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Sample records for superior parietal gyrus

  1. Central and peripheral components of writing critically depend on a defined area of the dominant superior parietal gyrus.

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    Magrassi, Lorenzo; Bongetta, Daniele; Bianchini, Simonetta; Berardesca, Marta; Arienta, Cesare

    2010-07-30

    Classical neuropsychological models of writing separate central (linguistic) processes common to oral spelling, writing and typing from peripheral (motor) processes that are modality specific. Damage to the left superior parietal gyrus, an area of the cortex involved in peripheral processes specific to handwriting, should generate distorted graphemes but not misspelled words, while damage to other areas of the cortex like the frontal lobe should produce alterations in written and oral spelling without distorted graphemes. We describe the clinical and neuropsychological features of a patient with combined agraphia for handwriting and typewriting bearing a small glioblastoma in the left parietal lobe. His agraphia resolved after antiedema therapy and we tested by bipolar cortical stimulation his handwriting abilities during an awake neurosurgical procedure. We found that we could reversibly re-induce the same defects of writing by stimulating during surgery a limited area of the superior parietal gyrus in the same patient and in an independent patient that was never agraphic before the operation. In those patients stimulation caused spelling errors, poorly formed letters and in some cases a complete cessation of writing with minimal or no effects on oral spelling. Our results suggest that stimulating a specific area in the superior parietal gyrus we can generate different patterns of agraphia. Moreover, our findings also suggest that some of the central processes specific for typing and handwriting converge with motor processes at least in the limited portion of the superior parietal gyrus we mapped in our patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Successive subcortical hemorrhages in the superior parietal lobule and postcentral gyrus in a 23-year-old female].

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    Sato, K; Yoshikawa, H; Komai, K; Takamori, M

    1998-04-01

    We report a non-hypertensive 23-year-old female with successive hemorrhages in parietal subcortical regions. She had first experienced a transient pain in the left upper extremity one month before admission. She noticed dysesthesia in the same limb and weakness on her left hand, and, five days after, visited our hospital because of suddenly developed convulsion in the limb and loss of consciousness for a few minutes. Neurological examination revealed distal dominant flaccid paresis, positive pathological reflex and touch and position sense disturbances in the affected limb. Brain CT detected two high-density areas in the parietal lobe. Brain MRI demonstrated an acute phase subcortical hematoma in the left postcentral gyrus and a subacute phase one in the left superior parietal lobule. SPECT indicated hypoperfusion in the left frontal and parietal cortex. Cerebral angiography showed no abnormal findings. Her symptoms gradually improved, but left ulnar-type pseudoradicular sensory impairment remained on discharge. We considered the hemorrhage in this patient have arisen from rupture of cavernous hemangioma, because she was relatively young, the hematomas were oval in shape and successively developed in the left parietal lobe. Our patient suggests that a subcortical hemorrhage in the post-central gyrus causes flaccid paresis and pyramidal tract involvement.

  3. Time course of the involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum in emotional prosody perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolijn Hoekert

    Full Text Available In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional prosody perception. Here, we used triple-pulse repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to shed light on the precise time course of involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum. We hypothesized that information would be processed in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus before being processed in the right fronto-parietal operculum. Right-handed healthy subjects performed an emotional prosody task. During listening to each sentence a triplet of TMS pulses was applied to one of the regions at one of six time points (400-1900 ms. Results showed a significant main effect of Time for right anterior superior temporal gyrus and right fronto-parietal operculum. The largest interference was observed half-way through the sentence. This effect was stronger for withdrawal emotions than for the approach emotion. A further experiment with the inclusion of an active control condition, TMS over the EEG site POz (midline parietal-occipital junction, revealed stronger effects at the fronto-parietal operculum and anterior superior temporal gyrus relative to the active control condition. No evidence was found for sequential processing of emotional prosodic information from right anterior superior temporal gyrus to the right fronto-parietal operculum, but the results revealed more parallel processing. Our results suggest that both right fronto-parietal operculum and right anterior superior temporal gyrus are critical for emotional prosody perception at a relatively late time period after sentence onset. This may reflect that emotional cues can still be ambiguous at the beginning of sentences, but become

  4. Time course of the involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum in emotional prosody perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekert, Marjolijn; Bais, Leonie; Kahn, René S; Aleman, André

    2008-05-21

    In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody) conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional prosody perception. Here, we used triple-pulse repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to shed light on the precise time course of involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum. We hypothesized that information would be processed in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus before being processed in the right fronto-parietal operculum. Right-handed healthy subjects performed an emotional prosody task. During listening to each sentence a triplet of TMS pulses was applied to one of the regions at one of six time points (400-1900 ms). Results showed a significant main effect of Time for right anterior superior temporal gyrus and right fronto-parietal operculum. The largest interference was observed half-way through the sentence. This effect was stronger for withdrawal emotions than for the approach emotion. A further experiment with the inclusion of an active control condition, TMS over the EEG site POz (midline parietal-occipital junction), revealed stronger effects at the fronto-parietal operculum and anterior superior temporal gyrus relative to the active control condition. No evidence was found for sequential processing of emotional prosodic information from right anterior superior temporal gyrus to the right fronto-parietal operculum, but the results revealed more parallel processing. Our results suggest that both right fronto-parietal operculum and right anterior superior temporal gyrus are critical for emotional prosody perception at a relatively late time period after sentence onset. This may reflect that emotional cues can still be ambiguous at the beginning of sentences, but become more apparent half

  5. Human middle longitudinal fascicle: segregation and behavioral-clinical implications of two distinct fiber connections linking temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus with the angular gyrus or superior parietal lobule using multi-tensor tractography.

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    Makris, N; Preti, M G; Wassermann, D; Rathi, Y; Papadimitriou, G M; Yergatian, C; Dickerson, B C; Shenton, M E; Kubicki, M

    2013-09-01

    The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a major fiber connection running principally between the superior temporal gyrus and the parietal lobe, neocortical regions of great biological and clinical interest. Although one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts, it has only recently been discovered in humans. In this high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delineated the two major fiber connections of the human MdLF, by examining morphology, topography, cortical connections, biophysical measures, volume and length in seventy-four brains. These two fiber connections course together through the dorsal temporal pole and the superior temporal gyrus maintaining a characteristic topographic relationship in the mediolateral and ventrodorsal dimensions. As these pathways course towards the parietal lobe, they split to form separate fiber pathways, one following a ventrolateral trajectory and connecting with the angular gyrus and the other following a dorsomedial route and connecting with the superior parietal lobule. Based on the functions of their cortical affiliations, we suggest that the superior temporal-angular connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)AG plays a role in language and attention, whereas the superior temporal-superior parietal connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)SPL is involved in visuospatial and integrative audiovisual functions. Furthermore, the MdLF may have clinical implications in neurodegenerative disorders such as primary progressive aphasia, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy, corticobulbar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease as well as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia.

  6. Evaluating the roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule in deductive reasoning: an rTMS study.

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    Tsujii, Takeo; Sakatani, Kaoru; Masuda, Sayako; Akiyama, Takekazu; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2011-09-15

    This study used off-line repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to examine the roles of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in a deductive reasoning task. Subjects performed a categorical syllogistic reasoning task involving congruent, incongruent, and abstract trials. Twenty four subjects received magnetic stimulation to the SPL region prior to the task. In the other 24 subjects, TMS was administered to the IFG region before the task. Stimulation lasted for 10min, with an inter-pulse frequency of 1Hz. We found that bilateral SPL (Brodmann area (BA) 7) stimulation disrupted performance on abstract and incongruent reasoning. Left IFG (BA 45) stimulation impaired congruent reasoning performance while paradoxically facilitating incongruent reasoning performance. This resulted in the elimination of the belief-bias. In contrast, right IFG stimulation only impaired incongruent reasoning performance, thus enhancing the belief-bias effect. These findings are largely consistent with the dual-process theory of reasoning, which proposes the existence of two different human reasoning systems: a belief-based heuristic system; and a logic-based analytic system. The present findings suggest that the left language-related IFG (BA 45) may correspond to the heuristic system, while bilateral SPL may underlie the analytic system. The right IFG may play a role in blocking the belief-based heuristic system for solving incongruent reasoning trials. This study could offer an insight about functional roles of distributed brain systems in human deductive reasoning by utilizing the rTMS approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy via trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach.

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    Mathon, Bertrand; Clemenceau, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. The rationale of the selective amygdalohippocampectomy is to spare cerebral tissue not included in the seizure generator. Describe the selective amygdalohippocampectomy through the trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy is performed when the data (semiology, neuroimaging, electroencephalography) point to the mesial temporal structures. The trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach is a minimally invasive and safe technique that allows disconnection of the temporal stem and resection of temporomesial structures.

  8. Specific marker of feigned memory impairment: The activation of left superior frontal gyrus.

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    Chen, Zi-Xiang; Xue, Li; Liang, Chun-Yu; Wang, Li-Li; Mei, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Hu

    2015-11-01

    Faking memory impairment means normal people complain lots of memory problems without organic damage in forensic assessments. Using alternative forced-choice paradigm, containing digital or autobiographical information, previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that faking memory impairment could cause the activation in the prefrontal and parietal regions, and might involve a fronto-parietal-subcortical circuit. However, it is still unclear whether different memory types have influence on faking or not. Since different memory types, such as long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM), were found supported by different brain areas, we hypothesized that feigned STM or LTM impairment had distinct neural activation mapping. Besides that, some common neural correlates may act as the general characteristic of feigned memory impairment. To verify this hypothesis, the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) combined with an alternative word forced-choice paradigm were used in this study. A total of 10 right-handed participants, in this study, had to perform both STW and LTM tasks respectively under answering correctly, answering randomly and feigned memory impairment conditions. Our results indicated that the activation of the left superior frontal gyrus and the left medial frontal gyrus was associated with feigned LTM impairment, whereas the left superior frontal gyrus, the left precuneus and the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were highly activated while feigning STM impairment. Furthermore, an overlapping was found in the left superior frontal gyrus, and it suggested that the activity of the left superior frontal gyrus might be acting as a specific marker of feigned memory impairment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The Neuroanatomical Basis for Posterior Superior Parietal Lobule Control Lateralization of visuospatial Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The right hemispheric dominance in visuospatial attention in human brain has been well established. Converging evidence has documented that ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC plays an important role in visuospatial attention. The role of dorsal PPC subregions, especially the superior parietal lobule (SPL in visuospatial attention is still controversial. In the current study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques to test the role of posterior SPL in visuospatial attention and to investigate the potential neuroanatomical basis for right hemisphere dominance in visuospatial function. TMS results unraveled that the right SPL predominantly mediated visuospatial attention compared to left SPL. Anatomical connections analyses between the posterior SPL and the intrahemispheric frontal subregions and the contralateral PPC revealed that right posterior SPL has stronger anatomical connections with the ipsilateral middle frontal gyrus, with the ipsilateral inferior frontal gyrus, and with contralateral PPC than that of the left posterior SPL. Furthermore, these asymmetric anatomical connections were closely related to behavioral performances. Our findings indicate that SPL plays a crucial role in regulating visuospatial attention, and dominance of visuospatial attention results from unbalanced interactions between the bilateral fronto-parietal networks and the interhemispheric parietal network.

  10. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy via trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mathon , Bertrand; Clemenceau , Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundHippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. The rationale of the selective amygdalohippocampectomy is to spare cerebral tissue not included in the seizure generator.MethodDescribe the selective amygdalohippocampectomy through the trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach.ConclusionSelective amygdalohippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy is performed when the data (semi...

  11. Subregions of the human superior frontal gyrus and their connections.

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    Li, Wei; Qin, Wen; Liu, Huaigui; Fan, Lingzhong; Wang, Jiaojian; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2013-09-01

    The superior frontal gyrus (SFG) is located at the superior part of the prefrontal cortex and is involved in a variety of functions, suggesting the existence of functional subregions. However, parcellation schemes of the human SFG and the connection patterns of each subregion remain unclear. We firstly parcellated the human SFG into the anteromedial (SFGam), dorsolateral (SFGdl), and posterior (SFGp) subregions based on diffusion tensor tractography. The SFGam was anatomically connected with the anterior and mid-cingulate cortices, which are critical nodes of the cognitive control network and the default mode network (DMN). The SFGdl was connected with the middle and inferior frontal gyri, which are involved in the cognitive execution network. The SFGp was connected with the precentral gyrus, caudate, thalamus, and frontal operculum, which are nodes of the motor control network. Resting-state functional connectivity analysis further revealed that the SFGam was mainly correlated with the cognitive control network and the DMN; the SFGdl was correlated with the cognitive execution network and the DMN; and the SFGp was correlated with the sensorimotor-related brain regions. The SFGam and SFGdl were further parcellated into three and two subclusters that are well corresponding to Brodmann areas. These findings suggest that the human SFG consists of multiple dissociable subregions that have distinct connection patterns and that these subregions are involved in different functional networks and serve different functions. These results may improve our understanding on the functional complexity of the SFG and provide us an approach to investigate the SFG at the subregional level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An MRI Study of Superior Temporal Gyrus Volume in Women With Schizotypal Personality Disorder

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    Dickey, Chandlee C.; McCarley, Robert William; Voglmaier, Martina M.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Seidman, Larry Joel; Demeo, Susan; Frumin, Melissa; Shenton, Martha Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Objective: An abnormal superior temporal gyrus has figured prominently in schizophrenia research, and left superior temporal gyrus volume has been shown to be smaller in male subjects with schizotypal personality disorder. This is the first structural magnetic resonance imaging study to examine a group of female subjects with schizotypal personality disorder. Method: The superior temporal gyrus was drawn on coronal images acquired from female subjects recruited from the community (schizotypal...

  13. Smaller superior temporal gyrus volume specificity in schizotypal personality disorder

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    Goldstein, Kim E.; Hazlett, Erin A.; New, Antonia S.; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Newmark, Randall E.; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Passarelli, Vincent; Weinstein, Shauna R.; Canfield, Emily L.; Meyerson, David A.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.; Siever, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22) volume is reduced in schizophrenia and to a milder degree in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), representing a less severe disorder in the schizophrenia-spectrum. SPD and Borderline personality disorder (BPD) are severe personality disorders characterized by social and cognitive dysfunction. However, while SPD is characterized by social withdrawal/anhedonia, BPD is marked by hyper-reactivity to interpersonal stimuli and hyper-emotionality. This is the first morphometric study to directly compare SPD and BPD patients in temporal volume. Methods We compared three age-gender- and education-matched groups: 27 unmedicated SPD individuals with no BPD traits, 52 unmedicated BPD individuals with no SPD traits, and 45 healthy controls. We examined gray matter volume of frontal and temporal lobe Brodmann areas (BAs), and dorsal/ventral amygdala from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Results In the STG, an auditory association area reported to be dysfunctional in SPD and BPD, the SPD patients had significantly smaller volume than healthy controls and BPD patients. No group differences were found between BPD patients and controls. Smaller BA22 volume was associated with greater symptom severity in SPD patients. Reduced STG volume may be an important endophenotype for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. SPD is distinct from BPD in terms of STG volume abnormalities which may reflect different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and could help discriminate between them. PMID:19473820

  14. Superior temporal gyrus thickness correlates with cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis.

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    Achiron, Asaf; Chapman, Joab; Tal, Sigal; Bercovich, Eran; Gil, Hararai; Achiron, Anat

    2013-07-01

    Decreased cortical thickness that signifies gray matter pathology and its impact on cognitive performance is a research field with growing interest in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and needs to be further elucidated. Using high-field 3.0 T MRI, three-dimensional T1-FSPGR (voxel size 1 × 1 × 1 mm) cortical thickness was measured in 82 regions in the left hemisphere (LH) and right hemisphere (RH) in 20 RRMS patients with low disease activity and in 20 age-matched healthy subjects that in parallel underwent comprehensive cognitive evaluation. The correlation between local cortical atrophy and cognitive performance was examined. We identified seven regions with cortical tissue loss that differed between RRMS and age-matched healthy controls. These regions were mainly located in the frontal and temporal lobes, specifically within the gyrus rectus, inferior frontal sulcus, orbital gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus, with preferential left asymmetry. Increased cortical thickness was identified in two visual sensory regions, the LH inferior occipital gyrus, and the RH cuneus, implicating adaptive plasticity. Correlation analysis demonstrated that only the LH superior temporal gyrus thickness was associated with cognitive performance and its thickness correlated with motor skills (r = 0.65, p = 0.003), attention (r = 0.45, p = 0.042), and information processing speed (r = 0.50, p = 0.025). Our findings show that restricted cortical thinning occurs in RRMS patients with mild disease and that LH superior temporal gyrus atrophy is associated with cognitive dysfunction.

  15. One-way traffic: The inferior frontal gyrus controls brain activation in the middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule during divergent thinking.

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    Vartanian, Oshin; Beatty, Erin L; Smith, Ingrid; Blackler, Kristen; Lam, Quan; Forbes, Sarah

    2018-02-23

    Contrary to earlier approaches that focused on the contributions of isolated brain regions to the emergence of creativity, there is now growing consensus that creative thought emerges from the interaction of multiple brain regions, often embedded within larger brain networks. Specifically, recent evidence from studies of divergent thinking suggests that kernel ideas emerge in posterior brain regions residing within the semantic system and/or the default mode network (DMN), and that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions within the executive control network (ECN) constrain those ideas for generating outputs that meet task demands. However, despite knowing that regions within these networks exhibit interaction, to date the direction of the relationship has not been tested directly. By applying Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) to fMRI data collected during a divergent thinking task, we tested the hypothesis that the PFC exerts unidirectional control over the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), vs. the hypothesis that these two sets of regions exert bidirectional control over each other (in the form of feedback loops). The data were consistent with the former model by demonstrating that the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) exerts unidirectional control over MTG and IPL, although the evidence was somewhat stronger in the case of the MTG than the IPL. Our findings highlight potential causal pathways that could underlie the neural bases of divergent thinking. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Over-activation in bilateral superior temporal gyrus correlated with subsequent forgetting effect of Chinese words.

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    Chen, Tzu-Ching; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Tseng, Yi-Jhan; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated the subsequent memory and forgotten effects for Chinese using event-related fMRI. Sixteen normal subjects were recruited and performing incidental memory tasks where semantic decision was required during memory encoding. Consistent with previous studies, our results showed bilateral frontal regions as the main locus for the subsequent memory effect. However, contrast between miss and hit responses revealed larger activation in bilateral superior temporal gyrus. We proposed that larger activation in the superior temporal gyrus may reflect alteration of self-monitoring process which resulted in unsuccessful memory encoding for the miss items. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Progressive gray matter reduction of the superior temporal gyrus during transition to psychosis.

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    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Wood, Stephen J; Yung, Alison R; Soulsby, Bridget; McGorry, Patrick D; Suzuki, Michio; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Phillips, Lisa J; Velakoulis, Dennis; Pantelis, Christos

    2009-04-01

    Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown progressive gray matter reduction in the superior temporal gyrus during the earliest phases of schizophrenia. It is unknown whether these progressive processes predate the onset of psychosis. To examine gray matter reduction of the superior temporal gyrus over time in individuals at risk for psychosis and in patients with first-episode psychosis. Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation Clinic and Early Psychosis Preventions and Intervention Centre. Thirty-five ultrahigh-risk individuals (of whom 12 later developed psychosis [UHRP] and 23 did not [UHRNP]), 23 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP), and 22 control subjects recruited from the community. Volumes of superior temporal subregions (planum polare, Heschl gyrus, planum temporale, and rostral and caudal regions) were measured at baseline and follow-up (mean, 1.8 years) and were compared across groups. In cross-sectional comparisons, only the FEP group had significantly smaller planum temporale and caudal superior temporal gyrus than other groups at baseline, whereas male UHRP subjects also had a smaller planum temporale than controls at follow-up. In longitudinal comparison, UHRP and FEP patients showed significant gray matter reduction (approximately 2%-6% per year) in the planum polare, planum temporale, and caudal region compared with controls and/or UHRNP subjects. The FEP patients also exhibited progressive gray matter loss in the left Heschl gyrus (3.0% per year) and rostral region (3.8% per year), which were correlated with the severity of delusions at follow-up. A progressive process in the superior temporal gyrus precedes the first expression of florid psychosis. These findings have important implications for underlying neurobiologic features of emerging psychotic disorders and emphasize the importance of early intervention during or before the first episode of psychosis.

  18. Superior temporal gyrus volume reduction and P300 in schizophrenia prior to treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayasu, Akira; Hokama, Hiroto; Ogura, Chikara; Ohta, Hirokazu; Arakaki, Hajime; Asato, Naohiko; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro

    1998-01-01

    Authors measured the superior temporal gyrus volume by 3D MRI imaging for the schizophrenics and simultaneously recorded the P300 component during the auditory odd-ball exercise. Subjects were 8 cases of schizophrenics and the sex- and age-matched healthy control adults. In schizophrenics, the superior temporal gyrus volume reduction was found. When the superior temporal gyrus was divided into two parts, the anterior part containing the primary auditory area, and the posterior part containing the planum temporale and the Wernicle speech area, the volume reduction of left side in the posterior part was remarkable. There was no difference in the latent time and the P300 amplitude between schizophrenics and healthy controls, suggesting that the superior temporal gyrus abnormalities will appear prior to P300 abnormalities. We could not find any correlation between findings of MRI and P300 and psychic symptoms. We discuss the possible contribution on the elucidation of the pathogenesis of the schizophrenia by simultaneous recordings of 3D MRI imaging and the event-related potentials. (K.H.)

  19. Schizophrenia affects speech-induced functional connectivity of the superior temporal gyrus under cocktail-party listening conditions.

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    Li, Juanhua; Wu, Chao; Zheng, Yingjun; Li, Ruikeng; Li, Xuanzi; She, Shenglin; Wu, Haibo; Peng, Hongjun; Ning, Yuping; Li, Liang

    2017-09-17

    The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is involved in speech recognition against informational masking under cocktail-party-listening conditions. Compared to healthy listeners, people with schizophrenia perform worse in speech recognition under informational speech-on-speech masking conditions. It is not clear whether the schizophrenia-related vulnerability to informational masking is associated with certain changes in FC of the STG with some critical brain regions. Using sparse-sampling fMRI design, this study investigated the differences between people with schizophrenia and healthy controls in FC of the STG for target-speech listening against informational speech-on-speech masking, when a listening condition with either perceived spatial separation (PSS, with a spatial release of informational masking) or perceived spatial co-location (PSC, without the spatial release) between target speech and masking speech was introduced. The results showed that in healthy participants, but not participants with schizophrenia, the contrast of either the PSS or PSC condition against the masker-only condition induced an enhancement of functional connectivity (FC) of the STG with the left superior parietal lobule and the right precuneus. Compared to healthy participants, participants with schizophrenia showed declined FC of the STG with the bilateral precuneus, right SPL, and right supplementary motor area. Thus, FC of the STG with the parietal areas is normally involved in speech listening against informational masking under either the PSS or PSC conditions, and declined FC of the STG in people with schizophrenia with the parietal areas may be associated with the increased vulnerability to informational masking. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anhedonia correlates with abnormal functional connectivity of the superior temporal gyrus and the caudate nucleus in patients with first-episode drug-naive major depressive disorder.

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    Yang, Xin-Hua; Tian, Kai; Wang, Dong-Fang; Wang, Yi; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-Rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-08-15

    Recent empirical findings have suggested that imbalanced neural networks may underlie the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the contribution of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the caudate nucleus to its pathophysiology remains unclear. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) date were acquired from 40 patients with first-episode drug-naive MDD and 36 matched healthy controls during wakeful rest. We used whole-brain voxel-wise statistical maps to quantify within-group resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) and between-group differences of bilateral caudate and STG seeds. Compared with healthy controls, first-episode MDD patients were found to have reduced connectivity between the ventral caudate and several brain regions including the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), as well as increased connectivity with the cuneus. We also found increased connectivity between the left STG and the precuneus, the angular gyrus and the cuneus. Moreover, we found that increased anhedonia severity was correlated with the magnitude of ventral caudate functional connectivity with the cuneus and the MTG in MDD patients. Due to our small sample size, we did not correct the statistical threshold in the correlation analyses between clinical variables and connectivity abnormalities. The present study suggests that anhedonia is mainly associated with altered ventral caudate-cortical connectivity and highlights the importance of the ventral caudate in the neurobiology of MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sustained attention is associated with right superior longitudinal fasciculus and superior parietal white matter microstructure in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarborg, Brith; Skak Madsen, Kathrine; Vestergaard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sustained attention develops during childhood and has been linked to the right fronto-parietal cortices in functional imaging studies; however, less is known about its relation to white matter (WM) characteristics. Here we investigated whether the microstructure of the WM underlying and connecting...... the right fronto-parietal cortices was associated with sustained attention performance in a group of 76 typically developing children aged 7-13 years. Sustained attention was assessed using a rapid visual information processing paradigm. The two behavioral measures of interest were the sensitivity index d......' and the coefficient of variation in reaction times (RT(CV) ). Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was extracted from the WM underlying right dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and parietal cortex (PC), and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), as well as equivalent...

  2. Functions of the left superior frontal gyrus in humans: a lesion study.

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    du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle; Seassau, Magali; Duffau, Hughes; Kinkingnehun, Serge; Samson, Yves; Zhang, Sandy; Dubois, Bruno

    2006-12-01

    The superior frontal gyrus (SFG) is thought to contribute to higher cognitive functions and particularly to working memory (WM), although the nature of its involvement remains a matter of debate. To resolve this issue, methodological tools such as lesion studies are needed to complement the functional imaging approach. We have conducted the first lesion study to investigate the role of the SFG in WM and address the following questions: do lesions of the SFG impair WM and, if so, what is the nature of the WM impairment? To answer these questions, we compared the performance of eight patients with a left prefrontal lesion restricted to the SFG with that of a group of 11 healthy control subjects and two groups of patients with focal brain lesions [prefrontal lesions sparing the SFG (n = 5) and right parietal lesions (n = 4)] in a series of WM tasks. The WM tasks (derived from the classical n-back paradigm) allowed us to study the impact of the SFG lesions on domain (verbal, spatial, face) and complexity (1-, 2- and 3-back) processing within WM. As expected, patients with a left SFG lesion exhibited a WM deficit when compared with all control groups, and the impairment increased with the complexity of the tasks. This complexity effect was significantly more marked for the spatial domain. Voxel-to-voxel mapping of each subject's performance showed that the lateral and posterior portion of the SFG (mostly Brodmann area 8, rostral to the frontal eye field) was the subregion that contributed the most to the WM impairment. These data led us to conclude that (i) the lateral and posterior portion of the left SFG is a key component of the neural network of WM; (ii) the participation of this region in WM is triggered by the highest level of executive processing; (iii) the left SFG is also involved in spatially oriented processing. Our findings support a hybrid model of the anatomical and functional organization of the lateral SFG for WM, according to which this region is

  3. Effective connectivity between superior temporal gyrus and Heschl's gyrus during white noise listening: linear versus non-linear models.

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    Hamid, Ka; Yusoff, An; Rahman, Mza; Mohamad, M; Hamid, Aia

    2012-04-01

    This fMRI study is about modelling the effective connectivity between Heschl's gyrus (HG) and the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in human primary auditory cortices. MATERIALS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; Ten healthy male participants were required to listen to white noise stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to generate individual and group brain activation maps. For input region determination, two intrinsic connectivity models comprising bilateral HG and STG were constructed using dynamic causal modelling (DCM). The models were estimated and inferred using DCM while Bayesian Model Selection (BMS) for group studies was used for model comparison and selection. Based on the winning model, six linear and six non-linear causal models were derived and were again estimated, inferred, and compared to obtain a model that best represents the effective connectivity between HG and the STG, balancing accuracy and complexity. Group results indicated significant asymmetrical activation (p(uncorr) Model comparison results showed strong evidence of STG as the input centre. The winning model is preferred by 6 out of 10 participants. The results were supported by BMS results for group studies with the expected posterior probability, r = 0.7830 and exceedance probability, ϕ = 0.9823. One-sample t-tests performed on connection values obtained from the winning model indicated that the valid connections for the winning model are the unidirectional parallel connections from STG to bilateral HG (p model comparison between linear and non-linear models using BMS prefers non-linear connection (r = 0.9160, ϕ = 1.000) from which the connectivity between STG and the ipsi- and contralateral HG is gated by the activity in STG itself. We are able to demonstrate that the effective connectivity between HG and STG while listening to white noise for the respective participants can be explained by a non-linear dynamic causal model with

  4. Enlarged right superior temporal gyrus in children and adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Roger J; Minshew, Nancy J; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Vitale, Matthew P; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2010-11-11

    The superior temporal gyrus has been implicated in language processing and social perception. Therefore, anatomical abnormalities of this structure may underlie some of the deficits observed in autism, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication. In this study, volumes of the left and right superior temporal gyri were measured using magnetic resonance imaging obtained from 18 boys with high-functioning autism (mean age=13.5±3.4years; full-scale IQ=103.6±13.4) and 19 healthy controls (mean age=13.7±3.0years; full-scale IQ=103.9±10.5), group-matched on age, gender, and handedness. When compared to the control group, right superior temporal gyral volumes was significantly increased in the autism group after controlling for age and total brain volume. There was no significant difference in the volume of the left superior temporal gyrus. Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant increase of the right posterior superior temporal gyral volume in the autism group, before and after controlling for age and total brain volume. Examination of the symmetry index for the superior temporal gyral volumes did not yield statistically significant between-group differences. Findings from this preliminary investigation suggest the existence of volumetric alterations in the right superior temporal gyrus in children and adolescents with autism, providing support for a neuroanatomical basis of the social perceptual deficits characterizing this severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Surgical treatment of gliomas involving the supplementary motor area in the superior frontal gyrus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Lai, Jian-jun; Qu, Yuan-ming

    2004-07-07

    To explore surgical treatment of gliomas involving the supplementary motor area (SMA) in the superior frontal gyrus. Clinical data and follow-up outcome of 16 patients with low graded astrocytomas involving the supplementary motor area were analyzed. SMA syndrome was developed in 6 patients in whom the posterior tumor resection line was at a distance of more than 1 cm from the precentral sulcus and resolved after 12 months. Hemiplegia occurred however in 8 patients in whom the resection line was less than 1 cm to precentral sulcus and only resolved in 3 patients during follow period 12 months. When the resection is performed at a distance of less than 1 cm from the precentral sulcus, surgery for gliomas of involving the supplementary motor area in the superior frontal gyrus may be result in permanent morbidity.

  6. Bereitschaftspotentials recorded from the lateral part of the superior frontal gyrus in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shinji; Ikeda, Akio; Matsuhashi, Masao; Satow, Takeshi; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Baba, Koichi; Mihara, Tadahiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    2006-05-15

    To demonstrate the Bereitschaftspotentials (BPs) over the high lateral convexity in the superior frontal gyrus, movement-related cortical potentials with respect to the middle finger extension were recorded in seven patients with refractory epilepsy who underwent subdural implantation of platinum electrode grids and/or strips covering the high lateral frontal convexity. In two out of the seven patients, BPs were recorded from the electrodes placed on the superior frontal gyrus in the vicinity of the border between the medial and lateral frontal lobes, which were distinct from those recorded from the primary sensorimotor cortex. The results suggest the possible contribution of either the lateral dorsal non-primary motor area or the SMA to the generation of the BPs.

  7. Surgical resection of grade II astrocytomas in the superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraud, Aurelia; Meschede, Magnus; Eisner, Wilhelm; Ilmberger, Josef; Reulen, Hans-Jürgen

    2002-05-01

    Surgery in the superior frontal gyrus partially involving the supplementary motor area (SMA) may be followed by contralateral transient weakness and aphasia initially indistinguishable from damage to the primary motor cortex. However, recovery is different, and SMA deficits may resolve completely within days to weeks. No study has assessed the distinct postoperative deficits after tumor resection in the SMA on a homogeneous patient group. Twenty-four patients with World Health Organization Grade II astrocytomas in the superior frontal gyrus consecutively treated by surgery were studied. Degree and duration of postoperative deficits were evaluated according to tumor location and boundaries via magnetic resonance imaging scans, intraoperative neuromonitoring results, and extent of tumor resection. Postoperatively, motor deficits were evident in 21 of 24 and speech deficits in 9 of 12 patients. Motor function quickly recovered in 11 and speech function in 3 patients. None of the 12 patients in whom the posterior tumor resection line was at a distance of more than 0.5 cm from the precentral sulcus experienced persistent motor deficits. Eight of these patients developed typical SMA syndrome with transient initiation difficulties. Seven of 12 patients in whom the tumor extended to the precentral sulcus still had motor deficits at the 12-month follow-up assessment. Surgery for Grade II gliomas in the superior frontal gyrus is more likely to result in permanent morbidity when the resection is performed at a distance of less than 0.5 cm from the precentral gyrus or positive stimulation points. Therefore, cortical mapping of motor and speech function, in critical cases under local anesthesia with the patient as his or her own monitor, is recommended; resection should be tailored to obtain good functional outcome and maintain quality of life.

  8. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline "look" condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, "regulating regions") were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, "regulated regions") were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react.

  9. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eGrecucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation strategies on both individual and social decision making, however the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer’s intentions as more negative, down-regulation (reappraising the proposer’s intentions as less negative, as well as a baseline ‘look’ condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, regulating regions were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, regulated regions were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners’ behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal emotion regulation strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others’ intentions may affect the way we emotionally react.

  10. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline “look” condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, “regulating regions”) were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, “regulated regions”) were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react. PMID:24027512

  11. Visual processing of multiple elements in the dyslexic brain: evidence for a superior parietal dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Anne Lobier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The visual attention (VA span deficit hypothesis of developmental dyslexia posits that impaired multiple element processing can be responsible for poor reading outcomes. In VA span impaired dyslexic children, poor performance on letter report tasks is associated with reduced parietal activations for multiple letter processing. While this hints towards a non-specific, attention-based dysfunction, it is still unclear whether reduced parietal activity generalizes to other types of stimuli. Furthermore, putative links between reduced parietal activity and reduced ventral occipito-temporal (vOT in dyslexia have yet to be explored. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in 12 VA span impaired dyslexic adults and 12 adult skilled readers while they carried out a categorization task on single or multiple alphanumeric or non-alphanumeric characters. While healthy readers activated parietal areas more strongly for multiple than single element processing (right-sided for alphanumeric and bilateral for non-alphanumeric, similar stronger multiple element right parietal activations were absent for dyslexic participants. Contrasts between skilled and dyslexic readers revealed significantly reduced right superior parietal lobule (SPL activity for dyslexic readers regardless of stimuli type. Using a priori anatomically defined ROI, we showed that neural activity was reduced for dyslexic participants in both SPL and vOT bilaterally. Finally, we used multiple regressions to test whether SPL activity could predict vOT activity in each group. In the left hemisphere, SPL activity modulated vOT activity for both normal and dyslexic readers. In contrast, in the right hemisphere, SPL activity modulated vOT activity only for dyslexic readers. These results bring critical support to the visual attention interpretation of the VA Span deficit. In addition, they offer a new insight on how deficits in automatic vOT based word recognition could arise in developmental dyslexia.

  12. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia: The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Marie-José; van der Meer, Lisette; Bruggeman, Richard; Modinos, Gemma; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2014-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia (SZ) have been proposed to result from abnormal local, interregional and interhemispheric integration of brain signals in regions involved in language production and perception. This abnormal functional integration may find its base in morphological abnormalities. Structurally, AVHs have been frequently linked to abnormal morphology of the superior temporal gyrus (STG), but only a few studies investigated the relation of hallucination presence with both whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) morphometry. Using a unified voxel-based morphometry-DARTEL approach, we investigated correlates of AVH presence in 51 schizophrenia patients (20 non-hallucinating [SZ -], 31 hallucinating [SZ +]), and included 51 age and sex matched healthy participants. Effects are reported at p frontal and right parahippocampal gyrus, and higher WM volume of the left postcentral and superior parietal lobule than controls. Finally, volume of the putamen was lower in SZ + compared to SZ -. No effects on corpus callosum morphometry were observed. Delusion severity, general positive and negative symptomatology illness duration, and medication status could not explain the results. Results suggest that STG GM abnormalities underlie the general susceptibility to experience psychotic symptoms and that additional abnormalities in a network of medial temporal, ventrolateral, putaminal, and parietal regions related to verbal memory and speech production may specifically increase the likelihood of experiencing AVH. Future studies should clarify the meaning of morphometry abnormalities for functional interregional communication.

  13. Characteristics of neuronal lipofuscin in the superior temporal gyrus in Alzheimer's disease do not differ from non-diseased controls: a comparison with disease-related changes in the superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Christopher Q; Dowson, Jonathan H; Harrington, Charles; Cairns, Mary R; Wilton-Cox, Helen

    2005-05-01

    Neuronal lipofuscin characteristics in the superior temporal gyrus from 21 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and from 18 age-matched non-diseased subjects were compared with previously reported findings from the superior frontal gyrus. A discriminant function analysis of lipofuscin characteristics in the superior temporal gyrus did not provide a significant predictive level for cases whose diagnoses were correctly classified (56.4%, P=0.63). In contrast, AD-related decrease in the number of smaller lipofuscin regions in the neurons of the frontal gyrus was confirmed, and the same analysis of lipofuscin characteristics in this region gave a significant predictive level for membership of the AD group of 86.6% (P<0.001). The findings indicate that changes in neuronal lipofuscin related to AD, which may reflect an increased rate of lipofuscin formation, show differences between neocortical regions. This study provides additional information on the distribution of neuropathological characteristics in AD.

  14. Speech-specific tuning of neurons in human superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alexander M; Dykstra, Andrew R; Jayaram, Vinay; Leonard, Matthew K; Travis, Katherine E; Gygi, Brian; Baker, Janet M; Eskandar, Emad; Hochberg, Leigh R; Halgren, Eric; Cash, Sydney S

    2014-10-01

    How the brain extracts words from auditory signals is an unanswered question. We recorded approximately 150 single and multi-units from the left anterior superior temporal gyrus of a patient during multiple auditory experiments. Against low background activity, 45% of units robustly fired to particular spoken words with little or no response to pure tones, noise-vocoded speech, or environmental sounds. Many units were tuned to complex but specific sets of phonemes, which were influenced by local context but invariant to speaker, and suppressed during self-produced speech. The firing of several units to specific visual letters was correlated with their response to the corresponding auditory phonemes, providing the first direct neural evidence for phonological recoding during reading. Maximal decoding of individual phonemes and words identities was attained using firing rates from approximately 5 neurons within 200 ms after word onset. Thus, neurons in human superior temporal gyrus use sparse spatially organized population encoding of complex acoustic-phonetic features to help recognize auditory and visual words. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Differential contributions of the superior and inferior parietal cortex to feedback versus feedforward control of tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuga, Kristen L; Frey, Scott H

    2014-05-15

    Damage to the superior and/or inferior parietal lobules (SPL, IPL) (Sirigu et al., 1996) or cerebellum (Grealy and Lee, 2011) can selectively disrupt motor imagery, motivating the hypothesis that these regions participate in predictive (i.e., feedforward) control. If so, then the SPL, IPL, and cerebellum should show greater activity as the demands on feedforward control increase from visually-guided execution (closed-loop) to execution without visual feedback (open-loop) to motor imagery. Using fMRI and a Fitts' reciprocal aiming task with tools directed at targets in far space, we found that the SPL and cerebellum exhibited greater activity during closed-loop control. Conversely, open-loop and imagery conditions were associated with increased activity within the IPL and prefrontal areas. These results are consistent with a superior-to-inferior gradient in the representation of feedback-to-feedforward control within the posterior parietal cortex. Additionally, the anterior SPL displayed greater activity when aiming movements were performed with a stick vs. laser pointer. This may suggest that it is involved in the remapping of far into near (reachable) space (Maravita and Iriki, 2004), or in distalization of the end-effector from hand to stick (Arbib et al., 2009). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural alterations of the superior temporal gyrus in schizophrenia: Detailed subregional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, K; Matsuda, Y; Shimada, T; Yasuyama, T; Oshima, K; Sawai, K; Kihara, H; Nitta, Y; Okubo, H; Uehara, T; Kawasaki, Y

    2016-05-01

    Reduced gray matter volumes in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Such volumetric abnormalities might denote alterations in cortical thickness, surface area, local gyrification or all of these factors. The STG can be anatomically divided into five subregions using automatic parcellation in FreeSurfer: lateral aspect of the STG, anterior transverse temporal gyrus of Heschl gyrus (HG), planum polare (PP) of the STG, planum temporale (PT) of the STG and transverse temporal sulcus. We acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 3T scans from 40 age- and sex-matched patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy subjects, and the scans were automatically processed using FreeSurfer. General linear models were used to assess group differences in regional volumes and detailed thickness, surface area and local gyrification. As expected, patients with schizophrenia had significantly smaller bilateral STG volumes than healthy subjects. Of the five subregions in the STG, patients with schizophrenia showed significantly and marginally reduced volumes in the lateral aspect of the STG and PT of the STG bilaterally compared with healthy subjects. The volumetric alteration in bilateral lateral STG was derived from both the cortical thickness and surface area but not local gyrification. There was no significant laterality of the alteration in the lateral STG between patients and controls and no correlation among the structures and clinical characteristics. These findings suggest that of five anatomical subregions in the STG, the lateral STG is one of the most meaningful regions for brain pathophysiology in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform–amygdalar effective connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H.; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-01-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform–amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. PMID:24298171

  18. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform-amygdalar effective connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrs, Corinna; Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-11-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform-amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The superior precentral gyrus of the insula does not appear to be functionally specialized for articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Fillmore, Paul; Smith, Kimberly; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fridriksson, Julius

    2015-04-01

    Broca (Broca P. Bull Soc Anat Paris 36: 330-357, 1861) influentially argued that posterior left inferior frontal gyrus supports speech articulation. According to an alternative proposal (e.g., Dronkers NF. Nature 384: 159-161, 1996; Wise RJ, Greene J, Buchel C, Scott SK. Lancet 353: 1057-1061, 1999; Baldo JV, Wilkins DP, Ogar J, Willock S, Dronkers NF. Cortex 47: 800-807, 2011), a region in the anterior insula [specifically, the superior precentral gyrus of the insula (SPGI)] is the seat of articulatory abilities. Moreover, Dronkers and colleagues have argued that the SPGI is functionally specialized for (complex) speech articulation. Here, we evaluate this claim using individual-subject functional MRI (fMRI) analyses (e.g., Fedorenko E, Hsieh PJ, Nieto-Castanon A, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Kanwisher N. J Neurophysiol 104: 1177-1194, 2010). We find that the SPGI responds weakly, if at all, during articulation (parts of Broca's area respond 3-4 times more strongly) and does not show a stronger response to higher articulatory demands. This holds regardless of whether the SPGI is defined functionally (by selecting the most articulation-responsive voxels in the vicinity of the SPGI in each subject individually) or anatomically (by using masks drawn on each individual subject's anatomy). Critically, nonspeech oral movements activate the SPGI more strongly than articulation, especially under the anatomical definition of the SPGI. In line with Hillis et al. (Hillis AE, Work M, Barker PB, Jacobs MA, Breese EL, Maurer K. Brain 127: 1479-1487, 2004; also Trupe L, Varma DD, Gomez Y, Race D, Leigh R, Hillis AE, Gottesman RF. Stroke 44: 740-744, 2013), we argue that previous links between the SPGI, and perhaps anterior insula more generally, and articulation may be due to its high base rate of ischemic damage (and activation in fMRI; Yarkoni T, Poldrack RA, Nichols TE, Van Essen DC, Wager TD. Nat Methods 8: 665-670, 2011), combined with its proximity to regions that more directly

  20. Human Superior Temporal Gyrus Organization of Spectrotemporal Modulation Tuning Derived from Speech Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullett, Patrick W; Hamilton, Liberty S; Mesgarani, Nima; Schreiner, Christoph E; Chang, Edward F

    2016-02-10

    The human superior temporal gyrus (STG) is critical for speech perception, yet the organization of spectrotemporal processing of speech within the STG is not well understood. Here, to characterize the spatial organization of spectrotemporal processing of speech across human STG, we use high-density cortical surface field potential recordings while participants listened to natural continuous speech. While synthetic broad-band stimuli did not yield sustained activation of the STG, spectrotemporal receptive fields could be reconstructed from vigorous responses to speech stimuli. We find that the human STG displays a robust anterior-posterior spatial distribution of spectrotemporal tuning in which the posterior STG is tuned for temporally fast varying speech sounds that have relatively constant energy across the frequency axis (low spectral modulation) while the anterior STG is tuned for temporally slow varying speech sounds that have a high degree of spectral variation across the frequency axis (high spectral modulation). This work illustrates organization of spectrotemporal processing in the human STG, and illuminates processing of ethologically relevant speech signals in a region of the brain specialized for speech perception. Considerable evidence has implicated the human superior temporal gyrus (STG) in speech processing. However, the gross organization of spectrotemporal processing of speech within the STG is not well characterized. Here we use natural speech stimuli and advanced receptive field characterization methods to show that spectrotemporal features within speech are well organized along the posterior-to-anterior axis of the human STG. These findings demonstrate robust functional organization based on spectrotemporal modulation content, and illustrate that much of the encoded information in the STG represents the physical acoustic properties of speech stimuli. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362014-13$15.00/0.

  1. The neural basis of humour comprehension and humour appreciation: The roles of the temporoparietal junction and superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Darren W; Wallace, Marc G; Modirrousta, Mandana; Polimeni, Joseph O; McKeen, Nancy A; Reiss, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Psychological well-being and social acumen benefit from the recognition of humourous intent and its enjoyment. The enjoyment of humour requires recognition, but humour recognition is not necessarily accompanied by humour enjoyment. Humour recognition is crucial during social interactions, while the associated enjoyment is less critical. Few neuroimaging studies have explicitly differentiated between the neural foundations of humour comprehension and humour appreciation. Among such studies, design limitations have obscured the specification of neural correlates to humour comprehension or appreciation. We implemented a trichotomous response option to address these design limitations. Twenty-four participants rated 120 comics (90 unaltered with humourous intent and 30 caption-altered without humourous intent) as either funny jokes (FJ), not funny jokes but intended to be funny (NFJ), or not intended to be funny or non-jokes (NJ). We defined humour comprehension by NFJ minus NJ and humour appreciation by FJ minus NFJ. We measured localized blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) neural responses with a 3T MRI scanner. We tested for BOLD responses in humour comprehension brain regions of interest (ROIs), humour appreciation ROIs, and across the whole-brain. We found significant NFJ-NJ BOLD responses in our humour comprehension ROIs and significant FJ-NFJ BOLD responses in select humour appreciation ROIs. One key finding is that comprehension accuracy levels correlated with humour-comprehension responses in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). This finding represents a novel and precise neural linkage to humour comprehension. A second key finding is that the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) was uniquely associated with humour-appreciation. The SFG response suggests that complex cognitive processing underlies humour appreciation and that current models of humour appreciation be revised. Finally, our research design provides an operational distinction between humour

  2. Gray and white matter distribution in dyslexia: a VBM study of superior temporal gyrus asymmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Dole

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated brain morphological signatures of dyslexia by using a voxel-based asymmetry analysis. Dyslexia is a developmental disorder that affects the acquisition of reading and spelling abilities and is associated with a phonological deficit. Speech perception disabilities have been associated with this deficit, particularly when listening conditions are challenging, such as in noisy environments. These deficits are associated with known neurophysiological correlates, such as a reduction in the functional activation or a modification of functional asymmetry in the cortical regions involved in speech processing, such as the bilateral superior temporal areas. These functional deficits have been associated with macroscopic morphological abnormalities, which potentially include a reduction in gray and white matter volumes, combined with modifications of the leftward asymmetry along the perisylvian areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate gray/white matter distribution asymmetries in dyslexic adults using automated image processing derived from the voxel-based morphometry technique. Correlations with speech-in-noise perception abilities were also investigated. The results confirmed the presence of gray matter distribution abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus (STG and the superior temporal Sulcus (STS in individuals with dyslexia. Specifically, the gray matter of adults with dyslexia was symmetrically distributed over one particular region of the STS, the temporal voice area, whereas normal readers showed a clear rightward gray matter asymmetry in this area. We also identified a region in the left posterior STG in which the white matter distribution asymmetry was correlated to speech-in-noise comprehension abilities in dyslexic adults. These results provide further information concerning the morphological alterations observed in dyslexia, revealing the presence of both gray and white matter distribution

  3. Gray and white matter distribution in dyslexia: a VBM study of superior temporal gyrus asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Marjorie; Meunier, Fanny; Hoen, Michel

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated brain morphological signatures of dyslexia by using a voxel-based asymmetry analysis. Dyslexia is a developmental disorder that affects the acquisition of reading and spelling abilities and is associated with a phonological deficit. Speech perception disabilities have been associated with this deficit, particularly when listening conditions are challenging, such as in noisy environments. These deficits are associated with known neurophysiological correlates, such as a reduction in the functional activation or a modification of functional asymmetry in the cortical regions involved in speech processing, such as the bilateral superior temporal areas. These functional deficits have been associated with macroscopic morphological abnormalities, which potentially include a reduction in gray and white matter volumes, combined with modifications of the leftward asymmetry along the perisylvian areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate gray/white matter distribution asymmetries in dyslexic adults using automated image processing derived from the voxel-based morphometry technique. Correlations with speech-in-noise perception abilities were also investigated. The results confirmed the presence of gray matter distribution abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the superior temporal Sulcus (STS) in individuals with dyslexia. Specifically, the gray matter of adults with dyslexia was symmetrically distributed over one particular region of the STS, the temporal voice area, whereas normal readers showed a clear rightward gray matter asymmetry in this area. We also identified a region in the left posterior STG in which the white matter distribution asymmetry was correlated to speech-in-noise comprehension abilities in dyslexic adults. These results provide further information concerning the morphological alterations observed in dyslexia, revealing the presence of both gray and white matter distribution anomalies and the

  4. The Right Superior Frontal Gyrus and Individual Variation in Proactive Control of Impulsive Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sien; Ide, Jaime S; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan R

    2016-12-14

    A hallmark of cognitive control is the ability to rein in impulsive responses. Previously, we used a Bayesian model to describe trial-by-trial likelihood of the stop signal or p(Stop) and related regional activations to p(Stop) to response slowing in a stop signal task. Here, we characterized the regional processes of conflict anticipation in association with intersubject variation in impulse control in 114 young adults. We computed the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) and a measure of motor urgency, indexed by the reaction time (RT) difference between go and stop error trials or "GoRT - SERT," where GoRT is the go trial RT and SERT is the stop error RT. Motor urgency and SSRT were positively correlated across subjects. A linear regression identified regional activations to p(Stop), each in correlation with SSRT and motor urgency. We hypothesized that shared neural activities mediate the correlation between motor urgency and SSRT in proactive control of impulsivity. Activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG) during conflict anticipation correlated negatively with the SSRT. Activation of the right SFG also correlated negatively with GoRT - SERT. Therefore, activation of the right SFG was associated with more efficient response inhibition and less motor urgency. A mediation analysis showed that right SFG activation to conflict anticipation mediates the correlation between SSRT and motor urgency bidirectionally. The current results highlight a specific role of the right SFG in translating conflict anticipation to the control of impulsive response, which is consistent with earlier studies suggesting its function in action restraint. Individuals vary in impulse control. However, the neural bases underlying individual variation in proactive control of impulsive responses remain unknown. Here, in a large sample of young adults, we showed that activation of the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG

  5. Selective activation of the superior frontal gyrus in task-switching: an event-related fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutini, Simone; Scatturin, Pietro; Menon, Enrica; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia; Gamberini, Luciano; Zorzi, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2008-08-15

    In the task-switching paradigm, reaction time is longer and accuracy is worse in switch trials relative to repetition trials. This so-called switch cost has been ascribed to the engagement of control processes required to alternate between distinct stimulus-response mapping rules. Neuroimaging studies have reported an enhanced activation of the human lateral prefrontal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus during the task-switching paradigm. Whether neural activation in these regions is dissociable and associated with separable cognitive components of task switching has been a matter of recent debate. We used multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure brain cortical activity in a task-switching paradigm designed to avoid task differences, order predictability, and frequency effects. The results showed a generalized bilateral activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus in both switch trials and repetition trials. To isolate the activity selectively associated with the task-switch, the overall activity recorded during repetition trials was subtracted from the activity recorded during switch trials. Following subtraction, the remaining activity was entirely confined to the left portion of the superior frontal gyrus. The present results suggest that factors associated with load and maintenance of distinct stimulus-response mapping rules in working memory are likely contributors to the activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex, whereas only activity in the left superior frontal gyrus can be linked unequivocally to switching between distinct cognitive tasks.

  6. Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine eFoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The auditory cortex is well known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of 8 patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70-150 Hz frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75-200ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity towards dissonance.

  7. Prominent increased calcineurin immunoreactivity in the superior temporal gyrus in schizophrenia: A postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Akira; Kunii, Yasuto; Matsumoto, Jyunya; Hino, Mizuki; Yang, Qiaohui; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Yabe, Hirooki

    2017-01-01

    Many neuroimaging studies have demonstrated structural changes in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in patients with schizophrenia. Several postmortem studies have reported on the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, but few reports have investigated alterations in molecules in the STG. In addition, several studies have suggested that calcineurin (CaN) inadequacy may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, but no reports about CaN expression in the STG in schizophrenia have been published. We compared the density of CaN-immunoreactive (CaN-IR) neurons in the STG from 11 patients with schizophrenia with that of 11 sex- and age-matched controls. We used immunohistochemical analysis with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against human CaN. In the STG, the density of CaN-IR neurons in layers II - VI in the group with schizophrenia was significantly higher than that in the control group. Our results confirmed pathological changes in the STG in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that alterations in the CaN pathway play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prepulse Inhibition of Auditory Cortical Responses in the Caudolateral Superior Temporal Gyrus in Macaca mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuyue; Parkkonen, Lauri; Wei, Jingkuan; Dong, Jin-Run; Ma, Yuanye; Carlson, Synnöve

    2018-04-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to a decreased response to a startling stimulus when another weaker stimulus precedes it. Most PPI studies have focused on the physiological startle reflex and fewer have reported the PPI of cortical responses. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in four monkeys and investigated whether the PPI of auditory cortical responses (alpha, beta, and gamma oscillations and evoked potentials) can be demonstrated in the caudolateral belt of the superior temporal gyrus (STGcb). We also investigated whether the presence of a conspecific, which draws attention away from the auditory stimuli, affects the PPI of auditory cortical responses. The PPI paradigm consisted of Pulse-only and Prepulse + Pulse trials that were presented randomly while the monkey was alone (ALONE) and while another monkey was present in the same room (ACCOMP). The LFPs to the Pulse were significantly suppressed by the Prepulse thus, demonstrating PPI of cortical responses in the STGcb. The PPI-related inhibition of the N1 amplitude of the evoked responses and cortical oscillations to the Pulse were not affected by the presence of a conspecific. In contrast, gamma oscillations and the amplitude of the N1 response to Pulse-only were suppressed in the ACCOMP condition compared to the ALONE condition. These findings demonstrate PPI in the monkey STGcb and suggest that the PPI of auditory cortical responses in the monkey STGcb is a pre-attentive inhibitory process that is independent of attentional modulation.

  9. Genetic underpinnings of left superior temporal gyrus thickness in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthusen, Rick P F; Hass, Johanna; Walton, Esther; Turner, Jessica A; Rössner, Veit; Sponheim, Scott R; Ho, Beng-Choon; Holt, Daphne J; Gollub, Randy L; Calhoun, Vince; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2015-08-07

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous phenotypic appearance. We aimed to further the understanding of some of the underlying genetics of schizophrenia, using left superior temporal gyrus (STG) grey matter thickness reduction as an endophenoptype in a genome-wide association (GWA) study. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genetic data of the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium (MCIC) study of schizophrenia were used to analyse the interaction effects between 1,067,955 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease status on left STG thickness in 126 healthy controls and 113 patients with schizophrenia. We next used a pathway approach to detect underlying pathophysiological pathways that may be related to schizophrenia. No SNP by diagnosis interaction effect reached genome-wide significance (5 × 10 -8 ) in our GWA study, but 10 SNPs reached P-values less than 10 -6 . The most prominent pathways included those involved in insulin, calcium, PI3K-Akt and MAPK signalling. Our strongest findings in the GWA study and pathway analysis point towards an involvement of glucose metabolism in left STG thickness reduction in patients with schizophrenia only. These results are in line with recently published studies, which showed an increased prevalence of psychosis among patients with metabolic syndrome-related illnesses including diabetes.

