomically supported by the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Advanced tractography methods have recently allowed the separation of the three branches of the SLF but are not suitable for their functional investigation. In order to gather comprehensive information about the functional organisation of these fronto-parietal connections, we used an innovative method, which combined tractography of the SLF in the largest dataset so far (129 participants) with 14 meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. We found that frontal and parietal functions can be clustered into a dorsal spatial/motor network associated with the SLF I, and a ventral non-spatial/motor network associated with the SLF III. Further, all the investigated functions activated a middle network mostly associated with the SLF II. Our findings suggest that dorsal and ventral fronto-parietal networks are segregated but also share regions of activation, which may support flexible response properties or conscious processing. In sum, our novel combined approach provided novel findings on the functional organisation of fronto-parietal networks, and may be successfully applied to other brain connections. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Curious Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Chabot-Naud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of azygos lobe is presented. An azygos lobe is an accessory lobe of the lung that may occasionally be confused with a pathological process such as a bulla, lung abscess or neoplasm. Its pathogenesis is discussed, as are the characteristic x-ray features that enable an accurate diagnosis.

  5. [Brodmann Areas 39 and 40: Human Parietal Association Area and Higher Cortical Function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa

    2017-04-01

    The anatomy and function of the angular gyrus (Brodmann Area 39) and supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann Area 40) are described here. Both gyri constitute the inferior part of the parietal lobe. Association fibers from the angular gyrus project to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex via the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II/arcuate fasciculus (AF), whereas those from the supramarginal gyrus project to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex via SLF III/AF. Damage to the left angular gyrus causes kanji agraphia (lexical agraphia) and mild anomia, whereas damage to the left supramarginal gyrus causes kana alexia (phonological dyslexia) and kana agraphia (phonological agraphia). Damage to either gyrus causes Gerstmann's syndrome (finger agnosia, left-right disorientation, agraphia and acalculia) and verbal short-term memory impairment. "Angular alexia with agraphia" results from damage to the middle occipital gyrus posterior to the angular gyrus. Alexia and agraphia, with lesions in the angular or supramarginal gyrus, are characterized by kana transposition errors in reading words, which suggests the impairment of sequential phonological processing.

  6. Mental reversal of imagined melodies: a role for the posterior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, Robert J; Halpern, Andrea R; Bouffard, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Two fMRI experiments explored the neural substrates of a musical imagery task that required manipulation of the imagined sounds: temporal reversal of a melody. Musicians were presented with the first few notes of a familiar tune (Experiment 1) or its title (Experiment 2), followed by a string of notes that was either an exact or an inexact reversal. The task was to judge whether the second string was correct or not by mentally reversing all its notes, thus requiring both maintenance and manipulation of the represented string. Both experiments showed considerable activation of the superior parietal lobe (intraparietal sulcus) during the reversal process. Ventrolateral and dorsolateral frontal cortices were also activated, consistent with the memory load required during the task. We also found weaker evidence for some activation of right auditory cortex in both studies, congruent with results from previous simpler music imagery tasks. We interpret these results in the context of other mental transformation tasks, such as mental rotation in the visual domain, which are known to recruit the intraparietal sulcus region, and we propose that this region subserves general computations that require transformations of a sensory input. Mental imagery tasks may thus have both task or modality-specific components as well as components that supersede any specific codes and instead represent amodal mental manipulation.

  7. Prospective relations between resting-state connectivity of parietal subdivisions and arithmetic competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gavin R; Yeo, Darren J; Wilkey, Eric D; Cutting, Laurie E

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigates the relation between resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of cytoarchitectonically defined subdivisions of the parietal cortex at the end of 1st grade and arithmetic performance at the end of 2nd grade. Results revealed a dissociable pattern of relations between rsFC and arithmetic competence among subdivisions of intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and angular gyrus (AG). rsFC between right hemisphere IPS subdivisions and contralateral IPS subdivisions positively correlated with arithmetic competence. In contrast, rsFC between the left hIP1 and the right medial temporal lobe, and rsFC between the left AG and left superior frontal gyrus, were negatively correlated with arithmetic competence. These results suggest that strong inter-hemispheric IPS connectivity is important for math development, reflecting either neurocognitive mechanisms specific to arithmetic processing, domain-general mechanisms that are particularly relevant to arithmetic competence, or structural 'cortical maturity'. Stronger connectivity between IPS, and AG, subdivisions and frontal and temporal cortices, however, appears to be negatively associated with math development, possibly reflecting the ability to disengage suboptimal problem-solving strategies during mathematical processing, or to flexibly reorient task-based networks. Importantly, the reported results pertain even when controlling for reading, spatial attention, and working memory, suggesting that the observed rsFC-behavior relations are specific to arithmetic competence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Decreased functional connectivity and structural deficit in alertness network with right-sided temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yujun; Zheng, Jinou; Li, Yaping; Guo, Danni; Wang, Mingli; Cui, Xiangxiang; Ye, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often suffer from alertness alterations. However, specific regions connected with alertness remain controversial, and whether these regions have structural impairment is also elusive. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and neural mechanisms underlying the functions and structures of alertness network in patients with right-sided temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) by performing the attentional network test (ANT), resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-SfMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).A total of 47 patients with rTLE and 34 healthy controls underwent ANT, R-SfMRI, and DTI scan. The seed-based functional connectivity (FC) method and deterministic tractography were used to analyze the data.Patients with rTLE had longer reaction times in the no-cue and double-cue conditions. However, no differences were noted in the alertness effect between the 2 groups. The patient group had lower FC compared with the control group in the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL), amygdala, and insula. Structural deficits were found in the right parahippocampal gyrus, superior temporal pole, insula, and amygdala in the patient group compared with the control group. Also significantly negative correlations were observed between abnormal fractional anisotropy (between the right insula and the superior temporal pole) and illness duration in the patients with rTLE.The findings of this study suggested abnormal intrinsic and phasic alertness, decreased FC, and structural deficits within the alerting network in the rTLE. This study provided new insights into the mechanisms of alertness alterations in rTLE.

  9. Abnormal activation of the occipital lobes during emotion picture processing in major depressive disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianying; Xu, Cheng; Cao, Xiaohua; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yanfang; Peng, Juyi; Zhang, Kerang

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that depression patients have cognitive dysfunction. With recently developed brain functional imaging, studies have focused on changes in brain function to investigate cognitive changes. However, there is still controversy regarding abnormalities in brain functions or correlation between cognitive impairment and brain function changes. Thus, it is important to design an emotion-related task for research into brain function changes. We selected positive, neutral, and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Patients with major depressive disorder were asked to judge emotion pictures. In addition, functional MRI was performed to synchronously record behavior data and imaging data. Results showed that the total correct rate for recognizing pictures was lower in patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, the consistency for recognizing pictures for depressed patients was worse than normal controls, and they frequently recognized positive pictures as negative pictures. The consistency for recognizing pictures was negatively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Functional MRI suggested that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, and cerebellum was enhanced, but that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe was weakened while the patients were watching positive and neutral pictures compared with normal controls. The activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and limbic lobe was enhanced, but the activation of some areas in the occipital lobe were weakened while the patients were watching the negative pictures compared with normal controls. These findings indicate that patients with major depressive disorder have negative cognitive disorder and extensive brain dysfunction. Thus, reduced activation of the occipital lobe may be an initiating factor for

  10. White Matter Tracts Connected to the Medial Temporal Lobe Support the Development of Mnemonic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelken, Carter; Lee, Joshua K; Pospisil, Jacqueline; Sastre, Marcos; Ross, Julia M; Bunge, Silvia A; Ghetti, Simona

    2015-09-01

    One of the most important factors driving the development of memory during childhood is mnemonic control, or the capacity to initiate and maintain the processes that guide encoding and retrieval operations. The ability to selectively attend to and encode relevant stimuli is a particularly useful form of mnemonic control, and is one that undergoes marked improvement over childhood. We hypothesized that structural integrity of white matter tracts, in particular those connecting medial temporal lobe memory regions to other cortical areas, and/or those connecting frontal and parietal control regions, should contribute to successful mnemonic control. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between structural integrity of selected white matter tracts and an experimental measure of mnemonic control, involving enhancement of memory by attention at encoding, in 116 children aged 7-11 and 25 young adults. We observed a positive relationship between integrity of uncinate fasciculus and mnemonic enhancement across age groups. In adults, but not in children, we also observed an association between mnemonic enhancement and integrity of ventral cingulum bundle and ventral fornix/fimbria. Integrity of fronto-parietal tracts, including dorsal cingulum and superior longitudinal fasciculus, was unrelated to mnemonic enhancement. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and F-18 FDG PET in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the specific pattern of brain perfusion and glucose metabolism in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) family. Using Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. we assessed brain perfusion in 6 patients at interictal period and 5 patients at ictal period. Interictal F-18 FDG PET was performed on 6 affected family members. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The data of the affected family members were compared to those of the control subjects. Interictal F-18 FDG PET SPM group analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism over the left middle and superior frontal gyri and the left central regions including the anterior parietal lobe. There was a less pronounced decrease in glucose uptake in the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. Interictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis showed similar pattern of decreased perfusion compared to those of interictal F-18 FDG PET. Ictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis revealed increased perfusion over the left pre-and postcentral gyri and less pronounced increased perfusion in the right postcentral gyrus. lnterictal F -18 PET and brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis suggest that major abnormalities of ADNFLE family are in the left frontal lobe. These findings may be helpful to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare disease entity

  12. SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and F-18 FDG PET in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This study attempted to investigate the specific pattern of brain perfusion and glucose metabolism in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) family. Using Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. we assessed brain perfusion in 6 patients at interictal period and 5 patients at ictal period. Interictal F-18 FDG PET was performed on 6 affected family members. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The data of the affected family members were compared to those of the control subjects. Interictal F-18 FDG PET SPM group analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism over the left middle and superior frontal gyri and the left central regions including the anterior parietal lobe. There was a less pronounced decrease in glucose uptake in the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. Interictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis showed similar pattern of decreased perfusion compared to those of interictal F-18 FDG PET. Ictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis revealed increased perfusion over the left pre-and postcentral gyri and less pronounced increased perfusion in the right postcentral gyrus. lnterictal F -18 PET and brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis suggest that major abnormalities of ADNFLE family are in the left frontal lobe. These findings may be helpful to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare disease entity.

  13. Frontal lobe atrophy in motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, J A; Hudson, A J

    1994-08-01

    Neuronal degeneration in the precentral gyrus alone cannot account for the occurrence of spastic paresis in motor neuron diseases. To look for more extensive cortical atrophy we measured MRIs of the upper parts of the frontal and parietal lobes in 11 sporadic cases of classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), eight patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and an age- and sex-matched group of 49 neurologically normal people. None of the patients had overt dementia or other mental diseases. In PLS there is progressive spastic paresis but in contrast to ALS there is no lower motor neuron degeneration. The surface area of the precentral gyri and the amount of underlying white matter in PLS were consistently approximately 75% of the normal size. By contrast, there was some shrinkage of the precentral gyri in some of the ALS patients but the mean measurements for the group did not differ significantly from the controls. Anterior to the precentral sulci, the cortical surface area in PLS was approximately 85% of that of the controls, with correspondingly reduced white matter. In ALS the cortical surface areas of the anterior frontal lobes did not differ from those of the controls, but the amount of underlying white matter was reduced almost as much in ALS as it was in PLS. The measured changes in the frontal lobes suggest that in PLS there is simultaneous atrophy of the primary, premotor and supplementary motor areas of the cortex, with consequent degeneration of corticospinal and corticoreticular axons descending through the underlying white matter. These changes could account for the progressive upper motor neuron syndrome. In ALS, with no significant frontal cortical atrophy, the shrinkage of the white matter may be due to degeneration of axons projecting to the frontal cortex from elsewhere. Deprivation of afferents could explain the diminution of motor functions of the frontal lobes in ALS and also the changes in word fluency, judgement and attention that

  14. Abstract Representations of Object-Directed Action in the Left Inferior Parietal Lobule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanjing; Garcea, Frank E; Jacobs, Robert A; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2018-06-01

    Prior neuroimaging and neuropsychological research indicates that the left inferior parietal lobule in the human brain is a critical substrate for representing object manipulation knowledge. In the present functional MRI study we used multivoxel pattern analyses to test whether action similarity among objects can be decoded in the inferior parietal lobule independent of the task applied to objects (identification or pantomime) and stimulus format in which stimuli are presented (pictures or printed words). Participants pantomimed the use of objects, cued by printed words, or identified pictures of objects. Classifiers were trained and tested across task (e.g., training data: pantomime; testing data: identification), stimulus format (e.g., training data: word format; testing format: picture) and specific objects (e.g., training data: scissors vs. corkscrew; testing data: pliers vs. screwdriver). The only brain region in which action relations among objects could be decoded across task, stimulus format and objects was the inferior parietal lobule. By contrast, medial aspects of the ventral surface of the left temporal lobe represented object function, albeit not at the same level of abstractness as actions in the inferior parietal lobule. These results suggest compulsory access to abstract action information in the inferior parietal lobe even when simply identifying objects.

  15. OCCIPITAL LOBE SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Shahdevi Nandar Kurniawan

    2016-01-01

    The ability to recognize objects and words is not just depend on the integrity of visual pathway and primary vision area on cerebral cortex (Brodmann area 17), but also secondary vision area 18 and tertiary vision area 19 on occipital lobe. Lesion in occipital lobe could disturb of human visual function such as visual field defects, inability to recognize colors, inability to recognize words, visual hallucinations and illusions, occipital lobe epilepsy, and Anton’s syndrome. Some causes of oc...

  16. Frontal lobe function in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, J.; Thompson, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is typically associated with long-term memory dysfunction. The frontal lobes support high-level cognition comprising executive skills and working memory that is vital for daily life functioning. Deficits in these functions have been increasingly reported in TLE. Evidence from both the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature suggests both executive function and working memory are compromised in the presence of TLE. In relation to executive impairment, particular focus has been paid to set shifting as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Other discrete executive functions such as decision-making and theory of mind also appear vulnerable but have received little attention. With regard to working memory, the medial temporal lobe structures appear have a more critical role, but with emerging evidence of hippocampal dependent and independent processes. The relative role of underlying pathology and seizure spread is likely to have considerable bearing upon the cognitive phenotype and trajectory in TLE. The identification of the nature of frontal lobe dysfunction in TLE thus has important clinical implications for prognosis and surgical management. Longitudinal neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies assessing frontal lobe function in TLE patients pre- and postoperatively will improve our understanding further. PMID:22100147

  17. The inferior parietal lobule and recognition memory : expectancy violation or successful retrieval?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Han, Sanghoon; Dobbins, Ian G.

    2010-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of episodic recognition demonstrate an increased lateral parietal response for studied versus new materials, often termed a retrieval success effect. Using a novel memory analog of attentional cueing, we manipulated the correspondence between anticipated and actual recognition evidence by presenting valid or invalid anticipatory cues (e. g., "likely old") before recognition judgments. Although a superior parietal region demonstrated the retrieval success patter...

  18. Encefalomenigocele atrésico parietal Parietal atresic encephalomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rivera Oliva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El encefalocele es una anomalía congénita rara, en la que una porción del encéfalo protruye a través de un orificio craneal (evaginación, generalmente situado en la línea media. Clínicamente se caracteriza por una masa epicraneal, de consistencia blanda, muchas veces acompañada de trastornos psicomotores, convulsiones y trastornos de la visión. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido con diagnóstico de encefalomeningocele atrésico parietal, intervenido quirúrgicamente y con evolución satisfactoria.The encephalocele is a uncommon congenital anomaly where a portion of encephalon protrudes through a cranial orifice (evagination, generally located in the middle line. Clinically, it is characterized by a soft epicranial mass often accompanied or psychomotor disorders, convulsions and vision disorders. This is the case of a newborn diagnosed with parietal atresic encephalomeningocele operated on with a satisfactory evolution.

  19. Patterns of morphological integration between parietal and temporal areas in the human skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Pereira-Pedro, Ana Sofia; Bastir, Markus

    2017-10-01

    Modern humans have evolved bulging parietal areas and large, projecting temporal lobes. Both changes, largely due to a longitudinal expansion of these cranial and cerebral elements, were hypothesized to be the result of brain evolution and cognitive variations. Nonetheless, the independence of these two morphological characters has not been evaluated. Because of structural and functional integration among cranial elements, changes in the position of the temporal poles can be a secondary consequence of parietal bulging and reorientation of the head axis. In this study, we use geometric morphometrics to test the correlation between parietal shape and the morphology of the endocranial base in a sample of adult modern humans. Our results suggest that parietal proportions show no correlation with the relative position of the temporal poles within the spatial organization of the endocranial base. The vault and endocranial base are likely to be involved in distinct morphogenetic processes, with scarce or no integration between these two districts. Therefore, the current evidence rejects the hypothesis of reciprocal morphological influences between parietal and temporal morphology, suggesting that evolutionary spatial changes in these two areas may have been independent. However, parietal bulging exerts a visible effect on the rotation of the cranial base, influencing head position and orientation. This change can have had a major relevance in the reorganization of the head functional axis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Visual interhemispheric communication and callosal connections of the occipital lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlucchi, Giovanni

    2014-07-01

    Callosal connections of the occipital lobes, coursing in the splenium of the corpus callosum, have long been thought to be crucial for interactions between the cerebral hemispheres in vision in both experimental animals and humans. Yet the callosal connections of the temporal and parietal lobes appear to have more important roles than those of the occipital callosal connections in at least some high-order interhemispheric visual functions. The partial intermixing and overlap of temporal, parietal and occipital callosal connections within the splenium has made it difficult to attribute the effects of splenial pathological lesions or experimental sections to splenial components specifically related to select cortical areas. The present review describes some current contributions from the modern techniques for the tracking of commissural fibers within the living human brain to the tentative assignation of specific visual functions to specific callosal tracts, either occipital or extraoccipital. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Anterolateral Limit of the Occipital Lobe: An Anatomical and Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Cassius Vinicius C; Yagmurlu, Kaan; Elhadi, Ali M; Dru, Alexander; Lei, Ting; Gusmão, Sebastião N S; Tazinaffo, Uédson; Zabramski, Joseph M; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2016-12-01

    Objectives  The boundaries of the temporal lobe, the parietal lobe, and the anterior portion of the occipital lobe (OL) are poorly defined. Lesions in these areas can be difficult to localize. Therefore, we studied the anterolateral limit of the OL to identify reliable anatomical landmarks. Design  In 10 formalin-fixed cadaveric heads, the boundaries of the OL and relative anatomical landmarks were studied. Main Outcome Measures  Distances between the following structures were measured: (1) preoccipital tentorial plica (POTP) to the junction between lambdoid suture and superior border of the transverse sinus (POTP-SL), (2) POTP to the sinodural angle of Citelli (POTP-PP), (3) lambda to parietooccipital sulcus (L-POS), and (4) preoccipital notch to termination of the vein of Labbé (PON-VL). Landmarks in 559 computed tomography and magnetic resonance images were also studied. Results  The POTP was found on the tentorium of all anatomical specimens, located at the same coronal level as the PON and its attachment to the bony protuberance (BP) at the lateral cranial wall. The mean distances were POTP-SL, 6.5 ± 6.4 mm; POTP-PP, 18.1 ± 7.8 mm; L-POS, 10.8 ± 5.0 mm; and PON-VL, 8.8 ± 10.1 mm. Conclusion  Osseous (asterion, lambda, and BP), dural (POTP), and vascular (VL) landmarks can be used as reference structures to identify the anterolateral limit of the OL.

  2. Statistical parametric mapping for analyzing interictal magnetoencephalography in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao; Zhu, Jinlong; Bao, Forrest Sheng; Liu, Hongyi; Zhu, Xuchuang; Wu, Ting; Yang, Lu; Zou, Yuanjie; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy is a common epileptic disorder and is characterized by recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes. The purpose of this study is to identify the epileptogenic regions and other abnormal regions in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy (LFLE) based on the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), and to understand the effects of clinical variables on brain activities in patients with LFLE. Fifteen patients with LFLE (23.20 ± 8.68 years, 6 female and 9 male) and 16 healthy controls (23.13 ± 7.66 years, 6 female and 10 male) were included in resting-stage MEG examinations. Epileptogenic regions of LFLE patients were confirmed by surgery. Regional brain activations were quantified using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The correlation between the activations of the abnormal brain regions and the clinical seizure parameters were computed for LFLE patients. Brain activations of LFLE patients were significantly elevated in left superior/middle/inferior frontal gyri, postcentral gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, insula, parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala, including the epileptogenic regions. Remarkable decreased activations were found mainly in the left parietal gyrus and precuneus. There is a positive correlation between the duration of the epilepsy (in month) and activations of the abnormal regions, while no relation was found between age of seizure onset (year), seizure frequency and the regions of the abnormal activity of the epileptic patients. Our findings suggest that the aberrant brain activities of LFLE patients were not restricted to the epileptogenic zones. Long duration of epilepsy might induce further functional damage in patients with LFLE. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Visual Categorization and the Parietal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie K Fitzgerald

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The primate brain is adept at rapidly grouping items and events into functional classes, or categories, in order to recognize the significance of stimuli and guide behavior. Higher cognitive functions have traditionally been considered the domain of frontal areas. However, increasing evidence suggests that parietal cortex is also involved in categorical and associative processes. Previous work showed that the parietal cortex is highly involved in spatial processing, attention and saccadic eye movement planning, and more recent studies have found decision-making signals in LIP. We recently found that a subdivision of parietal cortex, the lateral intraparietal area (LIP, reflects learned categories for multiple types of visual stimuli. Additionally, a comparison of categorization signals in parietal and frontal areas found stronger and earlier categorization signals in parietal cortex, arguing that parietal abstract association or category signals are unlikely to arise via feedback from prefrontal cortex (PFC.

  4. Brain activity dynamics in human parietal regions during spontaneous switches in bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megumi, Fukuda; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2015-02-15

    The neural mechanisms underlying conscious visual perception have been extensively investigated using bistable perception paradigms. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the right anterior superior parietal (r-aSPL) and the right posterior superior parietal lobule (r-pSPL) have opposite roles in triggering perceptual reversals. It has been proposed that these two areas are part of a hierarchical network whose dynamics determine perceptual switches. However, how these two parietal regions interact with each other and with the rest of the brain during bistable perception is not known. Here, we investigated such a model by recording brain activity using fMRI while participants viewed a bistable structure-from-motion stimulus. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we found that resolving such perceptual ambiguity was specifically associated with reciprocal interactions between these parietal regions and V5/MT. Strikingly, the strength of bottom-up coupling between V5/MT to r-pSPL and from r-pSPL to r-aSPL predicted individual mean dominance duration. Our findings are consistent with a hierarchical predictive coding model of parietal involvement in bistable perception and suggest that visual information processing underlying spontaneous perceptual switches can be described as changes in connectivity strength between parietal and visual cortical regions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporal Lobe Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions, including having odd feelings — such as euphoria, deja vu or fear. Temporal lobe seizures are sometimes called ... sudden sense of unprovoked fear or joy A deja vu experience — a feeling that what's happening has happened ...

  6. Parietal podocytes in normal human glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariety, Jean; Mandet, Chantal; Hill, Gary S; Bruneval, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Although parietal podocytes along the Bowman's capsule have been described by electron microscopy in the normal human kidney, their molecular composition remains unknown. Ten human normal kidneys that were removed for cancer were assessed for the presence and the extent of parietal podocytes along the Bowman's capsule. The expression of podocyte-specific proteins (podocalyxin, glomerular epithelial protein-1, podocin, nephrin, synaptopodin, and alpha-actinin-4), podocyte synthesized proteins (vascular endothelial growth factor and novH), transcription factors (WT1 and PAX2), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57, and intermediate filaments (cytokeratins and vimentin) was tested. In addition, six normal fetal kidneys were studied to track the ontogeny of parietal podocytes. The podocyte protein labeling detected parietal podocytes in all of the kidneys, was found in 76.6% on average of Bowman's capsule sections, and was prominent at the vascular pole. WT1 and p57 were expressed in some parietal cells, whereas PAX2 was present in all or most of them, so some parietal cells coexpressed WT1 and PAX2. Furthermore, parietal podocytes coexpressed WT1 and podocyte proteins. Cytokeratin-positive cells covered a variable part of the capsule and did not express podocyte proteins. Tuft-capsular podocyte bridges were present in 15.5 +/- 3.7% of the glomerular sections. Parietal podocytes often covered the juxtaglomerular arterioles and were present within the extraglomerular mesangium. Parietal podocytes were present in fetal kidneys. Parietal podocytes that express the same epitopes as visceral podocytes do exist along Bowman's capsule in the normal adult kidney. They are a constitutive cell type of the Bowman's capsule. Therefore, their role in physiology and pathology should be investigated.

  7. Phosphene-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation of occipital but not parietal cortex suppresses stimulus visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Evelina; Mazzi, Chiara; Savazzi, Silvia; Beck, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the occipital lobe approximately 100 ms after the onset of a stimulus decreases its visibility if it appears in the location of the phosphene. Because phosphenes can also be elicited by stimulation of the parietal regions, we asked if the same procedure that is used to reduce visibility of stimuli with occipital TMS will lead to decreased stimulus visibility when TMS is applied to parietal regions. TMS was randomly applied at 0 to 130 ms after the onset of the stimulus (SOA) in steps of 10 ms in occipital and parietal regions. Participants responded to the orientation of the line stimulus and rated its visibility. We replicate previous reports of phosphenes from both occipital and parietal TMS. As previously reported, we also observed visual suppression around the classical 100 ms window both in the objective line orientation and subjective visibility responses with occipital TMS. Parietal stimulation, on the other hand, did not consistently reduce stimulus visibility in any time window. PMID:24584900

  8. Differentiated parietal connectivity of frontal regions for "what" and "where" memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottschy, C; Caspers, S; Roski, C; Reetz, K; Dogan, I; Schulz, J B; Zilles, K; Laird, A R; Fox, P T; Eickhoff, S B

    2013-11-01

    In a previous meta-analysis across almost 200 neuroimaging experiments, working memory for object location showed significantly stronger convergence on the posterior superior frontal gyrus, whereas working memory for identity showed stronger convergence on the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (dorsal to, but overlapping with Brodmann's area BA 44). As similar locations have been discussed as part of a dorsal frontal-superior parietal reach system and an inferior frontal grasp system, the aim of the present study was to test whether the regions of working-memory related "what" and "where" processing show a similar distinction in parietal connectivity. The regions that were found in the previous meta-analysis were used as seeds for functional connectivity analyses using task-based meta-analytic connectivity modelling and task-independent resting state correlations. While the ventral seed showed significantly stronger connectivity with the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), the dorsal seed showed stronger connectivity with the bilateral posterior inferior parietal and the medial superior parietal lobule. The observed connections of regions involved in memory for object location and identity thus clearly demonstrate a distinction into separate pathways that resemble the parietal connectivity patterns of the dorsal and ventral premotor cortex in non-human primates and humans. It may hence be speculated that memory for a particular location and reaching towards it as well as object memory and finger positioning for manipulation may rely on shared neural systems. Moreover, the ensuing regions, in turn, featured differential connectivity with the bilateral ventral and dorsal extrastriate cortex, suggesting largely segregated bilateral connectivity pathways from the dorsal visual cortex via the superior and inferior parietal lobules to the dorsal posterior frontal cortex and from the ventral visual cortex via the IPS to the ventral posterior frontal cortex that may

  9. High Frequency rTMS over the Left Parietal Lobule Increases Non-Word Reading Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Floriana; Menghini, Deny; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vicari, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence in the literature supports the usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in studying reading processes. Two brain regions are primarily involved in phonological decoding: the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which is associated with the auditory representation of spoken words, and the left inferior parietal lobe…

  10. Altered Medial Frontal and Superior Temporal Response to Implicit Processing of Emotions in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K; Patriquin, Michelle A; Black, Briley S; Channell, Marie M; Wicker, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting emotional expressions appropriately poses a challenge for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, difficulties with emotional processing in ASD are more pronounced in contexts where emotional expressions are subtle, automatic, and reflexive-that is, implicit. In contrast, explicit emotional processing, which requires the cognitive evaluation of an emotional experience, appears to be relatively intact in individuals with ASD. In the present study, we examined the brain activation and functional connectivity differences underlying explicit and implicit emotional processing in age- and IQ-matched adults with (n = 17) and without (n = 15) ASD. Results indicated: (1) significantly reduced levels of brain activation in participants with ASD in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) during implicit emotion processing; (2) significantly weaker functional connectivity in the ASD group in connections of the MPFC with the amygdala, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and fusiform gyrus; (3) No group difference in performance accuracy or reaction time; and (4) Significant positive relationship between empathizing ability and STG activity in ASD but not in typically developing participants. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms underlying implicit, but not explicit, emotion processing may be altered at multiple levels in individuals with ASD. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Quantifying interictal metabolic activity in human temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, T.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Engel, J. Jr.; Christenson, P.D.; Zhang, J.X.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    The majority of patients with complex partial seizures of unilateral temporal lobe origin have interictal temporal hypometabolism on [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) studies. Often, this hypometabolism extends to ipsilateral extratemporal sites. The use of accurately quantified metabolic data has been limited by the absence of an equally reliable method of anatomical analysis of PET images. We developed a standardized method for visual placement of anatomically configured regions of interest on FDG PET studies, which is particularly adapted to the widespread, asymmetric, and often severe interictal metabolic alterations of temporal lobe epilepsy. This method was applied by a single investigator, who was blind to the identity of subjects, to 10 normal control and 25 interictal temporal lobe epilepsy studies. All subjects had normal brain anatomical volumes on structural neuroimaging studies. The results demonstrate ipsilateral thalamic and temporal lobe involvement in the interictal hypometabolism of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Ipsilateral frontal, parietal, and basal ganglial metabolism is also reduced, although not as markedly as is temporal and thalamic metabolism

  12. Right parietal cortex and calculation processing: intraoperative functional mapping of multiplication and addition in patients affected by a brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Puppa, Alessandro; De Pellegrin, Serena; d'Avella, Elena; Gioffrè, Giorgio; Munari, Marina; Saladini, Marina; Salillas, Elena; Scienza, Renato; Semenza, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    The role of parietal areas in number processing is well known. The significance of intraoperative functional mapping of these areas has been only partially explored, however, and only a few discordant data are available in the surgical literature with regard to the right parietal lobe. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of simple calculation in cortical electrostimulation of right-handed patients affected by a right parietal brain tumor. Calculation mapping in awake surgery was performed in 3 right-handed patients affected by high-grade gliomas located in the right parietal lobe. Preoperatively, none of the patients presented with calculation deficits. In all 3 cases, after sensorimotor and language mapping, cortical and intraparietal sulcus areas involved in single-digit multiplication and addition calculations were mapped using bipolar electrostimulation. In all patients, different sites of the right parietal cortex, mainly in the inferior lobule, were detected as being specifically related to calculation (multiplication or addition). In 2 patients the intraparietal sulcus was functionally specific for multiplication. No functional sites for language were detected. All sites functional for calculation were spared during tumor resection, which was complete in all cases without postoperative neurological deficits. These findings provide intraoperative data in support of an anatomofunctional organization for multiplication and addition within the right parietal area. Furthermore, the study shows the potential clinical relevance of intraoperative mapping of calculation in patients undergoing surgery in the right parietal area. Further and larger studies are needed to confirm these data and assess whether mapped areas are effectively essential for function.

  13. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van; Zaknun, John J.; Maes, Alex; Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon; Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina; Bal, C.S.; Dondi, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  14. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Zaknun, John J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Maes, Alex [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina [Fleni Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, Nuclear Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bal, C.S. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); Ospedale Maggiore, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  15. Changes in frontal lobe function before and after surgery in patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Saya; Kumon, Yoshiaki; Igase, Keiji; Watanabe, Hideaki; Ohnishi, Takanori

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated neuropsychological function in 18 patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysm who showed good postoperative outcomes. We paid particular attention to frontal lobe function. We also investigated relationships between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and frontal lobe function. Patients were examined using digit span, word fluency (WF), Stroop and trail-making tests to clarify frontal lobe function before and 1-2 months after surgery. We also used the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Raven's colored progressive matrices (RCPM) and revised Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS-R) to examine cognitive function. CBF was measured using 133 Xe-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before and 1-2 months after surgery. Tests revealed that the patients' postoperative neuropsychological status was improved compared to the preoperative status for MMSE, RCPM and WAIS-R. Among the tests of frontal lobe function, WF results had deteriorated significantly after surgery. Resting CBF in the frontal lobe was significantly decreased. Regional CBF in the frontal lobe was decreased significantly in comparison with values in the parietal and temporal lobes in patients showing deterioration of WF. Deterioration of WF correlated with CBF changes in the frontal lobe. These results suggest that surgery for unruptured cerebral aneurysm exerts detrimental effects on frontal lobe function that may be related to CBF changes. (author)

  16. Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) for lesions of the temporal lobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoerner, W.; Felix, R.; Meencke, H.J.; Freie Univ. Berlin; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study between magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) and CT was carried out in 16 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The MRT studies were performed on a 0.35 T Magnetom with T.1 modes in a coronal plane. MRT proved to the superior to CT. CT demonstrated a discrete temporal lobe lesion in three patients and MRT in four patients. In addition, unilateral atrophy of the temporal lobe was demonstrated by MRT in six cases; these could not be diagnosed by CT. The lack of artifacts near the skull base, the possibility of producing coronal sections and the excellent tissue differential of MRT provide the basis for improved diagnosis of lesions in the temporal lobes. (orig.) [de

  17. The Superior Fronto-Occipital Fasciculus in the Human Brain Revealed by Diffusion Spectrum Imaging Tractography: An Anatomical Reality or a Methodological Artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yue; Wang, Yong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yibao

    2017-01-01

    The existence of the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (SFOF) in the human brain remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to clarify the existence, course, and terminations of the SFOF. High angular diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) analysis was performed on six healthy adults and on a template of 842 subjects from the Human Connectome Project. To verify tractography results, we performed fiber microdissections of four post-mortem human brains. Based on DSI tractography, we reconstructed the SFOF in the subjects and the template from the Human Connectome Project that originated from the rostral and medial parts of the superior and middle frontal gyri. By tractography, we found that the fibers formed a compact fascicle at the level of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle coursing above the head of caudate nucleus, medial to the corona radiate and under the corpus callosum (CC), and terminated at the parietal region via the lower part of the caudate nucleus. We consider that this fiber bundle observed by tractography is the SFOF, although it terminates mainly at the parietal region, rather than occipital lobe. By contrast, we were unable to identify a fiber bundle corresponding to the SFOF in our fiber dissection study. Although we did not provide definite evidence of the SFOF in the human brain, these findings may be useful for future studies in this field. PMID:29321729

  18. The Superior Fronto-Occipital Fasciculus in the Human Brain Revealed by Diffusion Spectrum Imaging Tractography: An Anatomical Reality or a Methodological Artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Bao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (SFOF in the human brain remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to clarify the existence, course, and terminations of the SFOF. High angular diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI analysis was performed on six healthy adults and on a template of 842 subjects from the Human Connectome Project. To verify tractography results, we performed fiber microdissections of four post-mortem human brains. Based on DSI tractography, we reconstructed the SFOF in the subjects and the template from the Human Connectome Project that originated from the rostral and medial parts of the superior and middle frontal gyri. By tractography, we found that the fibers formed a compact fascicle at the level of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle coursing above the head of caudate nucleus, medial to the corona radiate and under the corpus callosum (CC, and terminated at the parietal region via the lower part of the caudate nucleus. We consider that this fiber bundle observed by tractography is the SFOF, although it terminates mainly at the parietal region, rather than occipital lobe. By contrast, we were unable to identify a fiber bundle corresponding to the SFOF in our fiber dissection study. Although we did not provide definite evidence of the SFOF in the human brain, these findings may be useful for future studies in this field.

  19. Novelty enhances visual salience independently of reward in the parietal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nicholas C; Jangraw, David C; Peck, Christopher; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2014-06-04

    Novelty modulates sensory and reward processes, but it remains unknown how these effects interact, i.e., how the visual effects of novelty are related to its motivational effects. A widespread hypothesis, based on findings that novelty activates reward-related structures, is that all the effects of novelty are explained in terms of reward. According to this idea, a novel stimulus is by default assigned high reward value and hence high salience, but this salience rapidly decreases if the stimulus signals a negative outcome. Here we show that, contrary to this idea, novelty affects visual salience in the monkey lateral intraparietal area (LIP) in ways that are independent of expected reward. Monkeys viewed peripheral visual cues that were novel or familiar (received few or many exposures) and predicted whether the trial will have a positive or a negative outcome--i.e., end in a reward or a lack of reward. We used a saccade-based assay to detect whether the cues automatically attracted or repelled attention from their visual field location. We show that salience--measured in saccades and LIP responses--was enhanced by both novelty and positive reward associations, but these factors were dissociable and habituated on different timescales. The monkeys rapidly recognized that a novel stimulus signaled a negative outcome (and withheld anticipatory licking within the first few presentations), but the salience of that stimulus remained high for multiple subsequent presentations. Therefore, novelty can provide an intrinsic bonus for attention that extends beyond the first presentation and is independent of physical rewards. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347947-11$15.00/0.

  20. Dysfunctional role of parietal lobe during self-face recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Je-Yeon; Hur, Ji-Won; Jung, Wi Hoon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Youn, Tak; Kang, Do-Hyung; Park, Sohee; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous sense of self is central to schizophrenia yet difficult to demonstrate empirically. The present study examined the effective neural network connectivity underlying self-face recognition in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) using [15O]H2O Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Structural Equation Modeling. Eight SZ and eight age-matched healthy controls (CO) underwent six consecutive [15O]H2O PET scans during self-face (SF) and famous face (FF) recognition blocks, each of which was repeated three times. There were no behavioral performance differences between the SF and FF blocks in SZ. Moreover, voxel-based analyses of data from SZ revealed no significant differences in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) levels between the SF and FF recognition conditions. Further effective connectivity analyses for SZ also showed a similar pattern of effective connectivity network across the SF and FF recognition. On the other hand, comparison of SF recognition effective connectivity network between SZ and CO demonstrated significantly attenuated effective connectivity strength not only between the right supramarginal gyrus and left inferior temporal gyrus, but also between the cuneus and right medial prefrontal cortex in SZ. These findings support a conceptual model that posits a causal relationship between disrupted self-other discrimination and attenuated effective connectivity among the right supramarginal gyrus, cuneus, and prefronto-temporal brain areas involved in the SF recognition network of SZ. © 2013.

  1. Sex-dependent age modulation of frontostriatal and temporo-parietal activation during cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakou, Anastasia; Halari, Rozmin; Smith, Anna B; Ifkovits, Eve; Brammer, Mick; Rubia, Katya

    2009-10-15

    Developmental functional imaging studies of cognitive control show progressive age-related increase in task-relevant fronto-striatal activation in male development from childhood to adulthood. Little is known, however, about how gender affects this functional development. In this study, we used event related functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine effects of sex, age, and their interaction on brain activation during attentional switching and interference inhibition, in 63 male and female adolescents and adults, aged 13 to 38. Linear age correlations were observed across all subjects in task-specific frontal, striatal and temporo-parietal activation. Gender analysis revealed increased activation in females relative to males in fronto-striatal areas during the Switch task, and laterality effects in the Simon task, with females showing increased left inferior prefrontal and temporal activation, and males showing increased right inferior prefrontal and parietal activation. Increased prefrontal activation clusters in females and increased parietal activation clusters in males furthermore overlapped with clusters that were age-correlated across the whole group, potentially reflecting more mature prefrontal brain activation patterns for females, and more mature parietal activation patterns for males. Gender by age interactions further supported this dissociation, revealing exclusive female-specific age correlations in inferior and medial prefrontal brain regions during both tasks, and exclusive male-specific age correlations in superior parietal (Switch task) and temporal regions (Simon task). These findings show increased recruitment of age-correlated prefrontal activation in females, and of age-correlated parietal activation in males, during tasks of cognitive control. Gender differences in frontal and parietal recruitment may thus be related to gender differences in the neurofunctional maturation of these brain regions.

  2. Medial temporal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.J.; Cross, D.T.; Friedman, D.P.; Bello, J.A.; Hilal, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    To better define the MR appearance of hippocampal sclerosis, the authors have reviewed over 500 MR coronal images of the temporal lobes. Many cysts were noted that analysis showed were of choroid-fissure (arachnoid) origin. Their association with seizures was low. A few nontumorous, static, medial temporal lesions, noted on T2-weighted coronal images, were poorly visualized on T1-weighted images and did not enhance with gadolinium. The margins were irregular, involved the hippocampus, and were often associated with focal atrophy. The lesions usually were associated with seizure disorders and specific electroencephalographic changes, and the authors believe they represented hippocampal sclerosis

  3. Examining the role of the temporo-parietal network in memory, imagery and viewpoint transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiret eDhindsa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view of the medial temporal lobe (MTL focuses on its role in episodic memory. However, some of the underlying functions of the MTL can be ascertained from its wider role in supporting spatial cognition in concert with parietal and prefrontal regions. The MTL is strongly implicated in the formation of enduring allocentric representations (e.g. O’Keefe (1976; Ekstrom et al. (2003; King et al. (2002. According to our BBB model (Byrne et al. (2007, these representations must interact with head-centered and body-centered representations in posterior parietal cortex via a transformation circuit involving retrosplenial areas. Egocentric sensory representations in parietal areas can then cue the recall of allocentric spatial representations in long-term memory and, conversely, the products of retrieval in MTL can generate mental imagery within a parietal ’window’. Such imagery is necessarily egocentric and forms part of visuospatial working memory, where it can be manipulated for the purpose of planning/imagining the future. Recent fMRI evidence (Lambrey et al. (2012; Zhang et al. (2012 supports the BBB model. To further test the model, we had participants learn the locations of objects in a virtual scene and tested their spatial memory under conditions that impose varying demands on the transformation circuit. We analyzed how brain activity correlated with accuracy in judging the direction of an object 1 from visuospatial working memory (we assume working memory due to the order of tasks and the consistency viewpoint, but long-term memory is also possible, 2 after a rotation of viewpoint, or 3 after a rotation and translation (judgement of relative direction. We found performance-related activity in both tasks requiring viewpoint rotation in the core medial temporal to medial parietal. These results are consistent with the BBB model and shed further light on the mechanisms underlying spatial memory, mental imagery and viewpoint

  4. Cognitive dysfunctions in occipital lobe epilepsy compared to temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Trojano, Luigi; Vitale, Carmine; Improta, Ilaria; Alineri, Irma; Meo, Roberta; Bilo, Leonilda

    2017-06-01

    To compare cognitive profiles of occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to investigate whether impairment of visuospatial functions is a specific deficit of OLE. Eighteen patients with OLE, 18 patients with TLE, and 18 controls underwent a neuropsychological battery assessing memory, visuospatial functions, and frontal/executive functions. Multivariate analysis evidenced poorer performance of patients with TLE and patients with OLE relative to controls on tasks assessing verbal and non-verbal long-term memory, frontal functions, and visuospatial functions. Patients with OLE had poorer performance than patients with TLE on visuospatial tasks, whereas patients with TLE performed worse than patients with OLE on verbal long-term memory test. Discriminant analysis identified two canonical discriminant functions: The first explained 53.3% of the variance, and the second explained 46.7% of the variance. The first function included verbal and non-verbal memory tests distinguishing controls from both OLE and TLE, whereas the second factor including a visuoconstructional test distinguished OLE from TLE and controls. The results demonstrate that visuoconstructional dysfunction is related to OLE and support the idea that alterations of occipito-parietal stream may be specific to patients with OLE. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Connections of the medial posterior parietal cortex (area 7m) in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichnetz, G R

    2001-06-01

    The afferent and efferent cortical and subcortical connections of the medial posterior parietal cortex (area 7m) were studied in cebus (Cebus apella) and macaque (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys using the retrograde and anterograde capabilities of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) technique. The principal intraparietal corticocortical connections of area 7m in both cebus and macaque cases were with the ipsilateral medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus (MIP) and adjacent superior parietal lobule (area 5), inferior parietal lobule (area 7a), lateral bank of the IPS (area 7ip), caudal parietal operculum (PGop), dorsal bank of the caudal superior temporal sulcus (visual area MST), and medial prestriate cortex (including visual area PO and caudal medial lobule). Its principal frontal corticocortical connections were with the prefrontal cortex in the shoulder above the principal sulcus and the cortex in the shoulder above the superior ramus of the arcuate sulcus (SAS), the area purported to contain the smooth eye movement-related frontal eye field (FEFsem) in the cebus monkey by other investigators. There were moderate connections with the cortex in the rostral bank of the arcuate sulcus (purported to contain the saccade-related frontal eye field; FEFsac), supplementary eye field (SEF), and rostral dorsal premotor area (PMDr). Area 7m also had major connections with the cingulate cortex (area 23), particularly the ventral bank of the cingulate sulcus. The principal subcortical connections of area 7m were with the dorsal portion of the ventrolateral thalamic (VLc) nucleus, lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, lateral pulvinar, caudal mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and medial pulvinar, central lateral, central superior lateral, and central inferior intralaminar thalamic nuclei, dorsolateral caudate nucleus and putamen, middle region of the claustrum, nucleus of the diagonal band, zona incerta, pregeniculate nucleus, anterior and posterior pretectal nuclei, intermediate layer of

  6. Preoperative visual field deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeet S. Grewal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical resection and laser thermoablation have been used to treat drug resistant epilepsy with good results. However, they are not without risk. One of the most commonly reported complications of temporal lobe surgery is contralateral superior homonymous quadrantanopsia. We describe a patient with asymptomatic preoperative quadrantanopsia fortuitously discovered as part of our recently modified protocol to evaluate patients prior to temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. This visual field deficit was subtle and not detected on routine clinical neurological examination. While we understand that this is a single case, we advocate further study for more detailed preoperative visual field examinations to characterize the true incidence of postoperative visual field lesions.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma in Riedel's lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamfir, R; Braşoveanu, V; Boroş, M; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2008-01-01

    We present a rare case of 65-year female with right abdominal mass and abdominal discomfort; a combination of Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography and laparotomy was utilized to make a diagnosis of tumoral Riedel's lobe. In our case, laparotomy with resection of Riedel's lobe was the proper therapeutical solution.

  8. Regional intercostal bulging of the parietal pleura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantsch, H.; Greene, R.; Lechner, G.; Mavritz, W.; Pichler, W.; Winkler, M.; Zadrobilek, E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes bedside radiographs with localized intercostal bulging as the sole indication of tension pneumothorax in six patients with acute deterioration in gas exchange. Relief of the pneumothorax was followed by a rush of gas from the tension space and a prompt improvement in gas exchange. The authors concluded the regional intercostal bulging of the parietal pleura may be the sole indicator of life-threatening tension pneumothorax in patients on mechanical ventilation

  9. Gelastic seizures and the anteromesial frontal lobe: a case report and review of intracranial EEG recording and electrocortical stimulation case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnwongse, Kanjana; Wehner, Tim; Bingaman, William; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2010-10-01

    Symptomatogenic areas for ictal laughter have been described in the frontal and temporal lobes. Within the frontal lobe, gelastic seizures have been recorded from the cingulate gyrus. Electrocortical stimulation of the cingulate gyrus as well as the superior frontal gyrus induced laughter. We describe a patient whose gelastic seizures were associated with electrographic ictal activity in the mesial aspect of the right anterior frontal gyrus. The symptomatogenic area for ictal laughter in the frontal lobe may reside in the superior frontal gyrus.

  10. A case of luftsichel sign for left upper lobe collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erden Erol Ünlüer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of dyspnea in Emergency Department (ED patients is broad and atelectasis is one of the differentials among these. We present a 29-year-old women presented to our ED for evaluation of shortness of breath. On her chest examination, air entry and breath sounds were diminished on the left side but normal on the right. A posteroanterior chest radiograph showed radioluscent area in the upper zone of the left lung, around the aortic arch and also hyperdens area neighbouring this, like covered by a veil. Luftsichel sign together with this hiperdensity were consistent with the diagnose of left lung upper lobe collapse. The Luftsichel sign represents the hyperexpanded superior segment of the left lower lobe interposed between the atelectatic left upper lobe and aortic arch. Patient was discharged to home with chest physiotherapy and breathing exercises together with analgesic prescreption.

  11. Vulnerability of the frontal and parietal regions in hypertensive patients during working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Ailin; Li, Peng; Zhang, Junying; Tao, Wuhai; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2017-05-01

    Hypertension is related with cognitive decline in the elderly. The frontal-parietal executive system plays an important role in cognitive aging and is also vulnerable to damage in elderly patients with hypertension. Examination of the brain's functional characteristics in frontal-parietal regions of hypertension is likely to be important for understanding the neural mechanisms of hypertension's effect on cognitive aging. We address this issue by comparing hypertension and control-performers in a functional MRI study. Twenty-eight hypertensive patients and 32 elderly controls were tested with n-back task with two load levels. The hypertensive patients exhibited worse executive and memory abilities than control subjects. The patterns of brain activation changed under different working memory loads in the hypertensive patients, who exhibited reduced activation only in the precentral gyrus under low loads and reduced activation in the middle frontal gyrus, left medial superior frontal gyrus and right precuneus under high loads. Thus, more regions of diminished activation were observed in the frontal and parietal regions with increasing task difficulty. More importantly, we found that lower activation in changed frontal and parietal regions was associated with worse cognitive function in high loads. The results demonstrate the relationship between cognitive function and frontoparietal functional activation in hypertension and their relevance to cognitive aging risk. Our findings provide a better understanding of the mechanism of cognitive decline in hypertension and highlight the importance of brain protection in hypertension.