  10. Morphometry of superior temporal gyrus and planum temporale in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnanather, J Tilak; Poynton, Clare B; Pisano, Dominic V; Crocker, Britni; Postell, Elizabeth; Cebron, Shannon; Ceyhan, Elvan; Honeycutt, Nancy A; Mahon, Pamela B; Barta, Patrick E

    2013-11-01

    Structural abnormalities in temporal lobe, including the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and planum temporale (PT), have been reported in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) patients. While most MRI studies have suggested gray matter volume and surface area reduction in temporal lobe regions, few have explored changes in laminar thickness in PT and STG in SCZ and BPD. ROI subvolumes of the STG from 94 subjects were used to yield gray matter volume, gray/white surface area and laminar thickness for STG and PT cortical regions. Morphometric analysis suggests that there may be gender and laterality effects on the size and shape of the PT in BPD (n=36) and SCZ (n=31) with reduced laterality in PT in subjects with SCZ but not in BPD. In addition, PT surface area was seen to be larger in males, and asymmetry in PT surface area was larger in BPD. Subjects with SCZ had reduced thickness and smaller asymmetry in PT volume. Thus, the PT probably plays a more sensitive role than the STG in structural abnormalities seen in SCZ. © 2013.

  11. Localization of musicogenic epilepsy to Heschl's gyrus and superior temporal plane: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yasunori; Kovach, Christopher K; Ciliberto, Michael; Joshi, Charuta; Rhone, Ariane E; Vesole, Adam; Gander, Phillip E; Nourski, Kirill V; Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Dlouhy, Brian J

    2017-09-15

    Musicogenic epilepsy (ME) is an extremely rare form of the disorder that is provoked by listening to or playing music, and it has been localized to the temporal lobe. The number of reported cases of ME in which intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) has been used for seizure focus localization is extremely small, especially with coverage of the superior temporal plane (STP) and specifically, Heschl's gyrus (HG). The authors describe the case of a 17-year-old boy with a history of medically intractable ME who underwent iEEG monitoring that involved significant frontotemporal coverage as well as coverage of the STP with an HG depth electrode anteriorly and a planum temporale depth electrode posteriorly. Five seizures occurred during the monitoring period, and a seizure onset zone was localized to HG and the STP. The patient subsequently underwent right temporal neocortical resection, involving the STP and including HG, with preservation of the mesial temporal structures. The patient remains seizure free 1 year postoperatively. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of ME in which the seizure focus has been localized to HG and the STP with iEEG monitoring. The authors review the literature on iEEG findings in ME, explain their approach to HG depth electrode placement, and discuss the utility of STP depth electrodes in temporal lobe epilepsy.

  12. Positive symptoms associate with cortical thinning in the superior temporal gyrus via the ENIGMA Schizophrenia consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, E; Hibar, D P; van Erp, T G M; Potkin, S G; Roiz-Santiañez, R; Crespo-Facorro, B; Suarez-Pinilla, P; Van Haren, N E M; de Zwarte, S M C; Kahn, R S; Cahn, W; Doan, N T; Jørgensen, K N; Gurholt, T P; Agartz, I; Andreassen, O A; Westlye, L T; Melle, I; Berg, A O; Mørch-Johnsen, L; Faerden, A; Flyckt, L; Fatouros-Bergman, H; Jönsson, E G; Hashimoto, R; Yamamori, H; Fukunaga, M; Preda, A; De Rossi, P; Piras, F; Banaj, N; Ciullo, V; Spalletta, G; Gur, R E; Gur, R C; Wolf, D H; Satterthwaite, T D; Beard, L M; Sommer, I E; Koops, S; Gruber, O; Richter, A; Krämer, B; Kelly, S; Donohoe, G; McDonald, C; Cannon, D M; Corvin, A; Gill, M; Di Giorgio, A; Bertolino, A; Lawrie, S; Nickson, T; Whalley, H C; Neilson, E; Calhoun, V D; Thompson, P M; Turner, J A; Ehrlich, S

    2017-05-01

    Based on the role of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in auditory processing, language comprehension and self-monitoring, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between STG cortical thickness and positive symptom severity in schizophrenia. This prospective meta-analysis includes data from 1987 individuals with schizophrenia collected at seventeen centres around the world that contribute to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. STG thickness measures were extracted from T1-weighted brain scans using FreeSurfer. The study performed a meta-analysis of effect sizes across sites generated by a model predicting left or right STG thickness with a positive symptom severity score (harmonized SAPS or PANSS-positive scores), while controlling for age, sex and site. Secondary models investigated relationships between antipsychotic medication, duration of illness, overall illness severity, handedness and STG thickness. Positive symptom severity was negatively related to STG thickness in both hemispheres (left: β std = -0.052; P = 0.021; right: β std = -0.073; P = 0.001) when statistically controlling for age, sex and site. This effect remained stable in models including duration of illness, antipsychotic medication or handedness. Our findings further underline the important role of the STG in hallmark symptoms in schizophrenia. These findings can assist in advancing insight into symptom-relevant pathophysiological mechanisms in schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Paradoxical vocal changes in a trained singer by focally cooling the right superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlowitz, Kalman A; Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W; Long, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    The production and perception of music is preferentially mediated by cortical areas within the right hemisphere, but little is known about how these brain regions individually contribute to this process. In an experienced singer undergoing awake craniotomy, we demonstrated that direct electrical stimulation to a portion of the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) selectively interrupted singing but not speaking. We then focally cooled this region to modulate its activity during vocalization. In contrast to similar manipulations in left hemisphere speech production regions, pSTG cooling did not elicit any changes in vocal timing or quality. However, this manipulation led to an increase in the pitch of speaking with no such change in singing. Further analysis revealed that all vocalizations exhibited a cooling-induced increase in the frequency of the first formant, raising the possibility that potential pitch offsets may have been actively avoided during singing. Our results suggest that the right pSTG plays a key role in vocal sensorimotor processing whose impact is dependent on the type of vocalization produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synaptic proteome changes in the superior frontal gyrus and occipital cortex of the alcoholic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Naomi; Lewohl, Joanne M; Mayfield, R Dayne; Harris, R Adron; Dodd, Peter R

    2009-06-24

    Cognitive deficits and behavioral changes that result from chronic alcohol abuse are a consequence of neuropathological changes which alter signal transmission through the neural network. To focus on the changes that occur at the point of connection between the neural network cells, synaptosomal preparations from post-mortem human brain of six chronic alcoholics and six non-alcoholic controls were compared using 2D-DIGE. Functionally affected and spared regions (superior frontal gyrus, SFG, and occipital cortex, OC, respectively) were analyzed from both groups to further investigate the specific pathological response that alcoholism has on the brain. Forty-nine proteins were differentially regulated between the SFG of alcoholics and the SFG of controls and 94 proteins were regulated in the OC with an overlap of 23 proteins. Additionally, the SFG was compared to the OC within each group (alcoholics or controls) to identify region specific differences. A selection were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealing proteins involved in vesicle transport, metabolism, folding and trafficking, and signal transduction, all of which have the potential to influence synaptic activity. A number of proteins identified in this study have been previously related to alcoholism; however, the focus on synaptic proteins has also uncovered novel alcoholism-affected proteins. Further exploration of these proteins will illuminate the mechanisms altering synaptic plasticity, and thus neuronal signaling and response, in the alcoholic brain.

  15. Identifying changes in the synaptic proteome of cirrhotic alcoholic superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, N; Mayfield, R D; Harris, R A; Dodd, P R

    2011-03-01

    Hepatic complications are a common side-effect of alcoholism. Without the detoxification capabilities of the liver, alcohol misuse induces changes in gene and protein expression throughout the body. A global proteomics approach was used to identify these protein changes in the brain. We utilised human autopsy tissue from the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) of six cirrhotic alcoholics, six alcoholics without comorbid disease, and six non-alcoholic non-cirrhotic controls. Synaptic proteins were isolated and used in two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. Many expression differences were confined to one or other alcoholic sub-group. Cirrhotic alcoholics showed 99 differences in protein expression levels from controls, of which half also differed from non-comorbid alcoholics. This may reflect differences in disease severity between the sub-groups of alcoholics, or differences in patterns of harmful drinking. Alternatively, the protein profiles may result from differences between cirrhotic and non-comorbid alcoholics in subjects' responses to alcohol misuse. Ten proteins were identified in at least two spots on the 2D gel; they were involved in basal energy metabolism, synaptic vesicle recycling, and chaperoning. These post-translationally modified isoforms were differentially regulated in cirrhotic alcoholics, indicating a level of epigenetic control not previously observed in this disorder.

  16. Pseudohypacusis in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased gray matter volume in the medial frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi; Kinoshita, Sumihito; Korenaga, Yuki; Mabe, Hiroyo

    2012-04-01

    Pseudohypacusis is a somatoform disorder characterized by hearing loss with discrepancies between pure-tone audiometry and auditory brainstem response (ABR), but the underlying neuronal mechanisms remain unclear. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for 14 unmedicated, right-handed patients and 35 healthy control subjects, we investigated whether functional hearing loss was associated with discernible changes of brain morphology. Group differences in gray matter volume (GMV) were assessed using high-resolution, T1-weighted, volumetric MR imaging datasets (3T Trio scanner; Siemens AG) and analyzed with covariant factors of age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and total GMV, which was increased by 27.9% in the left medial frontal gyrus (MFG) (Brodmann area 10) (p=.001, corrected cluster level) and by 14.4% in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the adjacent middle temporal gyrus (MTG) (BA42 to 21) (p=.009, corrected cluster level) in patients with pseudohypacusis. The GMV in the right STG (BA42) and verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) were correlated significantly with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Third Edition (WISC-III) (ß=-.57, p<.0001) and level of SES (ß=-.55, p<.0001). The present findings suggest that the development of the auditory association cortex involved in language processing is affected, causing insufficient pruning during brain development. We therefore assert that differences in the neuroanatomical substrate of pseudohypacusis subjects result from a developmental disorder in auditory processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  17. Impaired expression of GABA transporters in the human Alzheimer's disease hippocampus, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, Tessa E; Palpagama, Thulani H; Waldvogel, Henry J; Synek, Beth J L; Turner, Clinton; Faull, Richard L; Kwakowsky, Andrea

    2017-05-20

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and plays an important role in regulating neuronal excitability. GABA reuptake from the synapse is dependent on specific transporters - mainly GAT-1, GAT-3 and BGT-1 (GATs). This study is the first to show alterations in the expression of the GATs in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus. We found a significant increase in BGT-1 expression associated with AD in all layers of the dentate gyrus, in the stratum oriens of the CA2 and CA3 and the superior temporal gyrus. In AD there was a significant decrease in GAT-1 expression in the entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus. We also found a significant decrease in GAT-3 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 and CA3, the subiculum and entorhinal cortex. These observations indicate that the expression of the GATs shows brain-region- and layer-specific alterations in AD, suggesting a complex activation pattern of different GATs during the course of the disease. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Involuntary switching into the native language induced by electrocortical stimulation of the superior temporal gyrus: a multimodal mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Marin, Dario; Canderan, Cinzia; Maieron, Marta; Budai, Riccardo; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2014-09-01

    We describe involuntary language switching from L2 to L1 evoked by electro-stimulation in the superior temporal gyrus in a 30-year-old right-handed Serbian (L1) speaker who was also a late Italian learner (L2). The patient underwent awake brain surgery. Stimulation of other portions of the exposed cortex did not cause language switching as did not stimulation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, where we evoked a speech arrest. Stimulation effects on language switching were selective, namely, interfered with counting behaviour but not with object naming. The coordinates of the positive site were combined with functional and fibre tracking (DTI) data. Results showed that the language switching site belonged to a significant fMRI cluster in the left superior temporal gyrus/supramarginal gyrus found activated for both L1 and L2, and for both the patient and controls, and did not overlap with the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). This area, also known as Stp, has a role in phonological processing. Language switching phenomenon we observed can be partly explained by transient dysfunction of the feed-forward control mechanism hypothesized by the DIVA (Directions Into Velocities of Articulators) model (Golfinopoulos, E., Tourville, J. A., & Guenther, F. H. (2010). The integration of large-scale neural network modeling and functional brain imaging in speech motor control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of the right superior temporal gyrus in stimulus-centered spatial processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah-Basak, Priyanka P; Chen, Peii; Caulfield, Kevin; Medina, Jared; Hamilton, Roy H

    2018-05-01

    Although emerging neuropsychological evidence supports the involvement of temporal areas, and in particular the right superior temporal gyrus (STG), in allocentric neglect deficits, the role of STG in healthy spatial processing remains elusive. While several functional brain imaging studies have demonstrated involvement of the STG in tasks involving explicit stimulus-centered judgments, prior rTMS studies targeting the right STG did not find the expected neglect-like rightward bias in size judgments using the conventional landmark task. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether disruption of the right STG using inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could impact stimulus-centered, allocentric spatial processing in healthy individuals. A lateralized version of the landmark task was developed to accentuate the dissociation between viewer-centered and stimulus-centered reference frames. We predicted that inhibiting activity in the right STG would decrease accuracy because of induced rightward bias centered on the line stimulus irrespective of its viewer-centered or egocentric locations. Eleven healthy, right-handed adults underwent the lateralized landmark task. After viewing each stimulus, participants had to judge whether the line was bisected, or whether the left (left-long trials) or the right segment (right-long trials) of the line was longer. Participants repeated the task before (pre-rTMS) and after (post-rTMS) receiving 20 min of 1 Hz rTMS over the right STG, the right supramarginal gyrus (SMG), and the vertex (a control site) during three separate visits. Linear mixed models for binomial data were generated with either accuracy or judgment errors as dependent variables, to compare 1) performance across trial types (bisection, non-bisection), and 2) pre- vs. post-rTMS performance between the vertex and the STG and the vertex and the SMG. Line eccentricity (z = 4.31, p right-long type by 10.7% on bisection

  20. Left Superior Temporal Gyrus Is Coupled to Attended Speech in a Cocktail-Party Auditory Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Ghinst, Marc; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Op de Beeck, Marc; Wens, Vincent; Marty, Brice; Hassid, Sergio; Choufani, Georges; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Goldman, Serge; De Tiège, Xavier

    2016-02-03

    auditory scene and how increasing background noise corrupts this process is still debated. In this magnetoencephalography study, subjects had to attend a speech stream with or without multitalker background noise. Results argue for frequency-dependent cortical tracking mechanisms for the attended speech stream. The left superior temporal gyrus tracked the ∼0.5 Hz modulations of the attended speech stream only when the speech was embedded in multitalker background, whereas the right supratemporal auditory cortex tracked 4-8 Hz modulations during both noiseless and cocktail-party conditions. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/361597-11$15.00/0.

  1. Real-time fMRI neurofeedback to down-regulate superior temporal gyrus activity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Natasza D; Giampietro, Vincent; O'Daly, Owen; Lam, Sheut-Ling; Barker, Gareth J; Rubia, Katya; McGuire, Philip; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Allen, Paul

    2018-02-12

    Neurocognitive models and previous neuroimaging work posit that auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) arise due to increased activity in speech-sensitive regions of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG). Here, we examined if patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and AVH could be trained to down-regulate STG activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NF). We also examined the effects of rtfMRI-NF training on functional connectivity between the STG and other speech and language regions. Twelve patients with SCZ and treatment-refractory AVH were recruited to participate in the study and were trained to down-regulate STG activity using rtfMRI-NF, over four MRI scanner visits during a 2-week training period. STG activity and functional connectivity were compared pre- and post-training. Patients successfully learnt to down-regulate activity in their left STG over the rtfMRI-NF training. Post- training, patients showed increased functional connectivity between the left STG, the left inferior prefrontal gyrus (IFG) and the inferior parietal gyrus. The post-training increase in functional connectivity between the left STG and IFG was associated with a reduction in AVH symptoms over the training period. The speech-sensitive region of the left STG is a suitable target region for rtfMRI-NF in patients with SCZ and treatment-refractory AVH. Successful down-regulation of left STG activity can increase functional connectivity between speech motor and perception regions. These findings suggest that patients with AVH have the ability to alter activity and connectivity in speech and language regions, and raise the possibility that rtfMRI-NF training could present a novel therapeutic intervention in SCZ.

  2. Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Francine; King-Stephens, David; Weber, Peter; Laxer, Kenneth; Parvizi, Josef; Knight, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    The auditory cortex is well-known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of eight patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70–150 Hz) frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75 and 200 ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords, and a positive correlation between changes in γhigh power and the degree of stimulus roughness was observed in both hemispheres. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity toward dissonance. PMID:27148011

  3. Aberrant DNA methylation associated with Alzheimer's disease in the superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhan; Fu, Hong-Juan; Zhao, Li-Bo; Sun, Zhuo-Yan; Yang, Yu-Fei; Zhu, Hong-Yan

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal DNA methylation patterns have been demonstrated to be associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aimed to identify differential methylation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) of patients with late-onset AD based on epigenome-wide DNA methylation data by bioinformatics analysis. The genome-wide DNA methylation data in the STG region of 34 patients with late-onset AD and 34 controls without dementia were recruited from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Through systemic quality control, differentially methylated CpG sites were determined by the Student's t-test and mean methylation value differences between the two conditions. Hierarchical clustering analysis was applied to assess the classification performance of differentially methylated CpGs. Functional analysis was performed to investigate the biological functions of the genes associated with differentially methylated CpGs. A total of 17,895 differentially methylated CpG sites were initially identified, including 11,822 hypermethylated CpGs and 6,073 hypomethylated CpGs. Further analysis examined 2,211 differentially methylated CpGs (covering 1,991 genes). AD subjects demonstrated distinctive DNA methylation patterns when compared with the controls, with a classification accuracy value of 1. Hypermethylation was mainly detected for genes regulating the cell cycle progression, whereas hypomethylation was observed in genes involved in transcription factor binding. The present study demonstrated widespread and distinctive DNA methylation alterations in late-onset AD. Identification of AD-associated epigenetic biomarkers may allow for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

  4. Altered fucosyltransferase expression in the superior temporal gyrus of elderly patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Toni M; Yates, Stefani D; Haroutunian, Vahram; Meador-Woodruff, James H

    2017-04-01

    Glycosylation is a post-translational modification that is an essential element in cell signaling and neurodevelopmental pathway regulation. Glycan attachment can influence the tertiary structure and molecular interactions of glycosylated substrates, adding an additional layer of regulatory complexity to functional mechanisms underlying central cell biological processes. One type of enzyme-mediated glycan attachment, fucosylation, can mediate glycoprotein and glycolipid cell surface expression, trafficking, secretion, and quality control to modulate a variety of inter- and intracellular signaling cascades. Building on prior reports of glycosylation abnormalities and evidence of dysregulated glycosylation enzyme expression in schizophrenia, we examined the protein expression of 5 key fucose-modifying enzymes: GDP-fucose:protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (POFUT1), GDP-fucose:protein O-fucosyltransferase 2 (POFUT2), fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8), fucosyltransferase 11 (FUT11), and plasma α-l-fucosidase (FUCA2) in postmortem superior temporal gyrus of schizophrenia (N=16) and comparison (N=14) subjects. We also used the fucose binding protein, Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL), to assess α-1,6-fucosylated N-glycoprotein abundance in the same subjects. In schizophrenia, we found increased expression of POFUT2, a fucosyltransferase uniquely responsible for O-fucosylation of thrombospondin-like repeat domains that is involved in a non-canonical endoplasmic reticulum quality control pathway. We also found decreased expression of FUT8 in schizophrenia. Given that FUT8 is the only α-1,6-fucosyltransferase expressed in mammals, the concurrent decrease in AAL binding in schizophrenia, particularly evident for N-glycoproteins in the ~52-58kDa and ~60-70kDa molecular mass ranges, likely reflects a consequence of abnormal FUT8 expression in the disorder. Dysregulated FUT8 and POFUT2 expression could potentially explain a variety of molecular abnormalities in schizophrenia. Copyright

  5. Frontal Fibers Connecting the Superior Frontal Gyrus to Broca Area: A Corticocortical Evoked Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ookawa, Satoshi; Enatsu, Rei; Kanno, Aya; Ochi, Satoko; Akiyama, Yukinori; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Yamao, Yukihiro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Riki; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2017-11-01

    The frontal aslant tract is a deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) to Broca area. This fiber is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. The aim of this study was to electrophysiologically investigate this network using corticocortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). This study enrolled 8 patients with brain tumors or medically intractable focal epilepsies who underwent frontal craniotomy over the language-dominant side. All patients underwent CCEP recordings during tumor resection or during invasive evaluation for epilepsy surgery. Alternating 1-Hz electrical stimuli were delivered to pars opercularis (pO) and pars triangularis (pT), corresponding to Broca area, and SFG via the subdural grid electrodes with intensity of 10 mA. Electrocorticograms from SFG and pO/pT time-locked to 50 stimuli were averaged in each trial to obtain CCEP responses. In all patients, stimulation of pO/pT induced CCEP responses in SFG. CCEP responses were recorded in lateral SFG in 5 patients and in supplementary motor areas in 4 patients. Reciprocality was observed in 7 patients in the stimulation of SFG. CCEP responses were significantly faster at SFG from pO/pT than at pO/pT from SFG (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.028). The present study demonstrated a corticocortical network connecting Broca areas and SFG in a reciprocal manner. Our findings might provide new insight into language and motor integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intrasurgical mapping of complex motor function in the superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, J; Gabarrós, A; Deus, J; Juncadella, M; Acebes, J J; Torres, A; Pujol, J

    2011-04-14

    A lesion to the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) has been associated with long-lasting deficits in complex motor functions. The aim of this study was to analyze the functional role of the SFG by means of electrical cortical stimulation. Direct intraoperative electrical stimulation was used in a group of 21 subjects with lesions within or close to the SFG while they performed three motor tasks that require high skills or bimanual synergy. The results were compared to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ninety-four of the 98 (94.9%) labels identified were located on the convexity surface of the SFG and only four (4.1%) labels were located on the middle surface of the SFG. Areas of blockage of the three tasks were identified in six of the 12 (50%) hemispheres with lesions that had infiltrated the SFG, compared to all 10 of the 10 hemispheres (100%) with lesions that spared the SFG. The difference between these two proportions was statistically significant (P=0.015). fMRI activation was mainly located on the medial aspect of the SFG. We show that the convexity surface of the SFG has an important role in bilateral control of complex movements and in bimanual coordination. The infiltration of the posterior part of the SFG by a lesion disturbs some of the complex hand motor functions, which may be assumed by the contralesional homologous area. Finally, the current study emphasizes the discrepancies between fMRI and intraoperative electrical stimulation maps in complex hand motor function. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Common variants at 1p36 are associated with superior frontal gyrus volume.

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    Hashimoto, R; Ikeda, M; Yamashita, F; Ohi, K; Yamamori, H; Yasuda, Y; Fujimoto, M; Fukunaga, M; Nemoto, K; Takahashi, T; Tochigi, M; Onitsuka, T; Yamasue, H; Matsuo, K; Iidaka, T; Iwata, N; Suzuki, M; Takeda, M; Kasai, K; Ozaki, N

    2014-10-21

    The superior frontal gyrus (SFG), an area of the brain frequently found to have reduced gray matter in patients with schizophrenia, is involved in self-awareness and emotion, which are impaired in schizophrenia. However, no genome-wide association studies of SFG volume have investigated in patients with schizophrenia. To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with SFG volumes, we demonstrated a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gray matter volumes in the right or left SFG of 158 patients with schizophrenia and 378 healthy subjects. We attempted to bioinformatically ascertain the potential effects of the top hit polymorphism on the expression levels of genes at the genome-wide region. We found associations between five variants on 1p36.12 and the right SFG volume at a widely used benchmark for genome-wide significance (P5.0 × 10(-8)); however, the rs4654899 polymorphism was identified as the locus with the second strongest association with the volume of the left SFG (P=1.5 × 10(-6)). In silico analyses revealed a proxy SNP of rs4654899 had effect on gene expression of two genes, HP1BP3 lying 3' to EIF4G3 (P=7.8 × 10(-6)) and CAPN14 at 2p (P=6.3 × 10(-6)), which are expressed in moderate-to-high levels throughout the adult human SFG. These results contribute to understand genetic architecture of a brain structure possibly linked to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  8. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the superior frontal gyrus modulates craving for cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jed E; McClernon, F Joseph; Froeliger, Brett; Behm, Frédérique M; Preud'homme, Xavier; Krystal, Andrew D

    2011-10-15

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown strong correlations between cue-elicited craving for cigarettes and activation of the superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) offers a noninvasive means to reversibly affect brain cortical activity, which can be applied to testing hypotheses about the causal role of SFG in modulating craving. Fifteen volunteer smokers were recruited to investigate the effects of rTMS on subjective responses to smoking versus neutral cues and to controlled presentations of cigarette smoke. On different days, participants were exposed to three conditions: 1) high-frequency (10 Hz) rTMS directed at the SFG; 2) low-frequency (1 Hz) rTMS directed at the SFG; and 3) low-frequency (1 Hz) rTMS directed at the motor cortex (control condition). Craving ratings in response to smoking versus neutral cues were differentially affected by the 10-Hz versus 1-Hz SFG condition. Craving after smoking cue presentations was elevated in the 10-Hz SFG condition, whereas craving after neutral cue presentations was reduced. Upon smoking in the 10-Hz SFG condition, ratings of immediate craving reduction as well as the intensity of interoceptive airway sensations were also attenuated. These results support the view that the SFG plays a role in modulating craving reactivity; moreover, the results suggest that the SFG plays a role in both excitatory and inhibitory influences on craving, consistent with prior research demonstrating the role of the prefrontal cortex in the elicitation as well as inhibition of drug-seeking behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spontaneous neural activity in the right superior temporal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus is associated with insight level in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; Zhong, Mingtian; Gan, Jun; Liu, Wanting; Niu, Chaoyang; Liao, Haiyan; Zhang, Hongchun; Tan, Changlian; Yi, Jinyao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2017-01-01

    Insight into illness is an important issue for psychiatry disorder. Although the existence of a poor insight subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was recognized in the DSM-IV, and the insight level in OCD was specified further in DSM-V, the neural underpinnings of insight in OCD have been rarely explored. The present study was designed to bridge this research gap by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Spontaneous neural activity were examined in 19 OCD patients with good insight (OCD-GI), 18 OCD patients with poor insight (OCD-PI), and 25 healthy controls (HC) by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the resting state. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between regional ALFFs and insight levels among OCD patients. OCD-GI and OCD-PI demonstrated overlapping and distinct brain alterations. Notably, compared with OCD-GI, tOCD-PI had reduced ALFF in left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and right superior temporal gyrus (STG), as well as increased ALFF in right middle occipital gyrus. Further analysis revealed that ALFF values for the left MTG and right STG were correlated negatively with insight level in patients with OCD. Relatively small sample size and not all patients were un-medicated are our major limitations. Spontaneous brain activity in left MTG and right STG may be neural underpinnings of insight in OCD. Our results suggest the great role of human temporal brain regions in understanding insight, and further underscore the importance of considering insight presentation in understanding the clinical heterogeneity of OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Convergent functional architecture of the superior parietal lobule unraveled with multimodal neuroimaging approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaojian; Yang, Yong; Fan, Lingzhong; Xu, Jinping; Li, Changhai; Liu, Yong; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-01-01

    The superior parietal lobule (SPL) plays a pivotal role in many cognitive, perceptive, and motor-related processes. This implies that a mosaic of distinct functional and structural subregions may exist in this area. Recent studies have demonstrated that the ongoing spontaneous fluctuations in the brain at rest are highly structured and, like coactivation patterns, reflect the integration of cortical locations into long-distance networks. This suggests that the internal differentiation of a complex brain region may be revealed by interaction patterns that are reflected in different neuroimaging modalities. On the basis of this perspective, we aimed to identify a convergent functional organization of the SPL using multimodal neuroimaging approaches. The SPL was first parcellated based on its structural connections as well as on its resting-state connectivity and coactivation patterns. Then, post hoc functional characterizations and connectivity analyses were performed for each subregion. The three types of connectivity-based parcellations consistently identified five subregions in the SPL of each hemisphere. The two anterior subregions were found to be primarily involved in action processes and in visually guided visuomotor functions, whereas the three posterior subregions were primarily associated with visual perception, spatial cognition, reasoning, working memory, and attention. This parcellation scheme for the SPL was further supported by revealing distinct connectivity patterns for each subregion in all the used modalities. These results thus indicate a convergent functional architecture of the SPL that can be revealed based on different types of connectivity and is reflected by different functions and interactions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Gene expression signature is shared by patients with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia at the superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, Y; Katsel, P; Haroutunian, V; Domany, E

    2011-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia are two common diseases of the brain with significant differences in neuropathology, etiology and symptoms. This dissimilarity in the two diseases makes a comparison of the two ideal for detecting molecular substrates that are common to brain disorders in general. In this study, we compared gene expression profiles across multiple brain areas, taken postmortem from patients with well-characterized Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia, and from cognitively normal control group with no neuro- or psychopathology. Although the totality of gene expression changes in the two diseases is dissimilar, a subset of genes appears to play a role in both diseases in specific brain regions. We find at Brodmann area 22, the superior temporal gyrus, a statistically significant number of genes with apparently disregulated expression in both diseases. Furthermore, we found genes that differentiate the two diseases from the control across multiple brain regions, and note that these genes were usually down-regulated. Brodmann area 8, part of the superior frontal cortex, is relatively abundant with them. We show overwhelming statistical evidence for Alzheimer's and Schizophrenia sharing a specific molecular background at the superior temporal gyrus. We suggest that impairment of the regulation of autophagy pathway is shared, in BA 22, by the two diseases. © 2010 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2010 EFNS.

  12. Reduced Inhibitory Control Mediates the Relationship Between Cortical Thickness in the Right Superior Frontal Gyrus and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Luca; Mwangi, Benson; Bauer, Isabelle E; Cao, Bo; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Prossin, Alan; Soares, Jair C

    2016-08-01

    Unhealthy eating behaviors often develop in the setting of inadequate inhibitory control, a function broadly ascribed to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Regulation of inhibitory control by the PFC and its anatomical components and their contribution to increasing body mass index (BMI) are poorly understood. To study the role of PFC in the regulation of inhibitory control and body weight, we examined measures of cortical thickness in PFC sub-regions, inhibitory control (color-word interference task (CWIT)), and BMI in 91 healthy volunteers. We tested the predictive effect of PFC sub-regional cortical thickness on BMI and mediation by inhibitory control measured with CWIT. Measures of depression (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI-T) and trauma-related symptoms (TSC-40) were collected; the disinhibition scale of the three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess disinhibited eating. We then tested the relationship between BD-II, STAI-T, TSC-40, TFEQ, CWIT, and BMI with correlation analyses. Right superior frontal gyrus cortical thickness significantly predicted BMI (β=-0.91; t=-3.2; p=0.002). Mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of cortical thickness on BMI mediated by inhibitory control (95% CI=-6.1, -0.67). BMI was unrelated to BDI-II, STAI-T, TSC-40, or TFEQ scores. We found an inverse relationship between cortical thickness in the right-superior frontal gyrus and BMI, which was fully mediated by inhibitory control neurocognitive performance. Our results suggest possible targets for neuromodulation in obesity (ie superior frontal gyrus) and a quantifiable mediator of their effects (ie inhibitory control).

  13. Pure agraphia after infarction in the superior and middle portions of the left precentral gyrus: Dissociation between Kanji and Kana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Ryusaku; Tatsumi, Hiroshi; Hadano, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    The present study describes a Japanese patient with pure agraphia displaying differential disturbances in processing Kanji (morphogram) and Kana (syllabogram) letters after an infarction in the middle and superior portions of the left precentral gyrus. Kana errors reflected the patient's difficulty with retrieving both motor and visual letter images, whereas Kanji errors included partial letter stroke omissions or additions. This present case suggests that differences in writing disturbances between Kana and Kanji letters are caused by a differential dependency on letter motor images. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased cortical thickness and altered functional connectivity of the right superior temporal gyrus in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiling; Chen, Heng; Wang, Junping; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yifeng; Lu, Fengmei; Yu, Chunshui; Chen, Huafu

    2015-01-01

    Altered structure in the temporal cortex has been implicated in the variable language laterality of left-handers (LH). The neuroanatomy of language lateralization and the corresponding synchronous functional connectivity (FC) in handedness cohorts are not, however, fully understood. We used structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to investigate the effect of altered cortical thickness on FC in LH and right-handers (RH). Whole-brain cortical thickness was calculated and compared between the LH and RH. We observed increased cortical thickness in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the LH. A further FC analysis was conducted between the right STG and the remaining voxels in the brain. Compared with RH, the LH showed significantly higher FC in the left STG, right occipital cortex, and lower FC in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Our findings suggest that LH have atypical connectivity in the language network, with an enhanced role of the STG, findings which provide novel insights into the structural and functional substrates underlying the atypical language development of left-handed individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gray matter changes in right superior temporal gyrus in criminal psychopaths. Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

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    Müller, Jürgen L; Gänssbauer, Susanne; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Weber, Tatjana; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Hajak, Göran

    2008-08-30

    "Psychopathy" according to the PCL-R describes a specific subgroup of antisocial personality disorder with a high risk for criminal relapses. Lesion and imaging studies point towards frontal or temporal brain regions connected with disturbed social behavior, antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy. Morphologically, some studies described a reduced prefrontal brain volume, whereas others reported on temporal lobe atrophy. To further investigate whether participants with psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Version (PCL-R) show abnormalities in brain structure, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate region-specific changes in gray matter in 17 forensic male inpatients with high PCL-R scores (PCL-R>28) and 17 male control subjects with low PCL-R scores (PCLright superior temporal gyrus. This is the first study to show that psychopathy is associated with a decrease in gray matter in both frontal and temporal brain regions, in particular in the right superior temporal gyrus, supporting the hypothesis that a disturbed frontotemporal network is critically involved in the pathogenesis of psychopathy.

  16. Impaired cognitive control mediates the relationship between cortical thickness of the superior frontal gyrus and role functioning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Laura M; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Liyanage-Don, Nadia; Hooker, Christine I

    2014-02-01

    Structural abnormalities in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) are well-documented in schizophrenia and recent evidence suggests that these abnormalities relate to functional outcome. Cognitive control mechanisms, reliant on the LPFC, are impaired in schizophrenia and predict functional outcome, thus impaired cognitive control could mediate the relationship between neuroanatomical abnormalities in the LPFC and functional outcome. We used surface-based morphometry to investigate relationships between cortical surface characteristics, cognitive control, and measures of social and role functioning in 26 individuals with schizophrenia and 29 healthy controls. Results demonstrate that schizophrenia participants had thinner cortex in a region of the superior frontal gyrus (BA10). Across all participants, decreased cortical thickness in this region related to decreased cognitive control and decreased role functioning. Moreover, cognitive control fully mediated the relationship between cortical thickness in the superior frontal gyrus and role functioning, indicating that neuroanatomical abnormalities in the LPFC adversely impact role functioning via impaired cognitive control processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional connection between posterior superior temporal gyrus and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garell, P C; Bakken, H; Greenlee, J D W; Volkov, I; Reale, R A; Oya, H; Kawasaki, H; Howard, M A; Brugge, J F

    2013-10-01

    The connection between auditory fields of the temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex has been well characterized in nonhuman primates. Little is known of temporofrontal connectivity in humans, however, due largely to the fact that invasive experimental approaches used so successfully to trace anatomical pathways in laboratory animals cannot be used in humans. Instead, we used a functional tract-tracing method in 12 neurosurgical patients with multicontact electrode arrays chronically implanted over the left (n = 7) or right (n = 5) perisylvian temporal auditory cortex (area PLST) and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for diagnosis and treatment of medically intractable epilepsy. Area PLST was identified by the distribution of average auditory-evoked potentials obtained in response to simple and complex sounds. The same sounds evoked little if there is any activity in VLPFC. A single bipolar electrical pulse (0.2 ms, charge-balanced) applied between contacts within physiologically identified PLST resulted in polyphasic evoked potentials clustered in VLPFC, with greatest activation being in pars triangularis of the IFG. The average peak latency of the earliest negative deflection of the evoked potential on VLPFC was 13.48 ms (range: 9.0-18.5 ms), providing evidence for a rapidly conducting pathway between area PLST and VLPFC.

  18. A Double Dissociation between Anterior and Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus for Processing Audiovisual Speech Demonstrated by Electrocorticography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozker, Muge; Schepers, Inga M; Magnotti, John F; Yoshor, Daniel; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    Human speech can be comprehended using only auditory information from the talker's voice. However, comprehension is improved if the talker's face is visible, especially if the auditory information is degraded as occurs in noisy environments or with hearing loss. We explored the neural substrates of audiovisual speech perception using electrocorticography, direct recording of neural activity using electrodes implanted on the cortical surface. We observed a double dissociation in the responses to audiovisual speech with clear and noisy auditory component within the superior temporal gyrus (STG), a region long known to be important for speech perception. Anterior STG showed greater neural activity to audiovisual speech with clear auditory component, whereas posterior STG showed similar or greater neural activity to audiovisual speech in which the speech was replaced with speech-like noise. A distinct border between the two response patterns was observed, demarcated by a landmark corresponding to the posterior margin of Heschl's gyrus. To further investigate the computational roles of both regions, we considered Bayesian models of multisensory integration, which predict that combining the independent sources of information available from different modalities should reduce variability in the neural responses. We tested this prediction by measuring the variability of the neural responses to single audiovisual words. Posterior STG showed smaller variability than anterior STG during presentation of audiovisual speech with noisy auditory component. Taken together, these results suggest that posterior STG but not anterior STG is important for multisensory integration of noisy auditory and visual speech.

  19. Gray matter deficits and altered resting-state connectivity in the superior temporal gyrus among individuals with problematic hypersexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Ji-Woo; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2018-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of hypersexual disorder have been accumulating, yet alternations in brain structures and functional connectivity in individuals with problematic hypersexual behavior (PHB) has only recently been studied. This study aimed to investigate gray matter deficits and resting-state abnormalities in individuals with PHB using voxel-based morphometry and resting-state connectivity analysis. Seventeen individuals with PHB and 19 age-matched healthy controls participated in this study. Gray matter volume of the brain and resting-state connectivity were measured using 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to healthy subjects, individuals with PHB had significant reductions in gray matter volume in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right middle temporal gyrus. Individuals with PHB also exhibited a decrease in resting-state functional connectivity between the left STG and left precuneus and between the left STG and right caudate. The gray matter volume of the left STG and its resting-state functional connectivity with the right caudate both showed significant negative correlations with the severity of PHB. The findings suggest that structural deficits and resting-state functional impairments in the left STG might be linked to PHB and provide new insights into the underlying neural mechanisms of PHB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ventral simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia for unfamiliar faces due to a right posterior superior temporal sulcus and angular gyrus lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Hamada, Kensuke; Tsugawa, Naoya; Sugimoto, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with ventral simultanagnosia, prosopagnosia for "unfamiliar faces" (dorsal prosopagnosia), spatial agraphia, and constructional disorder, particularly on the left spatial side, due to a lesion in the right posterior superior and middle temporal gyri and angular gyrus. The patient showed impairment of fundamental visual and visuospatial recognition, such as in object size, configuration, and horizontal point location, which probably underlay the mechanism of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia. This case also suggests that the coexistence of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia results from a right hemispheric insult, and damage to the temporoparietal area interrupts the incorporation of spatial information into object recognition. This disconnection of information flow, together with impaired object recognition per se, may impair the parallel processing of multiple objects, leading to object-by-object or part-by-part recognition.

  1. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in the superior temporal gyrus reveals epigenetic signatures associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Corey T; Roussos, Panos; Garg, Paras; Ho, Daniel J; Azam, Nidha; Katsel, Pavel L; Haroutunian, Vahram; Sharp, Andrew J

    2016-01-19

    Alzheimer's disease affects ~13% of people in the United States 65 years and older, making it the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Recent work has identified roles for environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors in Alzheimer's disease risk. We performed a genome-wide screen of DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 platform on bulk tissue samples from the superior temporal gyrus of patients with Alzheimer's disease and non-demented controls. We paired a sliding window approach with multivariate linear regression to characterize Alzheimer's disease-associated differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We identified 479 DMRs exhibiting a strong bias for hypermethylated changes, a subset of which were independently associated with aging. DMR intervals overlapped 475 RefSeq genes enriched for gene ontology categories with relevant roles in neuron function and development, as well as cellular metabolism, and included genes reported in Alzheimer's disease genome-wide and epigenome-wide association studies. DMRs were enriched for brain-specific histone signatures and for binding motifs of transcription factors with roles in the brain and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Notably, hypermethylated DMRs preferentially overlapped poised promoter regions, marked by H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, previously shown to co-localize with aging-associated hypermethylation. Finally, the integration of DMR-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms with Alzheimer's disease genome-wide association study risk loci and brain expression quantitative trait loci highlights multiple potential DMRs of interest for further functional analysis. We have characterized changes in DNA methylation in the superior temporal gyrus of patients with Alzheimer's disease, highlighting novel loci that facilitate better characterization of pathways and mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, and improve our understanding of epigenetic signatures that may contribute to the

  2. [Neuroanatomy of the Parietal Association Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2016-11-01

    The parietal association cortex comprises the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the precuneus and the cortices in the intraparietal, parietooccipital and lunate sulci. By processing somatic, visual, acoustic and vestibular sensory information, the parietal association cortex plays a pivotal role in spatial cognition and motor control of the eyes and the extremities. Sensory information from the primary and secondary somatosensory areas enters the superior parietal lobule and is transferred to the inferior parietal lobule. Visual information is processed through the dorsal visual pathway and it reaches the inferior parietal lobule, the intraparietal sulcus and the precuneus. Acoustic information is transferred posteriorly from the primary acoustic area, and it reaches the posterior region of the inferior parietal lobule. The areas in the intraparietal sulcus project to the premotor area, the frontal eye fields, and the prefrontal area. These areas are involved in the control of ocular movements, reaching and grasping of the upper extremities, and spatial working memory. The posterior region of the inferior parietal lobule and the precuneus both project either directly, or indirectly via the posterior cingulate gyrus, to the parahippocampal and entorhinal cortices. Both these areas are strongly associated with hippocampal functions for long-term memory formation.

  3. GABAergic system impairment in the hippocampus and superior temporal gyrus of patients with paranoid schizophrenia: A post-mortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Johann; Brisch, Ralf; Schiltz, Kolja; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Mawrin, Christian; Krzyżanowska, Marta; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Braun, Katharina; Schmitt, Andrea; Bogerts, Bernhard; Gos, Tomasz

    2016-11-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a key enzyme in GABA synthesis and alterations in GABAergic neurotransmission related to glial abnormalities are thought to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study aimed to identify potential differences regarding the neuropil expression of GAD between paranoid and residual schizophrenia. GAD65/67 immunostained histological sections were evaluated by quantitative densitometric analysis of GAD-immunoreactive (ir) neuropil. Regions of interest were the hippocampal formation (CA1 field and dentate gyrus [DG]), superior temporal gyrus (STG), and laterodorsal thalamic nucleus (LD). Data from 16 post-mortem schizophrenia patient samples (10 paranoid and 6 residual schizophrenia cases) were compared with those from 16 matched controls. Overall, schizophrenia patients showed a lower GAD-ir neuropil density (P=0.014), particularly in the right CA1 (P=0.033). However, the diagnostic subgroups differed significantly (Pparanoid versus residual patients (P=0.036) and controls (Pparanoid versus residual schizophrenia cases (P=0.042). GAD-ir neuropil density correlated positively with antipsychotic dosage, particularly in CA1 (right: r=0.850, P=0.004; left: r=0.800, P=0.010). Our finding of decreased relative density of GAD-ir neuropil suggests hypofunction of the GABAergic system, particularly in hippocampal CA1 field and STG layer V of patients with paranoid schizophrenia. The finding that antipsychotic medication seems to counterbalance GABAergic hypofunction in schizophrenia patients suggests the possibility of exploring new treatment avenues which target this system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. GABAA receptor subunit expression changes in the human Alzheimer's disease hippocampus, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakowsky, Andrea; Calvo-Flores Guzmán, Beatriz; Pandya, Madhavi; Turner, Clinton; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L

    2018-02-27

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA type A receptors (GABA A Rs) are severely affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the distribution and subunit composition of GABA A Rs in the AD brain are not well understood. This is the first comprehensive study to show brain region- and cell layer-specific alterations in the expression of the GABA A R subunits α1-3, α5, β1-3 and γ2 in the human AD hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus (STG). In late-stage AD tissue samples using immunohistochemistry we found significant alteration of all investigated GABA A Rs subunits except for α3 and β1 that were well preserved. The most prominent changes include an increase in GABA A R α1 expression associated with AD in all layers of the CA3 region, in the stratum (str.) granulare and hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG). We found a significant increase in GABA A R α2 expression in the str. oriens of the CA1-3, str. radiatum of the CA2,3 and decrease in the str. pyramidale of the CA1 region in AD cases. In AD there was a significant increase in GABA A R α5 subunit expression in str. pyramidale, str. oriens of the CA1 region and decrease in the STG. We also found a significant decrease in the GABA A R β3 subunit immunoreactivity in the str. oriens of the CA2, str. granulare and str. moleculare of the DG. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the expression of the GABA A R subunits shows brain region- and layer-specific alterations in AD, and these changes could significantly influence and alter GABA A R function in the disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Association fibers connecting the Broca center and the lateral superior frontal gyrus: a microsurgical and tractographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Masashi; Shinohara, Harumichi; Hori, Osamu; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Ueda, Fumiaki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro; Hayashi, Yutaka

    2012-02-01

    Recently, intraoperative mapping has disclosed that, in addition to the classic language centers (that is, the Broca and Wernicke centers), other cortical regions may also play an important role in language organization. In the prefrontal cortex, although the lateral superior frontal gyrus (LSFG) could have language-related functions, there are no detailed reports that demonstrate the anatomical connection between the LSFG and other well-known language cortices, such as the Broca center. To show the existence of the structural connection, white matter association fibers between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the LSFG were examined using fiber dissection (FD) and diffusion tensor (DT) imaging-based tractography. Eight cadaveric cerebral hemispheres were dissected to reveal the association fibers between the IFG and LSFG. The DT imaging-based tractography studies targeting the prefrontal cortex were obtained in 53 right-handed patients who had no organic cerebral lesions. The association fiber tract between Brodmann area 44/45 (the Broca center in the dominant hemisphere) and LSFG were detected in all specimens by FD. In the DT imaging-based tractography studies, the tract was identified in all patients bilaterally, except for the 4 in whom the tract was detected only in the left hemisphere. This tract was spread significantly wider in the left than in the right hemisphere, and left lateralization was evident in male patients. Based on its character, this tract was named the Broca-LSFG pathway. These findings suggest a close relationship between this pathway and language organization. The structural anatomy of the Broca-LSFG pathway may explain speech disturbances induced by LSFG stimulation that are sometimes observed during intraoperative language mapping.

  6. Abnormal left superior temporal gyrus volumes in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua Hsua; Nicoletti, Mark A; Hatch, John P; Sassi, Roberto B; Axelson, David; Brambilla, Paolo; Monkul, E Serap; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Ryan, Neal D; Birmaher, Boris; Soares, Jair C

    2004-06-03

    Abnormalities in left superior temporal gyrus (STG) have been reported in adult bipolar patients. However, it is not known whether such abnormalities are already present early in the course of this illness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometric analysis of STG was performed in 16 DSM-IV children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (mean age+/-SD 15.5+/-3.4 years) and 21 healthy controls (mean age+/-SD 16.9+/-3.8 years). Subjects underwent a 3D spoiled gradient recalled acquisition MRI examination. Using analysis of covariance with age, gender and intra-cranial brain volume as covariates, we found significantly smaller left total STG volumes in bipolar patients (12.5+/-1.5 cm(3)) compared with healthy controls (13.6+/-2.5 cm(3)) (F=4.45, d.f.=1, 32, P=0.04). This difference was accounted for by significantly smaller left and right STG white matter volumes in bipolar patients. Decreased white matter connections may be the core of abnormalities in STG, which is an important region for speech, language and communication, and could possibly underlie neurocognitive deficits present in bipolar patients.

  7. On the same wavelength: predictable language enhances speaker-listener brain-to-brain synchrony in posterior superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikker, Suzanne; Silbert, Lauren J; Hasson, Uri; Zevin, Jason D

    2014-04-30

    Recent research has shown that the degree to which speakers and listeners exhibit similar brain activity patterns during human linguistic interaction is correlated with communicative success. Here, we used an intersubject correlation approach in fMRI to test the hypothesis that a listener's ability to predict a speaker's utterance increases such neural coupling between speakers and listeners. Nine subjects listened to recordings of a speaker describing visual scenes that varied in the degree to which they permitted specific linguistic predictions. In line with our hypothesis, the temporal profile of listeners' brain activity was significantly more synchronous with the speaker's brain activity for highly predictive contexts in left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), an area previously associated with predictive auditory language processing. In this region, predictability differentially affected the temporal profiles of brain responses in the speaker and listeners respectively, in turn affecting correlated activity between the two: whereas pSTG activation increased with predictability in the speaker, listeners' pSTG activity instead decreased for more predictable sentences. Listeners additionally showed stronger BOLD responses for predictive images before sentence onset, suggesting that highly predictable contexts lead comprehenders to preactivate predicted words.

  8. Auditory properties in the parabelt regions of the superior temporal gyrus in the awake macaque monkey: an initial survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Frey, Stephen; Ross, Deborah; Falchier, Arnaud; Hackett, Troy A; Schroeder, Charles E

    2015-03-11

    The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is on the inferior-lateral brain surface near the external ear. In macaques, 2/3 of the STG is occupied by an auditory cortical region, the "parabelt," which is part of a network of inferior temporal areas subserving communication and social cognition as well as object recognition and other functions. However, due to its location beneath the squamous temporal bone and temporalis muscle, the STG, like other inferior temporal regions, has been a challenging target for physiological studies in awake-behaving macaques. We designed a new procedure for implanting recording chambers to provide direct access to the STG, allowing us to evaluate neuronal properties and their topography across the full extent of the STG in awake-behaving macaques. Initial surveys of the STG have yielded several new findings. Unexpectedly, STG sites in monkeys that were listening passively responded to tones with magnitudes comparable to those of responses to 1/3 octave band-pass noise. Mapping results showed longer response latencies in more rostral sites and possible tonotopic patterns parallel to core and belt areas, suggesting the reversal of gradients between caudal and rostral parabelt areas. These results will help further exploration of parabelt areas. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354140-11$15.00/0.

  9. Effects of Time-Compressed Speech Training on Multiple Functional and Structural Neural Mechanisms Involving the Left Superior Temporal Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tsukasa; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Motoki, Kosuke; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Nouchi, Rui; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Sakaki, Kohei; Sasaki, Yukako; Magistro, Daniele; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2018-01-01

    Time-compressed speech is an artificial form of rapidly presented speech. Training with time-compressed speech (TCSSL) in a second language leads to adaptation toward TCSSL. Here, we newly investigated the effects of 4 weeks of training with TCSSL on diverse cognitive functions and neural systems using the fractional amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) with the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), fractional anisotropy (FA), and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) of young adults by magnetic resonance imaging. There were no significant differences in change of performance of measures of cognitive functions or second language skills after training with TCSSL compared with that of the active control group. However, compared with the active control group, training with TCSSL was associated with increased fALFF, RSFC, and FA and decreased rGMV involving areas in the left STG. These results lacked evidence of a far transfer effect of time-compressed speech training on a wide range of cognitive functions and second language skills in young adults. However, these results demonstrated effects of time-compressed speech training on gray and white matter structures as well as on resting-state intrinsic activity and connectivity involving the left STG, which plays a key role in listening comprehension.

  10. Poor receptive joint attention skills are associated with atypical gray matter asymmetry in the posterior superior temporal gyrus of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, William D; Misiura, Maria; Reamer, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    and behavioral data on receptive joint attention (RJA) was obtained from a sample of 191 chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees that performed poorly on the RJA task had less GM in the right compared to left hemisphere in the posterior but not anterior superior temporal gyrus. We further found that middle......-aged and elderly chimpanzee performed more poorly on the RJA task and had significantly less GM than young-adult and sub-adult chimpanzees. The results are consistent with previous studies implicating the posterior temporal gyrus in the processing of socially relevant information....

  11. Spontaneous Activity Associated with Delusions of Schizophrenia in the Left Medial Superior Frontal Gyrus: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Gao

    Full Text Available Delusions of schizophrenia have been found to be associated with alterations of some brain regions in structure and task-induced activation. However, the relationship between spontaneously occurring symptoms and spontaneous brain activity remains unclear. In the current study, 14 schizophrenic patients with delusions and 14 healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI scan. Patients with delusions of schizophrenia patients were rated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Characteristics of Delusional Rating Scale (CDRS. Regional homogeneity (ReHo was calculated to measure the local synchronization of the spontaneous activity in a voxel-wise way. A two-sample t-test showed that ReHo of the right anterior cingulate gyrus and left medial superior frontal gyrus were higher in patients, and ReHo of the left superior occipital gyrus was lower, compared to healthy controls. Further, among patients, correlation analysis showed a significant difference between delusion scores of CRDS and ReHo of brain regions. ReHo of the left medial superior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with patients' CDRS scores but not with delusional PANSS scores. These results suggested that altered local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity may be related to the pathophysiology of delusion in schizophrenia.

  12. Spontaneous Activity Associated with Delusions of Schizophrenia in the Left Medial Superior Frontal Gyrus: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Wang, Yiquan; Liu, Weibo; Chen, Zhiyu; Zhou, Heshan; Yang, Jinyu; Cohen, Zachary; Zhu, Yihong; Zang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Delusions of schizophrenia have been found to be associated with alterations of some brain regions in structure and task-induced activation. However, the relationship between spontaneously occurring symptoms and spontaneous brain activity remains unclear. In the current study, 14 schizophrenic patients with delusions and 14 healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) scan. Patients with delusions of schizophrenia patients were rated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Characteristics of Delusional Rating Scale (CDRS). Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was calculated to measure the local synchronization of the spontaneous activity in a voxel-wise way. A two-sample t-test showed that ReHo of the right anterior cingulate gyrus and left medial superior frontal gyrus were higher in patients, and ReHo of the left superior occipital gyrus was lower, compared to healthy controls. Further, among patients, correlation analysis showed a significant difference between delusion scores of CRDS and ReHo of brain regions. ReHo of the left medial superior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with patients' CDRS scores but not with delusional PANSS scores. These results suggested that altered local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity may be related to the pathophysiology of delusion in schizophrenia.

  13. Anatomical pathways for auditory memory II: Information from rostral superior temporal gyrus to dorsolateral temporal pole and medial temporal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eMunoz-Lopez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory recognition memory in non-human primates differs from recognition memory in other sensory systems. Monkeys learn the rule for visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample within a few sessions, and then show one-trial recognition memory lasting 10-20 minutes. In contrast, monkeys require hundreds of sessions to master the rule for auditory recognition, and then show retention lasting no longer than 30-40 seconds. Moreover, unlike the severe effects of rhinal lesions on visual memory, such lesions have no effect on the monkeys’ auditory memory performance. It is possible, therefore, that the anatomical pathways differ. Long-term visual recognition memory requires anatomical connections from the visual association area TE with areas 35 and 36 of the perirhinal cortex (PRC. We examined whether there is a similar anatomical route for auditory processing, or that poor auditory recognition memory may reflect the lack of such a pathway. Our hypothesis is that an auditory pathway for recognition memory originates in the higher order processing areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG, and then connects via the dorsolateral temporal pole to access the rhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe. To test this, we placed retrograde (3% FB and 2% DY and anterograde (10% BDA 10,000 MW tracer injections in rSTG and the dorsolateral area 38DL of the temporal pole. Results showed that area 38DL receives dense projections from auditory association areas Ts1, TAa, TPO of the rSTG, from the rostral parabelt and, to a lesser extent, from areas Ts2-3 and PGa. In turn, area 38DL projects densely to area 35 of PRC, entorhinal cortex, and to areas TH/TF of the posterior parahippocampal cortex. Significantly, this projection avoids most of area 36r/c of PRC. This anatomical arrangement may contribute to our understanding of the poor auditory memory of rhesus monkeys.