  12. Seeing is not feeling: posterior parietal but not somatosensory cortex engagement during touch observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Annie W-Y; Baker, Chris I

    2015-01-28

    Observing touch has been reported to elicit activation in human primary and secondary somatosensory cortices and is suggested to underlie our ability to interpret other's behavior and potentially empathy. However, despite these reports, there are a large number of inconsistencies in terms of the precise topography of activation, the extent of hemispheric lateralization, and what aspects of the stimulus are necessary to drive responses. To address these issues, we investigated the localization and functional properties of regions responsive to observed touch in a large group of participants (n = 40). Surprisingly, even with a lenient contrast of hand brushing versus brushing alone, we did not find any selective activation for observed touch in the hand regions of somatosensory cortex but rather in superior and inferior portions of neighboring posterior parietal cortex, predominantly in the left hemisphere. These regions in the posterior parietal cortex required the presence of both brush and hand to elicit strong responses and showed some selectivity for the form of the object or agent of touch. Furthermore, the inferior parietal region showed nonspecific tactile and motor responses, suggesting some similarity to area PFG in the monkey. Collectively, our findings challenge the automatic engagement of somatosensory cortex when observing touch, suggest mislocalization in previous studies, and instead highlight the role of posterior parietal cortex. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351468-13$15.00/0.

  13. Nuclear Glycogen Inclusions in Canine Parietal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, S; Lepri, E; Dall'Aglio, C; Marchesi, M C; Vitellozzi, G

    2017-05-01

    Nuclear glycogen inclusions occur infrequently in pathologic conditions but also in normal human and animal tissues. Their function or significance is unclear. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no reports of nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells exist. After initial observations of nuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions during routine histopathology, the authors retrospectively examined samples of gastric mucosa from dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs for the presence of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions and determined their composition using histologic and electron-microscopic methods. In 24 of 108 cases (22%), the authors observed various numbers of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions within scattered parietal cells. Nuclei were characterized by marked karyomegaly and chromatin margination around a central optically empty or slightly eosinophilic area. The intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions stained positive with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and were diastase sensitive, consistent with glycogen. Several PAS-positive/diastase-sensitive sections were further examined by transmission electron microscopy, also using periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate (PA-TCH-SP) staining to identify polysaccharides. Ultrastructurally, the nuclear inclusions were composed of electron-dense particles that were not membrane bound, without evidence of nuclear membrane invaginations or cytoplasmic organelles in the nuclei, and positive staining with PA-TCH-SP, confirming a glycogen composition. No cytoplasmic glycogen deposits were observed, suggesting that the intranuclear glycogen inclusions were probably synthesized in loco. Nuclear glycogen inclusions were not associated with gastritis or colonization by Helicobacter-like organisms ( P > .05). Our findings suggest that nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells could be an incidental finding. Nevertheless, since nuclear glycogen is present in several pathologic

  14. Transcriptional landscape of glomerular parietal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina A Gharib

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the function of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs. In this study, we performed genome-wide expression analysis on PEC-enriched capsulated vs. PEC-deprived decapsulated rat glomeruli to determine the transcriptional state of PECs under normal conditions. We identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that mapped to distinct biologic modules including development, tight junction, ion transport, and metabolic processes. Since developmental programs were highly enriched in PECs, we characterized several of their candidate members at the protein level. Collectively, our findings confirm that PECs are multifaceted cells and help define their diverse functional repertoire.

  15. Executive Functions in Healthy Older Adults Are Differentially Related to Macro- and Microstructural White Matter Characteristics of the Cerebral Lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hirsiger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with microstructural white matter (WM changes. WM microstructural characteristics, measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, are different in normal appearing white matter (NAWM and WM hyperintensities (WMH. It is largely unknown how the microstructural properties of WMH are associated with cognition and if there are regional effects for specific cognitive domains. We therefore examined within 200 healthy older participants (a differences in microstructural characteristics of NAWM and WMH per cerebral lobe; and (b the association of macrostructural (WMH volume and microstructural characteristics (within NAWM and WMH separately of each lobe with measures of executive function and processing speed. Multi-modal imaging (i.e., T1, DTI, and FLAIR was used to assess WM properties. The Stroop and the Trail Making Test were used to measure inhibition, task-switching (both components of executive function, and processing speed. We observed that age was associated with deterioration of white matter microstructure of the NAWM, most notably in the frontal lobe. Older participants had larger WMH volumes and lowest fractional anisotropy values within WMH were found in the frontal lobe. Task-switching was associated with cerebral NAWM volume and NAWM volume of all lobes. Processing speed was associated with total NAWM volume, and microstructural properties of parietal NAWM, the parietal WMH, and the temporal NAWM. Task-switching was related to microstructural properties of WMH of the frontal lobe and WMH volume of the parietal lobe. Our results confirm that executive functioning and processing speed are uniquely associated with macro- and microstructural properties of NAWM and WMH. We further demonstrate for the first time that these relationships differ by lobar region. This warrants the consideration of these distinct WM indices when investigating cognitive function.

  16. The impact of top-down spatial attention on laterality and hemispheric asymmetry in the human parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Su Keun; Xu, Yaoda

    2016-08-01

    The human parietal cortex exhibits a preference to contralaterally presented visual stimuli (i.e., laterality) as well as an asymmetry between the two hemispheres with the left parietal cortex showing greater laterality than the right. Using visual short-term memory and perceptual tasks and varying target location predictability, this study examined whether hemispheric laterality and asymmetry are fixed characteristics of the human parietal cortex or whether they are dynamic and modulated by the deployment of top-down attention to the target present hemifield. Two parietal regions were examined here that have previously been shown to be involved in visual object individuation and identification and are located in the inferior and superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), respectively. Across three experiments, significant laterality was found in both parietal regions regardless of attentional modulation with laterality being greater in the inferior than superior IPS, consistent with their roles in object individuation and identification, respectively. Although the deployment of top-down attention had no effect on the superior IPS, it significantly increased laterality in the inferior IPS. The deployment of top-down spatial attention can thus amplify the strength of laterality in the inferior IPS. Hemispheric asymmetry, on the other hand, was absent in both brain regions and only emerged in the inferior but not the superior IPS with the deployment of top-down attention. Interestingly, the strength of hemispheric asymmetry significantly correlated with the strength of laterality in the inferior IPS. Hemispheric asymmetry thus seems to only emerge when there is a sufficient amount of laterality present in a brain region.

  17. Automatic and Intentional Number Processing Both Rely on Intact Right Parietal Cortex: A Combined fMRI and Neuronavigated TMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bien, Nina; Sack, Alexander T.

    2012-01-01

    Practice and training usually lead to performance increase in a given task. In addition, a shift from intentional toward more automatic processing mechanisms is often observed. It is currently debated whether automatic and intentional processing is subserved by the same or by different mechanism(s), and whether the same or different regions in the brain are recruited. Previous correlational evidence provided by behavioral, neuroimaging, modeling, and neuropsychological studies addressing this question yielded conflicting results. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to compare the causal influence of disrupting either left or right parietal cortex during automatic and intentional numerical processing, as reflected by the size congruity effect and the numerical distance effect, respectively. We found a functional hemispheric asymmetry within parietal cortex with only the TMS-induced right parietal disruption impairing both automatic and intentional numerical processing. In contrast, disrupting the left parietal lobe with TMS, or applying sham stimulation, did not affect performance during automatic or intentional numerical processing. The current results provide causal evidence for the functional relevance of right, but not left, parietal cortex for intentional, and automatic numerical processing, implying that at least within the parietal cortices, automatic, and intentional numerical processing rely on the same underlying hemispheric lateralization. PMID:22347175

  18. Muscarinic responses of gastric parietal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, J.M.; Kajimura, M.; Scott, D.R.; Hersey, S.J.; Sachs, G.

    1991-01-01

    Isolated rabbit gastric glands were used to study the nature of the muscarinic cholinergic responses of parietal cells. Carbachol stimulation of acid secretion, as measured by the accumulation of aminopyrine, was inhibited by the M1 antagonist, pirenzepine, with an IC50 of 13 microM; by the M2 antagonist, 11,2-(diethylamino)methyl-1 piperidinyl acetyl-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido 2,3-b 1,4 benzodiazepin-6-one (AF-DX 116), with an IC50 of 110 microM; and by the M1/M3 antagonist, diphenyl-acetoxy-4-methylpiperidinemethiodide, with an IC50 of 35 nM. The three antagonists displayed equivalent IC50 values for the inhibition of carbachol-stimulated production of 14CO2 from radiolabeled glucose, which is a measure of the turnover of the H,K-ATPase, the final step of acid secretion. Intracellular calcium levels were measured in gastric glands loaded with FURA 2. Carbachol was shown to both release calcium from an intracellular pool and to promote calcium entry across the plasma membrane. The calcium entry was inhibitable by 20 microM La3+. The relative potency of the three muscarinic antagonists for inhibition of calcium entry was essentially the same as for inhibition of acid secretion or pump related glucose oxidation. Image analysis of the glands showed the effects of carbachol, and of the antagonists, on intracellular calcium were occurring largely in the parietal cell. The rise in cell calcium due to release of calcium from intracellular stores was inhibited by 4-DAMP with an IC50 of 1.7 nM, suggesting that the release pathway was regulated by a low affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state; Ca entry and acid secretion are regulated by a high affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state, inhibited by higher 4-DAMP concentrations, suggesting that it is the steady-state elevation of Ca that is related to parietal cell function rather than the [Ca]i transient

  19. Immunohistochemical study of Metallothionein in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Rebollar, Daniel; Alonso-Vanegas, Mario; Nava-Ruíz, Concepción; Buentello-García, Masao; Yescas-Gómez, Petra; Díaz-Ruíz, Araceli; Rios, Camilo; Méndez-Armenta, Marisela

    2017-05-01

    Epilepsy is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common serious neurological example of acquired and frequent epilepsy. Oxidative stress is recognized as playing a contributing role in several neurological disorders, and most recently have been implicated in acquired epilepsies. The MTs occur in several brain regions and may serve as neuroprotective proteins against reactive oxygen species causing oxidative damage and stress. The main aim of this work was to describe the immunohistochemical localization of MT in the specimens derived from the patients affected by TLE. Histopathological examination showed NeuN, GFAP and MT immunopositive cells that were analyzed for determinate in hippocampal and parietal cortex samples. An increase in the reactive gliosis associated with increased MT expression was observed in patients with TLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Intracranial remote epidural haematoma as a complication after resection of an occipital lobe metastatic tumour from a testicular embryonal carcinoma – a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusewicz, Wojciech; Limanówka, Bartosz; Sagan, Leszek; Kojder, Ireneusz

    We present the case of a patient who suffered from intracranial epidural haematoma in the left fronto -temporo -parietal region as a complication after left parieto -occipital craniotomy and a resection of a metastatic lesion from a testicular embryonal carcinoma to the left occipital lobe. We also discuss possible causes of this complication.

  1. Examining the role of the temporo-parietal network in memory, imagery, and viewpoint transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Kiret; Drobinin, Vladislav; King, John; Hall, Geoffrey B; Burgess, Neil; Becker, Suzanna

    2014-01-01

    The traditional view of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) focuses on its role in episodic memory. However, some of the underlying functions of the MTL can be ascertained from its wider role in supporting spatial cognition in concert with parietal and prefrontal regions. The MTL is strongly implicated in the formation of enduring allocentric representations (e.g., O'Keefe, 1976; King et al., 2002; Ekstrom et al., 2003). According to our BBB model (Byrne et al., 2007), these representations must interact with head-centered and body-centered representations in posterior parietal cortex via a transformation circuit involving retrosplenial areas. Egocentric sensory representations in parietal areas can then cue the recall of allocentric spatial representations in long-term memory and, conversely, the products of retrieval in MTL can generate mental imagery within a parietal "window." Such imagery is necessarily egocentric and forms part of visuospatial working memory, in which it can be manipulated for the purpose of planning/imagining the future. Recent fMRI evidence (Lambrey et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2012) supports the BBB model. To further test the model, we had participants learn the locations of objects in a virtual scene and tested their spatial memory under conditions that impose varying demands on the transformation circuit. We analyzed how brain activity correlated with accuracy in judging the direction of an object (1) from visuospatial working memory (we assume transient working memory due to the order of tasks and the absence of change in viewpoint, but long-term memory retrieval is also possible), (2) after a rotation of viewpoint, or (3) after a rotation and translation of viewpoint (judgment of relative direction). We found performance-related activity in both tasks requiring viewpoint rotation (ROT and JRD, i.e., conditions 2 and 3) in the core medial temporal to medial parietal circuit identified by the BBB model. These results are consistent with the

  2. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of right inferior parietal cortex causally influences prefrontal activation for visual detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitao, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Lee, Hweeling

    2017-01-01

    -parietal areas integrating the evidence into a decision variable that is compared to a decisional threshold. This concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-fMRI study applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to investigate the causal influence of IPS...... affect participants' performance accuracy, it affected how observers adjusted their response times after making an error. We therefore suggest that activation increases in superior frontal gyri for misses relative to correct responses may not be critical for signal detection performance, but rather...

  3. Default network connectivity in medial temporal lobe amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Scott M; Salat, David H; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2012-10-17

    There is substantial overlap between the brain regions supporting episodic memory and the default network. However, in humans, the impact of bilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage on a large-scale neural network such as the default mode network is unknown. To examine this issue, resting fMRI was performed with amnesic patients and control participants. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses revealed robust default network connectivity in amnesia in cortical default network regions such as medial prefrontal cortex, posterior medial cortex, and lateral parietal cortex, as well as evidence of connectivity to residual MTL tissue. Relative to control participants, decreased posterior cingulate cortex connectivity to MTL and increased connectivity to cortical default network regions including lateral parietal and medial prefrontal cortex were observed in amnesic patients. In contrast, somatomotor network connectivity was intact in amnesic patients, indicating that bilateral MTL lesions may selectively impact the default network. Changes in default network connectivity in amnesia were largely restricted to the MTL subsystem, providing preliminary support from MTL amnesic patients that the default network can be fractionated into functionally and structurally distinct components. To our knowledge, this is the first examination of the default network in amnesia.

  4. Bilateral, posterior parietal polymicrogyria as part of speech therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been associated with either diffuse polymicrogyria around the entire extent of the sylvian fissure or in the posterior aspects of the parietal regions, in which case it is called posterior parietal ... This article discusses the possible embryological origin of these

  5. The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L; Binney, Richard J; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-03-01

    Wernicke's aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory-verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke's aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke's aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke's aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate-inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke's aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke's aphasia group displayed an 'over-activation' in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke's aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions.

  6. Parietal plasticity after training with a complex video game is associated with individual differences in improvements in an untrained working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki eNikolaidis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have devoted considerable attention and resources to cognitive training, yet there have been few examinations of the relationship between individual differences in patterns of brain activity during the training task and training benefits on untrained tasks (i.e., transfer. While a predominant hypothesis suggests that training will transfer if there is training-induced plasticity in brain regions important for the untrained task, this theory lacks sufficient empirical support. To address this issue we investigated the relationship between individual differences in training-induced changes in brain activity during a cognitive training videogame, and whether those changes explained individual differences in the resulting changes in performance in untrained tasks. Forty-five young adults trained with a videogame that challenges working memory, attention, and motor control for 15 2-hour sessions. Before and after training, all subjects received neuropsychological assessments targeting working memory, attention, and procedural learning to assess transfer. Subjects also underwent pre and post functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scans while they played the training videogame to assess how these patterns of brain activity change in response to training. For regions implicated in working memory, such as the superior parietal lobe, individual differences in the post-minus-pre changes in activation predicted performance changes in an untrained working memory task. These findings suggest that training-induced plasticity in the functional representation of a training task may play a role in individual differences in transfer. Our data support and extend previous literature that has examined the association between training related cognitive changes and associated changes in underlying neural networks. We discuss the role of individual differences in brain function in training generalizability and make suggestions for future cognitive

  7. Parietal plasticity after training with a complex video game is associated with individual differences in improvements in an untrained working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Aki; Voss, Michelle W; Lee, Hyunkyu; Vo, Loan T K; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have devoted considerable attention and resources to cognitive training, yet there have been few examinations of the relationship between individual differences in patterns of brain activity during the training task and training benefits on untrained tasks (i.e., transfer). While a predominant hypothesis suggests that training will transfer if there is training-induced plasticity in brain regions important for the untrained task, this theory lacks sufficient empirical support. To address this issue we investigated the relationship between individual differences in training-induced changes in brain activity during a cognitive training videogame, and whether those changes explained individual differences in the resulting changes in performance in untrained tasks. Forty-five young adults trained with a videogame that challenges working memory, attention, and motor control for 15 2-h sessions. Before and after training, all subjects received neuropsychological assessments targeting working memory, attention, and procedural learning to assess transfer. Subjects also underwent pre- and post-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while they played the training videogame to assess how these patterns of brain activity change in response to training. For regions implicated in working memory, such as the superior parietal lobe (SPL), individual differences in the post-minus-pre changes in activation predicted performance changes in an untrained working memory task. These findings suggest that training-induced plasticity in the functional representation of a training task may play a role in individual differences in transfer. Our data support and extend previous literature that has examined the association between training related cognitive changes and associated changes in underlying neural networks. We discuss the role of individual differences in brain function in training generalizability and make suggestions for future cognitive training research.

  8. Caracterización del injerto parietal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Díaz Fernández

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo de 22 pacientes en los que se utilizó el injerto parietal autógeno para reconstruir defectos del cráneo, en los servicios de Cirugía Maxilofacial y Neurocirugía del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Saturnino Lora", de Santiago de Cuba, desde 1988 hasta 1991. El método de extracción del injerto con división in situ resultó el más empleado y el que ofreció las mejores posibilidades de reconstrucción en cuanto a forma, volumen y flexibilidad, por lo que se recomienda en los defectos pequeños y medianos, sobre todo de la región frontal y áreas adyacentes, donde el contorno y la simetría son los 2 aspectos fundamentales que se deben conseguir. El método de división, in vitro se utilizó en las reconstrucciones de las deformidades de grandes dimensiones, particularmente en aquellas que no incluían la frente. El índice de complicaciones fue bajoIt was carried out a descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study of 22 patients in whom an autogenous parietal graft was used to reconstruct cranial defects at the Maxillofacial Surgery and Neurosurgery Department of the "Saturnino Lora" Clinical and Surgical Teaching Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba, from 1988 to 1991. The graft extraction method with division in situ was the most used and offered the best possibilities for reconstruction as regards form, volume and flexibility. Therefore, it is recommended for small and medium defects, particularly of the frontal region and adjacent areas, where contour and symmetry are the two fundamental aspects to be taken into consideration. The method of division in vitro was used to reconstruct large deformities, specially those in which the forehead was not included. The complications index was low

  9. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM study.

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    Satoshi Tanaka

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts.

  10. Activation in the Right Inferior Parietal Lobule Reflects the Representation of Musical Structure beyond Simple Pitch Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique T.; Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Robitaille, Nicolas; Schönwiesner, Marc; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Pitch discrimination tasks typically engage the superior temporal gyrus and the right inferior frontal gyrus. It is currently unclear whether these regions are equally involved in the processing of incongruous notes in melodies, which requires the representation of musical structure (tonality) in addition to pitch discrimination. To this aim, 14 participants completed two tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, one in which they had to identify a pitch change in a series of non-melodic repeating tones and a second in which they had to identify an incongruous note in a tonal melody. In both tasks, the deviants activated the right superior temporal gyrus. A contrast between deviants in the melodic task and deviants in the non-melodic task (melodic > non-melodic) revealed additional activity in the right inferior parietal lobule. Activation in the inferior parietal lobule likely represents processes related to the maintenance of tonal pitch structure in working memory during pitch discrimination. PMID:27195523

  11. Inferior parietal and right frontal contributions to trial-by-trial adaptations of attention to memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilirmak, Jasmin M; Rösler, Frank; Bien, Siegfried; Khader, Patrick H

    2015-07-21

    The attention to memory theory (AtoM) proposes that the same brain regions might be involved in selective processing of perceived stimuli (selective attention) and memory representations (selective retrieval). Although this idea is compelling, given consistently found neural overlap between perceiving and remembering stimuli, recent comparisons brought evidence for overlap as well as considerable differences. Here, we present a paradigm that enables the investigation of the AtoM hypothesis from a novel perspective to gain further insight into the neural resources involved in AtoM. Selective attention in perception is often investigated as a control process that shows lingering effects on immediately following trials. Here, we employed a paradigm capable of modulating selective retrieval in a similarly dynamic manner as in such selective-attention paradigms by inducing trial-to-trial shifts between relevant and irrelevant memory representations as well as changes of the width of the internal focus on memory. We found evidence for an involvement of bilateral inferior parietal lobe and right inferior frontal gyrus in reorienting the attentional focus on previously accessed memory representations. Moreover, we could dissociate the right inferior from the parietal activation in separate contrasts, suggesting that the right inferior frontal gyrus plays a role in facilitating attentional reorienting to memory representations when competing representations have been activated in the preceding trial, potentially by resolving this competition. Our results support the AtoM theory, i.e. that ventral frontal and parietal regions are involved in automatic attentional reorienting in memory, and highlight the importance of further investigations of the overlap and differences between regions involved in internal (memory) and external (perceptual) attentional selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving ideomotor limb apraxia by electrical stimulation of the left posterior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Nadia; Convento, Silvia; Banco, Elisabetta; Mattioli, Flavia; Tesio, Luigi; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Limb apraxia, a deficit of planning voluntary gestures, is most frequently caused by damage to the left hemisphere, where, according to an influential neurofunctional model, gestures are planned, before being executed through the motor cortex of the hemisphere contralateral to the acting hand. We used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation delivered to the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC), the right motor cortex (M1), and a sham stimulation condition, to modulate the ability of six left-brain-damaged patients with ideomotor apraxia, and six healthy control subjects, to imitate hand gestures, and to perform skilled hand movements using the left hand. Transcranial direct current stimulation delivered to the left PPC reduced the time required to perform skilled movements, and planning, but not execution, times in imitating gestures, in both patients and controls. In patients, the amount of decrease of planning times brought about by left PPC transcranial direct current stimulation was influenced by the size of the parietal lobe damage, with a larger parietal damage being associated with a smaller improvement. Of interest from a clinical perspective, left PPC stimulation also ameliorated accuracy in imitating hand gestures in patients. Instead, transcranial direct current stimulation to the right M1 diminished execution, but not planning, times in both patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, by using a transcranial stimulation approach, we temporarily improved ideomotor apraxia in the left hand of left-brain-damaged patients, showing a role of the left PPC in planning gestures. This evidence opens up novel perspectives for the use of transcranial direct current stimulation in the rehabilitation of limb apraxia. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Bilateral fronto-parietal integrity in young chronic cigarette smokers: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Liao

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in China and other countries. Previous studies have demonstrated gray matter loss in chronic smokers. However, only a few studies assessed the changes of white matter integrity in this group. Based on those previous reports of alterations in white matter integrity in smokers, the aim of this study was to examine the alteration of white matter integrity in a large, well-matched sample of chronic smokers and non-smokers.Using in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to measure the differences of whole-brain white matter integrity between 44 chronic smoking subjects (mean age, 28.0±5.6 years and 44 healthy age- and sex-matched comparison non-smoking volunteers (mean age, 26.3±5.8 years. DTI was performed on a 3-Tesla Siemens scanner (Allegra; Siemens Medical System. The data revealed that smokers had higher fractional anisotropy (FA than healthy non-smokers in almost symmetrically bilateral fronto-parietal tracts consisting of a major white matter pathway, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF.We found the almost symmetrically bilateral fronto-parietal whiter matter changes in a relatively large sample of chronic smokers. These findings support the hypothesis that chronic cigarette smoking involves alterations of bilateral fronto-parietal connectivity.

  14. Temporal lobe origin is common in patients who have undergone epilepsy surgery for hypermotor seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Amir M; Azar, Nabil J; Lagrange, Andre H; McLean, Michael; Singh, Pradumna; Sonmezturk, Hasan; Konrad, Peter; Neimat, Joseph; Abou-Khalil, Bassel

    2016-11-01

    Hypermotor seizures are most often reported from the frontal lobe but may also have temporal, parietal, or insular origin. We noted a higher proportion of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in our surgical cohort who had hypermotor seizures. We evaluated the anatomic localization and surgical outcome in patient with refractory hypermotor seizures who had epilepsy surgery in our center. We identified twenty three patients with refractory hypermotor seizures from our epilepsy surgery database. We analyzed demographics, presurgical evaluation including semiology, MRI, PET scan, interictal/ictal scalp video-EEG, intracranial recording, and surgical outcomes. We evaluated preoperative variables as predictors of outcome. Most patients (65%) had normal brain MRI. Intracranial EEG was required in 20 patients (86.9%). Based on the presurgical evaluation, the resection was anterior temporal in fourteen patients, orbitofrontal in four patients, cingulate in four patients, and temporoparietal in one patient. The median duration of follow-up after surgery was 76.4months. Fourteen patients (60%) had been seizure free at the last follow up while 3 patients had rare disabling seizures. Hypermotor seizures often originated from the temporal lobe in this series of patients who had epilepsy surgery. This large proportion of temporal lobe epilepsy may be the result of a selection bias, due to easier localization and expected better outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy. With extensive presurgical evaluation, including intracranial EEG when needed, seizure freedom can be expected in the majority of patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Abnormal parietal function in conversion paresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms.

  16. Navigating actions through the rodent parietal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Whitlock

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The posterior parietal cortex (PPC participates in a manifold of cognitive functions, including visual attention, working memory, spatial processing and movement planning. Given the vast interconnectivity of PPC with sensory and motor areas, it is not surprising that neuronal recordings show that PPC often encodes mixtures of spatial information as well as the movements required to reach a goal. Recent work sought to discern the relative strength of spatial versus motor signaling in PPC by recording single unit activity in PPC of freely behaving rats during selective changes in either the spatial layout of the local environment or in the pattern of locomotor behaviors executed during navigational tasks. The results revealed unequivocally a predominant sensitivity of PPC neurons to locomotor action structure, with subsets of cells even encoding upcoming movements more than 1 second in advance. In light of these and other recent findings in the field, I propose that one of the key contributions of PPC to navigation is the synthesis of goal-directed behavioral sequences, and that the rodent PPC may serve as an apt system to investigate cellular mechanisms for spatial motor planning as traditionally studied in humans and monkeys.

  17. Let's inhibit our excitement: the relationships between Stroop, behavioral disinhibition, and the frontal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Lara H; Laluz, Victor; Jang, Jung; Ketelle, Robin; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2011-09-01

    The Stroop (Stroop, 1935) is a frequently used neuropsychological test, with poor performance typically interpreted as indicative of disinhibition and frontal lobe damage. This study tested those interpretations by examining relationships between Stroop performance, behavioral disinhibition, and frontal lobe atrophy. Participants were 112 patients with mild cognitive impairment or dementia, recruited through UCSF's Memory and Aging Center. Participants received comprehensive dementia evaluations including structural MRI, neuropsychological testing, and informant interviews. Freesurfer, a semiautomated parcellation program, was used to analyze 1.5T MRI scans. Behavioral disinhibition was measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (Cummings, 1997; Cummings et al., 1994) Disinhibition Scale. The sample (n = 112) mean age was 65.40 (SD = 8.60) years, education was 16.64 (SD = 2.54) years, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; Folstein et al., 1975) was 26.63 (SD = 3.32). Hierarchical linear regressions were used for data analysis. Controlling for age, MMSE, and color naming, Stroop performance was not significantly associated with disinhibition (β = 0.01, ΔR² = 0.01, p = .29). Hierarchical regressions controlling for age, MMSE, color naming, intracranial volume, and temporal and parietal lobes, examined whether left or right hemisphere regions predict Stroop performance. Bilaterally, parietal lobe atrophy best predicted poorer Stroop (left: β = 0.0004, ΔR² = 0.02, p = .002; right: β = 0.0004, ΔR² = 0.02, p = .002). Of frontal regions, only dorsolateral prefrontal cortex atrophy predicted poorer Stroop (β = 0.001, ΔR² = 0.01, p = .03); left and right anterior cingulate cortex atrophy predicted better Stroop (left: β = -0.003, ΔR² = 0.01, p = .02; right: β = -0.004, ΔR² = 0.01, p = .02). These findings suggest Stroop performance is a poor measure of behavioral disinhibition and frontal lobe atrophy even among a relatively high-risk population

  18. Brain SPECT imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausz, Y.; Yaffe, S.; Atlan, H.; Cohen, D.; Konstantini, S.; Meiner, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs and by localization of an epileptogenic focus. A brain SPECT study of two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, using 99m Tc-HMPAO, was used to demonstrate a perfusion abnormality in the temporal lobe, while brain CT and MRI were non-contributory. The electroencephalogram, though abnormal, did not localize the diseased area. The potential role of the SPECT study in diagnosis and localization of temporal lobe epilepsy is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  20. Individual structural differences in left inferior parietal area are associated with schoolchildrens’ arithmetic scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin eLi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left parietal regions and arithmetic skill has been studied in detail, it remains unclear about the relationship between arithmetic achievement and structural properties in left inferior parietal area in schoolchildren. The current study employed a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM for high-resolution T1-weighted images and fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the relationship between structural properties in the inferior parietal area and arithmetic achievement in 10-year-old schoolchildren. VBM of the T1-weighted images revealed that individual differences in arithmetic scores were significantly and positively correlated with the grey matter (GM volume in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS. Fiber tracking analysis revealed that the forceps major, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF were the primary pathways connecting the left IPS with other brain areas. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the probabilistic pathways revealed a significant and positive correlation between the fractional anisotropy (FA values in the left SLF, ILF and bilateral IFOF and arithmetic scores. The brain structure-behavior correlation analyses indicated that the GM volumes in the left IPS and the FA values in the tract pathways connecting left IPS were both related to children’s arithmetic achievement. The present findings provide evidence that individual structural differences in the left IPS are associated with arithmetic scores in schoolchildren.

  1. Pulmonary sequestrations of the upper lobe in children: Three presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffel, J.C.; Bernard, C.; Didier, F.; Bretagne, M.C.; Gautry, P.; Olive, D.; Prevot, J.; Pernot, C.; Hopital des Enfants, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy; Hopital des Enfants, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy; Hopital des Enfants, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary sequestrations are congenital abnormalities where nonfunctioning lung tissue receives its vascular supply from the systemic circulation (thoracic or abdominal aorta). It is necessary to establish the diagnosis in childhood when the lesions are uncomplicated. The authors present three cases of sequestration of the apex (2 extralobar and 1 atypical) with the main clinical and radiological features. Sequestrations in the upper lobe are rare, and the usual site is the left lower lobe. Plain X-rays show a dense opacity, sometimes with an air-fluid level: angiography is currently the best mean for definitive diagnosis; however, computed tomography will probably be very useful in the future. Differential diagnosis includes tumours of the superior mediastinum (neurogenic tumours, digestive duplication, bronchogenic cysts, pheochromocytoma and hydatid cysts). (orig.) [de

  2. Acute Infantile Encephalopathy Predominantly Affecting The Frontal Lobes (AIEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raha, Sarbani; Udani, Vrajesh

    2012-12-01

    Acute Infantile Encephalopathy Predominantly Affecting the Frontal Lobes (AIEF) is a relatively recent described entity. This article includes case reports of two patients who had bifrontal involvement during acute febrile encephalopathy. Case 1 describes a 1-y-old boy who presented with hyperpyrexia and dialeptic seizures. Imaging revealed significant bilateral frontal lobe involvement while serology proved presence of Influenza B infection. Over a period of one wk, he recovered with significant cognitive decline and perseveratory behavior. Another 6-y-old boy presented with language and behavioral problems suggestive of frontal dysfunction after recovering from prolonged impairment of consciousness following a convulsive status epilepticus. Bilateral superior frontal lesions with gyral swelling was evident on neuroimaging. These cases are among the very few cases of AIEF described in recent literature and the article also reviews this unique subtype of acute encephalopathy.

  3. Correlation of neuropsychological and metabolic changes after epilepsy surgery in patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvenç, Canan; Dupont, Patrick; Van den Stock, Jan; Seynaeve, Laura; Porke, Kathleen; Dries, Eva; Van Bouwel, Karen; van Loon, Johannes; Theys, Tom; Goffin, Karolien E; Van Paesschen, Wim

    2018-04-12

    Epilepsy surgery often causes changes in cognition and cerebral glucose metabolism. Our aim was to explore relationships between pre- and postoperative cerebral metabolism as measured with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and neuropsychological test scores in patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), who were rendered seizure-free after epilepsy surgery. Thirteen patients were included. All had neuropsychological testing and an interictal FDG-PET scan of the brain pre- and postoperative. Correlations between changes in neuropsychological test scores and metabolism were examined using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). There were no significant changes in the neuropsychological test scores pre- and postoperatively at the group level. Decreased metabolism was observed in the left mesial temporal regions and occipital lobe. Increased metabolism was observed in the bi-frontal and right parietal lobes, temporal lobes, occipital lobes, thalamus, cerebellum, and vermis. In these regions, we did not find a correlation between changes in metabolism and neuropsychological test scores. A significant negative correlation, however, was found between metabolic changes in the precuneus and Boston Naming Test (BNT) scores. There are significant metabolic decreases in the left mesial temporal regions and increases in the bi-frontal lobes; right parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes; right thalamus; cerebellum; and vermis in patients with left MTLE-HS who were rendered seizure-free after epilepsy surgery. We could not confirm that these changes translate into significant cognitive changes. A significant negative correlation was found between changes in confrontation naming and changes in metabolism in the precuneus. We speculate that the precuneus may play a compensatory role in patients with postoperative naming difficulties after left TLE surgery. Understanding of these neural mechanisms may aid in

  4. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.; Moseley, Brian D.; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2012-01-01

    The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome. PMID:22957247

  5. Occipital lobe infarctions are different

    OpenAIRE

    Naess, Halvor; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrikke; Thomassen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Halvor Naess, Ulrikke Waje-Andreassen, Lars ThomassenDepartment of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, NorwayObjectives: We hypothesized that occipital lobe infarctions differ from infarctions in other locations as to etiology, risk factors and prognosis among young adults.Methods: Location, etiology, risk factors and long-term outcome were evaluated among all young adults 15–49 years suffering from cerebral infarction in Hordaland County, Norw...

  6. Intradiploic encephalocele of the left parietal bone: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Sock; Huh, Choon Woong; Kim, Dal Soo; Mok, Jin Ho; Kim, In Soo; Yang, Geun Seok [Myongji St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Encephaloceles are generally regarded as midline abnormalities. A 50-year-old man presented with a parietal intradiploic encephalocele manifesting as intermittent headache for the past 6 months. Computed tomography (CT) showed bone destruction associated with a left parietal lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated brain herniation within the intradiploic space. Cerebral angiographic imaging showed a normal cerebral vessel pattern within the herniated brain lesion. In this case, surgical treatment may not be necessary in the absence of concurrent symptoms and neurologic deficit. We report the CT, MRI, and angiographic findings of an extremely rare case of parietal intradiploic encephalocele in adulthood.

  7. Intradiploic encephalocele of the left parietal bone: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Sock; Huh, Choon Woong; Kim, Dal Soo; Mok, Jin Ho; Kim, In Soo; Yang, Geun Seok

    2015-01-01

    Encephaloceles are generally regarded as midline abnormalities. A 50-year-old man presented with a parietal intradiploic encephalocele manifesting as intermittent headache for the past 6 months. Computed tomography (CT) showed bone destruction associated with a left parietal lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated brain herniation within the intradiploic space. Cerebral angiographic imaging showed a normal cerebral vessel pattern within the herniated brain lesion. In this case, surgical treatment may not be necessary in the absence of concurrent symptoms and neurologic deficit. We report the CT, MRI, and angiographic findings of an extremely rare case of parietal intradiploic encephalocele in adulthood

  8. Parietal cortex and representation of the mental Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans C; Luber, Bruce; Crupain, Michael

    2004-01-01

    For a coherent and meaningful life, conscious self-representation is mandatory. Such explicit "autonoetic consciousness" is thought to emerge by retrieval of memory of personally experienced events ("episodic memory"). During episodic retrieval, functional imaging studies consistently show....... The medial parietal region may, then, be conceived of as a nodal structure in self-representation, functionally connected to both the right parietal and the medial prefrontal cortices. To determine whether medial parietal cortex in this network is essential for episodic memory retrieval with self...

  9. The timing of associative memory formation: frontal lobe and anterior medial temporal lobe activity at associative binding predicts memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    The process of associating items encountered over time and across variable time delays is fundamental for creating memories in daily life, such as for stories and episodes. Forming associative memory for temporally discontiguous items involves medial temporal lobe structures and additional neocortical processing regions, including prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, and lateral occipital regions. However, most prior memory studies, using concurrently presented stimuli, have failed to examine the temporal aspect of successful associative memory formation to identify when activity in these brain regions is predictive of associative memory formation. In the current study, functional MRI data were acquired while subjects were shown pairs of sequentially presented visual images with a fixed interitem delay within pairs. This design allowed the entire time course of the trial to be analyzed, starting from onset of the first item, across the 5.5-s delay period, and through offset of the second item. Subjects then completed a postscan recognition test for the items and associations they encoded during the scan and their confidence for each. After controlling for item-memory strength, we isolated brain regions selectively involved in associative encoding. Consistent with prior findings, increased regional activity predicting subsequent associative memory success was found in anterior medial temporal lobe regions of left perirhinal and entorhinal cortices and in left prefrontal cortex and lateral occipital regions. The temporal separation within each pair, however, allowed extension of these findings by isolating the timing of regional involvement, showing that increased response in these regions occurs during binding but not during maintenance. PMID:21248058

  10. Evolution of posterior parietal cortex and parietal-frontal networks for specific actions in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Jon H; Stepniewska, Iwona

    2016-02-15

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is an extensive region of the human brain that develops relatively late and is proportionally large compared with that of monkeys and prosimian primates. Our ongoing comparative studies have led to several conclusions about the evolution of this posterior parietal region. In early placental mammals, PPC likely was a small multisensory region much like PPC of extant rodents and tree shrews. In early primates, PPC likely resembled that of prosimian galagos, in which caudal PPC (PPCc) is visual and rostral PPC (PPCr) has eight or more multisensory domains where electrical stimulation evokes different complex motor behaviors, including reaching, hand-to-mouth, looking, protecting the face or body, and grasping. These evoked behaviors depend on connections with functionally matched domains in premotor cortex (PMC) and motor cortex (M1). Domains in each region compete with each other, and a serial arrangement of domains allows different factors to influence motor outcomes successively. Similar arrangements of domains have been retained in New and Old World monkeys, and humans appear to have at least some of these domains. The great expansion and prolonged development of PPC in humans suggest the addition of functionally distinct territories. We propose that, across primates, PMC and M1 domains are second and third levels in a number of parallel, interacting networks for mediating and selecting one type of action over others. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Temporal lobe structures and facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia patients and nonpsychotic relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; Macdonald, Angus W; Sponheim, Scott R

    2011-11-01

    Temporal lobe abnormalities and emotion recognition deficits are prominent features of schizophrenia and appear related to the diathesis of the disorder. This study investigated whether temporal lobe structural abnormalities were associated with facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and related to genetic liability for the disorder. Twenty-seven schizophrenia patients, 23 biological family members, and 36 controls participated. Several temporal lobe regions (fusiform, superior temporal, middle temporal, amygdala, and hippocampus) previously associated with face recognition in normative samples and found to be abnormal in schizophrenia were evaluated using volumetric analyses. Participants completed a facial emotion recognition task and an age recognition control task under time-limited and self-paced conditions. Temporal lobe volumes were tested for associations with task performance. Group status explained 23% of the variance in temporal lobe volume. Left fusiform gray matter volume was decreased by 11% in patients and 7% in relatives compared with controls. Schizophrenia patients additionally exhibited smaller hippocampal and middle temporal volumes. Patients were unable to improve facial emotion recognition performance with unlimited time to make a judgment but were able to improve age recognition performance. Patients additionally showed a relationship between reduced temporal lobe gray matter and poor facial emotion recognition. For the middle temporal lobe region, the relationship between greater volume and better task performance was specific to facial emotion recognition and not age recognition. Because schizophrenia patients exhibited a specific deficit in emotion recognition not attributable to a generalized impairment in face perception, impaired emotion recognition may serve as a target for interventions.

  12. The gyri of the octopus vertical lobe have distinct neurochemical identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeno, Shuichi; Ragsdale, Clifton W

    2015-06-15

    The cephalopod vertical lobe is the largest learning and memory structure known in invertebrate nervous systems. It is part of the visual learning circuit of the central brain, which also includes the superior frontal and subvertical lobes. Despite the well-established functional importance of this system, little is known about neuropil organization of these structures and there is to date no evidence that the five longitudinal gyri of the vertical lobe, perhaps the most distinctive morphological feature of the octopus brain, differ in their connections or molecular identities. We studied the histochemical organization of these structures in hatchling and adult Octopus bimaculoides brains with immunostaining for serotonin, octopus gonadotropin-releasing hormone (oGNRH), and octopressin-neurophysin (OP-NP). Our major finding is that the five lobules forming the vertical lobe gyri have distinct neurochemical signatures. This is most prominent in the hatchling brain, where the median and mediolateral lobules are enriched in OP-NP fibers, the lateral lobule is marked by oGNRH innervation, and serotonin immunostaining heavily labels the median and lateral lobules. A major source of input to the vertical lobe is the superior frontal lobe, which is dominated by a neuropil of interweaving fiber bundles. We have found that this neuropil also has an intrinsic neurochemical organization: it is partitioned into territories alternately enriched or impoverished in oGNRH-containing fascicles. Our findings establish that the constituent lobes of the octopus superior frontal-vertical system have an intricate internal anatomy, one likely to reflect the presence of functional subsystems within cephalopod learning circuitry. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Bilateral parietal extradural metastatic ewing's sarcoma simulating acute epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, E.; Imran, M.; Faridi, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sarcomas usually metastasize to lugs. The following case report describes an unusual metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma to extradural parietal region bilaterally. The primary was found at lower end of ulna. (author)

  14. Abnormal pulmonary vein drainage in upper right lobe associated with double aortic arch : magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busto, M.; Dolz, J.L.; Capdevilla, A.; Castanon, M.; Mulet, J.

    1997-01-01

    We present the magnetic resonance (MR) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) findings in a case of abnormal pulmonary vein drainage from upper right lobe to superior vena cava, associated with double aortic arch, in a six-month-old boy. (Author) 9 refs

  15. Frontal lobe functioning during a simple response conflict task in first-episode psychosis and its relationship to treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafritz, Keith M; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Greene, Allison; Robinson, Delbert G; Gallego, Juan; Lencz, Todd; DeRosse, Pamela; Kingsley, Peter B; Szeszko, Philip R

    2018-05-09

    Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive control in patients with psychosis with findings of both hypo- and hyperfrontality. One factor that may contribute to inconsistent findings is the use of complex and polyfactorial tasks to investigate frontal lobe functioning. In the current study we employed a simple response conflict task during fMRI to examine differences in brain activation between patients experiencing their first-episode of psychosis (n = 33) and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 33). We further investigated whether baseline brain activation among patients predicted changes in symptom severity and treatment response following 12 weeks of controlled antipsychotic treatment. During the task subjects were instructed to press a response button on the same side or opposite side of a circle that appeared on either side of a central fixation point. Imaging data revealed that for the contrast of opposite-side vs. same-side, patients showed significantly greater activation compared with healthy volunteers in the anterior cingulate cortex and intraparietal sulcus. Among patients, greater baseline anterior cingulate cortex, temporal-parietal junction, and superior temporal cortex activation predicted greater symptom reduction and therapeutic response following treatment. All findings remained significant after covarying for task performance. Intact performance on this relatively parsimonious task was associated with frontal hyperactivity suggesting the need for patients to utilize greater neural resources to achieve task performance comparable to healthy individuals. Moreover, frontal hyperactivity observed using a simple fMRI task may provide a biomarker for predicting treatment response in first-episode psychosis.

  16. Comparison of rCBF between patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy and normal controls using H215O PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Jae Sung; Nam, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas whose regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was changed in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) using H 2 15 O-PET. 12 patients with mTLE (6 left, 6 right mTLE) and 6 normal controls were scanned during a fixation baseline period and a sensory-motor condition where subjects pressed a button to an upward arrow. A voxel-based analysis using SPM99 software was performed to compare the patient groups with the normal controls for the rCBF during fixation baseline period and for relative changes of rCBF during the sensory-motor task relative to fixation. Duirng the fixation baseline, a significant reduction of rCBF was found posterior insula bilaterally and right frontopolar regions in right mTLE patients compared to the normal controls. In left mTLE patients, the reduction was found in left frontopolar and temporal regions. During the sensory-motor task, rCBF increase over the fixation period, was reduced in left frontal and superior temporal regions in the right mTLE patients whereas in various areas of right hemisphere in left mTLE patients, relative to normal controls. However, the increased rCBF was also found in the left inferior parietal and anterior thalamic/fornix regions in both right and left mTLE patients compared to normal controls. Epilepsy induced changes were found not only in relative increase/ decrease of rCBF during a simple sensory-motor control condition relative to a fixation rest condition but also in the relative rCBF distribution during the rest period

  17. Attenuating illusory binding with TMS of the right parietal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Esterman, Michael; Verstynen, Timothy; Robertson, Lynn C.

    2007-01-01

    A number of neuroimaging and neuropsychology studies have implicated various regions of parietal cortex as playing a critical role in the binding of color and form into conjunctions. The current study investigates the role of two such regions by examining how parietal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) influences binding errors known as ‘illusory conjunctions.’ Participants made fewer binding errors after 1 Hz rTMS of the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), while basic perception of featur...

  18. Predicting oculomotor behaviour from correlated populations of posterior parietal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Arnulf B A; Andersen, Richard A

    2015-01-23

    Oculomotor function critically depends on how signals representing saccade direction and eye position are combined across neurons in the lateral intraparietal (LIP) area of the posterior parietal cortex. Here we show that populations of parietal neurons exhibit correlated variability, and that using these interneuronal correlations yields oculomotor predictions that are more accurate and also less uncertain. The structure of LIP population responses is therefore essential for reliable read-out of oculomotor behaviour.

  19. Parietal lesion effects on cued recall following pair associate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Shir; Soroker, Nachum; Levy, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory in a lesion-effects study of cued recall following pair-associate learning. Groups of patients who had experienced first-incident stroke, generally in middle cerebral artery territory, and exhibited damage that included lateral posterior parietal regions, were tested within an early post-stroke time window. In three experiments, patients and matched healthy comparison groups executed repeated study and cued recall test blocks of pairs of words (Experiment 1), pairs of object pictures (Experiment 2), or pairs of object pictures and environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Patients' brain CT scans were subjected to quantitative analysis of lesion volumes. Behavioral and lesion data were used to compute correlations between area lesion extent and memory deficits, and to conduct voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. These analyses implicated lateral ventral parietal cortex, especially the angular gyrus, in cued recall deficits, most pronouncedly in the cross-modal picture-sound pairs task, though significant parietal lesion effects were also found in the unimodal word pairs and picture pairs tasks. In contrast to an earlier study in which comparable parietal lesions did not cause deficits in item recognition, these results indicate that lateral posterior parietal areas make a substantive contribution to demanding forms of recollective retrieval as represented by cued recall, especially for complex associative representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multimodal FMRI resting-state functional connectivity in granulin mutations: the case of fronto-parietal dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Premi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monogenic dementias represent a great opportunity to trace disease progression from preclinical to symptomatic stages. Frontotemporal Dementia related to Granulin (GRN mutations presents a specific framework of brain damage, involving fronto-temporal regions and long inter-hemispheric white matter bundles. Multimodal resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI is a promising tool to carefully describe disease signature from the earliest disease phase. OBJECTIVE: To define local connectivity alterations in GRN related pathology moving from the presymptomatic (asymptomatic GRN mutation carriers to the clinical phase of the disease (GRN- related Frontotemporal Dementia. METHODS: Thirty-one GRN Thr272fs mutation carriers (14 patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and 17 asymptomatic carriers and 38 healthy controls were recruited. Local connectivity measures (Regional Homogeneity (ReHo, Fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation (fALFF and Degree Centrality (DC were computed, considering age and gender as nuisance variables as well as the influence of voxel-level gray matter atrophy. RESULTS: Asymptomatic GRN carriers had selective reduced ReHo in the left parietal region and increased ReHo in frontal regions compared to healthy controls. Considering Frontotemporal Dementia patients, all measures (ReHo, fALFF and DC were reduced in inferior parietal, frontal lobes and posterior cingulate cortex. Considering GRN mutation carriers, an inverse correlation with age in the posterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobule and orbitofrontal cortex was found. CONCLUSIONS: GRN pathology is characterized by functional brain network alterations even decades before the clinical onset; they involve the parietal region primarily and then spread to the anterior regions of the brain, supporting the concept of molecular nexopathies.

  1. White Matter Microstructure in Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Associated with Spatial Working Memory Performance in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baaré, William F C

    2011-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, ongoing white matter maturation in the fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts is measurable with diffusion-weighted imaging. Important questions remain, however, about the links between these changes and developing cognitive functions. Spatial working...... memory (SWM) performance improves significantly throughout the childhood years, and several lines of evidence implicate the left fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts in SWM processing. Here we report results from a study of 76 typically developing children, 7 to 13 years of age. We...... hypothesized that better SWM performance would be associated with increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in a left fronto-parietal network composed of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), the regional white matter underlying the dorsolateral pFC, and the posterior parietal cortex. As hypothesized, we...

  2. Occipital lobe seizures and epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Jane E; Panayiotopoulos, Chrysostomos P

    2012-10-01

    Occipital lobe epilepsies (OLEs) manifest with occipital seizures from an epileptic focus within the occipital lobes. Ictal clinical symptoms are mainly visual and oculomotor. Elementary visual hallucinations are common and characteristic. Postictal headache occurs in more than half of patients (epilepsy-migraine sequence). Electroencephalography (EEG) is of significant diagnostic value, but certain limitations should be recognized. Occipital spikes and/or occipital paroxysms either spontaneous or photically induced are the main interictal EEG abnormalities in idiopathic OLE. However, occipital epileptiform abnormalities may also occur without clinical relationship to seizures particularly in children. In cryptogenic/symptomatic OLE, unilateral posterior EEG slowing is more common than occipital spikes. In neurosurgical series of symptomatic OLE, interictal EEG abnormalities are rarely strictly occipital. The most common localization is in the posterior temporal regions and less than one-fifth show occipital spikes. In photosensitive OLE, intermittent photic stimulation elicits (1) spikes/polyspikes confined in the occipital regions or (2) generalized spikes/polyspikes with posterior emphasis. In ictal EEG, a well-localized unifocal rhythmic ictal discharge during occipital seizures is infrequent. A bioccipital field spread to the temporal regions is common. Frequency, severity, and response to treatment vary considerably from good to intractable and progressive mainly depending on underlying causes.

  3. Meta-analysis: how does posterior parietal cortex contribute to reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelken, Carter

    2015-01-01

    Reasoning depends on the contribution of posterior parietal cortex (PPC). But PPC is involved in many basic operations—including spatial attention, mathematical cognition, working memory, long-term memory, and language—and the nature of its contribution to reasoning is unclear. Psychological theories of the processes underlying reasoning make divergent claims about the neural systems that are likely to be involved, and better understanding the specific contribution of PPC can help to inform these theories. We set out to address several competing hypotheses, concerning the role of PPC in reasoning: (1) reasoning involves application of formal logic and is dependent on language, with PPC activation for reasoning mainly reflective of linguistic processing; (2) reasoning involves probabilistic computation and is thus dependent on numerical processing mechanisms in PPC; and (3) reasoning is built upon the representation and processing of spatial relations, and PPC activation associated with reasoning reflects spatial processing. We conducted two separate meta-analyses. First, we pooled data from our own studies of reasoning in adults, and examined activation in PPC regions of interest (ROI). Second, we conducted an automated meta-analysis using Neurosynth, in which we examined overlap between activation maps associated with reasoning and maps associated with other key functions of PPC. In both analyses, we observed reasoning-related activation concentrated in the left Inferior Parietal Lobe (IPL). Reasoning maps demonstrated the greatest overlap with mathematical cognition. Maintenance, visuospatial, and phonological processing also demonstrated some overlap with reasoning, but a large portion of the reasoning map did not overlap with the map for any other function. This evidence suggests that the PPC’s contribution to reasoning may be most closely related to its role in mathematical cognition, but that a core component of this contribution may be specific to

  4. Meta-analysis: How does posterior parietal cortex contribute to reasoning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter eWendelken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasoning depends on the contribution of posterior parietal cortex (PPC. But PPC is involved in many basic operations -- including spatial attention, mathematical cognition, working memory, long-term memory, and language -- and the nature of its contribution to reasoning is unclear. Psychological theories of the processes underlying reasoning make divergent claims about the neural systems that are likely to be involved, and better understanding the specific contribution of PPC can help to inform these theories. We set out to address several competing hypotheses, concerning the role of PPC in reasoning: 1 reasoning involves application of formal logic and is dependent on language, with PPC activation for reasoning mainly reflective of linguistic processing, 2 reasoning involves probabilistic computation and is thus dependent on numerical processing mechanisms in PPC, and 3 reasoning is built upon the representation and processing of spatial relations, and PPC activation associated with reasoning reflects spatial processing. We conducted two separate meta-analyses. First, we pooled data from our own studies of reasoning in adults, and examined activation in PPC regions of interest. Second, we conducted an automated meta-analysis using Neurosynth, in which we examined overlap between activation maps associated with reasoning and maps associated with other key functions of PPC. In both analyses, we observed reasoning-related activation concentrated in the left Inferior Parietal Lobe (IPL. Reasoning maps demonstrated the greatest overlap with mathematical cognition. Maintenance, visuospatial, and phonological processing also demonstrated some overlap with reasoning, but a large portion of the reasoning map did not overlap with the map for any other function. This evidence suggests that the PPC’s contribution to reasoning may be most closely related to its role in mathematical cognition, but that a core component of this contribution may be specific

  5. Fronto-parietal contributions to phonological processes in successful artificial grammar learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariya Goranskaya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity to regularities plays a crucial role in the acquisition of various linguistic features from spoken language input. Artificial grammar (AG learning paradigms explore pattern recognition abilities in a set of structured sequences (i.e. of syllables or letters. In the present study, we investigated the functional underpinnings of learning phonological regularities in auditorily presented syllable sequences. While previous neuroimaging studies either focused on functional differences between the processing of correct vs. incorrect sequences or between different levels of sequence complexity, here the focus is on the neural foundation of the actual learning success. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, participants were exposed to a set of syllable sequences with an underlying phonological rule system, known to ensure performance differences between participants. We expected that successful learning and rule application would require phonological segmentation and phoneme comparison. As an outcome of four alternating learning and test fMRI sessions, participants split into successful learners and non-learners. Relative to non-learners, successful learners showed increased task-related activity in a fronto-parietal network of brain areas encompassing the left lateral premotor cortex as well as bilateral superior and inferior parietal cortices during both learning and rule application. These areas were previously associated with phonological segmentation, phoneme comparison and verbal working memory. Based on these activity patterns and the phonological strategies for rule acquisition and application, we argue that successful learning and processing of complex phonological rules in our paradigm is mediated via a fronto-parietal network for phonological processes.

  6. Role of the right inferior parietal cortex in auditory selective attention: An rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareham, Corinne A; Georgieva, Stanimira D; Kamke, Marc R; Lloyd, David; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Mattingley, Jason B

    2018-02-01

    Selective attention is the process of directing limited capacity resources to behaviourally relevant stimuli while ignoring competing stimuli that are currently irrelevant. Studies in healthy human participants and in individuals with focal brain lesions have suggested that the right parietal cortex is crucial for resolving competition for attention. Following right-hemisphere damage, for example, patients may have difficulty reporting a brief, left-sided stimulus if it occurs with a competitor on the right, even though the same left stimulus is reported normally when it occurs alone. Such "extinction" of contralesional stimuli has been documented for all the major sense modalities, but it remains unclear whether its occurrence reflects involvement of one or more specific subregions of the temporo-parietal cortex. Here we employed repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the right hemisphere to examine the effect of disruption of two candidate regions - the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and the superior temporal gyrus (STG) - on auditory selective attention. Eighteen neurologically normal, right-handed participants performed an auditory task, in which they had to detect target digits presented within simultaneous dichotic streams of spoken distractor letters in the left and right channels, both before and after 20 min of 1 Hz rTMS over the SMG, STG or a somatosensory control site (S1). Across blocks, participants were asked to report on auditory streams in the left, right, or both channels, which yielded focused and divided attention conditions. Performance was unchanged for the two focused attention conditions, regardless of stimulation site, but was selectively impaired for contralateral left-sided targets in the divided attention condition following stimulation of the right SMG, but not the STG or S1. Our findings suggest a causal role for the right inferior parietal cortex in auditory selective attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Evaluation of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy of nontumorous origin with qualitative and quantitative MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanna, N.K.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Sperling, M.R.; Kohn, M.I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that although MR imaging is superior to CT in the detection of focal lesions in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), its role in the detection of mesial temporal sclerosis remains controversial. This is significant, as the latter represents a frequent cause of TLE and manifests with only subtle atrophic changes and occasional high signal abnormalities. PReoperative MR images of 47 patients who had undergone temporal lobectomy for nontumoral TLE and of 20 control subjects were valuated for focal atrophy and hippocampal high signal abnormalities. Quantitative measurements were performed in 33 patients and 20 control subjects with use of a new brain volumetric analysis program to determine volumes of temporal lobes

  8. Functional Heterogeneity in Posterior Parietal Cortex Across Attention and Episodic Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J. Benjamin; Uncapher, Melina R.; Weiner, Kevin S.; Bressler, David W.; Silver, Michael A.; Preston, Alison R.; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    While attention is critical for event memory, debate has arisen regarding the extent to which posterior parietal cortex (PPC) activation during episodic retrieval reflects engagement of PPC-mediated mechanisms of attention. Here, we directly examined the relationship between attention and memory, within and across subjects, using functional magnetic resonance imaging attention-mapping and episodic retrieval paradigms. During retrieval, 4 functionally dissociable PPC regions were identified. Specifically, 2 PPC regions positively tracked retrieval outcomes: lateral intraparietal sulcus (latIPS) indexed graded item memory strength, whereas angular gyrus (AnG) tracked recollection. By contrast, 2 other PPC regions demonstrated nonmonotonic relationships with retrieval: superior parietal lobule (SPL) tracked retrieval reaction time, consistent with a graded engagement of top-down attention, whereas temporoparietal junction displayed a complex pattern of below-baseline retrieval activity, perhaps reflecting disengagement of bottom-up attention. Analyses of retrieval effects in PPC topographic spatial attention maps (IPS0-IPS5; SPL1) revealed that IPS5 and SPL1 exhibited a nonmonotonic relationship with retrieval outcomes resembling that in the SPL region, further suggesting that SPL activation during retrieval reflects top-down attention. While demands on PPC attention mechanisms vary during retrieval attempts, the present functional parcellation of PPC indicates that 2 additional mechanisms (mediated by latIPS and AnG) positively track retrieval outcomes. PMID:23019246

  9. Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS on parietal and premotor cortex during planning of reaching movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Busan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral activation during planning of reaching movements occurs both in the superior parietal lobule (SPL and premotor cortex (PM, and their activation seems to take place in parallel. METHODOLOGY: The activation of the SPL and PM has been investigated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS during planning of reaching movements under visual guidance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A facilitory effect was found when TMS was delivered on the parietal cortex at about half of the time from sight of the target to hand movement, independently of target location in space. Furthermore, at the same stimulation time, a similar facilitory effect was found in PM, which is probably related to movement preparation. CONCLUSIONS: This data contributes to the understanding of cortical dynamics in the parieto-frontal network, and suggests that it is possible to interfere with the planning of reaching movements at different cortical points within a particular time window. Since similar effects may be produced at similar times on both the SPL and PM, parallel processing of visuomotor information is likely to take place in these regions.

  10. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy via trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mathon , Bertrand; Clemenceau , Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundHippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. The rationale of the selective amygdalohippocampectomy is to spare cerebral tissue not included in the seizure generator.MethodDescribe the selective amygdalohippocampectomy through the trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach.ConclusionSelective amygdalohippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy is performed when the data (semi...

  11. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  12. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  13. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  14. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  15. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy via trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathon, Bertrand; Clemenceau, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. The rationale of the selective amygdalohippocampectomy is to spare cerebral tissue not included in the seizure generator. Describe the selective amygdalohippocampectomy through the trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy is performed when the data (semiology, neuroimaging, electroencephalography) point to the mesial temporal structures. The trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach is a minimally invasive and safe technique that allows disconnection of the temporal stem and resection of temporomesial structures.

  16. Bilateral front-parietal polymicrogyria accompanied by cobblestone lissencephaly: 3T MR imaging findings of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, Y.; Battal, B.; Ozcan, E.; Kocaoglu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Background: The cerebral cortex develops in three overlapping stages: cell proliferation, neuronal migration, and cortical organization. Lissencephaly (smooth brain) is a severe malformation of the cerebral cortex that results from impaired neuronal migration. Polymicrogyria is a disorder of late migration or cortical organization, and supposed to reflect a disruption of normal neuronal migration with subsequent disordered cortical organization. A combination of cobblestone lissencephaly and polymicrogyria is very rare in the same patient's brain. Objective: To present clinical and 3T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of a 17-year-old male with bilateral fronto-parietal polimicrogyria accompanied by cobblestone lissencaphaly. Materials and methods: A 17-year-old male who had seizures and involuntary muscular spasm from birth, was referred to our Hospital. The patient was evaluated by a complete history, physical examination, a laboratory work-up, and cranial MR examination for evaluate the central nervous system. Results: A sharp wave paroxysm in the left temporal area was observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG). The neurological examination of our patient was normal. A slight increase have seen in the aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) levels. The other biochemical tests were found to be normal. Cranial MR imaging showed an irregular nodular cortex with hypomyelination of the white matter at the lateral and posterior part of the right occipital lobe. We also observed the changes compatible with polymicrogyria in a large area of the medial parts of the bilateral temporal and parietal lobes. Conclusion: The role of radiological modalities for diagnosis of cortical formation disorders are very important. MR imaging are fairly useful for evaluation of these anomalies

  17. Investigation of Parietal Polysaccharides from Retama raetam Roots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results indicate the presence of the homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonans in pectin. This study constitutes the preliminary data obtained in the biochemical analysis of the parietal compounds of the roots of a species which grows in an arid area in comparison with those of its aerial parts. Keywords: Retama ...

  18. Significance of parietal projection in radiosotope scintigraphy of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomchenkov, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the isotope scintigraphy of the brain in the parieal projection with the change of the dip angle of the gamma-chamber detector to the plane of the physiological horizontal was revealed. The observation was made on 100 patients with suspected presence of the volumetric process of the brain. Three variants of placing were studied: the parietal projection - standard (collimator plane parallel to the plane of physiological horizontal and strictly perpendicular to the sagittal plane); the placing with an angle of 30 deg between the detector plane and the physiological horizontal, opened at the front (posterio-parietal); placing with an angle of 30 deg between the detector plane and the physiological horizontal opened at the back (anterio-parietal). A comparative analysis of scintigrams with focal processes of the brain showed the largest informativeness of the proposed modification of the parietal projection in the form of a change of the dip angle of the gamma-chamber detector plane to the plane of the physiological horizontal opened at the back; this makes it possible to reveal more thoroughly the focus of the increased, pathological accumulation of the isotope in different parts of the skull, where the use of as standard placing is of small informativeness

  19. Subtotal ablation of parietal epithelial cells induces crescent formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicking, E.M.; Fuss, A.; Uhlig, S.; Jirak, P.; Dijkman, H.; Wetzels, J.; Engel, D.R.; Urzynicok, T.; Heidenreich, S.; Kriz, W.; Kurts, C.; Ostendorf, T.; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) of the renal glomerulus contribute to the formation of both cellular crescents in rapidly progressive GN and sclerotic lesions in FSGS. Subtotal transgenic ablation of podocytes induces FSGS but the effect of specific ablation of PECs is unknown. Here, we established

  20. Parietal epithelial cells and podocytes in glomerular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) play an important role within the renal glomerulus, in particular in diseased conditions. In this review, we examine current knowledge about the role of PECs and their interactions with podocytes in development and under

  1. Parietal cells-new perspectives in glomerular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miesen, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Smeets, B.

    2017-01-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman's capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and

  2. Neuronal synchronization in human parietal cortex during saccade planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, J. van der; Buchholz, V.N.; Jensen, O.; Medendorp, W.P.

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the human posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in sensorimotor integration and saccade planning However, the temporal dynamics of the underlying physiology and its relationship to observations in non-human primates have been difficult to pin

  3. Parietal epithelial cells: their role in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnani, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsules were first described by Sir William Bowman in 1842 in his paper On the Structure and Use of the Malpighian Bodies of the Kidney [London, Taylor, 1842], but since then their functions have remained poorly understood. A large body of evidence has recently suggested that parietal epithelial cells represent a reservoir of renal progenitors in adult human kidney which generate novel podocytes during childhood and adolescence, and can regenerate injured podocytes. The discovery that parietal epithelial cells represent a potential source for podocyte regeneration suggests that podocyte injury can be repaired. However, recent results also suggest that an abnormal proliferative response of renal progenitors to podocyte injury can generate hyperplastic glomerular lesions that are observed in crescentic glomerulonephritis and other types of glomerular disorders. Taken together, these results establish an entirely novel view that changes the way of thinking about renal physiology and pathophysiology, and suggest that understanding how self-renewal and fate decision of parietal epithelial cells in response to podocyte injury may be perturbed or modulated will be crucial for obtaining novel tools for prevention and treatment of glomerulosclerosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The regenerative potential of parietal epithelial cells in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, K.; Schulte, K.; Boor, P.; Kuppe, C.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman's capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically

  5. Virtual lesions of the inferior parietal cortex induce fast changes of implicit religiousness/spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Aglioti, Salvatore M; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2014-05-01

    Religiousness and spirituality (RS) are two ubiquitous aspects of human experience typically considered impervious to scientific investigation. Nevertheless, associations between RS and frontoparietal neural activity have been recently reported. However, much less is known about whether such activity is causally involved in modulating RS or just epiphenomenal to them. Here we combined two-pulse (10 Hz) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) with a novel, ad-hoc developed RS-related, Implicit Association Test (IAT) to investigate whether implicit RS representations, although supposedly rather stable, can be rapidly modified by a virtual lesion of inferior parietal lobe (IPL) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). A self-esteem (SE) IAT, focused on self-concepts nonrelated to RS representations, was developed as control. A specific increase of RS followed inhibition of IPL demonstrating its causative role in inducing fast plastic changes of religiousness/spirituality. In contrast, DLPFC inhibition had more widespread effects probably reflecting a general role in the acquisition or maintenance of task-rules or in controlling the expression of self-related representations not specific to RS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Excitatory stimulation of the right inferior parietal cortex lessens implicit religiousness/spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Di Bucchianico, Marilena; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2015-04-01

    Although religiousness and spirituality (RS) are considered two fundamental constituents of human life, neuroscientific investigation has long avoided the study of their neurocognitive basis. Nevertheless, recent investigations with brain imaging and brain damaged patients, and more recently with brain stimulation methods, have documented important associations between RS beliefs and experiences and frontoparietal neural activity. In this study, we further investigated how individuals' implicit RS self-representations can be modulated by changes in right inferior parietal lobe (IPL) excitability, a key region associated to RS. To this end, we combined continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS), intermittent TBS (iTBS), and sham TBS with RS-related, Implicit Association Test (IAT) and with a control self-esteem (SE) IAT in a group of fourteen healthy adult individuals. A specific decrease of implicit RS, as measured with the IAT effect, was induced by increasing IPL excitability with iTBS; conversely cTBS, which is supposedly inhibitory, left participants' implicit RS unchanged. The performance in the control SE-IAT was left unchanged by any TBS stimulation. These data showed the causative role of right IPL functional state in mediating plastic changes of implicit RS. Implications of these results are also discussed in the light of the variability of behavioral effects associated with TBS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Temporal structure in neuronal activity during working memory in Macaque parietal cortex

    CERN Document Server

    Pesaran, B; Sahami, M; Mitra, P; Andersen, R A

    2000-01-01

    A number of cortical structures are reported to have elevated single unit firing rates sustained throughout the memory period of a working memory task. How the nervous system forms and maintains these memories is unknown but reverberating neuronal network activity is thought to be important. We studied the temporal structure of single unit (SU) activity and simultaneously recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from area LIP in the inferior parietal lobe of two awake macaques during a memory-saccade task. Using multitaper techniques for spectral analysis, which play an important role in obtaining the present results, we find elevations in spectral power in a 50--90 Hz (gamma) frequency band during the memory period in both SU and LFP activity. The activity is tuned to the direction of the saccade providing evidence for temporal structure that codes for movement plans during working memory. We also find SU and LFP activity are coherent during the memory period in the 50--90 Hz gamma band and no consisten...

  8. Agnosia for mirror stimuli: a new case report with a small parietal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinaud, Olivier; Mirlink, Nicolas; Bioux, Sandrine; Bliaux, Evangéline; Lebas, Axel; Gerardin, Emmanuel; Hannequin, Didier

    2014-11-01

    Only seven cases of agnosia for mirror stimuli have been reported, always with an extensive lesion. We report a new case of an agnosia for mirror stimuli due to a circumscribed lesion. An extensive battery of neuropsychological tests and a new experimental procedure to assess visual object mirror and orientation discrimination were assessed 10 days after the onset of clinical symptoms, and 5 years later. The performances of our patient were compared with those of four healthy control subjects matched for age. This test revealed an agnosia for mirror stimuli. Brain imaging showed a small right occipitoparietal hematoma, encompassing the extrastriate cortex adjoining the inferior parietal lobe. This new case suggests that: (i) agnosia for mirror stimuli can persist for 5 years after onset and (ii) the posterior part of the right intraparietal sulcus could be critical in the cognitive process of mirror stimuli discrimination. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The frontal lobes and inhibitory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Seiki

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies using traditional tasks of inhibitory functions, such as the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) and the Go/No-Go Task have revealed that the frontal lobe is responsible for several types of inhibitory functions. However, the detailed psychological nature of the inhibitory functions and the precise location of their critical foci within the frontal lobe remain to be investigated. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides spatial and temporal resolution that allowed us to illuminate at least 4 frontal regions involved in inhibitory functions: the dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and rostral parts of the frontal lobe and the presupplementary motor area (preSMA). The ventrolateral part of the frontal lobe in the right hemisphere was activated during response inhibition. The preSMA in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition of proactive interference immediately after the dimension changes of the WCST. The rostral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition long after the dimension changes. The dorsolateral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated at the dimension changes in the first time, but not in the second time. These findings provide clues to our understanding of functional differentiation of inhibitory functions and their localization in the frontal lobe. (author)

  10. Functional connectivity of parietal cortex during temporal selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Sarah C; Dasgupta, Samhita; Agosta, Sara; Battelli, Lorella; Grossman, Emily D

    2015-04-01

    Perception of natural experiences requires allocation of attention towards features, objects, and events that are moving and changing over time. This allocation of attention is controlled by large-scale brain networks that, when damaged, cause widespread cognitive deficits. In particular, damage to ventral parietal cortex (right lateralized TPJ, STS, supramarginal and angular gyri) is associated with failures to selectively attend to and isolate features embedded within rapidly changing visual sequences (Battelli, Pascual-Leone, & Cavanagh, 2007; Husain, Shapiro, Martin, & Kennard, 1997). In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the neural activity and functional connectivity of intact parietal cortex while typical subjects judged the relative onsets and offsets of rapidly flickering tokens (a phase discrimination task in which right parietal patients are impaired). We found two regions in parietal cortex correlated with task performance: a bilateral posterior TPJ (pTPJ) and an anterior right-lateralized TPJ (R aTPJ). Both regions were deactivated when subjects engaged in the task but showed different patterns of functional connectivity. The bilateral pTPJ was strongly connected to nodes within the default mode network (DMN) and the R aTPJ was connected to the attention network. Accurate phase discriminations were associated with increased functional correlations between sensory cortex (hMT+) and the bilateral pTPJ, whereas accuracy on a control task was associated with yoked activity in the hMT+ and the R aTPJ. We conclude that temporal selective attention is particularly sensitive for revealing information pathways between sensory and core cognitive control networks that, when damaged, can lead to nonspatial attention impairments in right parietal stroke patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Emphysema lung lobe volume reduction: effects on the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew S.; Kim, Hyun J.; Abtin, Fereidoun G.; Galperin-Aizenberg, Maya; Pais, Richard; Da Costa, Irene G.; Ordookhani, Arash; Chong, Daniel; Ni, Chiayi; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Goldin, Jonathan G. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers, Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Strange, Charlie [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States); Tashkin, Donald P. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    To investigate volumetric and density changes in the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes following volume reduction of an emphysematous target lobe. The study included 289 subjects with heterogeneous emphysema, who underwent bronchoscopic volume reduction of the most diseased lobe with endobronchial valves and 132 untreated controls. Lobar volume and low-attenuation relative area (RA) changes post-procedure were measured from computed tomography images. Regression analysis (Spearman's rho) was performed to test the association between change in the target lobe volume and changes in volume and density variables in the other lobes. The target lobe volume at full inspiration in the treatment group had a mean reduction of -0.45 L (SE = 0.034, P < 0.0001), and was associated with volume increases in the ipsilateral lobe (rho = -0.68, P < 0.0001) and contralateral lung (rho = -0.16, P = 0.006), and overall reductions in expiratory RA (rho = 0.31, P < 0.0001) and residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) (rho = 0.13, P = 0.03). When the volume of an emphysematous target lobe is reduced, the volume is redistributed primarily to the ipsilateral lobe, with an overall reduction. Image-based changes in lobar volumes and densities indicate that target lobe volume reduction is associated with statistically significant overall reductions in air trapping, consistent with expansion of the healthier lung. (orig.)

  12. Emphysema lung lobe volume reduction: effects on the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Matthew S.; Kim, Hyun J.; Abtin, Fereidoun G.; Galperin-Aizenberg, Maya; Pais, Richard; Da Costa, Irene G.; Ordookhani, Arash; Chong, Daniel; Ni, Chiayi; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Strange, Charlie; Tashkin, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate volumetric and density changes in the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes following volume reduction of an emphysematous target lobe. The study included 289 subjects with heterogeneous emphysema, who underwent bronchoscopic volume reduction of the most diseased lobe with endobronchial valves and 132 untreated controls. Lobar volume and low-attenuation relative area (RA) changes post-procedure were measured from computed tomography images. Regression analysis (Spearman's rho) was performed to test the association between change in the target lobe volume and changes in volume and density variables in the other lobes. The target lobe volume at full inspiration in the treatment group had a mean reduction of -0.45 L (SE = 0.034, P < 0.0001), and was associated with volume increases in the ipsilateral lobe (rho = -0.68, P < 0.0001) and contralateral lung (rho = -0.16, P = 0.006), and overall reductions in expiratory RA (rho = 0.31, P < 0.0001) and residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) (rho = 0.13, P = 0.03). When the volume of an emphysematous target lobe is reduced, the volume is redistributed primarily to the ipsilateral lobe, with an overall reduction. Image-based changes in lobar volumes and densities indicate that target lobe volume reduction is associated with statistically significant overall reductions in air trapping, consistent with expansion of the healthier lung. (orig.)

  13. An impaired attentional dwell time after parietal and frontal lesions related to impaired selective attention not unilateral neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correani, Alessia; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2011-07-01

    The attentional blink, a measure of the temporal dynamics of visual processing, has been documented to be more pronounced following brain lesions that are associated with visual neglect. This suggests that, in addition to their spatial bias in attention, neglect patients may have a prolonged dwell time for attention. Here the attentional dwell time was examined in patients with damage focused on either posterior parietal or frontal cortices. In three experiments, we show that there is an abnormally pronounced attentional dwell time, which does not differ in patients with posterior parietal and with frontal lobe lesions, and this is associated with a measure of selective attention but not with measures of spatial bias in selection. These data occurred both when we attempted to match patients and controls for overall differences in performance and when a single set stimulus exposure was used across participants. In Experiments 1 and 2, requiring report of colour-form conjunctions, there was evidence that the patients were also impaired at temporal binding, showing errors in feature combination across stimuli and in reporting in the correct temporal order. In Experiment 3, requiring only the report of features but introducing task switching led to similar results. The data suggest that damage to a frontoparietal network can compromise temporal selection of visual stimuli; however, this is not necessarily related to a deficit in hemispatial visual attention but it is to impaired target selection. We discuss the implications for understanding visual selection.

  14. Value of analyzing deep gray matter and occipital lobe perfusion to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Soichiro; Hanyu, Haruo; Hirao, Kentaro; Sato, Tomohiko; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    2008-12-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is generally characterized by a decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the occipital lobe. However, not all patients with DLB have this feature. We explored characteristics of rCBF pattern changes to improve the identification of DLB, in addition to occipital hypoperfusion. The study population comprised 30 patients with probable DLB and 49 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) who underwent single-photon emission computed tomography. The data were analyzed using Neurological Statistical Image Analysis Software (NEUROSTAT). We established a template of the region of interest (ROI) presenting the parietal lobe, posterior cingulate, striatum, thalamus, and occipital lobe on the standard brain atlas. We then compared the mean Z scores in each ROI between DLB and AD. Moreover, we investigated the value of analyzing relative rCBF changes in both the deep gray matter and occipital lobe in differentiating DLB from AD. The DLB group showed a significant relative rCBF increase in the bilateral striatum and thalamus, and a significant relative rCBF decrease in the bilateral occipital lobe when compared with the AD group. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis revealed that determining the hyperperfusion in the thalamus together with the hypoperfusion in the occipital lobe enabled a more accurate differentiation between DLB and AD than studying individual areas. Studying the relative increase of rCBF in the deep gray matter, and the relative decrease of that in the occipital lobe achieved a high differentiation between DLB and AD. This suggests that determining both an increase and a decrease in rCBF pattern may be important in differentiating between the two diseases.

  15. Value of analyzing deep gray matter and occipital lobe perfusion to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Soichiro; Hanyu, Haruo; Hirao, Kentaro; Sato, Tomohiko; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is generally characterized by a decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the occipital lobe. However, not all patients with DLB have this feature. We explored characteristics of rCBF pattern changes to improve the identification of DLB, in addition to occipital hypoperfusion. The study population comprised 30 patients with probable DLB and 49 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) who underwent single-photon emission computed tomography. The data were analyzed using Neurological Statistical Image Analysis Soft-ware (NEUROSTAT). We established a template of the region of interest (ROI) presenting the parietal lobe, posterior cingulate, striatum, thalamus, and occipital lobe on the standard brain atlas. We then compared the mean Z scores in each ROI between DLB and AD. Moreover, we investigated the value of analyzing relative rCBF changes in both the deep gray matter and occipital lobe in differentiating DLB from AD. The DLB group showed a significant relative rCBF increase in the bilateral striatum and thalamus, and a significant relative rCBF decrease in the bilateral occipital lobe when compared with the AD group. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis revealed that determining the hyperperfusion in the thalamus together with the hypoperfusion in the occipital lobe enabled a more accurate differentiation between DLB and AD than studying individual areas. Studying the relative increase of rCBF in the deep gray matter, and the relative decrease of that in the occipital lobe achieved a high differentiation between DLB and AD. This suggests that determining both an increase and a decrease in rCBF pattern may be important in differentiating between the two diseases. (author)

  16. Cognitive Functioning in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A BOLD-fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lili; Bai, Genji; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Daoyan; Zheng, Jiyong; Xu, Gang

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to analyze the association between resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (re-fMRI) and cognitive function (including language, executive, and memory functions) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, which will help to explore the mechanism of brain function in patients. 15 TLE patients and 15 non-TLE patients were recruited. All subjects underwent neuropsychological testing and memory functional evaluation. Changes in verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), performance intelligence quotient (PIQ), full intelligence quotient (FIQ), and memory quotient (MQ) were compared between two groups. Re-fMRI data were also collected from two groups to evaluate these changes. Each individual score of neuropsychological testing and memory functional evaluation were higher in control group, which was statistically different (all P temporal gyrus back, right superior temporal gyrus, left cerebellum, left angular gyrus, left wedge anterior lobe, and left central back; while the negatively activated brain regions were left prefrontal, right cerebellum, right corner back, and right anterior cingulate gyrus. During the language task, the activated brain regions of the TLE patients were right prefrontal lobe, the lateral temporal gyri, the left cerebellum, left cornu laterale gyrus, left precuneus, and the left postcentral gyrus, whereas the negatively activated brain areas were the left prefrontal cortex, the right cerebellum, right cornu laterale gyrus, and the right anterior cingulate gyrus. During the executive task, epilepsy patients showed activation difference in right prefrontal and right frontal lobe and right brain, left superior temporal gyrus, and right cerebellum anterior lobe compared with the control group; no negatively activated differences in brain areas. During the memory task, the difference lay in bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral wedge anterior lobe while the negatively activated brain areas were the left inferior frontal

  17. Structure and Function of the Superior Temporal Plane in Adult Males with Cleft Lip and Palate: Pathologic Enlargement with No Relationship to Childhood Hearing Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, A. S.; Canady, J.; Richman, L.; Andreasen, N. C.; Nopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In a previous study from our lab, adult males with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) were shown to have significantly lower temporal lobe gray matter volume than matched controls. The current study was designed to begin a regional analysis of specific subregions of the temporal lobe. The superior temporal plane (STP) is a…

  18. Are personality traits of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy related to frontal lobe dysfunctions? A proton MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria; Lin, Katia; Lin, Jaime; Peruchi, Mirella M; Caboclo, Luís Otávio S F; Guaranha, Mirian S B; Guilhoto, Laura M F F; Carrete, Henrique; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T

    2009-05-01

    Personality traits characterized by emotional instability and immaturity, unsteadiness, lack of discipline, hedonism, frequent and rapid mood changes, and indifference toward one's disease have been associated with patients who have juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Literature data demonstrate worse seizure control and more psychosocial dysfunctions among patients with JME who have those traits. In this controlled study we performed a correlation analysis of psychiatric scores with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) values across JME patients, aiming to verify the existence of a possible relation between frontal lobe dysfunction and the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) in JME. Sixteen JME patients with cluster B PDs, 41 JME patients without any psychiatric disorder, and 30 healthy controls were submitted to a psychiatric evaluation and to a quantitative multivoxel MRS of thalamus; insula; cingulate gyrus; striatum; and frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. Groups were homogeneous according to age, gender, and manual dominance. Psychiatric evaluation was performed through the Scheduled Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Axis I and II (SCID I and II, respectively). A significant reduction of N-acetyl-aspartate over creatinine (NAA/Cr) ratio was observed mainly in the left frontal lobe in the JME and PD group. In addition, a significant increase in the glutamate-glutamine over creatinine GLX/Cr ratio was also observed in this referred region in the same group. These data support the hypothesis that PDs in JME could represent neuronal dysfunction and possibly a more severe form of this epileptic syndrome.

  19. Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddaert, N.; Poline, J.B.; Brunelle, F.; Zilbovicius, M.; Boddaert, N.; Brunelle, F.; Chabane, N.; Barthelemy, C.; Zilbovicius, M.; Bourgeois, M.; Samson, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Childhood autism is a severe developmental disorder that impairs the acquisition of some of the most important skills in human life. Progress in understanding the neural basis of childhood autism requires clear and reliable data indicating specific neuro-anatomical or neuro-physiological abnormalities. The purpose of the present study was to research localized brain dysfunction in autistic children using functional brain imaging. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in 21 primary autistic children and 10 age-matched non autistic children. A statistical parametric analysis of rCBF images revealed significant bilateral temporal hypoperfusion in the associative auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus) and in the multimodal cortex (superior temporal sulcus) in the autistic group (p<0.001). In addition, temporal hypoperfusion was detected individually in 77% of autistic children. These findings provide robust evidence of well localized functional abnormalities in autistic children located in the superior temporal lobe. Such localized abnormalities were not detected with the low resolution PET camera (14-22). This study suggests that high resolution PET camera combined with statistical parametric mapping is useful to understand developmental disorders. (authors)

  20. Alterations of the occipital lobe in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohid, Hassaan; Faizan, Muhammad; Faizan, Uzma

    2015-07-01

    The relationship of the occipital lobe of the brain with schizophrenia is not commonly studied; however, this topic is considered an essential subject matter among clinicians and scientists. We conducted this systematic review to elaborate the relationship in depth. We found that most schizophrenic patients show normal occipital anatomy and physiology, a minority showed dwindled values, and some demonstrated augmented function and structure. The findings are laborious to incorporate within single disease models that present the involvement of the occipital lobe in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia progresses clinically in the mid-twenties and thirties and its prognosis is inadequate. Changes in the volume, the gray matter, and the white matter in the occipital lobe are quite evident; however, the mechanism behind this involvement is not yet fully understood. Therefore, we recommend further research to explore the occipital lobe functions and volumes across the different stages of schizophrenia.

  1. Pressure balance between lobe and plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumjohann, W.; Paschmann, G.; Luehr, H.

    1990-01-01

    Using eight months of AMPTE/IRM plasma and magnetic field data, the authors have done a statistical survey on the balance of total (thermal and magnetic) pressure in the Earth's plasma sheet and tail lobe. About 300,000 measurements obtained in the plasma sheet and the lobe were compared for different levels of magnetic activity as well as different distances from the Earth. The data show that lobe and plasma sheet pressure balance very well. Even in the worst case they do not deviate by more than half of the variance in the data itself. Approximately constant total pressure was also seen during a quiet time pass when IRM traversed nearly the whole magnetotail in the vertical direction, from the southern hemisphere lobe through the neutral sheet and into the northern plasma sheet boundary layer

  2. Microsurgical techniques in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Vanegas, Mario A; Lew, Sean M; Morino, Michiharu; Sarmento, Stenio A

    2017-04-01

    Temporal lobe resection is the most prevalent epilepsy surgery procedure. However, there is no consensus on the best surgical approach to treat temporal lobe epilepsy. Complication rates are low and efficacy is very high regarding seizures after such procedures. However, there is still ample controversy regarding the best surgical approach to warrant maximum seizure control with minimal functional deficits. We describe the most frequently used microsurgical techniques for removal of both the lateral and mesial temporal lobe structures in the treatment of medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to mesial temporal sclerosis (corticoamygdalohippocampectomy and selective amygdalohippocampectomy). The choice of surgical technique appears to remain a surgeon's preference for the near future. Meticulous surgical technique and thorough three-dimensional microsurgical knowledge are essentials for obtaining the best results. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Deployment Instabilities of Lobed-Pumpkin Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi

    A lobed-pumpkin balloon, currently being developed in ISAS/JAXA as well as in NASA, is a promising vehicle for long duration scientific observations in the stratosphere. Recent ground and flight experiments, however, have revealed that the balloon has deployment instabilities under certain conditions. In order to overcome the instability problems, a next generation SPB called 'tawara' type balloon has been proposed, in which an additional cylindrical part is appended to the standard lobed-pumpkin balloon. The present study investigates the deployment stability of tawara type SPB in comparison to that of standard lobed-pumpkin SPB through eigenvalue analysis on the basis of finite element methods. Our numerical results show that tawara type SPB enjoys excellent deployment performance over the standard lobed-pumpkin SPBs.

  4. Alterations of the occipital lobe in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohid, Hassaan; Faizan, Muhammad; Faizan, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    The relationship of the occipital lobe of the brain with schizophrenia is not commonly studied; however, this topic is considered an essential subject matter among clinicians and scientists. We conducted this systematic review to elaborate the relationship in depth. We found that most schizophrenic patients show normal occipital anatomy and physiology, a minority showed dwindled values, and some demonstrated augmented function and structure. The findings are laborious to incorporate within single disease models that present the involvement of the occipital lobe in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia progresses clinically in the mid-twenties and thirties and its prognosis is inadequate. Changes in the volume, the gray matter, and the white matter in the occipital lobe are quite evident; however, the mechanism behind this involvement is not yet fully understood. Therefore, we recommend further research to explore the occipital lobe functions and volumes across the different stages of schizophrenia. PMID:26166588

  5. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage(PTBD): comparative data of right and left hepatic lobe approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choon Hyeong; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    To evaluate the difference in each procedure time and complication rates related to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage(PTBD) via the right and the left hepatic lobe. We performed PTBD in 120 patients with biliary obstruction below both main hepatic ducts. Of the 120 catheters, 54 were introduced via a left lobe approach and 66 through the right lobe. All procedures were performed under fluoroscopic guidance by the same operator. For each patient, procedure time was recorded prospectively. PTBD related complications were classified as either early(up to 30 days after procedure) or late(after 30 days), and each complication graded as major, or minor according to its intensity. The difference in the mean procedure time(28.8 min, versus 36.2 min, left versus right approach group) and that in complication rates (37% versus 58%) were statistically significant({rho} < 0.05). Concerning major complication(bile peritonitis, sepsis, massive hemobilia, liver abscess, pyothorax), the percentages related to left and right lobe approach were 1.8% and 10.6%, and concerning minor complications(catheter obstruction or dislodgement, transient hemobilia, persistent fever or pain), the percentages were 36% and 51% respectively. PTBD via the left lobe approach was superior with short procedure time and low complication rates than the right approach.

  6. Comparison of rCBF between patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy and normal controls using H{sub 2}{sup 15}O PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Jae Sung; Nam, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas whose regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was changed in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) using H{sub 2}{sup 15}O-PET. 12 patients with mTLE (6 left, 6 right mTLE) and 6 normal controls were scanned during a fixation baseline period and a sensory-motor condition where subjects pressed a button to an upward arrow. A voxel-based analysis using SPM99 software was performed to compare the patient groups with the normal controls for the rCBF during fixation baseline period and for relative changes of rCBF during the sensory-motor task relative to fixation. Duirng the fixation baseline, a significant reduction of rCBF was found posterior insula bilaterally and right frontopolar regions in right mTLE patients compared to the normal controls. In left mTLE patients, the reduction was found in left frontopolar and temporal regions. During the sensory-motor task, rCBF increase over the fixation period, was reduced in left frontal and superior temporal regions in the right mTLE patients whereas in various areas of right hemisphere in left mTLE patients, relative to normal controls. However, the increased rCBF was also found in the left inferior parietal and anterior thalamic/fornix regions in both right and left mTLE patients compared to normal controls. Epilepsy induced changes were found not only in relative increase/ decrease of rCBF during a simple sensory-motor control condition relative to a fixation rest condition but also in the relative rCBF distribution during the rest period.

  7. Parietal seeding of unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorale, C; Scibé, R; Siquini, W; Massa, M; Brunelli, A; Landi, E

    1998-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (VALC) represents the treatment of choice for the symptomatic gallstones. However the occurrence of an adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder results a controindication for this surgical technique. We present a case of a 52 years old woman who underwent a VALC; histology revealed a gallbladder adenocarcinoma. For this reason the patient underwent a second operation that is right hepatic trisegmentectomy. Six months later the patient presented with a parietal recurrence at the extraction site of the gallbladder. We discuss the possible mechanism responsible for carcinomatous dissemination during laparoscopic surgery and we raccommend the use of some procedures in order to limit the risk and eventually to treat a neoplastic parietal seeding. These complications suggest the problem about the utility and the future played by video assisted laparoscopic surgery in the diagnosis and treatment of intraabdominal malignancies.

  8. Choline acetyltransferase-containing neurons in the human parietal neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Benagiano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of immunocytochemical studies have indicated the presence of cholinergic neurons in the cerebral cortex of various species of mammals. Whether such cholinergic neurons in the human cerebral cortex are exclusively of subcortical origin is still debated. In this immunocytochemical study, the existence of cortical cholinergic neurons was investigated on surgical samples of human parietal association neocortex using a highly specific monoclonal antibody against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the acetylcholine biosynthesising enzyme. ChAT immunoreactivity was detected in a subpopulation of neurons located in layers II and III. These were small or medium-sized pyramidal neurons which showed cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in the perikarya and processes, often in close association to blood microvessels. This study, providing demonstration of ChAT neurons in the human parietal neocortex, strongly supports the existence of intrinsic cholinergic innervation of the human neocortex. It is likely that these neurons contribute to the cholinergic innervation of the intracortical microvessels.

  9. Neuronal oscillations form parietal/frontal networks during contour integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Marta; Plöchl, Michael; Vicente, Raul; Pipa, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate visual features into a global coherent percept that can be further categorized and manipulated are fundamental abilities of the neural system. While the processing of visual information involves activation of early visual cortices, the recruitment of parietal and frontal cortices has been shown to be crucial for perceptual processes. Yet is it not clear how both cortical and long-range oscillatory activity leads to the integration of visual features into a coherent percept. Here, we will investigate perceptual grouping through the analysis of a contour categorization task, where the local elements that form contour must be linked into a coherent structure, which is then further processed and manipulated to perform the categorization task. The contour formation in our visual stimulus is a dynamic process where, for the first time, visual perception of contours is disentangled from the onset of visual stimulation or from motor preparation, cognitive processes that until now have been behaviorally attached to perceptual processes. Our main finding is that, while local and long-range synchronization at several frequencies seem to be an ongoing phenomena, categorization of a contour could only be predicted through local oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal sources, which in turn, would synchronize at gamma (>30 Hz) frequency. Simultaneously, fronto-parietal beta (13-30 Hz) phase locking forms a network spanning across neural sources that are not category specific. Both long range networks, i.e., the gamma network that is category specific, and the beta network that is not category specific, are functionally distinct but spatially overlapping. Altogether, we show that a critical mechanism underlying contour categorization involves oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal cortices, as well as its synchronization across distal cortical sites.

  10. Parietal cells?new perspectives in glomerular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Miesen, Laura; Steenbergen, Eric; Smeets, Bart

    2017-01-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman?s capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and podocytes have a common mesenchymal origin and are the result of divergent differentiation during embryogenesis. Podocytes and PTECs are highly differentiated cells with well-established functions pertain...

  11. Pneumothorax simulated by detachment of parietal pleura associated with pneumomediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozeik, C.; Kotterer, O.; Deininger, H.K.

    1994-01-01

    We report a case of blunt chest trauma, where findings on repeated conventional chest radiographs were compatible with pneumothorax developing after 2 days of mechanical high-pressure ventilation. CT showed that the appearance was due to a detachment of the parietal pleura along the lateral, mediastinal and diaphragmatic boundaries of the lungs, imitating a pneumothorax. The case report illustrates the key role of CT in the differential diagnosis of epipleural interstitial air collection versus pneumothorax. (orig./MG)

  12. Pneumothorax simulated by detachment of parietal pleura associated with pneumomediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozeik, C. [Radiologie 1, Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt (Germany); Kotterer, O. [Radiologie 1, Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt (Germany); Deininger, H.K. [Radiologie 1, Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    We report a case of blunt chest trauma, where findings on repeated conventional chest radiographs were compatible with pneumothorax developing after 2 days of mechanical high-pressure ventilation. CT showed that the appearance was due to a detachment of the parietal pleura along the lateral, mediastinal and diaphragmatic boundaries of the lungs, imitating a pneumothorax. The case report illustrates the key role of CT in the differential diagnosis of epipleural interstitial air collection versus pneumothorax. (orig./MG)

  13. Glomerular parietal epithelial cells in kidney physiology, pathology, and repair

    OpenAIRE

    Shankland, Stuart J.; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Romagnani, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review We have summarized recently published glomerular parietal epithelial cell (PEC) research, focusing on their roles in glomerular development and physiology, and in certain glomerular diseases. The rationale is that PECs have been largely ignored until the recent availability of cell lineage tracing studies, human and murine PEC culture systems, and potential therapeutic interventions of PECs. Recent findings Several new paradigms involving PECs have emerged demonstrating thei...

  14. The Regenerative Potential of Parietal Epithelial Cells in Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Katja; Schulte, Kevin; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman’s capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically labeled in an irreversible fashion in 5-week-old mice. No significant increase in labeled podocytes was observed, even after 18 months. To accelerate a potential regenerative mechanism, progressive glo...