  14. DETACHING FROM THE NEGATIVE BY REAPPRAISAL: THE ROLE OF RIGHT SUPERIOR FRONTAL GYRUS (BA9/32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalux eFalquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reappraise the emotional impact of events is related to long-term mental health. Self-focused reappraisal (REAPPself, i.e., reducing the personal relevance of the negative events, has been previously associated with neural activity in regions near right medial prefrontal cortex, but rarely investigated among brain-damaged individuals. Thus, we aimed to examine the REAPPself ability of brain-damaged patients and healthy controls considering structural atrophies and grey matter intensities, respectively. Twenty patients with well-defined cortex lesions due to an acquired circumscribed tumor or cyst and 23 healthy controls performed a REAPPself task, in which they had to either observe negative stimuli or decrease emotional responding by REAPPself. Next, they rated the impact of negative arousal and valence. REAPPself ability scores were calculated by subtracting the negative picture ratings after applying REAPPself from the ratings of the observing condition. The scores of the patients were included in a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM analysis to identify deficit related areas (ROI. Then, a ROI group-wise comparison was performed. Additionally, a whole-brain voxel-based-morphometry (VBM analysis was run, in which healthy participant’s REAPPself ability scores were correlated with grey matter intensities. Results showed that 1 regions in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG, comprising the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9 and the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA32, were associated with patient’s impaired down-regulation of arousal, 2 a lesion in the depicted ROI occasioned significant REAPPself impairments, 3 REAPPself ability of controls was linked with increased grey matter intensities in the ROI regions. Our findings show for the first time that the neural integrity and the structural volume of right SFG regions (BA9/32 might be indispensable for REAPPself. Implications for neurofeedback research

  15. Anatomical pathways for auditory memory II: information from rostral superior temporal gyrus to dorsolateral temporal pole and medial temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, M; Insausti, R; Mohedano-Moriano, A; Mishkin, M; Saunders, R C

    2015-01-01

    Auditory recognition memory in non-human primates differs from recognition memory in other sensory systems. Monkeys learn the rule for visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample within a few sessions, and then show one-trial recognition memory lasting 10-20 min. In contrast, monkeys require hundreds of sessions to master the rule for auditory recognition, and then show retention lasting no longer than 30-40 s. Moreover, unlike the severe effects of rhinal lesions on visual memory, such lesions have no effect on the monkeys' auditory memory performance. The anatomical pathways for auditory memory may differ from those in vision. Long-term visual recognition memory requires anatomical connections from the visual association area TE with areas 35 and 36 of the perirhinal cortex (PRC). We examined whether there is a similar anatomical route for auditory processing, or that poor auditory recognition memory may reflect the lack of such a pathway. Our hypothesis is that an auditory pathway for recognition memory originates in the higher order processing areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG), and then connects via the dorsolateral temporal pole to access the rhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe. To test this, we placed retrograde (3% FB and 2% DY) and anterograde (10% BDA 10,000 mW) tracer injections in rSTG and the dorsolateral area 38 DL of the temporal pole. Results showed that area 38DL receives dense projections from auditory association areas Ts1, TAa, TPO of the rSTG, from the rostral parabelt and, to a lesser extent, from areas Ts2-3 and PGa. In turn, area 38DL projects densely to area 35 of PRC, entorhinal cortex (EC), and to areas TH/TF of the posterior parahippocampal cortex. Significantly, this projection avoids most of area 36r/c of PRC. This anatomical arrangement may contribute to our understanding of the poor auditory memory of rhesus monkeys.

  16. Detaching from the negative by reappraisal: the role of right superior frontal gyrus (BA9/32).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falquez, Rosalux; Couto, Blas; Ibanez, Agustin; Freitag, Martin T; Berger, Moritz; Arens, Elisabeth A; Lang, Simone; Barnow, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The ability to reappraise the emotional impact of events is related to long-term mental health. Self-focused reappraisal (REAPPself), i.e., reducing the personal relevance of the negative events, has been previously associated with neural activity in regions near right medial prefrontal cortex, but rarely investigated among brain-damaged individuals. Thus, we aimed to examine the REAPPself ability of brain-damaged patients and healthy controls considering structural atrophies and gray matter intensities, respectively. Twenty patients with well-defined cortex lesions due to an acquired circumscribed tumor or cyst and 23 healthy controls performed a REAPPself task, in which they had to either observe negative stimuli or decrease emotional responding by REAPPself. Next, they rated the impact of negative arousal and valence. REAPPself ability scores were calculated by subtracting the negative picture ratings after applying REAPPself from the ratings of the observing condition. The scores of the patients were included in a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analysis to identify deficit related areas (ROI). Then, a ROI group-wise comparison was performed. Additionally, a whole-brain voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) analysis was run, in which healthy participant's REAPPself ability scores were correlated with gray matter intensities. Results showed that (1) regions in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), comprising the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9) and the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA32), were associated with patient's impaired down-regulation of arousal, (2) a lesion in the depicted ROI occasioned significant REAPPself impairments, (3) REAPPself ability of controls was linked with increased gray matter intensities in the ROI regions. Our findings show for the first time that the neural integrity and the structural volume of right SFG regions (BA9/32) might be indispensable for REAPPself. Implications for neurofeedback research are

  17. Low-frequency rTMS in the superior parietal cortex affects the working memory in horizontal axis during the spatial task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jéssica Alves; Marinho, Francisco Victor Costa; Rocha, Kaline; Magalhães, Francisco; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Cagy, Mauricio; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Gupta, Daya; Teixeira, Silmar

    2018-03-01

    Spatial working memory has been extensively investigated with different tasks, treatments, and analysis tools. Several studies suggest that low frequency of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the parietal cortex may influence spatial working memory (SWM). However, it is not yet known if after low-frequency rTMS applied to the superior parietal cortex, according to Pz electroencephalography (EEG) electrode, would change the orientation interpretation about the vertical and horizontal axes coordinates in an SWM task. The current study aims at filling this gap and obtains a better understanding of the low-frequency rTMS effect in SWM. In this crossover study, we select 20 healthy subjects in two conditions (control and 1-Hz rTMS). The subjects performed an SWM task with two random coordinates. Our results presented that low-frequency rTMS applied over the superior parietal cortex may influence the SWM to lead to a larger distance of axes interception point (p low-frequency rTMS over the superior parietal cortex (SPC) changes the SWM performance, and it has more predominance in horizontal axis.

  18. Diminished caudate and superior temporal gyrus responses to effort-based decision making in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-hua; Huang, Jia; Lan, Yong; Zhu, Cui-ying; Liu, Xiao-qun; Wang, Ye-fei; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-01-04

    Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in reward processing, is a hallmark feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), but its underlying neurobiological mechanism is largely unknown. The present study aimed to examine the underlying neural mechanism of reward-related decision-making in patients with MDD. We examined behavioral and neural responses to rewards in patients with first-episode MDD (N=25) and healthy controls (N=25) using the Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). The task involved choices about possible rewards of varying magnitude and probability. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with MDD would exhibit a reduced neural response in reward-related brain structures involved in cost-benefit decision-making. Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD showed significantly weaker responses in the left caudate nucleus when contrasting the 'high reward'-'low reward' condition, and blunted responses in the left superior temporal gyrus and the right caudate nucleus when contrasting high and low probabilities. In addition, hard tasks chosen during high probability trials were negatively correlated with superior temporal gyrus activity in MDD patients, while the same choices were negatively correlated with caudate nucleus activity in healthy controls. These results indicate that reduced caudate nucleus and superior temporal gyrus activation may underpin abnormal cost-benefit decision-making in MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Language development at 2 years is correlated to brain microstructure in the left superior temporal gyrus at term equivalent age: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, Alec; De Tiège, Xavier; Creuzil, Marylise; David, Philippe; Balériaux, Danielle; Van Overmeire, Bart; Metens, Thierry; Van Bogaert, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    This study aims at testing the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental abilities at age 2 years are related with local brain microstructure of preterm infants at term equivalent age. Forty-one preterm infants underwent brain MRI with diffusion tensor imaging sequences to measure mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), longitudinal and transverse diffusivity (λ// and λ[perpendicular]) at term equivalent age. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 2 years corrected age using the Bayley III scale. A voxel-based analysis approach, statistical parametric mapping (SPM8), was used to correlate changes of the Bayley III scores with the regional distribution of MD, FA, λ// and λ[perpendicular]. We found that language abilities are negatively correlated to MD, λ// and λ[perpendicular] in the left superior temporal gyrus in preterm infants. These findings suggest that higher MD, λ// and λ[perpendicular] values at term-equivalent age in the left superior temporal gyrus are associated with poorer language scores in later childhood. Consequently, it highlights the key role of the left superior temporal gyrus for the development of language abilities in children. Further studies are needed to assess on an individual basis and on the long term the prognostic value of brain DTI at term equivalent age for the development of language. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormal Degree Centrality of Bilateral Putamen and Left Superior Frontal Gyrus in Schizophrenia with Auditory Hallucinations: A Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Hui-Ling; Wu, Shi-Hao; Huang, Huan; Zou, Ji-Lin; Chen, Jun; Jiang, Tian-Zi; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Gao-Hua

    2015-12-05

    Dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia has been increasingly emphasized. Recent researches showed that this dysconnectivity might be related to occurrence of auditory hallucination (AH). However, there is still no consistent conclusion. This study aimed to explore intrinsic dysconnectivity pattern of whole-brain functional networks at voxel level in schizophrenic with AH. Auditory hallucinated patients group (n = 42 APG), no hallucinated patients group (n = 42 NPG) and normal controls (n = 84 NCs) were analyzed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity metrics index (degree centrality [DC]) across the entire brain networks was calculated and evaluated among three groups. DC decreased in the bilateral putamen and increased in the left superior frontal gyrus in all the patients. However, in APG, the changes of DC were more obvious compared with NPG. Symptomology scores were negatively correlated with the DC of bilateral putamen in all patients. AH score of APG positively correlated with the DC in left superior frontal gyrus but negatively correlated with the DC in bilateral putamen. Our findings corroborated that schizophrenia was characterized by functional dysconnectivity, and the abnormal DC in bilateral putamen and left superior frontal gyrus might be crucial in the occurrence of AH.

  1. Poor Receptive Joint Attention Skills Are Associated with Atypical Grey Matter Asymmetry in the Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eHopkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental data have implicated the posterior superior temporal gyrus as an important cortical region in the processing of socially relevant stimuli such as gaze following, eye direction, and head orientation. Gaze following and responding to different socio-communicative signals is an important and highly adaptive skill in primates, including humans. Here, we examined whether individual differences in responding to socio-communicative cues was associated with variation in either grey matter volume and asymmetry in a sample of chimpanzees. MRI scans and behavioral data on receptive joint attention (RJA was obtained from a sample of 191 chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees that performed poorly on the RJA task had more rightward asymmetries in the posterior but not anterior superior temporal gyrus. We further found that middle-aged and elderly chimpanzee performed more poorly on the RJA task and had significantly less grey matter than young-adult and sub-adult chimpanzees. The results are consistent with previous studies implicating the posterior temporal gyrus in the processing of socially relevant information.

  2. Poor receptive joint attention skills are associated with atypical gray matter asymmetry in the posterior superior temporal gyrus of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D; Misiura, Maria; Reamer, Lisa A; Schaeffer, Jennifer A; Mareno, Mary C; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and experimental data have implicated the posterior superior temporal gyrus as an important cortical region in the processing of socially relevant stimuli such as gaze following, eye direction, and head orientation. Gaze following and responding to different socio-communicative signals is an important and highly adaptive skill in primates, including humans. Here, we examined whether individual differences in responding to socio-communicative cues was associated with variation in either gray matter (GM) volume and asymmetry in a sample of chimpanzees. Magnetic resonance image scans and behavioral data on receptive joint attention (RJA) was obtained from a sample of 191 chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees that performed poorly on the RJA task had less GM in the right compared to left hemisphere in the posterior but not anterior superior temporal gyrus. We further found that middle-aged and elderly chimpanzee performed more poorly on the RJA task and had significantly less GM than young-adult and sub-adult chimpanzees. The results are consistent with previous studies implicating the posterior temporal gyrus in the processing of socially relevant information.

  3. Intrinsic connections and architectonics of posterior parietal cortex in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, D.N.; Seltzer, B.

    1982-01-01

    By means of autoradiographic and ablation-degeneration techniques, the intrinsic cortical connections of the posterior parietal cortex in the rhesus monkey were traced and correlated with a reappraisal of cerebral architectonics. Two major rostral-to-caudal connectional sequences exist. One begins in the dorsal postcentral gyrus (area 2) and proceeds, through architectonic divisions of the superior parietal lobule (areas PE and PEc), to a cortical region on the medial surface of the parietal lobe (area PGm). This area has architectonic features similar to those of the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG). The second sequence begins in the ventral post/central gyrus (area 2) and passes through the rostral inferior parietal lobule (areas PG and PFG) to reach the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG). Both the superior parietal lobule and the rostral inferior parietal lobule also send projections to various other zones located in the parietal opercular region, the intraparietal sulcus, and the caudalmost portion of the cingulate sulcus. Areas PGm and PG, on the other hand, project to each other, to the cingulate region, to the caudalmost portion of the superior temporal gyrus, and to the upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus. Finally, a reciprocal sequence of connections, directed from caudal to rostral, links together many of the above-mentioned parietal zones. With regard to the laminar pattern of termination, the rostral-to-caudal connections are primarily distributed in the form of cortical ''columns'' while the caudal-to-rostral connections are found mainly over the first cortical cell layer

  4. Short parietal lobe connections of the human and monkey brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catani, Marco; Robertsson, Naianna; Beyh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    projections were reconstructed for both species and results compared to identify similarities or differences in tract anatomy (i.e., trajectories and cortical projections). In addition, post-mortem dissections were performed in a human brain. The largest tract identified in both human and monkey brains...... and angular gyri of the inferior parietal lobule in humans but only to the supramarginal gyrus in the monkey brain. The third tract connects the postcentral gyrus to the anterior region of the superior parietal lobule and is more prominent in monkeys compared to humans. Finally, short U-shaped fibres...... and monkeys with some differences for those areas that have cytoarchitectonically distinct features in humans. The overall pattern of intraparietal connectivity supports the special role of the inferior parietal lobule in cognitive functions characteristic of humans....

  5. Self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus III network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2017-04-21

    Proprioception is somatic sensation that allows us to sense and recognize position, posture, and their changes in our body parts. It pertains directly to oneself and may contribute to bodily awareness. Likewise, one's face is a symbol of oneself, so that visual self-face recognition directly contributes to the awareness of self as distinct from others. Recently, we showed that right-hemispheric dominant activity in the inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF III), is associated with proprioceptive illusion (awareness), in concert with sensorimotor activity. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that visual self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal SLF III network. We scanned brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while twenty-two right-handed healthy adults performed two tasks. One was a proprioceptive illusion task, where blindfolded participants experienced a proprioceptive illusion of right hand movement. The other was a visual self-face recognition task, where the participants judged whether an observed face was their own. We examined whether the self-face recognition and the proprioceptive illusion commonly activated the inferior fronto-parietal cortices connected by the SLF III in a right-hemispheric dominant manner. Despite the difference in sensory modality and in the body parts involved in the two tasks, both tasks activated the right inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are likely connected by the SLF III, in a right-side dominant manner. Here we discuss possible roles for right inferior fronto-parietal activity in bodily awareness and self-awareness. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. High Frequency rTMS over the Left Parietal Lobule Increases Non-Word Reading Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Floriana; Menghini, Deny; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vicari, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence in the literature supports the usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in studying reading processes. Two brain regions are primarily involved in phonological decoding: the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which is associated with the auditory representation of spoken words, and the left inferior parietal lobe…

  7. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: A possible trait marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHoman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The left superior temporal gyrus (STG has been suggested to play a key role in auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Eleven medicated subjects with schizophrenia and medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations and 19 healthy controls underwent perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling. Three additional repeated measurements were conducted in the patients. Patients underwent a treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS between the first 2 measurements. The main outcome measure was the pooled cerebral blood flow (CBF, which consisted of the regional CBF measurement in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG and the global CBF measurement in the whole brain.Results: Regional CBF in the left STG in patients was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.0001 and to the global CBF in patients (p < 0.004 at baseline. Regional CBF in the left STG remained significantly increased compared to the global CBF in patients across time (p < 0.0007, and it remained increased in patients after TMS compared to the baseline CBF in controls (p < 0.0001. After TMS, PANSS (p = 0.003 and PSYRATS (p = 0.01 scores decreased significantly in patients.Conclusions: This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  8. The Sport Expert's Attention Superiority on Skill-related Scene Dynamic by the Activation of left Medial Frontal Gyrus: An ERP and LORETA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mengyang; Qi, Changzhu; Lu, Yang; Song, Amanda; Hayat, Saba Z; Xu, Xia

    2018-05-21

    Extensive studies have shown that a sports expert is superior to a sports novice in visually perceptual-cognitive processes of sports scene information, however the attentional and neural basis of it has not been thoroughly explored. The present study examined whether a sport expert has the attentional superiority on scene information relevant to his/her sport skill, and explored what factor drives this superiority. To address this problem, EEGs were recorded as participants passively viewed sport scenes (tennis vs. non-tennis) and negative emotional faces in the context of a visual attention task, where the pictures of sport scenes or of negative emotional faces randomly followed the pictures with overlapping sport scenes and negative emotional faces. ERP results showed that for experts, the evoked potential of attentional competition elicited by the overlap of tennis scene was significantly larger than that evoked by the overlap of non-tennis scene, while this effect was absent for novices. The LORETA showed that the experts' left medial frontal gyrus (MFG) cortex was significantly more active as compared to the right MFG when processing the overlap of tennis scene, but the lateralization effect was not significant in novices. Those results indicate that experts have attentional superiority on skill-related scene information, despite intruding the scene through negative emotional faces that are prone to cause negativity bias toward their visual field as a strong distractor. This superiority is actuated by the activation of left MFG cortex and probably due to self-reference. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. [Brodmann Areas 39 and 40: Human Parietal Association Area and Higher Cortical Function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa

    2017-04-01

    The anatomy and function of the angular gyrus (Brodmann Area 39) and supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann Area 40) are described here. Both gyri constitute the inferior part of the parietal lobe. Association fibers from the angular gyrus project to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex via the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II/arcuate fasciculus (AF), whereas those from the supramarginal gyrus project to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex via SLF III/AF. Damage to the left angular gyrus causes kanji agraphia (lexical agraphia) and mild anomia, whereas damage to the left supramarginal gyrus causes kana alexia (phonological dyslexia) and kana agraphia (phonological agraphia). Damage to either gyrus causes Gerstmann's syndrome (finger agnosia, left-right disorientation, agraphia and acalculia) and verbal short-term memory impairment. "Angular alexia with agraphia" results from damage to the middle occipital gyrus posterior to the angular gyrus. Alexia and agraphia, with lesions in the angular or supramarginal gyrus, are characterized by kana transposition errors in reading words, which suggests the impairment of sequential phonological processing.

  10. Time Course of the Involvement of the Right Anterior Superior Temporal Gyrus and the Right Fronto-Parietal Operculum in Emotional Prosody Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekert, Marjolijn; Bais, Leonie; Kahn, Rene S.; Aleman, Andre

    2008-01-01

    In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody) conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional

  11. Monkey’s short-term auditory memory nearly abolished by combined removal of the rostral superior temporal gyrus and rhinal cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jonathan B.; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    While monkeys easily acquire the rules for performing visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample, a method for testing recognition memory, they have extraordinary difficulty acquiring a similar rule in audition. Another striking difference between the modalities is that whereas bilateral ablation of the rhinal cortex (RhC) leads to profound impairment in visual and tactile recognition, the same lesion has no detectable effect on auditory recognition memory (Fritz et al., 2005). In our previous study, a mild impairment in auditory memory was obtained following bilateral ablation of the entire medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the RhC, and an equally mild effect was observed after bilateral ablation of the auditory cortical areas in the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG). In order to test the hypothesis that each of these mild impairments was due to partial disconnection of acoustic input to a common target (e.g., the ventromedial prefrontal cortex), in the current study we examined the effects of a more complete auditory disconnection of this common target by combining the removals of both the rSTG and the MTL. We found that the combined lesion led to forgetting thresholds (performance at 75% accuracy) that fell precipitously from the normal retention duration of ~30–40 seconds to a duration of ~1–2 seconds, thus nearly abolishing auditory recognition memory, and leaving behind only a residual echoic memory. PMID:26707975

  12. Monkey׳s short-term auditory memory nearly abolished by combined removal of the rostral superior temporal gyrus and rhinal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jonathan B; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C

    2016-06-01

    While monkeys easily acquire the rules for performing visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample, a method for testing recognition memory, they have extraordinary difficulty acquiring a similar rule in audition. Another striking difference between the modalities is that whereas bilateral ablation of the rhinal cortex (RhC) leads to profound impairment in visual and tactile recognition, the same lesion has no detectable effect on auditory recognition memory (Fritz et al., 2005). In our previous study, a mild impairment in auditory memory was obtained following bilateral ablation of the entire medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the RhC, and an equally mild effect was observed after bilateral ablation of the auditory cortical areas in the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG). In order to test the hypothesis that each of these mild impairments was due to partial disconnection of acoustic input to a common target (e.g., the ventromedial prefrontal cortex), in the current study we examined the effects of a more complete auditory disconnection of this common target by combining the removals of both the rSTG and the MTL. We found that the combined lesion led to forgetting thresholds (performance at 75% accuracy) that fell precipitously from the normal retention duration of ~30 to 40s to a duration of ~1 to 2s, thus nearly abolishing auditory recognition memory, and leaving behind only a residual echoic memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Action word Related to Walk Heard by the Ears Activates Visual Cortex and Superior Temporal Gyrus: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Osaka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience of language of action processing is one of the interesting issues on the cortical “seat” of word meaning and related action (Pulvermueller, 1999 Behavioral Brain Sciences 22 253–336. For example, generation of action verbs referring to various arm or leg actions (e.g., pick or kick differentially activate areas along the motor strip that overlap with those areas activated by actual movement of the fingers or feet (Hauk et al., 2004 Neuron 41 301–307. Meanwhile, mimic words like onomatopoeia have the other potential to selectively and strongly stimulate specific brain regions having a specified “seat” of action meaning. In fact, mimic words highly suggestive of laughter and gaze significantly activated the extrastriate visual /premotor cortices and the frontal eye field, respectively (Osaka et al., 2003 Neuroscience Letters 340 127–130; 2009 Neuroscience Letters 461 65–68. However, the role of a mimic word related to walk on specific brain regions has not yet been investigated. The present study showed that a mimic word highly suggestive of human walking, heard by the ears with eyes closed, significantly activated the visual cortex located in extrastriate cortex and superior temporal gyrus while hearing non-sense words that did not imply walk under the same task did not activate these areas. These areas would be a critical region for generating visual images of walking and related action.

  14. Abnormal fatty acid pattern in the superior temporal gyrus distinguishes bipolar disorder from major depression and schizophrenia and resembles multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Rider, Therese; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick

    2014-03-30

    This study investigated the fatty acid composition of the postmortem superior temporal gyrus (STG), a cortical region implicated in emotional processing, from normal controls (n=15) and patients with bipolar disorder (BD, n=15), major depressive disorder (MDD, n=15), and schizophrenia (SZ, n=15). For comparative purposes, STG fatty acid composition was determined in a separate cohort of multiple sclerosis patients (MS, n=15) and normal controls (n=15). Compared with controls, patients with BD, but not MDD or SZ, exhibited abnormal elevations in the saturated fatty acids (SFA) palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) linoleic acid (18:2n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), and reductions in the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) oleic acid (18:1n-9). The total MUFA/SFA and 18:1/18:0 ratios were lower in the STG of BD patients and were inversely correlated with total PUFA composition. MS patients exhibited a pattern of fatty acid abnormalities similar to that observed in BD patients including elevated PUFA and a lower 18:1/18:0 ratio. Collectively, these data demonstrate that BD patients exhibit a pattern of fatty acid abnormalities in the STG that is not observed in MDD and SZ patients and closely resembles MS patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Altered spontaneous activity of posterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal gyrus are associated with a smoking cessation treatment outcome using varenicline revealed by regional homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Shen, Zhujing; Huang, Peiyu; Qian, Wei; Yu, Xinfeng; Sun, Jianzhong; Yu, Hualiang; Yang, Yihong; Zhang, Minming

    2017-06-01

    Compared to nonsmokers, smokers exhibit a number of potentially important differences in regional brain function. However, little is known about the associations between the local spontaneous brain activity and smoking cessation treatment outcomes. In the present analysis, we aimed to evaluate whether the local features of spontaneous brain activity prior to the target quit date was associated with the smoking cessation outcomes. All the participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans and smoking-related behavioral assessments. After a 12-week treatment with varenicline, 23 smokers succeeded in quitting smoking and 32 failed. Smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning prior to an open label smoking cessation treatment trial. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to measure spontaneous brain activity, and whole-brain voxel-wise comparisons of ReHo were performed to detect brain regions with altered spontaneous brain activity between relapser and quitter groups. After controlling for potentially confounding factors including years of education, years smoked, cigarettes smoked per day and FTND score as covariates, compared to quitters, relapsers displayed significantly decreased ReHo in bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), as well as increased ReHo in left superior temporal gyrus (STG). These preliminary results suggest that regional brain function variables may be promising predictors of smoking relapse. This study provided novel insights into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying smoking relapse. A deeper understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms associated with relapse may result in novel pharmacological and behavioral interventions.

  16. Resection of the medial temporal lobe disconnects the rostral superior temporal gyrus from some of its projection targets in the frontal lobe and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Monica; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C

    2009-09-01

    Auditory memory in the monkey does not appear to extend beyond the limits of working memory. It is therefore surprising that this ability is impaired by medial temporal lobe (MTL) resections, because such lesions spare working memory in other sensory modalities. To determine whether MTL ablations might have caused the auditory deficit through inadvertent transection of superior temporal gyrus (STG) projections to its downstream targets, and, if so, which targets might have been compromised, we injected anterograde tracer (biotinylated dextran amine) in the STG of both the normal and MTL-lesioned hemispheres of split-brain monkeys. Interhemispheric comparison of label failed to show any effect of the MTL ablation on efferents from caudal STG, which projects to the inferior prefrontal convexity. However, the ablation did consistently interrupt the normally dense projections from rostral STG to both the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and medial thalamic nuclei. The findings support the possibility that the auditory working memory deficit after MTL ablation is due to transection of downstream auditory projections, and indicate that the candidate structures for mediating auditory working memory are the ventral medial prefrontal cortical areas, the medial thalamus, or both.

  17. Dissociated roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus in audiovisual processing: top-down and bottom-up mismatch detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Takeshi; Kawai, Kensuke; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Wakebe, Toshihiro; Ibaraki, Takuya; Kunii, Naoto; Matsuo, Takeshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2015-01-01

    Visual inputs can distort auditory perception, and accurate auditory processing requires the ability to detect and ignore visual input that is simultaneous and incongruent with auditory information. However, the neural basis of this auditory selection from audiovisual information is unknown, whereas integration process of audiovisual inputs is intensively researched. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal sulcus (STS) are involved in top-down and bottom-up processing, respectively, of target auditory information from audiovisual inputs. We recorded high gamma activity (HGA), which is associated with neuronal firing in local brain regions, using electrocorticography while patients with epilepsy judged the syllable spoken by a voice while looking at a voice-congruent or -incongruent lip movement from the speaker. The STS exhibited stronger HGA if the patient was presented with information of large audiovisual incongruence than of small incongruence, especially if the auditory information was correctly identified. On the other hand, the IFG exhibited stronger HGA in trials with small audiovisual incongruence when patients correctly perceived the auditory information than when patients incorrectly perceived the auditory information due to the mismatched visual information. These results indicate that the IFG and STS have dissociated roles in selective auditory processing, and suggest that the neural basis of selective auditory processing changes dynamically in accordance with the degree of incongruity between auditory and visual information.

  18. Increased superior frontal gyrus activation during working memory processing in psychosis: Significant relation to cumulative antipsychotic medication and to negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Smieskova, Renata; Schmidt, André; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Eckert, Anne; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Graf, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Impairment in working memory (WM) is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, little is known about how clinical features influence functional brain activity specific to WM processing during the development of first-episode psychosis (FEP) to schizophrenia (SZ). We compared functional WM-specific brain activity in FEP and SZ patients, including the effects of the duration of illness, psychopathological factors and antipsychotic medication. Cross-sectional study of male FEP (n=22) and SZ (n=20) patients performing an n-back task when undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Clinical features were collected by semi-structured interviews and medical records. The SZ group performed significantly worse than the FEP group in the 2-back condition. The SZ group also showed significantly higher activation in the left superior frontal gyrus in the 2-back versus 0-back condition (2-back>0-back). This frontal activation correlated positively with negative symptoms and with cumulative antipsychotic medication during the year before the fMRI examination. There were no significant correlations between activation and duration of illness. There was greater frontal neural activation in SZ than in FEP. This indicated differences in WM processing, and was significantly related to cumulative antipsychotic exposure and negative symptoms, but not to the duration of illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Activation in the Right Inferior Parietal Lobule Reflects the Representation of Musical Structure beyond Simple Pitch Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique T.; Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Robitaille, Nicolas; Schönwiesner, Marc; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Pitch discrimination tasks typically engage the superior temporal gyrus and the right inferior frontal gyrus. It is currently unclear whether these regions are equally involved in the processing of incongruous notes in melodies, which requires the representation of musical structure (tonality) in addition to pitch discrimination. To this aim, 14 participants completed two tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, one in which they had to identify a pitch change in a series of non-melodic repeating tones and a second in which they had to identify an incongruous note in a tonal melody. In both tasks, the deviants activated the right superior temporal gyrus. A contrast between deviants in the melodic task and deviants in the non-melodic task (melodic > non-melodic) revealed additional activity in the right inferior parietal lobule. Activation in the inferior parietal lobule likely represents processes related to the maintenance of tonal pitch structure in working memory during pitch discrimination. PMID:27195523

  20. Intraoperative subcortical mapping of a language-associated deep frontal tract connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area in the dominant hemisphere of patients with glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Masazumi; Maesawa, Satoshi; Motomura, Kazuya; Futamura, Miyako; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Koba, Itsuko; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2015-06-01

    The deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area, recently named the frontal aslant tract (FAT), is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. Injury to the deep frontal lobe is known to cause aphasia that mimics the aphasia caused by damage to the supplementary motor area. Although fiber dissection and tractography have revealed the existence of the tract, little is known about its function. The aim of this study was to determine the function of the FAT via electrical stimulation in patients with glioma who underwent awake surgery. The authors analyzed the data from subcortical mapping with electrical stimulation in 5 consecutive cases (3 males and 2 females, age range 40-54 years) with gliomas in the left frontal lobe. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography of the FAT were performed in all cases. A navigation system and intraoperative MRI were used in all cases. During the awake phase of the surgery, cortical mapping was performed to find the precentral gyrus and Broca's area, followed by tumor resection. After the cortical layer was removed, subcortical mapping was performed to assess language-associated fibers in the white matter. In all 5 cases, positive responses were obtained at the stimulation sites in the subcortical area adjacent to the FAT, which was visualized by the navigation system. Speech arrest was observed in 4 cases, and remarkably slow speech and conversation was observed in 1 case. The location of these sites was also determined on intraoperative MR images and estimated on preoperative MR images with DTI tractography, confirming the spatial relationships among the stimulation sites and white matter tracts. Tumor removal was successfully performed without damage to this tract, and language function did not deteriorate in any of the cases postoperatively. The authors identified the left FAT and confirmed that it was associated with language functions. This

  1. Altered Connectivity of the Anterior Cingulate and the Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus in a Longitudinal Study of Later-life Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Harada

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with later-life depression (LLD show abnormal gray matter (GM volume, white matter (WM integrity and functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG, but it remains unclear whether these abnormalities persist over time. We examined whether structural and functional abnormalities in these two regions are present within the same subjects during depressed vs. remitted phases. Sixteen patients with LLD and 30 healthy subjects were studied over a period of 1.5 years. Brain images obtained with a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI system were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry of the GM volume, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional MRI were used to assess ACC–pSTG connectivity. Patients with LLD in the depressed and remitted phases showed significantly smaller GM volume in the left ACC and left pSTG than healthy subjects. Both patients with LLD in the depressed and remitted phases had significantly higher diffusivities in the WM tract of the left ACC–pSTG than healthy subjects. Remitted patients with LLD showed lower functional ACC–pSTG connectivity compared to healthy subjects. No difference was found in the two regions between depressed and remitted patients in GM volume, structural or functional connectivity. Functional ACC–pSTG connectivity was positively correlated with lower global function during remission. Our preliminary data show that structural and functional abnormalities of the ACC and pSTG occur during LLD remission. Our findings tentatively reveal the brain pathophysiology involved in LLD and may aid in developing neuroanatomical biomarkers for this condition.

  2. Altered Connectivity of the Anterior Cingulate and the Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus in a Longitudinal Study of Later-life Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kenichiro; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Nakashima, Mami; Watanuki, Toshio; Hirotsu, Masako; Matsubara, Toshio; Yamagata, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Yoshifumi; Matsuo, Koji

    2018-01-01

    Patients with later-life depression (LLD) show abnormal gray matter (GM) volume, white matter (WM) integrity and functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), but it remains unclear whether these abnormalities persist over time. We examined whether structural and functional abnormalities in these two regions are present within the same subjects during depressed vs. remitted phases. Sixteen patients with LLD and 30 healthy subjects were studied over a period of 1.5 years. Brain images obtained with a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry of the GM volume, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI were used to assess ACC-pSTG connectivity. Patients with LLD in the depressed and remitted phases showed significantly smaller GM volume in the left ACC and left pSTG than healthy subjects. Both patients with LLD in the depressed and remitted phases had significantly higher diffusivities in the WM tract of the left ACC-pSTG than healthy subjects. Remitted patients with LLD showed lower functional ACC-pSTG connectivity compared to healthy subjects. No difference was found in the two regions between depressed and remitted patients in GM volume, structural or functional connectivity. Functional ACC-pSTG connectivity was positively correlated with lower global function during remission. Our preliminary data show that structural and functional abnormalities of the ACC and pSTG occur during LLD remission. Our findings tentatively reveal the brain pathophysiology involved in LLD and may aid in developing neuroanatomical biomarkers for this condition.

  3. Dentate Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Allen Institute for Brain Science; Rachel A. Dalley; Lydia L. Ng; Angela L. Guillozet-Bongaarts

    2008-01-01

    This report contains a gene expression summary of the dentate gyrus (DG), derived from the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) _in situ_ hybridization mouse data set. The structure's location and morphological characteristics in the mouse brain are described using the Nissl data found in the Allen Reference Atlas. Using an established algorithm, the expression values of the dentate gyrus were compared to the values of the macro/parent-structure, in this case the hippocampal region, for the purpose o...

  4. Differentiated parietal connectivity of frontal regions for "what" and "where" memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottschy, C; Caspers, S; Roski, C; Reetz, K; Dogan, I; Schulz, J B; Zilles, K; Laird, A R; Fox, P T; Eickhoff, S B

    2013-11-01

    In a previous meta-analysis across almost 200 neuroimaging experiments, working memory for object location showed significantly stronger convergence on the posterior superior frontal gyrus, whereas working memory for identity showed stronger convergence on the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (dorsal to, but overlapping with Brodmann's area BA 44). As similar locations have been discussed as part of a dorsal frontal-superior parietal reach system and an inferior frontal grasp system, the aim of the present study was to test whether the regions of working-memory related "what" and "where" processing show a similar distinction in parietal connectivity. The regions that were found in the previous meta-analysis were used as seeds for functional connectivity analyses using task-based meta-analytic connectivity modelling and task-independent resting state correlations. While the ventral seed showed significantly stronger connectivity with the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), the dorsal seed showed stronger connectivity with the bilateral posterior inferior parietal and the medial superior parietal lobule. The observed connections of regions involved in memory for object location and identity thus clearly demonstrate a distinction into separate pathways that resemble the parietal connectivity patterns of the dorsal and ventral premotor cortex in non-human primates and humans. It may hence be speculated that memory for a particular location and reaching towards it as well as object memory and finger positioning for manipulation may rely on shared neural systems. Moreover, the ensuing regions, in turn, featured differential connectivity with the bilateral ventral and dorsal extrastriate cortex, suggesting largely segregated bilateral connectivity pathways from the dorsal visual cortex via the superior and inferior parietal lobules to the dorsal posterior frontal cortex and from the ventral visual cortex via the IPS to the ventral posterior frontal cortex that may

  5. Vulnerability of the frontal and parietal regions in hypertensive patients during working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Ailin; Li, Peng; Zhang, Junying; Tao, Wuhai; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2017-05-01

    Hypertension is related with cognitive decline in the elderly. The frontal-parietal executive system plays an important role in cognitive aging and is also vulnerable to damage in elderly patients with hypertension. Examination of the brain's functional characteristics in frontal-parietal regions of hypertension is likely to be important for understanding the neural mechanisms of hypertension's effect on cognitive aging. We address this issue by comparing hypertension and control-performers in a functional MRI study. Twenty-eight hypertensive patients and 32 elderly controls were tested with n-back task with two load levels. The hypertensive patients exhibited worse executive and memory abilities than control subjects. The patterns of brain activation changed under different working memory loads in the hypertensive patients, who exhibited reduced activation only in the precentral gyrus under low loads and reduced activation in the middle frontal gyrus, left medial superior frontal gyrus and right precuneus under high loads. Thus, more regions of diminished activation were observed in the frontal and parietal regions with increasing task difficulty. More importantly, we found that lower activation in changed frontal and parietal regions was associated with worse cognitive function in high loads. The results demonstrate the relationship between cognitive function and frontoparietal functional activation in hypertension and their relevance to cognitive aging risk. Our findings provide a better understanding of the mechanism of cognitive decline in hypertension and highlight the importance of brain protection in hypertension.

  6. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia: The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-José van Tol

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: Results suggest that STG GM abnormalities underlie the general susceptibility to experience psychotic symptoms and that additional abnormalities in a network of medial temporal, ventrolateral, putaminal, and parietal regions related to verbal memory and speech production may specifically increase the likelihood of experiencing AVH. Future studies should clarify the meaning of morphometry abnormalities for functional interregional communication.

  7. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation as a neural marker of successful lying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Kwantes, Peter J; Mandel, David R; Bouak, Fethi; Nakashima, Ann; Smith, Ingrid; Lam, Quan

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that successful lying necessitates cognitive effort. We tested this hypothesis by instructing participants to lie or tell the truth under conditions of high and low working memory (WM) load. The task required participants to register a response on 80 trials of identical structure within a 2 (WM Load: high, low) × 2 (Instruction: truth or lie) repeated-measures design. Participants were less accurate and responded more slowly when WM load was high, and also when they lied. High WM load activated the fronto-parietal WM network including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), middle frontal gyrus, precuneus, and intraparietal cortex. Lying activated areas previously shown to underlie deception, including middle and superior frontal gyrus and precuneus. Critically, successful lying in the high vs. low WM load condition was associated with longer response latency, and it activated the right inferior frontal gyrus-a key brain region regulating inhibition. The same pattern of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus was absent when participants told the truth. These findings demonstrate that lying under high cognitive load places a burden on inhibition, and that the right inferior frontal gyrus may provide a neural marker for successful lying.

  8. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R; Schumann, Cynthia M

    2015-12-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Virtual dissection and comparative connectivity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in chimpanzees and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Erin E.; Gutman, David A.; Bradley, Bruce A.; Preuss, Todd M.; Stout, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Many of the behavioral capacities that distinguish humans from other primates rely on fronto-parietal circuits. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is the primary white matter tract connecting lateral frontal with lateral parietal regions; it is distinct from the arcuate fasciculus, which interconnects the frontal and temporal lobes. Here we report a direct, quantitative comparison of SLF connectivity using virtual in vivo dissection of the SLF in chimpanzees and humans. SLF I, the superior-most branch of the SLF, showed similar patterns of connectivity between humans and chimpanzees, and was proportionally volumetrically larger in chimpanzees. SLF II, the middle branch, and SLF III, the inferior-most branch, showed species differences in frontal connectivity. In humans, SLF II showed greater connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas in chimps SLF II showed greater connectivity with the inferior frontal gyrus. SLF III was right-lateralized and proportionally volumetrically larger in humans, and human SLF III showed relatively reduced connectivity with dorsal premotor cortex and greater extension into the anterior inferior frontal gyrus, especially in the right hemisphere. These results have implications for the evolution of fronto-parietal functions including spatial attention to observed actions, social learning, and tool use, and are in line with previous research suggesting a unique role for the right anterior inferior frontal gyrus in the evolution of human fronto-parietal network architecture. PMID:25534109

  10. Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation as a Neural Marker of Successful Lying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshin eVartanian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence to suggest that successful lying necessitates cognitive effort. We tested this hypothesis by instructing participants to lie or tell the truth under conditions of high and low working memory (WM load. The task required participants to register a response on 80 trials of identical structure within a 2 (WM Load: high, low × 2 (Instruction: truth or lie repeated-measures design. Participants were less accurate and responded more slowly when WM load was high, and also when they lied. High WM load activated the fronto-parietal WM network including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC, middle frontal gyrus, precuneus, and intraparietal cortex. Lying activated areas previously shown to underlie deception, including middle and superior frontal gyrus and precuneus. Critically, successful lying in the high vs. low WM load condition was associated with longer response latency, and it activated the right inferior frontal gyrus—a key brain region regulating inhibition. The same pattern of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus was absent when participants told the truth. These findings demonstrate that lying under high cognitive load places a burden on inhibition, and that the right inferior frontal gyrus may provide a neural marker for successful lying.

  11. Inferior frontal gyrus activation predicts individual differences in perceptual learning of cochlear-implant simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Frank; McGettigan, Carolyn; Faulkner, Andrew; Rosen, Stuart; Scott, Sophie K

    2010-05-26

    This study investigated the neural plasticity associated with perceptual learning of a cochlear implant (CI) simulation. Normal-hearing listeners were trained with vocoded and spectrally shifted speech simulating a CI while cortical responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A condition in which the vocoded speech was spectrally inverted provided a control for learnability and adaptation. Behavioral measures showed considerable individual variability both in the ability to learn to understand the degraded speech, and in phonological working memory capacity. Neurally, left-lateralized regions in superior temporal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were sensitive to the learnability of the simulations, but only the activity in prefrontal cortex correlated with interindividual variation in intelligibility scores and phonological working memory. A region in left angular gyrus (AG) showed an activation pattern that reflected learning over the course of the experiment, and covariation of activity in AG and IFG was modulated by the learnability of the stimuli. These results suggest that variation in listeners' ability to adjust to vocoded and spectrally shifted speech is partly reflected in differences in the recruitment of higher-level language processes in prefrontal cortex, and that this variability may further depend on functional links between the left inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus. Differences in the engagement of left inferior prefrontal cortex, and its covariation with posterior parietal areas, may thus underlie some of the variation in speech perception skills that have been observed in clinical populations of CI users.

  12. Reduced parietal activation in cervical dystonia after parietal TMS interleaved with fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Paulien M.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Bohning, Daryl E.; Hinson, Vanessa K.; George, Mark S.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    Objective: Clinically normal hand movement with altered cerebral activation patterns in cervical dystonia (CD) may imply cerebral adaptation. Since impaired sensorimotor integration appears to play a role in dystonia, left superior parietal cortex modulation with repetitive transcranial magnetic

  13. Gyri of the human parietal lobe: Volumes, spatial extents, automatic labelling, and probabilistic atlases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Wild

    Full Text Available Accurately describing the anatomy of individual brains enables interlaboratory communication of functional and developmental studies and is crucial for possible surgical interventions. The human parietal lobe participates in multimodal sensory integration including language processing and also contains the primary somatosensory area. We describe detailed protocols to subdivide the parietal lobe, analyze morphological and volumetric characteristics, and create probabilistic atlases in MNI152 stereotaxic space. The parietal lobe was manually delineated on 3D T1 MR images of 30 healthy subjects and divided into four regions: supramarginal gyrus (SMG, angular gyrus (AG, superior parietal lobe (supPL and postcentral gyrus (postCG. There was the expected correlation of male gender with larger brain and intracranial volume. We examined a wide range of anatomical features of the gyri and the sulci separating them. At least a rudimentary primary intermediate sulcus of Jensen (PISJ separating SMG and AG was identified in nearly all (59/60 hemispheres. Presence of additional gyri in SMG and AG was related to sulcal features and volumetric characteristics. The parietal lobe was slightly (2% larger on the left, driven by leftward asymmetries of the postCG and SMG. Intersubject variability was highest for SMG and AG, and lowest for postCG. Overall the morphological characteristics tended to be symmetrical, and volumes also tended to covary between hemispheres. This may reflect developmental as well as maturation factors. To assess the accuracy with which the labels can be used to segment newly acquired (unlabelled T1-weighted brain images, we applied multi-atlas label propagation software (MAPER in a leave-one-out experiment and compared the resulting automatic labels with the manually prepared ones. The results showed strong agreement (mean Jaccard index 0.69, corresponding to a mean Dice index of 0.82, average mean volume error of 0.6%. Stereotaxic

  14. Role of the right inferior parietal cortex in auditory selective attention: An rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareham, Corinne A; Georgieva, Stanimira D; Kamke, Marc R; Lloyd, David; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Mattingley, Jason B

    2018-02-01

    Selective attention is the process of directing limited capacity resources to behaviourally relevant stimuli while ignoring competing stimuli that are currently irrelevant. Studies in healthy human participants and in individuals with focal brain lesions have suggested that the right parietal cortex is crucial for resolving competition for attention. Following right-hemisphere damage, for example, patients may have difficulty reporting a brief, left-sided stimulus if it occurs with a competitor on the right, even though the same left stimulus is reported normally when it occurs alone. Such "extinction" of contralesional stimuli has been documented for all the major sense modalities, but it remains unclear whether its occurrence reflects involvement of one or more specific subregions of the temporo-parietal cortex. Here we employed repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the right hemisphere to examine the effect of disruption of two candidate regions - the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and the superior temporal gyrus (STG) - on auditory selective attention. Eighteen neurologically normal, right-handed participants performed an auditory task, in which they had to detect target digits presented within simultaneous dichotic streams of spoken distractor letters in the left and right channels, both before and after 20 min of 1 Hz rTMS over the SMG, STG or a somatosensory control site (S1). Across blocks, participants were asked to report on auditory streams in the left, right, or both channels, which yielded focused and divided attention conditions. Performance was unchanged for the two focused attention conditions, regardless of stimulation site, but was selectively impaired for contralateral left-sided targets in the divided attention condition following stimulation of the right SMG, but not the STG or S1. Our findings suggest a causal role for the right inferior parietal cortex in auditory selective attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. The Impact of Auditory Working Memory Training on the Fronto-Parietal Working Memory Network

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    Julia eSchneiders

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory training with strongly distinct auditory materials transfers exclusively to an auditory (intra-modal working memory task or whether it generalizes to an (across-modal visual working memory task. We used an adaptive n-back training with tonal sequences and a passive control condition. The memory training led to a reliable training gain. Transfer effects were found for the (intra-modal auditory but not for the (across-modal visual 2-back task. Training-induced activation changes in the auditory 2-back task were found in two regions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects confirm our previous findings in the visual modality and extends intra-modal effects to the auditory modality. These results might reflect increased neural efficiency in auditory working memory processes as in the right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently found in maintaining modality-specific auditory information. By this, these effects are analogical to the activation decreases in the right middle frontal gyrus for the visual modality in our previous study. Furthermore, task-unspecific (across-modal activation decreases in the visual and auditory 2-back task were found in the right inferior parietal lobule and the superior portion of the right middle frontal gyrus reflecting less demands on general attentional control processes. These data are in good agreement with across-modal activation decreases within the same brain regions on a visual 2-back task reported previously.

  16. Continuous theta burst stimulation of angular gyrus reduces subjective recollection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Yazar

    Full Text Available The contribution of lateral parietal regions such as the angular gyrus to human episodic memory has been the subject of much debate following widespread observations of left parietal activity in healthy volunteers during functional neuroimaging studies of memory retrieval. Patients with lateral parietal lesions are not amnesic, but recent evidence indicates that their memory abilities may not be entirely preserved. Whereas recollection appears intact when objective measures such as source accuracy are used, patients often exhibit reduced subjective confidence in their accurate recollections. When asked to recall autobiographical memories, they may produce spontaneous narratives that lack richness and specificity, but can remember specific details when prompted. Two distinct theoretical accounts have been proposed to explain these results: that the patients have a deficit in the bottom-up capturing of attention by retrieval output, or that they have an impairment in the subjective experience of recollection. The present study aimed to differentiate between these accounts using continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS in healthy participants to disrupt function of specific left parietal subregions, including angular gyrus. Inconsistent with predictions of the attentional theory, angular gyrus cTBS did not result in greater impairment of free recall than cued recall. Supporting predictions of the subjective recollection account, temporary disruption of angular gyrus was associated with highly accurate source recollection accuracy but a selective reduction in participants' rated source confidence. The findings are consistent with a role for angular gyrus in the integration of memory features into a conscious representation that enables the subjective experience of remembering.

  17. Functional Clustering of the Human Inferior Parietal Lobule by Whole-Brain Connectivity Mapping of Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chiang-Shan R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The human inferior parietal lobule (IPL) comprised the lateral bank of the intraparietal sulcus, angular gyrus, and supramarginal gyrus, defined on the basis of anatomical landmarks and cytoarchitectural organization of neurons. However, it is not clear as to whether the three areas represent functional subregions within the IPL. For instance, imaging studies frequently identified clusters of activities that cut across areal boundaries. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to examine how individual voxels within the IPL are best clustered according to their connectivity to the whole brain. The results identified a best estimate of seven clusters that are hierarchically arranged as the anterior, middle, and posterior subregions. The anterior, middle, and posterior IPL are each significantly connected to the somatomotor areas, superior/middle/inferior frontal gyri, and regions of the default mode network. This functional segregation is supported by recent cytoarchitechtonics and tractography studies. IPL showed hemispheric differences in connectivity that accord with a predominantly left parietal role in tool use and language processing and a right parietal role in spatial attention and mathematical cognition. The functional clusters may also provide a more parsimonious and perhaps even accurate account of regional activations of the IPL during a variety of cognitive challenges, as reported in earlier fMRI studies. PMID:24308753

  18. The dentate gyrus: fundamental neuroanatomical organization (dentate gyrus for dummies).

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral David G; Scharfman Helen E; Lavenex Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is a simple cortical region that is an integral portion of the larger functional brain system called the hippocampal formation. In this review, the fundamental neuroanatomical organization of the dentate gyrus is described, including principal cell types and their connectivity, and a summary of the major extrinsic inputs of the dentate gyrus is provided. Together, this information provides essential information that can serve as an introduction to the dentate gyrus — a “dent...

  19. [Functional connectivity of temporal parietal junction in online game addicts:a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ji; Qian, Ruobing; Lin, Bin; Fu, Xianming; Wei, Xiangpin; Weng, Chuanbo; Niu, Chaoshi; Wang, Yehan

    2014-02-11

    To explore the functions of temporal parietal junction (TPJ) as parts of attention networks in the pathogenesis of online game addiction using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A total of 17 online game addicts (OGA) were recruited as OGA group and 17 healthy controls during the same period were recruited as CON group. The neuropsychological tests were performed for all of them to compare the inter-group differences in the results of Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and attention functions. All fMRI data were preprocessed after resting-state fMRI scanning. Then left and right TPJ were selected as regions of interest (ROIs) to calculate the linear correlation between TPJ and entire brain to compare the inter-group differences. Obvious differences existed between OGA group (71 ± 5 scores) and CON group (19 ± 7 scores) in the IAT results and attention function (P online game addicts showed decreased functional connectivity with bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), bilateral hippocampal gyrus and bilateral amygdaloid nucleus, but increased functional connectivity with right cuneus.However, left TPJ demonstrated decreased functional connectivity with bilateral superior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus, but increased functional connectivity with bilateral cuneus (P online game addicts.It suggests that TPJ is an important component of attention networks participating in the generation of online game addiction.

  20. Differential Medial Temporal Lobe and Parietal Cortical Contributions to Real-world Autobiographical Episodic and Autobiographical Semantic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thackery I; Rissman, Jesse; Chow, Tiffany E; Uncapher, Melina R; Wagner, Anthony D

    2018-04-18

    Autobiographical remembering can depend on two forms of memory: episodic (event) memory and autobiographical semantic memory (remembering personally relevant semantic knowledge, independent of recalling a specific experience). There is debate about the degree to which the neural signals that support episodic recollection relate to or build upon autobiographical semantic remembering. Pooling data from two fMRI studies of memory for real-world personal events, we investigated whether medial temporal lobe (MTL) and parietal subregions contribute to autobiographical episodic and semantic remembering. During scanning, participants made memory judgments about photograph sequences depicting past events from their life or from others' lives, and indicated whether memory was based on episodic or semantic knowledge. Results revealed several distinct functional patterns: activity in most MTL subregions was selectively associated with autobiographical episodic memory; the hippocampal tail, superior parietal lobule, and intraparietal sulcus were similarly engaged when memory was based on retrieval of an autobiographical episode or autobiographical semantic knowledge; and angular gyrus demonstrated a graded pattern, with activity declining from autobiographical recollection to autobiographical semantic remembering to correct rejections of novel events. Collectively, our data offer insights into MTL and parietal cortex functional organization, and elucidate circuitry that supports different forms of real-world autobiographical memory.

  1. Prospective relations between resting-state connectivity of parietal subdivisions and arithmetic competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gavin R; Yeo, Darren J; Wilkey, Eric D; Cutting, Laurie E

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigates the relation between resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of cytoarchitectonically defined subdivisions of the parietal cortex at the end of 1st grade and arithmetic performance at the end of 2nd grade. Results revealed a dissociable pattern of relations between rsFC and arithmetic competence among subdivisions of intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and angular gyrus (AG). rsFC between right hemisphere IPS subdivisions and contralateral IPS subdivisions positively correlated with arithmetic competence. In contrast, rsFC between the left hIP1 and the right medial temporal lobe, and rsFC between the left AG and left superior frontal gyrus, were negatively correlated with arithmetic competence. These results suggest that strong inter-hemispheric IPS connectivity is important for math development, reflecting either neurocognitive mechanisms specific to arithmetic processing, domain-general mechanisms that are particularly relevant to arithmetic competence, or structural 'cortical maturity'. Stronger connectivity between IPS, and AG, subdivisions and frontal and temporal cortices, however, appears to be negatively associated with math development, possibly reflecting the ability to disengage suboptimal problem-solving strategies during mathematical processing, or to flexibly reorient task-based networks. Importantly, the reported results pertain even when controlling for reading, spatial attention, and working memory, suggesting that the observed rsFC-behavior relations are specific to arithmetic competence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional Heterogeneity in Posterior Parietal Cortex Across Attention and Episodic Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J. Benjamin; Uncapher, Melina R.; Weiner, Kevin S.; Bressler, David W.; Silver, Michael A.; Preston, Alison R.; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    While attention is critical for event memory, debate has arisen regarding the extent to which posterior parietal cortex (PPC) activation during episodic retrieval reflects engagement of PPC-mediated mechanisms of attention. Here, we directly examined the relationship between attention and memory, within and across subjects, using functional magnetic resonance imaging attention-mapping and episodic retrieval paradigms. During retrieval, 4 functionally dissociable PPC regions were identified. Specifically, 2 PPC regions positively tracked retrieval outcomes: lateral intraparietal sulcus (latIPS) indexed graded item memory strength, whereas angular gyrus (AnG) tracked recollection. By contrast, 2 other PPC regions demonstrated nonmonotonic relationships with retrieval: superior parietal lobule (SPL) tracked retrieval reaction time, consistent with a graded engagement of top-down attention, whereas temporoparietal junction displayed a complex pattern of below-baseline retrieval activity, perhaps reflecting disengagement of bottom-up attention. Analyses of retrieval effects in PPC topographic spatial attention maps (IPS0-IPS5; SPL1) revealed that IPS5 and SPL1 exhibited a nonmonotonic relationship with retrieval outcomes resembling that in the SPL region, further suggesting that SPL activation during retrieval reflects top-down attention. While demands on PPC attention mechanisms vary during retrieval attempts, the present functional parcellation of PPC indicates that 2 additional mechanisms (mediated by latIPS and AnG) positively track retrieval outcomes. PMID:23019246

  3. Herniated gyrus rectus causing idiopathic compression of the optic chiasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacob; Jack, Megan M; Peterson, Jeremy C; Chamoun, Roukoz B

    2017-02-01

    Anomalies in the frontal lobe can interfere with visual function by compression of the optic chiasm and nerve. The gyrus rectus is located at the anterior cranial fossa floor superior to the intracranial optic nerves and chiasm. Compression of these structures by the gyrus rectus is often caused by neoplastic or dysplastic growth in the area. We report a rare case of a herniated gyrus rectus impinged on the optic chiasm and nerve without a clear pathological cause for the herniation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of auditory working memory training on the fronto-parietal working memory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Julia A; Opitz, Bertram; Tang, Huijun; Deng, Yuan; Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Hong; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory training with strongly distinct auditory materials transfers exclusively to an auditory (intra-modal) working memory task or whether it generalizes to a (across-modal) visual working memory task. We used adaptive n-back training with tonal sequences and a passive control condition. The memory training led to a reliable training gain. Transfer effects were found for the (intra-modal) auditory but not for the (across-modal) visual transfer task. Training-induced activation decreases in the auditory transfer task were found in two regions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects confirm our previous findings in the visual modality and extents intra-modal effects in the prefrontal cortex to the auditory modality. As the right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently found in maintaining modality-specific auditory information, these results might reflect increased neural efficiency in auditory working memory processes. Furthermore, task-unspecific (amodal) activation decreases in the visual and auditory transfer task were found in the right inferior parietal lobule and the superior portion of the right middle frontal gyrus reflecting less demand on general attentional control processes. These data are in good agreement with amodal activation decreases within the same brain regions on a visual transfer task reported previously.

  5. The impact of auditory working memory training on the fronto-parietal working memory network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Julia A.; Opitz, Bertram; Tang, Huijun; Deng, Yuan; Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Hong; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory training with strongly distinct auditory materials transfers exclusively to an auditory (intra-modal) working memory task or whether it generalizes to a (across-modal) visual working memory task. We used adaptive n-back training with tonal sequences and a passive control condition. The memory training led to a reliable training gain. Transfer effects were found for the (intra-modal) auditory but not for the (across-modal) visual transfer task. Training-induced activation decreases in the auditory transfer task were found in two regions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects confirm our previous findings in the visual modality and extents intra-modal effects in the prefrontal cortex to the auditory modality. As the right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently found in maintaining modality-specific auditory information, these results might reflect increased neural efficiency in auditory working memory processes. Furthermore, task-unspecific (amodal) activation decreases in the visual and auditory transfer task were found in the right inferior parietal lobule and the superior portion of the right middle frontal gyrus reflecting less demand on general attentional control processes. These data are in good agreement with amodal activation decreases within the same brain regions on a visual transfer task reported previously. PMID:22701418

  6. Parietal lesion effects on cued recall following pair associate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Shir; Soroker, Nachum; Levy, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory in a lesion-effects study of cued recall following pair-associate learning. Groups of patients who had experienced first-incident stroke, generally in middle cerebral artery territory, and exhibited damage that included lateral posterior parietal regions, were tested within an early post-stroke time window. In three experiments, patients and matched healthy comparison groups executed repeated study and cued recall test blocks of pairs of words (Experiment 1), pairs of object pictures (Experiment 2), or pairs of object pictures and environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Patients' brain CT scans were subjected to quantitative analysis of lesion volumes. Behavioral and lesion data were used to compute correlations between area lesion extent and memory deficits, and to conduct voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. These analyses implicated lateral ventral parietal cortex, especially the angular gyrus, in cued recall deficits, most pronouncedly in the cross-modal picture-sound pairs task, though significant parietal lesion effects were also found in the unimodal word pairs and picture pairs tasks. In contrast to an earlier study in which comparable parietal lesions did not cause deficits in item recognition, these results indicate that lateral posterior parietal areas make a substantive contribution to demanding forms of recollective retrieval as represented by cued recall, especially for complex associative representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Parietal and temporal activity during a multimodal dance video game: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Atsumichi; Noah, J Adam; Bronner, Shaw; Ono, Yumie; Onozuka, Minoru

    2011-10-03

    Using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) we studied how playing a dance video game employs coordinated activation of sensory-motor integration centers of the superior parietal lobe (SPL) and superior temporal gyrus (STG). Subjects played a dance video game, in a block design with 30s of activity alternating with 30s of rest, while changes in oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) levels were continuously measured. The game was modified to compare difficult (4-arrow), simple (2-arrow), and stepping conditions. Oxy-Hb levels were greatest with increased task difficulty. The quick-onset, trapezoidal time-course increase in SPL oxy-Hb levels reflected the on-off neuronal response of spatial orienting and rhythmic motor timing that were required during the activity. Slow-onset, bell-shaped increases in oxy-Hb levels observed in STG suggested the gradually increasing load of directing multisensory information to downstream processing centers associated with motor behavior and control. Differences in temporal relationships of SPL and STG oxy-Hb concentration levels may reflect the functional roles of these brain structures during the task period. NIRS permits insights into temporal relationships of cortical hemodynamics during real motor tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Xenomelia: a new right parietal lobe syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeoch, Paul D; Brang, David; Song, Tao; Lee, Roland R; Huang, Mingxiong; Ramachandran, V S

    2011-12-01

    Damage to the right parietal lobe has long been associated with various disorders of body image. The authors have recently suggested that an unusual behavioural condition in which otherwise rational individuals desire the amputation of a healthy limb might also arise from right parietal dysfunction. Four subjects who desired the amputation of healthy legs (two right, one left and one, at first, bilateral and then left only) were recruited and underwent magnetoencephalography (MEG) scans during tactile stimulation of sites above and below the desired amputation line. Regions of interest (ROIs) in each hemisphere (superior parietal lobule (SPL), inferior parietal lobule, S1, M1, insula, premotor cortex and precuneus) were defined using FreeSurfer software. Analysis of average MEG activity across the 40-140 ms post-stimulation timeframe was carried out using an unpaired t test. This revealed significantly reduced activation only in the right SPL ROI for the subjects' affected legs when compared with both subjects' unaffected legs and that of controls. The right SPL is a cortical area that appears ideally placed to unify disparate sensory inputs to create a coherent sense of having a body. The authors propose that inadequate activation of the right SPL leads to the unnatural situation in which the sufferers can feel the limb in question being touched without it actually incorporating into their body image, with a resulting desire for amputation. The authors introduce the term 'xenomelia' as a more appropriate name than apotemnophilia or body integrity identity disorder, for what appears to be an unrecognised right parietal lobe syndrome.

  9. Development of parietal bone surrogates for parietal graft lift training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollensteiner Marianne

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently the surgical training of parietal bone graft techniques is performed on patients or specimens. Commercially available bone models do not deliver realistic haptic feedback. Thus customized parietal skull surrogates were developed for surgical training purposes. Two human parietal bones were used as reference. Based on the measurement of insertion forces of drilling, milling and saw procedures suitable material compositions for molding cortical and cancellous calvarial layers were found. Artificial skull caps were manufactured and tested. Additionally microtomograpy images of human and artificial parietal bones were performed to analyze outer table and diploe thicknesses. Significant differences between human and artificial skulls were not detected with the mechanical procedures tested. Highly significant differences were found for the diploe thickness values. In conclusion, an artificial bone has been created, mimicking the properties of human parietal bone thus being suitable for tabula externa graft lift training.

  10. Altered Parietal Activation during Non-symbolic Number Comparison in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri J. Woods

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Number processing is a cognitive domain particularly sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure, which relies on intact parietal functioning. Alcohol-related alterations in brain activation have been found in the parietal lobe during symbolic number processing. However, the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the neural correlates of non-symbolic number comparison and the numerical distance effect have not been investigated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we examined differences in brain activation associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in five parietal regions involved in number processing during a non-symbolic number comparison task with varying degrees of difficulty. fMRI results are presented for 27 Cape Colored children (6 fetal alcohol syndome (FAS/partial FAS, 5 heavily exposed (HE non-sydromal, 16 controls; mean age ± SD = 11.7 ± 1.1 years. Fetal alcohol exposure was assessed by interviewing mothers using a timeline follow-back approach. Separate subject analyses were performed in each of five regions of interest, bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulci (IPS, bilateral posterior superior parietal lobules (PSPL, and left angular gyrus (left AG, using the general linear model with predictors for number comparison and difficulty level. Mean percent signal change for each predictor was extracted for each subject for each region to examine group differences and associations with continuous measures of alcohol exposure. Although groups did not differ in performance, controls activated the right PSPL more during non-symbolic number comparison than exposed children, but this was not significant after controlling for maternal smoking, and the right IPS more than children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS or partial FAS. More heavily exposed children recruited the left AG to a greater extent as task difficulty increased, possibly to compensate, in part, for impairments in function in the PSPL and IPS. Notably, in non

  11. Inferior frontal gyrus links visual and motor cortices during a visuomotor precision grip force task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadelis, Christos; Arfeller, Carola; Erla, Silvia; Nollo, Giandomenico; Cattaneo, Luigi; Braun, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Coordination between vision and action relies on a fronto-parietal network that receives visual and proprioceptive sensory input in order to compute motor control signals. Here, we investigated with magnetoencephalography (MEG) which cortical areas are functionally coupled on the basis of synchronization during visuomotor integration. MEG signals were recorded from twelve healthy adults while performing a unimanual visuomotor (VM) task and control conditions. The VM task required the integration of pinch motor commands with visual sensory feedback. By using a beamformer, we localized the neural activity in the frequency range of 1-30Hz during the VM compared to rest. Virtual sensors were estimated at the active locations. A multivariate autoregressive model was used to estimate the power and coherence of estimated activity at the virtual sensors. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) during VM was observed in early visual areas, the rostral part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the right IFG, the superior parietal lobules, and the left hand motor cortex (M1). Functional coupling in the alpha frequency band bridged the regional activities observed in motor and visual cortices (the start and the end points in the visuomotor loop) through the left or right IFG. Coherence between the left IFG and left M1 correlated inversely with the task performance. Our results indicate that an occipital-prefrontal-motor functional network facilitates the modulation of instructed motor responses to visual cues. This network may supplement the mechanism for guiding actions that is fully incorporated into the dorsal visual stream. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of rostral inferior parietal lobule area functional connectivity from late childhood to early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Jilei; Dong, Guangheng; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Haifeng; Du, Xiaoxia

    2017-06-01

    Although the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been extensively studied in monkeys and adult humans, very little is known about its development. Previous studies suggest that the MNS is present by infancy and that the brain and MNS-related cognitive abilities (such as language, empathy, and imitation learning) continue to develop after childhood. In humans, the PFt area of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) seems to particularly correlate with the functional properties of the PF area in primates, which contains mirror neurons. However, little is known about the functional connectivity (FC) of the PFt area with other brain areas and whether these networks change over time. Here, we investigated the FC development of the PFt area-based network in 59 healthy subjects aged 7-26 years at resting-state to study brain development from late childhood through adolescence to early adulthood. The bilateral PFt showed similar core FC networks, which included the frontal lobe, the cingulate gyri, the insula, the somatosensory cortex, the precuneus, the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the temporal lobe, and the cerebellum posterior lobes. Furthermore, the FC between the left PFt and the left IPL exhibited a significantly positive correlation with age, and the FC between the left PFt and the right postcentral gyrus exhibited a significantly negative correlation with age. In addition, the FC between the right PFt and the right putamen exhibited a significantly negative correlation with age. Our findings suggest that the PFt area-based network develops and is reorganized with age. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dissociable parietal regions facilitate successful retrieval of recently learned and personally familiar information.

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    Elman, Jeremy A; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2013-03-01

    In fMRI analyses, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is particularly active during the successful retrieval of episodic memory. To delineate the neural correlates of episodic retrieval more succinctly, we compared retrieval of recently learned spatial locations (photographs of buildings) with retrieval of previously familiar locations (photographs of familiar campus buildings). Episodic retrieval of recently learned locations activated a circumscribed region within the ventral PPC (anterior angular gyrus and adjacent regions in the supramarginal gyrus) as well as medial PPC regions (posterior cingulated gyrus and posterior precuneus). Retrieval of familiar locations activated more posterior regions in the ventral PPC (posterior angular gyrus, LOC) and more anterior regions in the medial PPC (anterior precuneus and retrosplenial cortex). These dissociable effects define more precisely PPC regions involved in the retrieval of recent, contextually bound information as opposed to regions involved in other processes, such as visual imagery, scene reconstruction, and self-referential processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Visual perception is dependent on visuospatial working memory and thus on the posterior parietal cortex.

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    Pisella, Laure

    2017-06-01

    Visual perception involves complex and active processes. We will start by explaining why visual perception is dependent on visuospatial working memory, especially the spatiotemporal integration of the perceived elements through the ocular exploration of visual scenes. Then we will present neuropsychology, transcranial magnetic stimulation and neuroimaging data yielding information on the specific role of the posterior parietal cortex of the right hemisphere in visuospatial working memory. Within the posterior parietal cortex, neuropsychology data also suggest that there might be dissociated neural substrates for deployment of attention (superior parietal lobules) and spatiotemporal integration (right inferior parietal lobule). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Abnormal parietal function in conversion paresis.

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    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms.

  16. Functional segregation and integration within fronto-parietal networks.

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    Parlatini, Valeria; Radua, Joaquim; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Leslie, Anoushka; Simmons, Andy; Murphy, Declan G; Catani, Marco; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Experimental data on monkeys and functional studies in humans support the existence of a complex fronto-parietal system activating for cognitive and motor tasks, which may be anatomically supported by the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Advanced tractography methods have recently allowed the separation of the three branches of the SLF but are not suitable for their functional investigation. In order to gather comprehensive information about the functional organisation of these fronto-parietal connections, we used an innovative method, which combined tractography of the SLF in the largest dataset so far (129 participants) with 14 meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. We found that frontal and parietal functions can be clustered into a dorsal spatial/motor network associated with the SLF I, and a ventral non-spatial/motor network associated with the SLF III. Further, all the investigated functions activated a middle network mostly associated with the SLF II. Our findings suggest that dorsal and ventral fronto-parietal networks are segregated but also share regions of activation, which may support flexible response properties or conscious processing. In sum, our novel combined approach provided novel findings on the functional organisation of fronto-parietal networks, and may be successfully applied to other brain connections. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Endocannabinoids in the Dentate Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Frazier, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent years have produced rapid and enormous growth in our understanding of endocannabinoid-mediated signalling in the CNS. While much of the recent progress has focused on other areas of the brain, a significant body of evidence has developed that indicates the presence of a robust system for endocannabinoid-mediated signalling in the dentate gyrus. This chapter will provide an overview of our current understanding of that system based on available anatomical and physiological data.

  18. Gray Matter Volume of the Lingual Gyrus Mediates the Relationship between Inhibition Function and Divergent Thinking

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    Lijie Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Although previous research provides converging evidence for the role of posterior regions of the brain (including temporal, occipital, and parietal regions involved in inhibition on creative thinking, it remains unclear as to how these regions influence individual differences in creative thinking. Thus, we explored the relationship between posterior regions (i.e., hippocampal, parahippocampal, lingual gyrus, precuneus, and cuneus , inhibition function, and divergent thinking in 128 healthy college students. The results revealed that lower inhibition was associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV in the lingual gyrus, which in turn was associated with higher divergent thinking. In addition, GMV in the lingual gyrus mediated the association between inhibition and divergent thinking. These results provide new evidence for the role of inhibition in creative thinking. Inhibition may affect the amount of information stored in long-term memory, which, in turn influences divergent thinking.

  19. A case of tactile agnosia with a lesion restricted to the post-central gyrus.

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    Estañol, Bruno; Baizabal-Carvallo, José Fidel; Sentíes-Madrid, Horacio

    2008-01-01

    Tactile agnosia has been described after lesions of the primary sensory cortex but the exact location and extension of those lesions is not clear. We report the clinical features and imaging findings in a patient with an acute ischemic stroke restricted to the primary sensory area (S1). A 73-year-old man had a sudden onset of a left alien hand, without left hemiparesis. Neurological examination showed intact primary sensory functions, but impaired recognition of shape, size (macrogeometrical) and texture (microgeometrical) of objects; damage confined to the post-central gyrus, sparing the posterior parietal cortex was demonstrated on MRI. An embolic occlusion of the anterior parietal artery was suspected as mechanism of stroke. Tactile agnosia with impaired microgeometrical and macrogeometrical features' recognition can result from a single lesion in the primary sensory cortex (S1) in the right parietal hemisphere, sparing other regions of the cerebral cortex which presumably participate in tactile object recognition.

  20. Specifying the brain anatomy underlying temporo-parietal junction activations for theory of mind: A review using probabilistic atlases from different imaging modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurz, Matthias; Tholen, Matthias G; Perner, Josef; Mars, Rogier B; Sallet, Jerome

    2017-09-01

    In this quantitative review, we specified the anatomical basis of brain activity reported in the Temporo-Parietal Junction (TPJ) in Theory of Mind (ToM) research. Using probabilistic brain atlases, we labeled TPJ peak coordinates reported in the literature. This was carried out for four different atlas modalities: (i) gyral-parcellation, (ii) sulco-gyral parcellation, (iii) cytoarchitectonic parcellation and (iv) connectivity-based parcellation. In addition, our review distinguished between two ToM task types (false belief and social animations) and a nonsocial task (attention reorienting). We estimated the mean probabilities of activation for each atlas label, and found that for all three task types part of TPJ activations fell into the same areas: (i) Angular Gyrus (AG) and Lateral Occpital Cortex (LOC) in terms of a gyral atlas, (ii) AG and Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS) in terms of a sulco-gyral atlas, (iii) areas PGa and PGp in terms of cytoarchitecture and (iv) area TPJp in terms of a connectivity-based parcellation atlas. Beside these commonalities, we also found that individual task types showed preferential activation for particular labels. Main findings for the right hemisphere were preferential activation for false belief tasks in AG/PGa, and in Supramarginal Gyrus (SMG)/PFm for attention reorienting. Social animations showed strongest selective activation in the left hemisphere, specifically in left Middle Temporal Gyrus (MTG). We discuss how our results (i.e., identified atlas structures) can provide a new reference for describing future findings, with the aim to integrate different labels and terminologies used for studying brain activity around the TPJ. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4788-4805, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Lingual and fusiform gyri in visual processing: a clinico-pathologic study of superior altitudinal hemianopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bogousslavsky, J; Miklossy, J; Deruaz, J P; Assal, G; Regli, F

    1987-01-01

    A macular-sparing superior altitudinal hemianopia with no visuo-psychic disturbance, except impaired visual learning, was associated with bilateral ischaemic necrosis of the lingual gyrus and only partial involvement of the fusiform gyrus on the left side. It is suggested that bilateral destruction of the lingual gyrus alone is not sufficient to affect complex visual processing. The fusiform gyrus probably has a critical role in colour integration, visuo-spatial processing, facial recognition...

  2. A role of right middle frontal gyrus in reorienting of attention: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japee, Shruti; Holiday, Kelsey; Satyshur, Maureen D; Mukai, Ikuko; Ungerleider, Leslie G

    2015-01-01

    The right middle fontal gyrus (MFG) has been proposed to be a site of convergence of the dorsal and ventral attention networks, by serving as a circuit-breaker to interrupt ongoing endogenous attentional processes in the dorsal network and reorient attention to an exogenous stimulus. Here, we probed the contribution of the right MFG to both endogenous and exogenous attention by comparing performance on an orientation discrimination task of a patient with a right MFG resection and a group of healthy controls. On endogenously cued trials, participants were shown a central cue that predicted with 90% accuracy the location of a subsequent peri-threshold Gabor patch stimulus. On exogenously cued trials, a cue appeared briefly at one of two peripheral locations, followed by a variable inter-stimulus interval (ISI; range 0-700 ms) and a Gabor patch in the same or opposite location as the cue. Behavioral data showed that for endogenous, and short ISI exogenous trials, valid cues facilitated responses compared to invalid cues, for both the patient and controls. However, at long ISIs, the patient exhibited difficulty in reverting to top-down attentional control, once the facilitatory effect of the exogenous cue had dissipated. When explicitly cued during long ISIs to attend to both stimulus locations, the patient was able to engage successfully in top-down control. This result indicates that the right MFG may play an important role in reorienting attention from exogenous to endogenous attentional control. Resting state fMRI data revealed that the right superior parietal lobule and right orbitofrontal cortex, showed significantly higher correlations with a left MFG seed region (a region tightly coupled with the right MFG in controls) in the patient relative to controls. We hypothesize that this paradoxical increase in cortical coupling represents a compensatory mechanism in the patient to offset the loss of function of the resected tissue in right prefrontal cortex.

  3. Schematic memory components converge within angular gyrus during retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Isabella C; van Buuren, Mariët; Kroes, Marijn CW; Gutteling, Tjerk P; van der Linden, Marieke; Morris, Richard G; Fernández, Guillén

    2015-01-01

    Mental schemas form associative knowledge structures that can promote the encoding and consolidation of new and related information. Schemas are facilitated by a distributed system that stores components separately, presumably in the form of inter-connected neocortical representations. During retrieval, these components need to be recombined into one representation, but where exactly such recombination takes place is unclear. Thus, we asked where different schema components are neuronally represented and converge during retrieval. Subjects acquired and retrieved two well-controlled, rule-based schema structures during fMRI on consecutive days. Schema retrieval was associated with midline, medial-temporal, and parietal processing. We identified the multi-voxel representations of different schema components, which converged within the angular gyrus during retrieval. Critically, convergence only happened after 24-hour-consolidation and during a transfer test where schema material was applied to novel but related trials. Therefore, the angular gyrus appears to recombine consolidated schema components into one memory representation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09668.001 PMID:26575291

  4. The inferior parietal lobule and recognition memory : expectancy violation or successful retrieval?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Han, Sanghoon; Dobbins, Ian G.

    2010-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of episodic recognition demonstrate an increased lateral parietal response for studied versus new materials, often termed a retrieval success effect. Using a novel memory analog of attentional cueing, we manipulated the correspondence between anticipated and actual recognition evidence by presenting valid or invalid anticipatory cues (e. g., "likely old") before recognition judgments. Although a superior parietal region demonstrated the retrieval success patter...

  5. Encefalomenigocele atrésico parietal Parietal atresic encephalomeningocele

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    Liliana Rivera Oliva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El encefalocele es una anomalía congénita rara, en la que una porción del encéfalo protruye a través de un orificio craneal (evaginación, generalmente situado en la línea media. Clínicamente se caracteriza por una masa epicraneal, de consistencia blanda, muchas veces acompañada de trastornos psicomotores, convulsiones y trastornos de la visión. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido con diagnóstico de encefalomeningocele atrésico parietal, intervenido quirúrgicamente y con evolución satisfactoria.The encephalocele is a uncommon congenital anomaly where a portion of encephalon protrudes through a cranial orifice (evagination, generally located in the middle line. Clinically, it is characterized by a soft epicranial mass often accompanied or psychomotor disorders, convulsions and vision disorders. This is the case of a newborn diagnosed with parietal atresic encephalomeningocele operated on with a satisfactory evolution.

  6. Altered Medial Frontal and Superior Temporal Response to Implicit Processing of Emotions in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K; Patriquin, Michelle A; Black, Briley S; Channell, Marie M; Wicker, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting emotional expressions appropriately poses a challenge for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, difficulties with emotional processing in ASD are more pronounced in contexts where emotional expressions are subtle, automatic, and reflexive-that is, implicit. In contrast, explicit emotional processing, which requires the cognitive evaluation of an emotional experience, appears to be relatively intact in individuals with ASD. In the present study, we examined the brain activation and functional connectivity differences underlying explicit and implicit emotional processing in age- and IQ-matched adults with (n = 17) and without (n = 15) ASD. Results indicated: (1) significantly reduced levels of brain activation in participants with ASD in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) during implicit emotion processing; (2) significantly weaker functional connectivity in the ASD group in connections of the MPFC with the amygdala, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and fusiform gyrus; (3) No group difference in performance accuracy or reaction time; and (4) Significant positive relationship between empathizing ability and STG activity in ASD but not in typically developing participants. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms underlying implicit, but not explicit, emotion processing may be altered at multiple levels in individuals with ASD. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Amygdala, Pulvinar & Inferior Parietal Cortex Contribute to Early Processing of Faces without Awareness

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    Vanessa eTroiani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the present study were twofold. First, we wished to investigate the neural correlates of stimulus-driven processing of stimuli strongly suppressed from awareness and in the absence of top-down influences. We accomplished this using a novel approach in which participants performed an orthogonal task atop a flash suppression noise image to prevent top-down search. Second, we wished to investigate the extent to which amygdala responses differentiate between suppressed stimuli (fearful faces and houses based on their motivational relevance. Using continuous flash suppression in conjunction with fMRI, we presented fearful faces, houses, and a no stimulus control to one eye while participants performed an orthogonal task that appeared atop the flashing Mondrian image presented to the opposite eye. In 29 adolescents, we show activation in subcortical regions, including the superior colliculus, amygdala, thalamus, and hippocampus for suppressed objects (fearful faces and houses compared to a no stimulus control. Suppressed stimuli showed less activation compared to a no stimulus control in early visual cortex, indicating that object information was being suppressed from this region. Additionally, we find no activation in regions associated with conscious processing of these percepts (fusiform gyrus and/or parahippocampal cortex as assessed by mean activations and multi-voxel patterns. A psychophysiological interaction analysis that seeded the amygdala showed task-specific (fearful faces greater than houses modulation of right pulvinar and left inferior parietal cortex. Taken together, our results support a role for the amygdala in stimulus-driven attentional guidance towards objects of relevance and a potential mechanism for successful suppression of rivalrous stimuli.

  8. Tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Grosskreutz, Julian; Prell, Tino; Kaufmann, Jörn; Bodammer, Nils; Peschel, Thomas

    2014-01-07

    Despite strong evidence that the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia and cortical frontal areas, findings from in vivo imaging studies have provided conflicting results. In this study we used whole brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways and brain tissue in 19 unmedicated, adult, male patients with TS "only" (without comorbid psychiatric disorders) and 20 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Compared to normal controls, TS patients showed a decrease in the fractional anisotropy index (FA) bilaterally in the medial frontal gyrus, the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, the middle occipital gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus, and the medial premotor cortex. Increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were detected in the left cingulate gyrus, prefrontal areas, left precentral gyrus, and left putamen. There was a negative correlation between tic severity and FA values in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, cingulate gyrus bilaterally, and ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the right thalamus, and a positive correlation in the body of the corpus callosum, left thalamus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. There was also a positive correlation between regional ADC values and tic severity in the left cingulate gyrus, putamen bilaterally, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, left precentral gyrus, and ventral anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. Our results confirm prior studies suggesting that tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus seem to reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms. Due to the study design, influences from comorbidities, gender, medication and age can be excluded.

  9. Tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite strong evidence that the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia and cortical frontal areas, findings from in vivo imaging studies have provided conflicting results. In this study we used whole brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways and brain tissue in 19 unmedicated, adult, male patients with TS “only” (without comorbid psychiatric disorders) and 20 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Results Compared to normal controls, TS patients showed a decrease in the fractional anisotropy index (FA) bilaterally in the medial frontal gyrus, the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, the middle occipital gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus, and the medial premotor cortex. Increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were detected in the left cingulate gyrus, prefrontal areas, left precentral gyrus, and left putamen. There was a negative correlation between tic severity and FA values in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, cingulate gyrus bilaterally, and ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the right thalamus, and a positive correlation in the body of the corpus callosum, left thalamus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. There was also a positive correlation between regional ADC values and tic severity in the left cingulate gyrus, putamen bilaterally, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, left precentral gyrus, and ventral anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. Conclusions Our results confirm prior studies suggesting that tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus seem to reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms. Due to the study design, influences from comorbidities, gender, medication and age can be excluded. PMID:24397347

  10. Thalamic and parietal brain morphology predicts auditory category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Henry, Molly J; Erb, Julia; Meyer, Lars; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Auditory categorization is a vital skill involving the attribution of meaning to acoustic events, engaging domain-specific (i.e., auditory) as well as domain-general (e.g., executive) brain networks. A listener's ability to categorize novel acoustic stimuli should therefore depend on both, with the domain-general network being particularly relevant for adaptively changing listening strategies and directing attention to relevant acoustic cues. Here we assessed adaptive listening behavior, using complex acoustic stimuli with an initially salient (but later degraded) spectral cue and a secondary, duration cue that remained nondegraded. We employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify cortical and subcortical brain structures whose individual neuroanatomy predicted task performance and the ability to optimally switch to making use of temporal cues after spectral degradation. Behavioral listening strategies were assessed by logistic regression and revealed mainly strategy switches in the expected direction, with considerable individual differences. Gray-matter probability in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and left precentral gyrus was predictive of "optimal" strategy switch, while gray-matter probability in thalamic areas, comprising the medial geniculate body, co-varied with overall performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that successful auditory categorization relies on domain-specific neural circuits in the ascending auditory pathway, while adaptive listening behavior depends more on brain structure in parietal cortex, enabling the (re)direction of attention to salient stimulus properties. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Uncertain relational reasoning in the parietal cortex.

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    Ragni, Marco; Franzmeier, Imke; Maier, Simon; Knauff, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The psychology of reasoning is currently transitioning from the study of deductive inferences under certainty to inferences that have degrees of uncertainty in both their premises and conclusions; however, only a few studies have explored the cortical basis of uncertain reasoning. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we show that areas in the right superior parietal lobe (rSPL) are necessary for solving spatial relational reasoning problems under conditions of uncertainty. Twenty-four participants had to decide whether a single presented order of objects agreed with a given set of indeterminate premises that could be interpreted in more than one way. During the presentation of the order, 10-Hz TMS was applied over the rSPL or a sham control site. Right SPL TMS during the inference phase disrupted performance in uncertain relational reasoning. Moreover, we found differences in the error rates between preferred mental models, alternative models, and inconsistent models. Our results suggest that different mechanisms are involved when people reason spatially and evaluate different kinds of uncertain conclusions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Visual Categorization and the Parietal Cortex

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    Jamie K Fitzgerald

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The primate brain is adept at rapidly grouping items and events into functional classes, or categories, in order to recognize the significance of stimuli and guide behavior. Higher cognitive functions have traditionally been considered the domain of frontal areas. However, increasing evidence suggests that parietal cortex is also involved in categorical and associative processes. Previous work showed that the parietal cortex is highly involved in spatial processing, attention and saccadic eye movement planning, and more recent studies have found decision-making signals in LIP. We recently found that a subdivision of parietal cortex, the lateral intraparietal area (LIP, reflects learned categories for multiple types of visual stimuli. Additionally, a comparison of categorization signals in parietal and frontal areas found stronger and earlier categorization signals in parietal cortex, arguing that parietal abstract association or category signals are unlikely to arise via feedback from prefrontal cortex (PFC.

  13. Laminar thickness alterations in the fronto-parietal cortical mantle of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

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    Elseline Hoekzema

    Full Text Available Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD was initially regarded as a disorder exclusive to childhood, nowadays its prevalence in adulthood is well established. The development of novel techniques for quantifying the thickness of the cerebral mantle allows the further exploration of the neuroanatomical profiles underlying the child and adult form of the disorder. To examine the cortical mantle in children and adults with ADHD, we applied a vertex-wise analysis of cortical thickness to anatomical brain MRI scans acquired from children with (n = 43 and without ADHD (n = 41, as well as a group of adult neurotypical individuals (n = 31, adult patients with a history of stimulant treatment (n = 31 and medication-naïve adults with ADHD (n = 24. We observed several clusters of reduced laminar cortical thickness in ADHD patients in comparison to neurotypical individuals. These differences were primarily located in the dorsal attention network, including the bilateral inferior and superior parietal cortex and a section of the frontal cortex (centered on the superior frontal and precentral gyrus bilaterally. Further laminar thickness deficits were observed in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and medial occipital cortex. The deficits in the cortical surface were especially pronounced in the child sample, while adult patients showed a more typical laminar thickness across the cerebral mantle. These findings show that the neuroanatomical profile of ADHD, especially the childhood form of the disorder, involves robust alterations in the cortical mantle, which are most prominent in brain regions subserving attentional processing.

  14. Brain activity dynamics in human parietal regions during spontaneous switches in bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megumi, Fukuda; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2015-02-15

    The neural mechanisms underlying conscious visual perception have been extensively investigated using bistable perception paradigms. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the right anterior superior parietal (r-aSPL) and the right posterior superior parietal lobule (r-pSPL) have opposite roles in triggering perceptual reversals. It has been proposed that these two areas are part of a hierarchical network whose dynamics determine perceptual switches. However, how these two parietal regions interact with each other and with the rest of the brain during bistable perception is not known. Here, we investigated such a model by recording brain activity using fMRI while participants viewed a bistable structure-from-motion stimulus. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we found that resolving such perceptual ambiguity was specifically associated with reciprocal interactions between these parietal regions and V5/MT. Strikingly, the strength of bottom-up coupling between V5/MT to r-pSPL and from r-pSPL to r-aSPL predicted individual mean dominance duration. Our findings are consistent with a hierarchical predictive coding model of parietal involvement in bistable perception and suggest that visual information processing underlying spontaneous perceptual switches can be described as changes in connectivity strength between parietal and visual cortical regions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parietal podocytes in normal human glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariety, Jean; Mandet, Chantal; Hill, Gary S; Bruneval, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Although parietal podocytes along the Bowman's capsule have been described by electron microscopy in the normal human kidney, their molecular composition remains unknown. Ten human normal kidneys that were removed for cancer were assessed for the presence and the extent of parietal podocytes along the Bowman's capsule. The expression of podocyte-specific proteins (podocalyxin, glomerular epithelial protein-1, podocin, nephrin, synaptopodin, and alpha-actinin-4), podocyte synthesized proteins (vascular endothelial growth factor and novH), transcription factors (WT1 and PAX2), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57, and intermediate filaments (cytokeratins and vimentin) was tested. In addition, six normal fetal kidneys were studied to track the ontogeny of parietal podocytes. The podocyte protein labeling detected parietal podocytes in all of the kidneys, was found in 76.6% on average of Bowman's capsule sections, and was prominent at the vascular pole. WT1 and p57 were expressed in some parietal cells, whereas PAX2 was present in all or most of them, so some parietal cells coexpressed WT1 and PAX2. Furthermore, parietal podocytes coexpressed WT1 and podocyte proteins. Cytokeratin-positive cells covered a variable part of the capsule and did not express podocyte proteins. Tuft-capsular podocyte bridges were present in 15.5 +/- 3.7% of the glomerular sections. Parietal podocytes often covered the juxtaglomerular arterioles and were present within the extraglomerular mesangium. Parietal podocytes were present in fetal kidneys. Parietal podocytes that express the same epitopes as visceral podocytes do exist along Bowman's capsule in the normal adult kidney. They are a constitutive cell type of the Bowman's capsule. Therefore, their role in physiology and pathology should be investigated.

  16. Proteomic profiling of the epileptic dentate gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Aiqing; Choi, Yun-Sik; Dziema, Heather; Cao, Ruifeng; Cho, Hee-Yeon; Jung, Yeon Joo; Obrietan, Karl

    2010-01-01

    The development of epilepsy is often associated with marked changes in central nervous system cell structure and function. Along these lines, reactive gliosis and granule cell axonal sprouting within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are commonly observed in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy. Here we used the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy in mice to screen the proteome and phosphoproteome of the dentate gyrus to identify molecular events that are altered as part of the ...

  17. Functional network-based statistics in depression: Theory of mind subnetwork and importance of parietal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Hou, Yuh-Ming

    2017-08-01

    The functional network analysis of whole brain is an emerging field for research in depression. We initiated this study to investigate which subnetwork is significantly altered within the functional connectome in major depressive disorder (MDD). The study enrolled 52 first-episode medication-naïve patients with MDD and 40 controls for functional network analysis. All participants received the resting-state functional imaging using a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. After preprocessing, we calculated the connectivity matrix of functional connectivity in whole brain for each subject. The network-based statistics of connectome was used to perform group comparisons between patients and controls. The correlations between functional connectivity and clinical parameters were also performed. MDD patients had significant alterations in the network involving "theory of mind" regions, such as the left precentral gyrus, left angular gyrus, bilateral rolandic operculums and left inferior frontal gyrus. The center node of significant network was the left angular gyrus. No significant correlations of functional connectivity within the subnetwork and clinical parameters were noted. Functional connectivity of "theory of mind" subnetwork may be the core issue for pathophysiology in MDD. In addition, the center role of parietal region should be emphasized in future study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Visual Short-Term Memory Activity in Parietal Lobe Reflects Cognitive Processes beyond Attentional Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremata, Summer L; Somers, David C; Shomstein, Sarah

    2018-02-07

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and attention are distinct yet interrelated processes. While both require selection of information across the visual field, memory additionally requires the maintenance of information across time and distraction. VSTM recruits areas within human (male and female) dorsal and ventral parietal cortex that are also implicated in spatial selection; therefore, it is important to determine whether overlapping activation might reflect shared attentional demands. Here, identical stimuli and controlled sustained attention across both tasks were used to ask whether fMRI signal amplitude, functional connectivity, and contralateral visual field bias reflect memory-specific task demands. While attention and VSTM activated similar cortical areas, BOLD amplitude and functional connectivity in parietal cortex differentiated the two tasks. Relative to attention, VSTM increased BOLD amplitude in dorsal parietal cortex and decreased BOLD amplitude in the angular gyrus. Additionally, the tasks differentially modulated parietal functional connectivity. Contrasting VSTM and attention, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) 1-2 were more strongly connected with anterior frontoparietal areas and more weakly connected with posterior regions. This divergence between tasks demonstrates that parietal activation reflects memory-specific functions and consequently modulates functional connectivity across the cortex. In contrast, both tasks demonstrated hemispheric asymmetries for spatial processing, exhibiting a stronger contralateral visual field bias in the left versus the right hemisphere across tasks, suggesting that asymmetries are characteristic of a shared selection process in IPS. These results demonstrate that parietal activity and patterns of functional connectivity distinguish VSTM from more general attention processes, establishing a central role of the parietal cortex in maintaining visual information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and

  19. Anatomy and white matter connections of the orbitofrontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Joshua D; Conner, Andrew K; Bonney, Phillip A; Glenn, Chad A; Baker, Cordell M; Boettcher, Lillian B; Briggs, Robert G; O'Donoghue, Daniel L; Wu, Dee H; Sughrue, Michael E

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is understood to have a role in outcome evaluation and risk assessment and is commonly involved with infiltrative tumors. A detailed understanding of the exact location and nature of associated white matter tracts could significantly improve postoperative morbidity related to declining capacity. Through diffusion tensor imaging-based fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, the authors have characterized these connections based on relationships to other well-known structures. METHODS Diffusion imaging from the Human Connectome Project for 10 healthy adult controls was used for tractography analysis. The OFC was evaluated as a whole based on connectivity with other regions. All OFC tracts were mapped in both hemispheres, and a lateralization index was calculated with resultant tract volumes. Ten postmortem dissections were then performed using a modified Klingler technique to demonstrate the location of major tracts. RESULTS The authors identified 3 major connections of the OFC: a bundle to the thalamus and anterior cingulate gyrus, passing inferior to the caudate and medial to the vertical fibers of the thalamic projections; a bundle to the brainstem, traveling lateral to the caudate and medial to the internal capsule; and radiations to the parietal and occipital lobes traveling with the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. CONCLUSIONS The OFC is an important center for processing visual, spatial, and emotional information. Subtle differences in executive functioning following surgery for frontal lobe tumors may be better understood in the context of the fiber-bundle anatomy highlighted by this study.

  20. Herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yavarian, Yousef; Bayat, Michael; Brøndum Frøkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus into the ambient cistern is a very rare entity, which could be mistaken for other pathology such as tumor. To the best of our knowledge, two prior cases of this kind of herniation have been described. One of these cases was with associated...... symptomatology and other abnormalities, and the other was characterized as idiopathic. In this case report, we report a case of accidental finding of a herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus into the ambient cistern, without any other accompanying abnormalities, well depicted by magnetic resonance imaging...

  1. Neural correlates of conflict between gestures and words: A domain-specific role for a temporal-parietal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, J Adam; Dravida, Swethasri; Zhang, Xian; Yahil, Shaul; Hirsch, Joy

    2017-01-01

    The interpretation of social cues is a fundamental function of human social behavior, and resolution of inconsistencies between spoken and gestural cues plays an important role in successful interactions. To gain insight into these underlying neural processes, we compared neural responses in a traditional color/word conflict task and to a gesture/word conflict task to test hypotheses of domain-general and domain-specific conflict resolution. In the gesture task, recorded spoken words ("yes" and "no") were presented simultaneously with video recordings of actors performing one of the following affirmative or negative gestures: thumbs up, thumbs down, head nodding (up and down), or head shaking (side-to-side), thereby generating congruent and incongruent communication stimuli between gesture and words. Participants identified the communicative intent of the gestures as either positive or negative. In the color task, participants were presented the words "red" and "green" in either red or green font and were asked to identify the color of the letters. We observed a classic "Stroop" behavioral interference effect, with participants showing increased response time for incongruent trials relative to congruent ones for both the gesture and color tasks. Hemodynamic signals acquired using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) were increased in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for incongruent trials relative to congruent trials for both tasks consistent with a common, domain-general mechanism for detecting conflict. However, activity in the left DLPFC and frontal eye fields and the right temporal-parietal junction (TPJ), superior temporal gyrus (STG), supramarginal gyrus (SMG), and primary and auditory association cortices was greater for the gesture task than the color task. Thus, in addition to domain-general conflict processing mechanisms, as suggested by common engagement of right DLPFC, socially specialized neural modules localized to the left

  2. Neural correlates of conflict between gestures and words: A domain-specific role for a temporal-parietal complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Adam Noah

    Full Text Available The interpretation of social cues is a fundamental function of human social behavior, and resolution of inconsistencies between spoken and gestural cues plays an important role in successful interactions. To gain insight into these underlying neural processes, we compared neural responses in a traditional color/word conflict task and to a gesture/word conflict task to test hypotheses of domain-general and domain-specific conflict resolution. In the gesture task, recorded spoken words ("yes" and "no" were presented simultaneously with video recordings of actors performing one of the following affirmative or negative gestures: thumbs up, thumbs down, head nodding (up and down, or head shaking (side-to-side, thereby generating congruent and incongruent communication stimuli between gesture and words. Participants identified the communicative intent of the gestures as either positive or negative. In the color task, participants were presented the words "red" and "green" in either red or green font and were asked to identify the color of the letters. We observed a classic "Stroop" behavioral interference effect, with participants showing increased response time for incongruent trials relative to congruent ones for both the gesture and color tasks. Hemodynamic signals acquired using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS were increased in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC for incongruent trials relative to congruent trials for both tasks consistent with a common, domain-general mechanism for detecting conflict. However, activity in the left DLPFC and frontal eye fields and the right temporal-parietal junction (TPJ, superior temporal gyrus (STG, supramarginal gyrus (SMG, and primary and auditory association cortices was greater for the gesture task than the color task. Thus, in addition to domain-general conflict processing mechanisms, as suggested by common engagement of right DLPFC, socially specialized neural modules localized to

  3. Sense of agency is related to gamma band coupling in an inferior parietal-preSMA circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina eRitterband-Rosenbaum

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we tested whether sense of agency (SoA is reflected by changes in coupling between right medio-frontal/supplementary motor area (SMA and inferior parietal cortex (IPC. Twelve healthy adult volunteers participated in the study. They performed a variation of a line-drawing task (Nielsen, 1963;Fourneret and Jeannerod, 1998, in which they moved a cursor on a digital tablet with their right hand without seeing the hand. Visual feedback displayed on a computer monitor was either in correspondence with or deviated from the actual movement. This made participants uncertain as to the agent of the movement and they reported SoA in approximately 50% of trials when the movement was computer-generated. We tested whether IPC-preSMA coupling was associated with SoA, using dynamic causal modelling (DCM for induced responses (Chen et al., 2008;Herz et al., 2012. Nine different DCMs were constructed for the early and late phases of the task, respectively. All models included two regions: a superior medial gyrus (preSMA region and a right supramarginal gyrus (IPC region. Bayesian models selection (Stephan et al., 2009 favoured a model with input to IPC and modulation of the forward connection to SMA in the late task phase, and a model with input to preSMA and modulation of the backward connection was favoured for the early task phase. The analysis shows that IPC source activity in the 50-60Hz range modulated preSMA source activity in the 40-70 Hz range in the presence of SoA compared with no SoA in the late task phase, but the test of the early task phase did not reveal any differences between presence and absence of SoA. We show that SoA is associated with a directionally specific between frequencies coupling from IPC to preSMA in the higher gamma (ɣ band in the late task phase. This suggests that SoA is a retrospective perception, which is highly dependent on interpretation of the outcome of the performed action.

  4. Sense of agency is related to gamma band coupling in an inferior parietal-preSMA circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Nielsen, Jens B.; Christensen, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we tested whether sense of agency (SoA) is reflected by changes in coupling between right medio-frontal/supplementary motor area (SMA) and inferior parietal cortex (IPC). Twelve healthy adult volunteers participated in the study. They performed a variation of a line-drawing task (Nielsen, 1963; Fourneret and Jeannerod, 1998), in which they moved a cursor on a digital tablet with their right hand without seeing the hand. Visual feedback displayed on a computer monitor was either in correspondence with or deviated from the actual movement. This made participants uncertain as to the agent of the movement and they reported SoA in approximately 50% of trials when the movement was computer-generated. We tested whether IPC-preSMA coupling was associated with SoA, using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for induced responses (Chen et al., 2008; Herz et al., 2012). Nine different DCMs were constructed for the early and late phases of the task, respectively. All models included two regions: a superior medial gyrus (preSMA) region and a right supramarginal gyrus (IPC) region. Bayesian models selection (Stephan et al., 2009) favored a model with input to IPC and modulation of the forward connection to SMA in the late task phase, and a model with input to preSMA and modulation of the backward connection was favored for the early task phase. The analysis shows that IPC source activity in the 50–60 Hz range modulated preSMA source activity in the 40–70 Hz range in the presence of SoA compared with no SoA in the late task phase, but the test of the early task phase did not reveal any differences between presence and absence of SoA. We show that SoA is associated with a directionally specific between frequencies coupling from IPC to preSMA in the higher gamma (ɣ) band in the late task phase. This suggests that SoA is a retrospective perception, which is highly dependent on interpretation of the outcome of the performed action. PMID:25076883

  5. A brief period of sleep deprivation causes spine loss in the dentate gyrus of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Frank; Meerlo, Peter; Van der Zee, Eddy A; Abel, Ted; Havekes, Robbert

    2018-03-24

    Sleep and sleep loss have a profound impact on hippocampal function, leading to memory impairments. Modifications in the strength of synaptic connections directly influences neuronal communication, which is vital for normal brain function, as well as the processing and storage of information. In a recently published study, we found that as little as five hours of sleep deprivation impaired hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation, which was accompanied by a reduction in dendritic spine numbers in hippocampal area CA1. Surprisingly, loss of sleep did not alter the spine density of CA3 neurons. Although sleep deprivation has been reported to affect the function of the dentate gyrus, it is unclear whether a brief period of sleep deprivation impacts spine density in this region. Here, we investigated the impact of a brief period of sleep deprivation on dendritic structure in the dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus. We found that five hours of sleep loss reduces spine density in the dentate gyrus with a prominent effect on branched spines. Interestingly, the inferior blade of the dentate gyrus seems to be more vulnerable in terms of spine loss than the superior blade. This decrease in spine density predominantly in the inferior blade of the dentate gyrus may contribute to the memory deficits observed after sleep loss, as structural reorganization of synaptic networks in this subregion is fundamental for cognitive processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multimodal responses induced by cortical stimulation of the parietal lobe: a stereo-electroencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Francione, Stefano; Mai, Roberto; Castana, Laura; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Marino, Daniela; Provinciali, Leandro; Cardinale, Francesco; Tassi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The functional complexity of the parietal lobe still represents a challenge for neurophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies. While the somatosensory functions of the anterior parietal cortex are well established, the posterior parietal cortex has a relevant role in processing the sensory information, including visuo-spatial perception, visual attention, visuo-motor transformations and other complex and not completely understood functions. We retrospectively analysed all the clinical manifestations induced by intracerebral bipolar electrical stimulation in 172 patients suffering from drug-resistant focal epilepsy (mean age 25.6, standard deviation 11.6; 44% females and 56% males) with at least one electrode stereotactically implanted in the parietal cortex. A total of 1186 electrical stimulations were included in the analysis, of which 88 were subsequently excluded because of eliciting pathological electric activity or inducing ictal symptomatology. In the dominant parietal lobe, clinical responses were observed for 56 (25%) of the low-frequency stimulations and for 76 (50%) of the high-frequency stimulations. In the non-dominant parietal lobe, 111 (27%) low-frequency and 176 (55%) high-frequency stimulations were associated with a clinical response. Body scheme alteration was the only clinical effect showing a lateralization, as they were evoked only in the non-dominant hemisphere. The occurrence of somatosensory sensations, motor symptoms, dysarthria and multimodal responses were significantly associated with stimulation of the postcentral gyrus (odds ratio: 5.83, P < 0.001; odds ratio: 8.77, P < 0.001; odds ratio: 5.44, P = 0.011; odds ratio: 8.33, P = 0.006; respectively). Stimulation of the intraparietal sulcus was associated with the occurrence of sensory illusions or hallucinations (odds ratio: 8.68, P < 0.001) and eyeball/eyelid movements or sensations (odds ratio: 4.35, P = 0.047). To our knowledge, this is the only currently available complete

  7. Heteromodal conceptual processing in the angular gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Michael F; Peelle, Jonathan E; Cook, Philip A; Grossman, Murray

    2013-05-01

    Concepts bind together the features commonly associated with objects and events to form networks in long-term semantic memory. These conceptual networks are the basis of human knowledge and underlie perception, imagination, and the ability to communicate about experiences and the contents of the environment. Although it is often assumed that this distributed semantic information is integrated in higher-level heteromodal association cortices, open questions remain about the role and anatomic basis of heteromodal representations in semantic memory. Here we used combined neuroimaging evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize the cortical networks underlying concept representation. Using a lexical decision task, we examined the processing of concepts in four semantic categories that varied on their sensory-motor feature associations (sight, sound, manipulation, and abstract). We found that the angular gyrus was activated across all categories regardless of their modality-specific feature associations, consistent with a heteromodal account for the angular gyrus. Exploratory analyses suggested that categories with weighted sensory-motor features additionally recruited modality-specific association cortices. Furthermore, DTI tractography identified white matter tracts connecting these regions of modality-specific functional activation with the angular gyrus. These findings are consistent with a distributed semantic network that includes a heteromodal, integrative component in the angular gyrus in combination with sensory-motor feature representations in modality-specific association cortices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Parietal disruption alters audiovisual binding in the sound-induced flash illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, Marc R; Vieth, Harrison E; Cottrell, David; Mattingley, Jason B

    2012-09-01

    Selective attention and multisensory integration are fundamental to perception, but little is known about whether, or under what circumstances, these processes interact to shape conscious awareness. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the causal role of attention-related brain networks in multisensory integration between visual and auditory stimuli in the sound-induced flash illusion. The flash illusion is a widely studied multisensory phenomenon in which a single flash of light is falsely perceived as multiple flashes in the presence of irrelevant sounds. We investigated the hypothesis that extrastriate regions involved in selective attention, specifically within the right parietal cortex, exert an influence on the multisensory integrative processes that cause the flash illusion. We found that disruption of the right angular gyrus, but not of the adjacent supramarginal gyrus or of a sensory control site, enhanced participants' veridical perception of the multisensory events, thereby reducing their susceptibility to the illusion. Our findings suggest that the same parietal networks that normally act to enhance perception of attended events also play a role in the binding of auditory and visual stimuli in the sound-induced flash illusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus in deaf and dyslexic adults during rhyming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacSweeney, Mairéad; Brammer, Michael J; Waters, Dafydd; Goswami, Usha

    2009-07-01

    Hearing developmental dyslexics and profoundly deaf individuals both have difficulties processing the internal structure of words (phonological processing) and learning to read. In hearing non-impaired readers, the development of phonological representations depends on audition. In hearing dyslexics, many argue, auditory processes may be impaired. In congenitally profoundly deaf individuals, auditory speech processing is essentially absent. Two separate literatures have previously reported enhanced activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus in both deaf and dyslexic adults when contrasted with hearing non-dyslexics during reading or phonological tasks. Here, we used a rhyme judgement task to compare adults from these two special populations to a hearing non-dyslexic control group. All groups were matched on non-verbal intelligence quotient, reading age and rhyme performance. Picture stimuli were used since this requires participants to generate their own phonological representations, rather than have them partially provided via text. By testing well-matched groups of participants on the same task, we aimed to establish whether previous literatures reporting differences between individuals with and without phonological processing difficulties have identified the same regions of differential activation in these two distinct populations. The data indicate greater activation in the deaf and dyslexic groups than in the hearing non-dyslexic group across a large portion of the left inferior frontal gyrus. This includes the pars triangularis, extending superiorly into the middle frontal gyrus and posteriorly to include the pars opercularis, and the junction with the ventral precentral gyrus. Within the left inferior frontal gyrus, there was variability between the two groups with phonological processing difficulties. The superior posterior tip of the left pars opercularis, extending into the precentral gyrus, was activated to a greater extent by deaf than dyslexic

  10. Activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus in the first 200 ms of reading: evidence from magnetoencephalography (MEG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Piers L; Kringelbach, Morten L; Ellis, Andrew W; Whitney, Carol; Holliday, Ian E; Hansen, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that the left inferior frontal gyrus plays a key role in the cerebral cortical network that supports reading and visual word recognition. Less clear is when in time this contribution begins. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG), which has both good spatial and excellent temporal resolution, to address this question. MEG data were recorded during a passive viewing paradigm, chosen to emphasize the stimulus-driven component of the cortical response, in which right-handed participants were presented words, consonant strings, and unfamiliar faces to central vision. Time-frequency analyses showed a left-lateralized inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis) response to words between 100-250 ms in the beta frequency band that was significantly stronger than the response to consonant strings or faces. The left inferior frontal gyrus response to words peaked at approximately 130 ms. This response was significantly later in time than the left middle occipital gyrus, which peaked at approximately 115 ms, but not significantly different from the peak response in the left mid fusiform gyrus, which peaked at approximately 140 ms, at a location coincident with the fMRI-defined visual word form area (VWFA). Significant responses were also detected to words in other parts of the reading network, including the anterior middle temporal gyrus, the left posterior middle temporal gyrus, the angular and supramarginal gyri, and the left superior temporal gyrus. These findings suggest very early interactions between the vision and language domains during visual word recognition, with speech motor areas being activated at the same time as the orthographic word-form is being resolved within the fusiform gyrus. This challenges the conventional view of a temporally serial processing sequence for visual word recognition in which letter forms are initially decoded, interact with their phonological and semantic representations, and only then gain access to a speech code.