  15. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  16. Self and Superior Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    model of the self-evaluation process as it differs from the evaluation process used by superiors. Symbolic Interactionism One view of self assessment is...supplied by the symbolic interactionists (Cooley, 1902; Head, 1934), who state that self perceptions are generated largely from individuals...disagreements remained even immediately after an appraisal interview in which a great deal of feedback was given. Research on the symbolic interactionist

  17. Flash visual evoked potentials are not specific enough to identify parieto-occipital lobe involvement in term neonates after significant hypoglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liyuan; Gu, Qiufang; Zhu, Zhen; Yang, Chenhao; Chen, Chao; Cao, Yun; Zhou, Wenhao

    2014-08-01

    Hypoglycaemia is a significant problem in high-risk neonates and predominant parieto-occipital lobe involvement has been observed after severe hypoglycaemic insult. We explored the use of flash visual evoked potentials (FVEP) in detecting parieto-occipital lobe involvement after significant hypoglycaemia. Full-term neonates (n = 15) who underwent FVEP from January 2008 to May 2013 were compared with infants (n = 11) without hypoglycaemia or parietal-occipital lobe injury. Significant hypoglycaemia was defined as being symptomatic or needing steroids, glucagon or a glucose infusion rate of ≥12 mg/kg/min. The hypoglycaemia group exhibited delayed latency of the first positive waveform on FVEP. The initial detected time for hypoglycaemia was later in the eight subjects with seizures (median 51-h-old) than those without (median 22-h-old) (P = 0.003). Magnetic resonance imaging showed that 80% of the hypoglycaemia group exhibited occipital-lobe injuries, and they were more likely to exhibit abnormal FVEP morphology (P = 0.007) than the controls. FVEP exhibited 100% sensitivity, but only 25% specificity, for detecting injuries to the parieto-occipital lobes. Flash visual evoked potential (FVEP) was sensitive, but not sufficiently specific, in identifying parieto-occipital lobe injuries among term neonates exposed to significant hypoglycaemia. Larger studies exploring the potential role of FVEP in neonatal hypoglycaemia are required. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Overlapping Parietal Activity in Memory and Perception: Evidence for the Attention to Memory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Roberto; Mazuz, Yonatan S.; Stokes, Jared; Kragel, James E.; Woldorff, Marty G.; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Olson, Ingrid R.; Moscovitch, Morris

    2011-01-01

    The specific role of different parietal regions to episodic retrieval is a topic of intense debate. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM) model, dorsal parietal cortex (DPC) mediates top-down attention processes guided by retrieval goals, whereas ventral parietal cortex (VPC) mediates bottom-up attention processes captured by the retrieval…

  19. El arte parietal, espejo de las sociedades paleolíticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges SAUVET

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente trabajo aboga por un estudio del arte parietal como instrumento del conocimiento de la geografía humana de las sociedades de cazadores y de la evolución de sus redes de alianza, durante el Paleolítico superior. Tomando como ejemplo el componente figurativo de este arte y un amplio corpus de 3981 figuras procedentes de 154 yacimientos franceses y españoles, se demuestra que las asociaciones entre especies animales diferentes obedecen a reglas simples y coherentes, que se dejan fácilmente exprimir por un modelo formal. El análisis de doce sub-conjuntos sincrónicos y diacrónicos evidencia la movilidad de las connexiones interregionales (por ejemplo el desarrollo del Solutrense cantábrico en relación con los centros peninsulares y con escaso contacto con el sudoeste francés, al contrario de la situación que prevalece durante el Magdaleniense medio-superior. Sin embargo conforta la idea que las variaciones regionales operan dentro de un sistema de pensamiento religioso relativamente estable. Una segunda fase del trabajo se propone describir la estructuración del arte parietal a un nivel mucho más fino, teniendo en cuenta la diversidad formal de cada figura y sus relaciones topológicas con las demás. Una larga base de datos está en curso de elaboración para su tratamiento con las técnicas de "extracción de conocimiento" (Knowledge Discovery in Databases. Unos resultados preliminares dejan esperar que una base de datos de este tipo servirá el objetivo y proporcionará une visión más precisa y segura de la historia de los pueblos paleolíticos, dado que la fuente del estilo propio de cada grupo debe buscarse en la construcción gráfica de paneles complejos.ABSTRACT: This paper pleads in favour of the study of parietal art as a means to investigate the human geography of palaeolithic hunter-gatherers in Europe and the evolution of their alliance networks. Taking the example of the figurative component of Rock

  20. MRI findings of temporal lobe ganglioglioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Jun; Lee, Ho Kyu; Lee, Jung Kyo; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul

    1999-01-01

    Ganglioglioma is a rare primary brain tumor usually found in the temporal lobe. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristic MR findings of temporal lobe ganglioglioma. Over a seven-year period, ten patients with cerebral ganglioglioma were evaluated at our institution. Seven cases of temporal lobe ganglioma were found ; six of these involved men, and one, a woman ; their mean age was 29.6 years. In three patients, Gd-DTPA-enhanced T1-weighted images were also obtained. We retrospectively analysed the MRI findings with respect to location, size, cortical involvement, margin, cystic change, degree of enhancement, MR signal intensity, calcification and peritumoral change. In five cases, tumors were located within the temporal lobe. In one, a tumor extended from the temporal lobe to the thalamus, and in one from the temporal lobe to the thalamus and cerebral peduncle. All temporal gangliogliomas measured 1.6-3.8cm in their greatest diameter (mean diameter, 2.7cm). In all cases, the cortices were involved with the maintenance of gyriform. The tumor margin was ill defined in five cases and well defined in two. Tumors showed multiple small cystic changes in four cases, a large cyst in two, and a solid nodule in one. In three cases in which contrast media was administered, no lesions were enhanced. On T1-weighted images, iso-signal intensities were seen in five cases and high signal intensities in two. On T2-weighted images, the corresponding figures were five and two. On MRI, tumor calcification and calvarial erosion were each detected in two cases. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in whom cortical solid or cystic and poorly enhanced lesions were seen on brain MRI, and in whom associated findings such as calcification and or adjacent bony erosion were noted, ganglioglioma must be considered

  1. Thalamotemporal impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy: a combined MRI analysis of structure, integrity, and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simon S; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Traynor, Catherine; Towgood, Karren; Barker, Gareth J; Richardson, Mark P

    2014-02-01

    Thalamic abnormality in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is well known from imaging studies, but evidence is lacking regarding connectivity profiles of the thalamus and their involvement in the disease process. We used a novel multisequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol to elucidate the relationship between mesial temporal and thalamic pathology in TLE. For 23 patients with TLE and 23 healthy controls, we performed T1 -weighted (for analysis of tissue structure), diffusion tensor imaging (tissue connectivity), and T1 and T2 relaxation (tissue integrity) MRI across the whole brain. We used connectivity-based segmentation to determine connectivity patterns of thalamus to ipsilateral cortical regions (occipital, parietal, prefrontal, postcentral, precentral, and temporal). We subsequently determined volumes, mean tractography streamlines, and mean T1 and T2 relaxometry values for each thalamic segment preferentially connecting to a given cortical region, and of the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. As expected, patients had significant volume reduction and increased T2 relaxation time in ipsilateral hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. There was bilateral volume loss, mean streamline reduction, and T2 increase of the thalamic segment preferentially connected to temporal lobe, corresponding to anterior, dorsomedial, and pulvinar thalamic regions, with no evidence of significant change in any other thalamic segments. Left and right thalamotemporal segment volume and T2 were significantly correlated with volume and T2 of ipsilateral (epileptogenic), but not contralateral (nonepileptogenic), mesial temporal structures. These convergent and robust data indicate that thalamic abnormality in TLE is restricted to the area of the thalamus that is preferentially connected to the epileptogenic temporal lobe. The degree of thalamic pathology is related to the extent of mesial temporal lobe damage in TLE. © 2014 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  2. The occipital lobe convexity sulci and gyri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Raphael V; Ribas, Guilherme C; Párraga, Richard G; de Oliveira, Evandro

    2012-05-01

    The anatomy of the occipital lobe convexity is so intricate and variable that its precise description is not found in the classic anatomy textbooks, and the occipital sulci and gyri are described with different nomenclatures according to different authors. The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the anatomy of the occipital lobe convexity and clarify its nomenclature. The configurations of sulci and gyri on the lateral surface of the occipital lobe of 20 cerebral hemispheres were examined in order to identify the most characteristic and consistent patterns. The most characteristic and consistent occipital sulci identified in this study were the intraoccipital, transverse occipital, and lateral occipital sulci. The morphology of the transverse occipital sulcus and the intraoccipital sulcus connection was identified as the most important aspect to define the gyral pattern of the occipital lobe convexity. Knowledge of the main features of the occipital sulci and gyri permits the recognition of a basic configuration of the occipital lobe and the identification of its sulcal and gyral variations.

  3. Superior facet syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-01-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L 5 or/and S 1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively, Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L 5 roots and 11 S 1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L 5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome. (author)

  4. Infectious Causes of Right Middle Lobe Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Aatif; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Greene, John N

    2017-01-01

    Right middle lobe (RML) syndrome is defined as recurrent or chronic obstruction or infection of the middle lobe of the right lung. Nonobstructive causes of middle lobe syndrome include inflammatory processes and defects in the bronchial anatomy and collateral ventilation. We report on 2 case patients with RML syndrome, one due to infection with Mycobacterium avium complex followed by M asiaticum infection and the other due to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A history of atopy, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been reported in up to one-half of those with RML. The diagnosis can be made by plain radiography, computed tomography, and bronchoscopy. Medical treatment consists of bronchodilators, mucolytics, and antimicrobials. Patients whose disease is unresponsive to treatment and those with obstructive RML syndrome can be offered surgical treatment.

  5. Lung lobe collapse: pathophysiology and radiologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, P.F.; Gomez, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The radiographic changes caused by collapse of lung lobes in pulmonary disease, pneumothorax, and pleural effusion depend on the lobar recoiling force and local pleural pressure. Differences in the tendency of normal lung lobes or regions to collapse depend on the relative surface-to-volume ratio, determined by shape and size of the region or lobe. This ratio affects the physiologic parameters of pulmonary interdependence, compliance, and collateral air flow. Pulmonary surfactant increases compliance, particularly at low volumes, maintains alveolar stability, and assists in maintaining capillary patency and preventing pulmonary edema. Its loss due to lung injury increases collapsing forces. In the presence of pneumothorax or pleural effusion, diseases that cause lobar collapse produce localized air or fluid entrapment that is a diagnostic sign of the presence of the underlying pulmonary disease

  6. Superior Parietal Lobule Dysfunction in a Homogeneous Group of Dyslexic Children with a Visual Attention Span Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrin, C.; Demonet, J. F.; N'Guyen-Morel, M. A.; Le Bas, J. F.; Valdois, S.

    2011-01-01

    A visual attention (VA) span disorder has been reported in dyslexic children as potentially responsible for their poor reading outcome. The purpose of the current paper was to identify the cerebral correlates of this VA span disorder. For this purpose, 12 French dyslexic children with severe reading and VA span disorders and 12 age-matched control…

  7. Motor imagery training: Kinesthetic imagery strategy and inferior parietal fMRI activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Florent; Horn, Ulrike; Domin, Martin; Lotze, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is the mental simulation of action frequently used by professionals in different fields. However, with respect to performance, well-controlled functional imaging studies on MI training are sparse. We investigated changes in fMRI representation going along with performance changes of a finger sequence (error and velocity) after MI training in 48 healthy young volunteers. Before training, we tested the vividness of kinesthetic and visual imagery. During tests, participants were instructed to move or to imagine moving the fingers of the right hand in a specific order. During MI training, participants repeatedly imagined the sequence for 15 min. Imaging analysis was performed using a full-factorial design to assess brain changes due to imagery training. We also used regression analyses to identify those who profited from training (performance outcome and gain) with initial imagery scores (vividness) and fMRI activation magnitude during MI at pre-test (MI pre ). After training, error rate decreased and velocity increased. We combined both parameters into a common performance index. FMRI activation in the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) was associated with MI and increased over time. In addition, fMRI activation in the right IPL during MI pre was associated with high initial kinesthetic vividness. High kinesthetic imagery vividness predicted a high performance after training. In contrast, occipital activation, associated with visual imagery strategies, showed a negative predictive value for performance. Our data echo the importance of high kinesthetic vividness for MI training outcome and consider IPL as a key area during MI and through MI training. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Syndecan-1 in the mouse parietal peritoneum microcirculation in inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina M Kowalewska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (CD138 was shown to regulate inflammatory responses by binding chemokines and cytokines and interacting with adhesion molecules, thereby modulating leukocyte trafficking to tissues. The objectives of this study were to examine the expression of syndecan-1 and its role in leukocyte recruitment and chemokine presentation in the microcirculation underlying the parietal peritoneum. METHODS: Wild-type BALB/c and syndecan-1 null mice were stimulated with an intraperitoneal injection of Staphylococcus aureus LTA, Escherichia coli LPS or TNFα and the microcirculation of the parietal peritoneum was examined by intravital microscopy after 4 hours. Fluorescence confocal microscopy was used to examine syndecan-1 expression in the peritoneal microcirculation using fluorescent antibodies. Blocking antibodies to adhesion molecules were used to examine the role of these molecules in leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in response to LTA. To determine whether syndecan-1 co-localizes with chemokines in vivo, fluorescent antibodies to syndecan-1 were co-injected intravenously with anti-MIP-2 (CXCL2, anti-KC (CXCL1 or anti-MCP-1 (CCL2. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Syndecan-1 was localized to the subendothelial region of peritoneal venules and the mesothelial layer. Leukocyte rolling was significantly decreased with LPS treatment while LTA and TNFα significantly increased leukocyte adhesion compared with saline control. Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were not different in syndecan-1 null mice. Antibody blockade of β2 integrin (CD18, ICAM-1 (CD54 and VCAM-1 (CD106 did not decrease leukocyte adhesion in response to LTA challenge while blockade of P-selectin (CD62P abrogated leukocyte rolling. Lastly, MIP-2 expression in the peritoneal venules was not dependent on syndecan-1 in vivo. Our data suggest that syndecan-1 is expressed in the parietal peritoneum microvasculature but does not regulate leukocyte

  9. Information Superiority through Data Warehousing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warner, Neil

    2001-01-01

    .... A precursor to a knowledge edge is Information Superiority. Within most current Command Support Systems minimal integration and fusion of data is undertaken to provide the basis of information superiority...

  10. Distinct antigenic characteristics of murine parietal yolk sac laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Tichy, D; Damjanov, A

    1987-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (LAM-A and LAM-B) specific for laminin from normal and neoplastic parietal yolk sac (PYS) cells were produced in rats immunized with a mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell line. Both antibodies immunoprecipitated the 400,000- and 200,000-Da chains of laminin and reacted...... with purified PYS laminin in ELISA. LAM-A reacted with mouse and rat PYS laminin, whereas LAM-B reacted only with mouse PYS laminin. Formaldehyde- and methanol-fixed adult and fetal somatic tissues were immunohistochemically unreactive with either of the two antibodies. In acetone-fixed tissue sections, both...

  11. Inverted Lobes Have Satisfactory Functions Compared With Noninverted Lobes in Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayawake, Hidenao; Chen-Yoshikawa, Toyofumi F; Motoyama, Hideki; Hamaji, Masatsugu; Hijiya, Kyoko; Aoyama, Akihiro; Goda, Yasufumi; Oda, Hiromi; Ueda, Satoshi; Date, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    To overcome the problem of small-for-size grafts in standard living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT), we developed inverted LDLLT, in which a right lower lobe from 1 donor is implanted as a right graft and another right lower lobe from another donor is implanted as a left graft. We retrospectively analyzed the functions of inverted grafts vs noninverted grafts. Between 2008 and 2015, 64 LDLLTs were performed. Included were 35 LDLLTs whose recipients were adults and monitored for more than 6 months without developing chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Among them, 65 implanted lobes were eligible for this analysis. There were 31 right lower lobes implanted as right grafts (right-to-right group), 7 right lower lobes as inverted left grafts (right-to-left group), and 27 left lower lobes as left grafts (left-to-left group). We evaluated the graft forced vital capacity (G-FVC) and graft volume of the 65 lobes before and 6 months after LDLLT and compared them among the three groups. Preoperatively, G-FVC in the right-to-left group (1,050 mL) was comparable to that in the right-to-right group (1,177 mL) and better than that in the left-to-left group (791 mL, p satisfactory compared with those of noninverted grafts. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal lobe sclerosis associated with hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy: neuropathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Maria; Eriksson, Sofia; Martinian, Lillian; Caboclo, Luis O; McEvoy, Andrew W; Duncan, John S; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2009-08-01

    Widespread changes involving neocortical and mesial temporal lobe structures can be present in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis. The incidence, pathology, and clinical significance of neocortical temporal lobe sclerosis (TLS) are not well characterized. We identified TLS in 30 of 272 surgically treated cases of hippocampal sclerosis. Temporal lobe sclerosis was defined by variable reduction of neurons from cortical layers II/III and laminar gliosis; it was typically accompanied by additional architectural abnormalities of layer II, that is, abnormal neuronal orientation and aggregation. Quantitative analysis including tessellation methods for the distribution of layer II neurons supported these observations. In 40% of cases, there was a gradient of TLS with more severe involvement toward the temporal pole, possibly signifying involvement of hippocampal projection pathways. There was a history of a febrile seizure as an initial precipitating injury in 73% of patients with TLS compared with 36% without TLS; no other clinical differences between TLS and non-TLS cases were identified. Temporal lobe sclerosis was not evident preoperatively by neuroimaging. No obvious effect of TLS on seizure outcome was noted after temporal lobe resection; 73% became seizure-free at 2-year follow-up. In conclusion, approximately 11% of surgically treated hippocampal sclerosis is accompanied by TLS. Temporal lobe sclerosis is likely an acquired process with accompanying reorganizational dysplasia and an extension of mesial temporal sclerosis rather than a separate pathological entity.

  13. Thalamo-Cortical Disruption Contributes to Short-Term Memory Deficits in Patients with Medial Temporal Lobe Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Natalie L; Menke, Ricarda A L; Jbabdi, Saad; Husain, Masud; Stacey, Richard; Carpenter, Katherine; Adcock, Jane E

    2015-11-01

    Short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) have largely been considered as separate brain systems reflecting fronto-parietal and medial temporal lobe (MTL) functions, respectively. This functional dichotomy has been called into question by evidence of deficits on aspects of working memory in patients with MTL damage, suggesting a potentially direct hippocampal contribution to STM. As the hippocampus has direct anatomical connections with the thalamus, we tested the hypothesis that damage to thalamic nuclei regulating cortico-cortical interactions may contribute to STM deficits in patients with hippocampal dysfunction. We used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging-based tractography to identify anatomical subdivisions in patients with MTL epilepsy. From these, we measured resting-state functional connectivity with detailed cortical divisions of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Whereas thalamo-temporal functional connectivity reflected LTM performance, thalamo-prefrontal functional connectivity specifically predicted STM performance. Notably, patients with hippocampal volume loss showed thalamic volume loss, most prominent in the pulvinar region, not detected in patients with normal hippocampal volumes. Aberrant thalamo-cortical connectivity in the epileptic hemisphere was mirrored in a loss of behavioral association with STM performance specifically in patients with hippocampal atrophy. These findings identify thalamo-cortical disruption as a potential mechanism contributing to STM deficits in the context of MTL damage. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Multimodal imaging of language reorganization in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsuan A; Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Leyden, Kelly M; Kucukboyaci, N Erkut; Iragui, Vicente J; Tecoma, Evelyn S; Kansal, Leena; Norman, Marc A; Compton, Rachelle; Ehrlich, Tobin J; Uttarwar, Vedang S; Reyes, Anny; Paul, Brianna M; McDonald, Carrie R

    2017-07-01

    This study explored the relationships among multimodal imaging, clinical features, and language impairment in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE). Fourteen patients with LTLE and 26 controls underwent structural MRI, functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and neuropsychological language tasks. Laterality indices were calculated for each imaging modality and a principal component (PC) was derived from language measures. Correlations were performed among imaging measures, as well as to the language PC. In controls, better language performance was associated with stronger left-lateralized temporo-parietal and temporo-occipital activations. In LTLE, better language performance was associated with stronger right-lateralized inferior frontal, temporo-parietal, and temporo-occipital activations. These right-lateralized activations in LTLE were associated with right-lateralized arcuate fasciculus fractional anisotropy. These data suggest that interhemispheric language reorganization in LTLE is associated with alterations to perisylvian white matter. These concurrent structural and functional shifts from left to right may help to mitigate language impairment in LTLE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Damage to Broca’s area OR the anterior temporal lobe is implicated in stroke-induced agrammatic comprehension: it depends on the task

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    Corianne Rogalsky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The neurobiology of sentence comprehension remains unresolved. Previous large-scale studies of stroke patients have yielded conflicting results regarding sentence comprehension, implicating inferior frontal, anterior temporal and/or posterior temporal regions (Dronkers et al., 2004; Magnusdottir et al., 2013; Thothathiri et al. 2012. Furthermore, only one large-scale lesion study (Magnusdottir et al. 2013 has examined the neural underpinnings of agrammatic comprehension (i.e. substantially worse performance on sentences with noncanonical word orders compared to canonical word order sentences in English, a hallmark of Broca’s aphasia. This one previous study of noncanonical < canonical sentence performance on a sentence picture-matching task implicated damage to the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL and to a lesser degree Broca’s area damage (i.e. < 10% of significant voxels (Magnusdottir et al. 2013. The present study investigated the neurobiology of agrammatic comprehension with two sentence comprehension tasks in the MARC test battery: a sentence-picture matching task (the SOAP Test: a test of syntactic complexity; Love & Oster, 2002 and a sentence plausibility judgment task. Each task contained active, passive, subject-relative and object-relative sentences. Participants included 91 patients with chronic focal cerebral damage. First, we conducted voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM; Bates et al. 2003 for each sentence type in each task. Consistent with previous studies (Magnusdottir et al. 2013; Thothathiri et al. 2012, the VLSMs identified a significant association between sentence comprehension impairments and damage to a large left temporal-inferior parietal network for all sentences (peak t values were in posterior temporal and inferior parietal voxels; no areas of frontal lobe damage were significant for any sentence type/task. We then conducted VLSMs to identify areas of damage associated specifically with agrammatic

  16. Preservation of episodic memory in semantic dementia: The importance of regions beyond the medial temporal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Muireann; Bunk, Steffie; Tu, Sicong; Kamminga, Jody; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-01-29

    Episodic memory impairment represents one of the hallmark clinical features of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) attributable to the degeneration of medial temporal and parietal regions of the brain. In contrast, a somewhat paradoxical profile of relatively intact episodic memory, particularly for non-verbal material, is observed in semantic dementia (SD), despite marked atrophy of the hippocampus. This retrospective study investigated the neural substrates of episodic memory retrieval in 20 patients with a diagnosis of SD and 21 disease-matched cases of AD and compared their performance to that of 35 age- and education-matched healthy older Controls. Participants completed the Rey Complex Figure and the memory subscale of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised as indices of visual and verbal episodic recall, respectively. Relative to Controls, AD patients showed compromised memory performance on both visual and verbal memory tasks. In contrast, memory deficits in SD were modality-specific occurring exclusively on the verbal task. Controlling for semantic processing ameliorated these deficits in SD, while memory impairments persisted in AD. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed significant overlap in the neural correlates of verbal episodic memory in AD and SD with predominantly anteromedial regions, including the bilateral hippocampus, strongly implicated. Controlling for semantic processing negated this effect in SD, however, a distributed network of frontal, medial temporal, and parietal regions was implicated in AD. Our study corroborates the view that episodic memory deficits in SD arise very largely as a consequence of the conceptual loading of traditional tasks. We propose that the functional integrity of frontal and parietal regions enables new learning to occur in SD in the face of significant hippocampal and anteromedial temporal lobe pathology, underscoring the inherent complexity of the episodic memory circuitry. Copyright © 2015

  17. The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke’s aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L.; Binney, Richard J.; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Wernicke’s aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory–verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke’s aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke’s aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke’s aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate–inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke’s aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke’s aphasia group displayed an ‘over-activation’ in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke’s aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions. PMID:24519979

  18. Gene expression profile in temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronica, Eleonora; Gorter, Jan A.

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) represents the most frequent epilepsy syndrome in adult patients with resistance to pharmacological treatment. In TLE, the origin of seizure activity typically involves the hippocampal formation, which displays

  19. Gene expression profile in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronica, E.M.A.; Gorter, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) represents the most frequent epilepsy syndrome in adult patients with resistance to pharmacological treatment. In TLE, the origin of seizure activity typically involves the hippocampal formation, which displays

  20. Formation of Bipolar Lobes by Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Noam

    2002-04-01

    I conduct an analytical study of the interaction of jets, or a collimated fast wind (CFW), with a previously blown asymptotic giant branch (AGB) slow wind. Such jets (or CFWs) are supposedly formed when a compact companion, a main-sequence star, or a white dwarf accretes mass from the AGB star, forms an accretion disk, and blows two jets. This type of flow, which I think shapes bipolar planetary nebulae (PNs), requires three-dimensional gasdynamical simulations, which are limited in the parameter space they can cover. By imposing several simplifying assumptions, I derive simple expressions which reproduce some basic properties of lobes in bipolar PNs and which can be used to guide future numerical simulations. I quantitatively apply the results to two proto-PNs. I show that the jet interaction with the slow wind can form lobes which are narrow close to, and far away from, the central binary system, and which are wider somewhere in between. Jets that are recollimated and have constant cross section can form cylindrical lobes with constant diameter, as observed in several bipolar PNs. Close to their source, jets blown by main-sequence companions are radiative; only further out they become adiabatic, i.e., they form high-temperature, low-density bubbles that inflate the lobes.

  1. Centrifugal acceleration in the magnetotail lobes

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    H. Nilsson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Combined Cluster EFW and EDI measurements have shown that cold ion outflow in the magnetospheric lobes dominates the hydrogen ion outflow from the Earth's atmosphere. The ions have too low kinetic energy to be measurable with particle instruments, at least for the typical spacecraft potential of a sunlit spacecraft in the tenuous lobe plasmas outside a few RE. The measurement technique yields both density and bulk velocity, which can be combined with magnetic field measurements to estimate the centrifugal acceleration experienced by these particles. We present a quantitative estimate of the centrifugal acceleration, and the velocity change with distance which we would expect due to centrifugal acceleration. It is found that the centrifugal acceleration is on average outward with an average value of about of 5 m s−2. This is small, but acting during long transport times and over long distances the cumulative effect is significant, while still consistent with the relatively low velocities estimated using the combination of EFW and EDI data. The centrifugal acceleration should accelerate any oxygen ions in the lobes to energies observable by particle spectrometers. The data set also put constraints on the effectiveness of any other acceleration mechanisms acting in the lobes, where the total velocity increase between 5 and 19 RE geocentric distance is less than 5 km s−1.

  2. Thalamic and parietal brain morphology predicts auditory category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Henry, Molly J; Erb, Julia; Meyer, Lars; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Auditory categorization is a vital skill involving the attribution of meaning to acoustic events, engaging domain-specific (i.e., auditory) as well as domain-general (e.g., executive) brain networks. A listener's ability to categorize novel acoustic stimuli should therefore depend on both, with the domain-general network being particularly relevant for adaptively changing listening strategies and directing attention to relevant acoustic cues. Here we assessed adaptive listening behavior, using complex acoustic stimuli with an initially salient (but later degraded) spectral cue and a secondary, duration cue that remained nondegraded. We employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify cortical and subcortical brain structures whose individual neuroanatomy predicted task performance and the ability to optimally switch to making use of temporal cues after spectral degradation. Behavioral listening strategies were assessed by logistic regression and revealed mainly strategy switches in the expected direction, with considerable individual differences. Gray-matter probability in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and left precentral gyrus was predictive of "optimal" strategy switch, while gray-matter probability in thalamic areas, comprising the medial geniculate body, co-varied with overall performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that successful auditory categorization relies on domain-specific neural circuits in the ascending auditory pathway, while adaptive listening behavior depends more on brain structure in parietal cortex, enabling the (re)direction of attention to salient stimulus properties. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Right parietal cortex mediates recognition memory for melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Nora K; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Halpern, Andrea R; Pollok, Bettina; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Functional brain imaging studies have highlighted the significance of right-lateralized temporal, frontal and parietal brain areas for memory for melodies. The present study investigated the involvement of bilateral posterior parietal cortices (PPCs) for the recognition memory of melodies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants performed a recognition task before and after tDCS. The task included an encoding phase (12 melodies), a retention period, as well as a recognition phase (24 melodies). Experiment 1 revealed that anodal tDCS over the right PPC led to a deterioration of overall memory performance compared with sham. Experiment 2 confirmed the results of Experiment 1 and further showed that anodal tDCS over the left PPC did not show a modulatory effect on memory task performance, indicating a right lateralization for musical memory. Furthermore, both experiments revealed that the decline in memory for melodies can be traced back to an interference of anodal stimulation on the recollection process (remember judgements) rather than to familiarity judgements. Taken together, this study revealed a causal involvement of the right PPC for memory for melodies and demonstrated a key role for this brain region in the recollection process of the memory task. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sylvian Fissure and Parietal Anatomy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Tracey A. Knaus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is characterized by deficits in social functioning and language and communication, with restricted interests or stereotyped behaviors. Anatomical differences have been found in the parietal cortex in children with ASD, but parietal subregions and associations between Sylvian fissure (SF and parietal anatomy have not been explored. In this study, SF length and anterior and posterior parietal volumes were measured on MRI in 30 right-handed boys with ASD and 30 right-handed typically developing boys (7–14 years, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. There was leftward SF and anterior parietal asymmetry, and rightward posterior parietal asymmetry, across groups. There were associations between SF and parietal asymmetries, with slight group differences. Typical SF asymmetry was associated with typical anterior and posterior parietal asymmetry, in both groups. In the atypical SF asymmetry group, controls had atypical parietal asymmetry, whereas in ASD there were more equal numbers of individuals with typical as atypical anterior parietal asymmetry. We did not find significant anatomical-behavioral associations. Our findings of more individuals in the ASD group having a dissociation between cortical asymmetries warrants further investigation of these subgroups and emphasizes the importance of investigating anatomical relationships in addition to group differences in individual regions.

  5. Radiologic evaluation of right middle lobe collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwun, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Deok; Kim, Jong Chul

    1989-01-01

    There are many pathogenetic factors for collapse of right middle lobe; profuse peribronchial clustering of lymph nodes about the right middle lobe bronchus, poor drainage of the bronchus because of its acute angle of take-off from the intermediate bronchus, and the isolation of this small lobe from the right upper and lower lobes, and thus from the aerating effects of collateral ventilation. Retrospectively we reviewed 36 cases of right of right middle lobe collapse of which causes were confirmed by histopathologic or bronchographic findings during the recent 6 years from March 1983 to February 1988 at Inje College Pusan Paik Hospital, and obtained the following results: 1. Male to female ratio was 1:1:4,and peak incidence (64%) was in the fifth and sixth decades with the mean age of 51.1 years. 2. Bronchiectasis was the most common cause (30.6%), and the others were chronic bronchitis (25.0%), pulmonary tuberculosis (19.4%), lung cancer (16.7%), and non-specific inflammatory disease (8.3%). This suggests benign disease is 5 times more common cause of right middle lobe collapse than lung cancer. 3. Among the plain chest radiolograph findings, obliteration of right cardiac border and triangular radiopaque density were the most frequent findings(77.8% in each) and the next was downward and anterior displacement of minor and major fissures (55.6%) 4. Bronchography was done in 11 cases; bronchiectasis was found in 8 cases and chronic bronchitis in 3 cases. Right middle lobe bronchus was obstructed in 2 cases of chronic bronchitis. 5. Chest CT scan was performed in 4 cases of lung cancer, 2 of non-specific inflammatory disease, and 1 of pulmonary tuberculosis: all of lung cancer revealed hilar mass, budged or lobulated fissures, in homogenous density, and mediastinal lymph node enlargement, and all benign disease showed homogenous density and flat to concave fissures. Right middle lobar bronchus narrowing was seen in 5 cases and its obstruction in 2 cases

  6. Dissociated roles of the parietal and frontal cortices in the scope and control of attention during visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyao; Cai, Ying; Liu, Jing; Li, Dawei; Feng, Zifang; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui

    2017-04-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms underlie working memory capacity. Using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), the current study aimed to provide causal evidence for the neural dissociation of two mechanisms underlying visual working memory (WM) capacity, namely, the scope and control of attention. A change detection task with distractors was used, where a number of colored bars (i.e., two red bars, four red bars, or two red plus two blue bars) were presented on both sides (Experiment 1) or the center (Experiment 2) of the screen for 100ms, and participants were instructed to remember the red bars and to ignore the blue bars (in both Experiments), as well as to ignore the stimuli on the un-cued side (Experiment 1 only). In both experiments, participants finished three sessions of the task after 15min of 1.5mA anodal tDCS administered on the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and the primary visual cortex (VC), respectively. The VC stimulation served as an active control condition. We found that compared to stimulation on the VC, stimulation on the right PPC specifically increased the visual WM capacity under the no-distractor condition (i.e., 4 red bars), whereas stimulation on the right PFC specifically increased the visual WM capacity under the distractor condition (i.e., 2 red bars plus 2 blue bars). These results suggest that the PPC and PFC are involved in the scope and control of attention, respectively. We further showed that compared to central presentation of the stimuli (Experiment 2), bilateral presentation of the stimuli (on both sides of the fixation in Experiment 1) led to an additional demand for attention control. Our results emphasize the dissociated roles of the frontal and parietal lobes in visual WM capacity, and provide a deeper understanding of the neural mechanisms of WM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Semantic memory is impaired in patients with unilateral anterior temporal lobe resection for temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Ehsan, Sheeba; Baker, Gus A; Rogers, Timothy T

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary clinical and basic neuroscience studies have increasingly implicated the anterior temporal lobe regions, bilaterally, in the formation of coherent concepts. Mounting convergent evidence for the importance of the anterior temporal lobe in semantic memory is found in patients with bilateral anterior temporal lobe damage (e.g. semantic dementia), functional neuroimaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation studies. If this proposal is correct, then one might expect patients with anterior temporal lobe resection for long-standing temporal lobe epilepsy to be semantically impaired. Such patients, however, do not present clinically with striking comprehension deficits but with amnesia and variable anomia, leading some to conclude that semantic memory is intact in resection for temporal lobe epilepsy and thus casting doubt over the conclusions drawn from semantic dementia and linked basic neuroscience studies. Whilst there is a considerable neuropsychological literature on temporal lobe epilepsy, few studies have probed semantic memory directly, with mixed results, and none have undertaken the same type of systematic investigation of semantic processing that has been conducted with other patient groups. In this study, therefore, we investigated the semantic performance of 20 patients with resection for chronic temporal lobe epilepsy with a full battery of semantic assessments, including more sensitive measures of semantic processing. The results provide a bridge between the current clinical observations about resection for temporal lobe epilepsy and the expectations from semantic dementia and other neuroscience findings. Specifically, we found that on simple semantic tasks, the patients' accuracy fell in the normal range, with the exception that some patients with left resection for temporal lobe epilepsy had measurable anomia. Once the semantic assessments were made more challenging, by probing specific-level concepts, lower frequency

  8. Severe atrophy of right hepatic lobe simulating right hepatic lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C.W.; Strashun, A.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Absence of the right hepatic lobe following blunt abdominal trauma without surgical resection is reported. The usual site of the right hepatic lobe is demonstrated to be occupied by bowel by hepatobiliary imaging

  9. Individual Differences in Reasoning and Visuospatial Attention are Associated with Prefrontal and Parietal White Matter Tracts in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Zachary A.; Greenwood, Pamela M.; Parasuraman, Raja; Strenziok, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although reasoning and attention are two cognitive processes necessary for ensuring the efficiency of many everyday activities in older adults, the role of white matter integrity in these processes has been little studied. This is an important question due to the role of white matter integrity as a neural substrate of cognitive aging. Here, we sought to examine the white matter tracts subserving reasoning and visuospatial attention in healthy older adults. Method Sixty-one adults aged 60 and older completed a battery of cognitive tests to assess reasoning and visuospatial attention. In addition, diffusion tensor images were collected to assess Fractional Anisotropy (FA) – a measure of white matter integrity. A principle component analysis of the test scores yielded two components: reasoning and visuospatial attention. Whole-brain correlations between FA and the cognitive components were submitted to probabilistic tractography analyses for visualization of cortical targets of tracts. Results For reasoning, bilateral thalamo-anterior prefrontal, anterior corpus callosum, and corpus callosum body tracts interconnecting the superior frontal cortices and right cingulum bundle were found. For visuospatial attention, a right inferior fronto-parietal tract, and bilateral parietal and temporal connections were found. Conclusions We conclude that in older adults, prefrontal cortex white matter tracts and interhemispheric communication are important in higher order cognitive functioning. On the other hand, right-sided fronto-parietal tracts appear to be critical for supporting control of cognitive processes, such as redirecting attention. Researchers may use our results to develop neuroscience-based interventions for older adults targeting brain mechanisms involved in cognitive plasticity. PMID:26986750

  10. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

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    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  11. The role of human parietal area 7A as a link between sequencing in hand actions and in overt speech production

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    Stefan eHeim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the evolutionary basis of the human language faculty has proposed the mirror neuron system as a link between motor processing and speech development. Consequently, most work has focussed on the left inferior frontal cortex, in particular Broca's region, and the left inferior parietal cortex. However, the direct link between planning of hand motor and speech actions remains to be elucidated. Thus, the present study investigated whether sequencing of hand motor actions vs. speech motor actions has a common neural denominator. For the hand motor task, 25 subjects performed single, repeated, or sequenced button presses with either the left or right hand. The speech task was in analogy; the same subjects produced the syllable "po" once or repeatedly, or a sequence of different syllables (po-pi-po. Speech motor vs. hand motor effectors resulted in increased perisylvian activation including Broca's region (left area 44 and areas medially adjacent to left area 45. In contrast, common activation for sequenced vs. repeated production of button presses and syllables revealed the effector-independent involvement of left area 7A in the superior parietal lobule (SPL in sequencing. These data demonstrate that sequencing of vocal gestures, an important precondition for ordered utterances and ultimately human speech, shares area 7A, rather than inferior parietal regions, as a common cortical module with hand motor sequencing. Interestingly, area 7A has previously also been shown to be involved in the observation of hand and non-hand actions. In combination with the literature, the present data thus suggest a distinction between area 44, which is specifically recruited for (cognitive aspects of speech, and SPL area 7A for general aspects of motor sequencing. In sum, the study demonstrates a yet little considered role of the superior parietal lobule in the origins of speech, and may be discussed in the light of embodiment of speech and language in the

  12. Ipsiversive ictal eye deviation in inferioposterior temporal lobe epilepsy-Two SEEG cases report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xingzhou; Zuo, Lijun; Guo, Qiang; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-02-21

    Versive seizure characterized by conjugate eye movement during epileptic seizure has been considered commonly as one of the most valuable semiological signs for epilepsy localization, especially for frontal lobe epilepsy. However, the lateralizing and localizing significance of ictaleye deviation has been questioned by clinical observation of a series of focal epilepsy studies, including frontal, central, temporal, parietal and occipital epilepsy. Two epileptic cases characterized by ipsiversive eye deviation as initial clinical sign during the habitual epileptic seizures are presented in this paper. The localization of the epileptogenic zone of both of the cases has been confirmed as inferioposterior temporal region by the findings of ictalstereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) and a good result after epileptic surgery. Detailed analysis of the exact position of the key contacts of the SEEG electrodes identified the overlap between the location of the epileptogenic zone and human MT/MST complex, which play a crucial role in the control of smooth pursuit eye movement. Ipsiversive eye deviation could be the initial clinical sign of inferioposterior temporal lobe epilepsy and attribute to the involvement of human MT/MST complex, especially human MST whichwas located on the anterior/dorsal bank of the anterior occipital sulcus (AOS).

  13. Functional connectivity between prefrontal and parietal cortex drives visuo-spatial attention shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Klaartje; Feredoes, Eva; Ruff, Christian C; Driver, Jon

    2017-05-01

    It is well established that the frontal eye-fields (FEF) in the dorsal attention network (DAN) guide top-down selective attention. In addition, converging evidence implies a causal role for the FEF in attention shifting, which is also known to recruit the ventral attention network (VAN) and fronto-striatal regions. To investigate the causal influence of the FEF as (part of) a central hub between these networks, we applied thetaburst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) off-line, combined with functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) during a cued visuo-spatial attention shifting paradigm. We found that TBS over the right FEF impaired performance on a visual discrimination task in both hemifields following attention shifts, while only left hemifield performance was affected when participants were cued to maintain the focus of attention. These effects recovered ca. 20min post stimulation. Furthermore, particularly following attention shifts, TBS suppressed the neural signal in bilateral FEF, right inferior and superior parietal lobule (IPL/SPL) and bilateral supramarginal gyri (SMG). Immediately post stimulation, functional connectivity was impaired between right FEF and right SMG as well as right putamen. Importantly, the extent of decreased connectivity between right FEF and right SMG correlated with behavioural impairment following attention shifts. The main finding of this study demonstrates that influences from right FEF on SMG in the ventral attention network causally underly attention shifts, presumably by enabling disengagement from the current focus of attention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Confabulation and memory impairments following frontal lobe lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have provided considerable evidence for frontal lobe involvement in memory processing. Memory impairments arc also frequently reported in patients with frontal lobe lesions. However detailed anatomical localisation is rare, making integration of lesion and imaging findings difficult. An investigation of the functional and anatomical contributions of the frontal lobes to memory was conducted in 42 patients with frontal lobe lesions, examining memory processes identified in...

  15. A Rare Case of Craniopharyngioma in the Temporal Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Razmjoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report on a rare case of craniopharyngioma arising in the left temporal lobe with no prior history of head trauma or surgery. There was a solid-cystic mass in the left temporal lobe on MR images. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of a craniopharyngioma occurring in the temporal lobe.

  16. Interleukin-17A Promotes Parietal Cell Atrophy by Inducing ApoptosisSummary

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    Kevin A. Bockerstett

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Atrophic gastritis caused by chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa leads to the loss of gastric glandular cells, including acid-secreting parietal cells. Parietal cell atrophy in a setting of chronic inflammation induces spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia, a critical step in gastric carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which inflammation causes parietal cell atrophy and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia are not well defined. We investigated the role of interleukin-17A (IL-17A in causing parietal cell atrophy. Methods: A mouse model of autoimmune atrophic gastritis was used to examine IL-17A production during early and late stages of disease. Organoids derived from corpus glands were used to determine the direct effects of IL-17A on gastric epithelial cells. Immunofluorescent staining was used to examine IL-17A receptors and the direct effect of signaling on parietal cells. Mice were infected with an IL-17A-producing adenovirus to determine the effects of IL-17A on parietal cells in vivo. Finally, IL-17A neutralizing antibodies were administered to mice with active atrophic gastritis to evaluate the effects on parietal cell atrophy and metaplasia. Results: Increased IL-17A correlated with disease severity in mice with chronic atrophic gastritis. IL-17A caused caspase-dependent gastric organoid degeneration, which could not be rescued with a necroptosis inhibitor. Parietal cells expressed IL-17A receptors and IL-17A treatment induced apoptosis in parietal cells. Overexpressing IL-17A in vivo induced caspase-3 activation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining in parietal cells. Finally, IL-17A neutralizing antibody decreased parietal cell atrophy and metaplasia in mice with chronic atrophic gastritis. Conclusions: These data identify IL-17A as a cytokine that promotes parietal cell apoptosis during atrophic gastritis, a

  17. Altered resting-state effective connectivity of fronto-parietal motor control systems on the primary motor network following stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Cory S.; James, G. Andrew; Hamann, Stephan; Rajendra, Justin K.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Butler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous brain imaging work suggests that stroke alters the effective connectivity (the influence neural regions exert upon each other) of motor execution networks. The present study examines the intrinsic effective connectivity of top-down motor control in stroke survivors (n=13) relative to healthy participants (n=12). Stroke survivors exhibited significant deficits in motor function, as assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) of resting-state fMRI data to investigate the relationship between motor deficits and the intrinsic effective connectivity between brain regions involved in motor control and motor execution. An exploratory adaptation of SEM determined the optimal model of motor execution effective connectivity in healthy participants, and confirmatory SEM assessed stroke survivors’ fit to that model. We observed alterations in spontaneous resting-state effective connectivity from fronto-parietal guidance systems to the motor network in stroke survivors. More specifically, diminished connectivity was found in connections from the superior parietal cortex to primary motor cortex and supplementary motor cortex. Furthermore, the paths demonstrated large individual variance in stroke survivors but less variance in healthy participants. These findings suggest that characterizing the deficits in resting-state connectivity of top-down processes in stroke survivors may help optimize cognitive and physical rehabilitation therapies by individually targeting specific neural pathway. PMID:21839174

  18. Transient contribution of left posterior parietal cortex to cognitive restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoh, Chihiro; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Makiko; Nagaoka, Sawako; Chakraborty, Sudesna; Ishii, Daisuke; Matsuda, Shingo; Tomizawa, Haruna; Ito, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-03-17

    Cognitive restructuring is a fundamental method within cognitive behavioural therapy of changing dysfunctional beliefs into flexible beliefs and learning to react appropriately to the reality of an anxiety-causing situation. To clarify the neural mechanisms of cognitive restructuring, we designed a unique task that replicated psychotherapy during a brain scan. The brain activities of healthy male participants were analysed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During the brain scan, participants underwent Socratic questioning aimed at cognitive restructuring regarding the necessity of handwashing after using the restroom. The behavioural result indicated that the Socratic questioning effectively decreased the participants' degree of belief (DOB) that they must wash their hands. Alterations in the DOB showed a positive correlation with activity in the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) while the subject thought about and rated own belief. The involvement of the left PPC not only in planning and decision-making but also in conceptualization may play a pivotal role in cognitive restructuring.

  19. MR imaging of temporal lobe meningoencephalocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tampieri, D.; Leblanc, R.; Melangon, D.; del-Carpio-O'Donovan, R.; Ethier, R.

    1991-01-01

    Basal meningoencephaloceles represent a rare entity, and they may be associated with a variety of midline cerebral abnormalities. The classification of basal meningoencephaloceles is related to their anatomic location. This paper reports experience in 3 patients, 2 who have temporal lobe epilepsy and a bone defect in the region of the foramen rotondum. In these 2 patients the encephalocele and its covering were protruding into the pterygopalatine fossa without any orbital involvement. The third patient presented with cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea caused by a transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele. MR imaging is the examination of choice for detecting these lesions since it allows for the visualization of the encephalocele and its meningeal covering as well as the bone defect and associated lesions in the temporal lobes

  20. Therapeutic value of lymph node dissection for right middle lobe non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hiroaki; Mun, Mingyon; Motoi, Noriko; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Ken; Yatabe, Yasushi; Okumura, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Background Superior mediastinal and #11i lymph node (LN) metastases are adverse prognostic factors in patients with middle lobe lung cancer. We aimed to clarify the benefit of thorough lymphadenectomy by LN station or zone in middle lobe non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Among 295 patients who underwent pulmonary resection and thorough lymphadenectomy for primary right middle lobe (RML) NSCLC at two institutions, we enrolled 68 patients (33 men, 35 women) and retrospectively studied their data. We divided each N1 location (i.e., #10, #11s and #11i) into N1(−)N2(+) and N1(+)N2(+) and divided the #12m location into N1(+)N2(−), N1(−)N2(+) and N1(+)N2(+). Results Interlobar node involvement was rare in pN1 NSCLC when compared with that in other N1 nodes. Lymph node dissection (LND) was beneficial when the hilar zone (HZ)/interlobar zone (IZ) LNs were located at the intermediate point of the upper zones (UZs) and subcarinal zones (SCZs), with the therapeutic benefit at the SCZ being 2.8-fold higher than that at the UZ and 9.7-fold higher than that at the lower zone (LZ). Furthermore, LND evidently had greater therapeutic value for the SCZ than the UZ, which was compatible with skip N2 metastases. Conclusions For middle lobe NSCLC, mediastinal LND should be considered a priority in the SCZ than in the UZ. Moreover, the HZ/IZ is central to unfavourable prognoses in patients with pN2 middle lobe NSCLC. PMID:27162652

  1. MRI findings of temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Ichiro; Yin, Dali; Fukami, Masahiro; Kondo, Seiji; Takeuchi, Juji; Kanemoto, Kousuke; Sengoku, Akira; Kawai, Itsuo

    1992-01-01

    MRI findings were analyzed retrospectively in 46 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in which the side of epileptogenic focus had been confirmed by EEG studies. T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images were obtained by the use of a 1.0 or 1.5 T superconducting-type MRI machine with a coronal scan perpendicular to the axis of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle. Additional axial and sagittal scans were performed in some cases. The area of the hippocampal body was measured quantitatively using a computerized image-analysis system in 26 cases in which the hippocampus had been visualized with enough contrast on T 1 -weighted coronal images. Abnormal findings were observed in 31/46 (67%) cases. Hippocampal (HC) and temporal lobe (TL) atrophy were observed in 18/46 (39%) and 23/46 (50%) cases respectively, and the side of the atrophy corresponded with the side of the epileptogenic focus, as confirmed by EEG studies, with specificities of 89% and 74% respectively. A quantitative measurement of the area of the hippocampal body showed unilateral hippocampal atrophy more than 10% in 18/25 (69%) cases (10-25%: 10 cases, 25-50%: 7 cases, 50% 2 abnormality was observed in only 4 cases. Structural lesions were observed in 4 cases including an arachnoid cyst, an astrocytoma in amygdala, the Dandy-Walker syndrome, and tuberous sclerosis, using the more efficient imaging qualities than the CT scan. From these observations, it is apparant that superconducting MRI is extremely useful in the diagnosis of the epileptogenic topography of temporal lobe epilepsy. Particularly, hippocampal atrophy was found to correspond with the side of the epileptogenic focus on EEG with a high specificity; its quantitative evaluation could be one of the most important standards in detecting the operative indications for temporal lobe epilepsy. (author)

  2. Bilateral optical nerve atrophy secondary to lateral occipital lobe infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Junfeng; Wei, Shihui

    2013-06-01

    To report a phenomenon of optical nerve atrophy secondary to lateral occipital lobe infarction. Two successive patients with unilateral occipital lobe infarction who experienced bilateral optical nerve atrophy during the follow-up underwent cranial imaging, fundus photography, and campimetry. Each patient was diagnosed with occipital lobe infarction by cranial MRI. During the follow-up, a bilateral optic atrophy was revealed, and campimetry showed a right homonymous hemianopia of both eyes with concomitant macular division. Bilateral optic atrophy was related to occipital lobe infarction, and a possible explanation for the atrophy was transneuronal degeneration caused by occipital lobe infarction.

  3. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Surgery Failures: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harroud, Adil; Bouthillier, Alain; Weil, Alexander G.; Nguyen, Dang Khoa

    2012-01-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are refractory to antiepileptic drugs in about 30% of cases. Surgical treatment has been shown to be beneficial for the selected patients but fails to provide a seizure-free outcome in 20–30% of TLE patients. Several reasons have been identified to explain these surgical failures. This paper will address the five most common causes of TLE surgery failure (a) insufficient resection of epileptogenic mesial temporal structures, (b) relapse on the contralateral mesial temporal lobe, (c) lateral temporal neocortical epilepsy, (d) coexistence of mesial temporal sclerosis and a neocortical lesion (dual pathology); and (e) extratemporal lobe epilepsy mimicking TLE or temporal plus epilepsy. Persistence of epileptogenic mesial structures in the posterior temporal region and failure to distinguish mesial and lateral temporal epilepsy are possible causes of seizure persistence after TLE surgery. In cases of dual pathology, failure to identify a subtle mesial temporal sclerosis or regions of cortical microdysgenesis is a likely explanation for some surgical failures. Extratemporal epilepsy syndromes masquerading as or coexistent with TLE result in incomplete resection of the epileptogenic zone and seizure relapse after surgery. In particular, the insula may be an important cause of surgical failure in patients with TLE. PMID:22934162

  4. Occipital lobe infarction and positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, Koichi; Nagata, Ken; Shishido, Fumio (Research Inst. of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan))

    1990-08-01

    Even though the PET study revealed a total infarct in the territory of the left PCA in our 3 cases of pure alesia, it is still obscure which part of the left occipital lobe is most closely associated with the occurrence of the pure alexia. In order to elucidate the intralobar localization of the pure alexia, it is needed to have an ideal case who shows an pure alexia due to the localized lesion within the left occipital lobe. Furthermore, high-resolution PET scanner will circumvent the problem in detecting the metabolism and blood flow in the corpus callosum which plays an important role in the pathogenesis. We have shown that the occlusion of the right PCA also produced a left unilateral agnosia which is one of the common neurological signs in the right MCA infarction. To tell whether the responsible lesion for the unilateral spatial agnosia differs between the PCA occlusion and the MCA occlusion, the correlation study should be carried out in a greater number of the subjects. Two distinctive neuropsychological manifestations, cerebral color blidness and prosopagnosia, have been considered to be produced by the bilateral occipital lesion. The PET studies disclosed reduction of blood flow and oxygen metabolism in both occipital lobes in our particular patient who exibited cerebral color blindness and posopagnosia. (author).

  5. Occipital lobe infarction and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Koichi; Nagata, Ken; Shishido, Fumio

    1990-01-01

    Even though the PET study revealed a total infarct in the territory of the left PCA in our 3 cases of pure alesia, it is still obscure which part of the left occipital lobe is most closely associated with the occurrence of the pure alexia. In order to elucidate the intralobar localization of the pure alexia, it is needed to have an ideal case who shows an pure alexia due to the localized lesion within the left occipital lobe. Furthermore, high-resolution PET scanner will circumvent the problem in detecting the metabolism and blood flow in the corpus callosum which plays an important role in the pathogenesis. We have shown that the occlusion of the right PCA also produced a left unilateral agnosia which is one of the common neurological signs in the right MCA infarction. To tell whether the responsible lesion for the unilateral spatial agnosia differs between the PCA occlusion and the MCA occlusion, the correlation study should be carried out in a greater number of the subjects. Two distinctive neuropsychological manifestations, cerebral color blidness and prosopagnosia, have been considered to be produced by the bilateral occipital lesion. The PET studies disclosed reduction of blood flow and oxygen metabolism in both occipital lobes in our particular patient who exibited cerebral color blindness and posopagnosia. (author)

  6. Clinical study on temporal lobe epilepsy in childhood caused by temporal lobe space occupying lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Mariko; Oguni, Hirokazu; Funatsuka, Makoto; Osawa, Makiko; Yamane, Fumitaka; Hori, Tomokatsu; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    We studied the clinicoelectrical and neuroimaging features of 11 patients with symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) caused by temporal lobe space occupying lesions (SOLs), and compared its characteristics with those of 19 mesial TLE (MTLE) patients. Brain MRI demonstrated SOLs in the mesiotemporal lobe in 9, and laterotemporal lobe in the remaining 2 patients. Ten of the 11 patients successfully underwent surgery, which revealed tumors in 7 and focal cortical dysplasia in 3 patients. Comparisons of the clinical features between those with space occupying TLE (SOTLE) and MTLE showed that both conditions shared the same clinical seizure manifestations such as gastric uprising sensation or ictal fear and a favorable response to surgery. However, the patients with SOTLE had fewer febrile convulsion, and more frequent seizure recurrences as well as TLE EEG discharges and associations of the monophasic clinical course than those with MTLE. In addition, the MRI findings were characterized by unilateral hippocampal atrophy in MTLE and expanding or SOLs in the SOTLE group. Children with complex partial seizures of suspected temporal lobe origin should undergo extensive neuroimaging evaluation. (author)

  7. Decreasing Temporal Lobe Dose With Five-Field Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Treatment of Pituitary Macroadenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parhar, Preeti K.; Duckworth, Tamara; Shah, Parinda; DeWyngaert, J. Keith; Narayana, Ashwatha; Formenti, Silvia C.; Shah, Jinesh N.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare temporal lobe dose delivered by three pituitary macroadenoma irradiation techniques: three-field three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), three-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (3F IMRT), and a proposed novel alternative of five-field IMRT (5F IMRT). Methods and Materials: Computed tomography-based external beam radiotherapy planning was performed for 15 pituitary macroadenoma patients treated at New York University between 2002 and 2007 using: 3D-CRT (two lateral, one midline superior anterior oblique [SAO] beams), 3F IMRT (same beam angles), and 5F IMRT (same beam angles with additional right SAO and left SAO beams). Prescription dose was 45 Gy. Target volumes were: gross tumor volume (GTV) = macroadenoma, clinical target volume (CTV) = GTV, and planning target volume = CTV + 0.5 cm. Structure contouring was performed by two radiation oncologists guided by an expert neuroradiologist. Results: Five-field IMRT yielded significantly decreased temporal lobe dose delivery compared with 3D-CRT and 3F IMRT. Temporal lobe sparing with 5F IMRT was most pronounced at intermediate doses: mean V25Gy (% of total temporal lobe volume receiving ≥25 Gy) of 13% vs. 28% vs. 29% for right temporal lobe and 14% vs. 29% vs. 30% for left temporal lobe for 5F IMRT, 3D-CRT, and 3F IMRT, respectively (p -7 for 5F IMRT vs. 3D-CRT and 5F IMRT vs. 3F IMRT). Five-field IMRT plans did not compromise target coverage, exceed normal tissue dose constraints, or increase estimated brain integral dose. Conclusions: Five-field IMRT irradiation technique results in a statistically significant decrease in the dose to the temporal lobes and may thus help prevent neurocognitive sequelae in irradiated pituitary macroadenoma patients.

  8. Motor role of parietal cortex in a monkey model of hemispatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanek, Jan; Li, Jingfeng M; Snyder, Lawrence H

    2015-04-21

    Parietal cortex is central to spatial cognition. Lesions of parietal cortex often lead to hemispatial neglect, an impairment of choices of targets in space. It has been unclear whether parietal cortex implements target choice at the general cognitive level, or whether parietal cortex subserves the choice of targets of particular actions. To address this question, monkeys engaged in choice tasks in two distinct action contexts--eye movements and arm movements. We placed focused reversible lesions into specific parietal circuits using the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol and validated the lesion placement using MRI. We found that lesions on the lateral bank of the intraparietal sulcus [lateral intraparietal area (LIP)] specifically biased choices made using eye movements, whereas lesions on the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus [parietal reach region (PRR)] specifically biased choices made using arm movements. This double dissociation suggests that target choice is implemented in dedicated parietal circuits in the context of specific actions. This finding emphasizes a motor role of parietal cortex in spatial choice making and contributes to our understanding of hemispatial neglect.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy. Usefulness for the etiological diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.; Lueders, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    With improvement in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, the ability to identify lesions responsible for temporal lobe epilepsy has increased. MR imaging has also enabled the in vivo diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis. Brain tumors are responsible for 2-4% of epilepsies in adult population and 10-20% of medically intractable epilepsy. The sensitivity of MR imaging in the diagnosis of tumors and other lesions of the temporal lobe (vascular malformations, etc.) is around 90%. Both hippocampal sclerosis and other temporal lobe lesions are amenable to surgical therapy with excellent postsurgical seizure outcome. In this article, we characterize and underline distinguishing features of the different pathological entities. We also suggest an approach to reviewing the MR images of an epileptic patient. (author)

  10. Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis Complicating Typhoid Fever in a Teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Okunola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous sinus (sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT is a rare life-threatening disorder in childhood that is often misdiagnosed. CSVT encompasses cavernous sinus thrombosis, lateral sinus thrombosis, and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST. We present an adolescent girl who was well until two weeks earlier when she had a throbbing frontal headache and fever with chills; she later had dyspnoea, jaundice, melena stool, multiple seizures, nuchal rigidity, and monoparesis of the right lower limb a day before admission. Urine test for Salmonella typhi Vi antigen was positive, and Widal reaction was significant. Serial cranial computerized tomography scans revealed an expanding hypodense lesion in the parafalcine region consistent with SSST or a parasagittal abscess. Inadvertent left parietal limited craniectomy confirmed SSST. She recovered completely with subsequent conservative management. Beyond neuropsychiatric complications of Typhoid fever, CSVT should be highly considered when focal neurologic deficits are present.

  11. Aspirin induces morphological transformation to the secretory state in isolated rabbit parietal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, U K; Levine, R A

    1991-08-01

    The morphological response of rabbit parietal cells to aspirin was evaluated by grading several ultra-structural features including the extent of the tubulovesicular system, intracellular secretory canaliculi, and microvilli. After exposure of isolated parietal cells and gastric glands to aspirin or histamine, there was an approximately twofold increase in the ratio of secretory to nonsecretory parietal cells, and depletion of extracellular Ca2+ abolished the aspirin-induced morphological changes. Morphometry in parietal cells showed that aspirin induced a sixfold increase in secretory canalicular membrane elaboration. Aspirin potentiated histamine-induced parietal cell respiration and aminopyrine uptake ratio but did not increase basal respiration or aminopyrine uptake, suggesting an apparent dissociation from aspirin-induced morphological changes.

  12. Reduced brain N-acetyl-aspartate in frontal lobes suggests neuronal loss in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, M; Walker, P; Bernard, D; Lemesle, M; Martin, D; Baudouin, N; Brunotte, F; Dumas, R

    1996-06-01

    We performed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in three patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to evaluate the distribution and extent of cortical neuronal damage as demonstrated by decreased N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) levels. We examined primary motor (precentral gyrus) and parietal neocortical (superior parietal gyrus) regions. ALS was defined with lower and upper motor neuron signs. Compared with matched healthy controls, ALS patients had a significant decrease in NAA levels in the primary motor cortex (p upper motor neuron signs present in the ALS, come from a neuronal loss within the primary motor cortex and may explain the frontal syndrome associated with ALS. Second clinical applications of 1H-MRS could include identification of extent of upper motor neuron involvement, aiding diagnosis of syndromes presenting with an ALS-like syndrome.

  13. Functional Clustering of the Human Inferior Parietal Lobule by Whole-Brain Connectivity Mapping of Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chiang-Shan R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The human inferior parietal lobule (IPL) comprised the lateral bank of the intraparietal sulcus, angular gyrus, and supramarginal gyrus, defined on the basis of anatomical landmarks and cytoarchitectural organization of neurons. However, it is not clear as to whether the three areas represent functional subregions within the IPL. For instance, imaging studies frequently identified clusters of activities that cut across areal boundaries. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to examine how individual voxels within the IPL are best clustered according to their connectivity to the whole brain. The results identified a best estimate of seven clusters that are hierarchically arranged as the anterior, middle, and posterior subregions. The anterior, middle, and posterior IPL are each significantly connected to the somatomotor areas, superior/middle/inferior frontal gyri, and regions of the default mode network. This functional segregation is supported by recent cytoarchitechtonics and tractography studies. IPL showed hemispheric differences in connectivity that accord with a predominantly left parietal role in tool use and language processing and a right parietal role in spatial attention and mathematical cognition. The functional clusters may also provide a more parsimonious and perhaps even accurate account of regional activations of the IPL during a variety of cognitive challenges, as reported in earlier fMRI studies. PMID:24308753

  14. Attention as the 'glue' for object integration in parietal extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Groß, Julia; Keller, Ingo; Müller, Hermann J; Finke, Kathrin

    2018-04-01

    Patients with unilateral, parietal brain damage frequently show visual extinction, which manifests in a failure to identify contralesional stimuli when presented simultaneously with other, ipsilesional stimuli (but full awareness for single stimulus presentations). Extinction reflects an impairment of spatial selective attention, leaving basic preattentive processing unaffected. For instance, access to bilaterally grouped objects is usually spared in extinction, suggesting that grouping occurs at a stage preceding (in the patients: abnormally biased) spatial-attentional selection. Here, we reinvestigated this notion by comparing (largely between participants, but also within a single-case participant) conditions with objects that varied in their dominant direction of grouping: from the attended to the non-attended hemifield (data from Conci et al., 2009) versus from the non-attended to the attended hemifield (new data). We observe complete absence of extinction when shape completion extended from the attended hemifield. By contrast, extinction was not diminished when object groupings propagate from the unattended hemifield. Moreover, we found the individual severity of the attentional impairment (assessed by a standard "inattention" test) to be directly related to the degree of completion in the unattended hemifield. This pattern indicates that grouping can overcome visual extinction only when object integration departs from the attended visual field, implying, contrary to many previous accounts, that attention is crucial for grouping to be initiated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Subtotal Ablation of Parietal Epithelial Cells Induces Crescent Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicking, Eva-Maria; Fuss, Astrid; Uhlig, Sandra; Jirak, Peggy; Dijkman, Henry; Wetzels, Jack; Engel, Daniel R.; Urzynicok, Torsten; Heidenreich, Stefan; Kriz, Wilhelm; Kurts, Christian; Ostendorf, Tammo; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) of the renal glomerulus contribute to the formation of both cellular crescents in rapidly progressive GN and sclerotic lesions in FSGS. Subtotal transgenic ablation of podocytes induces FSGS but the effect of specific ablation of PECs is unknown. Here, we established an inducible transgenic mouse to allow subtotal ablation of PECs. Proteinuria developed during doxycycline-induced cellular ablation but fully reversed 26 days after termination of doxycycline administration. The ablation of PECs was focal, with only 30% of glomeruli exhibiting histologic changes; however, the number of PECs was reduced up to 90% within affected glomeruli. Ultrastructural analysis revealed disruption of PEC plasma membranes with cytoplasm shedding into Bowman’s space. Podocytes showed focal foot process effacement, which was the most likely cause for transient proteinuria. After >9 days of cellular ablation, the remaining PECs formed cellular extensions to cover the denuded Bowman’s capsule and expressed the activation marker CD44 de novo. The induced proliferation of PECs persisted throughout the observation period, resulting in the formation of typical cellular crescents with periglomerular infiltrate, albeit without accompanying proteinuria. In summary, subtotal ablation of PECs leads the remaining PECs to react with cellular activation and proliferation, which ultimately forms cellular crescents. PMID:22282596

  16. Parietal cells-new perspectives in glomerular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesen, Laura; Steenbergen, Eric; Smeets, Bart

    2017-07-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman's capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and podocytes have a common mesenchymal origin and are the result of divergent differentiation during embryogenesis. Podocytes and PTECs are highly differentiated cells with well-established functions pertaining to the maintenance of the filtration barrier and transport, respectively. For PECs, no specific function other than a structural one has been known until recently. Possible important functions for PECs in the fate of the glomerulus in glomerular disease have now become apparent: (1) PECs may be involved in the replacement of lost podocytes; (2) PECs form the basis of extracapillary proliferative lesions and subsequent sclerosis in glomerular disease. In addition to the acknowledgement that PECs are crucial in glomerular disease, knowledge has been gained regarding the molecular processes driving the phenotypic changes and behavior of PECs. Understanding these molecular processes is important for the development of specific therapeutic approaches aimed at either stimulation of the regenerative function of PECs or inhibition of the pro-sclerotic action of PECs. In this review, we discuss recent advances pertaining to the role of PECs in glomerular regeneration and disease and address the major molecular processes involved.

  17. The regenerative potential of parietal epithelial cells in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Katja; Schulte, Kevin; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman's capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically labeled in an irreversible fashion in 5-week-old mice. No significant increase in labeled podocytes was observed, even after 18 months. To accelerate a potential regenerative mechanism, progressive glomerular hypertrophy was induced by progressive partial nephrectomies. Again, no significant podocyte replenishment was observed. Rather, labeled PECs exclusively invaded segments of the tuft affected by glomerulosclerosis, consistent with our previous findings. We next reassessed PEC recruitment in juvenile mice using a different reporter mouse and confirmed significant recruitment of labeled PECs onto the glomerular tuft. Moreover, some labeled cells on Bowman's capsule expressed podocyte markers, and cells on Bowman's capsule were also directly labeled in juvenile podocyte-specific Pod-rtTA transgenic mice. In 6-week-old mice, however, cells on Bowman's capsule no longer expressed podocyte-specific markers. Similarly, in human kidneys, some cells on Bowman's capsule expressed the podocyte marker synaptopodin from 2 weeks to 2 years of age but not at 7 years of age. In summary, podocyte regeneration from PECs could not be detected in aging mice or models of glomerular hypertrophy. We propose that a small fraction of committed podocytes reside on Bowman's capsule close to the vascular stalk and are recruited onto the glomerular tuft during infancy to adolescence in mice and humans.

  18. Downregulation of GABA[Subscript A] Receptor Protein Subunits a6, ß2, d, e, ?2, ?, and ?2 in Superior Frontal Cortex of Subjects with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rustan, Oyvind G.; Rooney, Robert J.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We measured protein and mRNA levels for nine gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptor subunits in three brain regions (cerebellum, superior frontal cortex, and parietal cortex) in subjects with autism versus matched controls. We observed changes in mRNA for a number of GABA[subscript A] and GABA[subscript B] subunits and overall…

  19. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus

  20. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, M; Pandya, D N

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  1. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  2. Ictal postictal and interictal single-photon emission tomography in the lateralization of temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, M.R.; Berkovic, S.F.; Austin, M.C.; Rowe, C.C.; McKay, W.J.; Bladin, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using radioligands that are fixed on first pass through the cerebral circulation shows distinctive and rapidly changing blood flow patterns accompanying temporal lobe seizures. We sought to determine the optimal time to perform SPET studies for clinical seizure lateralization in temporal lobe epilepsy. Interictal, ictal and postictal SPET scans of 73 consecutively studied patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy were read by three blinded observers to assess the accuracy of lateralization in each condition. The blinded observers correctly identified the side of focus in 97% of ictal studies, 72% of postictal studies and 50% of interictal studies. No incorrect scores were made in the ictal studies, whilst 5% of postictal and 12% of interictal studies were lateralized to the wrong side. Inter-observer agreement was best with the ictal studies. The dramatic perfusion changes of ictal SPET provide consistent, reliable and easily interpretable information that is superior to that provided by interictal and postictal studies. Injection of ligand during seizures is therefore the method of choice for SPET to aid the non-invasive lateralization of temporal seizure foci. (orig.)

  3. Shorter epilepsy duration is associated with better seizure outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Crociati Meguins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the influence of patient’s age and seizure onset on surgical outcome of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Method A retrospective observational investigation performed from a cohort of patients from 2000 to 2012. Results A total of 229 patients were included. One-hundred and eleven of 179 patients (62% were classified as Engel I in the group with < 50 years old, whereas 33 of 50 (66% in the group with ≥ 50 years old group (p = 0.82. From those Engel I, 88 (61% reported epilepsy duration inferior to 10 years and 56 (39% superior to 10 years (p < 0.01. From the total of patients not seizure free, 36 (42% reported epilepsy duration inferior to 10 years and 49 (58% superior to 10 years (p < 0.01. Conclusion Patients with shorter duration of epilepsy before surgery had better postoperative seizure control than patients with longer duration of seizures.

  4. Parietal neural prosthetic control of a computer cursor in a graphical-user-interface task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revechkis, Boris; Aflalo, Tyson NS; Kellis, Spencer; Pouratian, Nader; Andersen, Richard A.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To date, the majority of Brain-Machine Interfaces have been used to perform simple tasks with sequences of individual targets in otherwise blank environments. In this study we developed a more practical and clinically relevant task that approximated modern computers and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). This task could be problematic given the known sensitivity of areas typically used for BMIs to visual stimuli, eye movements, decision-making, and attentional control. Consequently, we sought to assess the effect of a complex, GUI-like task on the quality of neural decoding. Approach. A male rhesus macaque monkey was implanted with two 96-channel electrode arrays in area 5d of the superior parietal lobule. The animal was trained to perform a GUI-like ‘Face in a Crowd’ task on a computer screen that required selecting one cued, icon-like, face image from a group of alternatives (the ‘Crowd’) using a neurally controlled cursor. We assessed whether the crowd affected decodes of intended cursor movements by comparing it to a ‘Crowd Off’ condition in which only the matching target appeared without alternatives. We also examined if training a neural decoder with the Crowd On rather than Off had any effect on subsequent decode quality. Main results. Despite the additional demands of working with the Crowd On, the animal was able to robustly perform the task under Brain Control. The presence of the crowd did not itself affect decode quality. Training the decoder with the Crowd On relative to Off had no negative influence on subsequent decoding performance. Additionally, the subject was able to gaze around freely without influencing cursor position. Significance. Our results demonstrate that area 5d recordings can be used for decoding in a complex, GUI-like task with free gaze. Thus, this area is a promising source of signals for neural prosthetics that utilize computing devices with GUI interfaces, e.g. personal computers, mobile devices, and tablet

  5. The impact of auditory working memory training on the fronto-parietal working memory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Julia A; Opitz, Bertram; Tang, Huijun; Deng, Yuan; Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Hong; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory training with strongly distinct auditory materials transfers exclusively to an auditory (intra-modal) working memory task or whether it generalizes to a (across-modal) visual working memory task. We used adaptive n-back training with tonal sequences and a passive control condition. The memory training led to a reliable training gain. Transfer effects were found for the (intra-modal) auditory but not for the (across-modal) visual transfer task. Training-induced activation decreases in the auditory transfer task were found in two regions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects confirm our previous findings in the visual modality and extents intra-modal effects in the prefrontal cortex to the auditory modality. As the right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently found in maintaining modality-specific auditory information, these results might reflect increased neural efficiency in auditory working memory processes. Furthermore, task-unspecific (amodal) activation decreases in the visual and auditory transfer task were found in the right inferior parietal lobule and the superior portion of the right middle frontal gyrus reflecting less demand on general attentional control processes. These data are in good agreement with amodal activation decreases within the same brain regions on a visual transfer task reported previously.

  6. Amygdala, Pulvinar & Inferior Parietal Cortex Contribute to Early Processing of Faces without Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eTroiani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the present study were twofold. First, we wished to investigate the neural correlates of stimulus-driven processing of stimuli strongly suppressed from awareness and in the absence of top-down influences. We accomplished this using a novel approach in which participants performed an orthogonal task atop a flash suppression noise image to prevent top-down search. Second, we wished to investigate the extent to which amygdala responses differentiate between suppressed stimuli (fearful faces and houses based on their motivational relevance. Using continuous flash suppression in conjunction with fMRI, we presented fearful faces, houses, and a no stimulus control to one eye while participants performed an orthogonal task that appeared atop the flashing Mondrian image presented to the opposite eye. In 29 adolescents, we show activation in subcortical regions, including the superior colliculus, amygdala, thalamus, and hippocampus for suppressed objects (fearful faces and houses compared to a no stimulus control. Suppressed stimuli showed less activation compared to a no stimulus control in early visual cortex, indicating that object information was being suppressed from this region. Additionally, we find no activation in regions associated with conscious processing of these percepts (fusiform gyrus and/or parahippocampal cortex as assessed by mean activations and multi-voxel patterns. A psychophysiological interaction analysis that seeded the amygdala showed task-specific (fearful faces greater than houses modulation of right pulvinar and left inferior parietal cortex. Taken together, our results support a role for the amygdala in stimulus-driven attentional guidance towards objects of relevance and a potential mechanism for successful suppression of rivalrous stimuli.

  7. The impact of auditory working memory training on the fronto-parietal working memory network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Julia A.; Opitz, Bertram; Tang, Huijun; Deng, Yuan; Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Hong; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory training with strongly distinct auditory materials transfers exclusively to an auditory (intra-modal) working memory task or whether it generalizes to a (across-modal) visual working memory task. We used adaptive n-back training with tonal sequences and a passive control condition. The memory training led to a reliable training gain. Transfer effects were found for the (intra-modal) auditory but not for the (across-modal) visual transfer task. Training-induced activation decreases in the auditory transfer task were found in two regions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects confirm our previous findings in the visual modality and extents intra-modal effects in the prefrontal cortex to the auditory modality. As the right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently found in maintaining modality-specific auditory information, these results might reflect increased neural efficiency in auditory working memory processes. Furthermore, task-unspecific (amodal) activation decreases in the visual and auditory transfer task were found in the right inferior parietal lobule and the superior portion of the right middle frontal gyrus reflecting less demand on general attentional control processes. These data are in good agreement with amodal activation decreases within the same brain regions on a visual transfer task reported previously. PMID:22701418

  8. Parietal neural prosthetic control of a computer cursor in a graphical-user-interface task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revechkis, Boris; Aflalo, Tyson N S; Kellis, Spencer; Pouratian, Nader; Andersen, Richard A

    2014-12-01

    To date, the majority of Brain-Machine Interfaces have been used to perform simple tasks with sequences of individual targets in otherwise blank environments. In this study we developed a more practical and clinically relevant task that approximated modern computers and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). This task could be problematic given the known sensitivity of areas typically used for BMIs to visual stimuli, eye movements, decision-making, and attentional control. Consequently, we sought to assess the effect of a complex, GUI-like task on the quality of neural decoding. A male rhesus macaque monkey was implanted with two 96-channel electrode arrays in area 5d of the superior parietal lobule. The animal was trained to perform a GUI-like 'Face in a Crowd' task on a computer screen that required selecting one cued, icon-like, face image from a group of alternatives (the 'Crowd') using a neurally controlled cursor. We assessed whether the crowd affected decodes of intended cursor movements by comparing it to a 'Crowd Off' condition in which only the matching target appeared without alternatives. We also examined if training a neural decoder with the Crowd On rather than Off had any effect on subsequent decode quality. Despite the additional demands of working with the Crowd On, the animal was able to robustly perform the task under Brain Control. The presence of the crowd did not itself affect decode quality. Training the decoder with the Crowd On relative to Off had no negative influence on subsequent decoding performance. Additionally, the subject was able to gaze around freely without influencing cursor position. Our results demonstrate that area 5d recordings can be used for decoding in a complex, GUI-like task with free gaze. Thus, this area is a promising source of signals for neural prosthetics that utilize computing devices with GUI interfaces, e.g. personal computers, mobile devices, and tablet computers.

  9. The Impact of Auditory Working Memory Training on the Fronto-Parietal Working Memory Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eSchneiders

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory training with strongly distinct auditory materials transfers exclusively to an auditory (intra-modal working memory task or whether it generalizes to an (across-modal visual working memory task. We used an adaptive n-back training with tonal sequences and a passive control condition. The memory training led to a reliable training gain. Transfer effects were found for the (intra-modal auditory but not for the (across-modal visual 2-back task. Training-induced activation changes in the auditory 2-back task were found in two regions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects confirm our previous findings in the visual modality and extends intra-modal effects to the auditory modality. These results might reflect increased neural efficiency in auditory working memory processes as in the right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently found in maintaining modality-specific auditory information. By this, these effects are analogical to the activation decreases in the right middle frontal gyrus for the visual modality in our previous study. Furthermore, task-unspecific (across-modal activation decreases in the visual and auditory 2-back task were found in the right inferior parietal lobule and the superior portion of the right middle frontal gyrus reflecting less demands on general attentional control processes. These data are in good agreement with across-modal activation decreases within the same brain regions on a visual 2-back task reported previously.

  10. Origin of frontal lobe spikes in the early onset benign occipital lobe epilepsy (Panayiotopoulos syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Alberto J R; Ferreira, José C; Dias, Ana I; Calado, Eulália

    2008-09-01

    Early onset benign occipital lobe epilepsy (Panayiotopoulos syndrome [PS]) is a common and easily recognizable epilepsy. Interictal EEG spike activity is often multifocal but most frequently localized in the occipital lobes. The origin and clinical significance of the extra-occipital spikes remain poorly understood. Three patients with the PS and interictal EEG spikes with frontal lobe topography were studied using high-resolution EEG. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to decompose the spikes in components with distinct temporal dynamics. The components were mapped in the scalp with a spline-laplacian algorithm. The change in scalp potential topography from spike onset to peak, suggests the contribution of several intracranial generators, with different kinetics of activation and significant overlap. ICA was able to separate the major contributors to frontal spikes and consistently revealed an early activating group of components over the occipital areas in all the patients. The local origin of these early potentials was established by the spline-laplacian montage. Frontal spikes in PS are consistently associated with early and unilateral occipital lobe activation, suggesting a postero-anterior spike propagation. Frontal spikes in the PS represent a secondary activation triggered by occipital interictal discharges and do not represent an independent focus.

  11. Anterior Temporal Lobe Morphometry Predicts Categorization Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Béatrice; Urbanski, Marika; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2018-01-01

    Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri. Semantic categorization tasks were associated with more rostral temporal regions than shape categorization tasks. A significant relationship was also shown between white matter volume in the right temporal lobe and performance in the semantic tasks. Tractography revealed that this white matter region involved several projection and association fibers, including the arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that categorization abilities are supported by the anterior portion of the right temporal lobe and its interaction with other areas.

  12. Anterior Temporal Lobe Morphometry Predicts Categorization Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Garcin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri. Semantic categorization tasks were associated with more rostral temporal regions than shape categorization tasks. A significant relationship was also shown between white matter volume in the right temporal lobe and performance in the semantic tasks. Tractography revealed that this white matter region involved several projection and association fibers, including the arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that categorization abilities are supported by the anterior portion of the right temporal lobe and its interaction with other areas.

  13. The structure of the parietal pleura and its relationship to pleural liquid dynamics in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertine, K H; Wiener-Kronish, J P; Staub, N C

    1984-03-01

    We studied the parietal pleura of six sheep to obtain information on pleural structure, blood supply, and lymphatic drainage. In the strict sense, the parietal pleura is composed of a single layer of mesothelial cells and a uniform layer of loose, irregular connective tissue (about 23 micron in width) subjacent to the mesothelial cells. The parietal pleural blood vessels are 10-15 micron from the pleural space. Tracer substances put in the pleural space are removed at specific locations. Colloidal carbon and chick red blood cells are cleared by the parietal pleural lymphatics located over the intercostal spaces at the caudal end of the thoracic wall and over the lateral sides of the pericardial sac. In these areas the mesothelial cells have specialized openings, the stomata, that directly communicate with the underlying lymphatic lacunae. Cells and particulate matter in the pleural space are cleared only by the parietal pleural lymphatics. Compared to the visceral pleura, we believe the thinness of the parietal pleura, the closeness of its blood vessels to the pleural space, and its specialized lymphatic clearance pathways, together indicate that the parietal pleura plays a major role in pleural liquid and protein dynamics in sheep.

  14. Origin of parietal podocytes in atubular glomeruli mapped by lineage tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Kevin; Berger, Katja; Boor, Peter; Jirak, Peggy; Gelman, Irwin H; Arkill, Kenton P; Neal, Christopher R; Kriz, Wilhelm; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J

    2014-01-01

    Parietal podocytes are fully differentiated podocytes lining Bowman's capsule where normally only parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are found. Parietal podocytes form throughout life and are regularly observed in human biopsies, particularly in atubular glomeruli of diseased kidneys; however, the origin of parietal podocytes is unresolved. To assess the capacity of PECs to transdifferentiate into parietal podocytes, we developed and characterized a novel method for creating atubular glomeruli by electrocoagulation of the renal cortex in mice. Electrocoagulation produced multiple atubular glomeruli containing PECs as well as parietal podocytes that projected from the vascular pole and lined Bowman's capsule. Notably, induction of cell death was evident in some PECs. In contrast, Bowman's capsules of control animals and normal glomeruli of electrocoagulated kidneys rarely contained podocytes. PECs and podocytes were traced by inducible and irreversible genetic tagging using triple transgenic mice (PEC- or Pod-rtTA/LC1/R26R). Examination of serial cryosections indicated that visceral podocytes migrated onto Bowman's capsule via the vascular stalk; direct transdifferentiation from PECs to podocytes was not observed. Similar results were obtained in a unilateral ureter obstruction model and in human diseased kidney biopsies, in which overlap of PEC- or podocyte-specific antibody staining indicative of gradual differentiation did not occur. These results suggest that induction of atubular glomeruli leads to ablation of PECs and subsequent migration of visceral podocytes onto Bowman's capsule, rather than transdifferentiation from PECs to parietal podocytes.

  15. A structural MRI study: gray matter changes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients with different seizure types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-hao XIAO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe gray matter volume changes and evaluate the relation between gray matter changes and duration of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE patients with different seizure types. Methods A total of 40 patients with mTLE, including 20 with partial seizures (mTLE-PS group and 20 with secondarily generalized seizures (mTLE-sGS group, and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers (control group were recruited. T1-three-dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (T1-3D-MPRAGE was scanned for voxel.based morphometry (VBM. Bilateral frontal lobes and thalami were selected as regions of interest (ROIs to compare gray matter volume of brain regions among 3 groups. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between gray matter volume of brain regions and duration. Results There were significant differences in gray matter volumes in bilateral superior frontal gyri, right middle frontal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right angular gyrus, right middle temproral gyrus, right hippocampus, bilateral thalami and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres among 3 groups (P < 0.01, for all; FWE correction. Compared with control group, gray matter volumes in bilateral superior frontal gyri, bilateral cerebellar hemispheres, right middle temproral gyrus, right hippocampus and right thalamus in mTLE-PS group were significantly decreased (P < 0.01, for all; FWE correction. Compared with control group, gray matter volumes in bilateral superior frontal gyri, bilateral thalami, bilateral cerebellar hemispheres, right angular gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus and right hippocampus in mTLE-sGS group were significantly decreased (P < 0.01, for all; FWE correction. Compared with mTLE-PS group, gray matter volumes in bilateral superior frontal gyri, bilateral thalami, right medial frontal gyrus and right gyrus rectus in mTLE-sGS group were significantly reduced (P < 0.01, for all; FWE correction. Gray matter volumes in left

  16. Occurrence of the lobe plasma at lunar distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, D.A.; Hills, H.K.; Freeman, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Recent analysis has confirmed and expanded the characterization of the lobe plasma, the extension of the 'boundary layer' and 'plasma mantle' to lunar distances. Careful statistical analysis has verified that Magnetic Field (1MF). When the moon is in the dawnside of the northern lobe or duskside of the southern lobe, the probability for observation of the lobe plasma is greatly increased when, in the hour preceding, the IMF has had a positive y component. Conversely, when the moon is in the duskside of the northern lobe or dawnside of the southern lobe, the probability for observation is much increased when the IMF has a negative y component. Analysis of lobe plasma data in conjunction with high time resolution IMF data has shown the probability of observation also is greater with a southward pointing IMF. The observed correlations with the y and z components the IMF reflect the fact that the asymmetry and changes in magnitude of the polar cap electric field induced by the IMF extends to lunar distances and determines the depth into the tail to which the ions can drift. Generally, the lobe plasma is observed sporadically for a full day after the moon has entered the tail and a full day before the last magnetopause crossing as it exits the tail. An average extent of approx.8--10R/sub e/ inward from the magnetopause is inferred; however, the lobe plasma has been seen all across the tail

  17. Surgical Considerations of Intractable Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Warren W.

    2018-01-01

    Surgery of temporal lobe epilepsy is the best opportunity for seizure freedom in medically intractable patients. The surgical approach has evolved to recognize the paramount importance of the mesial temporal structures in the majority of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who have a seizure origin in the mesial temporal structures. For those individuals with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, a selective amygdalohippocampectomy surgery can be done that provides an excellent opportunity for seizure freedom and limits the resection to temporal lobe structures primarily involved in seizure genesis. PMID:29461485

  18. Surgical Considerations of Intractable Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren W. Boling

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Surgery of temporal lobe epilepsy is the best opportunity for seizure freedom in medically intractable patients. The surgical approach has evolved to recognize the paramount importance of the mesial temporal structures in the majority of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who have a seizure origin in the mesial temporal structures. For those individuals with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, a selective amygdalohippocampectomy surgery can be done that provides an excellent opportunity for seizure freedom and limits the resection to temporal lobe structures primarily involved in seizure genesis.

  19. Channel systems and lobe construction in the Mississippi Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, L. E.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Bouma, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Morphological features on the Mississippi Fan in the eastern Gulf of Mexico were mapped using GLORIA II, a long-range side-scan sonar system. Prominent is a sinuous channel flanked by well-developed levees and occasional crevasse splays. The channel follows the axis and thickest part of the youngest fan lobe; seismic-reflection profiles offer evidence that its course has remained essentially constant throughout lobe development. Local modification and possible erosion of levees by currents indicates a present state of inactivity. Superficial sliding has affected part of the fan lobe, but does not appear to have been a factor in lobe construction. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  20. Isolation, culture and adenoviral transduction of parietal cells from mouse gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliddon, Briony L; Nguyen, Nhung V; Gunn, Priscilla A; Gleeson, Paul A; Driel, Ian R van

    2008-01-01

    Here we describe a method for the isolation of intact gastric glands from mice and primary culture and transfection of mouse gastric epithelial cells. Collagenase digestion of PBS-perfused mouse stomachs released large intact gastric glands that were plated on a basement membrane matrix. The heterogeneous gland cell cultures typically contain ∼60% parietal cells. Isolated mouse parietal cells remain viable in culture for up to 5 days and react strongly with an antibody specific to the gastric H + /K + ATPase. Isolated intact mouse gastric glands and primary cultures of mouse parietal cells respond to the secretagogue, histamine. Typical morphological changes from a resting to an acid-secreting active parietal cell were observed. In resting cultures of mouse parietal cells, the H + /K + ATPase displayed a cytoplasmic punctate staining pattern consistent with tubulovesicle element structures. Following histamine stimulation, an expansion of internal apical vacuole structures was observed together with a pronounced redistribution of the H + /K + ATPase from the cytoplasm to the apical vacuoles. A reproducible procedure to express genes of interest exogenously in these cultures of mouse parietal cells was also established. This method combines recombinant adenoviral transduction with magnetic field-assisted transfection resulting in ∼30% transduced parietal cells. Adenoviral-transduced parietal cells maintain their ability to undergo agonist-induced activation. This protocol will be useful for the isolation, culture and expression of genes in parietal cells from genetically modified mice and as such will be an invaluable tool for studying the complex exocytic and endocytic trafficking events of the H + /K + ATPase which underpin the regulation of acid secretion

  1. Parietal lesions produce illusory conjunction errors in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond PIERRE Kesner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When several different objects are presented, visual objects are perceived correctly only if their features are identified and then bound together. Illusory-conjunction errors result when an object is correctly identified but is combined incorrectly. The parietal cortex (PPC has been shown repeatedly to play an important role in feature binding. The present study builds on a series of recent studies that have made use of visual search paradigms to elucidate the neural system involved in feature binding. This experiment attempts to define the role the PPC plays in binding the properties of a visual object that varies on the features of color and size in rats. Rats with PPC lesions or control surgery were exposed to three blocks of 20 trials administered over a 1-week period, with each block containing ten-one feature and ten-two feature trials. The target object consisted of one color object (e.g. black and white and one size object (e.g. short and tall. Of the ten one feature trials, five of the trials were tailored specifically for size discrimination and five for color discrimination. In the two-feature condition, the animal was required to locate the targeted object among four objects with two objects differing in size and two objects differing in color. The results showed a significant decrease in learning the task for the PPC lesioned rats compared to controls, especially for the two-feature condition. Based on a subsequent error analysis for color and size, the results showed a significant increase in illusory conjunction errors for the PPC lesioned rats relative to controls for color and relative to color discrimination, suggesting that the PPC may support feature binding as it relates to color. There was an increase in illusory conjunctions errors for both the PPC lesioned and control animals for size, but this appeared to be due to a difficulty with size discrimination.

  2. The Regenerative Potential of Parietal Epithelial Cells in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Katja; Schulte, Kevin; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman’s capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically labeled in an irreversible fashion in 5-week-old mice. No significant increase in labeled podocytes was observed, even after 18 months. To accelerate a potential regenerative mechanism, progressive glomerular hypertrophy was induced by progressive partial nephrectomies. Again, no significant podocyte replenishment was observed. Rather, labeled PECs exclusively invaded segments of the tuft affected by glomerulosclerosis, consistent with our previous findings. We next reassessed PEC recruitment in juvenile mice using a different reporter mouse and confirmed significant recruitment of labeled PECs onto the glomerular tuft. Moreover, some labeled cells on Bowman’s capsule expressed podocyte markers, and cells on Bowman’s capsule were also directly labeled in juvenile podocyte-specific Pod-rtTA transgenic mice. In 6-week-old mice, however, cells on Bowman’s capsule no longer expressed podocyte-specific markers. Similarly, in human kidneys, some cells on Bowman’s capsule expressed the podocyte marker synaptopodin from 2 weeks to 2 years of age but not at 7 years of age. In summary, podocyte regeneration from PECs could not be detected in aging mice or models of glomerular hypertrophy. We propose that a small fraction of committed podocytes reside on Bowman’s capsule close to the vascular stalk and are recruited onto the glomerular tuft during infancy to adolescence in mice and humans. PMID:24408873

  3. Podocyte and Parietal Epithelial Cell Interactions in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hussain, Turki; Al Mana, Hadeel; Hussein, Maged H; Akhtar, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    The glomerulus has 3 resident cells namely mesangial cells that produce the mesangial matrix, endothelial cells that line the glomerular capillaries, and podocytes that cover the outer surface of the glomerular basement membrane. Parietal epithelial cells (PrECs), which line the Bowman's capsule are not part of the glomerular tuft but may have an important role in the normal function of the glomerulus. A significant progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of the role and function of these cells in normal kidney and in kidneys with various types of glomerulopathy. In crescentic glomerulonephritis necrotizing injury of the glomerular tuft results in activation and leakage of fibrinogen which provides the trigger for excessive proliferation of PrECs giving rise to glomerular crescents. In cases of collapsing glomerulopathy, podocyte injury causes collapse of the glomerular capillaries and activation and proliferation of PrECs, which accumulate within the urinary space in the form of pseudocrescents. Many of the noninflammatory glomerular lesions such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and global glomerulosclerosis also result from podocyte injury which causes variable loss of podocytes. In these cases podocyte injury leads to activation of PrECs that extend on to the glomerular tuft where they cause segmental and/or global sclerosis by producing excess matrix, resulting in obliteration of the capillary lumina. In diabetic nephropathy, in addition to increased matrix production in the mesangium and glomerular basement membranes, increased loss of podocytes is an important determinant of long-term prognosis. Contrary to prior belief there is no convincing evidence for an active podocyte proliferation in any of the above mentioned glomerulopathies.

  4. Differential frontal-parietal phase synchrony during hypnosis as a function of hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Cardeña, Etzel; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-10-01

    Spontaneous dissociative alterations in awareness and perception among highly suggestible individuals following a hypnotic induction may result from disruptions in the functional coordination of the frontal-parietal network. We recorded EEG and self-reported state dissociation in control and hypnosis conditions in two sessions with low and highly suggestible participants. Highly suggestible participants reliably experienced greater state dissociation and exhibited lower frontal-parietal phase synchrony in the alpha2 frequency band during hypnosis than low suggestible participants. These findings suggest that highly suggestible individuals exhibit a disruption of the frontal-parietal network that is only observable following a hypnotic induction. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Subcarinal lymph node in upper lobe non-small cell lung cancer patients: is selective lymph node dissection valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aokage, Keiju; Yoshida, Junji; Ishii, Genichiro; Hishida, Tomoyuki; Nishimura, Mitsuyo; Nagai, Kanji

    2010-11-01

    Little is known about selective lymph node dissection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We sought to gain insight into subcarinal node involvement for its frequency and impact on outcome to evaluate whether it is valid to omit subcarinal lymph node dissection in upper lobe NSCLC patients. We reviewed node metastases distribution according to node region, tumor location, and histology among 1099 patients with upper lobe NSCLC. We paid special attention to subcarinal metastases patients without superior mediastinal node metastases, because their pathological stages would have been underdiagnosed if subcarinal node dissection had been omitted. We also assessed the outcome and the pattern of failure among subcarinal metastases patients. To identify subcarinal node involvement predictors, we analyzed 7 clinical factors. Subcarinal node metastases were found in 20 patients and were least frequent among squamous cell carcinoma patients (0.5%). Two of them were free from superior mediastinal metastases but died of the disease at 1 month and due to an unknown cause at 18 months, respectively. Seventeen of the 20 patients developed multi-site recurrence within 37 months. The 5-year survival rate of the 20 patients with subcarinal metastases was 9.0%, which was significantly lower than 32.0% of patients with only superior mediastinal metastases. Clinical diagnosis of node metastases was significantly predictive of subcarinal metastases. Subcarinal node metastases from upper lobe NSCLC were rare and predicted an extremely poor outcome. It appears valid to omit subcarinal node dissection in upper lobe NSCLC patients, especially in clinical N0 squamous cell carcinoma patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A new approach for improving diagnostic accuracy in Alzheimer's disease and frontal lobe dementia utilising the intrinsic properties of the SPET dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technology, CNR, Viale Marx 15, 00137, Rome (Italy); Section of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital/Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Kovalev, Vassili A. [Institute of Engineering Cybernetics, Belarus National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus); Max-Planck Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Leipzig (Germany); Lundqvist, Roger; Thurfjell, Lennart [Applied Medical Imaging, Uppsala (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital/Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, Stig A. [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital/Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontal lobe dementia (FLD) show characteristic patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However, these patterns may overlap with those observed in the aging brain in elderly normal individuals. The aim of this study was to develop a new method for better classification and recognition of AD and FLD cases as compared with normal controls. Forty-six patients with AD, 7 patients with FLD and 34 normal controls (CTR) were included in the study. rCBF was assessed by technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime and a three-headed single-photon emission tomography (SPET) camera. A brain atlas was used to define volumes of interest (VOIs) corresponding to the brain lobes. In addition to conventional image processing methods, based on count density/voxel, the new approach also analysed other intrinsic properties of the data by means of gradient computation steps. Hereby, five factors were assessed and tested separately: the mean count density/voxel and its histogram, the mean gradient and its histogram, and the gradient angle co-occurrence matrix. A feature vector concatenating single features was also created and tested. Preliminary feature discrimination was performed using a two-sided t-test and a K-means clustering was then used to classify the image sets into categories. Finally, five-dimensional co-occurrence matrices combining the different intrinsic properties were computed for each VOI, and their ability to recognise the group to which each individual scan belonged was investigated. For correct classification of the AD-CTR groups, the gradient histogram in the parieto-temporal lobes was the most useful single feature (accuracy 91%). FLD and CTR were better classified by the count density/voxel histogram (frontal and occipital lobes) and by the mean gradient (frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, accuracy 98%). For AD and FLD the count density/voxel histogram in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes classified the

  7. A new approach for improving diagnostic accuracy in Alzheimer's disease and frontal lobe dementia utilising the intrinsic properties of the SPET dataset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, Marco; Kovalev, Vassili A.; Lundqvist, Roger; Thurfjell, Lennart; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A.

    2003-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontal lobe dementia (FLD) show characteristic patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However, these patterns may overlap with those observed in the aging brain in elderly normal individuals. The aim of this study was to develop a new method for better classification and recognition of AD and FLD cases as compared with normal controls. Forty-six patients with AD, 7 patients with FLD and 34 normal controls (CTR) were included in the study. rCBF was assessed by technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime and a three-headed single-photon emission tomography (SPET) camera. A brain atlas was used to define volumes of interest (VOIs) corresponding to the brain lobes. In addition to conventional image processing methods, based on count density/voxel, the new approach also analysed other intrinsic properties of the data by means of gradient computation steps. Hereby, five factors were assessed and tested separately: the mean count density/voxel and its histogram, the mean gradient and its histogram, and the gradient angle co-occurrence matrix. A feature vector concatenating single features was also created and tested. Preliminary feature discrimination was performed using a two-sided t-test and a K-means clustering was then used to classify the image sets into categories. Finally, five-dimensional co-occurrence matrices combining the different intrinsic properties were computed for each VOI, and their ability to recognise the group to which each individual scan belonged was investigated. For correct classification of the AD-CTR groups, the gradient histogram in the parieto-temporal lobes was the most useful single feature (accuracy 91%). FLD and CTR were better classified by the count density/voxel histogram (frontal and occipital lobes) and by the mean gradient (frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, accuracy 98%). For AD and FLD the count density/voxel histogram in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes classified the groups

  8. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  9. Frontal lobe function in chess players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Majid; Nejati, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players don't have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players don't have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  10. MR imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fobben, E.S.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Sperling, M.R.; Kohn, M.I.; Atlas, S.W.; Hackney, D.B.; Goldberg, H.I.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Grossman, R.I.

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging examinations of 31 patients undergoing temporal lobe resection for refractory partial epilepsy were reviewed retrospectively for the presence of signal abnormalities as well as atrophy. High-signal abnormalities were present in only two of the described 31 patients (6.5%). Pathologically, these represented mesial temporal sclerosis and a hamartoma. Of the remaining 29 cases, 13 showed pathologically varying degrees of mesial temporal sclerosis and gliosis and 16 were pathologically normal. Atrophy, as determined by gross asymmetry, sulcal and temporal horn enlargement, and computer volume measurements, was observed in 23 of 31 patients, correlating with the clinically affected side in 20 and the contralateral side in three. In this series, in contrast to others reported, focal MR signal abnormalities were not detected in the vast majority of patients with mesial temporal sclerosis

  11. Cognitive deficits are associated with frontal and temporal lobe white matter lesions in middle-aged adults living in the community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bunce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between brain white matter lesions and cognitive impairment in old age is well established. However, little is known about this association in midlife. As this information will inform policy for early preventative healthcare initiatives, we investigated non-periventricular frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe white matter hyperintensities (WMH in relation to cognitive function in 428 (232 women community-dwelling adults aged 44 to 48 years. RESULTS: Frontal white matter lesions were significantly associated with greater intraindividual RT variability in women, while temporal WMH were associated with face recognition deficits in men. Parietal and occipital lobe lesions were unrelated to cognitive performance. These findings did not differ when education and a range of health variables, including vascular risk factors, were taken into account. CONCLUSION: Gender differences in WMH-cognition associations are discussed, and we conclude that small vessel disease is present in midlife and has functional consequences which are generally not recognized. Preventative strategies should, therefore, begin early in life.