  11. Inferior parietal and right frontal contributions to trial-by-trial adaptations of attention to memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilirmak, Jasmin M; Rösler, Frank; Bien, Siegfried; Khader, Patrick H

    2015-07-21

    The attention to memory theory (AtoM) proposes that the same brain regions might be involved in selective processing of perceived stimuli (selective attention) and memory representations (selective retrieval). Although this idea is compelling, given consistently found neural overlap between perceiving and remembering stimuli, recent comparisons brought evidence for overlap as well as considerable differences. Here, we present a paradigm that enables the investigation of the AtoM hypothesis from a novel perspective to gain further insight into the neural resources involved in AtoM. Selective attention in perception is often investigated as a control process that shows lingering effects on immediately following trials. Here, we employed a paradigm capable of modulating selective retrieval in a similarly dynamic manner as in such selective-attention paradigms by inducing trial-to-trial shifts between relevant and irrelevant memory representations as well as changes of the width of the internal focus on memory. We found evidence for an involvement of bilateral inferior parietal lobe and right inferior frontal gyrus in reorienting the attentional focus on previously accessed memory representations. Moreover, we could dissociate the right inferior from the parietal activation in separate contrasts, suggesting that the right inferior frontal gyrus plays a role in facilitating attentional reorienting to memory representations when competing representations have been activated in the preceding trial, potentially by resolving this competition. Our results support the AtoM theory, i.e. that ventral frontal and parietal regions are involved in automatic attentional reorienting in memory, and highlight the importance of further investigations of the overlap and differences between regions involved in internal (memory) and external (perceptual) attentional selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex-dependent age modulation of frontostriatal and temporo-parietal activation during cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakou, Anastasia; Halari, Rozmin; Smith, Anna B; Ifkovits, Eve; Brammer, Mick; Rubia, Katya

    2009-10-15

    Developmental functional imaging studies of cognitive control show progressive age-related increase in task-relevant fronto-striatal activation in male development from childhood to adulthood. Little is known, however, about how gender affects this functional development. In this study, we used event related functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine effects of sex, age, and their interaction on brain activation during attentional switching and interference inhibition, in 63 male and female adolescents and adults, aged 13 to 38. Linear age correlations were observed across all subjects in task-specific frontal, striatal and temporo-parietal activation. Gender analysis revealed increased activation in females relative to males in fronto-striatal areas during the Switch task, and laterality effects in the Simon task, with females showing increased left inferior prefrontal and temporal activation, and males showing increased right inferior prefrontal and parietal activation. Increased prefrontal activation clusters in females and increased parietal activation clusters in males furthermore overlapped with clusters that were age-correlated across the whole group, potentially reflecting more mature prefrontal brain activation patterns for females, and more mature parietal activation patterns for males. Gender by age interactions further supported this dissociation, revealing exclusive female-specific age correlations in inferior and medial prefrontal brain regions during both tasks, and exclusive male-specific age correlations in superior parietal (Switch task) and temporal regions (Simon task). These findings show increased recruitment of age-correlated prefrontal activation in females, and of age-correlated parietal activation in males, during tasks of cognitive control. Gender differences in frontal and parietal recruitment may thus be related to gender differences in the neurofunctional maturation of these brain regions.

  13. Frontal and parietal theta burst TMS impairs working memory for visual-spatial conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Helen M; Jackson, Margaret C; van Koningsbruggen, Martijn G; Shapiro, Kimron L; Linden, David E J

    2013-03-01

    In tasks that selectively probe visual or spatial working memory (WM) frontal and posterior cortical areas show a segregation, with dorsal areas preferentially involved in spatial (e.g. location) WM and ventral areas in visual (e.g. object identity) WM. In a previous fMRI study [1], we showed that right parietal cortex (PC) was more active during WM for orientation, whereas left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was more active during colour WM. During WM for colour-orientation conjunctions, activity in these areas was intermediate to the level of activity for the single task preferred and non-preferred information. To examine whether these specialised areas play a critical role in coordinating visual and spatial WM to perform a conjunction task, we used theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to induce a functional deficit. Compared to sham stimulation, TMS to right PC or left IFG selectively impaired WM for conjunctions but not single features. This is consistent with findings from visual search paradigms, in which frontal and parietal TMS selectively affects search for conjunctions compared to single features, and with combined TMS and functional imaging work suggesting that parietal and frontal regions are functionally coupled in tasks requiring integration of visual and spatial information. Our results thus elucidate mechanisms by which the brain coordinates spatially segregated processing streams and have implications beyond the field of working memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Middle and Inferior Temporal Gyrus Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in First-Episode Schizophrenia: An MRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroki, Noriomi; Shenton, Martha Elizabeth; Salisbury, Dean; Hirayasu, Yoshio; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert William

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of schizophrenia reveal temporal lobe structural brain abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus and the amygdala-hippocampal complex. However, the middle and inferior temporal gyri have received little investigation, especially in first-episode schizophrenia. Method: High-spatial-resolution MRI was used to measure gray matter volume in the inferior, middle, and superior temporal gyri in 20 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 20 pa...

  15. Connections of the medial posterior parietal cortex (area 7m) in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichnetz, G R

    2001-06-01

    The afferent and efferent cortical and subcortical connections of the medial posterior parietal cortex (area 7m) were studied in cebus (Cebus apella) and macaque (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys using the retrograde and anterograde capabilities of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) technique. The principal intraparietal corticocortical connections of area 7m in both cebus and macaque cases were with the ipsilateral medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus (MIP) and adjacent superior parietal lobule (area 5), inferior parietal lobule (area 7a), lateral bank of the IPS (area 7ip), caudal parietal operculum (PGop), dorsal bank of the caudal superior temporal sulcus (visual area MST), and medial prestriate cortex (including visual area PO and caudal medial lobule). Its principal frontal corticocortical connections were with the prefrontal cortex in the shoulder above the principal sulcus and the cortex in the shoulder above the superior ramus of the arcuate sulcus (SAS), the area purported to contain the smooth eye movement-related frontal eye field (FEFsem) in the cebus monkey by other investigators. There were moderate connections with the cortex in the rostral bank of the arcuate sulcus (purported to contain the saccade-related frontal eye field; FEFsac), supplementary eye field (SEF), and rostral dorsal premotor area (PMDr). Area 7m also had major connections with the cingulate cortex (area 23), particularly the ventral bank of the cingulate sulcus. The principal subcortical connections of area 7m were with the dorsal portion of the ventrolateral thalamic (VLc) nucleus, lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, lateral pulvinar, caudal mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and medial pulvinar, central lateral, central superior lateral, and central inferior intralaminar thalamic nuclei, dorsolateral caudate nucleus and putamen, middle region of the claustrum, nucleus of the diagonal band, zona incerta, pregeniculate nucleus, anterior and posterior pretectal nuclei, intermediate layer of

  16. Temporo-Parietal and Fronto-Parietal Lobe Contributions to Theory of Mind and Executive Control: An fMRI Study of Verbal Jokes

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    Yu-Chen eChan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘Getting a joke’ always requires resolving an apparent incongruity but the particular cognitive operations called upon vary depending on the nature of the joke itself. Previous research has identified the primary neural correlates of the cognitive and affective processes called upon to respond to humor generally, but little work has been done on the substrates underlying the distinct cognitive operations required to comprehend particular joke types. This study explored the neural correlates of the cognitive processes required to successfully comprehend three joke types: bridging-inference jokes, exaggeration jokes and ambiguity jokes. For all joke types, the left dlPFC appeared to support common cognitive mechanisms, such as script-shifting, while the vACC was associated with affective appreciation. The temporo-parietal lobe (TPJ and MTG was associated with bridging-inference jokes, suggesting involvement of these regions with ‘theory of mind’ processing. The ventral fronto-parietal lobe (IPL and IFG was associated with both exaggeration and ambiguity jokes, suggesting that it supports executive control processes such as retrieval from episodic memory, self-awareness, and language-based decoding. The social-affective appreciation of verbal jokes was associated with activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC, and parahippocampal gyrus. These results allow a more precise account of the neural

  17. Sampling the Mouse Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus

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    Lisa Basler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sampling is a critical step in procedures that generate quantitative morphological data in the neurosciences. Samples need to be representative to allow statistical evaluations, and samples need to deliver a precision that makes statistical evaluations not only possible but also meaningful. Sampling generated variability should, e.g., not be able to hide significant group differences from statistical detection if they are present. Estimators of the coefficient of error (CE have been developed to provide tentative answers to the question if sampling has been “good enough” to provide meaningful statistical outcomes. We tested the performance of the commonly used Gundersen-Jensen CE estimator, using the layers of the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus as an example (molecular layer, granule cell layer and hilus. We found that this estimator provided useful estimates of the precision that can be expected from samples of different sizes. For all layers, we found that a smoothness factor (m of 0 generally provided better estimates than an m of 1. Only for the combined layers, i.e., the entire dentate gyrus, better CE estimates could be obtained using an m of 1. The orientation of the sections impacted on CE sizes. Frontal (coronal sections are typically most efficient by providing the smallest CEs for a given amount of work. Applying the estimator to 3D-reconstructed layers and using very intense sampling, we observed CE size plots with m = 0 to m = 1 transitions that should also be expected but are not often observed in real section series. The data we present also allows the reader to approximate the sampling intervals in frontal, horizontal or sagittal sections that provide CEs of specified sizes for the layers of the mouse dentate gyrus.

  18. The mirror mechanism in the parietal lobe.

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    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Rozzi, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The mirror mechanism is a basic mechanism that transforms sensory representations of others' actions into motor representations of the same actions in the brain of the observer. The mirror mechanism plays an important role in understanding actions of others. In the present chapter we discuss first the basic organization of the posterior parietal lobe in the monkey, stressing that it is best characterized as a motor scaffold, on the top of which sensory information is organized. We then describe the location of the mirror mechanism in the posterior parietal cortex of the monkey, and its functional role in areas PFG, and anterior, ventral, and lateral intraparietal areas. We will then present evidence that a similar functional organization is present in humans. We will conclude by discussing the role of the mirror mechanism in the recognition of action performed with tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Extended Interneuronal Network of the Dentate Gyrus

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    Gergely G. Szabo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Local interneurons control principal cells within individual brain areas, but anecdotal observations indicate that interneuronal axons sometimes extend beyond strict anatomical boundaries. Here, we use the case of the dentate gyrus (DG to show that boundary-crossing interneurons with cell bodies in CA3 and CA1 constitute a numerically significant and diverse population that relays patterns of activity generated within the CA regions back to granule cells. These results reveal the existence of a sophisticated retrograde GABAergic circuit that fundamentally extends the canonical interneuronal network.

  20. Regional intercostal bulging of the parietal pleura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantsch, H.; Greene, R.; Lechner, G.; Mavritz, W.; Pichler, W.; Winkler, M.; Zadrobilek, E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes bedside radiographs with localized intercostal bulging as the sole indication of tension pneumothorax in six patients with acute deterioration in gas exchange. Relief of the pneumothorax was followed by a rush of gas from the tension space and a prompt improvement in gas exchange. The authors concluded the regional intercostal bulging of the parietal pleura may be the sole indicator of life-threatening tension pneumothorax in patients on mechanical ventilation

  1. Involvement of the Left Supramarginal Gyrus in Manipulation Judgment Tasks: Contributions to Theories of Tool Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesourd, Mathieu; Osiurak, François; Navarro, Jordan; Reynaud, Emanuelle

    2017-09-01

    Two theories of tool use, namely the gesture engram and the technical reasoning theories, make distinct predictions about the involvement of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in manipulation judgement tasks. The objective here is to test these alternative predictions based on previous studies on manipulation judgment tasks using transcranial magnetic stimulations (TMS) targeting the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). We review recent TMS studies on manipulation judgement tasks and confront these data with predictions made by both tool use theories. The left SMG is a highly intertwined region, organized following several functionally distinct areas and TMS may have disrupted a cortical network involved in the ability to use tools rather than only one functional area supporting manipulation knowledge. Moreover, manipulation judgement tasks may be impaired following virtual lesions outside the IPL. These data are more in line with the technical reasoning hypothesis, which assumes that the left IPL does not store manipulation knowledge per se. (JINS, 2017, 23, 685-691).

  2. Anatomical substrates of the alerting, orienting and executive control components of attention: focus on the posterior parietal lobe.

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    Xuntao Yin

    Full Text Available Both neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies have identified that the posterior parietal lobe (PPL is critical for the attention function. However, the unique role of distinct parietal cortical subregions and their underlying white matter (WM remains in question. In this study, we collected both magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data in normal participants, and evaluated their attention performance using attention network test (ANT, which could isolate three different attention components: alerting, orienting and executive control. Cortical thickness, surface area and DTI parameters were extracted from predefined PPL subregions and correlated with behavioural performance. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS was used for the voxel-wise statistical analysis. Results indicated structure-behaviour relationships on multiple levels. First, a link between the cortical thickness and WM integrity of the right inferior parietal regions and orienting performance was observed. Specifically, probabilistic tractography demonstrated that the integrity of WM connectivity between the bilateral inferior parietal lobules mediated the orienting performance. Second, the scores of executive control were significantly associated with the WM diffusion metrics of the right supramarginal gyrus. Finally, TBSS analysis revealed that alerting performance was significant correlated with the fractional anisotropy of local WM connecting the right thalamus and supplementary motor area. We conclude that distinct areas and features within PPL are associated with different components of attention. These findings could yield a more complete understanding of the nature of the PPL contribution to visuospatial attention.

  3. Precentral gyrus functional connectivity signatures of autism

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    Mary Beth eNebel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor impairments are prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and are perhaps the earliest symptoms to develop. In addition, motor skills relate to the communicative/social deficits at the core of ASD diagnosis, and these behavioral deficits may reflect abnormal connectivity within brain networks underlying motor control and learning. Despite the fact that motor abnormalities in ASD are well-characterized, there remains a fundamental disconnect between the complexity of the clinical presentation of ASD and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this study, we examined connectivity within and between functional subregions of a key component of the motor control network, the precentral gyrus, using resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data collected from a large, heterogeneous sample of individuals with ASD as well as neurotypical controls. We found that the strength of connectivity within and between distinct functional subregions of the precentral gyrus was related to ASD diagnosis and to the severity of ASD traits. In particular, connectivity involving the dorsomedial (lower limb/trunk subregion was abnormal in ASD individuals as predicted by models using a dichotomous variable coding for the presence of ASD, as well as models using symptom severity ratings. These findings provide further support for a link between motor and social/communicative abilities in ASD.

  4. Contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure across lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Fiona M; Thomas, Michael S C; Filippi, Roberto; Harth, Helen; Price, Cathy J

    2010-05-01

    Using behavioral, structural, and functional imaging techniques, we demonstrate contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure in 47 healthy volunteers who ranged in age from 7 to 73 years. In the left posterior supramarginal gyrus, vocabulary knowledge was positively correlated with gray matter density in teenagers but not adults. This region was not activated during auditory or visual sentence processing, and activation was unrelated to vocabulary skills. Its gray matter density may reflect the use of an explicit learning strategy that links new words to lexical or conceptual equivalents, as used in formal education and second language acquisition. By contrast, in left posterior temporal regions, gray matter as well as auditory and visual sentence activation correlated with vocabulary knowledge throughout lifespan. We propose that these effects reflect the acquisition of vocabulary through context, when new words are learnt within the context of semantically and syntactically related words.

  5. Seeing is not feeling: posterior parietal but not somatosensory cortex engagement during touch observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Annie W-Y; Baker, Chris I

    2015-01-28

    Observing touch has been reported to elicit activation in human primary and secondary somatosensory cortices and is suggested to underlie our ability to interpret other's behavior and potentially empathy. However, despite these reports, there are a large number of inconsistencies in terms of the precise topography of activation, the extent of hemispheric lateralization, and what aspects of the stimulus are necessary to drive responses. To address these issues, we investigated the localization and functional properties of regions responsive to observed touch in a large group of participants (n = 40). Surprisingly, even with a lenient contrast of hand brushing versus brushing alone, we did not find any selective activation for observed touch in the hand regions of somatosensory cortex but rather in superior and inferior portions of neighboring posterior parietal cortex, predominantly in the left hemisphere. These regions in the posterior parietal cortex required the presence of both brush and hand to elicit strong responses and showed some selectivity for the form of the object or agent of touch. Furthermore, the inferior parietal region showed nonspecific tactile and motor responses, suggesting some similarity to area PFG in the monkey. Collectively, our findings challenge the automatic engagement of somatosensory cortex when observing touch, suggest mislocalization in previous studies, and instead highlight the role of posterior parietal cortex. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351468-13$15.00/0.

  6. Decreased middle temporal gyrus connectivity in the language network in schizophrenia patients with auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linchuan; Li, Baojuan; Wang, Huaning; Li, Liang; Liao, Qimei; Liu, Yang; Bao, Xianghong; Liu, Wenlei; Yin, Hong; Lu, Hongbing; Tan, Qingrong

    2017-07-13

    As the most common symptoms of schizophrenia, the long-term persistence of obstinate auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) brings about great mental pain to patients. Neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia have indicated that AVHs were associated with altered functional and structural connectivity within the language network. However, effective connectivity that could reflect directed information flow within this network and is of great importance to understand the neural mechanisms of the disorder remains largely unknown. In this study, we utilized stochastic dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate directed connections within the language network in schizophrenia patients with and without AVHs. Thirty-six patients with schizophrenia (18 with AVHs and 18 without AVHs), and 37 healthy controls participated in the current resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The results showed that the connection from the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) to left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG) was significantly decreased in patients with AVHs compared to those without AVHs. Meanwhile, the effective connection from the left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) to LMTG was significantly decreased compared to the healthy controls. Our findings suggest aberrant pattern of causal interactions within the language network in patients with AVHs, indicating that the hypoconnectivity or disrupted connection from frontal to temporal speech areas might be critical for the pathological basis of AVHs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Resting-state functional connectivity of ventral parietal regions associated with attention reorienting and episodic recollection

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    Sander M Daselaar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In functional neuroimaging studies, ventral parietal cortex (VPC is recruited by very different cognitive tasks. Explaining the contributions VPC to these tasks has become a topic of intense study and lively debate. Perception studies frequently find VPC activations during tasks involving attention-reorienting, and memory studies frequently find them during tasks involving episodic recollection. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM model, both phenomena can be explained by the same VPC function: bottom-up attention. Yet, a recent functional MRI (fMRI meta-analysis suggested that attention-reorienting activations are more frequent in anterior VPC, whereas recollection activations are more frequent in posterior VPC. Also, there is evidence that anterior and posterior VPC regions have different functional connectivity patterns. To investigate these issues, we conducted a resting-state functional connectivity analysis using as seeds the center-of-mass of attention-reorienting and recollection activations in the meta-analysis, which were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG, around the temporo-parietal junction—TPJ and in the angular gyrus (AG, respectively. The SMG seed showed stronger connectivity with ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and occipito-temporal cortex, whereas the AG seed showed stronger connectivity with the hippocampus and default network regions. To investigate whether these connectivity differences were graded or sharp, VLPFC and hippocampal connectivity was measured in VPC regions traversing through the SMG and AG seeds. The results showed a graded pattern: VLPFC connectivity gradually decreases from SMG to AG, whereas hippocampal connectivity gradually increases from SMG to AG. Importantly, both gradients showed an abrupt break when extended beyond VPC borders. This finding suggests that functional differences between SMG and AG are more subtle than previously thought. These connectivity differences can be

  8. Distinct contribution of the parietal and temporal cortex to hand configuration and contextual judgements about tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Michael; Pelgrims, Barbara; Olivier, Etienne

    2013-09-01

    Neuropsychological studies showed that manipulatory and semantic knowledge can be independently impaired in patients with upper-limb apraxia, leading to different tool use disorders. The present study aimed to dissociate the brain regions involved in judging the hand configuration or the context associated to tool use. We focussed on the left supramarginalis gyrus (SMG) and left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), whose activation, as evidenced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, suggests that they may play a critical role in tool use. The distinctive location of SMG in the dorsal visual stream led us to postulate that this parietal region could play a role in processing incoming information about tools to shape hand posture. In contrast, we hypothesized that MTG, because of its interconnections with several cortical areas involved in semantic memory, could contribute to retrieving semantic information necessary to create a contextual representation of tool use. To test these hypotheses, we used neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to interfere transiently with the function of either left SMG or left MTG in healthy participants performing judgement tasks about either hand configuration or context of tool use. We found that SMG virtual lesions impaired hand configuration but not contextual judgements, whereas MTG lesions selectively interfered with judgements about the context of tool use while leaving hand configuration judgements unaffected. This double dissociation demonstrates that the ability to infer a context of use or a hand posture from tool perception relies on distinct processes, performed in the temporal and parietal regions. The present findings suggest that tool use disorders caused by SMG lesions will be characterized by difficulties in selecting the appropriate hand posture for tool use, whereas MTG lesions will yield difficulties in using tools in the appropriate context. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Nuclear Glycogen Inclusions in Canine Parietal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, S; Lepri, E; Dall'Aglio, C; Marchesi, M C; Vitellozzi, G

    2017-05-01

    Nuclear glycogen inclusions occur infrequently in pathologic conditions but also in normal human and animal tissues. Their function or significance is unclear. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no reports of nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells exist. After initial observations of nuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions during routine histopathology, the authors retrospectively examined samples of gastric mucosa from dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs for the presence of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions and determined their composition using histologic and electron-microscopic methods. In 24 of 108 cases (22%), the authors observed various numbers of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions within scattered parietal cells. Nuclei were characterized by marked karyomegaly and chromatin margination around a central optically empty or slightly eosinophilic area. The intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions stained positive with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and were diastase sensitive, consistent with glycogen. Several PAS-positive/diastase-sensitive sections were further examined by transmission electron microscopy, also using periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate (PA-TCH-SP) staining to identify polysaccharides. Ultrastructurally, the nuclear inclusions were composed of electron-dense particles that were not membrane bound, without evidence of nuclear membrane invaginations or cytoplasmic organelles in the nuclei, and positive staining with PA-TCH-SP, confirming a glycogen composition. No cytoplasmic glycogen deposits were observed, suggesting that the intranuclear glycogen inclusions were probably synthesized in loco. Nuclear glycogen inclusions were not associated with gastritis or colonization by Helicobacter-like organisms ( P > .05). Our findings suggest that nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells could be an incidental finding. Nevertheless, since nuclear glycogen is present in several pathologic

  10. Transcriptional landscape of glomerular parietal epithelial cells.

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    Sina A Gharib

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the function of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs. In this study, we performed genome-wide expression analysis on PEC-enriched capsulated vs. PEC-deprived decapsulated rat glomeruli to determine the transcriptional state of PECs under normal conditions. We identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that mapped to distinct biologic modules including development, tight junction, ion transport, and metabolic processes. Since developmental programs were highly enriched in PECs, we characterized several of their candidate members at the protein level. Collectively, our findings confirm that PECs are multifaceted cells and help define their diverse functional repertoire.

  11. Both volumetry and functional connectivity of Heschl's gyrus are associated with auditory P300 in first episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Tang, Yingying; Li, Hui; Zhang, Tianhong; Li, Jianqi; Sheng, Jianhua; Liu, Dengtang; Li, Chunbo; Wang, Jijun

    2014-12-01

    Reduced gray matter volume in left superior temporal gyrus (STG) is considered to be associated with auditory P300 amplitude in schizophrenia. Little is known about possible pathological circuits regarding sub-regions of STG that contribute to auditory P300 abnormality in schizophrenia. The current study investigated gray matter volume in STG and functional connectivity of Heschl's gyrus in first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ), as well as their correlations with P300 amplitude. Nineteen FESZ patients and 19 healthy controls contributed MRI scans. Eighteen patients and 17 controls underwent auditory P300 test within 1 week after MRI scanning. STG structural abnormalities were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis. Bilateral Heschl's gyri (HG) were selected as seeds for FC analysis in resting MRI data. Correlations of P300 amplitude with gray matter alterations in STG and HG-based FC were analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis within each group. Compared to healthy controls, FESZ patients showed reduced gray matter in left STG and P300 amplitude. Gray matter volume of left Heschl's gyrus was positively correlated with P300 amplitude in FESZ patients. HG-based FC of resting fMRI was decreased in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), medial frontal gyrus (MFG), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and left temporal pole, whereas the same metric was increased in the lingual gyrus, precuneus and cerebellar tonsil among FESZ patients. FC between bilateral HG and precuneus was inversely correlated with P300 amplitude among healthy controls, and was absent among FES patients. The findings point towards both decreased volume of Heschl's gyrus and its altered functional pathways may contribute to auditory P300 abnormality in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dissection of Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus from Adult Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Hideo; Toyama, Keiko; Yamasaki, Nobuyuki; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The hippocampus is one of the most widely studied areas in the brain because of its important functional role in memory processing and learning, its remarkable neuronal cell plasticity, and its involvement in epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric disorders. The hippocampus is composed of distinct regions; the dentate gyrus, which comprises mainly granule neurons, and Ammon's horn, which comprises mainly pyramidal neurons, and the two regions are connected by both anatomic and functional circuits. Many different mRNAs and proteins are selectively expressed in the dentate gyrus, and the dentate gyrus is a site of adult neurogenesis; that is, new neurons are continually generated in the adult dentate gyrus. To investigate mRNA and protein expression specific to the dentate gyrus, laser capture microdissection is often used. This method has some limitations, however, such as the need for special apparatuses and complicated handling procedures. In this video-recorded protocol, we demonstrate a dissection technique for removing the dentate gyrus from adult mouse under a stereomicroscope. Dentate gyrus samples prepared using this technique are suitable for any assay, including transcriptomic, proteomic, and cell biology analyses. We confirmed that the dissected tissue is dentate gyrus by conducting real-time PCR of dentate gyrus-specific genes, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2) and desmoplakin (Dsp), and Ammon's horn enriched genes, Meis-related gene 1b (Mrg1b) and TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase 3 (Tyro3). The mRNA expressions of TDO2 and Dsp in the dentate gyrus samples were detected at obviously higher levels, whereas Mrg1b and Tyro3 were lower levels, than those in the Ammon's horn samples. To demonstrate the advantage of this method, we performed DNA microarray analysis using samples of whole hippocampus and dentate gyrus. The mRNA expression of TDO2 and Dsp, which are expressed selectively in the dentate gyrus, in the whole hippocampus of alpha

  13. The impact of top-down spatial attention on laterality and hemispheric asymmetry in the human parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Su Keun; Xu, Yaoda

    2016-08-01

    The human parietal cortex exhibits a preference to contralaterally presented visual stimuli (i.e., laterality) as well as an asymmetry between the two hemispheres with the left parietal cortex showing greater laterality than the right. Using visual short-term memory and perceptual tasks and varying target location predictability, this study examined whether hemispheric laterality and asymmetry are fixed characteristics of the human parietal cortex or whether they are dynamic and modulated by the deployment of top-down attention to the target present hemifield. Two parietal regions were examined here that have previously been shown to be involved in visual object individuation and identification and are located in the inferior and superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), respectively. Across three experiments, significant laterality was found in both parietal regions regardless of attentional modulation with laterality being greater in the inferior than superior IPS, consistent with their roles in object individuation and identification, respectively. Although the deployment of top-down attention had no effect on the superior IPS, it significantly increased laterality in the inferior IPS. The deployment of top-down spatial attention can thus amplify the strength of laterality in the inferior IPS. Hemispheric asymmetry, on the other hand, was absent in both brain regions and only emerged in the inferior but not the superior IPS with the deployment of top-down attention. Interestingly, the strength of hemispheric asymmetry significantly correlated with the strength of laterality in the inferior IPS. Hemispheric asymmetry thus seems to only emerge when there is a sufficient amount of laterality present in a brain region.

  14. Mapping auditory core, lateral belt, and parabelt cortices in the human superior temporal gyrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweet, Robert A; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Lewis, David A

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether the architectonic criteria used to identify the core, lateral belt, and parabelt auditory cortices in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) could be used to identify homologous regions in humans (Homo sapiens). Current evidence indicates...

  15. Psychophysiological interaction between superior temporal gyrus (STG) and cerebellum: An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, A. N.; Teng, X. L.; Ng, S. B.; Hamid, A. I. A.; Mukari, S. Z. M.

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to model the psychophysiological interaction (PPI) between the bilateral STG and cerebellum (lobule VI and lobule VII) during an arithmetic addition task. Eighteen young adults participated in this study. They were instructed to solve single-digit addition tasks in quiet and noisy backgrounds during an fMRI scan. Results showed that in both hemispheres, the response in the cerebellum was found to be linearly influenced by the activity in STG (vice-versa) for both in-quiet and in-noise conditions. However, the influence of the cerebellum on STG seemed to be modulated by noise. A two-way PPI model between STG and cerebellum is suggested. The connectivity between the two regions during a simple addition task in a noisy condition is modulated by the participants’ higher attention to perceive.

  16. Observational learning of new movement sequences is reflected in fronto-parietal coherence.

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    Jurjen van der Helden

    Full Text Available Mankind is unique in her ability for observational learning, i.e. the transmission of acquired knowledge and behavioral repertoire through observation of others' actions. In the present study we used electrophysiological measures to investigate brain mechanisms of observational learning. Analysis investigated the possible functional coupling between occipital (alpha and motor (mu rhythms operating in the 10 Hz frequency range for translating "seeing" into "doing". Subjects observed movement sequences consisting of six consecutive left or right hand button presses directed at one of two target-buttons for subsequent imitation. Each movement sequence was presented four times, intervened by short pause intervals for sequence rehearsal. During a control task subjects observed the same movement sequences without a requirement for subsequent reproduction. Although both alpha and mu rhythms desynchronized during the imitation task relative to the control task, modulations in alpha and mu power were found to be largely independent from each other over time, arguing against a functional coupling of alpha and mu generators during observational learning. This independence was furthermore reflected in the absence of coherence between occipital and motor electrodes overlaying alpha and mu generators. Instead, coherence analysis revealed a pair of symmetric fronto-parietal networks, one over the left and one over the right hemisphere, reflecting stronger coherence during observation of movements than during pauses. Individual differences in fronto-parietal coherence were furthermore found to predict imitation accuracy. The properties of these networks, i.e. their fronto-parietal distribution, their ipsilateral organization and their sensitivity to the observation of movements, match closely with the known properties of the mirror neuron system (MNS as studied in the macaque brain. These results indicate a functional dissociation between higher order areas for

  17. Failure of Neuronal Maturation in Alzheimer Disease Dentate Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Shafit-Zagardo, Bridget; Tanimukai, Hitoshi; Chen, She; Iqbal, Khalid; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The dentate gyrus, an important anatomic structure of the hippocampal formation, is one of the major areas in which neurogenesis takes place in the adult mammalian brain. Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is thought to play an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Neurogenesis has been reported to be increased in the dentate gyrus of patients with Alzheimer disease, but it is not known whether the newly generated neurons differentiate into mature neurons. In this study, the expression of the mature neuronal marker high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein (MAP) isoforms MAP2a and b was found to be dramatically decreased in Alzheimer disease dentate gyrus, as determined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The total MAP2, including expression of the immature neuronal marker, the MAP2c isoform, was less affected. These findings suggest that newly generated neurons in Alzheimer disease dentate gyrus do not become mature neurons, although neuroproliferation is increased. PMID:18091557

  18. Muscarinic responses of gastric parietal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, J.M.; Kajimura, M.; Scott, D.R.; Hersey, S.J.; Sachs, G.

    1991-01-01

    Isolated rabbit gastric glands were used to study the nature of the muscarinic cholinergic responses of parietal cells. Carbachol stimulation of acid secretion, as measured by the accumulation of aminopyrine, was inhibited by the M1 antagonist, pirenzepine, with an IC50 of 13 microM; by the M2 antagonist, 11,2-(diethylamino)methyl-1 piperidinyl acetyl-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido 2,3-b 1,4 benzodiazepin-6-one (AF-DX 116), with an IC50 of 110 microM; and by the M1/M3 antagonist, diphenyl-acetoxy-4-methylpiperidinemethiodide, with an IC50 of 35 nM. The three antagonists displayed equivalent IC50 values for the inhibition of carbachol-stimulated production of 14CO2 from radiolabeled glucose, which is a measure of the turnover of the H,K-ATPase, the final step of acid secretion. Intracellular calcium levels were measured in gastric glands loaded with FURA 2. Carbachol was shown to both release calcium from an intracellular pool and to promote calcium entry across the plasma membrane. The calcium entry was inhibitable by 20 microM La3+. The relative potency of the three muscarinic antagonists for inhibition of calcium entry was essentially the same as for inhibition of acid secretion or pump related glucose oxidation. Image analysis of the glands showed the effects of carbachol, and of the antagonists, on intracellular calcium were occurring largely in the parietal cell. The rise in cell calcium due to release of calcium from intracellular stores was inhibited by 4-DAMP with an IC50 of 1.7 nM, suggesting that the release pathway was regulated by a low affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state; Ca entry and acid secretion are regulated by a high affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state, inhibited by higher 4-DAMP concentrations, suggesting that it is the steady-state elevation of Ca that is related to parietal cell function rather than the [Ca]i transient

  19. Stimulating the Brain's Language Network: Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution after TMS to the Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Middle Temporal Gyrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acheson, D.J.; Hagoort, P.

    2013-01-01

    The posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) are two critical nodes of the brain's language network. Previous neuroimaging evidence has supported a dissociation in language comprehension in which parts of the MTG are involved in the retrieval of lexical syntactic

  20. Reduced volume of Heschl's gyrus in tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Peter; Andermann, Martin; Wengenroth, Martina; Goebel, Rainer; Flor, Herta; Rupp, André; Diesch, Eugen

    2009-04-15

    The neural basis of tinnitus is unknown. Recent neuroimaging studies point towards involvement of several cortical and subcortical regions. Here we demonstrate that tinnitus may be associated with structural changes in the auditory cortex. Using individual morphological segmentation, the medial partition of Heschl's gyrus (mHG) was studied in individuals with and without chronic tinnitus using magnetic resonance imaging. Both the tinnitus and the non-tinnitus group included musicians and non-musicians. Patients exhibited significantly smaller mHG gray matter volumes than controls. In unilateral tinnitus, this effect was almost exclusively seen in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the affected ear. In bilateral tinnitus, mHG volume was substantially reduced in both hemispheres. The tinnitus-related volume reduction was found across the full extent of mHG, not only in the high-frequency part usually most affected by hearing loss-induced deafferentation. However, there was also evidence for a relationship between volume reduction and hearing loss. Correlations between volume and hearing level depended on the subject group as well as the asymmetry of the hearing loss. The volume changes observed may represent antecedents or consequences of tinnitus and tinnitus-associated hearing loss and also raise the possibility that small cortical volume constitutes a vulnerability factor.

  1. The fMRI study on the front-parietal activation in abacus mental calculation trained children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kunyuan; Wang Bin; Long Jinfeng; Li Lixin; Shen Xiaojun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the difference in front-parietal activation between the trained and untrained children engaged in addition and multiplication with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and to explore the role of abacus mental calculation in brain development. Methods: Twenty-four children trained with abacus mental calculation and twelve untrained children performed mental calculation tasks including addition, multiplication and number-object control judging tasks. Blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) fMRI was performed when they were calculating. All data were analyzed by SPM2 (statistical parametric mapping 2) to generate the brain activation map. Results: The performance of the trained group had better correctness and shorter reaction time than that of the untrained group. The front-parietal activation between two groups had obvious difference. The activation involved less prefrontal cortex in the trained group than in the untrained group (P<0.05). The parietal activation in the trained group was mainly in the posterior superior parietal lobe/ precuneus, whereas the activation areas focused on the inferior parietal lobule in the untrained group. Conclusion: Abacus mental calculation involves multiple functional areas. and these areas may work together as a whole in processing arithmetic problems. Abacus mental calculation not only enhances the information processing in some brain areas and improves the utilization efficiency of neural resources, but also plays an important role in developing brain. (authors)

  2. Anterior & lateral extension of optic radiation & safety of amygdalohippocampectomy through middle temporal gyrus: a cadaveric study of 11 cerebral hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, F H; Khan, A H

    2010-01-01

    This is a cadaveric anatomical study on the localization of the optic radiation within the temporal lobe and to find whether surgical intervention to the temporal lobe, especially amygdalohippocampectomy, can damage the optic radiation or not. 11 cadaveric cerebral hemispheres were used for the study. A 2 cm long antero-posterior incision was done with a sharp knife, on middle temporal gyrus, starting 3 cm posterior to temporal pole. The incision was deepened perpendicular to surface of the gyrus to reach the temporal horn. The optic radiation was dissected under operating microscope using Klinger's fiber dissection technique and measurements were taken to define the anterior and lateral extension of optic radiation. The optic radiation in each hemispehere was inspected for any incision related damage. No damage to the optic radiation was found, caused by the 2 cm long anterior-posterior incision on middle temporal gyrus 3 cm posterior to temporal pole. Most anterior 9mm (8-10mm) of the Meyer loop was completely on the roof and there was no extension over lateral wall of the temporal horn. In next posterior 17.5mm (16-20 mm) it extended over lateral wall of temporal horn with gradual progression. The most anterior extension of optic radiation was 26mm (23-31mm) posterior to temporal pole. Amygdalohippocampectomy through a 2 cm long horizontal incision on the middle temporal gyrus, starting 3 cm posterior to the temporal pole, to enter into the temporal horn through the lower aspect of the lateral wall is unlikely to cause damage to the Meyer's loop. Any entry from the superior aspect of the temporal horn and any temporal lobectomy inclusive of the superior temporal gyrus to enter the temporal horn is likely to cause Meyer's loop injury. The findings support the fact that the more inferior the surgical trajectory to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, the lover is the risk of visual field damage.

  3. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of right inferior parietal cortex causally influences prefrontal activation for visual detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitao, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Lee, Hweeling

    2017-01-01

    -parietal areas integrating the evidence into a decision variable that is compared to a decisional threshold. This concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-fMRI study applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to investigate the causal influence of IPS...... affect participants' performance accuracy, it affected how observers adjusted their response times after making an error. We therefore suggest that activation increases in superior frontal gyri for misses relative to correct responses may not be critical for signal detection performance, but rather...

  4. Functional and anatomical connectivity abnormalities in left inferior frontal gyrus in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Bumseok; Wible, Cynthia G; Hashimoto, Ryu-ichiro; Kubicki, Marek

    2009-12-01

    Functional studies in schizophrenia demonstrate prominent abnormalities within the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and also suggest the functional connectivity abnormalities in language network including left IFG and superior temporal gyrus during semantic processing. White matter connections between regions involved in the semantic network have also been indicated in schizophrenia. However, an association between functional and anatomical connectivity disruptions within the semantic network in schizophrenia has not been established. Functional (using levels of processing paradigm) as well as diffusion tensor imaging data from 10 controls and 10 chronic schizophrenics were acquired and analyzed. First, semantic encoding specific activation was estimated, showing decreased activation within the left IFG in schizophrenia. Second, functional time series were extracted from this area, and left IFG specific functional connectivity maps were produced for each subject. In an independent analysis, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) values between groups, and to correlate these values with functional connectivity maps. Schizophrenia patients showed weaker functional connectivity within the language network that includes left IFG and left superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus. FA was reduced in several white matter regions including left inferior frontal and left internal capsule. Finally, left inferior frontal white matter FA was positively correlated with connectivity measures of the semantic network in schizophrenics, but not in controls. Our results indicate an association between anatomical and functional connectivity abnormalities within the semantic network in schizophrenia, suggesting further that the functional abnormalities observed in this disorder might be directly related to white matter disruptions. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Bilateral, posterior parietal polymicrogyria as part of speech therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been associated with either diffuse polymicrogyria around the entire extent of the sylvian fissure or in the posterior aspects of the parietal regions, in which case it is called posterior parietal ... This article discusses the possible embryological origin of these

  6. Use of explicit memory cues following parietal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Ian G; Jaeger, Antonio; Studer, Bettina; Simons, Jon S

    2012-11-01

    The putative role of the lateral parietal lobe in episodic memory has recently become a topic of considerable debate, owing primarily to its consistent activation for studied materials during functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of recognition. Here we examined the performance of patients with parietal lobe lesions using an explicit memory cueing task in which probabilistic cues ("Likely Old" or "Likely New"; 75% validity) preceded the majority of verbal recognition memory probes. Without cues, patients and control participants did not differ in accuracy. However, group differences emerged during the "Likely New" cue condition with controls responding more accurately than parietal patients when these cues were valid (preceding new materials) and trending towards less accuracy when these cues were invalid (preceding old materials). Both effects suggest insufficient integration of external cues into memory judgments on the part of the parietal patients whose cued performance largely resembled performance in the complete absence of cues. Comparison of the parietal patients to a patient group with frontal lobe lesions suggested the pattern was specific to parietal and adjacent area lesions. Overall, the data indicate that parietal lobe patients fail to appropriately incorporate external cues of novelty into recognition attributions. This finding supports a role for the lateral parietal lobe in the adaptive biasing of memory judgments through the integration of external cues and internal memory evidence. We outline the importance of such adaptive biasing through consideration of basic signal detection predictions regarding maximum possible accuracy with and without informative environmental cues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Caracterización del injerto parietal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Díaz Fernández

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo de 22 pacientes en los que se utilizó el injerto parietal autógeno para reconstruir defectos del cráneo, en los servicios de Cirugía Maxilofacial y Neurocirugía del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Saturnino Lora", de Santiago de Cuba, desde 1988 hasta 1991. El método de extracción del injerto con división in situ resultó el más empleado y el que ofreció las mejores posibilidades de reconstrucción en cuanto a forma, volumen y flexibilidad, por lo que se recomienda en los defectos pequeños y medianos, sobre todo de la región frontal y áreas adyacentes, donde el contorno y la simetría son los 2 aspectos fundamentales que se deben conseguir. El método de división, in vitro se utilizó en las reconstrucciones de las deformidades de grandes dimensiones, particularmente en aquellas que no incluían la frente. El índice de complicaciones fue bajoIt was carried out a descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study of 22 patients in whom an autogenous parietal graft was used to reconstruct cranial defects at the Maxillofacial Surgery and Neurosurgery Department of the "Saturnino Lora" Clinical and Surgical Teaching Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba, from 1988 to 1991. The graft extraction method with division in situ was the most used and offered the best possibilities for reconstruction as regards form, volume and flexibility. Therefore, it is recommended for small and medium defects, particularly of the frontal region and adjacent areas, where contour and symmetry are the two fundamental aspects to be taken into consideration. The method of division in vitro was used to reconstruct large deformities, specially those in which the forehead was not included. The complications index was low

  8. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tanaka

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts.

  9. Parietal and premotor cortices: activation reflects imitation accuracy during observation, delayed imitation and concurrent imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Britta; Bischoff, Matthias; Blecker, Carlo; Langhanns, Christine; Kindermann, Stefan; Sauerbier, Isabell; Reiser, Mathias; Stark, Rudolf; Munzert, Jörn; Pilgramm, Sebastian

    2014-10-15

    This study investigated whether activation within areas belonging to the action observation and imitation network reveals a linear relation to the subsequent accuracy of imitating a bimanual rhythmic movement measured via a motion capturing system. 20 participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) when asked to imitate observed bimanual movements either concurrently versus with a delay (2s) or simply to observe the movements without imitation. Results showed that action observation relates to activation within classic mirror-related areas. Activation patterns were more widespread when participants were asked to imitate the movement. During observation with concurrent imitation, activation in the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) was associated negatively with imitation accuracy. During observation in the delayed imitation condition, higher subsequent imitation accuracy was coupled with higher activation in the right superior parietal lobe (SPL) and the left parietal operculum (POp). During the delayed imitation itself, a negative association between imitation accuracy and brain activation was revealed in the right ventral premotor cortex (vPMC). We conclude that the IPL is involved in online comparison and visuospatial attention processes during imitation, the SPL provides a kinesthetic blueprint during movement observation, the POp preserves body identity, and the vPMC recruits motor representations--especially when no concurrent visual guidance is possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bilateral fronto-parietal integrity in young chronic cigarette smokers: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Liao

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in China and other countries. Previous studies have demonstrated gray matter loss in chronic smokers. However, only a few studies assessed the changes of white matter integrity in this group. Based on those previous reports of alterations in white matter integrity in smokers, the aim of this study was to examine the alteration of white matter integrity in a large, well-matched sample of chronic smokers and non-smokers.Using in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to measure the differences of whole-brain white matter integrity between 44 chronic smoking subjects (mean age, 28.0±5.6 years and 44 healthy age- and sex-matched comparison non-smoking volunteers (mean age, 26.3±5.8 years. DTI was performed on a 3-Tesla Siemens scanner (Allegra; Siemens Medical System. The data revealed that smokers had higher fractional anisotropy (FA than healthy non-smokers in almost symmetrically bilateral fronto-parietal tracts consisting of a major white matter pathway, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF.We found the almost symmetrically bilateral fronto-parietal whiter matter changes in a relatively large sample of chronic smokers. These findings support the hypothesis that chronic cigarette smoking involves alterations of bilateral fronto-parietal connectivity.

  11. Navigating actions through the rodent parietal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Whitlock

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The posterior parietal cortex (PPC participates in a manifold of cognitive functions, including visual attention, working memory, spatial processing and movement planning. Given the vast interconnectivity of PPC with sensory and motor areas, it is not surprising that neuronal recordings show that PPC often encodes mixtures of spatial information as well as the movements required to reach a goal. Recent work sought to discern the relative strength of spatial versus motor signaling in PPC by recording single unit activity in PPC of freely behaving rats during selective changes in either the spatial layout of the local environment or in the pattern of locomotor behaviors executed during navigational tasks. The results revealed unequivocally a predominant sensitivity of PPC neurons to locomotor action structure, with subsets of cells even encoding upcoming movements more than 1 second in advance. In light of these and other recent findings in the field, I propose that one of the key contributions of PPC to navigation is the synthesis of goal-directed behavioral sequences, and that the rodent PPC may serve as an apt system to investigate cellular mechanisms for spatial motor planning as traditionally studied in humans and monkeys.

  12. Differential activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for pseudo and real words: an event-related functional MRI study on auditory lexical decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhuangwei; Xu Weixiong; Zhang Xuexin; Wang Xiaoyi; Weng Xuchu; Wu Renhua; Wu Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study lexical processing of pseudo words and real words by using a fast event-related functional MRI (ER-fMRI) design. Methods: Participants did an auditory lexical decision task on a list of pseudo-randomly intermixed real and pseudo Chinese two-character (or two-syllable) words. Pseudo words were constructed by recombining constituent characters of the real words to control for sublexical codes properties. Results: The behavioral performance of fourteen participants indicated that response to pseudowords was significantly slower and less accurate than to real words (mean error rate: 9.9% versus 3.9%, mean reaction time: 1618 ms versus 1143 ms). Processing of pseudo words and real words activated a highly comparable network of brain regions, including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, superior, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine and lingual gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus. Mirroring a behavioral lexical effect, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was significantly more activated for pseudo words than for real words. Conclusion: The results indicate that the processing of left inferior frontal gyrus in judging pseudo words and real words is not related to grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, but rather to making positive versus negative responses in decision making. (authors)

  13. Differential activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for pseudowords and real words: an event-related fMRI study on auditory lexical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuangwei; Zhang, John X; Wang, Xiaoyi; Wu, Renhua; Hu, Xiaoping; Weng, Xuchu; Tan, Li Hai

    2005-06-01

    After Newman and Twieg and others, we used a fast event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design and contrasted the lexical processing of pseudowords and real words. Participants carried out an auditory lexical decision task on a list of randomly intermixed real and pseudo Chinese two-character (or two-syllable) words. The pseudowords were constructed by recombining constituent characters of the real words to control for sublexical code properties. Processing of pseudowords and real words activated a highly comparable network of brain regions, including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, superior, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine and lingual gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus. Mirroring a behavioral lexical effect, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was significantly more activated for pseudowords than for real words. This result disconfirms a popular view that this area plays a role in grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, as such a conversion process was unnecessary in our task with auditory stimulus presentation. An alternative view was supported that attributes increased activity in left IFG for pseudowords to general processes in decision making, specifically in making positive versus negative responses. Activation in left supramarginal gyrus was of a much larger volume for real words than for pseudowords, suggesting a role of this region in the representation of phonological or semantic information for two-character Chinese words at the lexical level.

  14. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  15. Individual structural differences in left inferior parietal area are associated with schoolchildrens’ arithmetic scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin eLi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left parietal regions and arithmetic skill has been studied in detail, it remains unclear about the relationship between arithmetic achievement and structural properties in left inferior parietal area in schoolchildren. The current study employed a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM for high-resolution T1-weighted images and fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the relationship between structural properties in the inferior parietal area and arithmetic achievement in 10-year-old schoolchildren. VBM of the T1-weighted images revealed that individual differences in arithmetic scores were significantly and positively correlated with the grey matter (GM volume in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS. Fiber tracking analysis revealed that the forceps major, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF were the primary pathways connecting the left IPS with other brain areas. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the probabilistic pathways revealed a significant and positive correlation between the fractional anisotropy (FA values in the left SLF, ILF and bilateral IFOF and arithmetic scores. The brain structure-behavior correlation analyses indicated that the GM volumes in the left IPS and the FA values in the tract pathways connecting left IPS were both related to children’s arithmetic achievement. The present findings provide evidence that individual structural differences in the left IPS are associated with arithmetic scores in schoolchildren.

  16. Intradiploic encephalocele of the left parietal bone: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Sock; Huh, Choon Woong; Kim, Dal Soo; Mok, Jin Ho; Kim, In Soo; Yang, Geun Seok [Myongji St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Encephaloceles are generally regarded as midline abnormalities. A 50-year-old man presented with a parietal intradiploic encephalocele manifesting as intermittent headache for the past 6 months. Computed tomography (CT) showed bone destruction associated with a left parietal lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated brain herniation within the intradiploic space. Cerebral angiographic imaging showed a normal cerebral vessel pattern within the herniated brain lesion. In this case, surgical treatment may not be necessary in the absence of concurrent symptoms and neurologic deficit. We report the CT, MRI, and angiographic findings of an extremely rare case of parietal intradiploic encephalocele in adulthood.

  17. Intradiploic encephalocele of the left parietal bone: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Sock; Huh, Choon Woong; Kim, Dal Soo; Mok, Jin Ho; Kim, In Soo; Yang, Geun Seok

    2015-01-01

    Encephaloceles are generally regarded as midline abnormalities. A 50-year-old man presented with a parietal intradiploic encephalocele manifesting as intermittent headache for the past 6 months. Computed tomography (CT) showed bone destruction associated with a left parietal lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated brain herniation within the intradiploic space. Cerebral angiographic imaging showed a normal cerebral vessel pattern within the herniated brain lesion. In this case, surgical treatment may not be necessary in the absence of concurrent symptoms and neurologic deficit. We report the CT, MRI, and angiographic findings of an extremely rare case of parietal intradiploic encephalocele in adulthood

  18. Parietal cortex and representation of the mental Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans C; Luber, Bruce; Crupain, Michael

    2004-01-01

    For a coherent and meaningful life, conscious self-representation is mandatory. Such explicit "autonoetic consciousness" is thought to emerge by retrieval of memory of personally experienced events ("episodic memory"). During episodic retrieval, functional imaging studies consistently show....... The medial parietal region may, then, be conceived of as a nodal structure in self-representation, functionally connected to both the right parietal and the medial prefrontal cortices. To determine whether medial parietal cortex in this network is essential for episodic memory retrieval with self...

  19. Evolution of posterior parietal cortex and parietal-frontal networks for specific actions in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Jon H; Stepniewska, Iwona

    2016-02-15

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is an extensive region of the human brain that develops relatively late and is proportionally large compared with that of monkeys and prosimian primates. Our ongoing comparative studies have led to several conclusions about the evolution of this posterior parietal region. In early placental mammals, PPC likely was a small multisensory region much like PPC of extant rodents and tree shrews. In early primates, PPC likely resembled that of prosimian galagos, in which caudal PPC (PPCc) is visual and rostral PPC (PPCr) has eight or more multisensory domains where electrical stimulation evokes different complex motor behaviors, including reaching, hand-to-mouth, looking, protecting the face or body, and grasping. These evoked behaviors depend on connections with functionally matched domains in premotor cortex (PMC) and motor cortex (M1). Domains in each region compete with each other, and a serial arrangement of domains allows different factors to influence motor outcomes successively. Similar arrangements of domains have been retained in New and Old World monkeys, and humans appear to have at least some of these domains. The great expansion and prolonged development of PPC in humans suggest the addition of functionally distinct territories. We propose that, across primates, PMC and M1 domains are second and third levels in a number of parallel, interacting networks for mediating and selecting one type of action over others. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dysregulated left inferior parietal activity in schizophrenia and depression: functional connectivity and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika I. Müller

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The inferior parietal cortex (IPC is a heterogeneous region that is known to be involved in a multitude of diverse different tasks and processes, though its contribution to these often-complex functions is yet poorly understood. In a previous study we demonstrated that patients with depression failed to deactivate the left IPC during processing of congruent audiovisual information. We now found the same dysregulation (same region and condition in schizophrenia. By using task-independent (resting state and task-dependent (MACM analyses we aimed at characterizing this particular region with regard to its connectivity and function. Across both approaches, results revealed functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal seed region with bilateral IPC, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PrC/PCC, medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC, left middle frontal (MFG as well as inferior frontal (IFG gyrus. Network-level functional characterization further revealed that on the one hand, all interconnected regions are part of a network involved in memory processes. On the other hand, sub-networks are formed when emotion, language, social cognition and reasoning processes are required. Thus, the IPC-region that is dysregulated in both depression and schizophrenia is functionally connected to a network of regions which, depending on task demands may form sub-networks. These results therefore indicate that dysregulation of left IPC in depression and schizophrenia might not only be connected to deficits in audiovisual integration, but is possibly also associated to impaired memory and deficits in emotion processing in these patient groups.

  1. Bilateral parietal extradural metastatic ewing's sarcoma simulating acute epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, E.; Imran, M.; Faridi, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sarcomas usually metastasize to lugs. The following case report describes an unusual metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma to extradural parietal region bilaterally. The primary was found at lower end of ulna. (author)

  2. A follow-up MRI study of the fusiform gyrus and middle and inferior temporal gyri in schizophrenia spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Zhou, Shi-Yu; Nakamura, Kazue; Tanino, Ryoichiro; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Kyo; Seto, Hikaru; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Michio

    2011-12-01

    While longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated progressive gray matter reduction of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) during the early phases of schizophrenia, it remains largely unknown whether other temporal lobe structures also exhibit similar progressive changes and whether these changes, if present, are specific to schizophrenia among the spectrum disorders. In this longitudinal MRI study, the gray matter volumes of the fusiform, middle temporal, and inferior temporal gyri were measured at baseline and follow-up scans (mean inter-scan interval=2.7 years) in 18 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 13 patients with schizotypal disorder, and 20 healthy controls. Both schizophrenia and schizotypal patients had a smaller fusiform gyrus than controls bilaterally at both time points, whereas no group difference was found in the middle and inferior temporal gyri. In the longitudinal comparison, the schizophrenia patients showed significant fusiform gyrus reduction (left, -2.6%/year; right, -2.3%/year) compared with schizotypal patients (left: -0.4%/year; right: -0.2%/year) and controls (left: 0.1%/year; right: 0.0%/year). However, the middle and inferior temporal gyri did not exhibit significant progressive gray matter change in all diagnostic groups. In the schizophrenia patients, a higher cumulative dose of antipsychotics during follow-up was significantly correlated with less severe gray matter reduction in the left fusiform gyrus. The annual gray matter loss of the fusiform gyrus did not correlate with that of the STG previously reported in the same subjects. Our findings suggest regional specificity of the progressive gray matter reduction in the temporal lobe structures, which might be specific to overt schizophrenia within the schizophrenia spectrum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Attenuating illusory binding with TMS of the right parietal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Esterman, Michael; Verstynen, Timothy; Robertson, Lynn C.

    2007-01-01

    A number of neuroimaging and neuropsychology studies have implicated various regions of parietal cortex as playing a critical role in the binding of color and form into conjunctions. The current study investigates the role of two such regions by examining how parietal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) influences binding errors known as ‘illusory conjunctions.’ Participants made fewer binding errors after 1 Hz rTMS of the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), while basic perception of featur...

  4. Predicting oculomotor behaviour from correlated populations of posterior parietal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Arnulf B A; Andersen, Richard A

    2015-01-23

    Oculomotor function critically depends on how signals representing saccade direction and eye position are combined across neurons in the lateral intraparietal (LIP) area of the posterior parietal cortex. Here we show that populations of parietal neurons exhibit correlated variability, and that using these interneuronal correlations yields oculomotor predictions that are more accurate and also less uncertain. The structure of LIP population responses is therefore essential for reliable read-out of oculomotor behaviour.

  5. The right inferior frontal gyrus processes nested non-local dependencies in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Vincent K M; Meyer, Lars; Friederici, Angela D; Koelsch, Stefan

    2018-02-28

    Complex auditory sequences known as music have often been described as hierarchically structured. This permits the existence of non-local dependencies, which relate elements of a sequence beyond their temporal sequential order. Previous studies in music have reported differential activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) when comparing regular and irregular chord-transitions based on theories in Western tonal harmony. However, it is unclear if the observed activity reflects the interpretation of hierarchical structure as the effects are confounded by local irregularity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that violations to non-local dependencies in nested sequences of three-tone musical motifs in musicians elicited increased activity in the right IFG. This is in contrast to similar studies in language which typically report the left IFG in processing grammatical syntax. Effects of increasing auditory working demands are moreover reflected by distributed activity in frontal and parietal regions. Our study therefore demonstrates the role of the right IFG in processing non-local dependencies in music, and suggests that hierarchical processing in different cognitive domains relies on similar mechanisms that are subserved by domain-selective neuronal subpopulations.

  6. Reduced multimodal integration of memory features following continuous theta burst stimulation of angular gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Yasemin; Bergström, Zara M; Simons, Jon S

    Lesions of the angular gyrus (AnG) region of human parietal cortex do not cause amnesia, but appear to be associated with reduction in the ability to consciously experience the reliving of previous events. We used continuous theta burst stimulation to test the hypothesis that the cognitive mechanism implicated in this memory deficit might be the integration of retrieved sensory event features into a coherent multimodal memory representation. Healthy volunteers received stimulation to AnG or a vertex control site after studying stimuli that each comprised a visual object embedded in a scene, with the name of the object presented auditorily. Participants were then asked to make memory judgments about the studied stimuli that involved recollection of single event features (visual or auditory), or required integration of event features within the same modality, or across modalities. Participants' ability to retrieve context features from across multiple modalities was significantly reduced after AnG stimulation compared to stimulation of the vertex. This effect was observed only for the integration of cross-modal context features but not for integration of features within the same modality, and could not be accounted for by task difficulty as performance was matched across integration conditions following vertex stimulation. These results support the hypothesis that AnG is necessary for the multimodal integration of distributed cortical episodic features into a unified conscious representation that enables the experience of remembering. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Middle and Inferior Temporal Gyrus Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Chronic Schizophrenia: An MRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Shenton, Martha E.; Salisbury, Dean F.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Kasai, Kiyoto; Toner, Sarah K.; Frumin, Melissa; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus subserve language and semantic memory processing, visual perception, and multimodal sensory integration. Functional deficits in these cognitive processes have been well documented in patients with schizophrenia. However, there have been few in vivo structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus in schizophrenia. Method: Middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyru...

  8. Dissociable contributions of MRI volume reductions of superior temporal and fusiform gyri to symptoms and neuropsychology in schizophrenia ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor, Paul G.; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Gurrera, Ronald J.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Frumin, Melissa; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    We sought to identify the functional correlates of reduced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the fusiform gyrus (FG) in patients with chronic schizophrenia. MRI volumes, positive/negative symptoms, and neuropsychological tests of facial memory and executive functioning were examined within the same subjects. The results indicated two distinct, dissociable brain structure-function relationships: (1) reduced left STG volume-positive symptoms-execu...

  9. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus

  10. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, M; Pandya, D N

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  11. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  12. White Matter Microstructure in Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Associated with Spatial Working Memory Performance in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baaré, William F C

    2011-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, ongoing white matter maturation in the fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts is measurable with diffusion-weighted imaging. Important questions remain, however, about the links between these changes and developing cognitive functions. Spatial working...... memory (SWM) performance improves significantly throughout the childhood years, and several lines of evidence implicate the left fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts in SWM processing. Here we report results from a study of 76 typically developing children, 7 to 13 years of age. We...... hypothesized that better SWM performance would be associated with increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in a left fronto-parietal network composed of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), the regional white matter underlying the dorsolateral pFC, and the posterior parietal cortex. As hypothesized, we...

  13. Influence of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the Right Angular Gyrus on Brain Activity during Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Benjamin; Jung, Stefanie; Mingoia, Gianluca; Weyer, David; Domahs, Frank; Willmes, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies examined resting-state networks (RSN) in the human brain, so far little is known about how activity within RSN might be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation applied over parietal cortex. Investigating changes in RSN in response to parietal cortex stimulation might tell us more about how non-invasive techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulate intrinsic brain activity, and further elaborate our understanding of how the resting brain responds to external stimulation. Here we examined how activity within the canonical RSN changed in response to anodal tDCS applied over the right angular gyrus (AG). We hypothesized that changes in resting-state activity can be induced by a single tDCS session and detected with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Significant differences between two fMRI sessions (pre-tDCS and post-tDCS) were found in several RSN, including the cerebellar, medial visual, sensorimotor, right frontoparietal, and executive control RSN as well as the default mode and the task positive network. The present results revealed decreased and increased RSN activity following tDCS. Decreased RSN activity following tDCS was found in bilateral primary and secondary visual areas, and in the right putamen. Increased RSN activity following tDCS was widely distributed across the brain, covering thalamic, frontal, parietal and occipital regions. From these exploratory results we conclude that a single session of anodal tDCS over the right AG is sufficient to induce large-scale changes in resting-state activity. These changes were localized in sensory and cognitive areas, covering regions close to and distant from the stimulation site. PMID:24760013

  14. Influence of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right angular gyrus on brain activity during rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Benjamin; Jung, Stefanie; Mingoia, Gianluca; Weyer, David; Domahs, Frank; Willmes, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies examined resting-state networks (RSN) in the human brain, so far little is known about how activity within RSN might be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation applied over parietal cortex. Investigating changes in RSN in response to parietal cortex stimulation might tell us more about how non-invasive techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulate intrinsic brain activity, and further elaborate our understanding of how the resting brain responds to external stimulation. Here we examined how activity within the canonical RSN changed in response to anodal tDCS applied over the right angular gyrus (AG). We hypothesized that changes in resting-state activity can be induced by a single tDCS session and detected with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Significant differences between two fMRI sessions (pre-tDCS and post-tDCS) were found in several RSN, including the cerebellar, medial visual, sensorimotor, right frontoparietal, and executive control RSN as well as the default mode and the task positive network. The present results revealed decreased and increased RSN activity following tDCS. Decreased RSN activity following tDCS was found in bilateral primary and secondary visual areas, and in the right putamen. Increased RSN activity following tDCS was widely distributed across the brain, covering thalamic, frontal, parietal and occipital regions. From these exploratory results we conclude that a single session of anodal tDCS over the right AG is sufficient to induce large-scale changes in resting-state activity. These changes were localized in sensory and cognitive areas, covering regions close to and distant from the stimulation site.

  15. Response inhibition of face stimuli linked to inferior frontal gyrus microstructure in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Skjold, Jonathan; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Jernigan, Terry Lynne

    matter underlying these regions continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence, as indicated by in an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA), possibly reflecting ongoing myelination, and/or increase in axon diameter and density7,8. Here we used an emotional Go/Nogo task to test the hypothesis......The ability to inhibit inappropriate behavior is an essential cognitive and social skill. Response inhibition of pre-potent motor responses as measured with a stop-signal or a Go/Nogo task improves throughout adolescence1,2. Performance on these tasks can be modulated by the valence of task stimuli....... Inhibition of negative faces has been shown to be more difficult than that of positive faces1,3. The brain network underlying response inhibition includes the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) bilaterally 4–6. The white...

  16. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals a role for the left inferior parietal lobule in matching observed kinematics during imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Arran T; Royce, Ben P; Marsh, Jade E; Chivers, Katy-Jayne; Holmes, Nicholas P

    2018-04-01

    Apraxia (a disorder of complex movement) suggests that the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) plays a role in kinematic or spatial aspects of imitation, which may be particularly important for meaningless (i.e. unfamiliar intransitive) actions. Mirror neuron theories indicate that the IPL is part of a frontoparietal system that can support imitation by linking observed and stored actions through visuomotor matching, and have less to say about different subregions of the left IPL, or how different types of action (i.e. meaningful or meaningless) are processed for imitation. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to bridge this gap and better understand the roles of the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and left angular gyrus (AG) in imitation. We also examined whether these areas are differentially involved in meaningful and meaningless action imitation. We applied rTMS over the left SMG, over the left AG or during a no-rTMS baseline condition, and then asked participants to imitate a confederate's actions whilst the arm and hand movements of both individuals were motion-tracked. rTMS over both the left SMG and the left AG reduced the velocity of participants' finger movements relative to the actor during imitation of finger gestures, regardless of action meaning. Our results support recent claims in apraxia and confirm a role for the left IPL in kinematic processing during gesture imitation, regardless of action meaning. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Temporal order processing of syllables in the left parietal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Dana; Baker, Julie M; Sanchez, Carmen E; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2009-10-07

    Speech processing requires the temporal parsing of syllable order. Individuals suffering from posterior left hemisphere brain injury often exhibit temporal processing deficits as well as language deficits. Although the right posterior inferior parietal lobe has been implicated in temporal order judgments (TOJs) of visual information, there is limited evidence to support the role of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in processing syllable order. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the left inferior parietal lobe is recruited during temporal order judgments of speech stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected on 14 normal participants while they completed the following forced-choice tasks: (1) syllable order of multisyllabic pseudowords, (2) syllable identification of single syllables, and (3) gender identification of both multisyllabic and monosyllabic speech stimuli. Results revealed increased neural recruitment in the left inferior parietal lobe when participants made judgments about syllable order compared with both syllable identification and gender identification. These findings suggest that the left inferior parietal lobe plays an important role in processing syllable order and support the hypothesized role of this region as an interface between auditory speech and the articulatory code. Furthermore, a breakdown in this interface may explain some components of the speech deficits observed after posterior damage to the left hemisphere.

  18. Adult Neurogenesis in the Mammalian Hippocampus: Why the Dentate Gyrus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Liam J.; Fusi, Stefano; Hen, René

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, newly generated neurons are continuously incorporated into two networks: interneurons born in the subventricular zone migrate to the olfactory bulb, whereas the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus integrates locally born principal neurons. That the rest of the mammalian brain loses significant neurogenic capacity…

  19. Fronto-parietal contributions to phonological processes in successful artificial grammar learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariya Goranskaya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity to regularities plays a crucial role in the acquisition of various linguistic features from spoken language input. Artificial grammar (AG learning paradigms explore pattern recognition abilities in a set of structured sequences (i.e. of syllables or letters. In the present study, we investigated the functional underpinnings of learning phonological regularities in auditorily presented syllable sequences. While previous neuroimaging studies either focused on functional differences between the processing of correct vs. incorrect sequences or between different levels of sequence complexity, here the focus is on the neural foundation of the actual learning success. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, participants were exposed to a set of syllable sequences with an underlying phonological rule system, known to ensure performance differences between participants. We expected that successful learning and rule application would require phonological segmentation and phoneme comparison. As an outcome of four alternating learning and test fMRI sessions, participants split into successful learners and non-learners. Relative to non-learners, successful learners showed increased task-related activity in a fronto-parietal network of brain areas encompassing the left lateral premotor cortex as well as bilateral superior and inferior parietal cortices during both learning and rule application. These areas were previously associated with phonological segmentation, phoneme comparison and verbal working memory. Based on these activity patterns and the phonological strategies for rule acquisition and application, we argue that successful learning and processing of complex phonological rules in our paradigm is mediated via a fronto-parietal network for phonological processes.

  20. Frontal and superior temporal auditory processing abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Edgar, J Christopher; Huang, Mingxiong; Hunter, Michael A; Epstein, Emerson; Howell, Breannan; Lu, Brett Y; Bustillo, Juan; Miller, Gregory A; Cañive, José M

    2013-01-01

    Although magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies show superior temporal gyrus (STG) auditory processing abnormalities in schizophrenia at 50 and 100 ms, EEG and corticography studies suggest involvement of additional brain areas (e.g., frontal areas) during this interval. Study goals were to identify 30 to 130 ms auditory encoding processes in schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC) and group differences throughout the cortex. The standard paired-click task was administered to 19 SZ and 21 HC subjects during MEG recording. Vector-based Spatial-temporal Analysis using L1-minimum-norm (VESTAL) provided 4D maps of activity from 30 to 130 ms. Within-group t-tests compared post-stimulus 50 ms and 100 ms activity to baseline. Between-group t-tests examined 50 and 100 ms group differences. Bilateral 50 and 100 ms STG activity was observed in both groups. HC had stronger bilateral 50 and 100 ms STG activity than SZ. In addition to the STG group difference, non-STG activity was also observed in both groups. For example, whereas HC had stronger left and right inferior frontal gyrus activity than SZ, SZ had stronger right superior frontal gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus activity than HC. Less STG activity was observed in SZ than HC, indicating encoding problems in SZ. Yet auditory encoding abnormalities are not specific to STG, as group differences were observed in frontal and SMG areas. Thus, present findings indicate that individuals with SZ show abnormalities in multiple nodes of a concurrently activated auditory network.

  1. Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS on parietal and premotor cortex during planning of reaching movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Busan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral activation during planning of reaching movements occurs both in the superior parietal lobule (SPL and premotor cortex (PM, and their activation seems to take place in parallel. METHODOLOGY: The activation of the SPL and PM has been investigated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS during planning of reaching movements under visual guidance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A facilitory effect was found when TMS was delivered on the parietal cortex at about half of the time from sight of the target to hand movement, independently of target location in space. Furthermore, at the same stimulation time, a similar facilitory effect was found in PM, which is probably related to movement preparation. CONCLUSIONS: This data contributes to the understanding of cortical dynamics in the parieto-frontal network, and suggests that it is possible to interfere with the planning of reaching movements at different cortical points within a particular time window. Since similar effects may be produced at similar times on both the SPL and PM, parallel processing of visuomotor information is likely to take place in these regions.

  2. Electrical stimulation reduces smokers' craving by modulating the coupling between dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Zhuang; Shi, Bin; Li, Hai; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ying; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhou, Yanfei; Wang, Ying; Lv, Wanwan; Ji, Xuebing; Hudak, Justin; Zhou, Yifeng; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-08-01

    Applying electrical stimulation over the prefrontal cortex can help nicotine dependents reduce cigarette craving. However, the underlying mechanism remains ambiguous. This study investigates this issue with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty-two male chronic smokers received real and sham stimulation over dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) separated by 1 week. The neuroimaging data of the resting state, the smoking cue-reactivity task and the emotion task after stimulation were collected. The craving across the cue-reactivity task was diminished during real stimulation as compared with sham stimulation. The whole-brain analysis on the cue-reactivity task revealed a significant interaction between the stimulation condition (real vs sham) and the cue type (smoking vs neutral) in the left superior frontal gyrus and the left middle frontal gyrus. The functional connectivity between the left DLPFC and the right parahippocampal gyrus, as revealed by both psychophysical interaction analysis and the resting state functional connectivity, is altered by electrical stimulation. Moreover, the craving change across the real and sham condition is predicted by alteration of functional connectivity revealed by psychophysical interaction analysis. The local and long-distance coupling, altered by the electrical stimulation, might be the underlying neural mechanism of craving regulation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  4. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  5. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  6. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  7. Subcomponents and connectivity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuhui; Pathak, Sudhir; Stefaneanu, Lucia; Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Li, Shiting; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2016-05-01

    The subcomponents of the human superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) are disputed. The objective of this study was to investigate the segments, connectivity and asymmetry of the SLF. We performed high angular diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) analysis on ten healthy adults. We also conducted fiber tracking on a 30-subject DSI template (CMU-30) and 488-subject template from the Human Connectome Project (HCP-488). In addition, five normal brains obtained at autopsy were microdissected. Based on tractography and microdissection results, we show that the human SLF differs significantly from that of monkey. The fibers corresponding to SLF-I found in 6 out of 20 hemispheres proved to be part of the cingulum fiber system in all cases and confirmed on both DSI and HCP-488 template. The most common patterns of connectivity bilaterally were as follows: from angular gyrus to caudal middle frontal gyrus and dorsal precentral gyrus representing SLF-II (or dorsal SLF), and from supramarginal gyrus to ventral precentral gyrus and pars opercularis to form SLF-III (or ventral SLF). Some connectivity features were, however, clearly asymmetric. Thus, we identified a strong asymmetry of the dorsal SLF (SLF-II), where the connectivity between the supramarginal gyrus with the dorsal precentral gyrus and the caudal middle frontal gyrus was only present in the left hemisphere. Contrarily, the ventral SLF (SLF-III) showed fairly constant connectivity with pars triangularis only in the right hemisphere. The results provide a novel neuroanatomy of the SLF that may help to better understand its functional role in the human brain.

  8. Investigation of Parietal Polysaccharides from Retama raetam Roots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results indicate the presence of the homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonans in pectin. This study constitutes the preliminary data obtained in the biochemical analysis of the parietal compounds of the roots of a species which grows in an arid area in comparison with those of its aerial parts. Keywords: Retama ...

  9. Significance of parietal projection in radiosotope scintigraphy of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomchenkov, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the isotope scintigraphy of the brain in the parieal projection with the change of the dip angle of the gamma-chamber detector to the plane of the physiological horizontal was revealed. The observation was made on 100 patients with suspected presence of the volumetric process of the brain. Three variants of placing were studied: the parietal projection - standard (collimator plane parallel to the plane of physiological horizontal and strictly perpendicular to the sagittal plane); the placing with an angle of 30 deg between the detector plane and the physiological horizontal, opened at the front (posterio-parietal); placing with an angle of 30 deg between the detector plane and the physiological horizontal opened at the back (anterio-parietal). A comparative analysis of scintigrams with focal processes of the brain showed the largest informativeness of the proposed modification of the parietal projection in the form of a change of the dip angle of the gamma-chamber detector plane to the plane of the physiological horizontal opened at the back; this makes it possible to reveal more thoroughly the focus of the increased, pathological accumulation of the isotope in different parts of the skull, where the use of as standard placing is of small informativeness

  10. Subtotal ablation of parietal epithelial cells induces crescent formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicking, E.M.; Fuss, A.; Uhlig, S.; Jirak, P.; Dijkman, H.; Wetzels, J.; Engel, D.R.; Urzynicok, T.; Heidenreich, S.; Kriz, W.; Kurts, C.; Ostendorf, T.; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) of the renal glomerulus contribute to the formation of both cellular crescents in rapidly progressive GN and sclerotic lesions in FSGS. Subtotal transgenic ablation of podocytes induces FSGS but the effect of specific ablation of PECs is unknown. Here, we established

  11. Parietal epithelial cells and podocytes in glomerular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) play an important role within the renal glomerulus, in particular in diseased conditions. In this review, we examine current knowledge about the role of PECs and their interactions with podocytes in development and under

  12. Parietal cells-new perspectives in glomerular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miesen, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Smeets, B.

    2017-01-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman's capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and

  13. Neuronal synchronization in human parietal cortex during saccade planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, J. van der; Buchholz, V.N.; Jensen, O.; Medendorp, W.P.

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the human posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in sensorimotor integration and saccade planning However, the temporal dynamics of the underlying physiology and its relationship to observations in non-human primates have been difficult to pin

  14. Parietal epithelial cells: their role in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnani, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsules were first described by Sir William Bowman in 1842 in his paper On the Structure and Use of the Malpighian Bodies of the Kidney [London, Taylor, 1842], but since then their functions have remained poorly understood. A large body of evidence has recently suggested that parietal epithelial cells represent a reservoir of renal progenitors in adult human kidney which generate novel podocytes during childhood and adolescence, and can regenerate injured podocytes. The discovery that parietal epithelial cells represent a potential source for podocyte regeneration suggests that podocyte injury can be repaired. However, recent results also suggest that an abnormal proliferative response of renal progenitors to podocyte injury can generate hyperplastic glomerular lesions that are observed in crescentic glomerulonephritis and other types of glomerular disorders. Taken together, these results establish an entirely novel view that changes the way of thinking about renal physiology and pathophysiology, and suggest that understanding how self-renewal and fate decision of parietal epithelial cells in response to podocyte injury may be perturbed or modulated will be crucial for obtaining novel tools for prevention and treatment of glomerulosclerosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The regenerative potential of parietal epithelial cells in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, K.; Schulte, K.; Boor, P.; Kuppe, C.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman's capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically

  16. Dentate Gyrus Neurogenesis, Integration, and microRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Luikart, Bryan W; Perederiy, Julia V; Westbrook, Gary L

    2011-01-01

    Neurons are born and become a functional part of the synaptic circuitry in adult brains. The proliferative phase of neurogenesis has been extensively reviewed. We therefore focus this review on a few topics addressing the functional role of adult-generated newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus. We discuss the evidence for a link between neurogenesis and behavior. We then describe the steps in the integration of newborn neurons into a functioning mature synaptic circuit. Given the profound effe...

  17. Postnatal development of the hippocampal dentate gyrus under normal and experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, J.; Bayer, S.

    Studies on postnatal maturation of the dentate gyrus are reviewed. Some topics discussed are: normal development of the dentate gyrus, cytogenesis, morphogenesis, synaptogenesis, gleogenesis, myelogenesis, development of the gyrus under experimental conditions, and effects of x radiation on cytogenesis and morphogenesis

  18. Hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E Scharfman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The circuitry of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is unique compared to other hippocampal subfields because there are two glutamatergic principal cells instead of one: granule cells, which are the vast majority of the cells in the dentate gyrus, and the so-called ‘mossy cells.’ The distinctive appearance of mossy cells, the extensive divergence of their axons, and their vulnerability to excitotoxicity relative to granule cells has led to a great deal of interest in mossy cells. Nevertheless, there is no consensus about the normal functions of mossy cells and the implications of their vulnerability. There even seems to be some ambiguity about exactly what mossy cells are. Here we review initial studies of mossy cells, characteristics that define them, and suggest a practical definition to allow investigators to distinguish mossy cells from other hilar neurons even if all morphological and physiological information is unavailable due to technical limitations of their experiments. In addition, hypotheses are discussed about the role of mossy cells in the dentate gyrus network, reasons for their vulnerability and their implications for disease.

  19. Interictal psychosis following temporal lobe surgery: dentate gyrus pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, M; Kensche, M; Maynard, J; Liu, J; Reeves, C; Goc, J; Marsdon, D; Fluegel, D; Foong, J

    2014-10-01

    De novo interictal psychosis, albeit uncommon, can develop in patients following temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy. Pathological alterations of the dentate gyrus, including cytoarchitectural changes, immaturity and axonal reorganization that occur in epilepsy, may also underpin co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to study candidate pathways that may be associated with the development of interictal psychosis post-operatively in patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). A total of 11 patients with HS who developed interictal psychosis (HS-P) post-operatively were compared with a matched surgical HS group without psychosis (HS-NP). Resected tissues were investigated for the extent of granule cell dispersion, mossy fibre sprouting and calbindin expression in the granule cells. We quantified doublecortin, mini-chromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2) and reelin-expressing neuronal populations in the dentate gyrus as well as the distribution of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CBR1). The patterns of neuronal loss and gliosis were similar in both groups. HS-P patients demonstrated less mossy fibre sprouting and granule cell dispersion (p gyrus pathology found in HS-P patients could indicate underlying differences in the cellular response to seizures. These mechanisms may predispose to the development of psychosis in epilepsy and warrant further investigation.

  20. Functional connectivity of parietal cortex during temporal selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Sarah C; Dasgupta, Samhita; Agosta, Sara; Battelli, Lorella; Grossman, Emily D

    2015-04-01

    Perception of natural experiences requires allocation of attention towards features, objects, and events that are moving and changing over time. This allocation of attention is controlled by large-scale brain networks that, when damaged, cause widespread cognitive deficits. In particular, damage to ventral parietal cortex (right lateralized TPJ, STS, supramarginal and angular gyri) is associated with failures to selectively attend to and isolate features embedded within rapidly changing visual sequences (Battelli, Pascual-Leone, & Cavanagh, 2007; Husain, Shapiro, Martin, & Kennard, 1997). In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the neural activity and functional connectivity of intact parietal cortex while typical subjects judged the relative onsets and offsets of rapidly flickering tokens (a phase discrimination task in which right parietal patients are impaired). We found two regions in parietal cortex correlated with task performance: a bilateral posterior TPJ (pTPJ) and an anterior right-lateralized TPJ (R aTPJ). Both regions were deactivated when subjects engaged in the task but showed different patterns of functional connectivity. The bilateral pTPJ was strongly connected to nodes within the default mode network (DMN) and the R aTPJ was connected to the attention network. Accurate phase discriminations were associated with increased functional correlations between sensory cortex (hMT+) and the bilateral pTPJ, whereas accuracy on a control task was associated with yoked activity in the hMT+ and the R aTPJ. We conclude that temporal selective attention is particularly sensitive for revealing information pathways between sensory and core cognitive control networks that, when damaged, can lead to nonspatial attention impairments in right parietal stroke patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of childhood trauma on left inferior frontal gyrus function during response inhibition across psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quidé, Y; O'Reilly, N; Watkeys, O J; Carr, V J; Green, M J

    2018-07-01

    Childhood trauma is a risk factor for psychosis. Deficits in response inhibition are common to psychosis and trauma-exposed populations, and associated brain functions may be affected by trauma exposure in psychotic disorders. We aimed to identify the influence of trauma-exposure on brain activation and functional connectivity during a response inhibition task. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function within regions-of-interest [left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex], during the performance of a Go/No-Go Flanker task, in 112 clinical cases with psychotic disorders and 53 healthy controls (HCs). Among the participants, 71 clinical cases and 21 HCs reported significant levels of childhood trauma exposure, while 41 clinical cases and 32 HCs did not. In the absence of effects on response inhibition performance, childhood trauma exposure was associated with increased activation in the left IFG, and increased connectivity between the left IFG seed region and the cerebellum and calcarine sulcus, in both cases and healthy individuals. There was no main effect of psychosis, and no trauma-by-psychosis interaction for any other region-of-interest. Within the clinical sample, the effects of trauma-exposure on the left IFG activation were mediated by symptom severity. Trauma-related increases in activation of the left IFG were not associated with performance differences, or dependent on clinical diagnostic status; increased IFG functionality may represent a compensatory (overactivation) mechanism required to exert adequate inhibitory control of the motor response.

  2. The role of medial frontal gyrus in action anticipation in professional badminton players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Xu

    2016-11-01

    cortex, right fusiform gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, left insula and particularly, and left medial frontal cortex.

  3. Gray matter volume reduction in rostral middle frontal gyrus in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikinis, Z; Fallon, J H; Niznikiewicz, M; Nestor, P; Davidson, C; Bobrow, L; Pelavin, P E; Fischl, B; Yendiki, A; McCarley, R W; Kikinis, R; Kubicki, M; Shenton, M E

    2010-11-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a brain region that has figured prominently in studies of schizophrenia and working memory, yet the exact neuroanatomical localization of this brain region remains to be defined. DLPFC primarily involves the superior frontal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). The latter, however is not a single neuroanatomical entity but instead is comprised of rostral (anterior, middle, and posterior) and caudal regions. In this study we used structural MRI to develop a method for parcellating MFG into its component parts. We focused on this region of DLPFC because it includes BA46, a region involved in working memory. We evaluated volume differences in MFG in 20 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls. Mid-rostral MFG (MR-MFG) was delineated within the rostral MFG using anterior and posterior neuroanatomical landmarks derived from cytoarchitectonic definitions of BA46. Gray matter volumes of MR-MFG were then compared between groups, and a significant reduction in gray matter volume was observed (p<0.008), but not in other areas of MFG (i.e., anterior or posterior rostral MFG, or caudal regions of MFG). Our results demonstrate that volumetric alterations in MFG gray matter are localized exclusively to MR-MFG. 3D reconstructions of the cortical surface made it possible to follow MFG into its anterior part, where other approaches have failed. This method of parcellation offers a more precise way of measuring MR-MFG that will likely be important in further documentation of DLPFC anomalies in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. NEURAL CORRELATES FOR APATHY: FRONTAL - PREFRONTAL AND PARIETAL CORTICAL - SUBCORTICAL CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional invovlement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in every day life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside. As a general observation, the occurrence of apathy is connected to damage of prefrontal cortex (PFC and basal ganglia; emotional affective apathy may be related to the orbitomedial PFC and ventral striatum; cognitive apathy may be associated with dysfunction of lateral PFC and dorsal caudate nuclei; deficit of autoactivation may be due to bilateral lesions of the internal portion of globus pallidus, bilateral paramedian thalamic lesions, or the dorsomedial portion of PFC. On the other hand, apathy severity has been connected to neurofibrillary tangles density in the anterior cingulate gyrus and to grey matter atrophy in the anterior cingulate (ACC and in the left medial frontal cortex, confirmed by functional imaging studies. These neural networks are linked to projects, judjing and planning, execution and selection common actions, and through the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens projects to the frontostriatal and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore, an alteration of these circuitry caused a lack of insight, a reduction of decision-making strategies and a reduced speedness in action decsion, major resposnible for apathy. Emergent role concerns also the parietal cortex, with its direct action motivation control.We will discuss the importance of these circuits in different pathologies

  5. ALFF Value in Right Parahippocampal Gyrus Acts as a Potential Marker Monitoring Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Progression: a Neuropsychological, Voxel-Based Morphometry, and Resting-State Functional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjia; Fu, Xiaoling; Cui, Fang; Yang, Fei; Ren, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Xiaolan; Chen, Zhaohui; Ling, Li; Huang, Xusheng

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-four participants matched for age, sex, and educational background were enrolled as the sporadic ALS group (n = 22) and the control group (n = 22). All participants completed comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (SCWT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Frontal Assessment Battery. The participants underwent a series of 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Resting-state functional MRI (Rs-fMRI) using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was performed. Three-dimensional T1-weighted anatomical images obtained by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to conduct correlation analyses and group comparisons with the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics. The results indicated that the decreased gray matter (GM) volume in the bilateral precentral gyri and increased ALFF values in the right parahippocampal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus, left anterior cingulate gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and left middle occipital gyrus were identified in the sporadic ALS group. The increased ALFF value in the right parahippocampal gyrus was positively correlated with ALS progression rate. The ALS patients exhibited poor performances on cognitive and executive tests, which were significantly or marginally significantly correlated with the ALFF values in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the frontal, temporal, and parahippocampal cortices. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence of an extramotor involvement and suggest that the ALFF value in the right parahippocampal gyrus could represent a potential marker to monitor disease progression.

  6. Parietal seeding of unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorale, C; Scibé, R; Siquini, W; Massa, M; Brunelli, A; Landi, E

    1998-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (VALC) represents the treatment of choice for the symptomatic gallstones. However the occurrence of an adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder results a controindication for this surgical technique. We present a case of a 52 years old woman who underwent a VALC; histology revealed a gallbladder adenocarcinoma. For this reason the patient underwent a second operation that is right hepatic trisegmentectomy. Six months later the patient presented with a parietal recurrence at the extraction site of the gallbladder. We discuss the possible mechanism responsible for carcinomatous dissemination during laparoscopic surgery and we raccommend the use of some procedures in order to limit the risk and eventually to treat a neoplastic parietal seeding. These complications suggest the problem about the utility and the future played by video assisted laparoscopic surgery in the diagnosis and treatment of intraabdominal malignancies.

  7. Choline acetyltransferase-containing neurons in the human parietal neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Benagiano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of immunocytochemical studies have indicated the presence of cholinergic neurons in the cerebral cortex of various species of mammals. Whether such cholinergic neurons in the human cerebral cortex are exclusively of subcortical origin is still debated. In this immunocytochemical study, the existence of cortical cholinergic neurons was investigated on surgical samples of human parietal association neocortex using a highly specific monoclonal antibody against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the acetylcholine biosynthesising enzyme. ChAT immunoreactivity was detected in a subpopulation of neurons located in layers II and III. These were small or medium-sized pyramidal neurons which showed cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in the perikarya and processes, often in close association to blood microvessels. This study, providing demonstration of ChAT neurons in the human parietal neocortex, strongly supports the existence of intrinsic cholinergic innervation of the human neocortex. It is likely that these neurons contribute to the cholinergic innervation of the intracortical microvessels.

  8. Kinesthetic alexia due to left parietal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihori, Nami; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Araki, Shigeo; Kawachi, Juro

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the neuropsychological mechanisms of kinesthetic alexia, we asked 7 patients who showed kinesthetic alexia with preserved visual reading after damage to the left parietal region to perform tasks consisting of kinesthetic written reproduction (writing down the same letter as the kinesthetic stimulus), kinesthetic reading aloud, visual written reproduction (copying letters), and visual reading aloud of hiragana (Japanese phonograms). We compared the performance in these tasks and the lesion sites in each patient. The results suggested that deficits in any one of the following functions might cause kinesthetic alexia: (1) the retrieval of kinesthetic images (motor engrams) of characters from kinesthetic stimuli, (2) kinesthetic images themselves, (3) access to cross-modal association from kinesthetic images, and (4) cross-modal association itself (retrieval of auditory and visual images from kinesthetic images of characters). Each of these factors seemed to be related to different lesion sites in the left parietal lobe. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Neuronal oscillations form parietal/frontal networks during contour integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Marta; Plöchl, Michael; Vicente, Raul; Pipa, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate visual features into a global coherent percept that can be further categorized and manipulated are fundamental abilities of the neural system. While the processing of visual information involves activation of early visual cortices, the recruitment of parietal and frontal cortices has been shown to be crucial for perceptual processes. Yet is it not clear how both cortical and long-range oscillatory activity leads to the integration of visual features into a coherent percept. Here, we will investigate perceptual grouping through the analysis of a contour categorization task, where the local elements that form contour must be linked into a coherent structure, which is then further processed and manipulated to perform the categorization task. The contour formation in our visual stimulus is a dynamic process where, for the first time, visual perception of contours is disentangled from the onset of visual stimulation or from motor preparation, cognitive processes that until now have been behaviorally attached to perceptual processes. Our main finding is that, while local and long-range synchronization at several frequencies seem to be an ongoing phenomena, categorization of a contour could only be predicted through local oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal sources, which in turn, would synchronize at gamma (>30 Hz) frequency. Simultaneously, fronto-parietal beta (13-30 Hz) phase locking forms a network spanning across neural sources that are not category specific. Both long range networks, i.e., the gamma network that is category specific, and the beta network that is not category specific, are functionally distinct but spatially overlapping. Altogether, we show that a critical mechanism underlying contour categorization involves oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal cortices, as well as its synchronization across distal cortical sites.

  10. Parietal cells?new perspectives in glomerular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Miesen, Laura; Steenbergen, Eric; Smeets, Bart

    2017-01-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman?s capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and podocytes have a common mesenchymal origin and are the result of divergent differentiation during embryogenesis. Podocytes and PTECs are highly differentiated cells with well-established functions pertain...

  11. Pneumothorax simulated by detachment of parietal pleura associated with pneumomediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozeik, C.; Kotterer, O.; Deininger, H.K.

    1994-01-01

    We report a case of blunt chest trauma, where findings on repeated conventional chest radiographs were compatible with pneumothorax developing after 2 days of mechanical high-pressure ventilation. CT showed that the appearance was due to a detachment of the parietal pleura along the lateral, mediastinal and diaphragmatic boundaries of the lungs, imitating a pneumothorax. The case report illustrates the key role of CT in the differential diagnosis of epipleural interstitial air collection versus pneumothorax. (orig./MG)

  12. Pneumothorax simulated by detachment of parietal pleura associated with pneumomediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozeik, C. [Radiologie 1, Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt (Germany); Kotterer, O. [Radiologie 1, Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt (Germany); Deininger, H.K. [Radiologie 1, Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    We report a case of blunt chest trauma, where findings on repeated conventional chest radiographs were compatible with pneumothorax developing after 2 days of mechanical high-pressure ventilation. CT showed that the appearance was due to a detachment of the parietal pleura along the lateral, mediastinal and diaphragmatic boundaries of the lungs, imitating a pneumothorax. The case report illustrates the key role of CT in the differential diagnosis of epipleural interstitial air collection versus pneumothorax. (orig./MG)

  13. Glomerular parietal epithelial cells in kidney physiology, pathology, and repair

    OpenAIRE

    Shankland, Stuart J.; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Romagnani, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review We have summarized recently published glomerular parietal epithelial cell (PEC) research, focusing on their roles in glomerular development and physiology, and in certain glomerular diseases. The rationale is that PECs have been largely ignored until the recent availability of cell lineage tracing studies, human and murine PEC culture systems, and potential therapeutic interventions of PECs. Recent findings Several new paradigms involving PECs have emerged demonstrating thei...

  14. The Regenerative Potential of Parietal Epithelial Cells in Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Katja; Schulte, Kevin; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman’s capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically labeled in an irreversible fashion in 5-week-old mice. No significant increase in labeled podocytes was observed, even after 18 months. To accelerate a potential regenerative mechanism, progressive glo...

  15. Influence of superior cervical ganglionectomy on hippocampal neurogenesis and learning and memory in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping Ding; Baoping Shao; Shiyuan Yu; Shanting Zhao; Jianlin Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus plays an important role in learning and memory. However, studies have not determined whether the superior cervical ganglion or the sympathetic nerve system influences hippocampal neurogenesis or learning and memory in adult rats. OBJECTIVE: To observe differences in dentate gyrus neurogenesis, as well as learning and memory, in adult rats following superior cervical ganglionectomy. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal study was performed at the Immunohistochemistry Laboratory of the School of Life Sciences in Lanzhou University from July 2006 to July 2007.MATERIALS: Doublecortin polyclonal antibody was provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA;avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex was purchased from Zhongshan Goldenbride Biotechnology, China;Morris water maze was bought from Taimeng Technology, China. METHODS: A total of 20 adult, male, Wistar rats were randomly divided into surgery and control groups, with 10 rats in each group. In the surgery group, the bilateral superior cervical ganglions were transected. In the control group, the superior cervical ganglions were only exposed, but no ganglionectomy was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To examine distribution, morphology, and number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus using doublecortin immunohistochemistry at 36 days following surgical procedures. To examine ability of learning and memory in adult rats using the Morris water maze at 30 days following surgical procedures. RESULTS: Doublecortin immunohistochemical results showed that a reduction in the number of doublecortin-positive neurons in the surgery group compared to the control group (P<0.05), while the distribution of doublecortin-positive neurons was identical in the two groups. The surgery group exhibited significantly worse performance in learning and spatial memory tasks compared to the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Superior cervical ganglionectomy

  16. Self and Superior Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    model of the self-evaluation process as it differs from the evaluation process used by superiors. Symbolic Interactionism One view of self assessment is...supplied by the symbolic interactionists (Cooley, 1902; Head, 1934), who state that self perceptions are generated largely from individuals...disagreements remained even immediately after an appraisal interview in which a great deal of feedback was given. Research on the symbolic interactionist

  17. Bilateral reorganization of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, M; Martinian, L; Catarino, C; Yogarajah, M; Koepp, M J.; Caboclo, L; Sisodiya, S M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common surgical pathology associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). HS is typically characterized by mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) and reorganization of neuropeptide Y (NPY) fiber networks in the dentate gyrus. One potential cause of postoperative seizure recurrence following temporal lobe surgery may be the presence of seizure-associated bilateral hippocampal damage. We aimed to investigate patterns of hippocampal abnormalities in a postmortem series as identified by NPY and dynorphin immunohistochemistry. Methods: Analysis of dentate gyrus fiber reorganization, using dynorphin (to demonstrate MFS) and NPY immunohistochemistry, was carried out in a postmortem epilepsy series of 25 cases (age range 21–96 years). In 9 patients, previously refractory seizures had become well controlled for up to 34 years prior to death. Results: Bilateral MFS or abnormal NPY patterns were seen in 15 patients including those with bilateral symmetric, asymmetric, and unilateral HS by conventional histologic criteria. MFS and NPY reorganization was present in all classical HS cases, more variably in atypical HS, present in both MTLE and non-MTLE syndromes and with seizure histories of up to 92 years, despite seizure remission in some patients. Conclusion: Synaptic reorganization in the dentate gyrus may be a bilateral, persistent process in epilepsy. It is unlikely to be sufficient to generate seizures and more likely to represent a seizure-induced phenomenon. GLOSSARY AED = antiepileptic drug; CA1p = CA1-predominant hippocampal sclerosis; CHS = classical hippocampal sclerosis; EFG = end folium gliosis; EFS = end folium sclerosis; GCD = granule cell dispersion; GCL = granule cell layer; HS = hippocampal sclerosis; MFS = mossy fiber sprouting; MTLE = mesial temporal lobe epilepsy; NPY = neuropeptide Y; ROI = region of interest; SE = status epilepticus; TLE = temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:19710404

  18. Overlapping Parietal Activity in Memory and Perception: Evidence for the Attention to Memory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Roberto; Mazuz, Yonatan S.; Stokes, Jared; Kragel, James E.; Woldorff, Marty G.; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Olson, Ingrid R.; Moscovitch, Morris

    2011-01-01

    The specific role of different parietal regions to episodic retrieval is a topic of intense debate. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM) model, dorsal parietal cortex (DPC) mediates top-down attention processes guided by retrieval goals, whereas ventral parietal cortex (VPC) mediates bottom-up attention processes captured by the retrieval…

  19. Dissociation of Subtraction and Multiplication in the Right Parietal Cortex: Evidence from Intraoperative Cortical Electrostimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaodan; Chen, Chuansheng; Pu, Song; Wu, Chenxing; Li, Yongnian; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Xinlin

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently shown that the left parietal cortex is critical for numerical processing, but the role of the right parietal lobe has been much less clear. This study used the intraoperative cortical electrical stimulation approach to investigate neural dissociation in the right parietal cortex for subtraction and…

  20. El arte parietal, espejo de las sociedades paleolíticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges SAUVET

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente trabajo aboga por un estudio del arte parietal como instrumento del conocimiento de la geografía humana de las sociedades de cazadores y de la evolución de sus redes de alianza, durante el Paleolítico superior. Tomando como ejemplo el componente figurativo de este arte y un amplio corpus de 3981 figuras procedentes de 154 yacimientos franceses y españoles, se demuestra que las asociaciones entre especies animales diferentes obedecen a reglas simples y coherentes, que se dejan fácilmente exprimir por un modelo formal. El análisis de doce sub-conjuntos sincrónicos y diacrónicos evidencia la movilidad de las connexiones interregionales (por ejemplo el desarrollo del Solutrense cantábrico en relación con los centros peninsulares y con escaso contacto con el sudoeste francés, al contrario de la situación que prevalece durante el Magdaleniense medio-superior. Sin embargo conforta la idea que las variaciones regionales operan dentro de un sistema de pensamiento religioso relativamente estable. Una segunda fase del trabajo se propone describir la estructuración del arte parietal a un nivel mucho más fino, teniendo en cuenta la diversidad formal de cada figura y sus relaciones topológicas con las demás. Una larga base de datos está en curso de elaboración para su tratamiento con las técnicas de "extracción de conocimiento" (Knowledge Discovery in Databases. Unos resultados preliminares dejan esperar que una base de datos de este tipo servirá el objetivo y proporcionará une visión más precisa y segura de la historia de los pueblos paleolíticos, dado que la fuente del estilo propio de cada grupo debe buscarse en la construcción gráfica de paneles complejos.ABSTRACT: This paper pleads in favour of the study of parietal art as a means to investigate the human geography of palaeolithic hunter-gatherers in Europe and the evolution of their alliance networks. Taking the example of the figurative component of Rock

  1. On the Same Wavelength: Predictable Language Enhances Speaker–Listener Brain-to-Brain Synchrony in Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikker, Suzanne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374650403; Silbert, Lauren J; Hasson, Uri; Zevin, Jason D

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the degree to which speakers and listeners exhibit similar brain activity patterns during human linguistic interaction is correlated with communicative success. Here, we used an intersubject correlation approach in fMRI to test the hypothesis that a listener's ability

  2. Protracted postnatal neurogenesis and radiosensitivity in the rabbit's dentate gyrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueneau, G.; Baille, V.; Dubos, M.; Court, L.

    1986-01-01

    In the hippocampal formation of a 3-month-old rabbit submitted to a 4.5 Gy gamma irradiation a cytologic study with light and electron microscopy allowed us to make clear the dentate gyrus particular radiosensitivity as soon as the first hours after irradiation. The pycnosis lesion observed in the subgranular zone has drawn our attention in particular. We apply ourselves to describe and precise the lesion and its evolution; thanks to an autoradiographic study, we have shown its link with late postnatal neurogenesis which goes on in this zone and at last we have used the subgranular cells 'radiosensitivity as a biological test allowing to compare the various rays' effects (gamma and neutron rays). In the brain of a one-month-old monkey submitted to a 4 Gy total irradiation the same pycnotic lesion is observed: 1) in the dentate gyrus's subgranular zone and 2) in the cerebellum's outer granular layer. These two postnatal proliferative zones remain particularly sensitive to ionizing radiations. (orig.)

  3. Immature Dentate Gyrus: An Endophenotype of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Hagihara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate maturation of neurons and their integration into the hippocampal circuit is crucial for normal cognitive function and emotional behavior, and disruption of this process could cause disturbances in mental health. Previous reports have shown that mice heterozygous for a null mutation in α-CaMKII, which encodes a key synaptic plasticity molecule, display abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In these mutants, almost all neurons in the dentate gyrus are arrested at a pseudoimmature state at the molecular and electrophysiological levels, a phenomenon defined as “immature dentate gyrus (iDG.” To date, the iDG phenotype and shared behavioral abnormalities (including working memory deficit and hyperlocomotor activity have been discovered in Schnurri-2 knockout, mutant SNAP-25 knock-in, and forebrain-specific calcineurin knockout mice. In addition, both chronic fluoxetine treatment and pilocarpine-induced seizures reverse the neuronal maturation, resulting in the iDG phenotype in wild-type mice. Importantly, an iDG-like phenomenon was observed in post-mortem analysis of brains from patients with schizophrenia/bipolar disorder. Based on these observations, we proposed that the iDG is a potential endophenotype shared by certain types of neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes recent data describing this phenotype and discusses the data’s potential implication in elucidating the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. Complications after mesial temporal lobe surgery via inferiortemporal gyrus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Fernando L; Reintjes, Stephen; Garcia, Hermes G

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the complications associated with the inferior temporal gyrus approach to anterior mesial temporal lobe resection for temporal lobe epilepsy. This retrospective study examined complications experienced by 483 patients during the 3 months after surgery. All surgeries were performed during 1998-2012 by the senior author (F.L.V.). A total of 13 complications (2.7%) were reported. Complications were 8 delayed subdural hematomas (1.6%), 2 superficial wound infections (0.4%), 1 delayed intracranial hemorrhage (0.2%), 1 small lacunar stroke (0.2%), and 1 transient frontalis nerve palsy (0.2%). Three patients with subdural hematoma (0.6%) required readmission and surgical intervention. One patient (0.2%) with delayed intracranial hemorrhage required readmission to the neuroscience intensive care unit for observation. No deaths or severe neurological impairments were reported. Among the 8 patients with subdural hematoma, 7 were older than 40 years (87.5%); however, this finding was not statistically significant (p = 0.198). The inferior temporal gyrus approach to mesial temporal lobe resection is a safe and effective method for treating temporal lobe epilepsy. Morbidity and mortality rates associated with this procedure are lower than those associated with other neurosurgical procedures. The finding that surgical complications seem to be more common among older patients emphasizes the need for early surgical referral of patients with medically refractory epilepsy.

  5. Automatic and Controlled Semantic Retrieval: TMS Reveals Distinct Contributions of Posterior Middle Temporal Gyrus and Angular Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, James; Cornelissen, Piers L; Thompson, Hannah E; Sonkusare, Saurabh; Hallam, Glyn; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-11-18

    Semantic retrieval involves both (1) automatic spreading activation between highly related concepts and (2) executive control processes that tailor this activation to suit the current context or goals. Two structures in left temporoparietal cortex, angular gyrus (AG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), are thought to be crucial to semantic retrieval and are often recruited together during semantic tasks; however, they show strikingly different patterns of functional connectivity at rest (coupling with the "default mode network" and "frontoparietal control system," respectively). Here, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to establish a causal yet dissociable role for these sites in semantic cognition in human volunteers. TMS to AG disrupted thematic judgments particularly when the link between probe and target was strong (e.g., a picture of an Alsatian with a bone), and impaired the identification of objects at a specific but not a superordinate level (for the verbal label "Alsatian" not "animal"). In contrast, TMS to pMTG disrupted thematic judgments for weak but not strong associations (e.g., a picture of an Alsatian with razor wire), and impaired identity matching for both superordinate and specific-level labels. Thus, stimulation to AG interfered with the automatic retrieval of specific concepts from the semantic store while stimulation of pMTG impaired semantic cognition when there was a requirement to flexibly shape conceptual activation in line with the task requirements. These results demonstrate that AG and pMTG make a dissociable contribution to automatic and controlled aspects of semantic retrieval. We demonstrate a novel functional dissociation between the angular gyrus (AG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) in conceptual processing. These sites are often coactivated during neuroimaging studies using semantic tasks, but their individual contributions are unclear. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation and tasks designed to

  6. Superior facet syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-01-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L 5 or/and S 1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively, Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L 5 roots and 11 S 1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L 5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome. (author)

  7. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation Underlies the Perception of Emotions, While Precuneus Activation Underlies the Feeling of Emotions during Music Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabei, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While music triggers many physiological and psychological reactions, the underlying neural basis of perceived and experienced emotions during music listening remains poorly understood. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), I conducted a comparative study of the different brain areas involved in perceiving and feeling emotions during music listening. I measured fMRI signals while participants assessed the emotional expression of music (perceived emotion) and their emotional responses to music (felt emotion). I found that cortical areas including the prefrontal, auditory, cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices were consistently activated by the perceived and felt emotional tasks. Moreover, activity in the inferior frontal gyrus increased more during the perceived emotion task than during a passive listening task. In addition, the precuneus showed greater activity during the felt emotion task than during a passive listening task. The findings reveal that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the precuneus are important areas for the perception of the emotional content of music as well as for the emotional response evoked in the listener. Furthermore, I propose that the precuneus, a brain region associated with self-representation, might be involved in assessing emotional responses. PMID:26504353

  8. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation Underlies the Perception of Emotions, While Precuneus Activation Underlies the Feeling of Emotions during Music Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabei, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While music triggers many physiological and psychological reactions, the underlying neural basis of perceived and experienced emotions during music listening remains poorly understood. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), I conducted a comparative study of the different brain areas involved in perceiving and feeling emotions during music listening. I measured fMRI signals while participants assessed the emotional expression of music (perceived emotion) and their emotional responses to music (felt emotion). I found that cortical areas including the prefrontal, auditory, cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices were consistently activated by the perceived and felt emotional tasks. Moreover, activity in the inferior frontal gyrus increased more during the perceived emotion task than during a passive listening task. In addition, the precuneus showed greater activity during the felt emotion task than during a passive listening task. The findings reveal that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the precuneus are important areas for the perception of the emotional content of music as well as for the emotional response evoked in the listener. Furthermore, I propose that the precuneus, a brain region associated with self-representation, might be involved in assessing emotional responses.

  9. Superior Parietal Lobule Dysfunction in a Homogeneous Group of Dyslexic Children with a Visual Attention Span Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrin, C.; Demonet, J. F.; N'Guyen-Morel, M. A.; Le Bas, J. F.; Valdois, S.

    2011-01-01

    A visual attention (VA) span disorder has been reported in dyslexic children as potentially responsible for their poor reading outcome. The purpose of the current paper was to identify the cerebral correlates of this VA span disorder. For this purpose, 12 French dyslexic children with severe reading and VA span disorders and 12 age-matched control…

  10. Dissociation between the activity of the right middle frontal gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus in processing semantic priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Laufer

    Full Text Available The aim of this event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study was to test whether the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG and middle temporal gyrus (MTG would show differential sensitivity to the effect of prime-target association strength on repetition priming. In the experimental condition (RP, the target occurred after repetitive presentation of the prime within an oddball design. In the control condition (CTR, the target followed a single presentation of the prime with equal probability of the target as in RP. To manipulate semantic overlap between the prime and the target both conditions (RP and CTR employed either the onomatopoeia "oink" as the prime and the referent "pig" as the target (OP or vice-versa (PO since semantic overlap was previously shown to be greater in OP. The results showed that the left MTG was sensitive to release of adaptation while both the right MTG and MFG were sensitive to sequence regularity extraction and its verification. However, dissociated activity between OP and PO was revealed in RP only in the right MFG. Specifically, target "pig" (OP and the physically equivalent target in CTR elicited comparable deactivations whereas target "oink" (PO elicited less inhibited response in RP than in CTR. This interaction in the right MFG was explained by integrating these effects into a competition model between perceptual and conceptual effects in priming processing.

  11. Dissociation between the activity of the right middle frontal gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus in processing semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Ilan; Negishi, Michiro; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Papademetris, Xenophon; Constable, R Todd

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to test whether the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) would show differential sensitivity to the effect of prime-target association strength on repetition priming. In the experimental condition (RP), the target occurred after repetitive presentation of the prime within an oddball design. In the control condition (CTR), the target followed a single presentation of the prime with equal probability of the target as in RP. To manipulate semantic overlap between the prime and the target both conditions (RP and CTR) employed either the onomatopoeia "oink" as the prime and the referent "pig" as the target (OP) or vice-versa (PO) since semantic overlap was previously shown to be greater in OP. The results showed that the left MTG was sensitive to release of adaptation while both the right MTG and MFG were sensitive to sequence regularity extraction and its verification. However, dissociated activity between OP and PO was revealed in RP only in the right MFG. Specifically, target "pig" (OP) and the physically equivalent target in CTR elicited comparable deactivations whereas target "oink" (PO) elicited less inhibited response in RP than in CTR. This interaction in the right MFG was explained by integrating these effects into a competition model between perceptual and conceptual effects in priming processing.

  12. The role of the right inferior frontal gyrus in the pathogenesis of post-stroke psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Michael J; Bentley, Paul; Jones, Brynmor; Hotton, Gary; Greenwood, Richard J; Jenkins, I Harri; Joyce, Eileen M; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2014-03-01

    Psychotic symptoms have previously been reported following right hemisphere brain injury. We sought to identify the specific neuroanatomical basis of delusions following stroke by studying a series of patients with post-stroke psychosis. Lesion overlap analysis was conducted on three individuals with delusions following right hemisphere stroke. These cases were compared with a control group of patients with similar anatomical damage. The main outcome measures were presence of delusions and presence of behavioural susceptibility. The right inferior frontal gyrus and underlying white matter, including the superior longitudinal fasciculus and anterior corona radiata, were involved in all three cases. All three had a preexisting untreated psychiatric disorder. In contrast, only one of nine control cases with equivalent lesions had evidence of previous psychiatric disorder (p = 0.0182, Fisher's exact test), and this was being treated at the time of stroke. We provide clinical evidence from patients with structural brain lesions implicating damage to the right inferior frontal lobe in the generation of persistent psychosis following stroke. We suggest that preexisting psychiatric disease provided a behavioural susceptibility to develop delusions in these individuals.