  12. The Oft-Neglected Role of Parietal EEG Asymmetry and Risk for Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer L.; Towers, David N.; Coan, James A.; Allen, John J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively less right parietal activity may reflect reduced arousal and signify risk for major depressive disorder (MDD). Inconsistent findings with parietal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, however, suggest issues such as anxiety comorbidity and sex differences have yet to be resolved. Resting parietal EEG asymmetry was assessed in 306 individuals (31% male) with (n = 143) and without (n = 163) a DSM-IV diagnosis of lifetime MDD and no comorbid anxiety disorders. Past MDD+ women displayed relatively less right parietal activity than current MDD+ and MDD- women, replicating prior work. Recent caffeine intake, an index of arousal, moderated the relationship between depression and EEG asymmetry for women and men. Findings suggest that sex differences and arousal should be examined in studies of depression and regional brain activity. PMID:20525011

  13. Craniopharyngioma in the temporal lobe: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Chul-Ho; Baik, Seung-Kug; Kim, Sang-Pyo; Kim, Il-Man; Sevick, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Herein, we report on an unusual case of craniopharyngioma arising in the temporal lobe with no prior history of surgery and with no connection to the craniopharyngeal duct. MR images showed cystic tumor with a small solid portion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a craniopharyngioma occurring in the temporal lobe

  14. Craniopharyngioma in the temporal lobe: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Chul-Ho; Baik, Seung-Kug; Kim, Sang-Pyo; Kim, Il-Man; Sevick, Robert J. [University of Calgary, Calgary (Canada)

    2004-03-15

    Herein, we report on an unusual case of craniopharyngioma arising in the temporal lobe with no prior history of surgery and with no connection to the craniopharyngeal duct. MR images showed cystic tumor with a small solid portion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a craniopharyngioma occurring in the temporal lobe.

  15. Craniopharyngioma in the Temporal Lobe: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Seung Kug; Kim, Sang-Pyo; Kim, Il-Man; Sevick, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Herein, we report on an unusual case of craniopharyngioma arising in the temporal lobe with no prior history of surgery and with no connection to the craniopharyngeal duct. MR images showed a cystic tumor with a small solid portion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a craniopharyngioma occurring in the temporal lobe. PMID:15064562

  16. A comparative perspective on the human temporal lobe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryant, K.L.; Preuss, T.M.; Bruner, E.; Ogihara, N.; Tanabe, H.

    2018-01-01

    The temporal lobe is a morphological specialization of primates resulting from an expansion of higher-order visual cortex that is a hallmark of the primate brain. Among primates, humans possess a temporal lobe that has significantly expanded. Several uniquely human cognitive abilities, including

  17. Surgical anatomy of the pyramidal lobe and its significance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In diffuse thyroid diseases, the lobes were always pathologically involved and significantly longer. Conclusion. Since the pyramidal lobe is a normal component of the thyroid gland, of varying position and size, with pathological changes in benign and malignant diseases, it should always be examined during thyroid surgery ...

  18. The contribution of the human posterior parietal cortex to episodic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sestieri, Carlo; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is traditionally associated with attention, perceptual decision making and sensorimotor transformations, but more recent human neuroimaging studies support an additional role in episodic memory retrieval. In this Opinion article, we present a functional–anatomical model of the involvement of the PPC in memory retrieval. Parietal regions involved in perceptual attention and episodic memory are largely segregated and often show a push–pull relationship, poten...

  19. Auditory aura in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a red flag to suspect an extra-frontal epileptogenic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Lorenzo; Bisulli, Francesca; Nobili, Lino; Tassi, Laura; Licchetta, Laura; Mostacci, Barbara; Stipa, Carlotta; Mainieri, Greta; Bernabè, Giorgia; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    To describe the anatomo-electro-clinical findings of patients with nocturnal hypermotor seizures (NHS) preceded by auditory symptoms, to evaluate the localizing value of auditory aura. Our database of 165 patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) diagnosis confirmed by videopolysomnography (VPSG) was reviewed, selecting those who reported an auditory aura as the initial ictal symptom in at least two NHS during their lifetime. Eleven patients were selected (seven males, four females). According to the anatomo-electro-clinical data, three groups were identified. Group 1 [defined epileptogenic zone (EZ)]: three subjects were studied with stereo-EEG. The EZ lay in the left superior temporal gyrus in two cases, whereas in the third case seizures arose from a dysplastic lesion located in the left temporal lobe. One of these three patients underwent left Heschl's gyrus resection, and is currently seizure-free. Group 2 (presumed EZ): three cases in which a presumed EZ was identified; in the left temporal lobe in two cases and in the left temporal lobe extending to the insula in one subject. Group 3 (uncertain EZ): five cases had anatomo-electro-clinical correlations discordant. This work suggests that auditory aura may be a helpful anamnestic feature suggesting an extra-frontal seizure origin. This finding could guide secondary investigations to improve diagnostic definition and selection of candidates for surgical treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mirror focus in a patient with intractable occipital lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Shin, Hae Kyung; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Choi, Su Jung; Joo, Eun Yeon; Hong, Seung Bong; Hong, Seung Chul; Seo, Dae-Won

    2014-06-01

    Mirror focus is one of the evidence of progression in epilepsy, and also has practical points for curative resective epilepsy surgery. The mirror foci are related to the kindling phenomena that occur through interhemispheric callosal or commissural connections. A mirror focus means the secondary epileptogenic foci develop in the contralateral hemispheric homotopic area. Thus mirror foci are mostly reported in patients with temporal or frontal lobe epilepsy, but not in occipital lobe epilepsy. We have observed occipital lobe epilepsy with mirror focus. Before epilepsy surgery, the subject's seizure onset zone was observed in the left occipital area by ictal studies. Her seizures abated for 10 months after the resection of left occipital epileptogenic focus, but recurred then. The recurred seizures were originated from the right occipital area which was in the homotopic contralateral area. This case can be an evidence that occipital lobe epilepsy may have mirror foci, even though each occipital lobe has any direct interhemispheric callosal connections between them.

  1. Supplementary CT temporal lobe cuts confer no worthwhile benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straiton, J A; Macpherson, P; Teasdale, E M [Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (UK). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    1991-02-01

    The value of angled temporal lobe cuts as a supplement to conventional head computed tomography (CT) has been assessed by comparing the diagnostic yield of standard axial and specific temporal lobe images (TLCT) in 62 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and 87 with Alzheimer-type senile dementia. Fewer than one patient in six had structural abnormality in the temporal lobe most readily demonstrated by axial CT. Five patients with epilepsy and ten with dementia had changes demonstrated only by TLCT, reported on by one or other of a pair of observers. However such changes were of dubious clinical relevance, or arose as a result of artefact. In one patient with epilepsy and underlying neoplasm, axial CT was positive and TLCT false-negative. The routine addition of temporal lobe cuts to a conventional axial examination confers no added benefit to justify the prolonged examination time and increased radiation dose to the lens of the eye. (orig.).

  2. Supplementary CT temporal lobe cuts confer no worthwhile benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straiton, J.A.; Macpherson, P.; Teasdale, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The value of angled temporal lobe cuts as a supplement to conventional head computed tomography (CT) has been assessed by comparing the diagnostic yield of standard axial and specific temporal lobe images (TLCT) in 62 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and 87 with Alzheimer-type senile dementia. Fewer than one patient in six had structural abnormality in the temporal lobe most readily demonstrated by axial CT. Five patients with epilepsy and ten with dementia had changes demonstrated only by TLCT, reported on by one or other of a pair of observers. However such changes were of dubious clinical relevance, or arose as a result of artefact. In one patient with epilepsy and underlying neoplasm, axial CT was positive and TLCT false-negative. The routine addition of temporal lobe cuts to a conventional axial examination confers no added benefit to justify the prolonged examination time and increased radiation dose to the lens of the eye. (orig.)

  3. An Efficient Approach for Identifying Stable Lobes with Discretization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohai Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for quick identification of chatter stability lobes with discretization method. Firstly, three different kinds of stability regions are defined: absolute stable region, valid region, and invalid region. Secondly, while identifying the chatter stability lobes, three different regions within the chatter stability lobes are identified with relatively large time intervals. Thirdly, stability boundary within the valid regions is finely calculated to get exact chatter stability lobes. The proposed method only needs to test a small portion of spindle speed and cutting depth set; about 89% computation time is savedcompared with full discretization method. It spends only about10 minutes to get exact chatter stability lobes. Since, based on discretization method, the proposed method can be used for different immersion cutting including low immersion cutting process, the proposed method can be directly implemented in the workshop to promote machining parameters selection efficiency.

  4. The cognitive profile of occipital lobe epilepsy and the selective association of left temporal lobe hypometabolism with verbal memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopman, Alex A; Wong, Chong H; Stevenson, Richard J; Homewood, Judi; Mohamed, Armin; Somerville, Ernest; Eberl, Stefan; Wen, Lingfeng; Fulham, Michael; Bleasel, Andrew F

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the cognitive profile of structural occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) and whether verbal memory impairment is selectively associated with left temporal lobe hypometabolism on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Nine patients with OLE, ages 8-29 years, completed presurgical neuropsychological assessment. Composite measures were calculated for intelligence quotient (IQ), speed, attention, verbal memory, nonverbal memory, and executive functioning. In addition, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was used as a specific measure of frontal lobe functioning. Presurgical FDG-PET was analyzed with statistical parametric mapping in 8 patients relative to 16 healthy volunteers. Mild impairments were evident for IQ, speed, attention, and executive functioning. Four patients demonstrated moderate or severe verbal memory impairment. Temporal lobe hypometabolism was found in seven of eight patients. Poorer verbal memory was associated with left temporal lobe hypometabolism (p = 0.002), which was stronger (p = 0.03 and p = 0.005, respectively) than the association of left temporal lobe hypometabolism with executive functioning or with performance on the WCST. OLE is associated with widespread cognitive comorbidity, suggesting cortical dysfunction beyond the occipital lobe. Verbal memory impairment is selectively associated with left temporal lobe hypometabolism in OLE, supporting a link between neuropsychological dysfunction and remote hypometabolism in focal epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  5. PET imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semah, F.

    2006-01-01

    The research projects on epilepsy addressed two main issues: the pathophysiology of the inter-ictal hypo-metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy and the role of the basal ganglia in the control of seizure. Our research projects focused primarily on temporal lobe epilepsy: The pathophysiology of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism and its correlation with the epileptogenic network was investigated in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Inter-ictal hypo-metabolism is commonly found in mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. We hypothesized that metabolic changes reflect the preferential networks involved in ictal discharges. We analyzed the topography of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism according to electro-clinical patterns in 50 patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and consistent features of MTLE. Based on electro-clinical correlations we identified 4 groups:1) mesial group characterized by mesial seizure onset without evidence of early spread beyond the temporal lobe; 2) anterior mesio-lateral group (AML) with early anterior spread, involving the anterior lateral temporal cortex and insulo-fronto-opercular areas; 3) widespread mesio-lateral group (WML) with widespread spread, involving both anterior and posterior lateral temporal and peri-sylvian areas; 4) bi-temporal group (BT) with early contralateral temporal spread. Results of FDG-PET imaging in each group were compared to control subjects using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). MRI data and surgical outcome in each group were compared to metabolic findings. Hypo-metabolism was limited to the hippocampal gyrus, the temporal pole and the insula in the mesial group. Gradual involvement of the lateral temporal cortex, the insula and the peri-sylvian areas was observed in the AML and WML groups. The BT group differed from the others by mild bi-temporal involvement, bilateral insular hypo-metabolism and longer epilepsy duration. MRI

  6. PET imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semah, F. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DSV-CEA, 91 Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    The research projects on epilepsy addressed two main issues: the pathophysiology of the inter-ictal hypo-metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy and the role of the basal ganglia in the control of seizure. Our research projects focused primarily on temporal lobe epilepsy: The pathophysiology of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism and its correlation with the epileptogenic network was investigated in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Inter-ictal hypo-metabolism is commonly found in mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. We hypothesized that metabolic changes reflect the preferential networks involved in ictal discharges. We analyzed the topography of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism according to electro-clinical patterns in 50 patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and consistent features of MTLE. Based on electro-clinical correlations we identified 4 groups:1) mesial group characterized by mesial seizure onset without evidence of early spread beyond the temporal lobe; 2) anterior mesio-lateral group (AML) with early anterior spread, involving the anterior lateral temporal cortex and insulo-fronto-opercular areas; 3) widespread mesio-lateral group (WML) with widespread spread, involving both anterior and posterior lateral temporal and peri-sylvian areas; 4) bi-temporal group (BT) with early contralateral temporal spread. Results of FDG-PET imaging in each group were compared to control subjects using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). MRI data and surgical outcome in each group were compared to metabolic findings. Hypo-metabolism was limited to the hippocampal gyrus, the temporal pole and the insula in the mesial group. Gradual involvement of the lateral temporal cortex, the insula and the peri-sylvian areas was observed in the AML and WML groups. The BT group differed from the others by mild bi-temporal involvement, bilateral insular hypo-metabolism and longer epilepsy duration. MRI

  7. Transient attenuation of visual evoked potentials during focal status epilepticus in a patient with occipital lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Han; Hsu, Shih-Pin; Huang, Chi-Ren; Chang, Chen-Sheng; Chuang, Yao-Chung

    2010-06-01

    Seizures originating in the occipital areas are relatively uncommon. They are usually characterized by visual hallucinations and illusions or other symptoms related to the eyes and vision. In a 54-year-old woman with occipital lobe epilepsy, complex visual hallucinations, illusions, and migraine-like headache constitute the major clinical manifestations. During focal status epilepticus, ictal electroencephalography revealed rhythmic focal spikes in the right occipital region, rapidly propagating to the right parietal and contralateral occipital areas. Ictal brain single-photon emission computed topography revealed hyperperfusion of the right occipital region. Using a full-field pattern-shift visual evoked potential (VEP) study, we found that the P100 responses on both sides were markedly attenuated in amplitude during occipital focal status epilepticus, whereas the latencies of the VEPs were normal. The amplitude and morphology of P100 responses on both sides, however, returned to the normal range 7 days after cessation of the seizures. In addition to clinical seizure semiology, scalp EEG, SPECT and neuroimaging studies, VEP studies may be used as a supplementary examination tool to provide further information in the patients with occipital lobe seizures or epilepsies.

  8. Abnormality of cerebral cortical glucose metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy with cognitive function impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang-Hung Yang; Tsung-Szu Yeh; Tung-Ping Su; Jyh-Cheng Chen; Ren-Shyan Liu

    2004-01-01

    =95). Significantly negative correlation was demonstrated in superior temporal gyms of right temporal lobe (corrected p = 0.003, voxel size 113). Significantly positive correlation between PIQ and rCMRglc was shown in posterior lobe of cerebellum (corrected p < 0.001, voxel size =244). There was no significantly negative correlation between PIQ and rCMRglc. Conclusions: This study provided neuroimaging evidence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities which was related to cognition function impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy patient. All lesions were located with ipislateral hemisphere but outside the seizure foci. This may suggest that cognition impairment is not directly related to seizure foci but may be related with remoting areas. The epilepsy patients whose seizures will prove to be refractory should be identified as early as possible, and thus the need for new prognostic factors of intractable epilepsy is evident. Since multiple seizure foci indicated poor prognosis, quantification of Brodmann area 4, 32, 18 and cerebellum in FDG PET images may be a prognostic factor. (authors)

  9. The Classical Pathways of Occipital Lobe Epileptic Propagation Revised in the Light of White Matter Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Francesco; Hjortberg, Mats; Aldskogius, Håkan; Ryttlefors, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The clinical evidences of variable epileptic propagation in occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) have been demonstrated by several studies. However the exact localization of the epileptic focus sometimes represents a problem because of the rapid propagation to frontal, parietal, or temporal regions. Each white matter pathway close to the supposed initial focus can lead the propagation towards a specific direction, explaining the variable semiology of these rare epilepsy syndromes. Some new insights in occipital white matter anatomy are herein described by means of white matter dissection and compared to the classical epileptic patterns, mostly based on the central position of the primary visual cortex. The dissections showed a complex white matter architecture composed by vertical and longitudinal bundles, which are closely interconnected and segregated and are able to support specific high order functions with parallel bidirectional propagation of the electric signal. The same sublobar lesions may hyperactivate different white matter bundles reemphasizing the importance of the ictal semiology as a specific clinical demonstration of the subcortical networks recruited. Merging semiology, white matter anatomy, and electrophysiology may lead us to a better understanding of these complex syndromes and tailored therapeutic options based on individual white matter connectivity.

  10. Seizure Control and Memory Impairment Are Related to Disrupted Brain Functional Integration in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Hyun; Choi, Yun Seo; Jung, A-Reum; Chung, Hwa-Kyoung; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Hyang Woon

    2017-01-01

    Brain functional integration can be disrupted in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but the clinical relevance of this disruption is not completely understood. The authors hypothesized that disrupted functional integration over brain regions remote from, as well as adjacent to, the seizure focus could be related to clinical severity in terms of seizure control and memory impairment. Using resting-state functional MRI data acquired from 48 TLE patients and 45 healthy controls, the authors mapped functional brain networks and assessed changes in a network parameter of brain functional integration, efficiency, to examine the distribution of disrupted functional integration within and between brain regions. The authors assessed whether the extent of altered efficiency was influenced by seizure control status and whether the degree of altered efficiency was associated with the severity of memory impairment. Alterations in the efficiency were observed primarily near the subcortical region ipsilateral to the seizure focus in TLE patients. The extent of regional involvement was greater in patients with poor seizure control: it reached the frontal, temporal, occipital, and insular cortices in TLE patients with poor seizure control, whereas it was limited to the limbic and parietal cortices in TLE patients with good seizure control. Furthermore, TLE patients with poor seizure control experienced more severe memory impairment, and this was associated with lower efficiency in the brain regions with altered efficiency. These findings indicate that the distribution of disrupted brain functional integration is clinically relevant, as it is associated with seizure control status and comorbid memory impairment.

  11. Clinical and pathological study on 10 cases of cerebral lobe hemorrhage related with cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qi LI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To summarize the clinical data and pathological features of 10 cases of cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA diagnosed pathologically, thereby to improve the knowledge and diagnosis of the disease. Methods The clinical data of 10 cases of cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with CAA, collected in the General Hospital of Shenyang Command from 1983 up to now, were retrospectively analyzed, and the clinical and neuropathological features of these cases were summarized. Results Of the 10 patients, 2 suffered from single lobar hemorrhage and 8 multiple lobar hemorrhage, all of them were confirmed pathologically to have ruptured into the subarachnoid space. Pathological examination revealed microaneurysm in 2 cases, "double barrel" change in 4 cases, multiple arteriolar clusters in 5 cases, obliterative onion-liked intima change in 4 cases, and fibrinoid necrosis of vessel wall in 7 cases. In addition, neurofibrillary tangles were found in 8 cases, and senile plaque was observed in 5 cases. Conclusions Cerebral lobar hemorrhage related with CAA is mainly located in the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, readily breaking into the subarachnoid space, and it is often multiple and recurrent. The CAA associated microvasculopathy was found frequently in the autopsy sample of CAA related cerebral lobar hemorrhage, and it may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.04

  12. Clinical-physiologic correlates of Alzheimer's disease and frontal lobe dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagust, W.J.; Reed, B.R.; Seab, J.P.; Kramer, J.H.; Budinger, T.F.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty patients with degenerative dementia underwent clinical evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with the blood flow tracer [ 123 I]-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine. Five of these patients were clinically and psychologically different from the others, demonstrating predominant behavioral disturbances with relative preservation of memory function. These five patients, who were felt to have a frontal lobe dementia (FLD), showed SPECT perfusion patterns which differed from the remaining 25 patients, who were diagnosed as having Alzheimer's disease (AD), and from 16 healthy control subjects. The FLD patients showed diminished perfusion in orbitofrontal, dorsolateral frontal, and temporal cortex relative to controls, while the AD patients showed lower perfusion in temporal and parietal cortex than controls. The FLD patients also showed hypoperfusion in both frontal cortical regions relative to AD patients. The pattern of performance on neuropsychological testing paralleled these differences in regional perfusion. These results suggest that clinical evaluation and physiological imaging may enable the differentiation of groups of degenerative dementia patients during life

  13. The Classical Pathways of Occipital Lobe Epileptic Propagation Revised in the Light of White Matter Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Francesco; Hjortberg, Mats; Aldskogius, Håkan; Ryttlefors, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The clinical evidences of variable epileptic propagation in occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) have been demonstrated by several studies. However the exact localization of the epileptic focus sometimes represents a problem because of the rapid propagation to frontal, parietal, or temporal regions. Each white matter pathway close to the supposed initial focus can lead the propagation towards a specific direction, explaining the variable semiology of these rare epilepsy syndromes. Some new insights in occipital white matter anatomy are herein described by means of white matter dissection and compared to the classical epileptic patterns, mostly based on the central position of the primary visual cortex. The dissections showed a complex white matter architecture composed by vertical and longitudinal bundles, which are closely interconnected and segregated and are able to support specific high order functions with parallel bidirectional propagation of the electric signal. The same sublobar lesions may hyperactivate different white matter bundles reemphasizing the importance of the ictal semiology as a specific clinical demonstration of the subcortical networks recruited. Merging semiology, white matter anatomy, and electrophysiology may lead us to a better understanding of these complex syndromes and tailored therapeutic options based on individual white matter connectivity. PMID:26063964

  14. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study mapping the episodic memory encoding network in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Meneka K.; Stretton, Jason; Winston, Gavin P.; Bonelli, Silvia; Centeno, Maria; Vollmar, Christian; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J.; Koepp, Matthias J.

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated reorganization of memory encoding networks within the temporal lobe in temporal lobe epilepsy, but little is known of the extra-temporal networks in these patients. We investigated the temporal and extra-temporal reorganization of memory encoding networks in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and the neural correlates of successful subsequent memory formation. We studied 44 patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (24 left) and 26 healthy control subjects. All participants performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging memory encoding paradigm of faces and words with subsequent out-of-scanner recognition assessments. A blocked analysis was used to investigate activations during encoding and neural correlates of subsequent memory were investigated using an event-related analysis. Event-related activations were then correlated with out-of-scanner verbal and visual memory scores. During word encoding, control subjects activated the left prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus whereas patients with left hippocampal sclerosis showed significant additional right temporal and extra-temporal activations. Control subjects displayed subsequent verbal memory effects within left parahippocampal gyrus, left orbitofrontal cortex and fusiform gyrus whereas patients with left hippocampal sclerosis activated only right posterior hippocampus, parahippocampus and fusiform gyrus. Correlational analysis showed that patients with left hippocampal sclerosis with better verbal memory additionally activated left orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and left posterior hippocampus. During face encoding, control subjects showed right lateralized prefrontal cortex and bilateral hippocampal activations. Patients with right hippocampal sclerosis showed increased temporal activations within the superior temporal gyri bilaterally and no increased extra-temporal areas of activation compared with

  15. Palilalia, echolalia, and echopraxia-palipraxia as ictal manifestations in a patient with left frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yang-Je; Han, Sang-Don; Song, Sook Keun; Lee, Byung In; Heo, Kyoung

    2009-06-01

    Palilalia is a relatively rare pathologic speech behavior and has been reported in various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. We encountered a case of palilalia, echolalia, and echopraxia-palipraxia as ictal phenomena of left frontal lobe epilepsy. A 55-year-old, right-handed man was admitted because of frequent episodes of rapid reiteration of syllables. Video-electroencephalography monitoring revealed stereotypical episodes of palilalia accompanied by rhythmic head nodding and right-arm posturing with ictal discharges over the left frontocentral area. He also displayed echolalia or echopraxia-palipraxia, partially responding to an examiner's stimulus. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed encephalomalacia on the left superior frontal gyrus and ictal single photon emission computed tomography showed hyperperfusion just above the lesion, corresponding to the left supplementary motor area (SMA), and subcortical nuclei. This result suggests that the neuroanatomic substrate involved in the generation of these behaviors as ictal phenomena might exist in the SMA of the left frontal lobe.

  16. Temporal and extra-temporal hypoperfusion in medial temporal lobe epilepsy evaluated by arterial-spin-labeling based MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Lianfang; Zhang Zhiqiang; Lu Guangming; Yuan Cuiping; Wang Zhengge; Wang Haoxue; Huang Wei; Wei Fangyuan; Chen Guanghui; Tan Qifu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of the lateralization of unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) by using arterial-spin-labeling (ASL) based perfusion MR imaging and investigate the changes of perfusion in the regions related to mTLE network and the relationship between the perfusion and the clinical status. Methods: Twenty-five patients with left-sided and 23 with right-sided mTLE were enrolled, and 30 healthy volunteers were recruited. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) of related region was measured based on pulsed-ASL sequence on Siemens 3 T scanner. The CBF of the mTLE group were compared with that in the controls by using ANOVA analysis. The asymmetric indices of CBF in the medial temporal lobe were calculated as the lesion side compared with the normal side in matched region in mTLE group. Results: Compared with the volunteers, the patients with mTLE showed the decrease of CBF in the bilateral medial and lateral temporal, the frontal and parietal regions relating to the default-mode network and more serious in lesion side. The CBF values of the medial temporal lobe were negatively correlated with the epilepsy duration (r=-0.51, P<0.01). The asymmetric index of CBF as-0.01 has a 76.0% (19/25) sensitivity and a 78.3% (18/23) specificity to distinguish the lesion side. Conclusions: The decrease of CBF in the temporal and extra-temporal region by ASL-based MRI suggests the functional abnormalities in the network involved by mTLE. The ASL technique is a useful tool for lateralizing the unilateral mTLE. (authors)

  17. Atypical handedness in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležalová, Irena; Schachter, Steven; Chrastina, Jan; Hemza, Jan; Hermanová, Markéta; Rektor, Ivan; Pažourková, Marta; Brázdil, Milan

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of our study was to investigate the handedness of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). We also sought to identify clinical variables that correlated with left-handedness in this population. Handedness (laterality quotient) was assessed in 73 consecutive patients with MTLE associated with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Associations between right- and left-handedness and clinical variables were investigated. We found that 54 (74.0%) patients were right-handed, and 19 (26%) patients were left-handed. There were 15 (36.6%) left-handed patients with left-sided seizure onset compared to 4 (12.5%) left-handed patients with right-sided seizure onset (p=0.030). Among patients with left-sided MTLE, age at epilepsy onset was significantly correlated with handedness (8years of age [median; min-max 0.5-17] in left-handers versus 15years of age [median; min-max 3-30] in right-handers (p<0.001). Left-sided MTLE is associated with atypical handedness, especially when seizure onset occurs during an active period of brain development, suggesting a bi-hemispheric neuroplastic process for establishing motor dominance in patients with early-onset left-sided MTLE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Episodic reinstatement in the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staresina, Bernhard P; Henson, Richard N A; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Alink, Arjen

    2012-12-12

    The essence of episodic memory is our ability to reexperience past events in great detail, even in the absence of external stimulus cues. Does the phenomenological reinstatement of past experiences go along with reinstating unique neural representations in the brain? And if so, how is this accomplished by the medial temporal lobe (MTL), a brain region intimately linked to episodic memory? Computational models suggest that such reinstatement (also termed "pattern completion") in cortical regions is mediated by the hippocampus, a key region of the MTL. Although recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated reinstatement of coarse item properties like stimulus category or task context across different brain regions, it has not yet been shown whether reinstatement can be observed at the level of individual, discrete events-arguably the defining feature of episodic memory-nor whether MTL structures like the hippocampus support this "true episodic" reinstatement. Here we show that neural activity patterns for unique word-scene combinations encountered during encoding are reinstated in human parahippocampal cortex (PhC) during retrieval. Critically, this reinstatement occurs when word-scene combinations are successfully recollected (even though the original scene is not visually presented) and does not encompass other stimulus domains (such as word-color associations). Finally, the degree of PhC reinstatement across retrieval events correlated with hippocampal activity, consistent with a role of the hippocampus in coordinating pattern completion in cortical regions.

  19. Writing superiority in cued recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eFueller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001. In other memory retrieval paradigms, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005. In a series of four experiments using a paired associate (PA learning paradigm we tested (a whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b whether a possible superiority for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c whether the performance in PA word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory task. We found better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a PA learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written versus spoken recall cannot be (solely explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory

  20. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  1. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae Kwan; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Ha Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  2. Turbulent measurements in the lobe mixer of a turbofan engine. Turbofan engine lobe mixer nagare no ranryu keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Makoto; Ogawa, Yuji; Arakawa, Chuichi; Tagori, Tetsuo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co., Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan) Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo, (Japan) The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo, (Japan). Faculty of Engineering The Univ. of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, (Japan)

    1990-01-25

    In order to examine the flow generated by the lobe mixer of a turbofan engine precisely, after measuring a three dimensional turbulent flow by a hot-wire anemometer, the mixing process of a bypass flow and a core flow with cross-sectional vortexes, and factors generating the vortex were clarified experimentally using the scale model of an exhaust duct with the lobe mixer. As a result, the mixing process was strongly affected by a lobe tip figure and a lobe figure near a center-body, and affected by the minimum gap between the lobe and center-body. The subsequent mixing process was scarcely affected by the ratio of a core flow velocity to a bypass flow one, although strongly affected by flow conditions on a lobe surface. Since the lobe mixer promoted the mixing around a center axis shifting a fast core flow outwards, it was unfavorable to mixing, however, it was expected to be useful for reducing engine jet noise. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Double elevator weakening for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy with ipsilateral superior rectus contracture and lax superior oblique tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif O

    2012-06-01

    In unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy, a large hypertropia is sometimes associated with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle and apparent overaction of the contralateral superior oblique. Ipsilateral double elevator weakening is one surgical approach; however, this procedure could compromise supraduction. We report a series of three consecutive patients who underwent ipsilateral superior rectus and inferior oblique recessions for unilateral superior oblique palsy. Intraoperatively, all three patients were found to have a lax ipsilateral superior oblique tendon. Postoperatively, all three patients had satisfactory correction of the hypertropia and abnormal head position with minimal supraduction defect. This procedure seems to be an acceptable initial surgical option for treating congenital superior oblique muscle palsy with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle, even when the ipsilateral superior oblique tendon is lax. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Two cases of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with old intracerebral hemorrhage in the lateral temporal lobe without "dual pathology"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, T; Nishio, S; Hisada, K; Muraishi, M; Ishibashi, H; Mamiya, K; Ohfu, M; Fukui, M

    1998-05-01

    Two cases of intractable temporal lobe epilepsy associated with old intracerebral hemorrhage in the lateral temporal lobe were reported. Although preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) failed to reveal hippocampal atrophy with T2 hyperintensity, electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording with chronic invasive subdural electrodes indicated the mesial temporal lobe to be an ictal onset zone. After anterior temporal lobectomy involving the lesion and hippocampectomy, the patients became seizure-free. Hippocampal sclerosis, namely "dual pathology", was not noted on histological examination. Careful ECoG recording with chronic subdural electrodes is mandatory even when the preoperative MRI does not demonstrate the radiological hippocampal sclerosis.

  5. Spatial imagery relies on a sensory independent, though sensory sensitive, functional organization within the parietal cortex: a fMRI study of angle discrimination in sighted and congenitally blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, Daniela; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Bernardi, Giulio; Sani, Lorenzo; Gentili, Claudio; Vecchi, Tomaso; Pietrini, Pietro

    2015-02-01

    Although vision offers distinctive information to space representation, individuals who lack vision since birth often show perceptual and representational skills comparable to those found in sighted individuals. However, congenitally blind individuals may result in impaired spatial analysis, when engaging in 'visual' spatial features (e.g., perspective or angle representation) or complex spatial mental abilities. In the present study, we measured behavioral and brain responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging in sighted and congenitally blind individuals during spatial imagery based on a modified version of the mental clock task (e.g., angle discrimination) and a simple recognition control condition, as conveyed across distinct sensory modalities: visual (sighted individuals only), tactile and auditory. Blind individuals were significantly less accurate during the auditory task, but comparable-to-sighted during the tactile task. As expected, both groups showed common neural activations in intraparietal and superior parietal regions across visual and non-visual spatial perception and imagery conditions, indicating the more abstract, sensory independent functional organization of these cortical areas, a property that we named supramodality. At the same time, however, comparisons in brain responses and functional connectivity patterns across experimental conditions demonstrated also a functional lateralization, in a way that correlated with the distinct behavioral performance in blind and sighted individuals. Specifically, blind individuals relied more on right parietal regions, mainly in the tactile and less in the auditory spatial processing. In sighted, spatial representation across modalities relied more on left parietal regions. In conclusions, intraparietal and superior parietal regions subserve supramodal spatial representations in sighted and congenitally blind individuals. Differences in their recruitment across non-visual spatial processing in

  6. Laminar thickness alterations in the fronto-parietal cortical mantle of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elseline Hoekzema

    Full Text Available Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD was initially regarded as a disorder exclusive to childhood, nowadays its prevalence in adulthood is well established. The development of novel techniques for quantifying the thickness of the cerebral mantle allows the further exploration of the neuroanatomical profiles underlying the child and adult form of the disorder. To examine the cortical mantle in children and adults with ADHD, we applied a vertex-wise analysis of cortical thickness to anatomical brain MRI scans acquired from children with (n = 43 and without ADHD (n = 41, as well as a group of adult neurotypical individuals (n = 31, adult patients with a history of stimulant treatment (n = 31 and medication-naïve adults with ADHD (n = 24. We observed several clusters of reduced laminar cortical thickness in ADHD patients in comparison to neurotypical individuals. These differences were primarily located in the dorsal attention network, including the bilateral inferior and superior parietal cortex and a section of the frontal cortex (centered on the superior frontal and precentral gyrus bilaterally. Further laminar thickness deficits were observed in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and medial occipital cortex. The deficits in the cortical surface were especially pronounced in the child sample, while adult patients showed a more typical laminar thickness across the cerebral mantle. These findings show that the neuroanatomical profile of ADHD, especially the childhood form of the disorder, involves robust alterations in the cortical mantle, which are most prominent in brain regions subserving attentional processing.

  7. [Functional connectivity of temporal parietal junction in online game addicts:a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ji; Qian, Ruobing; Lin, Bin; Fu, Xianming; Wei, Xiangpin; Weng, Chuanbo; Niu, Chaoshi; Wang, Yehan

    2014-02-11

    To explore the functions of temporal parietal junction (TPJ) as parts of attention networks in the pathogenesis of online game addiction using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A total of 17 online game addicts (OGA) were recruited as OGA group and 17 healthy controls during the same period were recruited as CON group. The neuropsychological tests were performed for all of them to compare the inter-group differences in the results of Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and attention functions. All fMRI data were preprocessed after resting-state fMRI scanning. Then left and right TPJ were selected as regions of interest (ROIs) to calculate the linear correlation between TPJ and entire brain to compare the inter-group differences. Obvious differences existed between OGA group (71 ± 5 scores) and CON group (19 ± 7 scores) in the IAT results and attention function (P online game addicts showed decreased functional connectivity with bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), bilateral hippocampal gyrus and bilateral amygdaloid nucleus, but increased functional connectivity with right cuneus.However, left TPJ demonstrated decreased functional connectivity with bilateral superior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus, but increased functional connectivity with bilateral cuneus (P online game addicts.It suggests that TPJ is an important component of attention networks participating in the generation of online game addiction.

  8. Pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy : white matter abnormalities and cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, H.M.H.; Vaessen, M.J.; Jansen, J.F.A.; Debeij-van Hall, M.H.J.A.; Louw, de A.; Hofman, P.A.M.; Vles, J.S.H.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Backes, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cognitive impairment is frequent in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Its etiology remains unknown. With diffusion tensor imaging, we have studied cerebral white matter properties and associations with cognitive functioning in children with FLE and healthy controls.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with ADNFLE have experienced psychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia), behavioral problems, or intellectual disability. It is unclear ... Epilepsy Society Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE) GeneReviews (1 link) Autosomal Dominant Nocturnal Frontal Lobe ...

  10. Cognitive impairments in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahgol Tavakoli

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings indicated that WMS-III and WAIS-R can differentiate patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy from normal subjects. However, the obtained cognitive profile could not differentiate between the right and the left TLE.

  11. Spike voltage topography in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Asadollahi, Marjan; Shimamoto, Shoichi; Lorenzo, Matthew; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-07-15

    We investigated the voltage topography of interictal spikes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to see whether topography was related to etiology for TLE. Adults with TLE, who had epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant seizures from 2011 until 2014 at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center were selected. Two groups of patients were studied: patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on MRI and those with other MRI findings. The voltage topography maps of the interictal spikes at the peak were created using BESA software. We classified the interictal spikes as polar, basal, lateral, or others. Thirty-four patients were studied, from which the characteristics of 340 spikes were investigated. The most common type of spike orientation was others (186 spikes; 54.7%), followed by lateral (146; 42.9%), polar (5; 1.5%), and basal (3; 0.9%). Characteristics of the voltage topography maps of the spikes between the two groups of patients were somewhat different. Five spikes in patients with MTS had polar orientation, but none of the spikes in patients with other MRI findings had polar orientation (odds ratio=6.98, 95% confidence interval=0.38 to 127.38; p=0.07). Scalp topographic mapping of interictal spikes has the potential to offer different information than visual inspection alone. The present results do not allow an immediate clinical application of our findings; however, detecting a polar spike in a patient with TLE may increase the possibility of mesial temporal sclerosis as the underlying etiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF HOTSPOTS IN RADIO LOBES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Michael W.; Murphy, David W.; Livingston, John H.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Jones, Dayton L.; Meier, David L.; Lawrence, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out a systematic search with Spitzer Warm Mission and archival data for infrared emission from the hotspots in radio lobes that have been described by Hardcastle et al. These hotspots have been detected with both radio and X-ray observations, but an observation at an intermediate frequency in the infrared can be critical to distinguish between competing models for particle acceleration and radiation processes in these objects. Between the archival and warm mission data, we report detections of 18 hotspots; the archival data generally include detections at all four IRAC bands, the Warm Mission data only at 3.6 μm. Using a theoretical formalism adopted from Godfrey et al., we fit both archival and warm mission spectral energy distributions (SEDs)—including radio, X-ray, and optical data from Hardcastle as well as the Spitzer data—with a synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, in which the X-rays are produced by Compton scattering of the radio frequency photons by the energetic electrons which radiate them. With one exception, an SSC model requires that the magnetic field be less or much less than the equipartition value which minimizes total energy and has comparable amounts of energy in the magnetic field and in the energetic particles. This conclusion agrees with those of comparable recent studies of hotspots, and with the analysis presented by Hardcastle et al. We also show that the infrared data rule out the simplest synchrotron-only models for the SEDs. We briefly discuss the implications of these results and of alternate interpretations of the data.

  13. Patterns of verbal learning and memory in children with intractable temporal lobe or frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Amanda; Smith, Mary Lou

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a better understanding of the verbal learning and memory (VLM) patterns that might differentiate children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) from children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to examine the impact of variables thought to influence outcomes (seizure laterality, age at seizure onset, age at assessment, epilepsy duration, number of antiepileptic drugs). Retrospective analyses were carried out for children with intractable unilateral TLE (n=100) and FLE (n=27) who completed standardized measures of VLM entailing lists of single words or lists of word pairs. Mean intelligent quotients and VLM scores on single words fell within the average range for both groups, whereas scores fell within the low average to borderline range on word pairs. No significant overall differences in VLM were found between the group with TLE and the group with FLE. Older age at assessment and older age at seizure onset were generally associated with better VLM in both groups but were related to better performance in a number of indices in the group with TLE and only fewer intrusions in the group with FLE. The VLM profiles of children with TLE and FLE are generally similar. Older age at assessment and older age at seizure onset have a favorable impact on both groups but are related to better encoding, retrieval, and monitoring processes for the group with TLE and improved memory monitoring (i.e., as indicated by fewer intrusions) in the group with FLE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mirror Focus in a Patient with Intractable Occipital Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiyoung; Shin, Hae kyung; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Choi, Su Jung; Joo, Eun Yeon; Hong, Seung Bong; Hong, Seung Chul; Seo, Dae-Won

    2014-01-01

    Mirror focus is one of the evidence of progression in epilepsy, and also has practical points for curative resective epilepsy surgery. The mirror foci are related to the kindling phenomena that occur through interhemispheric callosal or commissural connections. A mirror focus means the secondary epileptogenic foci develop in the contralateral hemispheric homotopic area. Thus mirror foci are mostly reported in patients with temporal or frontal lobe epilepsy, but not in occipital lobe epilepsy....

  15. Altered organization of face processing networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Jeffrey D.; Fling, Brett W.; Cramer, Steven C.; Lin, Jack J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Deficits in social cognition are common and significant in people with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but the functional and structural underpinnings remain unclear. The present study investigated how the side of seizure focus impacts face processing networks in temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of a face processing paradigm to identify face responsive regions in 24 individuals with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (Left = 15; Right = 9) and 19 healthy controls. fMRI signals of face responsive regions ispilateral and contralateral to the side of seizure onset were delineated in TLE and compared to the healthy controls with right and left side combined. Diffusion tensor images were acquired to investigate structural connectivity between face regions that differed in fMRI signals between the two groups. Results In temporal lobe epilepsy, activation of the cortical face processing networks varied according to side of seizure onset. In temporal lobe epilepsy, the laterality of amygdala activation was shifted to the side contralateral to the seizure focus while controls showed no significant asymmetry. Furthermore, compared to controls, patients with TLE showed decreased activation of the occipital face responsive region in the ipsilateral side and an increased activity of the anterior temporal lobe in the contralateral side to the seizure focus. Probabilistic tractography revealed that the occipital face area and anterior temporal lobe are connected via the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, which in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy showed reduced integrity. Significance Taken together, these findings suggest that brain function and white matter integrity of networks subserving face processing are impaired on the side of seizure onset, accompanied by altered responses on the side contralateral to the seizure. PMID:25823855

  16. A comparison of occipital and temporal lobe epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, S; Sharan, A D; Tracy, J I; Evans, J; Sperling, M R

    2015-10-01

    Differentiating between occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is often challenging. This retrospective case-control study compares OLE to TLE and explores markers that suggest the diagnosis of OLE. We queried the Jefferson Epilepsy Center surgery database for patients who underwent a resection that involved the occipital lobe. For each patient with OLE, three sequential case-control patients with TLE were matched. Demographic characteristics, symptoms, electrophysiological findings, imaging findings, and surgical outcome were compared. Nineteen patients with OLE and 57 patients with TLE were included in the study. Visual symptoms were unique to patients with OLE (8/19) and were not reported by patients with TLE (P Occipital interictal spikes (IIS) were found only in one-third of the patients with OLE (6/19) and in no patients with TLE (P lobe were found in five of 19 patients with OLE vs one of 57 patients with TLE (P = 0.003). IIS involved more than one lobe of the brain in most patients with OLE (11/19) but only in nine of 57 the TLE group. (P = 0.0003) Multilobar resection was needed in most patients with OLE (15/19), typically including the temporal lobe, but in only one of the patients with TLE (P Occipital lobe epilepsy is difficult to identify and may masquerade as temporal lobe epilepsy. Visual symptoms and occipital findings in the EEG suggest the diagnosis of OLE, but absence of these features, does not exclude the diagnosis. When posterior temporal EEG findings or multilobar involvement occurs, the diagnosis of OLE should be considered. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Accessory hepatic lobe simulating a left hemidiaphragmatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Hirata, Hitoshi; Iwashita, Akinori; Yasumori, Kotaro; Mogami, Hiroshi; Teraoka, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman with a 20-year history of neuralgia was confirmed at surgery to have a tumor in the left hemidiaphragmatic region which was connected with the left lobe of the liver. Reassessment of radiological diagnosis after surgery revealed that hepatobiliary scintigraphy and computed tomography using left anterior oblique scanning are useful in differentiating the accessory hepatic lobe of the liver from a tumor and in confirming the diagnosis, respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Transcranial direct current stimulation over the parietal cortex alters bias in item and source memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Denise; Chua, Elizabeth F

    2016-10-01

    Neuroimaging data have shown that activity in the lateral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) correlates with item recognition and source recollection, but there is considerable debate about its specific contributions. Performance on both item and source memory tasks were compared between participants who were given bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the parietal cortex to those given prefrontal or sham tDCS. The parietal tDCS group, but not the prefrontal group, showed decreased false recognition, and less bias in item and source discrimination tasks compared to sham stimulation. These results are consistent with a causal role of the PPC in item and source memory retrieval, likely based on attentional and decision-making biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unique and shared roles of the posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumi eKatsuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex are two parts of a broader brain network involved in the control of cognitive functions such as working memory, spatial attention, and decision making. The two areas share many functional properties and exhibit similar patterns of activation during the execution of mental operations. However, neurophysiological experiments in non-human primates have also documented subtle differences, revealing functional specialization within the fronto-parietal network. These differences include the ability of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to influence memory performance, attention allocation and motor responses to a greater extent, and to resist interference by distracting stimuli. In recent years, distinct cellular and anatomical differences have been identified, offering insights into how functional specialization is achieved. This article reviews the common functions and functional differences between the dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, and their underlying mechanisms.

  20. Modulation of fronto-parietal connections during the rubber hand illusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Christensen, Mark Schram

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that parieto-frontal connections play a role in adjusting body ownership during the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI). Using a motor version of the rubber hand illusion paradigm, we applied single-site and dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate...... and during three RHI conditions: a) agency and ownership, b) agency but no ownership and c) neither agency nor ownership. Parietal-motor communication differed among experimental conditions. The induction of action ownership was associated with an inhibitory parietal-to-motor connectivity, which...... cortico-spinal and parietal-frontal connectivity during perceived rubber hand ownership. Healthy volunteers received a conditioning TMS pulse over left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) and a test TMS pulse over left primary motor cortex (M1). Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) were recorded at rest...

  1. Induction of motor associative plasticity in the posterior parietal cortex-primary motor network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chao, Chi-Chao; Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Paine, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    There is anatomical and functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex (M1) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that plays a role in sensorimotor integration. In this study, we applied corticocortical paired-associative stimuli to ipsilateral PPC and M1 (parietal ccPAS) in healthy right......-handed subjects to test if this procedure could modulate M1 excitability and PPC–M1 connectivity. One hundred and eighty paired transcranial magnetic stimuli to the PPC and M1 at an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 8 ms were delivered at 0.2 Hz. We found that parietal ccPAS in the left hemisphere increased...... the excitability of conditioned left M1 assessed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and the input–output curve. Motor behavior assessed by the Purdue pegboard task was unchanged compared with controls. At baseline, conditioning stimuli over the left PPC potentiated MEPs from left M1 when ISI was 8 ms...

  2. Fractionation of parietal function in bistable perception probed with concurrent TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Georg; Chang, Acer; Schwartzman, David; Rae, Charlotte L; Iriye, Heather; Seth, Anil K; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-08-16

    When visual input has conflicting interpretations, conscious perception can alternate spontaneously between these possible interpretations. This is called bistable perception. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of two right parietal areas in resolving perceptual ambiguity (ant-SPLr and post-SPLr). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies that selectively interfered with the normal function of these regions suggest that they play opposing roles in this type of perceptual switch. In the present study, we investigated this fractionation of parietal function by use of combined TMS with electroencephalography (EEG). Specifically, while participants viewed either a bistable stimulus, a replay stimulus, or resting-state fixation, we applied single pulse TMS to either location independently while simultaneously recording EEG. Combined with participant's individual structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, this dataset allows for complex analyses of the effect of TMS on neural time series data, which may further elucidate the causal role of the parietal cortex in ambiguous perception.