  13. An interplay of fusiform gyrus and hippocampus enables prototype- and exemplar-based category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Robert K; Güntürkün, Onur; Suchan, Boris

    2016-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the contributions of different brain structures to prototype- and exemplar-based category learning using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-eight subjects performed a categorization task in which they had to assign prototypes and exceptions to two different families. This test procedure usually produces different learning curves for prototype and exception stimuli. Our behavioral data replicated these previous findings by showing an initially superior performance for prototypes and typical stimuli and a switch from a prototype-based to an exemplar-based categorization for exceptions in the later learning phases. Since performance varied, we divided participants into learners and non-learners. Analysis of the functional imaging data revealed that the interaction of group (learners vs. non-learners) and block (Block 5 vs. Block 1) yielded an activation of the left fusiform gyrus for the processing of prototypes, and an activation of the right hippocampus for exceptions after learning the categories. Thus, successful prototype- and exemplar-based category learning is associated with activations of complementary neural substrates that constitute object-based processes of the ventral visual stream and their interaction with unique-cue representations, possibly based on sparse coding within the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Syndecan-1 in the mouse parietal peritoneum microcirculation in inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina M Kowalewska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (CD138 was shown to regulate inflammatory responses by binding chemokines and cytokines and interacting with adhesion molecules, thereby modulating leukocyte trafficking to tissues. The objectives of this study were to examine the expression of syndecan-1 and its role in leukocyte recruitment and chemokine presentation in the microcirculation underlying the parietal peritoneum. METHODS: Wild-type BALB/c and syndecan-1 null mice were stimulated with an intraperitoneal injection of Staphylococcus aureus LTA, Escherichia coli LPS or TNFα and the microcirculation of the parietal peritoneum was examined by intravital microscopy after 4 hours. Fluorescence confocal microscopy was used to examine syndecan-1 expression in the peritoneal microcirculation using fluorescent antibodies. Blocking antibodies to adhesion molecules were used to examine the role of these molecules in leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in response to LTA. To determine whether syndecan-1 co-localizes with chemokines in vivo, fluorescent antibodies to syndecan-1 were co-injected intravenously with anti-MIP-2 (CXCL2, anti-KC (CXCL1 or anti-MCP-1 (CCL2. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Syndecan-1 was localized to the subendothelial region of peritoneal venules and the mesothelial layer. Leukocyte rolling was significantly decreased with LPS treatment while LTA and TNFα significantly increased leukocyte adhesion compared with saline control. Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were not different in syndecan-1 null mice. Antibody blockade of β2 integrin (CD18, ICAM-1 (CD54 and VCAM-1 (CD106 did not decrease leukocyte adhesion in response to LTA challenge while blockade of P-selectin (CD62P abrogated leukocyte rolling. Lastly, MIP-2 expression in the peritoneal venules was not dependent on syndecan-1 in vivo. Our data suggest that syndecan-1 is expressed in the parietal peritoneum microvasculature but does not regulate leukocyte

  15. Information Superiority through Data Warehousing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warner, Neil

    2001-01-01

    .... A precursor to a knowledge edge is Information Superiority. Within most current Command Support Systems minimal integration and fusion of data is undertaken to provide the basis of information superiority...

  16. Distinct antigenic characteristics of murine parietal yolk sac laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Tichy, D; Damjanov, A

    1987-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (LAM-A and LAM-B) specific for laminin from normal and neoplastic parietal yolk sac (PYS) cells were produced in rats immunized with a mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell line. Both antibodies immunoprecipitated the 400,000- and 200,000-Da chains of laminin and reacted...... with purified PYS laminin in ELISA. LAM-A reacted with mouse and rat PYS laminin, whereas LAM-B reacted only with mouse PYS laminin. Formaldehyde- and methanol-fixed adult and fetal somatic tissues were immunohistochemically unreactive with either of the two antibodies. In acetone-fixed tissue sections, both...

  17. The Abnormal Functional Connectivity between the Hypothalamus and the Temporal Gyrus Underlying Depression in Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozheng; Chen, Wei; Tu, Yunhai; Hou, Hongtao; Huang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Xingli; Guo, Zhongwei; Bai, Guanghui; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Hypothalamic communication with the rest of the brain is critical for accomplishing a wide variety of physiological and psychological functions, including the maintenance of neuroendocrine circadian rhythms and the management of affective processes. Evidence has shown that major depressive disorder (MDD) patients exhibit increased functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Neurofibrillary tangles are also found in the hypothalamus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and AD patients exhibit abnormal changes in the HPA. However, little is known of how the hypothalamus interacts with other brain regions in AD patients with depression (D-AD). Functional connectivity (FC) analysis explores the connectivity between brain regions that share functional properties. Here, we used resting-state (rs) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology and the FC method to measure hypothalamic connectivity across the whole brain in 22 D-AD patients and 21 non-depressed AD patients (nD-AD). Our results showed that D-AD patients had reduced FC among the hypothalamus, the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) compared with the FC of nD-AD patients, suggesting that the abnormal FC between the hypothalamus and the temporal lobe may play a key role in the pathophysiology of depression in AD patients.

  18. Functional segregation of the inferior frontal gyrus for syntactic processes: a functional magnetic-resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Yuji; Toyoda, Hiroshi; Honda, Manabu; Yoshida, Haruyo; Kochiyama, Takanori; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Sadato, Norihiro

    2008-07-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 18 normal volunteers to determine whether there is separate representation of syntactic, semantic, and verbal working memory processing in the left inferior frontal gyrus (GFi). We compared a sentence comprehension task with a short-term memory maintenance task to identify syntactic and semantic processing regions. To investigate the effects of syntactic and verbal working memory load while minimizing the differences in semantic processes, we used comprehension tasks with garden-path (GP) sentences, which require re-parsing, and non-garden-path (NGP) sentences. Compared with the short-term memory task, sentence comprehension activated the left GFi, including Brodmann areas (BAs) 44, 45, and 47, and the left superior temporal gyrus. In GP versus NGP sentences, there was greater activity in the left BAs 44, 45, and 46 extending to the left anterior insula, the pre-supplementary motor area, and the right cerebellum. In the left GFi, verbal working memory activity was located more dorsally (BA 44/45), semantic processing was located more ventrally (BA 47), and syntactic processing was located in between (BA 45). These findings indicate a close relationship between semantic and syntactic processes, and suggest that BA 45 might link verbal working memory and semantic processing via syntactic unification processes.

  19. Depleting adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis increases cocaine-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Revest, Jean-Michel; Fiancette, Jean-François; Balado, Eric; Koehl, Muriel; Grosjean, Noëlle; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2018-03-05

    The hippocampus is the main locus for adult dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis. A number of studies have shown that aberrant DG neurogenesis correlates with many neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. Although clear causal relationships have been established between DG neurogenesis and memory dysfunction or mood-related disorders, evidence of the causal role of DG neurogenesis in drug-seeking behaviors has not been established. Here we assessed the role of new DG neurons in cocaine self-administration using an inducible transgenic approach that selectively depletes adult DG neurogenesis. Our results show that transgenic mice with decreased adult DG neurogenesis exhibit increased motivation to self-administer cocaine and a higher seeking response to cocaine-related cues. These results identify adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a key factor in vulnerability to cocaine addiction.

  20. Functional circuits of new neurons in the dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eVivar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is crucial for memory formation. New neurons are added throughout life to the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG, a brain area considered important for differential storage of similar experiences and contexts. To better understand the functional contribution of adult neurogenesis to pattern separation processes, we recently used a novel synapse specific trans-neuronal tracing approach to identify the (sub cortical inputs to new dentate granule cells. It was observed that newly born neurons receive sequential innervation from structures important for memory function. Initially, septal-hippocampal cells provide input to new neurons, followed after about one month by perirhinal and lateral entorhinal cortex. These cortical areas are deemed relevant to encoding of novel environmental information and may enable pattern separation. Here, we review the developmental time-course and proposed functional relevance of new neurons, within the context of their unique neural circuitry.  

  1. Correspondent Functional Topography of the Human Left Inferior Parietal Lobule at Rest and Under Task Revealed Using Resting-State fMRI and Coactivation Based Parcellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaojian; Xie, Sangma; Guo, Xin; Becker, Benjamin; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-03-01

    The human left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) plays a pivotal role in many cognitive functions and is an important node in the default mode network (DMN). Although many previous studies have proposed different parcellation schemes for the LIPL, the detailed functional organization of the LIPL and the exact correspondence between the DMN and LIPL subregions remain unclear. Mounting evidence indicates that spontaneous fluctuations in the brain are strongly associated with cognitive performance at the behavioral level. However, whether a consistent functional topographic organization of the LIPL during rest and under task can be revealed remains unknown. Here, they used resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and task-related coactivation patterns separately to parcellate the LIPL and identified seven subregions. Four subregions were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and three subregions were located in the angular gyrus (AG). The subregion-specific networks and functional characterization revealed that the four anterior subregions were found to be primarily involved in sensorimotor processing, movement imagination and inhibitory control, audition perception and speech processing, and social cognition, whereas the three posterior subregions were mainly involved in episodic memory, semantic processing, and spatial cognition. The results revealed a detailed functional organization of the LIPL and suggested that the LIPL is a functionally heterogeneous area. In addition, the present study demonstrated that the functional architecture of the LIPL during rest corresponds with that found in task processing. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1659-1675, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dissociable contributions of MRI volume reductions of superior temporal and fusiform gyri to symptoms and neuropsychology in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Paul G; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Gurrera, Ronald J; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Frumin, Melissa; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2007-03-01

    We sought to identify the functional correlates of reduced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the fusiform gyrus (FG) in patients with chronic schizophrenia. MRI volumes, positive/negative symptoms, and neuropsychological tests of facial memory and executive functioning were examined within the same subjects. The results indicated two distinct, dissociable brain structure-function relationships: (1) reduced left STG volume-positive symptoms-executive deficits; (2) reduced left FG-negative symptoms-facial memory deficits. STG and FG volume reductions may each make distinct contributions to symptoms and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia.

  3. Right parietal cortex mediates recognition memory for melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Nora K; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Halpern, Andrea R; Pollok, Bettina; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Functional brain imaging studies have highlighted the significance of right-lateralized temporal, frontal and parietal brain areas for memory for melodies. The present study investigated the involvement of bilateral posterior parietal cortices (PPCs) for the recognition memory of melodies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants performed a recognition task before and after tDCS. The task included an encoding phase (12 melodies), a retention period, as well as a recognition phase (24 melodies). Experiment 1 revealed that anodal tDCS over the right PPC led to a deterioration of overall memory performance compared with sham. Experiment 2 confirmed the results of Experiment 1 and further showed that anodal tDCS over the left PPC did not show a modulatory effect on memory task performance, indicating a right lateralization for musical memory. Furthermore, both experiments revealed that the decline in memory for melodies can be traced back to an interference of anodal stimulation on the recollection process (remember judgements) rather than to familiarity judgements. Taken together, this study revealed a causal involvement of the right PPC for memory for melodies and demonstrated a key role for this brain region in the recollection process of the memory task. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sylvian Fissure and Parietal Anatomy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey A. Knaus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is characterized by deficits in social functioning and language and communication, with restricted interests or stereotyped behaviors. Anatomical differences have been found in the parietal cortex in children with ASD, but parietal subregions and associations between Sylvian fissure (SF and parietal anatomy have not been explored. In this study, SF length and anterior and posterior parietal volumes were measured on MRI in 30 right-handed boys with ASD and 30 right-handed typically developing boys (7–14 years, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. There was leftward SF and anterior parietal asymmetry, and rightward posterior parietal asymmetry, across groups. There were associations between SF and parietal asymmetries, with slight group differences. Typical SF asymmetry was associated with typical anterior and posterior parietal asymmetry, in both groups. In the atypical SF asymmetry group, controls had atypical parietal asymmetry, whereas in ASD there were more equal numbers of individuals with typical as atypical anterior parietal asymmetry. We did not find significant anatomical-behavioral associations. Our findings of more individuals in the ASD group having a dissociation between cortical asymmetries warrants further investigation of these subgroups and emphasizes the importance of investigating anatomical relationships in addition to group differences in individual regions.

  5. Individual Differences in Reasoning and Visuospatial Attention are Associated with Prefrontal and Parietal White Matter Tracts in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Zachary A.; Greenwood, Pamela M.; Parasuraman, Raja; Strenziok, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although reasoning and attention are two cognitive processes necessary for ensuring the efficiency of many everyday activities in older adults, the role of white matter integrity in these processes has been little studied. This is an important question due to the role of white matter integrity as a neural substrate of cognitive aging. Here, we sought to examine the white matter tracts subserving reasoning and visuospatial attention in healthy older adults. Method Sixty-one adults aged 60 and older completed a battery of cognitive tests to assess reasoning and visuospatial attention. In addition, diffusion tensor images were collected to assess Fractional Anisotropy (FA) – a measure of white matter integrity. A principle component analysis of the test scores yielded two components: reasoning and visuospatial attention. Whole-brain correlations between FA and the cognitive components were submitted to probabilistic tractography analyses for visualization of cortical targets of tracts. Results For reasoning, bilateral thalamo-anterior prefrontal, anterior corpus callosum, and corpus callosum body tracts interconnecting the superior frontal cortices and right cingulum bundle were found. For visuospatial attention, a right inferior fronto-parietal tract, and bilateral parietal and temporal connections were found. Conclusions We conclude that in older adults, prefrontal cortex white matter tracts and interhemispheric communication are important in higher order cognitive functioning. On the other hand, right-sided fronto-parietal tracts appear to be critical for supporting control of cognitive processes, such as redirecting attention. Researchers may use our results to develop neuroscience-based interventions for older adults targeting brain mechanisms involved in cognitive plasticity. PMID:26986750

  6. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  7. The role of human parietal area 7A as a link between sequencing in hand actions and in overt speech production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eHeim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the evolutionary basis of the human language faculty has proposed the mirror neuron system as a link between motor processing and speech development. Consequently, most work has focussed on the left inferior frontal cortex, in particular Broca's region, and the left inferior parietal cortex. However, the direct link between planning of hand motor and speech actions remains to be elucidated. Thus, the present study investigated whether sequencing of hand motor actions vs. speech motor actions has a common neural denominator. For the hand motor task, 25 subjects performed single, repeated, or sequenced button presses with either the left or right hand. The speech task was in analogy; the same subjects produced the syllable "po" once or repeatedly, or a sequence of different syllables (po-pi-po. Speech motor vs. hand motor effectors resulted in increased perisylvian activation including Broca's region (left area 44 and areas medially adjacent to left area 45. In contrast, common activation for sequenced vs. repeated production of button presses and syllables revealed the effector-independent involvement of left area 7A in the superior parietal lobule (SPL in sequencing. These data demonstrate that sequencing of vocal gestures, an important precondition for ordered utterances and ultimately human speech, shares area 7A, rather than inferior parietal regions, as a common cortical module with hand motor sequencing. Interestingly, area 7A has previously also been shown to be involved in the observation of hand and non-hand actions. In combination with the literature, the present data thus suggest a distinction between area 44, which is specifically recruited for (cognitive aspects of speech, and SPL area 7A for general aspects of motor sequencing. In sum, the study demonstrates a yet little considered role of the superior parietal lobule in the origins of speech, and may be discussed in the light of embodiment of speech and language in the

  8. Mental reversal of imagined melodies: a role for the posterior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, Robert J; Halpern, Andrea R; Bouffard, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Two fMRI experiments explored the neural substrates of a musical imagery task that required manipulation of the imagined sounds: temporal reversal of a melody. Musicians were presented with the first few notes of a familiar tune (Experiment 1) or its title (Experiment 2), followed by a string of notes that was either an exact or an inexact reversal. The task was to judge whether the second string was correct or not by mentally reversing all its notes, thus requiring both maintenance and manipulation of the represented string. Both experiments showed considerable activation of the superior parietal lobe (intraparietal sulcus) during the reversal process. Ventrolateral and dorsolateral frontal cortices were also activated, consistent with the memory load required during the task. We also found weaker evidence for some activation of right auditory cortex in both studies, congruent with results from previous simpler music imagery tasks. We interpret these results in the context of other mental transformation tasks, such as mental rotation in the visual domain, which are known to recruit the intraparietal sulcus region, and we propose that this region subserves general computations that require transformations of a sensory input. Mental imagery tasks may thus have both task or modality-specific components as well as components that supersede any specific codes and instead represent amodal mental manipulation.

  9. Functional connectivity between prefrontal and parietal cortex drives visuo-spatial attention shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Klaartje; Feredoes, Eva; Ruff, Christian C; Driver, Jon

    2017-05-01

    It is well established that the frontal eye-fields (FEF) in the dorsal attention network (DAN) guide top-down selective attention. In addition, converging evidence implies a causal role for the FEF in attention shifting, which is also known to recruit the ventral attention network (VAN) and fronto-striatal regions. To investigate the causal influence of the FEF as (part of) a central hub between these networks, we applied thetaburst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) off-line, combined with functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) during a cued visuo-spatial attention shifting paradigm. We found that TBS over the right FEF impaired performance on a visual discrimination task in both hemifields following attention shifts, while only left hemifield performance was affected when participants were cued to maintain the focus of attention. These effects recovered ca. 20min post stimulation. Furthermore, particularly following attention shifts, TBS suppressed the neural signal in bilateral FEF, right inferior and superior parietal lobule (IPL/SPL) and bilateral supramarginal gyri (SMG). Immediately post stimulation, functional connectivity was impaired between right FEF and right SMG as well as right putamen. Importantly, the extent of decreased connectivity between right FEF and right SMG correlated with behavioural impairment following attention shifts. The main finding of this study demonstrates that influences from right FEF on SMG in the ventral attention network causally underly attention shifts, presumably by enabling disengagement from the current focus of attention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Interleukin-17A Promotes Parietal Cell Atrophy by Inducing ApoptosisSummary

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    Kevin A. Bockerstett

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Atrophic gastritis caused by chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa leads to the loss of gastric glandular cells, including acid-secreting parietal cells. Parietal cell atrophy in a setting of chronic inflammation induces spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia, a critical step in gastric carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which inflammation causes parietal cell atrophy and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia are not well defined. We investigated the role of interleukin-17A (IL-17A in causing parietal cell atrophy. Methods: A mouse model of autoimmune atrophic gastritis was used to examine IL-17A production during early and late stages of disease. Organoids derived from corpus glands were used to determine the direct effects of IL-17A on gastric epithelial cells. Immunofluorescent staining was used to examine IL-17A receptors and the direct effect of signaling on parietal cells. Mice were infected with an IL-17A-producing adenovirus to determine the effects of IL-17A on parietal cells in vivo. Finally, IL-17A neutralizing antibodies were administered to mice with active atrophic gastritis to evaluate the effects on parietal cell atrophy and metaplasia. Results: Increased IL-17A correlated with disease severity in mice with chronic atrophic gastritis. IL-17A caused caspase-dependent gastric organoid degeneration, which could not be rescued with a necroptosis inhibitor. Parietal cells expressed IL-17A receptors and IL-17A treatment induced apoptosis in parietal cells. Overexpressing IL-17A in vivo induced caspase-3 activation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining in parietal cells. Finally, IL-17A neutralizing antibody decreased parietal cell atrophy and metaplasia in mice with chronic atrophic gastritis. Conclusions: These data identify IL-17A as a cytokine that promotes parietal cell apoptosis during atrophic gastritis, a

  11. Altered resting-state effective connectivity of fronto-parietal motor control systems on the primary motor network following stroke

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    Inman, Cory S.; James, G. Andrew; Hamann, Stephan; Rajendra, Justin K.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Butler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous brain imaging work suggests that stroke alters the effective connectivity (the influence neural regions exert upon each other) of motor execution networks. The present study examines the intrinsic effective connectivity of top-down motor control in stroke survivors (n=13) relative to healthy participants (n=12). Stroke survivors exhibited significant deficits in motor function, as assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) of resting-state fMRI data to investigate the relationship between motor deficits and the intrinsic effective connectivity between brain regions involved in motor control and motor execution. An exploratory adaptation of SEM determined the optimal model of motor execution effective connectivity in healthy participants, and confirmatory SEM assessed stroke survivors’ fit to that model. We observed alterations in spontaneous resting-state effective connectivity from fronto-parietal guidance systems to the motor network in stroke survivors. More specifically, diminished connectivity was found in connections from the superior parietal cortex to primary motor cortex and supplementary motor cortex. Furthermore, the paths demonstrated large individual variance in stroke survivors but less variance in healthy participants. These findings suggest that characterizing the deficits in resting-state connectivity of top-down processes in stroke survivors may help optimize cognitive and physical rehabilitation therapies by individually targeting specific neural pathway. PMID:21839174

  12. Transient contribution of left posterior parietal cortex to cognitive restructuring.

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    Sutoh, Chihiro; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Makiko; Nagaoka, Sawako; Chakraborty, Sudesna; Ishii, Daisuke; Matsuda, Shingo; Tomizawa, Haruna; Ito, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-03-17

    Cognitive restructuring is a fundamental method within cognitive behavioural therapy of changing dysfunctional beliefs into flexible beliefs and learning to react appropriately to the reality of an anxiety-causing situation. To clarify the neural mechanisms of cognitive restructuring, we designed a unique task that replicated psychotherapy during a brain scan. The brain activities of healthy male participants were analysed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During the brain scan, participants underwent Socratic questioning aimed at cognitive restructuring regarding the necessity of handwashing after using the restroom. The behavioural result indicated that the Socratic questioning effectively decreased the participants' degree of belief (DOB) that they must wash their hands. Alterations in the DOB showed a positive correlation with activity in the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) while the subject thought about and rated own belief. The involvement of the left PPC not only in planning and decision-making but also in conceptualization may play a pivotal role in cognitive restructuring.

  13. The left fusiform gyrus hosts trisensory representations of manipulable objects

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    Kassuba, Tanja; Klinge, Corinna; Hölig, Cordula

    2011-01-01

    During object manipulation the brain integrates the visual, auditory, and haptic experience of an object into a unified percept. Previous brain imaging studies have implicated for instance the dorsal part of the lateral occipital complex in visuo-tactile and the posterior superior temporal sulcus...

  14. Reversal alterations of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in early and late onset, first-episode, drug-naive depression.

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    Guo, Wen-bin; Liu, Feng; Xun, Guang-lei; Hu, Mao-rong; Guo, Xiao-feng; Xiao, Chang-qing; Chen, Hua-fu; Wooderson, Sarah C; Chen, Jin-dong; Zhao, Jing-ping

    2013-01-10

    It is unclear how patients with early onset depression (EOD) and late onset depression (LOD) differ at the neural level. Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) approach, we are to test the hypothesis of the different abnormal neural activities between patients with EOD and LOD. Fifteen patients with EOD, 15 patients with LOD, 15 young healthy subjects (HS) and 15 old HS were enrolled in the study. ALFF approach was employed to analyze the images. ANOVA analysis revealed widespread differences in ALFF values among the four groups throughout frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital cortex, cerebellum and limbic regions. Compared to LOD group, EOD group had higher ALFF in bilateral precuneus, superior medial frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus, and lower ALFF in left brainstem and left superior temporal gyrus. Compared to young HS, lower ALFF in left superior/inferior temporal gyrus, left lingual gyrus and right middle occipital gyrus and higher ALFF in left medial frontal gyrus and bilateral superior frontal gyrus were seen in the EOD group; in contrast, in the LOD group, lower ALFF in bilateral superior frontal gyrus and higher ALFF in left superior temporal gyrus were observed. Further ROC analysis suggested that the mean ALFF values in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus could serve as markers to separate patients with EOD from individuals with LOD. Patients with EOD and LOD exhibit reversal pattern of abnormal ALFF in bilateral superior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dentate Gyrus circuitry features improve performance of sparse approximation algorithms.

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    Panagiotis C Petrantonakis

    Full Text Available Memory-related activity in the Dentate Gyrus (DG is characterized by sparsity. Memory representations are seen as activated neuronal populations of granule cells, the main encoding cells in DG, which are estimated to engage 2-4% of the total population. This sparsity is assumed to enhance the ability of DG to perform pattern separation, one of the most valuable contributions of DG during memory formation. In this work, we investigate how features of the DG such as its excitatory and inhibitory connectivity diagram can be used to develop theoretical algorithms performing Sparse Approximation, a widely used strategy in the Signal Processing field. Sparse approximation stands for the algorithmic identification of few components from a dictionary that approximate a certain signal. The ability of DG to achieve pattern separation by sparsifing its representations is exploited here to improve the performance of the state of the art sparse approximation algorithm "Iterative Soft Thresholding" (IST by adding new algorithmic features inspired by the DG circuitry. Lateral inhibition of granule cells, either direct or indirect, via mossy cells, is shown to enhance the performance of the IST. Apart from revealing the potential of DG-inspired theoretical algorithms, this work presents new insights regarding the function of particular cell types in the pattern separation task of the DG.

  16. Hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus: a historical perspective

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    Scharfman, Helen E.; Myers, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The circuitry of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is unique compared to other hippocampal subfields because there are two glutamatergic principal cells instead of one: granule cells, which are the vast majority of the cells in the DG, and the so-called “mossy cells.” The distinctive appearance of mossy cells, the extensive divergence of their axons, and their vulnerability to excitotoxicity relative to granule cells has led to a great deal of interest in mossy cells. Nevertheless, there is no consensus about the normal functions of mossy cells and the implications of their vulnerability. There even seems to be some ambiguity about exactly what mossy cells are. Here we review initial studies of mossy cells, characteristics that define them, and suggest a practical definition to allow investigators to distinguish mossy cells from other hilar neurons even if all morphological and physiological information is unavailable due to technical limitations of their experiments. In addition, hypotheses are discussed about the role of mossy cells in the DG network, reasons for their vulnerability and their implications for disease. PMID:23420672

  17. Effect of dentate gyrus disruption on remembering what happened where

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    Min W Jung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies using Bax knockout (Bax-KO mice, in which newly generated granule cells continue to accumulate, disrupting neural circuitry specifically in the dentate gyrus (DG, suggest the involvement of the DG in binding the internally-generated spatial map with sensory information on external landmarks (spatial map-object association in forming a distinct spatial context for each environment. In order to test whether the DG is also involved in binding the internal spatial map with sensory information on external events (spatial map-event association, we tested the behavior of Bax-KO mice in a delayed-non-match-to-place task. Performance of Bax-KO mice was indistinguishable from that of wild-type mice as long as there was no interruption during the delay period (tested up to 5 min, suggesting that on-line maintenance of working memory is intact in Bax-KO mice. However, Bax-KO mice showed profound performance deficits when they were removed from the maze during the delay period (interruption condition with a sufficiently long (65 s delay, suggesting that episodic memory was impaired in Bax-KO mice. Together with previous findings, these results suggest the role of the DG in binding spatial information derived from dead reckoning and nonspatial information, such as external objects and events, in the process of encoding episodic memory.

  18. Tractography-based Parcellation of the Human Middle Temporal Gyrus

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    Xu, Jinping; Wang, Jiaojian; Fan, Lingzhong; Li, Hai; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Qingmao; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-01-01

    The middle temporal gyrus (MTG) participates in a variety of functions, suggesting the existence of distinct functional subregions. In order to further delineate the functions of this brain area, we parcellated the MTG based on its distinct anatomical connectivity profiles and identified four distinct subregions, including the anterior (aMTG), middle (mMTG), posterior (pMTG), and sulcus (sMTG). Both the anatomical connectivity patterns and the resting-state functional connectivity patterns revealed distinct connectivity profiles for each subregion. The aMTG was primarily involved in the default mode network, sound recognition, and semantic retrieval. The mMTG was predominantly involved in the semantic memory and semantic control networks. The pMTG seems to be a part of the traditional sensory language area. The sMTG appears to be associated with decoding gaze direction and intelligible speech. Interestingly, the functional connectivity with Brodmann’s Area (BA) 40, BA 44, and BA 45 gradually increased from the anterior to the posterior MTG, a finding which indicated functional topographical organization as well as implying that language processing is functionally segregated in the MTG. These proposed subdivisions of the MTG and its functions contribute to understanding the complex functions of the MTG at the subregional level. PMID:26689815

  19. Decoding rule search domain in the left inferior frontal gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, the left hemisphere has been thought to extract mainly verbal patterns of information, but recent evidence has shown that the left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) is active during inductive reasoning in both the verbal and spatial domains. We aimed to understand whether the left IFG supports inductive reasoning in a domain-specific or domain-general fashion. To do this we used Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis to decode the representation of domain during a rule search task. Thirteen participants were asked to extract the rule underlying streams of letters presented in different spatial locations. Each rule was either verbal (letters forming words) or spatial (positions forming geometric figures). Our results show that domain was decodable in the left prefrontal cortex, suggesting that this region represents domain-specific information, rather than processes common to the two domains. A replication study with the same participants tested two years later confirmed these findings, though the individual representations changed, providing evidence for the flexible nature of representations. This study extends our knowledge on the neural basis of goal-directed behaviors and on how information relevant for rule extraction is flexibly mapped in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:29547623

  20. Prominence vs. aboutness in sequencing: a functional distinction within the left inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Grewe, Tanja; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Prior research on the neural bases of syntactic comprehension suggests that activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (lIFG) correlates with the processing of word order variations. However, there are inconsistencies with respect to the specific subregion within the IFG that is implicated by these findings: the pars opercularis or the pars triangularis. Here, we examined the hypothesis that the dissociation between pars opercularis and pars triangularis activation may reflect functional differences between clause-medial and clause-initial word order permutations, respectively. To this end, we directly compared clause-medial and clause-initial object-before-subject orders in German in a within-participants, event-related fMRI design. Our results showed increased activation for object-initial sentences in a bilateral network of frontal, temporal and subcortical regions. Within the lIFG, posterior and inferior subregions showed only a main effect of word order, whereas more anterior and superior subregions showed effects of word order and sentence type, with higher activation for sentences with an argument in the clause-initial position. These findings are interpreted as evidence for a functional gradation of sequence processing within the left IFG: posterior subportions correlate with argument prominence-based (local) aspects of sequencing, while anterior subportions correlate with aboutness-based aspects of sequencing, which are crucial in linking the current sentence to the wider discourse. This proposal appears compatible with more general hypotheses about information processing gradients in prefrontal cortex (Koechlin & Summerfield, 2007). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multisensory speech perception without the left superior temporal sulcus.

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    Baum, Sarah H; Martin, Randi C; Hamilton, A Cris; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2012-09-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a critical site for multisensory integration of auditory and visual information during speech perception. We report a patient, SJ, who suffered a stroke that damaged the left tempo-parietal area, resulting in mild anomic aphasia. Structural MRI showed complete destruction of the left middle and posterior STS, as well as damage to adjacent areas in the temporal and parietal lobes. Surprisingly, SJ demonstrated preserved multisensory integration measured with two independent tests. First, she perceived the McGurk effect, an illusion that requires integration of auditory and visual speech. Second, her perception of morphed audiovisual speech with ambiguous auditory or visual information was significantly influenced by the opposing modality. To understand the neural basis for this preserved multisensory integration, blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) was used to examine brain responses to audiovisual speech in SJ and 23 healthy age-matched controls. In controls, bilateral STS activity was observed. In SJ, no activity was observed in the damaged left STS but in the right STS, more cortex was active in SJ than in any of the normal controls. Further, the amplitude of the BOLD response in right STS response to McGurk stimuli was significantly greater in SJ than in controls. The simplest explanation of these results is a reorganization of SJ's cortical language networks such that the right STS now subserves multisensory integration of speech. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Corruption of the dentate gyrus by "dominant" granule cells: Implications for dentate gyrus function in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfman, Helen E; Myers, Catherine E

    2016-03-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) and area CA3 of the hippocampus are highly organized lamellar structures which have been implicated in specific cognitive functions such as pattern separation and pattern completion. Here we describe how the anatomical organization and physiology of the DG and CA3 are consistent with structures that perform pattern separation and completion. We then raise a new idea related to the complex circuitry of the DG and CA3 where CA3 pyramidal cell 'backprojections' play a potentially important role in the sparse firing of granule cells (GCs), considered important in pattern separation. We also propose that GC axons, the mossy fibers, already known for their highly specialized structure, have a dynamic function that imparts variance--'mossy fiber variance'--which is important to pattern separation and completion. Computational modeling is used to show that when a subset of GCs become 'dominant,' one consequence is loss of variance in the activity of mossy fiber axons and a reduction in pattern separation and completion in the model. Empirical data are then provided using an example of 'dominant' GCs--subsets of GCs that develop abnormally and have increased excitability. Notably, these abnormal GCs have been identified in animal models of disease where DG-dependent behaviors are impaired. Together these data provide insight into pattern separation and completion, and suggest that behavioral impairment could arise from dominance of a subset of GCs in the DG-CA3 network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Motor role of parietal cortex in a monkey model of hemispatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanek, Jan; Li, Jingfeng M; Snyder, Lawrence H

    2015-04-21

    Parietal cortex is central to spatial cognition. Lesions of parietal cortex often lead to hemispatial neglect, an impairment of choices of targets in space. It has been unclear whether parietal cortex implements target choice at the general cognitive level, or whether parietal cortex subserves the choice of targets of particular actions. To address this question, monkeys engaged in choice tasks in two distinct action contexts--eye movements and arm movements. We placed focused reversible lesions into specific parietal circuits using the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol and validated the lesion placement using MRI. We found that lesions on the lateral bank of the intraparietal sulcus [lateral intraparietal area (LIP)] specifically biased choices made using eye movements, whereas lesions on the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus [parietal reach region (PRR)] specifically biased choices made using arm movements. This double dissociation suggests that target choice is implemented in dedicated parietal circuits in the context of specific actions. This finding emphasizes a motor role of parietal cortex in spatial choice making and contributes to our understanding of hemispatial neglect.

  4. Sleep loss disrupts Arc expression in dentate gyrus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, James E; Kodoth, Varna; Aton, Sara J

    2018-04-07

    Sleep loss affects many aspects of cognition, and memory consolidation processes occurring in the hippocampus seem particularly vulnerable to sleep loss. The immediate-early gene Arc plays an essential role in both synaptic plasticity and memory formation, and its expression is altered by sleep. Here, using a variety of techniques, we have characterized the effects of brief (3-h) periods of sleep vs. sleep deprivation (SD) on the expression of Arc mRNA and Arc protein in the mouse hippocampus and cortex. By comparing the relative abundance of mature Arc mRNA with unspliced pre-mRNA, we see evidence that during SD, increases in Arc across the cortex, but not hippocampus, reflect de novo transcription. Arc increases in the hippocampus during SD are not accompanied by changes in pre-mRNA levels, suggesting that increases in mRNA stability, not transcription, drives this change. Using in situ hybridization (together with behavioral observation to quantify sleep amounts), we find that in the dorsal hippocampus, SD minimally affects Arc mRNA expression, and decreases the number of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells expressing Arc. This is in contrast to neighboring cortical areas, which show large increases in neuronal Arc expression after SD. Using immunohistochemistry, we find that Arc protein expression is also differentially affected in the cortex and DG with SD - while larger numbers of cortical neurons are Arc+, fewer DG granule cells are Arc+, relative to the same regions in sleeping mice. These data suggest that with regard to expression of plasticity-regulating genes, sleep (and SD) can have differential effects in hippocampal and cortical areas. This may provide a clue regarding the susceptibility of performance on hippocampus-dependent tasks to deficits following even brief periods of sleep loss. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Adult neurogenesis modifies excitability of the dentate gyrus

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    Taruna eIkrar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult-born dentate granule neurons contribute to memory encoding functions of the dentate gyrus (DG such as pattern separation. However, local circuit-mechanisms by which adult-born neurons partake in this process are poorly understood. Computational, neuroanatomical and electrophysiological studies suggest that sparseness of activation in the granule cell layer (GCL is conducive for pattern separation. A sparse coding scheme is thought to facilitate the distribution of similar entorhinal inputs across the GCL to decorrelate overlapping representations and minimize interference. Here we used fast voltage-sensitive dye (VSD imaging combined with laser photostimulation and electrical stimulation to examine how selectively increasing adult DG neurogenesis influences local circuit activity and excitability. We show that DG of mice with more adult-born neurons exhibits decreased strength of neuronal activation and more restricted excitation spread in GCL while maintaining effective output to CA3c. Conversely, blockade of adult hippocampal neurogenesis changed excitability of the DG in the opposite direction. Analysis of GABAergic inhibition onto mature dentate granule neurons in the DG of mice with more adult-born neurons shows a modest readjustment of perisomatic inhibitory synaptic gain without changes in overall inhibitory tone, presynaptic properties or GABAergic innervation pattern. Retroviral labeling of connectivity in mice with more adult-born neurons showed increased number of excitatory synaptic contacts of adult-born neurons onto hilar interneurons. Together, these studies demonstrate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis modifies excitability of mature dentate granule neurons and that this non-cell autonomous effect may be mediated by local circuit mechanisms such as excitatory drive onto hilar interneurons. Modulation of DG excitability by adult-born dentate granule neurons may enhance sparse coding in the GCL to influence pattern

  6. Adiponectin modulates synaptic plasticity in hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousti, Farideh; Ahmadi, Ramesh; Mirahmadi, Fatemeh; Hosseinmardi, Narges; Rohampour, Kambiz

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested the involvement of some metabolic hormones in memory formation and synaptic plasticity. Insulin dysfunction is known as an essential process in the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we examined whether adiponectin (ADN), as an insulin-sensitizing adipokine, could affect hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Field potential recordings were performed on intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulated urethane anesthetized rats. After baseline recording from dentate gyrus (DG) and 10min prior to high/low frequency stimulation (HFS/LFS), 10μl icv ADN (600nm) were injected. The slope of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) and the amplitude of population spikes (PS) were recorded in response to perforanth path (PP) stimulation. Paired pulse stimuli and ADN injection without any stimulation protocols were also evaluated. Application of ADN before HFS increased PS amplitude recorded in DG significantly (P≤0.05) in comparison to HFS only group. ADN suppressed the potency of LFS to induce long-term depression (LTD), causing a significant difference between fEPSP slope (P≤0.05) and PS amplitude (P≤0.01) between ADN+LFS and ADN group. Paired pulse stimuli applied at 20ms intervals showed more paired pulse facilitation (PPF), when applied after ADN (P≤0.05). ADN induced a chemical long-term potentiation (LTP) in which fEPSP slope and PS amplitude increased significantly (P≤0.01 and P≤0.05, respectively). It is concluded that ADN is able to potentiate the HFS-induced LTP and suppress LFS-induced LTD. ADN caused a chemical LTP, when applied without any tetanic protocol. ADN may enhance the presynaptic release probability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis Complicating Typhoid Fever in a Teenager

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    P. O. Okunola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous sinus (sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT is a rare life-threatening disorder in childhood that is often misdiagnosed. CSVT encompasses cavernous sinus thrombosis, lateral sinus thrombosis, and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST. We present an adolescent girl who was well until two weeks earlier when she had a throbbing frontal headache and fever with chills; she later had dyspnoea, jaundice, melena stool, multiple seizures, nuchal rigidity, and monoparesis of the right lower limb a day before admission. Urine test for Salmonella typhi Vi antigen was positive, and Widal reaction was significant. Serial cranial computerized tomography scans revealed an expanding hypodense lesion in the parafalcine region consistent with SSST or a parasagittal abscess. Inadvertent left parietal limited craniectomy confirmed SSST. She recovered completely with subsequent conservative management. Beyond neuropsychiatric complications of Typhoid fever, CSVT should be highly considered when focal neurologic deficits are present.

  8. TMS over the supramarginal gyrus delays selection of appropriate grasp orientation during reaching and grasping tools for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Tomás; Holmes, Nicholas P; Sunderland, Alan; Schürmann, Martin

    2018-03-09

    Tool use, a ubiquitous part of human behaviour, requires manipulation control and knowledge of tool purpose. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological research posit that these two processes are supported by separate brain regions, ventral premotor and inferior parietal for manipulation control, and posterior middle temporal cortex for tool knowledge, lateralised to the left hemisphere. Action plans for tool use need to integrate these two separate processes, which is likely supported by the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). However, whether this integration occurs during action execution is not known. To clarify the role of the SMG we conducted two experiments in which healthy participants reached to grasp everyday tools with the explicit instruction to use them directly following their grasp. To study the integration of manipulation control and tool knowledge within a narrow time window we mechanically perturbed the orientation of the tool to force participants to correct grasp orientation 'on-line' during the reaching movement. In experiment 1, twenty healthy participants reached with their left hand to grasp a tool. Double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied, in different blocks over left or right SMG at the onset of perturbation. Kinematic data revealed delayed and erroneous online correction after TMS over left and right SMG. In Experiment 2 twelve participants reached, in different blocks, with their left or right hand and TMS was applied over SMG ipsilateral to the reaching hand. A similar effect on correction was observed for ipsilateral stimulation when reaching with the left and right hands, and no effect of or interaction with hemisphere was observed. Our findings implicate a bilateral role of the SMG in correcting movements and selection of appropriate grasp orientation during reaching to grasp tools for use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aspirin induces morphological transformation to the secretory state in isolated rabbit parietal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, U K; Levine, R A

    1991-08-01

    The morphological response of rabbit parietal cells to aspirin was evaluated by grading several ultra-structural features including the extent of the tubulovesicular system, intracellular secretory canaliculi, and microvilli. After exposure of isolated parietal cells and gastric glands to aspirin or histamine, there was an approximately twofold increase in the ratio of secretory to nonsecretory parietal cells, and depletion of extracellular Ca2+ abolished the aspirin-induced morphological changes. Morphometry in parietal cells showed that aspirin induced a sixfold increase in secretory canalicular membrane elaboration. Aspirin potentiated histamine-induced parietal cell respiration and aminopyrine uptake ratio but did not increase basal respiration or aminopyrine uptake, suggesting an apparent dissociation from aspirin-induced morphological changes.

  10. Ultra-fast speech comprehension in blind subjects engages primary visual cortex, fusiform gyrus, and pulvinar – a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals suffering from vision loss of a peripheral origin may learn to understand spoken language at a rate of up to about 22 syllables (syl) per second - exceeding by far the maximum performance level of normal-sighted listeners (ca. 8 syl/s). To further elucidate the brain mechanisms underlying this extraordinary skill, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in blind subjects of varying ultra-fast speech comprehension capabilities and sighted individuals while listening to sentence utterances of a moderately fast (8 syl/s) or ultra-fast (16 syl/s) syllabic rate. Results Besides left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and left supplementary motor area (SMA), blind people highly proficient in ultra-fast speech perception showed significant hemodynamic activation of right-hemispheric primary visual cortex (V1), contralateral fusiform gyrus (FG), and bilateral pulvinar (Pv). Conclusions Presumably, FG supports the left-hemispheric perisylvian “language network”, i.e., IFG and superior temporal lobe, during the (segmental) sequencing of verbal utterances whereas the collaboration of bilateral pulvinar, right auditory cortex, and ipsilateral V1 implements a signal-driven timing mechanism related to syllabic (suprasegmental) modulation of the speech signal. These data structures, conveyed via left SMA to the perisylvian “language zones”, might facilitate – under time-critical conditions – the consolidation of linguistic information at the level of verbal working memory. PMID:23879896

  11. Vocal amusia in a professional tango singer due to a right superior temporal cortex infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Yasuo; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Shindoh, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Nagai, Chiyoko; Furubayashi, Toshiaki; Arai, Noritoshi; Okabe, Shingo; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Tsuji, Shouji

    2006-01-01

    We describe the psychophysical features of vocal amusia in a professional tango singer caused by an infarction mainly involving the superior temporal cortex of the right hemisphere. The lesion also extended to the supramarginal gyrus, the posterior aspect of the postcentral gyrus and the posterior insula. She presented with impairment of musical perception that was especially pronounced in discriminating timbre and loudness but also in discriminating pitch, and a severely impaired ability to reproduce the pitch just presented. In contrast, language and motor disturbances were almost entirely absent. By comparing her pre- and post-stroke singing, we were able to show that her singing after the stroke lacked the fine control of the subtle stress and pitch changes that characterized her pre-stroke singing. Such impairment could not be explained by the impairment of pitch perception. The findings suggest that damage to the right temporoparietal cortex is enough to produce both perceptive and expressive deficits in music.

  12. Attention as the 'glue' for object integration in parietal extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Groß, Julia; Keller, Ingo; Müller, Hermann J; Finke, Kathrin

    2018-04-01

    Patients with unilateral, parietal brain damage frequently show visual extinction, which manifests in a failure to identify contralesional stimuli when presented simultaneously with other, ipsilesional stimuli (but full awareness for single stimulus presentations). Extinction reflects an impairment of spatial selective attention, leaving basic preattentive processing unaffected. For instance, access to bilaterally grouped objects is usually spared in extinction, suggesting that grouping occurs at a stage preceding (in the patients: abnormally biased) spatial-attentional selection. Here, we reinvestigated this notion by comparing (largely between participants, but also within a single-case participant) conditions with objects that varied in their dominant direction of grouping: from the attended to the non-attended hemifield (data from Conci et al., 2009) versus from the non-attended to the attended hemifield (new data). We observe complete absence of extinction when shape completion extended from the attended hemifield. By contrast, extinction was not diminished when object groupings propagate from the unattended hemifield. Moreover, we found the individual severity of the attentional impairment (assessed by a standard "inattention" test) to be directly related to the degree of completion in the unattended hemifield. This pattern indicates that grouping can overcome visual extinction only when object integration departs from the attended visual field, implying, contrary to many previous accounts, that attention is crucial for grouping to be initiated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Subtotal Ablation of Parietal Epithelial Cells Induces Crescent Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicking, Eva-Maria; Fuss, Astrid; Uhlig, Sandra; Jirak, Peggy; Dijkman, Henry; Wetzels, Jack; Engel, Daniel R.; Urzynicok, Torsten; Heidenreich, Stefan; Kriz, Wilhelm; Kurts, Christian; Ostendorf, Tammo; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) of the renal glomerulus contribute to the formation of both cellular crescents in rapidly progressive GN and sclerotic lesions in FSGS. Subtotal transgenic ablation of podocytes induces FSGS but the effect of specific ablation of PECs is unknown. Here, we established an inducible transgenic mouse to allow subtotal ablation of PECs. Proteinuria developed during doxycycline-induced cellular ablation but fully reversed 26 days after termination of doxycycline administration. The ablation of PECs was focal, with only 30% of glomeruli exhibiting histologic changes; however, the number of PECs was reduced up to 90% within affected glomeruli. Ultrastructural analysis revealed disruption of PEC plasma membranes with cytoplasm shedding into Bowman’s space. Podocytes showed focal foot process effacement, which was the most likely cause for transient proteinuria. After >9 days of cellular ablation, the remaining PECs formed cellular extensions to cover the denuded Bowman’s capsule and expressed the activation marker CD44 de novo. The induced proliferation of PECs persisted throughout the observation period, resulting in the formation of typical cellular crescents with periglomerular infiltrate, albeit without accompanying proteinuria. In summary, subtotal ablation of PECs leads the remaining PECs to react with cellular activation and proliferation, which ultimately forms cellular crescents. PMID:22282596

  14. Parietal cells-new perspectives in glomerular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesen, Laura; Steenbergen, Eric; Smeets, Bart

    2017-07-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman's capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and podocytes have a common mesenchymal origin and are the result of divergent differentiation during embryogenesis. Podocytes and PTECs are highly differentiated cells with well-established functions pertaining to the maintenance of the filtration barrier and transport, respectively. For PECs, no specific function other than a structural one has been known until recently. Possible important functions for PECs in the fate of the glomerulus in glomerular disease have now become apparent: (1) PECs may be involved in the replacement of lost podocytes; (2) PECs form the basis of extracapillary proliferative lesions and subsequent sclerosis in glomerular disease. In addition to the acknowledgement that PECs are crucial in glomerular disease, knowledge has been gained regarding the molecular processes driving the phenotypic changes and behavior of PECs. Understanding these molecular processes is important for the development of specific therapeutic approaches aimed at either stimulation of the regenerative function of PECs or inhibition of the pro-sclerotic action of PECs. In this review, we discuss recent advances pertaining to the role of PECs in glomerular regeneration and disease and address the major molecular processes involved.

  15. The regenerative potential of parietal epithelial cells in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Katja; Schulte, Kevin; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman's capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically labeled in an irreversible fashion in 5-week-old mice. No significant increase in labeled podocytes was observed, even after 18 months. To accelerate a potential regenerative mechanism, progressive glomerular hypertrophy was induced by progressive partial nephrectomies. Again, no significant podocyte replenishment was observed. Rather, labeled PECs exclusively invaded segments of the tuft affected by glomerulosclerosis, consistent with our previous findings. We next reassessed PEC recruitment in juvenile mice using a different reporter mouse and confirmed significant recruitment of labeled PECs onto the glomerular tuft. Moreover, some labeled cells on Bowman's capsule expressed podocyte markers, and cells on Bowman's capsule were also directly labeled in juvenile podocyte-specific Pod-rtTA transgenic mice. In 6-week-old mice, however, cells on Bowman's capsule no longer expressed podocyte-specific markers. Similarly, in human kidneys, some cells on Bowman's capsule expressed the podocyte marker synaptopodin from 2 weeks to 2 years of age but not at 7 years of age. In summary, podocyte regeneration from PECs could not be detected in aging mice or models of glomerular hypertrophy. We propose that a small fraction of committed podocytes reside on Bowman's capsule close to the vascular stalk and are recruited onto the glomerular tuft during infancy to adolescence in mice and humans.

  16. Downregulation of GABA[Subscript A] Receptor Protein Subunits a6, ß2, d, e, ?2, ?, and ?2 in Superior Frontal Cortex of Subjects with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rustan, Oyvind G.; Rooney, Robert J.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We measured protein and mRNA levels for nine gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptor subunits in three brain regions (cerebellum, superior frontal cortex, and parietal cortex) in subjects with autism versus matched controls. We observed changes in mRNA for a number of GABA[subscript A] and GABA[subscript B] subunits and overall…

  17. Effect of parental morphine addiction on extracellular glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus in rat offsprings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rahele Assaee

    2004-01-01

    Findings: In male offsprings of sham control1, sham control2, test1 and test2 basal and electrical stimulated of extracellular glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus were: 0.67±0.04, 1.11±0.1, and in female offsprings were 0.47±0.06, 0.88±0.05 (n=5. The basal and stimulated extra cellular glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus was decreased in both test1 and test2 offsprings. It was less in test1 than test2 offsprings. The glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus in female offsprings of test1 group was less than that of the male offsprings. conclusion: The results suggest that parental morphine addiction may cause learning deficiency through reduction of extracellular glutamate concentration in dentate gyrus so the side effects of parental morphine addiction in offsprings must be considered.

  18. Apraxia of speech associated with an infarct in the precentral gyrus of the insula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, M.; Komori, T.; Isozaki, E.; Hirai, S.; Takeda, K.

    1999-01-01

    It has been postulated that the precentral gyrus in the left insula is responsible for co-ordination of speech. We report a paitent with this disturbance who showed an acute infarct limited to this region. (orig.)

  19. Parietal neural prosthetic control of a computer cursor in a graphical-user-interface task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revechkis, Boris; Aflalo, Tyson NS; Kellis, Spencer; Pouratian, Nader; Andersen, Richard A.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To date, the majority of Brain-Machine Interfaces have been used to perform simple tasks with sequences of individual targets in otherwise blank environments. In this study we developed a more practical and clinically relevant task that approximated modern computers and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). This task could be problematic given the known sensitivity of areas typically used for BMIs to visual stimuli, eye movements, decision-making, and attentional control. Consequently, we sought to assess the effect of a complex, GUI-like task on the quality of neural decoding. Approach. A male rhesus macaque monkey was implanted with two 96-channel electrode arrays in area 5d of the superior parietal lobule. The animal was trained to perform a GUI-like ‘Face in a Crowd’ task on a computer screen that required selecting one cued, icon-like, face image from a group of alternatives (the ‘Crowd’) using a neurally controlled cursor. We assessed whether the crowd affected decodes of intended cursor movements by comparing it to a ‘Crowd Off’ condition in which only the matching target appeared without alternatives. We also examined if training a neural decoder with the Crowd On rather than Off had any effect on subsequent decode quality. Main results. Despite the additional demands of working with the Crowd On, the animal was able to robustly perform the task under Brain Control. The presence of the crowd did not itself affect decode quality. Training the decoder with the Crowd On relative to Off had no negative influence on subsequent decoding performance. Additionally, the subject was able to gaze around freely without influencing cursor position. Significance. Our results demonstrate that area 5d recordings can be used for decoding in a complex, GUI-like task with free gaze. Thus, this area is a promising source of signals for neural prosthetics that utilize computing devices with GUI interfaces, e.g. personal computers, mobile devices, and tablet

  20. Parietal neural prosthetic control of a computer cursor in a graphical-user-interface task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revechkis, Boris; Aflalo, Tyson N S; Kellis, Spencer; Pouratian, Nader; Andersen, Richard A

    2014-12-01

    To date, the majority of Brain-Machine Interfaces have been used to perform simple tasks with sequences of individual targets in otherwise blank environments. In this study we developed a more practical and clinically relevant task that approximated modern computers and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). This task could be problematic given the known sensitivity of areas typically used for BMIs to visual stimuli, eye movements, decision-making, and attentional control. Consequently, we sought to assess the effect of a complex, GUI-like task on the quality of neural decoding. A male rhesus macaque monkey was implanted with two 96-channel electrode arrays in area 5d of the superior parietal lobule. The animal was trained to perform a GUI-like 'Face in a Crowd' task on a computer screen that required selecting one cued, icon-like, face image from a group of alternatives (the 'Crowd') using a neurally controlled cursor. We assessed whether the crowd affected decodes of intended cursor movements by comparing it to a 'Crowd Off' condition in which only the matching target appeared without alternatives. We also examined if training a neural decoder with the Crowd On rather than Off had any effect on subsequent decode quality. Despite the additional demands of working with the Crowd On, the animal was able to robustly perform the task under Brain Control. The presence of the crowd did not itself affect decode quality. Training the decoder with the Crowd On relative to Off had no negative influence on subsequent decoding performance. Additionally, the subject was able to gaze around freely without influencing cursor position. Our results demonstrate that area 5d recordings can be used for decoding in a complex, GUI-like task with free gaze. Thus, this area is a promising source of signals for neural prosthetics that utilize computing devices with GUI interfaces, e.g. personal computers, mobile devices, and tablet computers.

  1. The role of the left inferior parietal lobule in second language learning: An intensive language training fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Elise B; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Soles, Jennika; Berken, Jonathan; Baum, Shari; Watkins, Kate E; Klein, Denise

    2017-04-01

    Research to date suggests that second language acquisition results in functional and structural changes in the bilingual brain, however, in what way and how quickly these changes occur remains unclear. To address these questions, we studied fourteen English-speaking monolingual adults enrolled in a 12-week intensive French language-training program in Montreal. Using functional MRI, we investigated the neural changes associated with new language acquisition. The participants were scanned before the start of the immersion program and at the end of the 12 weeks. The fMRI scan aimed to investigate the brain regions recruited in a sentence reading task both in English, their first language (L1), and in French, their second language (L2). For the L1, fMRI patterns did not change from Time 1 to Time 2, while for the L2, the brain response changed between Time 1 and Time 2 in language-related areas. Of note, for the L2, there was higher activation at Time 2 compared to Time 1 in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) including the supramarginal gyrus. At Time 2 this higher activation in the IPL correlated with faster L2 reading speed. Moreover, higher activation in the left IPL at Time 1 predicted improvement in L2 reading speed from Time 1 to Time 2. Our results suggest that learning-induced plasticity occurred as early as 12 weeks into immersive second-language training, and that the IPL appears to play a special role in language learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A slice of π: An exploratory neuroimaging study of digit encoding and retrieval in a superior memorist

    OpenAIRE

    Raz, Amir; Packard, Mark G.; Alexander, Gerianne M.; Buhle, Jason T.; Zhu, Hongtu; Yu, Shan; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    Subject PI demonstrated superior memory using a variant of a Method of Loci (MOL) technique to recite the first digits of the mathematical constant π to more than 216 decimal places. We report preliminary behavioral, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and brain volumetric data from PI. fMRI data collected while PI recited the first 540 digits of π (i.e., during retrieval) revealed increased activity in medial frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Encoding of a novel str...