  3. Parietal theta burst TMS: Functional fractionation observed during bistable perception not evident in attention tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Georg; Kanai, Ryota; Brascamp, Jan W

    2016-02-01

    When visual input is ambiguous, perception spontaneously alternates between interpretations: bistable perception. Studies have identified two distinct sites near the right intraparietal sulcus where inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) affects the frequency of occurrence of these alternations, but strikingly with opposite directions of effect for the two sites. Lesion and TMS studies on spatial and sustained attention have also indicated a parcellation of right parietal cortex, into areas serving distinct attentional functions. We used the exact TMS procedure previously employed to affect bistable perception, yet measured its effect on spatial and sustained attention tasks. Although there was a trend for TMS to affect performance, trends were consistently similar for both parietal sites, with no indication of opposite effects. We interpret this as signifying that the previously observed parietal fractionation of function regarding the perception of ambiguous stimuli is not due to TMS-induced modification of spatial or sustained attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Versive seizures in occipital lobe epilepsy: lateralizing value and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Naotaka; Mihara, Tadahiro; Baba, Koichi; Matsuda, Kazumi; Tottori, Takayasu; Umeoka, Shuichi; Kondo, Akihiko; Nakamura, Fumihiro; Terada, Kiyohito; Usui, Keiko; Inoue, Yushi

    2011-11-01

    To clarify the value of versive seizures in lateralizing and localizing the epileptogenic zone in patients with occipital lobe epilepsy, we studied 13 occipital lobe epilepsy patients with at least one versive seizure recorded during preoperative noninvasive video-EEG monitoring, who underwent occipital lobe resection, and were followed postoperatively for more than 2 years with Engel's class I outcome. The videotaped versive seizures were analyzed to compare the direction of version and the side of surgical resection in each patient. Moreover, we examined other motor symptoms (partial somatomotor manifestations such as tonic and/or clonic movements of face and/or limbs, automatisms, and eyelid blinking) associated with version. Forty-nine versive seizures were analyzed. The direction of version was always contralateral to the side of resection except in one patient. Among accompanying motor symptoms, partial somatomotor manifestations were observed in only five patients. In conclusion, versive seizure is a reliable lateralizing sign indicating contralateral epileptogenic zone in occipital lobe epilepsy. Since versive seizures were accompanied by partial somatomotor manifestations in less than half of the patients, it is suggested that the mechanism of version in occipital lobe epilepsy is different from that in frontal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bicavitary effusion secondary to liver lobe torsion in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Z

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zaheda Khan,1 Kathryn Gates,2 Stephen A Simpson,31Emergency and Critical Care, Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, 2Emergency and Critical Care, Advanced Critical Care, Emergency and Specialty Services, Culver City, CA 3Emergency and Critical Care, Southern California Veterinary Specialty Hospital, Irvine, CA, USA Abstract: We described the diagnosis and successful treatment of pleural and peritoneal effusion secondary to liver lobe torsion in a dog. A 12-year-old female spayed Borzoi dog was referred for heart failure. Emergency room thoracic and abdominal ultrasound showed a large volume of pleural effusion with mild peritoneal effusion and an abdominal mass. Pleural fluid analysis classified the effusion as exudative. A complete ultrasound revealed mild peritoneal effusion and decreased blood flow to the right liver lobe. Other causes of bicavitary effusion were ruled out based on blood work, ultrasound, echocardiogram, and computed tomography. The patient was taken to surgery and diagnosed with caudate liver lobe torsion and had a liver lobectomy. At the 2-week postoperative recheck, the patient was doing well and there was complete resolution of the pleural effusion. Liver lobe torsion is a rare occurrence in dogs and can be difficult to diagnose. Clinical signs are nonspecific for liver lobe torsion and patients may present in respiratory distress with significant pleural fluid accumulation. When assessing patients with pleural and peritoneal effusion, liver lobe torsion should be considered as a differential diagnosis.Keywords: pleural effusion, peritoneal effusion, hepatic torsion

  6. Transient simulation in interior flow field of lobe pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y B; Sang, X H; Shen, H; Jia, K; Meng, Q W

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this paper is mainly focused on the development and control of the double folium and trifolium lobe pump profiles by using the principle of involute engagement and use CAD to get an accurate involute profile. We use the standard k-ε turbulence model and PISO algorithm based on CFD software FLUENT. The dynamic mesh and UDF technology is introduced to simulate the interior flow field inside a lobe pump, and the variation of interior flow field under the condition of the lobe rotating is analyzed. We also analyse the influence produced by the difference in lobes, and then reveal which lobe is best. The results show that dynamic variation of the interior flow field is easily obtained by dynamic mesh technology and the distribution of its pressure and velocity. Because of the small gaps existing between the rotors and pump case, the higher pressure area will flow into the lower area though the small gaps which cause the working area keep with higher pressure all the time. Both of the double folium and trifolium are existing the vortex during the rotting time and its position, size and shape changes all the time. The vortexes even disappear in a circle period and there are more vortexes in double folium lobe pump. The velocity and pressure pulsation of trifolium pump are lower than that of the double folium

  7. Medical image of the week: right middle lobe syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristan EA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 73 year-old woman, a lifetime non-smoker, presented to the pulmonary clinic with chronic dyspnea on exertion and cough. Physical exam was unremarkable and pulmonary function testing showed normal spirometry. A chest radiograph revealed calcified mediastinal adenopathy and increased density in the right middle lobe region (Figure 1. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed significant narrowing of the right middle lobe bronchus with partial atelectasis and prominent calcified mediastinal lymphadenopathy (Figure 2. Bronchoscopy showed no endobronchial lesions but there was evidence of extrinsic compression surrounding the right middle lobe orifice. An endobronchial biopsy revealed noncaseating granulomas. Bronchoscopy cultures and cytology were negative and this was presumed to be from a previous infection with histoplasmosis given the patient’s long-term residence in an endemic area. Given chronic narrowing of right middle lobe bronchus with persistent atelectasis of the right middle lobe, the patient was diagnosed with right middle lobe syndrome. ...

  8. Counteracting fatigue in multiple sclerosis with right parietal anodal transcranial direct current stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hanken

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time and errors with prolonged time-on-task. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. Methods: In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, anodal tDCS (1,5mA was delivered to the right parietal cortex or the right frontal cortex of 52 healthy participants during the first 20min of a 40min lasting visual vigilance task. Study II, also a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, investigated the effect of anodal tDCS (1.5mA over the right parietal cortex in 46 MS patients experiencing cognitive fatigue. TDCS was delivered for 20min before patients performed a 20min lasting visual vigilance task.Results: Study I showed that right parietal stimulation, but not right frontal stimulation, counteracts the increase in reaction time associated with vigilance decrement. Hence, only right parietal stimulation was applied to the MS patients in study II. Stimulation had a significant effect on vigilance decrement in mildly to moderately cognitively fatigued MS patients. Vigilance testing significantly increased the feeling of fatigue independent of stimulation.Conclusions: Anodal tDCS over the right parietal cortex can counteract the increase in reaction times during vigilance performance but not the increase in subjective fatigue. This finding is compatible with our model of fatigue in MS, suggesting a dissociation between the feeling and the behavioral characteristics of fatigue.

  9. Counteracting Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis with Right Parietal Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, Katrin; Bosse, Mona; Möhrke, Kim; Eling, Paul; Kastrup, Andreas; Antal, Andrea; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time (RT) and errors with prolonged time-on-task. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, anodal tDCS (1.5 mA) was delivered to the right parietal cortex or the right frontal cortex of 52 healthy participants during the first 20 min of a 40-min lasting visual vigilance task. Study II, also a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, investigated the effect of anodal tDCS (1.5 mA) over the right parietal cortex in 46 MS patients experiencing cognitive fatigue. tDCS was delivered for 20 min before patients performed a 20-min lasting visual vigilance task. Study I showed that right parietal stimulation, but not right frontal stimulation, counteracts the increase in RT associated with vigilance decrement. Hence, only right parietal stimulation was applied to the MS patients in study II. Stimulation had a significant effect on vigilance decrement in mildly to moderately cognitively fatigued MS patients. Vigilance testing significantly increased the feeling of fatigue independent of stimulation. Anodal tDCS over the right parietal cortex can counteract the increase in RTs during vigilance performance, but not the increase in subjective fatigue. This finding is compatible with our model of fatigue in MS, suggesting a dissociation between the feeling and the behavioral characteristics of fatigue.

  10. Bilateral occipital lobe infarction with altitudinal field loss following radiofrequency cardiac catheter ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Celia S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bilateral stroke following radiofrequency catheter ablation is an unusual complication and may result in bilateral altitudinal visual field defects. Bilateral altitudinal visual field defects usually result from prechiasmal pathology causing damage to both retinas or optic nerves and rarely from bilateral symmetric damage to the post chiasmal visual pathways. Case presentation A 48-year-old man complained of visual disturbance on wakening following radiofrequency catheter ablation. The patient had a CHADS score of 1 pre-operatively and no complications were noted intra-operatively. Examination revealed a bilateral superior altitudinal defect and MRI of the brain showed multifocal areas of infarction predominantly involving the occipital lobes which correlated to with the visual deficits. Conclusion While the risk of thromboembolism and perioperative stroke during radiofrequency catheter ablation is small, it is not insignificant.

  11. Value of CSF gating for T2-weighted images of the temporal lobes and brain stem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzmann, D.R.; O'Donohue, J.; Griffin, C.; Rubin, J.B.; Drace, J.; Wright, A.

    1987-01-01

    Ungated and CSF-gated long TR, long TE MR images of the temporal lobes, basal ganglia, and brain stem in health and disease were quantitatively compared. Twenty-five pair of images were evaluated for the following three parameters: signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), object contrast, and resolving power. Ungated sequences were performed in the same fashion as gated sequences for TR (TR = 2,000 msec, TE = 80 msec for ungated sequences; TR = 1,500-1,800 msec, TE = 80 msec for CSF-gated sequences). In both normal and pathologic brain tissue, the CSF-gated image was superior to the ungated image in object contrast and resolving power and equivalent in S/N. The major benefit of CSF gating was elimination of phase shift images arising from the basal cisterns and the third ventricle

  12. Specific marker of feigned memory impairment: The activation of left superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Xiang; Xue, Li; Liang, Chun-Yu; Wang, Li-Li; Mei, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Hu

    2015-11-01

    Faking memory impairment means normal people complain lots of memory problems without organic damage in forensic assessments. Using alternative forced-choice paradigm, containing digital or autobiographical information, previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that faking memory impairment could cause the activation in the prefrontal and parietal regions, and might involve a fronto-parietal-subcortical circuit. However, it is still unclear whether different memory types have influence on faking or not. Since different memory types, such as long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM), were found supported by different brain areas, we hypothesized that feigned STM or LTM impairment had distinct neural activation mapping. Besides that, some common neural correlates may act as the general characteristic of feigned memory impairment. To verify this hypothesis, the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) combined with an alternative word forced-choice paradigm were used in this study. A total of 10 right-handed participants, in this study, had to perform both STW and LTM tasks respectively under answering correctly, answering randomly and feigned memory impairment conditions. Our results indicated that the activation of the left superior frontal gyrus and the left medial frontal gyrus was associated with feigned LTM impairment, whereas the left superior frontal gyrus, the left precuneus and the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were highly activated while feigning STM impairment. Furthermore, an overlapping was found in the left superior frontal gyrus, and it suggested that the activity of the left superior frontal gyrus might be acting as a specific marker of feigned memory impairment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Optimized gamma synchronization enhances functional binding of fronto-parietal cortices in mathematically gifted adolescents during deductive reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As enhanced fronto-parietal network has been suggested to support reasoning ability of math-gifted adolescents, the main goal of this EEG source analysis is to investigate the temporal binding of the gamma-band (30-60Hz synchronization between frontal and parietal cortices in adolescents with exceptional mathematical ability, including the functional connectivity of gamma neurocognitive network, the temporal dynamics of fronto-parietal network (phase-locking durations and network lability in time domain, and the self-organized criticality of synchronizing oscillation. Compared with the average-ability subjects, the math-gifted adolescents show a highly integrated fronto-parietal network due to distant gamma phase-locking oscillations, which is indicated by lower modularity of the global network topology, more connector bridges between the frontal and parietal cortices and less connector hubs in the sensorimotor cortex. The time-domain analysis finds that, while maintaining more stable phase dynamics of the fronto-parietal coupling, the math-gifted adolescents are characterized by more extensive fronto-parietal connection reconfiguration. The results from sample fitting in the power-law model further find that the phase-locking durations in the math-gifted brain abides by a wider interval of the power-law distribution. This phase-lock distribution mechanism could represent a relatively optimized pattern for the functional binding of frontal-parietal network, which underlies stable fronto-parietal connectivity and increases flexibility of timely network reconfiguration.

  14. The contribution of the human posterior parietal cortex to episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestieri, Carlo; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2017-02-17

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is traditionally associated with attention, perceptual decision making and sensorimotor transformations, but more recent human neuroimaging studies support an additional role in episodic memory retrieval. In this Opinion article, we present a functional-anatomical model of the involvement of the PPC in memory retrieval. Parietal regions involved in perceptual attention and episodic memory are largely segregated and often show a push-pull relationship, potentially mediated by prefrontal regions. Moreover, different PPC regions carry out specific functions during retrieval - for example, representing retrieved information, recoding this information based on task demands, or accumulating evidence for memory decisions.

  15. Superior episodic memory in inconsistent-handers: a replication and extension using fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, Ruth E; Patel, Neil; Christman, Stephen D; Carlei, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    A large body of evidence supports the existence of a robust handedness difference in episodic memory retrieval, with inconsistent-handedness being associated with superior memory across a wide variety of paradigms, including superior retrieval of lab-based and real world memories. Despite superior episidoc memory in inconsistent-handers, and despite neuroanatomical and neurophysiological differences in cortical regions between inconsistent- and consistent-handers, we are aware of no studies to date that have examined physiological activity in the brains of inconsistent- versus consistent-handers while engaged in memory tasks. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to present a first look at this issue, using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a simple, non-invasive measure of frontal lobe activity during encoding and recall of list words in inconsistent- and consistent-handers. Behaviourally, we replicated prior studies, finding a significant inconsistent-handed advantage in free recall. Using fNIRS-derived oxygenated haemoglobin (O 2 Hb) as a measure of frontal lobe activity, we found the first evidence for handedness differences in brain activity that are associated with the handedness differences in episodic retrieval. Specifically, the primary finding was that increased O 2 Hb in the right hemisphere during recall was associated with better retrieval, but for consistent-handers only.

  16. A CLINICORADIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MIDDLE LOBE SYNDROME DUE TO TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Karmakar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Although pulmonary tuberculosis is a common disease in India, tuberculosis of right middle lobe is infrequent. Tuberculosis of the right middle lobe leading to chronic collapse is a cause of Right Middle Lobe syndrome. METHODS The patients attended Pulmonary Medicine Outdoor at Era’s Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow from April 2015 to March 2016. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinicoradiological features of patients of middle lobe syndrome due to tuberculosis. All patients presented with cough with or without expectoration, fever, chest pain, haemoptysis and constitutional symptoms like loss of appetite and weight. Chest X-ray PA view revealed ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border. HRCT thorax was done in each case. The diagnosis of tuberculous aetiology was based on (1 History of chronic cough and fever, not responding to antibiotic therapy and constitutional symptoms, (2 A positive tuberculin test using 2 TU of PPD RT 23 and (3 Detection of acid fast bacilli by direct smear or Mycobacterium tuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction in bronchoalveolar lavage. RESULTS Out of 10 patients, 4 (40% were males and 6 (60% were females. The mean ages of the males were 55.8 years and females were 60.8 years and overall mean age was 59 years. Most of the patients were females and belonged to the middle age and old age group. ATT was started in all the patients. CONCLUSIONS Right middle lobe syndrome predominantly affects the older population and the female gender. Although tuberculosis is a common disease in India, Middle Lobe Syndrome is a very rare presentation of the disease. Due to non-specific symptoms and usually normal chest X-ray PA view in Right Middle Lobe Syndrome, we should keep a high index of suspicion to diagnose the condition.

  17. Decreased occipital lobe metabolism by FDG-PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnes, Lilja; Nalluri, Abhinav; Cohen, Jesse; Jones, Krystyna M.; Zan, Elcin; Javadi, Mehrbod S.; Venkatesan, Arun

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare brain metabolism patterns on fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT in anti–NMDA receptor and other definite autoimmune encephalitis (AE) and to assess how these patterns differ between anti–NMDA receptor neurologic disability groups. Methods: Retrospective review of clinical data and initial dedicated brain FDG-PET/CT studies for neurology inpatients with definite AE, per published consensus criteria, treated at a single academic medical center over a 10-year period. Z-score maps of FDG-PET/CT were made using 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projections in comparison to age group–matched controls. Brain region mean Z scores with magnitudes ≥2.00 were interpreted as significant. Comparisons were made between anti–NMDA receptor and other definite AE patients as well as among patients with anti–NMDA receptor based on modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at the time of FDG-PET/CT. Results: The medial occipital lobes were markedly hypometabolic in 6 of 8 patients with anti–NMDA receptor encephalitis and as a group (Z = −4.02, interquartile range [IQR] 2.14) relative to those with definite AE (Z = −2.32, 1.46; p = 0.004). Among patients with anti–NMDA receptor encephalitis, the lateral and medial occipital lobes were markedly hypometabolic for patients with mRS 4–5 (lateral occipital lobe Z = −3.69, IQR 1; medial occipital lobe Z = −4.08, 1) compared with those with mRS 0–3 (lateral occipital lobe Z = −0.83, 2; p occipital lobe Z = −1.07, 2; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Marked medial occipital lobe hypometabolism by dedicated brain FDG-PET/CT may serve as an early biomarker for discriminating anti–NMDA receptor encephalitis from other AE. Resolution of lateral and medial occipital hypometabolism may correlate with improved neurologic status in anti–NMDA receptor encephalitis. PMID:29159205

  18. Task activation and functional connectivity show concordant memory laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideman, Noah; Chaitanya, Ganne; He, Xiaosong; Doucet, Gaelle; Kim, Na Young; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini D; Tracy, Joseph I

    2018-04-01

    In epilepsy, asymmetries in the organization of mesial temporal lobe (MTL) functions help determine the cognitive risk associated with procedures such as anterior temporal lobectomy. Past studies have investigated the change/shift in a visual episodic memory laterality index (LI) in mesial temporal lobe structures through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task activations. Here, we examine whether underlying task-related functional connectivity (FC) is concordant with such standard fMRI laterality measures. A total of 56 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) (Left TLE [LTLE]: 31; Right TLE [RTLE]: 25) and 34 matched healthy controls (HC) underwent fMRI scanning during performance of a scene encoding task (SET). We assessed an activation-based LI of the hippocampal gyrus (HG) and parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) during the SET and its correspondence with task-related FC measures. Analyses involving the HG and PHG showed that the patients with LTLE had a consistently higher LI (right-lateralized) than that of the HC and group with RTLE, indicating functional reorganization. The patients with RTLE did not display a reliable contralateral shift away from the pathology, with the mesial structures showing quite distinct laterality patterns (HG, no laterality bias; PHG, no evidence of LI shift). The FC data for the group with LTLE provided confirmation of reorganization effects, revealing that a rightward task LI may be based on underlying connections between several left-sided regions (middle/superior occipital and left medial frontal gyri) and the right PHG. The FCs between the right HG and left anterior cingulate/medial frontal gyri were also observed in LTLE. Importantly, the data demonstrate that the areas involved in the LTLE task activation shift to the right hemisphere showed a corresponding increase in task-related FCs between the hemispheres. Altered laterality patterns based on mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) pathology manifest as several

  19. Short-Term Memory for Space and Time Flexibly Recruit Complementary Sensory-Biased Frontal Lobe Attention Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalka, Samantha W; Kong, Lingqiang; Rosen, Maya L; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Somers, David C

    2015-08-19

    The frontal lobes control wide-ranging cognitive functions; however, functional subdivisions of human frontal cortex are only coarsely mapped. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals two distinct visual-biased attention regions in lateral frontal cortex, superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and inferior precentral sulcus (iPCS), anatomically interdigitated with two auditory-biased attention regions, transverse gyrus intersecting precentral sulcus (tgPCS) and caudal inferior frontal sulcus (cIFS). Intrinsic functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that sPCS and iPCS fall within a broad visual-attention network, while tgPCS and cIFS fall within a broad auditory-attention network. Interestingly, we observe that spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM), respectively, recruit visual and auditory attention networks in the frontal lobe, independent of sensory modality. These findings not only demonstrate that both sensory modality and information domain influence frontal lobe functional organization, they also demonstrate that spatial processing co-localizes with visual processing and that temporal processing co-localizes with auditory processing in lateral frontal cortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Short-term memory for space and time flexibly recruit complementary sensory-biased frontal lobe attention networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalka, Samantha W.; Kong, Lingqiang; Rosen, Maya L.; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.; Somers, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The frontal lobes control wide-ranging cognitive functions; however, functional subdivisions of human frontal cortex are only coarsely mapped. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals two distinct visual-biased attention regions in lateral frontal cortex, superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and inferior precentral sulcus (iPCS), anatomically interdigitated with two auditory-biased attention regions, transverse gyrus intersecting precentral sulcus (tgPCS) and caudal inferior frontal sulcus (cIFS). Intrinsic functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that sPCS and iPCS fall within a broad visual-attention network, while tgPCS and cIFS fall within a broad auditory-attention network. Interestingly, we observe that spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM), respectively, recruit visual and auditory attention networks in the frontal lobe, independent of sensory modality. These findings not only demonstrate that both sensory modality and information domain influence frontal lobe functional organization, they also demonstrate that spatial processing co-localizes with visual processing and that temporal processing co-localizes with auditory processing in lateral frontal cortex. PMID:26291168

  1. Individual Neurons Confined to Distinct Antennal-Lobe Tracts in the Heliothine Moth: Morphological Characteristics and Global Projection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Elena; Zhao, Xin C.; Lande, Andreas; Berg, Bente G.

    2016-01-01

    To explore fundamental principles characterizing chemosensory information processing, we have identified antennal-lobe projection neurons in the heliothine moth, including several neuron types not previously described. Generally, odor information is conveyed from the primary olfactory center of the moth brain, the antennal lobe, to higher brain centers via projection neuron axons passing along several parallel pathways, of which the medial, mediolateral, and lateral antennal-lobe tract are considered the classical ones. Recent data have revealed the projections of the individual tracts more in detail demonstrating three main target regions in the protocerebrum; the calyces are innervated mainly by the medial tract, the superior intermediate protocerebrum by the lateral tract exclusively, and the lateral horn by all tracts. In the present study, we have identified, via iontophoretic intracellular staining combined with confocal microscopy, individual projection neurons confined to the tracts mentioned above, plus two additional ones. Further, using the visualization software AMIRA, we reconstructed the stained neurons and registered the models into a standard brain atlas, which allowed us to compare the termination areas of individual projection neurons both across and within distinct tracts. The data demonstrate a morphological diversity of the projection neurons within distinct tracts. Comparison of the output areas of the neurons confined to the three main tracts in the lateral horn showed overlapping terminal regions for the medial and mediolateral tracts; the lateral tract neurons, on the contrary, targeted mostly other output areas in the protocerebrum. PMID:27822181

  2. Voxel-based morphometry in Alzheimers disease and mild cognitive impairment: Systematic review of studies addressing the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luís Gustavo; Busatto, Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a useful approach for investigating neurostructural brain changes in dementia. We systematically reviewed VBM studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), specifically focusing on grey matter (GM) atrophy in the frontal lobe. Two searches were performed on the Pubmed database. A set of exclusion criteria was applied to ensure the selection of only VBM studies that directly investigated GM volume abnormalities in AD and/or MCI patients compared to cognitively normal controls. From a total of 46 selected articles, 35 VBM studies reported GM volume reductions in the frontal lobe. The frontal subregions, where most of the volume reductions were reported, included the inferior, superior and middle frontal gyri, as well as the anterior cingulate gyrus. We also found studies in which reduced frontal GM was detected in MCI patients who converted to AD. In a minority of studies, correlations between frontal GM volumes and behavioural changes or cognitive deficits in AD patients were investigated, with variable findings. Results of VBM studies indicate that the frontal lobe should be regarded as an important brain area when investigating GM volume deficits in association with AD. Frontal GM loss might not be a feature specific to late AD only. Future VBM studies involving large AD samples are warranted to further investigate correlations between frontal volume deficits and both cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  3. Temporo-Parietal Junction Activity in Theory-of-Mind Tasks: Falseness, Beliefs, or Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichhorn, Markus; Perner, Josef; Weiss, Benjamin; Kronbichler, Martin; Staffen, Wolfgang; Ladurner, Gunther

    2009-01-01

    By combining the false belief (FB) and photo (PH) vignettes to identify theory-of-mind areas with the false sign (FS) vignettes, we re-establish the functional asymmetry between the left and right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). The right TPJ (TPJ-R) is specially sensitive to processing belief information, whereas the left TPJ (TPJ-L) is equally…

  4. Interlaminar differences in the pyramidal cell phenotype in parietal cortex of an Indian bat, cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, U C; Pathak, S V

    2010-10-30

    To study interlaminar phenotypic variations in the pyramidal neurons of parietal isocortex in bat (Cynopterus sphinx), Golgi and Nissl methods have been employed. The parietal isocortex is relatively thin in the bat as compared to prototheria with layer III, V and VI accounting for more than two—thirds of total cortical thickness. Thick cell free layer I and thinnest accentuated layer II are quite in connotation with other chiropterids. Poor demarcation of layer III/IV in the present study is also in connotation with primitive eutherian mammal (i.e. prototherian) and other chiropterids. Most of the pyramidal cells in the different layers of the parietal isocortex are of typical type as seen in other eutherians but differ significantly in terms of soma shape and size, extent of dendritic arbor, diameter of dendrites and spine density. Percentage of pyramidal neurons, diameter of apical dendrite and spine density on apical dendrite appear to follow an increasing trend from primitive to advanced mammals; but extent of dendrites are probably governed by the specific life patterns of these mammals. It is thus concluded that 'typical' pyramidal neurons in parietal isocortex are similar in therians but different from those in prototherians. It is possible that these cells might have arisen among early eutherians after divergence from prototherian stock.

  5. Spatial summation in macaque parietal area 7a follows a winner-take-all rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Klink, P. Christiaan; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J.M.; Lankheet, Martin J.M.; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton

    2011-01-01

    While neurons in posterior parietal cortex have been found to signal the presence of a salient stimulus among multiple items in a display, spatial summation within their receptive field in the absence of an attentional bias has never been investigated. This information, however, is indispensable

  6. Autoimmune gastritis and parietal cell reactivity in two children with abnormal intestinal permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenwood, Deanne L. V.; Crock, Patricia; Braye, Stephen; Davidson, Patricia; Sentry, John W.

    Autoimmune gastritis is characterised by lymphocytic infiltration of the gastric submucosa, with loss of parietal and chief cells and achlorhydria. Often, gastritis is expressed clinically as cobalamin deficiency with megaloblastic anaemia, which is generally described as a disease of the elderly.

  7. An atretic parietal cephalocele associated with multiple intracranial and eye anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatci, I.; Yelgec, S.; Aydin, K.; Akalan, N.

    1998-01-01

    We present the cranial MRI findings in a 4-month-old girl with an atretic parietal cephalocele associated with multiple cerebral and ocular anomalies including lobar holoprosencephaly, a Dandy-Walker malformation, agenesis of the corpus callosum, grey-matter heterotopia, extra-axial cysts in various locations, bilateral microphthalmia and a retroocular cyst. (orig.)

  8. Attentional Demands Predict Short-Term Memory Load Response in Posterior Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Hagit; Emmanouil, Tatiana-Aloi; McMains, Stephanie A.; Kastner, Sabine; Treisman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Limits to the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) indicate a maximum storage of only 3 or 4 items. Recently, it has been suggested that activity in a specific part of the brain, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), is correlated with behavioral estimates of VSTM capacity and might reflect a capacity-limited store. In three experiments that…

  9. Primary cultures of glomerular parietal epithelial cells or podocytes with proven origin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabgani, N.; Grigoleit, T.; Schulte, K.; Sechi, A.; Sauer-Lehnen, S.; Tag, C.; Boor, P.; Kuppe, C.; Warsow, G.; Schordan, S.; Mostertz, J.; Chilukoti, R.K.; Homuth, G.; Endlich, N.; Tacke, F.; Weiskirchen, R.; Fuellen, G.; Endlich, K.; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) as well as in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In this study, transgenic mouse lines were used to isolate pure, genetically tagged primary cultures of PECs or

  10. Gastrin receptor characterization: affinity cross-linking of the gastrin receptor on canine gastric parietal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, M.; Park, J.; Yamada, T.

    1987-01-01

    The authors applied affinity cross-linking methods to label the gastrin receptor on isolated canine gastric parietal cells in order to elucidate the nature of its chemical structure. 125 I-labeled Leu 15 -gastrin and 125 I-labeled gastrin/sub 2-17/ bound to intact parietal cells and their membranes with equal affinity, and half-maximal inhibition of binding was obtained at an incubation concentration of 3.2 x 10 -10 M unlabeled gastrin. 125 I-gastrin/sub 2-17/ was cross-linked to plasma membranes or intact parietal cells by incubation in disuccinimidyl suberate. The membrane pellets were solubilized with or without dithiothreitol and applied to electrophoresis on 7.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. Autoradiograms revealed a band of labeling at M/sub r/ 76,000 and labeling of this band was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by addition of unlabeled gastrin to the incubation mixture. Dithiothreitol in concentrations as high as 100 mM did not later the electrophoretic mobility of the labeled band. After taking into account the molecular weight of 125 I-gastrin/sub 2-17/, the results suggest that the gastrin receptor on parietal cells is a single protein of M/sub r/ 74,000 without disulfide-linked subunits

  11. Lateralization of Egocentric and Allocentric Spatial Processing after Parietal Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Conson, Massimiliano; Trojano, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to verify whether left and right parietal brain lesions may selectively impair egocentric and allocentric processing of spatial information in near/far spaces. Two Right-Brain-Damaged (RBD), 2 Left-Brain-Damaged (LBD) patients (not affected by neglect or language disturbances) and eight normal controls were submitted…

  12. Tracing the origin of glomerular extracapillary lesions from parietal epithelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.; Uhlig, S.; Fuss, A.; Mooren, F.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Floege, J.; Moeller, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Cellular lesions form in Bowman's space in both crescentic glomerulonephritis and collapsing glomerulopathy. The pathomechanism and origin of the proliferating cells in these lesions are unknown. In this study, we examined proliferating cells by lineage tracing of either podocytes or parietal

  13. Characterization of visual percepts evoked by noninvasive stimulation of the human posterior parietal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Fried

    Full Text Available Phosphenes are commonly evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to study the functional organization, connectivity, and excitability of the human visual brain. For years, phosphenes have been documented only from stimulating early visual areas (V1-V3 and a handful of specialized visual regions (V4, V5/MT+ in occipital cortex. Recently, phosphenes were reported after applying TMS to a region of posterior parietal cortex involved in the top-down modulation of visuo-spatial processing. In the present study, we systematically characterized parietal phosphenes to determine if they are generated directly by local mechanisms or emerge through indirect activation of other visual areas. Using technology developed in-house to record the subjective features of phosphenes, we found no systematic differences in the size, shape, location, or frame-of-reference of parietal phosphenes when compared to their occipital counterparts. In a second experiment, discrete deactivation by 1 Hz repetitive TMS yielded a double dissociation: phosphene thresholds increased at the deactivated site without producing a corresponding change at the non-deactivated location. Overall, the commonalities of parietal and occipital phosphenes, and our ability to independently modulate their excitability thresholds, lead us to conclude that they share a common neural basis that is separate from either of the stimulated regions.

  14. The role of parietal cortex in the formation of colour and motion based concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel William Cheadle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Imaging evidence shows that separate subdivisions of parietal cortex, in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS, are engaged when stimuli are grouped according to colour and to motion (Zeki and Stutters 2013. Since grouping is an essential step in the formation of concepts, we wanted to learn whether parietal cortex is also engaged in the formation of concepts according to these two attributes. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and choosing the recognition of concept-based colour or motion stimuli as our paradigm, we found that there was strong concept-related activity in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a region whose homologue in the macaque monkey is known to receive direct but segregated anatomical inputs from V4 and V5. Parietal activity related to colour concepts was juxtaposed but did not overlap with activity related to motion concepts, thus emphasizing the continuation of the segregation of colour and motion into the conceptual system. Concurrent retinotopic mapping experiments showed that within the parietal cortex, concept-related activity increases within later stage IPS areas.

  15. The role of frontal and parietal brain areas in bistable perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen, T.; Brascamp, J.; Pearson, J.; van Ee, R.; Blake, R.

    2011-01-01

    When sensory input allows for multiple, competing perceptual interpretations, observers' perception can fluctuate over time, which is called bistable perception. Imaging studies in humans have revealed transient responses in a right-lateralized network in the frontal-parietal cortex (rFPC) around

  16. Proliferating cells in HIV and pamidronate-associated collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis are parietal epithelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, H.B.P.M.; Weening, J.J.; Smeets, B.; Verrijp, K.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Assmann, K.K.; Steenbergen, E.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS) is characterized by hyperplasia of glomerular epithelial cells. In a mouse model of FSGS and in a patient with recurrent idiopathic FSGS, we identified the proliferating cells as parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In the present study, we have

  17. Proliferating cells in HIV and pamidronate-associated collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis are parietal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, H. B. P. M.; Weening, J. J.; Smeets, B.; Verrijp, K. C. N.; van Kuppevelt, T. H.; Assmann, K. K. J. M.; Steenbergen, E. J.; Wetzels, J. F. M.

    2006-01-01

    Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS) is characterized by hyperplasia of glomerular epithelial cells. In a mouse model of FSGS and in a patient with recurrent idiopathic FSGS, we identified the proliferating cells as parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In the present study, we have

  18. Differential Recruitment of Parietal Cortex during Spatial and Non-spatial Reach Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Michel Bernier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The planning of goal-directed arm reaching movements is associated with activity in the dorsal parieto-frontal cortex, within which multiple regions subserve the integration of arm- and target-related sensory signals to encode a motor goal. Surprisingly, many of these regions show sustained activity during reach preparation even when target location is not specified, i.e., when a motor goal cannot be unambiguously formed. The functional role of these non-spatial preparatory signals remains unresolved. Here this process was investigated in humans by comparing reach preparatory activity in the presence or absence of information regarding upcoming target location. In order to isolate the processes specific to reaching and to control for visuospatial attentional factors, the reaching task was contrasted to a finger movement task. Functional MRI and electroencephalography (EEG were used to characterize the spatio-temporal pattern of reach-related activity in the parieto-frontal cortex. Reach planning with advance knowledge of target location induced robust blood oxygenated level dependent and EEG responses across parietal and premotor regions contralateral to the reaching arm. In contrast, reach preparation without knowledge of target location was associated with a significant BOLD response bilaterally in the parietal cortex. Furthermore, EEG alpha- and beta-band activity was restricted to parietal scalp sites, the magnitude of the latter being correlated with reach reaction times. These results suggest an intermediate stage of sensorimotor transformations in bilateral parietal cortex when target location is not specified.

  19. Changes in frontal-parietal activation and math skills performance following adaptive number sense training: preliminary results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Shelli R; Sheau, Kristen; Koovakkattu, Della; Reiss, Allan L

    2011-08-01

    Number sense is believed to be critical for math development. It is putatively an implicitly learned skill and may therefore have limitations in terms of being explicitly trained, particularly in individuals with altered neurodevelopment. A case series study was conducted using an adaptive, computerised programme that focused on number sense and general problem-solving skills. The study was designed to investigate training effects on performance as well as brain function in a group of children with Turner syndrome who are at risk for math difficulties and altered development of math-related brain networks. Standardised measurements of math and math-related cognitive skills as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to assess behavioural and neurobiological outcomes following training. Participants demonstrated significantly increased basic math skills, including number sense, and calculation as well as processing speed, cognitive flexibility and visual-spatial processing skills. With the exception of calculation, increased scores also were clinically significant (i.e., recovered) based on reliable change analysis. Participants additionally demonstrated significantly increased bilateral parietal lobe activation and decreased frontal-striatal and mesial temporal activation following the training programme. These findings show proof of concept for an accessible training approach that may be potentially associated with improved number sense, math and related skills, as well as functional changes in math-related neural systems, even among individuals at risk for altered brain development.

  20. Functional interaction between right parietal and bilateral frontal cortices during visual search tasks revealed using functional magnetic imaging and transcranial direct current stimulation.

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    Amanda Ellison

    Full Text Available The existence of a network of brain regions which are activated when one undertakes a difficult visual search task is well established. Two primary nodes on this network are right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC and right frontal eye fields. Both have been shown to be involved in the orientation of attention, but the contingency that the activity of one of these areas has on the other is less clear. We sought to investigate this question by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to selectively decrease activity in rPPC and then asking participants to perform a visual search task whilst undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison with a condition in which sham tDCS was applied revealed that cathodal tDCS over rPPC causes a selective bilateral decrease in frontal activity when performing a visual search task. This result demonstrates for the first time that premotor regions within the frontal lobe and rPPC are not only necessary to carry out a visual search task, but that they work together to bring about normal function.

  1. "Opening an emotional dimension in me": changes in emotional reactivity and emotion regulation in a case of executive impairment after left fronto-parietal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Christian E; Radovic, Darinka; Yuen, Kenneth S L; Yeates, Giles N; Castro, O; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2014-01-01

    Dysexecutive impairment is a common problem after brain injury, particularly after damage to the lateral surface of the frontal lobes. There is a large literature describing the cognitive deficits associated with executive impairment after dorsolateral damage; however, little is known about its impact on emotional functioning. This case study describes changes in a 72-year-old man (Professor F) who became markedly dysexecutive after a left fron-to-parietal stroke. Professor F's case is remarkable in that, despite exhibiting typical executive impairments, abstraction and working memory capacities were spared. Such preservation of insight-related capacities allowed him to offer a detailed account of his emotional changes. Quantitative and qualitative tools were used to explore changes in several well-known emotional processes. The results suggest that Professor F's two main emotional changes were in the domain of emotional reactivity (increased experience of both positive and negative emotions) and emotion regulation (down-regulation of sadness). Professor F related both changes to difficulties in his thinking process, especially a difficulty generating and manipulating thoughts during moments of negative arousal. These results are discussed in relation to the literature on executive function and emotion regulation. The relevance of these findings for neuropsychological rehabilitation and for the debate on the neural basis of emotional processes is addressed.

  2. Distinct Oscillatory Frequencies Underlie Excitability of Human Occipital and Parietal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, Jason; Gosseries, Olivia; Postle, Bradley R

    2017-03-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of human occipital and posterior parietal cortex can give rise to visual sensations called phosphenes. We used near-threshold TMS with concurrent EEG recordings to measure how oscillatory brain dynamics covary, on single trials, with the perception of phosphenes after occipital and parietal TMS. Prestimulus power and phase, predominantly in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), predicted occipital TMS phosphenes, whereas higher-frequency beta-band (13-20 Hz) power (but not phase) predicted parietal TMS phosphenes. TMS-evoked responses related to phosphene perception were similar across stimulation sites and were characterized by an early (200 ms) posterior negativity and a later (>300 ms) parietal positivity in the time domain and an increase in low-frequency (∼5-7 Hz) power followed by a broadband decrease in alpha/beta power in the time-frequency domain. These correlates of phosphene perception closely resemble known electrophysiological correlates of conscious perception of near-threshold visual stimuli. The regionally differential pattern of prestimulus predictors of phosphene perception suggests that distinct frequencies may reflect cortical excitability in occipital versus posterior parietal cortex, calling into question the broader assumption that the alpha rhythm may serve as a general index of cortical excitability. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alpha-band oscillations are thought to reflect cortical excitability and are therefore ascribed an important role in gating information transmission across cortex. We probed cortical excitability directly in human occipital and parietal cortex and observed that, whereas alpha-band dynamics indeed reflect excitability of occipital areas, beta-band activity was most predictive of parietal cortex excitability. Differences in the state of cortical excitability predicted perceptual outcomes (phosphenes), which were manifest in both early and late patterns of evoked activity, revealing the time

  3. Giant lipoma arising from deep lobe of the parotid gland

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    Hsu Ying-Che

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms but they are found very rarely in the deep lobe of parotid gland. Surgical intervention in these tumors is challenging because of the proximity of the facial nerve, and thus knowledge of the anatomy and meticulous surgical technique are essential. Case presentation A 71-year-old female presented with a large asymptomatic mass, which had occupied the left facial area for over the past fifteen years, and she requested surgical excision for a cosmetically better facial appearance. The computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined giant lipoma arising from the left deep parotid gland. The lipoma was successfully enucleated after full exposure and mobilization of the overlying facial nerve branches. The surgical specimen measured 9 × 6 cm in size, and histopathology revealed fibrolipoma. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery, with a satisfying facial contour and intact facial nerve function. Conclusion Giant lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely rare. The high-resolution CT scan provides an accurate and cost-effective preoperative investigative method. Surgical management of deep lobe lipoma should be performed by experienced surgeons due to the need for meticulous dissection of the facial nerve branches. Superficial parotidectomy before deep lobe lipoma removal may be unnecessary in selected cases because preservation of the superficial lobe may contribute to a better aesthetic and functional result.

  4. Frontal lobe atrophy of the brain in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Tomio

    1981-01-01

    Reported here are the CT findings on cerebral atrophic lesion chiefly developed in the frontal lobe in schizophrenics with unusual organic encephalopathy. Encephalopathy was recognized in 84 (73%) of 115 schizophrenics and 13 (33%) of 40 neurotics. In an attempt to exclude the effects of aging on encephalopathy, the ages at CT and at the development of disease, the number of morbid years, subtypical schizophrenia and relation between the clinical severity and the atrophic condition were comparatively studied. As a result, cerebral atrophy tended to increase along with aging, but the findings differed in that atrophia classified by age covered the entire brain in general, whereas atrophia in schizophrenics was found in the frontal lobe. In particular, because of the fact that clinical severity and atrophia in the frontal lobe are high correlated and that severe atrophia is recognized even in young people, schizophrenia and atrophia in the frontal lobe are considered to be closely related to each other. It is therefore suggested that the CT findings are useful to clinicians for finding appropriate methods to deal with the prognosis of schizophrenics in their daily diagnosis and for the therapeutic prevention of encephalatrophy by stimulating the frontal lobe, thereby delaying mental deterioration. (author)

  5. Seizure semiology identifies patients with bilateral temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loesch, Anna Mira; Feddersen, Berend; Tezer, F Irsel; Hartl, Elisabeth; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2015-01-01

    Laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy is usually defined by EEG and imaging results. We investigated whether the analysis of seizure semiology including lateralizing seizure phenomena identifies bilateral independent temporal lobe seizure onset. We investigated the seizure semiology in 17 patients in whom invasive EEG-video-monitoring documented bilateral temporal seizure onset. The results were compared to 20 left and 20 right consecutive temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients who were seizure free after anterior temporal lobe resection. The seizure semiology was analyzed using the semiological seizure classification with particular emphasis on the sequence of seizure phenomena over time and lateralizing seizure phenomena. Statistical analysis included chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Bitemporal lobe epilepsy patients had more frequently different seizure semiology (100% vs. 40%; p<0.001) and significantly more often lateralizing seizure phenomena pointing to bilateral seizure onset compared to patients with unilateral TLE (67% vs. 11%; p<0.001). The sensitivity of identical vs. different seizure semiology for the identification of bilateral TLE was high (100%) with a specificity of 60%. Lateralizing seizure phenomena had a low sensitivity (59%) but a high specificity (89%). The combination of lateralizing seizure phenomena and different seizure semiology showed a high specificity (94%) but a low sensitivity (59%). The analysis of seizure semiology including lateralizing seizure phenomena adds important clinical information to identify patients with bilateral TLE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Epilepsy in multiple sclerosis: The role of temporal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, M; Castellaro, M; Bertoldo, A; De Luca, A; Pizzini, F B; Ricciardi, G K; Pitteri, M; Zimatore, S; Magliozzi, R; Benedetti, M D; Manganotti, P; Montemezzi, S; Reynolds, R; Gajofatto, A; Monaco, S

    2017-03-01

    Although temporal lobe pathology may explain some of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), its role in the pathogenesis of seizures has not been clarified yet. To investigate the role of temporal lobe damage in MS patients suffering from epilepsy, by the application of advanced multimodal 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. A total of 23 relapsing remitting MS patients who had epileptic seizures (RRMS/E) and 23 disease duration matched RRMS patients without any history of seizures were enrolled. Each patient underwent advanced 3T MRI protocol specifically conceived to evaluate grey matter (GM) damage. This includes grey matter lesions (GMLs) identification, evaluation of regional cortical thickness and indices derived from the Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging model. Regional analysis revealed that in RRMS/E, the regions most affected by GMLs were the hippocampus (14.2%), the lateral temporal lobe (13.5%), the cingulate (10.0%) and the insula (8.4%). Cortical thinning and alteration of diffusion metrics were observed in several regions of temporal lobe, in insular cortex and in cingulate gyrus of RRMS/E compared to RRMS ( ptemporal lobe, which exceeds what would be expected on the basis of the global GM damage observed.

  7. Case Report: A Rare Case Report of Frontal Lobe Syndrome

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    Morteza Nouri- Khajavi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The frontal lobe syndrome is a permanent personality change disorder with characteristic clinical pictures, which followed by frontal lobes damage. Clinical picture include: Affective instability, recurrent aggressive behavior, impaired social judgment, apathy and undifferentiating or suspiciousness and paranoid ideations. According DSM-IV classification frontal lobe syndrome named personality change due to head trauma on Axis I. Herein we report a case of 46 years-old man, who has developed behavioral disturbances following head trauma, about 10 years ago. Main clinical figures in this case are apathy, avolition and, undifferentiating. Clinical pictures are constant during these 10 years. The diagnostic approach has been based on patient’s problems history which, has taken from his family, mental status examination, Neurological examination, Brain imaging and Neuropsychological assessments which related to frontal lobes function. Because of rarity & neglection due to mysterious function of frontal lobes, and also considering that personality change from previous level is prominent figure of this syndrome and also brain imaging findings, which compatible with clinical findings, with this aim, we have reported this case.

  8. Investigating the effects of nitrous oxide sedation on frontal-parietal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji-Ho; Kim, Pil-Jong; Kim, Hong-Gee; Koo, Yong-Seo; Shin, Teo Jeon

    2017-06-09

    Although functional connectivity has received considerable attention in the study of consciousness, few studies have investigated functional connectivity limited to the sedated state where consciousness is maintained but impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in functional connectivity of the parietal-frontal network resulting from nitrous oxide-induced sedation, and to determine the neural correlates of cognitive impairment during consciousness transition states. Electroencephalography was acquired from healthy adult patients who underwent nitrous oxide inhalation to induce cognitive impairment, and was analyzed using Granger causality (GC). Periods of awake, sedation and recovery for GC between frontal and parietal areas in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma and total frequency bands were obtained. The Friedman test with post-hoc analysis was conducted for GC values of each period for comparison. As a sedated state was induced by nitrous oxide inhalation, power in the low frequency band showed increased activity in frontal regions that was reversed with discontinuation of nitrous oxide. Feedback and feedforward connections analyzed in spectral GC were changed differently in accordance with EEG frequency bands in the sedated state by nitrous oxide administration. Calculated spectral GC of the theta, alpha, and beta frequency regions in the parietal-to-frontal direction was significantly decreased in the sedated state while spectral GC in the reverse direction did not show significant change. Frontal-parietal functional connectivity is significantly affected by nitrous oxide inhalation. Significantly decreased parietal-to-frontal interaction may induce a sedated state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Neural sources of visual working memory maintenance in human parietal and ventral extrastriate visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becke, Andreas; Müller, Notger; Vellage, Anne; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel; Hopf, Jens-Max

    2015-04-15

    Maintaining information in visual working memory is reliably indexed by the contralateral delay activity (CDA) - a sustained modulation of the event-related potential (ERP) with a topographical maximum over posterior scalp regions contralateral to the memorized input. Based on scalp topography, it is hypothesized that the CDA reflects neural activity in the parietal cortex, but the precise cortical origin of underlying electric activity was never determined. Here we combine ERP recordings with magnetoencephalography based source localization to characterize the cortical current sources generating the CDA. Observers performed a cued delayed match to sample task where either the color or the relative position of colored dots had to be maintained in memory. A detailed source-localization analysis of the magnetic activity in the retention interval revealed that the magnetic analog of the CDA (mCDA) is generated by current sources in the parietal cortex. Importantly, we find that the mCDA also receives contribution from current sources in the ventral extrastriate cortex that display a time-course similar to the parietal sources. On the basis of the magnetic responses, forward modeling of ERP data reveals that the ventral sources have non-optimal projections and that these sources are therefore concealed in the ERP by overlapping fields with parietal projections. The present observations indicate that visual working memory maintenance, as indexed by the CDA, involves the parietal cortical regions as well as the ventral extrastriate regions, which code the sensory representation of the memorized content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced Working Memory Binding by Direct Electrical Stimulation of the Parietal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Birba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent works evince the critical role of visual short-term memory (STM binding deficits as a clinical and preclinical marker of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. These studies suggest a potential role of posterior brain regions in both the neurocognitive deficits of Alzheimer’s patients and STM binding in general. Thereupon, we surmised that stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC might be a successful approach to tackle working memory deficits in this condition, especially at early stages. To date, no causal evidence exists of the role of the parietal cortex in STM binding. A unique approach to assess this issue is afforded by single-subject direct intracranial electrical stimulation of specific brain regions during a relevant cognitive task. Electrical stimulation has been used both for clinical purposes and to causally probe brain mechanisms. Previous evidence of electrical currents spreading through white matter along well defined functional circuits indicates that visual working memory mechanisms are subserved by a specific widely distributed network. Here, we stimulated the parietal cortex of a subject with intracranial electrodes as he performed the visual STM task. We compared the ensuing results to those from a non-stimulated condition and to the performance of a matched control group. In brief, direct stimulation of the parietal cortex induced a selective improvement in STM. These results, together with previous studies, provide very preliminary but promising ground to examine behavioral changes upon parietal stimulation in AD. We discuss our results regarding: (a the usefulness of the task to target prodromal stages of AD; (b the role of a posterior network in STM binding and in AD; and (c the potential opportunity to improve STM binding through brain stimulation.

  11. Sequential {sup 123}I-iododexetimide scans in temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison with neuroimaging scans (MR imaging and {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Armin [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Comprehensive Epilepsy Service, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Faculty of Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Eberl, Stefan; Henderson, David; Beveridge, Scott; Constable, Chris [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Fulham, Michael J. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Kassiou, Michael [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Department of Pharmacology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Zaman, Aysha [University of Sydney, Faculty of Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Lo, Sing Kai [University of Sydney, Institute of International Health, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2005-02-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play an important role in the generation of seizures. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with {sup 123}I-iododexetimide (IDEX) depicts tracer uptake by mAChRs. Our aims were to: (a) determine the optimum time for interictal IDEX SPECT imaging; (b) determine the accuracy of IDEX scans in the localisation of seizure foci when compared with video EEG and MR imaging in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE); (c) characterise the distribution of IDEX binding in the temporal lobes and (d) compare IDEX SPECT and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in identifying seizure foci. We performed sequential scans using IDEX SPECT imaging at 0, 3, 6 and 24 h in 12 consecutive patients with refractory TLE undergoing assessment for epilepsy surgery. Visual and region of interest analyses of the mesial, lateral and polar regions of the temporal lobes were used to compare IDEX SPECT, FDG PET and MR imaging in seizure onset localisation. The 6-h IDEX scan (92%; {kappa}=0.83, p=0.003) was superior to the 0-h (36%; {kappa}=0.01, p>0.05), 3-h (55%; {kappa}=0.13, p>0.05) and 24-h IDEX scans in identifying the temporal lobe of seizure origin. The 6-h IDEX scan correctly predicted the temporal lobe of seizure origin in two patients who required intracranial EEG recordings to define the seizure onset. Reduced ligand binding was most marked at the temporal pole and mesial temporal structures. IDEX SPECT was superior to interictal FDG PET (75%; {kappa}=0.66, p=0.023) in seizure onset localisation. MR imaging was non-localising in two patients in whom it was normal and in another patient in whom there was bilateral symmetrical hippocampal atrophy. The 6-h IDEX SPECT scan is a viable alternative to FDG PET imaging in seizure onset localisation in TLE. (orig.)