  3. Temporal changes in prosaposin expression in the rat dentate gyrus after birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Morishita

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus occurs constitutively throughout postnatal life. Adult neurogenesis includes a multistep process that ends with the formation of a postmitotic and functionally integrated new neuron. During adult neurogenesis, various markers are expressed, including GFAP, nestin, Pax6, polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM, neuronal nuclei (NeuN, doublecortin, TUC-4, Tuj-1, and calretinin. Prosaposin is the precursor of saposins A-D; it is found in various organs and can be excreted. Strong prosaposin expression has been demonstrated in the developing brain including the hippocampus, and its neurotrophic activity has been proposed. This study investigated changes in prosaposin in the dentate gyrus of young and adult rats using double immunohistochemistry with antibodies to prosaposin, PSA-NCAM, and NeuN. Prosaposin immunoreactivity was intense in the dentate gyrus at postnatal day 3 (P3 and P7, but decreased gradually after P14. In the dentate gyrus at P28, immature PSA-NCAM-positive neurons localized exclusively in the subgranular zone were prosaposin-negative, whereas mature Neu-N-positive neurons were positive for prosaposin. Furthermore, these prosaposin-negative immature neurons were saposin B-positive, suggesting that the neurons take up and degrade prosaposin. In situ hybridization assays showed that prosaposin in the adult dentate gyrus is dominantly the Pro+9 type, a secreted type of prosaposin. These results imply that prosaposin secreted from mature neurons stimulates proliferation and maturation of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus.

  4. Temporal changes in prosaposin expression in the rat dentate gyrus after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Midori; Nabeka, Hiroaki; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Miyawaki, Kyojy; Doihara, Takuya; Saito, Shouichiro; Kobayashi, Naoto; Matsuda, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus occurs constitutively throughout postnatal life. Adult neurogenesis includes a multistep process that ends with the formation of a postmitotic and functionally integrated new neuron. During adult neurogenesis, various markers are expressed, including GFAP, nestin, Pax6, polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), doublecortin, TUC-4, Tuj-1, and calretinin. Prosaposin is the precursor of saposins A-D; it is found in various organs and can be excreted. Strong prosaposin expression has been demonstrated in the developing brain including the hippocampus, and its neurotrophic activity has been proposed. This study investigated changes in prosaposin in the dentate gyrus of young and adult rats using double immunohistochemistry with antibodies to prosaposin, PSA-NCAM, and NeuN. Prosaposin immunoreactivity was intense in the dentate gyrus at postnatal day 3 (P3) and P7, but decreased gradually after P14. In the dentate gyrus at P28, immature PSA-NCAM-positive neurons localized exclusively in the subgranular zone were prosaposin-negative, whereas mature Neu-N-positive neurons were positive for prosaposin. Furthermore, these prosaposin-negative immature neurons were saposin B-positive, suggesting that the neurons take up and degrade prosaposin. In situ hybridization assays showed that prosaposin in the adult dentate gyrus is dominantly the Pro+9 type, a secreted type of prosaposin. These results imply that prosaposin secreted from mature neurons stimulates proliferation and maturation of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus.

  5. Intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus is required for object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Ogawa, Taisuke; Takada, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Fujii, Hiroaki; Ando, Masaki

    2014-11-01

    The role of perforant pathway-dentate granule cell synapses in cognitive behavior was examined focusing on synaptic Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired when extracellular Zn(2+) levels were decreased by injection of clioquinol and N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylendediamine. To pursue the effect of the loss and/or blockade of Zn(2+) signaling in dentate granule cells, ZnAF-2DA (100 pmol, 0.1 mM/1 µl), an intracellular Zn(2+) chelator, was locally injected into the dentate molecular layer of rats. ZnAF-2DA injection, which was estimated to chelate intracellular Zn(2+) signaling only in the dentate gyrus, affected object recognition memory 1 h after training without affecting intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in the dentate molecular layer. In vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was affected under the local perfusion of the recording region (the dentate granule cell layer) with 0.1 mM ZnAF-2DA, but not with 1-10 mM CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator, suggesting that the blockade of intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in dentate granule cells affects dentate gyrus LTP. The present study demonstrates that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus is required for object recognition memory, probably via dentate gyrus LTP expression. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The structure of the parietal pleura and its relationship to pleural liquid dynamics in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertine, K H; Wiener-Kronish, J P; Staub, N C

    1984-03-01

    We studied the parietal pleura of six sheep to obtain information on pleural structure, blood supply, and lymphatic drainage. In the strict sense, the parietal pleura is composed of a single layer of mesothelial cells and a uniform layer of loose, irregular connective tissue (about 23 micron in width) subjacent to the mesothelial cells. The parietal pleural blood vessels are 10-15 micron from the pleural space. Tracer substances put in the pleural space are removed at specific locations. Colloidal carbon and chick red blood cells are cleared by the parietal pleural lymphatics located over the intercostal spaces at the caudal end of the thoracic wall and over the lateral sides of the pericardial sac. In these areas the mesothelial cells have specialized openings, the stomata, that directly communicate with the underlying lymphatic lacunae. Cells and particulate matter in the pleural space are cleared only by the parietal pleural lymphatics. Compared to the visceral pleura, we believe the thinness of the parietal pleura, the closeness of its blood vessels to the pleural space, and its specialized lymphatic clearance pathways, together indicate that the parietal pleura plays a major role in pleural liquid and protein dynamics in sheep.

  7. Origin of parietal podocytes in atubular glomeruli mapped by lineage tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Kevin; Berger, Katja; Boor, Peter; Jirak, Peggy; Gelman, Irwin H; Arkill, Kenton P; Neal, Christopher R; Kriz, Wilhelm; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J

    2014-01-01

    Parietal podocytes are fully differentiated podocytes lining Bowman's capsule where normally only parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are found. Parietal podocytes form throughout life and are regularly observed in human biopsies, particularly in atubular glomeruli of diseased kidneys; however, the origin of parietal podocytes is unresolved. To assess the capacity of PECs to transdifferentiate into parietal podocytes, we developed and characterized a novel method for creating atubular glomeruli by electrocoagulation of the renal cortex in mice. Electrocoagulation produced multiple atubular glomeruli containing PECs as well as parietal podocytes that projected from the vascular pole and lined Bowman's capsule. Notably, induction of cell death was evident in some PECs. In contrast, Bowman's capsules of control animals and normal glomeruli of electrocoagulated kidneys rarely contained podocytes. PECs and podocytes were traced by inducible and irreversible genetic tagging using triple transgenic mice (PEC- or Pod-rtTA/LC1/R26R). Examination of serial cryosections indicated that visceral podocytes migrated onto Bowman's capsule via the vascular stalk; direct transdifferentiation from PECs to podocytes was not observed. Similar results were obtained in a unilateral ureter obstruction model and in human diseased kidney biopsies, in which overlap of PEC- or podocyte-specific antibody staining indicative of gradual differentiation did not occur. These results suggest that induction of atubular glomeruli leads to ablation of PECs and subsequent migration of visceral podocytes onto Bowman's capsule, rather than transdifferentiation from PECs to parietal podocytes.

  8. Middle Temporal Gyrus Versus Inferior Temporal Gyrus Transcortical Approaches to High-Grade Astrocytomas in the Mediobasal Temporal Lobe: A Comparison of Outcomes, Functional Restoration, and Surgical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Raza, Shaan M; Ahmed, Ishrat; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Chaichana, Kaisorn; Olivi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    High-grade astrocytomas of the mesial temporal lobe may pose surgical challenges. Several approaches (trans-sylvian, subtemporal, and transcortical) have been designed to circumnavigate the critical neurovascular structures and white fiber tracts that surround this area. Considering the paucity of literature on the transcortical approach for these lesions, we describe our institutional experience with transcortical approaches to Grade III/IV astrocytomas in the mesial temporal lobe. Between 1999 and 2009, 23 patients underwent surgery at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions for Grade III/IV astrocytomas involving the mesial temporal lobe (without involvement of the temporal neocortex). Clinical notes, operative records, and imaging were reviewed. Thirteen patients had tumors in the dominant hemisphere. All patients underwent surgery via a transcortical approach (14 via the inferior temporal gyrus and 9 via the middle temporal gyrus). Gross total resection was obtained in 92 % of the cohort. Neurological outcomes were: clinically significant stroke (2 patients), new visual deficits (2 patients), new speech deficit (1 patient); seizure control (53 %). In comparison to reported results in the literature for the transylvian and subtemporal approaches, the transcortical approach may provide the access necessary for a gross total resection with minimal neurological consequences. In our series of patients, there was no statistically significant difference in outcomes between the middle temporal gyrus versus the inferior temporal gyrus trajectories.

  9. Isolation, culture and adenoviral transduction of parietal cells from mouse gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliddon, Briony L; Nguyen, Nhung V; Gunn, Priscilla A; Gleeson, Paul A; Driel, Ian R van

    2008-01-01

    Here we describe a method for the isolation of intact gastric glands from mice and primary culture and transfection of mouse gastric epithelial cells. Collagenase digestion of PBS-perfused mouse stomachs released large intact gastric glands that were plated on a basement membrane matrix. The heterogeneous gland cell cultures typically contain ∼60% parietal cells. Isolated mouse parietal cells remain viable in culture for up to 5 days and react strongly with an antibody specific to the gastric H + /K + ATPase. Isolated intact mouse gastric glands and primary cultures of mouse parietal cells respond to the secretagogue, histamine. Typical morphological changes from a resting to an acid-secreting active parietal cell were observed. In resting cultures of mouse parietal cells, the H + /K + ATPase displayed a cytoplasmic punctate staining pattern consistent with tubulovesicle element structures. Following histamine stimulation, an expansion of internal apical vacuole structures was observed together with a pronounced redistribution of the H + /K + ATPase from the cytoplasm to the apical vacuoles. A reproducible procedure to express genes of interest exogenously in these cultures of mouse parietal cells was also established. This method combines recombinant adenoviral transduction with magnetic field-assisted transfection resulting in ∼30% transduced parietal cells. Adenoviral-transduced parietal cells maintain their ability to undergo agonist-induced activation. This protocol will be useful for the isolation, culture and expression of genes in parietal cells from genetically modified mice and as such will be an invaluable tool for studying the complex exocytic and endocytic trafficking events of the H + /K + ATPase which underpin the regulation of acid secretion

  10. Parietal lesions produce illusory conjunction errors in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond PIERRE Kesner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When several different objects are presented, visual objects are perceived correctly only if their features are identified and then bound together. Illusory-conjunction errors result when an object is correctly identified but is combined incorrectly. The parietal cortex (PPC has been shown repeatedly to play an important role in feature binding. The present study builds on a series of recent studies that have made use of visual search paradigms to elucidate the neural system involved in feature binding. This experiment attempts to define the role the PPC plays in binding the properties of a visual object that varies on the features of color and size in rats. Rats with PPC lesions or control surgery were exposed to three blocks of 20 trials administered over a 1-week period, with each block containing ten-one feature and ten-two feature trials. The target object consisted of one color object (e.g. black and white and one size object (e.g. short and tall. Of the ten one feature trials, five of the trials were tailored specifically for size discrimination and five for color discrimination. In the two-feature condition, the animal was required to locate the targeted object among four objects with two objects differing in size and two objects differing in color. The results showed a significant decrease in learning the task for the PPC lesioned rats compared to controls, especially for the two-feature condition. Based on a subsequent error analysis for color and size, the results showed a significant increase in illusory conjunction errors for the PPC lesioned rats relative to controls for color and relative to color discrimination, suggesting that the PPC may support feature binding as it relates to color. There was an increase in illusory conjunctions errors for both the PPC lesioned and control animals for size, but this appeared to be due to a difficulty with size discrimination.

  11. The Regenerative Potential of Parietal Epithelial Cells in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Katja; Schulte, Kevin; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman’s capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically labeled in an irreversible fashion in 5-week-old mice. No significant increase in labeled podocytes was observed, even after 18 months. To accelerate a potential regenerative mechanism, progressive glomerular hypertrophy was induced by progressive partial nephrectomies. Again, no significant podocyte replenishment was observed. Rather, labeled PECs exclusively invaded segments of the tuft affected by glomerulosclerosis, consistent with our previous findings. We next reassessed PEC recruitment in juvenile mice using a different reporter mouse and confirmed significant recruitment of labeled PECs onto the glomerular tuft. Moreover, some labeled cells on Bowman’s capsule expressed podocyte markers, and cells on Bowman’s capsule were also directly labeled in juvenile podocyte-specific Pod-rtTA transgenic mice. In 6-week-old mice, however, cells on Bowman’s capsule no longer expressed podocyte-specific markers. Similarly, in human kidneys, some cells on Bowman’s capsule expressed the podocyte marker synaptopodin from 2 weeks to 2 years of age but not at 7 years of age. In summary, podocyte regeneration from PECs could not be detected in aging mice or models of glomerular hypertrophy. We propose that a small fraction of committed podocytes reside on Bowman’s capsule close to the vascular stalk and are recruited onto the glomerular tuft during infancy to adolescence in mice and humans. PMID:24408873

  12. Podocyte and Parietal Epithelial Cell Interactions in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hussain, Turki; Al Mana, Hadeel; Hussein, Maged H; Akhtar, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    The glomerulus has 3 resident cells namely mesangial cells that produce the mesangial matrix, endothelial cells that line the glomerular capillaries, and podocytes that cover the outer surface of the glomerular basement membrane. Parietal epithelial cells (PrECs), which line the Bowman's capsule are not part of the glomerular tuft but may have an important role in the normal function of the glomerulus. A significant progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of the role and function of these cells in normal kidney and in kidneys with various types of glomerulopathy. In crescentic glomerulonephritis necrotizing injury of the glomerular tuft results in activation and leakage of fibrinogen which provides the trigger for excessive proliferation of PrECs giving rise to glomerular crescents. In cases of collapsing glomerulopathy, podocyte injury causes collapse of the glomerular capillaries and activation and proliferation of PrECs, which accumulate within the urinary space in the form of pseudocrescents. Many of the noninflammatory glomerular lesions such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and global glomerulosclerosis also result from podocyte injury which causes variable loss of podocytes. In these cases podocyte injury leads to activation of PrECs that extend on to the glomerular tuft where they cause segmental and/or global sclerosis by producing excess matrix, resulting in obliteration of the capillary lumina. In diabetic nephropathy, in addition to increased matrix production in the mesangium and glomerular basement membranes, increased loss of podocytes is an important determinant of long-term prognosis. Contrary to prior belief there is no convincing evidence for an active podocyte proliferation in any of the above mentioned glomerulopathies.

  13. Differential frontal-parietal phase synchrony during hypnosis as a function of hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Cardeña, Etzel; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-10-01

    Spontaneous dissociative alterations in awareness and perception among highly suggestible individuals following a hypnotic induction may result from disruptions in the functional coordination of the frontal-parietal network. We recorded EEG and self-reported state dissociation in control and hypnosis conditions in two sessions with low and highly suggestible participants. Highly suggestible participants reliably experienced greater state dissociation and exhibited lower frontal-parietal phase synchrony in the alpha2 frequency band during hypnosis than low suggestible participants. These findings suggest that highly suggestible individuals exhibit a disruption of the frontal-parietal network that is only observable following a hypnotic induction. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Individual variation in intentionality in the mind-wandering state is reflected in the integration of the default-mode, fronto-parietal, and limbic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchert, Johannes; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Seli, Paul; Huntenburg, Julia M; Liem, Franziskus; Lauckner, Mark E; Oligschläger, Sabine; Bernhardt, Boris C; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S

    2017-02-01

    Mind-wandering has a controversial relationship with cognitive control. Existing psychological evidence supports the hypothesis that episodes of mind-wandering reflect a failure to constrain thinking to task-relevant material, as well the apparently alternative view that control can facilitate the expression of self-generated mental content. We assessed whether this apparent contradiction arises because of a failure to consider differences in the types of thoughts that occur during mind-wandering, and in particular, the associated level of intentionality. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, we examined the cortical organisation that underlies inter-individual differences in descriptions of the spontaneous or deliberate nature of mind-wandering. Cortical thickness, as well as functional connectivity analyses, implicated regions relevant to cognitive control and regions of the default-mode network for individuals who reported high rates of deliberate mind-wandering. In contrast, higher reports of spontaneous mind-wandering were associated with cortical thinning in parietal and posterior temporal regions in the left hemisphere (which are important in the control of cognition and attention) as well as heightened connectivity between the intraparietal sulcus and a region that spanned limbic and default-mode regions in the ventral inferior frontal gyrus. Finally, we observed a dissociation in the thickness of the retrosplenial cortex/lingual gyrus, with higher reports of spontaneous mind-wandering being associated with thickening in the left hemisphere, and higher repots of deliberate mind-wandering with thinning in the right hemisphere. These results suggest that the intentionality of the mind-wandering state depends on integration between the control and default-mode networks, with more deliberation being associated with greater integration between these systems. We conclude that one reason why mind-wandering has a controversial relationship

  15. Proliferation of granule cell precursors in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys is diminished by stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Elizabeth; Tanapat, Patima; McEwen, Bruce S.; Flügge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard

    1998-01-01

    Although granule cells continue to be added to the dentate gyrus of adult rats and tree shrews, this phenomenon has not been demonstrated in the dentate gyrus of adult primates. To determine whether neurons are produced in the dentate gyrus of adult primates, adult marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) were injected with BrdU and perfused 2 hr or 3 weeks later. BrdU is a thymidine analog that is incorporated into proliferating cells during S phase. A substantial number of cells in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys incorporated BrdU and ≈80% of these cells had morphological characteristics of granule neurons and expressed a neuronal marker by the 3-week time point. Previous studies suggest that the proliferation of granule cell precursors in the adult dentate gyrus can be inhibited by stress in rats and tree shrews. To test whether an aversive experience has a similar effect on cell proliferation in the primate brain, adult marmoset monkeys were exposed to a resident-intruder model of stress. After 1 hr in this condition, the intruder monkeys were injected with BrdU and perfused 2 hr later. The number of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus of the intruder monkeys was compared with that of unstressed control monkeys. We found that a single exposure to this stressful experience resulted in a significant reduction in the number of these proliferating cells. Our results suggest that neurons are produced in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys and that the rate of precursor cell proliferation can be affected by a stressful experience. PMID:9501234

  16. The Oft-Neglected Role of Parietal EEG Asymmetry and Risk for Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer L.; Towers, David N.; Coan, James A.; Allen, John J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively less right parietal activity may reflect reduced arousal and signify risk for major depressive disorder (MDD). Inconsistent findings with parietal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, however, suggest issues such as anxiety comorbidity and sex differences have yet to be resolved. Resting parietal EEG asymmetry was assessed in 306 individuals (31% male) with (n = 143) and without (n = 163) a DSM-IV diagnosis of lifetime MDD and no comorbid anxiety disorders. Past MDD+ women displayed relatively less right parietal activity than current MDD+ and MDD- women, replicating prior work. Recent caffeine intake, an index of arousal, moderated the relationship between depression and EEG asymmetry for women and men. Findings suggest that sex differences and arousal should be examined in studies of depression and regional brain activity. PMID:20525011

  17. The contribution of the human posterior parietal cortex to episodic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sestieri, Carlo; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is traditionally associated with attention, perceptual decision making and sensorimotor transformations, but more recent human neuroimaging studies support an additional role in episodic memory retrieval. In this Opinion article, we present a functional–anatomical model of the involvement of the PPC in memory retrieval. Parietal regions involved in perceptual attention and episodic memory are largely segregated and often show a push–pull relationship, poten...

  18. Visuo-spatial construction in patients with frontal and parietal lobe lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani Kashyap

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial construction, traditionally viewed as a putative parietal function, also requires sustained attention, planning, organization strategies and error correction, and hence frontal lobe mediation. The relative contributions of the frontal and parietal lobes are poorly understood. To examine the contributions of parietal, frontal lobes, as well as right and left cerebral hemispheres to visuospatial construction. The Stick Construction Test for two-dimensional construction and the Block Construction Test for three-dimensional construction were administered pre-surgically to patients with lesions in the parietal lobe (n =9 and the frontal lobe (n=11, along with normal control subjects (n =20 matched to the patients on age (+/- 3 years, gender, education (+/- 3 years and handedness. The patients were significantly slower than the controls on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests. Patients with parietal lesions were slower than those with frontal lesions on the test of three-dimensional construction. Within each lobe patients with right and left sided lesions did not differ significantly. It appears that tests of three-dimensional construction might be most sensitive to visuospatial construction deficits. Visuospatial construction involves the mediation of both frontal and parietal lobes. The function does not appear to be lateralized. The networks arising from the parieto-occipital areas and projecting to the frontal cortices (e.g., occipito-frontal fasciculus may be the basis of the mediation of both lobes in visuospatial construction. The present findings need replication from studies with larger sample sizes.

  19. Clinical evidence of parietal cortex dysfunction and correlation with extent of allodynia in CRPS type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H; McCabe, C; Harris, N; Hall, J; Lewis, J; Blake, D R

    2013-04-01

    Unusual symptoms such as digit misidentification and neglect-like phenomena have been reported in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), which we hypothesized could be explained by parietal lobe dysfunction. Twenty-two patients with chronic CRPS attending an in-patient rehabilitation programme underwent standard neurological examination followed by clinical assessment of parietal lobe function and detailed sensory testing. Fifteen (68%) patients had evidence of parietal lobe dysfunction. Six (27%) subjects failed six or more test categories and demonstrated new clinical signs consistent with their parietal testing impairments, which were impacting significantly on activities of daily living. A higher incidence was noted in subjects with >1 limb involvement, CRPS affecting the dominant side and in left-handed subjects. Eighteen patients (82%) had mechanical allodynia covering 3-57.5% of the body surface area. Allochiria (unilateral tactile stimulation perceived only in the analogous location on the opposite limb), sensory extinction (concurrent bilateral tactile stimulation perceived only in one limb), referred sensations (unilateral tactile stimulation perceived concurrently in another discrete body area) and dysynchiria (unilateral non-noxious tactile stimulation perceived bilaterally as noxious) were present in some patients. Greater extent of body surface allodynia was correlated with worse parietal function (Spearman's rho = -0.674, p = 0.001). In patients with chronic CRPS, detailed clinical examination may reveal parietal dysfunction, with severity relating to the extent of allodynia. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  20. Patterns of morphological integration between parietal and temporal areas in the human skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Pereira-Pedro, Ana Sofia; Bastir, Markus

    2017-10-01

    Modern humans have evolved bulging parietal areas and large, projecting temporal lobes. Both changes, largely due to a longitudinal expansion of these cranial and cerebral elements, were hypothesized to be the result of brain evolution and cognitive variations. Nonetheless, the independence of these two morphological characters has not been evaluated. Because of structural and functional integration among cranial elements, changes in the position of the temporal poles can be a secondary consequence of parietal bulging and reorientation of the head axis. In this study, we use geometric morphometrics to test the correlation between parietal shape and the morphology of the endocranial base in a sample of adult modern humans. Our results suggest that parietal proportions show no correlation with the relative position of the temporal poles within the spatial organization of the endocranial base. The vault and endocranial base are likely to be involved in distinct morphogenetic processes, with scarce or no integration between these two districts. Therefore, the current evidence rejects the hypothesis of reciprocal morphological influences between parietal and temporal morphology, suggesting that evolutionary spatial changes in these two areas may have been independent. However, parietal bulging exerts a visible effect on the rotation of the cranial base, influencing head position and orientation. This change can have had a major relevance in the reorganization of the head functional axis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Internet Search Alters Intra- and Inter-regional Synchronization in the Temporal Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet search changed the way we store and recall information and possibly altered our brain functions. Previous studies suggested that Internet search facilitates the information-acquisition process. However, this process may cause individuals to lose the ability to store and recollect specific contents. Despite the numerous behavioral studies conducted in this field, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying Internet searches. The present study explores potential brain activity changes induced by Internet search. The whole paradigm includes three phases, namely, pre-resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI scan, 6-day Internet search training, and post rs-fMRI scan. We detected the functional integrations induced by Internet search training by comparing post- with pre-scan. Regional homogeneity (ReHo and functional connectivity (FC were used to detect intra- and interregional synchronized activity in 42 university students. Compared with pre-scan, post-scan showed decreased ReHo in the temporal gyrus, the middle frontal gyrus, and the postcentral gyrus. Further seed-based FC analysis showed that the temporal gyrus exhibited decreased FC in the parahippocampal cortex and the temporal gyrus after training. Based on the features of current task and functions exhibited by these brain regions, results indicate that short-term Internet search training changed the brain regional activities involved in memory retrieval. In general, this study provides evidence that supports the idea that Internet search can affect our brain functions.

  2. [Left lateral gaze paresis due to subcortical hematoma in the right precentral gyrus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Takamori, M

    1998-03-01

    We report a case of transient left lateral gaze paresis due to a hemorrhagic lesion restricted in the right precentral gyrus. A 74-year-old female experienced a sudden clumsiness of the left upper extremity. A neurological examination revealed a left central facial paresis, distal dominant muscle weakness in the left upper limb and left lateral gaze paresis. There were no other focal neurological signs. Laboratory data were all normal. Brain CTs and MRIs demonstrated a subcortical hematoma in the right precentral gyrus. The neurological symptoms and signs disappeared over seven days. A recent physiological study suggested that the human frontal eye field (FEF) is located in the posterior part of the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 8) and the precentral gyrus around the precentral sulcus. More recent studies stressed the role of the precentral sulcus and the precentral gyrus. Our case supports those physiological findings. The hematoma affected both the FEF and its underlying white matter in our case. We assume the lateral gaze paresis is attributable to the disruption of the fibers from the FEF. It is likely that fibers for motor control of the face, upper extremity, and lateral gaze lie adjacently in the subcortical area.

  3. Internet Search Alters Intra- and Inter-regional Synchronization in the Temporal Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyue; Lin, Xiao; Zheng, Ming; Hu, Yanbo; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Lingxiao; Du, Xiaoxia; Dong, Guangheng

    2018-01-01

    Internet search changed the way we store and recall information and possibly altered our brain functions. Previous studies suggested that Internet search facilitates the information-acquisition process. However, this process may cause individuals to lose the ability to store and recollect specific contents. Despite the numerous behavioral studies conducted in this field, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying Internet searches. The present study explores potential brain activity changes induced by Internet search. The whole paradigm includes three phases, namely, pre-resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scan, 6-day Internet search training, and post rs-fMRI scan. We detected the functional integrations induced by Internet search training by comparing post- with pre-scan. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) were used to detect intra- and interregional synchronized activity in 42 university students. Compared with pre-scan, post-scan showed decreased ReHo in the temporal gyrus, the middle frontal gyrus, and the postcentral gyrus. Further seed-based FC analysis showed that the temporal gyrus exhibited decreased FC in the parahippocampal cortex and the temporal gyrus after training. Based on the features of current task and functions exhibited by these brain regions, results indicate that short-term Internet search training changed the brain regional activities involved in memory retrieval. In general, this study provides evidence that supports the idea that Internet search can affect our brain functions.

  4. Difficulty identifying feelings and automatic activation in the fusiform gyrus in response to facial emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Mischa; Kugel, Harald; Suslow, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    Difficulties in identifying and differentiating one's emotions are a central characteristic of alexithymia. In the present study, automatic activation of the fusiform gyrus to facial emotion was investigated as a function of alexithymia as assessed by the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. During 3 Tesla fMRI scanning, pictures of faces bearing sad, happy, and neutral expressions masked by neutral faces were presented to 22 healthy adults who also responded to the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The fusiform gyrus was selected as the region of interest, and voxel values of this region were extracted, summarized as means, and tested among the different conditions (sad, happy, and neutral faces). Masked sad facial emotions were associated with greater bilateral activation of the fusiform gyrus than masked neutral faces. The subscale, Difficulty Identifying Feelings, was negatively correlated with the neural response of the fusiform gyrus to masked sad faces. The correlation results suggest that automatic hyporesponsiveness of the fusiform gyrus to negative emotion stimuli may reflect problems in recognizing one's emotions in everyday life.

  5. The non-lemniscal auditory cortex in ferrets: convergence of corticotectal inputs in the superior colliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M Bajo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Descending cortical inputs to the superior colliculus (SC contribute to the unisensory response properties of the neurons found there and are critical for multisensory integration. However, little is known about the relative contribution of different auditory cortical areas to this projection or the distribution of their terminals in the SC. We characterized this projection in the ferret by injecting tracers in the SC and auditory cortex. Large pyramidal neurons were labeled in layer V of different parts of the ectosylvian gyrus after tracer injections in the SC. Those cells were most numerous in the anterior ectosylvian gyrus (AEG, and particularly in the anterior ventral field, which receives both auditory and visual inputs. Labeling was also found in the posterior ectosylvian gyrus (PEG, predominantly in the tonotopically-organized posterior suprasylvian field. Profuse anterograde labeling was present in the SC following tracer injections at the site of acoustically-responsive neurons in the AEG or PEG, with terminal fields being both more prominent and clustered for inputs originating from the AEG. Terminals from both cortical areas were located throughout the intermediate and deep layers, but were most concentrated in the posterior half of the SC, where peripheral stimulus locations are represented. No inputs were identified from primary auditory cortical areas, although some labeling was found in the surrounding sulci. Our findings suggest that higher level auditory cortical areas, including those involved in multisensory processing, may modulate SC function via their projections into its deeper layers.

  6. Conserved properties of dentate gyrus neurogenesis across postnatal development revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochgerner, Hannah; Zeisel, Amit; Lönnerberg, Peter; Linnarsson, Sten

    2018-02-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is a brain region in which neurogenesis persists into adulthood; however, the relationship between developmental and adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis has not been examined in detail. Here we used single-cell RNA sequencing to reveal the molecular dynamics and diversity of dentate gyrus cell types in perinatal, juvenile, and adult mice. We found distinct quiescent and proliferating progenitor cell types, linked by transient intermediate states to neuroblast stages and fully mature granule cells. We observed shifts in the molecular identity of quiescent and proliferating radial glia and granule cells during the postnatal period that were then maintained through adult stages. In contrast, intermediate progenitor cells, neuroblasts, and immature granule cells were nearly indistinguishable at all ages. These findings demonstrate the fundamental similarity of postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and pinpoint the early postnatal transformation of radial glia from embryonic progenitors to adult quiescent stem cells.

  7. Transient Global Amnesia Associated with an Acute Infarction at the Cingulate Gyrus

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    Alejandro Gallardo-Tur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transient global amnesia (TGA is a syndrome of sudden, unexplained isolated short-term memory loss. In the majority of TGA cases, no causes can be identified and neuroimaging, CSF studies and EEG are usually normal. We present a patient with TGA associated with a small acute infarct at the cingulate gyrus. Case Report. The patient, a 62 year-old man, developed two episodes of TGA. He had hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. He was found to have an acute ischemic stroke of small size (15 mm of maximal diameter at the right cerebral cingulate gyrus diagnosed on brain magnetic resonance imaging. No lesions involving other limbic system structures such as thalamus, fornix, corpus callosum, or hippocampal structures were seen. The remainder of the examination was normal. Conclusion. Unilateral ischemic lesions of limbic system structures may result in TGA. We must bear in mind that TGA can be an associated clinical disorder of cingulate gyrus infarct.

  8. Regional hippocampal vulnerability in early multiple sclerosis: Dynamic pathological spreading from dentate gyrus to CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Vincent; Koubiyr, Ismail; Romero, José E; Manjon, José V; Coupé, Pierrick; Deloire, Mathilde; Dousset, Vincent; Brochet, Bruno; Ruet, Aurélie; Tourdias, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Whether hippocampal subfields are differentially vulnerable at the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) and how this impacts memory performance is a current topic of debate. We prospectively included 56 persons with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS in a 1-year longitudinal study, together with 55 matched healthy controls at baseline. Participants were tested for memory performance and scanned with 3 T MRI to assess the volume of 5 distinct hippocampal subfields using automatic segmentation techniques. At baseline, CA4/dentate gyrus was the only hippocampal subfield with a volume significantly smaller than controls (p < .01). After one year, CA4/dentate gyrus atrophy worsened (-6.4%, p < .0001) and significant CA1 atrophy appeared (both in the stratum-pyramidale and the stratum radiatum-lacunosum-moleculare, -5.6%, p < .001 and -6.2%, p < .01, respectively). CA4/dentate gyrus volume at baseline predicted CA1 volume one year after CIS (R 2  = 0.44 to 0.47, p < .001, with age, T2 lesion-load, and global brain atrophy as covariates). The volume of CA4/dentate gyrus at baseline was associated with MS diagnosis during follow-up, independently of T2-lesion load and demographic variables (p < .05). Whereas CA4/dentate gyrus volume was not correlated with memory scores at baseline, CA1 atrophy was an independent correlate of episodic verbal memory performance one year after CIS (ß = 0.87, p < .05). The hippocampal degenerative process spread from dentate gyrus to CA1 at the earliest stage of MS. This dynamic vulnerability is associated with MS diagnosis after CIS and will ultimately impact hippocampal-dependent memory performance. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Status Epilepticus Induced Spontaneous Dentate Gyrus Spikes: In Vivo Current Source Density Analysis.

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    Sean P Flynn

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus is considered to function as an inhibitory gate limiting excitatory input to the hippocampus. Following status epilepticus (SE, this gating function is reduced and granule cells become hyper-excitable. Dentate spikes (DS are large amplitude potentials observed in the dentate gyrus (DG of normal animals. DS are associated with membrane depolarization of granule cells, increased activity of hilar interneurons and suppression of CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cell firing. Therefore, DS could act as an anti-excitatory mechanism. Because of the altered gating function of the dentate gyrus following SE, we sought to investigate how DS are affected following pilocarpine-induced SE. Two weeks following lithium-pilocarpine SE induction, hippocampal EEG was recorded in male Sprague-Dawley rats with 16-channel silicon probes under urethane anesthesia. Probes were placed dorso-ventrally to encompass either CA1-CA3 or CA1-DG layers. Large amplitude spikes were detected from EEG recordings and subject to current source density analysis. Probe placement was verified histologically to evaluate the anatomical localization of current sinks and the origin of DS. In 9 of 11 pilocarpine-treated animals and two controls, DS were confirmed with large current sinks in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. DS frequency was significantly increased in pilocarpine-treated animals compared to controls. Additionally, in pilocarpine-treated animals, DS displayed current sinks in the outer, middle and/or inner molecular layers. However, there was no difference in the frequency of events when comparing between layers. This suggests that following SE, DS can be generated by input from medial and lateral entorhinal cortex, or within the dentate gyrus. DS were associated with an increase in multiunit activity in the granule cell layer, but no change in CA1. These results suggest that following SE there is an increase in DS activity, potentially arising from

  10. Decreased left middle temporal gyrus volume in antipsychotic drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and their healthy unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Maorong; Li, Jun; Eyler, Lisa; Guo, Xiaofeng; Wei, Qingling; Tang, Jingsong; Liu, Feng; He, Zhong; Li, Lihua; Jin, Hua; Liu, Zhening; Wang, Juan; Liu, Fang; Chen, Huafu; Zhao, Jingping

    2013-03-01

    The shared neuropathological characteristics of patients with schizophrenia and their siblings might represent intermediate phenotypes that could be used to investigate genetic susceptibility to the illness. We sought to discover gray matter volume differences in patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings with voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We recruited antipsychotic drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients, their unaffected siblings and age-, sex- and handedness-matched healthy controls. We used VBM to investigate differences in gray matter volume among the 3 groups. There were significant gray matter volumetric differences among the 3 groups in bilateral hippocampal and parahippocampal gyri, bilateral middle temporal gyri, and superior temporal gyri (FDR ptemporal gyrus, and volume of this region was not different between siblings and patients. Our findings confirm and extend previous VBM analyses in schizophrenia and it indicate that schizophrenia may be characterized by an abnormal development of cerebral lateralization. Furthermore, these data argue that patients and their unaffected siblings might share decreases in the gray matter volume of the left middle temporal gyrus, and this regional reduction might be a potential endophenotype for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pyramid-like basket cells in the granular layer of the dentate gyrus in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seress, L

    1978-01-01

    Basket cells of the dentate gyrus were identified using Nissl (cresyl violet) staining. It has been found that the ratio between basket and granule cells is 1:150--210. Only a few glial cells, mainly astroglia, were found in the granular layer of the dentate gyrus. In accordance with earlier data it was found that the granule cells and glial cells originate mainly postnatally, but the basket cells, like the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, originate prenatally. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:701192

  12. Prenatal alcohol exposure affects progenitor cell numbers in olfactory bulbs and dentate gyrus of vervet monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Mark W; Inyatkin, Alexey; Ptito, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus) to (1) investigate the normal developmental sequence of post-natal proliferation in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus and (2) determine the effects of naturalistic prenatal ethanol exposure on proliferation at three different ages (neonate, five months and two years......). Using design-based stereology, we found an age-related decrease of actively proliferating cells in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus for both control and FAE groups. Furthermore, at the neonatal time point, the FAE group had fewer actively proliferating cells as compared to the control group...

  13. Origin of human motor readiness field linked to left middle frontal gyrus by MEG and PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jane Rygaard; Johannsen, P; Bak, Christen Kjeldahl

    1998-01-01

    Combined magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography identified a prior source of activity in the left middle frontal gyrus duping uncued movements of the right index finger Voluntary movements gave rise to a change in the cortical electrical potential known as the Bereitschaftspotent......Combined magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography identified a prior source of activity in the left middle frontal gyrus duping uncued movements of the right index finger Voluntary movements gave rise to a change in the cortical electrical potential known...... sources subsequently to be active were mapped to the supplementary motor area, premotor cortex, and motor cortex (M1), all in the left hemisphere. (C) 1998 Academic Press....

  14. Writing superiority in cued recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eFueller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001. In other memory retrieval paradigms, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005. In a series of four experiments using a paired associate (PA learning paradigm we tested (a whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b whether a possible superiority for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c whether the performance in PA word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory task. We found better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a PA learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written versus spoken recall cannot be (solely explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory

  15. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

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    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  16. Double elevator weakening for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy with ipsilateral superior rectus contracture and lax superior oblique tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif O

    2012-06-01

    In unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy, a large hypertropia is sometimes associated with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle and apparent overaction of the contralateral superior oblique. Ipsilateral double elevator weakening is one surgical approach; however, this procedure could compromise supraduction. We report a series of three consecutive patients who underwent ipsilateral superior rectus and inferior oblique recessions for unilateral superior oblique palsy. Intraoperatively, all three patients were found to have a lax ipsilateral superior oblique tendon. Postoperatively, all three patients had satisfactory correction of the hypertropia and abnormal head position with minimal supraduction defect. This procedure seems to be an acceptable initial surgical option for treating congenital superior oblique muscle palsy with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle, even when the ipsilateral superior oblique tendon is lax. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sentence processing in anterior superior temporal cortex shows a social-emotional bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellem, Monika S; Jasmin, Kyle M; Peng, Cynthia; Martin, Alex

    2016-08-01

    The anterior region of the left superior temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus (aSTG/STS) has been implicated in two very different cognitive functions: sentence processing and social-emotional processing. However, the vast majority of the sentence stimuli in previous reports have been of a social or social-emotional nature suggesting that sentence processing may be confounded with semantic content. To evaluate this possibility we had subjects read word lists that differed in phrase/constituent size (single words, 3-word phrases, 6-word sentences) and semantic content (social-emotional, social, and inanimate objects) while scanned in a 7T environment. This allowed us to investigate if the aSTG/STS responded to increasing constituent structure (with increased activity as a function of constituent size) with or without regard to a specific domain of concepts, i.e., social and/or social-emotional content. Activity in the left aSTG/STS was found to increase with constituent size. This region was also modulated by content, however, such that social-emotional concepts were preferred over social and object stimuli. Reading also induced content type effects in domain-specific semantic regions. Those preferring social-emotional content included aSTG/STS, inferior frontal gyrus, posterior STS, lateral fusiform, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and amygdala, regions included in the "social brain", while those preferring object content included parahippocampal gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, and caudate, regions involved in object processing. These results suggest that semantic content affects higher-level linguistic processing and should be taken into account in future studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Phosphene-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation of occipital but not parietal cortex suppresses stimulus visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Evelina; Mazzi, Chiara; Savazzi, Silvia; Beck, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the occipital lobe approximately 100 ms after the onset of a stimulus decreases its visibility if it appears in the location of the phosphene. Because phosphenes can also be elicited by stimulation of the parietal regions, we asked if the same procedure that is used to reduce visibility of stimuli with occipital TMS will lead to decreased stimulus visibility when TMS is applied to parietal regions. TMS was randomly applied at 0 to 130 ms after the onset of the stimulus (SOA) in steps of 10 ms in occipital and parietal regions. Participants responded to the orientation of the line stimulus and rated its visibility. We replicate previous reports of phosphenes from both occipital and parietal TMS. As previously reported, we also observed visual suppression around the classical 100 ms window both in the objective line orientation and subjective visibility responses with occipital TMS. Parietal stimulation, on the other hand, did not consistently reduce stimulus visibility in any time window. PMID:24584900

  19. Abstract Representations of Object-Directed Action in the Left Inferior Parietal Lobule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanjing; Garcea, Frank E; Jacobs, Robert A; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2018-06-01

    Prior neuroimaging and neuropsychological research indicates that the left inferior parietal lobule in the human brain is a critical substrate for representing object manipulation knowledge. In the present functional MRI study we used multivoxel pattern analyses to test whether action similarity among objects can be decoded in the inferior parietal lobule independent of the task applied to objects (identification or pantomime) and stimulus format in which stimuli are presented (pictures or printed words). Participants pantomimed the use of objects, cued by printed words, or identified pictures of objects. Classifiers were trained and tested across task (e.g., training data: pantomime; testing data: identification), stimulus format (e.g., training data: word format; testing format: picture) and specific objects (e.g., training data: scissors vs. corkscrew; testing data: pliers vs. screwdriver). The only brain region in which action relations among objects could be decoded across task, stimulus format and objects was the inferior parietal lobule. By contrast, medial aspects of the ventral surface of the left temporal lobe represented object function, albeit not at the same level of abstractness as actions in the inferior parietal lobule. These results suggest compulsory access to abstract action information in the inferior parietal lobe even when simply identifying objects.

  20. Spatial imagery relies on a sensory independent, though sensory sensitive, functional organization within the parietal cortex: a fMRI study of angle discrimination in sighted and congenitally blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, Daniela; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Bernardi, Giulio; Sani, Lorenzo; Gentili, Claudio; Vecchi, Tomaso; Pietrini, Pietro

    2015-02-01

    Although vision offers distinctive information to space representation, individuals who lack vision since birth often show perceptual and representational skills comparable to those found in sighted individuals. However, congenitally blind individuals may result in impaired spatial analysis, when engaging in 'visual' spatial features (e.g., perspective or angle representation) or complex spatial mental abilities. In the present study, we measured behavioral and brain responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging in sighted and congenitally blind individuals during spatial imagery based on a modified version of the mental clock task (e.g., angle discrimination) and a simple recognition control condition, as conveyed across distinct sensory modalities: visual (sighted individuals only), tactile and auditory. Blind individuals were significantly less accurate during the auditory task, but comparable-to-sighted during the tactile task. As expected, both groups showed common neural activations in intraparietal and superior parietal regions across visual and non-visual spatial perception and imagery conditions, indicating the more abstract, sensory independent functional organization of these cortical areas, a property that we named supramodality. At the same time, however, comparisons in brain responses and functional connectivity patterns across experimental conditions demonstrated also a functional lateralization, in a way that correlated with the distinct behavioral performance in blind and sighted individuals. Specifically, blind individuals relied more on right parietal regions, mainly in the tactile and less in the auditory spatial processing. In sighted, spatial representation across modalities relied more on left parietal regions. In conclusions, intraparietal and superior parietal regions subserve supramodal spatial representations in sighted and congenitally blind individuals. Differences in their recruitment across non-visual spatial processing in

  1. Structural plasticity in the dentate gyrus- revisiting a classic injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia V. Perederiy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The adult brain is in a continuous state of remodeling. This is nowhere more true than in the dentate gyrus, where competing forces such as neurodegeneration and neurogenesis dynamically modify neuronal connectivity, and can occur simultaneously. This plasticity of the adult nervous system is particularly important in the context of traumatic brain injury or deafferentation. In this review, we summarize a classic injury model, lesioning of the perforant path, which removes the main extrahippocampal input to the dentate gyrus. Early studies revealed that in response to deafferentation, axons of remaining fiber systems and dendrites of mature granule cells undergo lamina-specific changes, providing one of the first examples of structural plasticity in the adult brain. Given the increasing role of adult-generated new neurons in the function of the dentate gyrus, we also compare the response of newborn and mature granule cells following lesioning of the perforant path. These studies provide insights not only to plasticity in the dentate gyrus, but also to the response of neural circuits to brain injury.

  2. Antisense to the glucocorticoid receptor in hippocampal dentate gyrus reduces immobility in forced swim test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S.M.; de Kloet, E.R.; Buwalda, B; Bouman, S.D.; Bohus, B

    1996-01-01

    Immobility time of rats in the forced swim test was reduced after bilateral infusion of an 18-mer antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide targeted to the glucocorticoid receptor mRNA into the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Vehicle-, sense- and scrambled sequence-treated animals spent

  3. Neurons in the Fusiform Gyrus are Fewer and Smaller in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooten, Imke A. J.; Palmen, Saskia J. M. C.; von Cappeln, Patricia; Steinbusch, Harry W. M.; Korr, Hubert; Heinsen, Helmut; Hof, Patrick R.; van Engeland, Herman; Schmitz, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Abnormalities in face perception are a core feature of social disabilities in autism. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that patients with autism could perform face perception tasks. However, the fusiform gyrus (FG) and other cortical regions supporting face processing in controls are hypoactive in patients with autism.…

  4. Selective dentate gyrus disruption causes memory impairment at the early stage of experimental multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Vincent; Panatier, Aude; Hiba, Bassem; Ducourneau, Eva-Gunnel; Raffard, Gerard; Dubourdieu, Nadège; Maitre, Marlène; Lesté-Lasserre, Thierry; Brochet, Bruno; Dousset, Vincent; Desmedt, Aline; Oliet, Stéphane H; Tourdias, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Memory impairment is an early and disabling manifestation of multiple sclerosis whose anatomical and biological substrates are still poorly understood. We thus investigated whether memory impairment encountered at the early stage of the disease could be explained by a differential vulnerability of particular hippocampal subfields. By using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we identified that early memory impairment was associated with selective alteration of the dentate gyrus as pinpointed in vivo with diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI). Neuromorphometric analyses and electrophysiological recordings confirmed dendritic degeneration, alteration in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and impaired long-term synaptic potentiation selectively in the dentate gyrus, but not in CA1, together with a more severe pattern of microglial activation in this subfield. Systemic injections of the microglial inhibitor minocycline prevented DTI, morphological, electrophysiological and behavioral impairments in EAE-mice. Furthermore, daily infusions of minocycline specifically within the dentate gyrus were sufficient to prevent memory impairment in EAE-mice while infusions of minocycline within CA1 were inefficient. We conclude that early memory impairment in EAE is due to a selective disruption of the dentate gyrus associated with microglia activation. These results open new pathophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic perspectives for memory impairment in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Amygdala and fusiform gyrus temporal dynamics: Responses to negative facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauch Scott L

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amygdala habituates in response to repeated human facial expressions; however, it is unclear whether this brain region habituates to schematic faces (i.e., simple line drawings or caricatures of faces. Using an fMRI block design, 16 healthy participants passively viewed repeated presentations of schematic and human neutral and negative facial expressions. Percent signal changes within anatomic regions-of-interest (amygdala and fusiform gyrus were calculated to examine the temporal dynamics of neural response and any response differences based on face type. Results The amygdala and fusiform gyrus had a within-run "U" response pattern of activity to facial expression blocks. The initial block within each run elicited the greatest activation (relative to baseline and the final block elicited greater activation than the preceding block. No significant differences between schematic and human faces were detected in the amygdala or fusiform gyrus. Conclusion The "U" pattern of response in the amygdala and fusiform gyrus to facial expressions suggests an initial orienting, habituation, and activation recovery in these regions. Furthermore, this study is the first to directly compare brain responses to schematic and human facial expressions, and the similarity in brain responses suggest that schematic faces may be useful in studying amygdala activation.

  6. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity Triggers Anterior Insula Response to Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Keysers, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The observation of movies of facial expressions of others has been shown to recruit similar areas involved in experiencing one's own emotions: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (IFO). The Causal link bet between activity in these 2 regions,

  7. TMS over the Left Angular Gyrus Impairs the Ability to Discriminate Left from Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Bayer, Ulrike; Ellison, Amanda; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms of the ability to discriminate left from right are hardly explored. Clinical studies from patients with impairments of left-right discrimination (LRD) and neuroimaging data suggest that the left angular gyrus is particularly involved in LRD. Moreover, it is argued that the often reported sex…

  8. The posterior parahippocampal gyrus is preferentially affected in age-related memory decline.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgmans, S.; van Boxtel, M.P.J.; van den Berg, K.E.M.; Gronenschild, E.H.B.M.; Jacobs, H.I.L.; Jolles, J.; Uylings, H.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Atrophy in the medial temporal lobe is generally considered to be highly associated with age-related memory decline. Volume loss in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex has extensively been investigated, but the posterior parts of the parahippocampal gyrus have received little attention. The

  9. BOLD Response to Motion Verbs in Left Posterior Middle Temporal Gyrus during Story Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Nielsen, Andreas Hojlund; Vuust, Peter; Dohn, Anders; Roepstorff, Andreas; Lund, Torben Ellegaard

    2011-01-01

    A primary focus within neuroimaging research on language comprehension is on the distribution of semantic knowledge in the brain. Studies have shown that the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LPMT), a region just anterior to area MT/V5, is important for the processing of complex action knowledge. It has also been found that motion verbs cause…

  10. Ex vivo study of dentate gyrus neurogenesis in human pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, M; Fernández, M; Del Vecchio, G; Lizzo, G; Marucci, G; Giulioni, M; Pozzati, E; Antonelli, T; Lanzoni, G; Bagnara, G P; Giardino, L; Calzà, L

    2010-10-01

    Neurogenesis in adult humans occurs in at least two areas of the brain, the subventricular zone of the telencephalon and the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampal formation. We studied dentate gyrus subgranular layer neurogenesis in patients subjected to tailored antero-mesial temporal resection including amygdalohippocampectomy due to pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using the in vitro neurosphere assay. Sixteen patients were enrolled in the study; mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) was present in eight patients. Neurogenesis was investigated by ex vivo neurosphere expansion in the presence of mitogens (epidermal growth factor + basic fibroblast growth factor) and spontaneous differentiation after mitogen withdrawal. Growth factor synthesis was investigated by qRT-PCR in neurospheres. We demonstrate that in vitro proliferation of cells derived from dentate gyrus of TLE patients is dependent on disease duration. Moreover, the presence of MTS impairs proliferation. As long as in vitro proliferation occurs, neurogenesis is maintained, and cells expressing a mature neurone phenotype (TuJ1, MAP2, GAD) are spontaneously formed after mitogen withdrawal. Finally, formed neurospheres express mRNAs encoding for growth (vascular endothelial growth factor) as well as neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor). We demonstrated that residual neurogenesis in the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus in TLE is dependent on diseases duration and absent in MTS. © 2010 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2010 British Neuropathological Society.

  11. The posterior parahippocampal gyrus is preferentially affected in age-related memory decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgmans, S.; van Boxtel, M.P.J.; van den Berg, K.E.M.; Gronenschild, E.H.; Jacobs, H.I.L.; Jolles, J.; Uylings, H.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Atrophy in the medial temporal lobe is generally considered to be highly associated with age-related memory decline. Volume loss in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex has extensively been investigated, but the posterior parts of the parahippocampal gyrus have received little attention. The

  12. Apraxia of speech associated with an infarct in the precentral gyrus of the insula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M.; Komori, T.; Isozaki, E.; Hirai, S. [Department of Neurology, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, K. [Department of Neuropsychology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-05-01

    It has been postulated that the precentral gyrus in the left insula is responsible for co-ordination of speech. We report a paitent with this disturbance who showed an acute infarct limited to this region. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 refs.

  13. a-Band Oscillations in Intracellular Membrane Potentials of Dentate Gyrus Neurons in Awake Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross W.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus and dentate gyrus play critical roles in processing declarative memories and spatial information. Dentate granule cells, the first relay in the trisynaptic circuit through the hippocampus, exhibit low spontaneous firing rates even during locomotion. Using intracellular recordings from dentate neurons in awake mice operating a…

  14. A Role for the Left Angular Gyrus in Episodic Simulation and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Preston P; Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-08-23

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) and episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and left angular gyrus, among other regions. Because fMRI data are correlational, it is unknown whether activity increases in core network regions are critical for episodic simulation and episodic memory. In the current study, we used MRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess whether temporary disruption of the left angular gyrus would impair both episodic simulation and memory (16 participants, 10 females). Relative to TMS to a control site (vertex), disruption of the left angular gyrus significantly reduced the number of internal (i.e., episodic) details produced during the simulation and memory tasks, with a concomitant increase in external detail production (i.e., semantic, repetitive, or off-topic information), reflected by a significant detail by TMS site interaction. Difficulty in the simulation and memory tasks also increased after TMS to the left angular gyrus relative to the vertex. In contrast, performance in a nonepisodic control task did not differ statistically as a function of TMS site (i.e., number of free associates produced or difficulty in performing the free associate task). Together, these results are the first to demonstrate that the left angular gyrus is critical for both episodic simulation and episodic memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans have the ability to imagine future episodes (i.e., episodic simulation) and remember episodes from the past (i.e., episodic memory). A wealth of neuroimaging studies have revealed that these abilities are associated with enhanced activity in a core network of neural regions, including the hippocampus, medial prefrontal

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation over the parietal cortex alters bias in item and source memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Denise; Chua, Elizabeth F

    2016-10-01

    Neuroimaging data have shown that activity in the lateral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) correlates with item recognition and source recollection, but there is considerable debate about its specific contributions. Performance on both item and source memory tasks were compared between participants who were given bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the parietal cortex to those given prefrontal or sham tDCS. The parietal tDCS group, but not the prefrontal group, showed decreased false recognition, and less bias in item and source discrimination tasks compared to sham stimulation. These results are consistent with a causal role of the PPC in item and source memory retrieval, likely based on attentional and decision-making biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Unique and shared roles of the posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cognitive functions

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    Fumi eKatsuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex are two parts of a broader brain network involved in the control of cognitive functions such as working memory, spatial attention, and decision making. The two areas share many functional properties and exhibit similar patterns of activation during the execution of mental operations. However, neurophysiological experiments in non-human primates have also documented subtle differences, revealing functional specialization within the fronto-parietal network. These differences include the ability of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to influence memory performance, attention allocation and motor responses to a greater extent, and to resist interference by distracting stimuli. In recent years, distinct cellular and anatomical differences have been identified, offering insights into how functional specialization is achieved. This article reviews the common functions and functional differences between the dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, and their underlying mechanisms.

  17. Modulation of fronto-parietal connections during the rubber hand illusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Christensen, Mark Schram

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that parieto-frontal connections play a role in adjusting body ownership during the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI). Using a motor version of the rubber hand illusion paradigm, we applied single-site and dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate...... and during three RHI conditions: a) agency and ownership, b) agency but no ownership and c) neither agency nor ownership. Parietal-motor communication differed among experimental conditions. The induction of action ownership was associated with an inhibitory parietal-to-motor connectivity, which...... cortico-spinal and parietal-frontal connectivity during perceived rubber hand ownership. Healthy volunteers received a conditioning TMS pulse over left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) and a test TMS pulse over left primary motor cortex (M1). Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) were recorded at rest...

  18. Induction of motor associative plasticity in the posterior parietal cortex-primary motor network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chao, Chi-Chao; Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Paine, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    There is anatomical and functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex (M1) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that plays a role in sensorimotor integration. In this study, we applied corticocortical paired-associative stimuli to ipsilateral PPC and M1 (parietal ccPAS) in healthy right......-handed subjects to test if this procedure could modulate M1 excitability and PPC–M1 connectivity. One hundred and eighty paired transcranial magnetic stimuli to the PPC and M1 at an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 8 ms were delivered at 0.2 Hz. We found that parietal ccPAS in the left hemisphere increased...... the excitability of conditioned left M1 assessed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and the input–output curve. Motor behavior assessed by the Purdue pegboard task was unchanged compared with controls. At baseline, conditioning stimuli over the left PPC potentiated MEPs from left M1 when ISI was 8 ms...

  19. Fractionation of parietal function in bistable perception probed with concurrent TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Georg; Chang, Acer; Schwartzman, David; Rae, Charlotte L; Iriye, Heather; Seth, Anil K; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-08-16