  12. Sequential 123I-iododexetimide scans in temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison with neuroimaging scans (MR imaging and 18F-FDG PET imaging)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Armin; Eberl, Stefan; Henderson, David; Beveridge, Scott; Constable, Chris; Fulham, Michael J.; Kassiou, Michael; Zaman, Aysha; Lo, Sing Kai

    2005-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play an important role in the generation of seizures. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 123 I-iododexetimide (IDEX) depicts tracer uptake by mAChRs. Our aims were to: (a) determine the optimum time for interictal IDEX SPECT imaging; (b) determine the accuracy of IDEX scans in the localisation of seizure foci when compared with video EEG and MR imaging in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE); (c) characterise the distribution of IDEX binding in the temporal lobes and (d) compare IDEX SPECT and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in identifying seizure foci. We performed sequential scans using IDEX SPECT imaging at 0, 3, 6 and 24 h in 12 consecutive patients with refractory TLE undergoing assessment for epilepsy surgery. Visual and region of interest analyses of the mesial, lateral and polar regions of the temporal lobes were used to compare IDEX SPECT, FDG PET and MR imaging in seizure onset localisation. The 6-h IDEX scan (92%; κ=0.83, p=0.003) was superior to the 0-h (36%; κ=0.01, p>0.05), 3-h (55%; κ=0.13, p>0.05) and 24-h IDEX scans in identifying the temporal lobe of seizure origin. The 6-h IDEX scan correctly predicted the temporal lobe of seizure origin in two patients who required intracranial EEG recordings to define the seizure onset. Reduced ligand binding was most marked at the temporal pole and mesial temporal structures. IDEX SPECT was superior to interictal FDG PET (75%; κ=0.66, p=0.023) in seizure onset localisation. MR imaging was non-localising in two patients in whom it was normal and in another patient in whom there was bilateral symmetrical hippocampal atrophy. The 6-h IDEX SPECT scan is a viable alternative to FDG PET imaging in seizure onset localisation in TLE. (orig.)

  13. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression Is Enhanced in Renal Parietal Epithelial Cells of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats and Is Induced by Albumin in In Vitro Primary Parietal Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; George, Jasmine; Li, Yun; Olufade, Rebecca; Zhao, Xueying

    2015-01-01

    As a subfamily of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), gelatinases including MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix. However, conflicting results have been reported regarding their expression level and activity in the diabetic kidney. This study investigated whether and how MMP-9 expression and activity were changed in glomerular epithelial cells upon albumin overload. In situ zymography, immunostaining and Western blot for renal MMP gelatinolytic activity and MMP-9 protein expression were performed in Zucker lean and Zucker diabetic rats. Confocal microscopy revealed a focal increase in gelatinase activity and MMP-9 protein in the glomeruli of diabetic rats. Increased glomerular MMP-9 staining was mainly observed in hyperplastic parietal epithelial cells (PECs) expressing claudin-1 in the diabetic kidneys. Interestingly, increased parietal MMP-9 was often accompanied by decreased staining for podocyte markers (nephrin and podocalyxin) in the sclerotic area of affected glomeruli in diabetic rats. Additionally, urinary excretion of podocyte marker proteins was significantly increased in association with the levels of MMP-9 and albumin in the urine of diabetic animals. To evaluate the direct effect of albumin on expression and activity of MMP-9, primary cultured rat glomerular PECs were incubated with rat serum albumin (0.25 - 1 mg/ml) for 24 - 48 hrs. MMP-9 mRNA levels were significantly increased following albumin treatment. Meanwhile, albumin administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in MMP-9 protein and activity in culture supernatants of PECs. Moreover, albumin activated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in PECs. Inhibition of p44/42 MAPK suppressed albumin-induced MMP-9 secretion from glomerular PECs. Taken together, we have demonstrated that an up-regulation of MMP-9 in activated parietal epithelium is associated with a loss of adjacent podocytes in progressive diabetic nephropathy

  14. Haptically guided grasping. FMRI shows right-hemisphere parietal stimulus encoding, and bilateral dorso-ventral parietal gradients of object- and action-related processing during grasp execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia eMarangon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural bases of haptically-guided grasp planning and execution are largely unknown, especially for stimuli having no visual representations. Therefore, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to monitor brain activity during haptic exploration of novel 3D complex objects, subsequent grasp planning, and the execution of the pre-planned grasps. Haptic object exploration, involving extraction of shape, orientation and length of the to-be-grasped targets, was associated with the fronto-parietal, temporo-occipital, and insular cortex activity. Yet, only the anterior divisions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC of the right hemisphere were significantly more engaged in exploration of complex objects (vs. simple control disks. None of these regions were re-recruited during the planning phase. Even more surprisingly, the left-hemisphere intraparietal, temporal, and occipital areas that were significantly invoked for grasp planning did not show sensitivity to object features. Finally, grasp execution, involving the re-recruitment of the critical right-hemisphere PPC clusters, was also significantly associated with two kinds of bilateral parieto-frontal processes. The first represents transformations of grasp-relevant target features and is linked to the dorso-dorsal (lateral and medial parieto-frontal networks. The second monitors grasp kinematics and belongs to the ventro-dorsal networks. Indeed, signal modulations associated with these distinct functions follow dorso-ventral gradients, with left aIPS showing significant sensitivity to both target features and the characteristics of the required grasp. Thus, our results from the haptic domain are consistent with the notion that the parietal processing for action guidance reflects primarily transformations from object-related to effector-related coding, and these mechanisms are rather independent of sensory input modality.

  15. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  16. Usefulness of PET in non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertuluchi, M.; Arganaraz, R.; Buznick, J.; Pomata, H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the usefulness of PET in patients with refractory non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy. Material and methods. We present three patients with features of temporal lobe epilepsy refractory to medication, where high definition MRI was normal. Results. These patients had PET hypometabolism in the temporal areas related to clinical and neurophysiological findings. Two of these patients were implanted with subdural grids to confirm the diagnosis and the third was operated directly based on the findings of PET. Encourage the presentation of the importance in recent years is acquiring the PET. Conclusion. In those patients in clinical neurophysiology and epilepsy with suspected temporal lobe, but in the MRI images show no structural lesions, PET can play an important role defining the diagnosis. (authors)

  17. Altered cortical anatomical networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bin; He, Huiguang; Lu, Jingjing; Li, Wenjing; Dai, Dai; Li, Meng; Jin, Zhengyu

    2011-03-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common epilepsy syndromes with focal seizures generated in the left or right temporal lobes. With the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), many evidences have demonstrated that the abnormalities in hippocampal volume and the distributed atrophies in cortical cortex. However, few studies have investigated if TLE patients have the alternation in the structural networks. In the present study, we used the cortical thickness to establish the morphological connectivity networks, and investigated the network properties using the graph theoretical methods. We found that all the morphological networks exhibited the small-world efficiency in left TLE, right TLE and normal groups. And the betweenness centrality analysis revealed that there were statistical inter-group differences in the right uncus region. Since the right uncus located at the right temporal lobe, these preliminary evidences may suggest that there are topological alternations of the cortical anatomical networks in TLE, especially for the right TLE.

  18. Atypical language representation in children with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulisova, Alice; Korman, Brandon; Rey, Gustavo; Bernal, Byron; Duchowny, Michael; Niederlova, Marketa; Krsek, Pavel; Novak, Vilem

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated language organization in children with intractable epilepsy caused by temporal lobe focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) alone or dual pathology (temporal lobe FCD and hippocampal sclerosis, HS). We analyzed clinical, neurological, fMRI, neuropsychological, and histopathologic data in 46 pediatric patients with temporal lobe lesions who underwent excisional epilepsy surgery. The frequency of atypical language representation was similar in both groups, but children with dual pathology were more likely to be left-handed. Atypical receptive language cortex correlated with lower intellectual capacity, verbal abstract conceptualization, receptive language abilities, verbal working memory, and a history of status epilepticus but did not correlate with higher seizure frequency or early seizure onset. Histopathologic substrate had only a minor influence on neuropsychological status. Greater verbal comprehension deficits were noted in children with atypical receptive language representation, a risk factor for cognitive morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Late bilateral temporal lobe necrosis after conventional radiotherapy. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Michio; Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Kagami, Hiroshi; Murase, Ikurou; Nakatsukasa, Masashi [Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    A 63-year-old woman presented with radionecrosis in the bilateral temporal lobes manifesting as dementia about 30 years after undergoing conventional radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed edema and cystic lesions in both temporal lobes. The mass in the left temporal lobe was excised. MR imaging 12 days after surgery showed reduced edema. Her dementia had improved. Radionecrosis usually occurs between several months and a few years after radiotherapy. The incidence of radionecrosis is estimated as 5%, but may be higher with longer follow-up periods. Clinical reports have suggested that larger total doses of radiation are associated with earlier onset of delayed necrosis and the fractional dose is the most significant factor causing cerebral radionecrosis. Radionecrosis can occur long after conventional radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery using a linac-based system or a gamma knife unit. (author)

  20. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kwun Ha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC in the thyroid Epub ahead of print pyramidal lobe (TPL. A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  1. Graph theoretical analysis reveals disrupted topological properties of whole brain functional networks in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjing; Qiu, Shijun; Xu, Yong; Liu, Zhenyin; Wen, Xue; Hu, Xiangshu; Zhang, Ruibin; Li, Meng; Wang, Wensheng; Huang, Ruiwang

    2014-09-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common forms of drug-resistant epilepsy. Previous studies have indicated that the TLE-related impairments existed in extensive local functional networks. However, little is known about the alterations in the topological properties of whole brain functional networks. In this study, we acquired resting-state BOLD-fMRI (rsfMRI) data from 26 TLE patients and 25 healthy controls, constructed their whole brain functional networks, compared the differences in topological parameters between the TLE patients and the controls, and analyzed the correlation between the altered topological properties and the epilepsy duration. The TLE patients showed significant increases in clustering coefficient and characteristic path length, but significant decrease in global efficiency compared to the controls. We also found altered nodal parameters in several regions in the TLE patients, such as the bilateral angular gyri, left middle temporal gyrus, right hippocampus, triangular part of left inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal but supramarginal and angular gyri, and left parahippocampus gyrus. Further correlation analysis showed that the local efficiency of the TLE patients correlated positively with the epilepsy duration. Our results indicated the disrupted topological properties of whole brain functional networks in TLE patients. Our findings indicated the TLE-related impairments in the whole brain functional networks, which may help us to understand the clinical symptoms of TLE patients and offer a clue for the diagnosis and treatment of the TLE patients. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Astrocyte uncoupling as a cause of human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedner, Peter; Dupper, Alexander; Hüttmann, Kerstin; Müller, Julia; Herde, Michel K; Dublin, Pavel; Deshpande, Tushar; Schramm, Johannes; Häussler, Ute; Haas, Carola A; Henneberger, Christian; Theis, Martin; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Glial cells are now recognized as active communication partners in the central nervous system, and this new perspective has rekindled the question of their role in pathology. In the present study we analysed functional properties of astrocytes in hippocampal specimens from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy without (n = 44) and with sclerosis (n = 75) combining patch clamp recording, K(+) concentration analysis, electroencephalography/video-monitoring, and fate mapping analysis. We found that the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis is completely devoid of bona fide astrocytes and gap junction coupling, whereas coupled astrocytes were abundantly present in non-sclerotic specimens. To decide whether these glial changes represent cause or effect of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, we developed a mouse model that reproduced key features of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis. In this model, uncoupling impaired K(+) buffering and temporally preceded apoptotic neuronal death and the generation of spontaneous seizures. Uncoupling was induced through intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide, prevented in Toll-like receptor4 knockout mice and reproduced in situ through acute cytokine or lipopolysaccharide incubation. Fate mapping confirmed that in the course of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, astrocytes acquire an atypical functional phenotype and lose coupling. These data suggest that astrocyte dysfunction might be a prime cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis and identify novel targets for anti-epileptogenic therapeutic intervention. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Determinants of brain metabolism changes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassoux, Francine; Artiges, Eric; Semah, Franck; Desarnaud, Serge; Laurent, Agathe; Landre, Elisabeth; Gervais, Philippe; Devaux, Bertrand; Helal, Ourkia Badia

    2016-06-01

    To determine the main factors influencing metabolic changes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS). We prospectively studied 114 patients with MTLE (62 female; 60 left HS; 15- to 56-year-olds) with (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and correlated the results with the side of HS, structural atrophy, electroclinical features, gender, age at onset, epilepsy duration, and seizure frequency. Imaging processing was performed using statistical parametric mapping. Ipsilateral hypometabolism involved temporal (mesial structures, pole, and lateral cortex) and extratemporal areas including the insula, frontal lobe, perisylvian regions, and thalamus, more extensively in right HS (RHS). A relative increase of metabolism (hypermetabolism) was found in the nonepileptic temporal lobe and in posterior areas bilaterally. Voxel-based morphometry detected unilateral hippocampus atrophy and gray matter concentration decrease in both frontal lobes, more extensively in left HS (LHS). Regardless of the structural alterations, the topography of hypometabolism correlated strongly with the extent of epileptic networks (mesial, anterior-mesiolateral, widespread mesiolateral, and bitemporal according to the ictal spread), which were larger in RHS. Notably, widespread perisylvian and bitemporal hypometabolism was found only in RHS. Mirror hypermetabolism was grossly proportional to the hypometabolic areas, coinciding partly with the default mode network. Gender-related effect was significant mainly in the contralateral frontal lobe, in which metabolism was higher in female patients. Epilepsy duration correlated with the contralateral temporal metabolism, positively in LHS and negatively in RHS. Opposite results were found with age at onset. High seizure frequency correlated negatively with the contralateral metabolism in LHS. Epileptic networks, as assessed by electroclinical correlations, appear to be the main determinant of

  4. MRI in occipital lobe infarcts: classification by involvement of the striate cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, M. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan)]|[Department of Radiology, Kumamoto Rousai Hospital, Kumamoto (Japan); Korogi, Y.; Takahashi, M. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Kido, T.; Ikeda, O.; Morishita, S. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto Rousai Hospital, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    We reviewed the MRI studies of 25 patients with occipital lobe infarcts to clarify the distribution of infarcts in the posterior cerebral arterial territory, focussing on their relationship to the striate cortex. Visual field defects and MRI findings were also correlated in 16 patients. On coronal and/or sagittal images, the distribution of the infarct and its relationship to the striate cortex were classified. Involvement of the cortex of both upper and lower lips of the calcarine fissure was observed in 10 patients, and involvement of the lower lip alone in 15. The upper cortical lesions were always accompanied by lower cortical lesions. The visual field defects were complete hemianopia in nine patients, superior quadrantanopia in six and hemianopia with a preserved temporal crescent in one. All patients with superior quadrantanopia had involvement of the lower cortex alone; there were no cases of inferior quadrantanopia. The characteristic vascular anatomy, and poor development of the collateral circulation in the lower cortical area, may explain the vulnerability of this area to infarcts. (orig.) With 6 figs., 21 refs.

  5. Early seizure propagation from the occipital lobe to medial temporal structures and its surgical implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Naotaka; Mihara, Tadahiro; Baba, Koichi; Matsuda, Kazumi; Tottori, Takayasu; Umeoka, Shuichi; Nakamura, Fumihiro; Terada, Kiyohito; Usui, Keiko; Inoue, Yushi

    2008-12-01

    Intracranial EEG documentation of seizure propagation from the occipital lobe to medial temporal structures is relatively rare. We retrospectively analyzed intracranial EEG recorded with electrodes implanted in the medial temporal lobe in patients who underwent occipital lobe surgery. Four patients with occipital lesions, who underwent intracranial EEG monitoring with intracerebral electrodes implanted in the medial temporal lobe prior to occipital lobe surgery, were studied. Subdural electrodes were placed over the occipital lobe and adjacent areas. Intracerebral electrodes were implanted into bilateral hippocampi and the amygdala in three patients, and in the hippocampus and amygdala ipsilateral to the lesion in one. In light of the intracranial EEG findings, the occipital lobe was resected but the medial temporal lobe was spared in all patients. The follow-up period ranged from six to 16 years, and seizure outcome was Engel Class I in all patients. Sixty six seizures were analyzed. The majority of the seizures originated from the occipital lobe. In complex partial seizures, ictal discharges propagated to the medial temporal lobe. No seizures originating from the temporal lobe were documented. In some seizures, the ictal-onset zone could not be identified. In these seizures, very early propagation to the medial temporal lobe was observed. Interictal spikes were recorded in the medial temporal lobe in all cases. Intracranial EEG revealed very early involvement of the medial temporal lobe in some seizures. Seizure control was achieved without resection of the medial temporal structures.

  6. Transient response of two lobe aerodynamic journal bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar Yadav

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of a rotor-dynamic system is greatly affected by the performance of aerodynamic bearing and the performance of bearing is characterized by the stiffness and damping coefficients. In the present work, stiffness and damping coefficients of bearing are computed and the performance of the bearing is greatly changed with the change in bearing air film profile. The effect of lobe offset factors on the transient performance of aerodynamic bearing is presented. Bifurcation and Poincare diagrams of two lobe journal bearing have been presented for different offset factors. A bearing designer can judge the bearing performance based on bifurcation diagrams.

  7. A case of viral encephalitis localized in the occipital lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izawa, Masahiro; Okino, Teruhiko; Kagawa, Mizuo; Kitamura, Koichi.

    1987-01-01

    A case is reported of a 63-year-old female admitted to our hospital in Oct., 1986, with complaints of headache and visual field disturbance. A plain CT scan showed no abnormal low-density focal area. A contrast-enhancement CT scan, however, showed a localized linear abnormal enhancement in the right occipital lobe, without any mass-effect. A dynamic CT scan demonstrated a hyperemic perfusion pattern of the right occipital lobe. A visual-field examination showed left homonymous hemianopsia with concentric narrowing. These abnormal findings on CT, EEG, and ophthalmological examination disappeared within 3 weeks. (author)

  8. Visual field defects after temporal lobe resection for epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Alvilda T; Olsen, Ane Sophie; Litman, Minna

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine visual field defects (VFDs) using methods of varying complexity and compare results with subjective symptoms in a population of newly operated temporal lobe epilepsy patients. METHODS: Forty patients were included in the study. Two patients failed to perform VFD testing...... symptoms were only reported by 28% of the patients with a VFD and in two of eight (sensitivity=25%) with a severe VFD. Most patients (86%) considered VFD information mandatory. CONCLUSION: VFD continue to be a frequent adverse event after epilepsy surgery in the medial temporal lobe and may affect...

  9. Radiosurgery in the Management of Intractable Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñagarícano, José; Serletis, Demitre

    2015-09-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) describes recurrent seizure activity originating from the depths of the temporal lobe. MTLE patients who fail two trials of medication now require testing for surgical candidacy at an epilepsy center. For these individuals, temporal lobectomy offers the greatest likelihood for seizure-freedom (up to 80-90%); unfortunately, this procedure remains largely underutilized. Moreover, for select patients unable to tolerate open surgery, novel techniques are emerging for selective ablation of the mesial temporal structures, including stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We present here a review of SRS as a potential therapy for MTLE, when open surgery is not an option.

  10. Bereitschaftspotentials recorded from the lateral part of the superior frontal gyrus in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shinji; Ikeda, Akio; Matsuhashi, Masao; Satow, Takeshi; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Baba, Koichi; Mihara, Tadahiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    2006-05-15

    To demonstrate the Bereitschaftspotentials (BPs) over the high lateral convexity in the superior frontal gyrus, movement-related cortical potentials with respect to the middle finger extension were recorded in seven patients with refractory epilepsy who underwent subdural implantation of platinum electrode grids and/or strips covering the high lateral frontal convexity. In two out of the seven patients, BPs were recorded from the electrodes placed on the superior frontal gyrus in the vicinity of the border between the medial and lateral frontal lobes, which were distinct from those recorded from the primary sensorimotor cortex. The results suggest the possible contribution of either the lateral dorsal non-primary motor area or the SMA to the generation of the BPs.

  11. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  12. Time Course of the Involvement of the Right Anterior Superior Temporal Gyrus and the Right Fronto-Parietal Operculum in Emotional Prosody Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekert, Marjolijn; Bais, Leonie; Kahn, Rene S.; Aleman, Andre

    2008-01-01

    In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody) conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional

  13. Auras and clinical features in temporal lobe epilepsy: a new approach on the basis of voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria Teresa Castilho Garcia; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; da Silva, Henrique Hattori; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Carrete, Henrique; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2010-05-01

    MRI investigations in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) have demonstrated structural abnormalities extending beyond ipsilateral hippocampus which may be studied through voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We investigated brain morphology related to clinical features in patients with refractory TLE with MTS using VBM. One hundred patients with unilateral TLE with MTS (59 left) and 30 controls were enrolled. VBM5 was employed to analyze (1) hemispheric damage, (2) influence of initial precipitating injury (IPI): 23 patients with febrile seizures and 19 with status epilepticus, and (3) types of auras classified as: mesial, including psychic auras (19 patients); anterior mesio-lateral, as autonomic symptoms, specially epigastric auras (27 patients) and neocortical, which included auditory, vertiginous, somatosensory and visual auras (16 patients). (1) Left TLE patients presented more widespread gray matter volume (GMV) reductions affecting ipsilateral hippocampus, temporal neocortex, insula and also left uncus, precentral gyrus, thalamus, parietal lobule, cuneus and bilateral cingulum. (2) Febrile seizures group presented ipsilateral GMV reductions in hippocampus, neocortical temporal, frontal and occipital cortices, insula and cingulum. Status epilepticus group presented more widespread GMV reductions involving temporal and extratemporal lobes. (3) Patients with mesial auras showed significant ipsilateral GMV reductions in hippocampus and amygdala, particularly right TLE group, who presented greater extension of GMV reduction in the entorhinal cortex. Significant reductions in hippocampus, amygdala and insula were seen in patients with anterior mesio-lateral auras. This study evaluated a large number of TLE-MTS patients showing structural damage extending beyond hippocampus, and different types of IPI associated with the extension of brain damage. Subtypes of auras are related to different clusters of areas of GMV reductions in

  14. The temporo-parietal junction contributes to global gestalt perception—evidence from studies in chess experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennig, Johannes; Bilalić, Merim; Huberle, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Himmelbach, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In a recent neuroimaging study the comparison of intact vs. disturbed perception of global gestalt indicated a significant role of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) in the intact perception of global gestalt (Huberle and Karnath, 2012). This location corresponded well with the areas known to be damaged or impaired in patients with simultanagnosia after stroke or due to neurodegenerative diseases. It was concluded that the TPJ plays an important role in the integration of individual items to a holistic percept. Thus, increased BOLD signals should be found in this region whenever a task calls for the integration of multiple visual items. Behavioral experiments in chess experts suggested that their superior skills in comparison to chess novices are partly based on fast holistic processing of chess positions with multiple pieces. We thus analyzed BOLD data from four fMRI studies that compared chess experts with chess novices during the presentation of complex chess-related visual stimuli (Bilalić et al., 2010, 2011a,b, 2012). Three regions of interests were defined by significant TPJ clusters in the abovementioned study of global gestalt perception (Huberle and Karnath, 2012) and BOLD signal amplitudes in these regions were compared between chess experts and novices. These cross-paradigm ROI analyses revealed higher signals at the TPJ in chess experts in comparison to novices during presentations of complex chess positions. This difference was consistent across the different tasks in five independent experiments. Our results confirm the assumption that the TPJ region identified in previous work on global gestalt perception plays an important role in the processing of complex visual stimulus configurations. PMID:24009574

  15. The temporo-parietal junction contributes to global gestalt perception – evidence from studies in chess experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eRennig

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In a recent neuroimaging study the comparison of intact versus disturbed perception of global gestalt indicated a significant role of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ in the intact perception of global gestalt (Huberle and Karnath, 2012. This location corresponded well with the areas known to be damaged or impaired in patients with simultanagnosia after stroke or due to neurodegenerative diseases. It was concluded that the TPJ plays an important role in the integration of individual items to a holistic percept. Thus, increased BOLD signals should be found in this region whenever a task calls for the integration of multiple visual items. Behavioral experiments in chess experts suggested that their superior skills in comparison to chess novices are partly based on fast holistic processing of chess positions with multiple pieces. We thus analyzed BOLD data from four fMRI studies that compared chess experts with chess novices during the presentation of complex chess-related visual stimuli (Bilalić et al., 2011a, 2010, 2011b, 2012. Three regions of interests were defined by significant TPJ clusters in the abovementioned study of global gestalt perception (Huberle and Karnath, 2012 and BOLD signal amplitudes in these regions were compared between chess experts and novices. These cross-paradigm ROI analyses revealed higher signals at the TPJ in chess experts in comparison to novices during presentations of complex chess positions. This difference was consistent across the different tasks in five independent experiments. Our results confirm the assumption that the TPJ region identified in previous work on global gestalt perception plays an important role in the processing of complex visual stimulus configurations.

  16. The temporo-parietal junction contributes to global gestalt perception-evidence from studies in chess experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennig, Johannes; Bilalić, Merim; Huberle, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Himmelbach, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In a recent neuroimaging study the comparison of intact vs. disturbed perception of global gestalt indicated a significant role of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) in the intact perception of global gestalt (Huberle and Karnath, 2012). This location corresponded well with the areas known to be damaged or impaired in patients with simultanagnosia after stroke or due to neurodegenerative diseases. It was concluded that the TPJ plays an important role in the integration of individual items to a holistic percept. Thus, increased BOLD signals should be found in this region whenever a task calls for the integration of multiple visual items. Behavioral experiments in chess experts suggested that their superior skills in comparison to chess novices are partly based on fast holistic processing of chess positions with multiple pieces. We thus analyzed BOLD data from four fMRI studies that compared chess experts with chess novices during the presentation of complex chess-related visual stimuli (Bilalić et al., 2010, 2011a,b, 2012). Three regions of interests were defined by significant TPJ clusters in the abovementioned study of global gestalt perception (Huberle and Karnath, 2012) and BOLD signal amplitudes in these regions were compared between chess experts and novices. These cross-paradigm ROI analyses revealed higher signals at the TPJ in chess experts in comparison to novices during presentations of complex chess positions. This difference was consistent across the different tasks in five independent experiments. Our results confirm the assumption that the TPJ region identified in previous work on global gestalt perception plays an important role in the processing of complex visual stimulus configurations.

  17. Hippocampal Temporal-Parietal Junction Interaction in the Production of Psychotic Symptoms: A Framework for Understanding the Schizophrenic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gayle Wible

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A framework is described for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome at the brain systems level. It is hypothesized that over-activation of dynamic gesture and social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ, posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS and surrounding regions produce the syndrome (including positive and negative symptoms, their prevalence, prodromal signs and cognitive deficits. Hippocampal system hyper-activity and atrophy have been consistently found in schizophrenia. Hippocampal activity is highly related to activity in the TPJ and may be a source of over-excitation of the TPJ and surrounding regions. Strong evidence for this comes from in-vivo recordings in humans during psychotic episodes. The TPJ and PSTS play a key role in the perception (and production of dynamic social, emotional and attentional gestures for the self and others (e.g., body/face/eye gestures, audiovisual speech, prosody. The single cell representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, tactile, matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the single cell perceptual signal of dynamic gesture representations is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others. The neurons are also tuned or biased to detect threat related emotions. Abnormal over-activation in this system could produce the conscious hallucination of a voice (audiovisual speech, person or a touch. Over-activation could interfere with attentional/emotional gesture perception and production (negative symptoms. It could produce the unconscious feeling of being watched, followed or of a social situation unfolding along with accompanying perception of intent and agency inherent in those representations (delusions. Cognitive disturbances in attention, predictive social processing, agency, working memory, and a bias toward the perception of threat would also be predicted.

  18. Excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 in temporal lobe and hippocampus in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarac, Sinan; Afzal, Shoaib; Broholm, Helle

    2009-01-01

    Intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is an invalidating disease and many patients are resistant to medical treatment. Increased glutamate concentration has been found in epileptogenic foci and may induce local over-excitation and cytotoxicity; one of the proposed mechanisms involves reduced...... extra-cellular clearance of glutamate by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT-1 to EAAT-5). EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 are mainly expressed on astroglial cells for the reuptake of glutamate from the extra-cellular space. We have studied the expression of EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 in the hippocampus and temporal lobe...

  19. Smaller superior temporal gyrus volume specificity in schizotypal personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Kim E.; Hazlett, Erin A.; New, Antonia S.; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Newmark, Randall E.; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Passarelli, Vincent; Weinstein, Shauna R.; Canfield, Emily L.; Meyerson, David A.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.; Siever, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22) volume is reduced in schizophrenia and to a milder degree in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), representing a less severe disorder in the schizophrenia-spectrum. SPD and Borderline personality disorder (BPD) are severe personality disorders characterized by social and cognitive dysfunction. However, while SPD is characterized by social withdrawal/anhedonia, BPD is marked by hyper-reactivity to interpersonal stimuli and hyper-emotionality. This is the first morphometric study to directly compare SPD and BPD patients in temporal volume. Methods We compared three age-gender- and education-matched groups: 27 unmedicated SPD individuals with no BPD traits, 52 unmedicated BPD individuals with no SPD traits, and 45 healthy controls. We examined gray matter volume of frontal and temporal lobe Brodmann areas (BAs), and dorsal/ventral amygdala from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Results In the STG, an auditory association area reported to be dysfunctional in SPD and BPD, the SPD patients had significantly smaller volume than healthy controls and BPD patients. No group differences were found between BPD patients and controls. Smaller BA22 volume was associated with greater symptom severity in SPD patients. Reduced STG volume may be an important endophenotype for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. SPD is distinct from BPD in terms of STG volume abnormalities which may reflect different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and could help discriminate between them. PMID:19473820

  20. Neural representations of social status hierarchy in human inferior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y; Harada, Tokiko; Oby, Emily R; Li, Zhang; Parrish, Todd; Bridge, Donna J

    2009-01-01

    Mental representations of social status hierarchy share properties with that of numbers. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that the neural representation of numerical magnitude lies within a network of regions within inferior parietal cortex. However the neural basis of social status hierarchy remains unknown. Using fMRI, we studied subjects while they compared social status magnitude of people, objects and symbols, as well as numerical magnitude. Both social status and number comparisons recruited bilateral intraparietal sulci. We also observed a semantic distance effect whereby neural activity within bilateral intraparietal sulci increased for semantically close relative to far numerical and social status comparisons. These results demonstrate that social status and number comparisons recruit distinct and overlapping neuronal representations within human inferior parietal cortex.

  1. Parietal intradiploic encephalocele: Report of a case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo-Perez, Julio; Millán-Juncos, José M

    2015-06-01

    Encephaloceles consist of brain tissue and meninges that has herniated through a skull defect, usually located in the midline. They are seen more commonly in children and very rarely in adults. We present a case of an 84-year-old patient who was incidentally diagnosed with a lytic bone lesion in the right parietal intradiploic space, after computed tomography of the head was performed. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain showed herniation of brain tissue through the defect. Magnetic resonance imaging was crucial in demonstrating the presence of parenchyma and its continuity with the rest of the brain, consequently distinguishing it from other entities. We report the imaging findings of a parietal indradiploic encephalocele with its differential diagnosis and a review of the relevant literature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Parietal and occipital encephalocele in same child: A rarest variety of double encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Somnath; Ojha, Bal Krishan; Chandra, Anil; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Srivastava, Chhitij

    2016-05-01

    An encephalocele is a protrusion of the brain and/or meninges through a defect in the skull. Based on the location of the skull defect they are classified into sincipital, basal, occipital or parietal varieties. Occurrence of more than one Encephalocele in a patient is very rare and very few cases of double encephalocele are reported. We report an interesting case where a parietal and an occipital encephalocele were present together. The patient was a 2 months boy who was brought to us with complaints of two swelling on the scalp since birth. Neuroimaging studies confirmed it to be a case of double encephalocele. The rarity of the findings prompted us to report this case. The presentation and management of the case along with and review of the relevant literature is presented. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The auroral and ionospheric flow signatures of dual lobe reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Imber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the first substantial evidence for the occurrence of dual lobe reconnection from ionospheric flows and auroral signatures. The process of dual lobe reconnection refers to an interplanetary magnetic field line reconnecting with lobe field lines in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Two bursts of sunward plasma flow across the noon portion of the open/closed field line boundary (OCB, indicating magnetic flux closure at the dayside, were observed in SuperDARN radar data during a period of strongly northward IMF. The OCB is identified from spacecraft, radar backscatter, and auroral observations. In order for dual lobe reconnection to take place, we estimate that the interplanetary magnetic field clock angle must be within ±10° of zero (North. The total flux crossing the OCB during each burst is small (1.8% and 0.6% of the flux contained within the polar cap for the two flows. A brightening of the noon portion of the northern auroral oval was observed as the clock angle passed through zero, and is thought to be due to enhanced precipitating particle fluxes due to the occurrence of reconnection at two locations along the field line. The number of solar wind protons captured by the flux closure process was estimated to be ~2.5×1030 (4 tonnes by mass, sufficient to populate the cold, dense plasma sheet observed following this interval.

  4. Grooves on the occipital lobe of Indian brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisaria, K K

    1984-01-01

    The existence of a groove on the occipital lobe formed by the dural venous sinus or ridge has only rarely been described in the past. As observed in this study such grooves are either unilateral or bilateral and their incidence is very high in Indian brains. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6490537

  5. Metabolic changes in occipital lobe epilepsy with automatisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong H Wong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Some studies suggest that the pattern of glucose hypometabolism relates not only to the ictal-onset zone, but also reflects seizure propagation. We investigated metabolic changes in patients with occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE that may reflect propagation of ictal discharge during seizures with automatisms.Methods: Fifteen patients who had undergone epilepsy surgery for intractable OLE and had undergone interictal Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET between 1994 and 2004 were divided into two groups (with and without automatisms during seizure. Significant regions of hypometabolism were identified by comparing 18F-FDG-PET results from each group with 16 healthy controls by using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM 2.Key Findings: Significant hypometabolism was confined largely to the epileptogenic occipital lobe in the patient group without automatisms. In patients with automatisms, glucose hypometabolism extended from the epileptogenic occipital lobe into the ipsilateral temporal lobe.Significance: We identified a distinctive hypometabolic pattern that was specific for OLE patients with automatisms during a seizure. This finding supports the postulate that seizure propagation is a cause of glucose hypometabolism beyond the region of seizure onset.

  6. Grooves on the occipital lobe of Indian brains.

    OpenAIRE

    Bisaria, K K

    1984-01-01

    The existence of a groove on the occipital lobe formed by the dural venous sinus or ridge has only rarely been described in the past. As observed in this study such grooves are either unilateral or bilateral and their incidence is very high in Indian brains.

  7. Metabolic changes in occipital lobe epilepsy with automatisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chong H; Mohamed, Armin; Wen, Lingfeng; Eberl, Stefan; Somerville, Ernest; Fulham, Michael; Bleasel, Andrew F

    2014-01-01

    Some studies suggest that the pattern of glucose hypometabolism relates not only to the ictal-onset zone but also reflects seizure propagation. We investigated metabolic changes in patients with occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) that may reflect propagation of ictal discharge during seizures with automatisms. Fifteen patients who had undergone epilepsy surgery for intractable OLE and had undergone interictal Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET) between 1994 and 2004 were divided into two groups (with and without automatisms during seizure). Significant regions of hypometabolism were identified by comparing (18)F-FDG-PET results from each group with 16 healthy controls by using statistical parametric mapping. Significant hypometabolism was confined largely to the epileptogenic occipital lobe in the patient group without automatisms. In patients with automatisms, glucose hypometabolism extended from the epileptogenic occipital lobe into the ipsilateral temporal lobe. We identified a distinctive hypometabolic pattern that was specific for OLE patients with automatisms during a seizure. This finding supports the postulate that seizure propagation is a cause of glucose hypometabolism beyond the region of seizure onset.

  8. Lung lobe torsion in dogs: 22 cases (1981-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neath, P J; Brockman, D J; King, L G

    2000-10-01

    To identify breed disposition, postoperative complications, and outcome in dogs with lung lobe torsion. Retrospective study. 22 client-owned dogs. Information on signalment; history; clinical findings; results of clinicopathologic testing, diagnostic imaging, and pleural fluid analysis; surgical treatment; intra- and postoperative complications; histologic findings; and outcome were obtained from medical records. All 22 dogs had pleural effusion; dyspnea was the most common reason for examination. Fifteen dogs were large deep-chested breeds; 5 were toy breeds. Afghan Hounds were overrepresented, compared with the hospital population. One dog was euthanatized without treatment; the remaining dogs underwent exploratory thoracotomy and lung lobectomy. Eleven dogs recovered from surgery without complications, but 3 of these later died of thoracic disease. Four dogs survived to discharge but had clinically important complications within 2 months, including chylothorax, mediastinal mesothelioma, gastric dilatation, and a second lung lobe torsion. Six dogs died or were euthanatized within 2 weeks after surgery because of acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, septic shock, pneumothorax, or chylothorax. Chylothorax was diagnosed in 8 of the 22 dogs, including 4 Afghan Hounds. Results suggest that lung lobe torsion is rare in dogs and develops most frequently in large deep-chested dogs, particularly Afghan Hounds. Other predisposing causes were not identified, but an association with chylothorax was evident, especially in Afghan Hounds. Prognosis for dogs with lung lobe torsion was fair to guarded.

  9. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  10. Bi‑lobed Perirectal Epidermoid Cyst: An Unusual Cause of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of hematochezia and a bi-lobed cystic tumor on pelvic. MRI. We successfully resected the tumor via the posterior ... The only abnormal finding on clinical examination was a ... There was an absence of the uterus ... bleeding. Symptoms of dyschezia and hematochezia may also be due to cyst inflammation or infection while ...

  11. Surgical anatomy of the pyramidal lobe and its significance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    33:35-37. 10. Harjeet A, Shani D, Jit I, Aggarwal AK. Shape, measurements and weight of the thyroid gland in northwest Indians. Surg Radiol Anat 2004;26:91-95. TABLE III. INVOLVEMENT OF THE PYRAMIDAL LOBE IN VARIOUS THYROID ...

  12. Auditory temporal processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavasani, Azam Navaei; Mohammadkhani, Ghassem; Motamedi, Mahmoud; Karimi, Leyla Jalilvand; Jalaei, Shohreh; Shojaei, Fereshteh Sadat; Danesh, Ali; Azimi, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    Auditory temporal processing is the main feature of speech processing ability. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, despite their normal hearing sensitivity, may present speech recognition disorders. The present study was carried out to evaluate the auditory temporal processing in patients with unilateral TLE. The present study was carried out on 25 patients with epilepsy: 11 patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy and 14 with left temporal lobe epilepsy with a mean age of 31.1years and 18 control participants with a mean age of 29.4years. The two experimental and control groups were evaluated via gap-in-noise and duration pattern sequence tests. One-way ANOVA was run to analyze the data. The mean of the threshold of the GIN test in the control group was observed to be better than that in participants with LTLE and RTLE. Also, it was observed that the percentage of correct responses on the DPS test in the control group and in participants with RTLE was better than that in participants with LTLE. Patients with TLE have difficulties in temporal processing. Difficulties are more significant in patients with LTLE, likely because the left temporal lobe is specialized for the processing of temporal information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Memory Functions following Surgery for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambaque, Isabelle; Dellatolas, Georges; Fohlen, Martine; Bulteau, Christine; Watier, Laurence; Dorfmuller, Georg; Chiron, Catherine; Delalande, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Surgical treatment appears to improve the cognitive prognosis in children undergoing surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The beneficial effects of surgery on memory functions, particularly on material-specific memory, are more difficult to assess because of potentially interacting factors such as age range, intellectual level,…

  14. The neurobiology of cognitive disorders in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brian; Lin, Jack J.; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and especially memory disruption is a major complicating feature of the epilepsies. In this review we begin with a focus on the problem of memory impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy. We start with a brief overview of the early development of knowledge regarding the anatomic substrates of memory disorder in temporal lobe epilepsy, followed by discussion of the refinement of that knowledge over time as informed by the outcomes of epilepsy surgery (anterior temporal lobectomy) and the clinical efforts to predict those patients at greatest risk of adverse cognitive outcomes following epilepsy surgery. These efforts also yielded new theoretical insights regarding the function of the human hippocampus and a few examples of these insights are touched on briefly. Finally, the vastly changing view of temporal lobe epilepsy is examined including findings demonstrating that anatomic abnormalities extend far outside the temporal lobe, cognitive impairments extend beyond memory function, with linkage of these distributed cognitive and anatomic abnormalities pointing to a new understanding of the anatomic architecture of cognitive impairment in epilepsy. Challenges remain in understanding the origin of these cognitive and anatomic abnormalities, their progression over time, and most importantly, how to intervene to protect cognitive and brain health in epilepsy. PMID:21304484

  15. Memory, Metamemory and Their Dissociation in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Charlotte E.; Andres, Pilar; Broks, Paul; Noad, Rupert; Sadler, Martin; Coker, Debbie; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2010-01-01

    Patients with temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) present with memory difficulties. The aim of the current study was to determine to what extent these difficulties could be related to a metamemory impairment. Fifteen patients with TLE and 15 matched healthy controls carried out a paired-associates learning task. Memory recall was measured at intervals of…

  16. Multidetector CT evaluation of potential right lobe living donors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed Saied Abdelgawad

    Multidetector CT evaluation of potential right lobe living donors for liver transplantation. Mohamed Saied Abdelgawad *, Osama L. El-Abd. National Liver Institute, El-Menoufiya University, Shebein El-Koom, Alexandria, Egypt. Received 4 June 2011; accepted 18 June 2011. KEYWORDS. Liver transplantation;. Multidetector ...

  17. Complications after mesial temporal lobe surgery via inferiortemporal gyrus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Fernando L; Reintjes, Stephen; Garcia, Hermes G

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the complications associated with the inferior temporal gyrus approach to anterior mesial temporal lobe resection for temporal lobe epilepsy. This retrospective study examined complications experienced by 483 patients during the 3 months after surgery. All surgeries were performed during 1998-2012 by the senior author (F.L.V.). A total of 13 complications (2.7%) were reported. Complications were 8 delayed subdural hematomas (1.6%), 2 superficial wound infections (0.4%), 1 delayed intracranial hemorrhage (0.2%), 1 small lacunar stroke (0.2%), and 1 transient frontalis nerve palsy (0.2%). Three patients with subdural hematoma (0.6%) required readmission and surgical intervention. One patient (0.2%) with delayed intracranial hemorrhage required readmission to the neuroscience intensive care unit for observation. No deaths or severe neurological impairments were reported. Among the 8 patients with subdural hematoma, 7 were older than 40 years (87.5%); however, this finding was not statistically significant (p = 0.198). The inferior temporal gyrus approach to mesial temporal lobe resection is a safe and effective method for treating temporal lobe epilepsy. Morbidity and mortality rates associated with this procedure are lower than those associated with other neurosurgical procedures. The finding that surgical complications seem to be more common among older patients emphasizes the need for early surgical referral of patients with medically refractory epilepsy.

  18. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest that early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present…

  19. Posterior parietal cortex and long-term memory: some data from laboratory animals

    OpenAIRE

    Myskiw, Jociane C.; Izquierdo, Iván

    2012-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) was long viewed as just involved in the perception of spatial relationships between the body and its surroundings and of movements related to them. In recent years the PPC has been shown to participate in many other cognitive processes, among which working memory and the consolidation and retrieval of episodic memory. The neurotransmitter and other molecular processes involved have been determined to a degree in rodents. More research will no doubt determin...

  20. Frontal and parietal cortical interactions with distributed visual representations during selective attention and action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Natalie; Stokes, Mark; Nobre, Anna C; Rushworth, Matthew F S

    2013-10-16

    Using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we studied how distributed visual representations in human occipitotemporal cortex are modulated by attention and link their modulation to concurrent activity in frontal and parietal cortex. We detected similar occipitotemporal patterns during a simple visuoperceptual task and an attention-to-working-memory task in which one or two stimuli were cued before being presented among other pictures. Pattern strength varied from highest to lowest when the stimulus was the exclusive focus of attention, a conjoint focus, and when it was potentially distracting. Although qualitatively similar effects were seen inside regions relatively specialized for the stimulus category and outside, the former were quantitatively stronger. By regressing occipitotemporal pattern strength against activity elsewhere in the brain, we identified frontal and parietal areas exerting top-down control over, or reading information out from, distributed patterns in occipitotemporal cortex. Their interactions with patterns inside regions relatively specialized for that stimulus category were higher than those with patterns outside those regions and varied in strength as a function of the attentional condition. One area, the frontal operculum, was distinguished by selectively interacting with occipitotemporal patterns only when they were the focus of attention. There was no evidence that any frontal or parietal area actively inhibited occipitotemporal representations even when they should be ignored and were suppressed. Using MVPA to decode information within these frontal and parietal areas showed that they contained information about attentional context and/or readout information from occipitotemporal cortex to guide behavior but that frontal regions lacked information about category identity.

  1. Trepanation and enlarged parietal foramen on skulls from the Loyalty Islands (Melanesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Sergey V; Sviridov, Alexey A

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this study is a comprehensive examination of openings discovered on two skulls in the collection of skeletal remains from the Loyalty Islands (Melanesia). The skull No. 1524 displayed an evidence of successful trepanation, and the skull No. 7985 revealed openings that were reminiscent of a trepanation, however, we are inclined to believe that in the latter case we are dealing with a rare genetic anomaly - enlarged parietal foramen.

  2. Exogenous vs. endogenous attention: Shifting the balance of fronto-parietal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kristin N; Du, Feng; Parks, Emily; Hopfinger, Joseph B

    2018-03-01

    Despite behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for dissociations between endogenous (voluntary) and exogenous (reflexive) attention, fMRI results have yet to consistently and clearly differentiate neural activation patterns between these two types of attention. This study specifically aimed to determine whether activity in the dorsal fronto-parietal network differed between endogenous and exogenous conditions. Participants performed a visual discrimination task in endogenous and exogenous attention conditions while undergoing fMRI scanning. Analyses revealed robust and bilateral activation throughout the dorsal fronto-parietal network for each condition, in line with many previous results. In order to investigate possible differences in the balance of neural activity within this network with greater sensitivity, a priori regions of interest (ROIs) were selected for analysis, centered on the frontal eye fields (FEF) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) regions identified in previous studies. The results revealed a significant interaction between region, condition, and hemisphere. Specifically, in the left hemisphere, frontal areas were more active than parietal areas, but only during endogenous attention. Activity in the right hemisphere, in contrast, remained relatively consistent for these regions across conditions. Analysis of this activity over time indicates that this left-hemispheric regional imbalance is present within the FEF early, at 3-6.5 s post-stimulus presentation, whereas a regional imbalance in the exogenous condition is not evident until 6.5-8 s post-stimulus presentation. Overall, our results provide new evidence that although the dorsal fronto-parietal network is indeed associated with both types of attentional orienting, regions of the network are differentially engaged over time and across hemispheres depending on the type of attention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Frontal and Parietal Cortical Interactions with Distributed Visual Representations during Selective Attention and Action Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Mark; Nobre, Anna C.; Rushworth, Matthew F. S.

    2013-01-01

    Using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we studied how distributed visual representations in human occipitotemporal cortex are modulated by attention and link their modulation to concurrent activity in frontal and parietal cortex. We detected similar occipitotemporal patterns during a simple visuoperceptual task and an attention-to-working-memory task in which one or two stimuli were cued before being presented among other pictures. Pattern strength varied from highest to lowest when the stimulus was the exclusive focus of attention, a conjoint focus, and when it was potentially distracting. Although qualitatively similar effects were seen inside regions relatively specialized for the stimulus category and outside, the former were quantitatively stronger. By regressing occipitotemporal pattern strength against activity elsewhere in the brain, we identified frontal and parietal areas exerting top-down control over, or reading information out from, distributed patterns in occipitotemporal cortex. Their interactions with patterns inside regions relatively specialized for that stimulus category were higher than those with patterns outside those regions and varied in strength as a function of the attentional condition. One area, the frontal operculum, was distinguished by selectively interacting with occipitotemporal patterns only when they were the focus of attention. There was no evidence that any frontal or parietal area actively inhibited occipitotemporal representations even when they should be ignored and were suppressed. Using MVPA to decode information within these frontal and parietal areas showed that they contained information about attentional context and/or readout information from occipitotemporal cortex to guide behavior but that frontal regions lacked information about category identity. PMID:24133250

  4. Counteracting fatigue in multiple sclerosis with right parietal anodal transcranial direct current stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin Hanken; Katrin Hanken; Mona Bosse; Kim Möhrke; Paul Eling; Andreas Kastrup; Andrea Antal; Helmut Hildebrandt; Helmut Hildebrandt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time and errors with prolonged time-on-task. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. Methods: In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, anoda...

  5. Counteracting Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis with Right Parietal Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hanken, Katrin; Bosse, Mona; M?hrke, Kim; Eling, Paul; Kastrup, Andreas; Antal, Andrea; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time (RT) and errors with prolonged time-on-task. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. METHODS: In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controll...

  6. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain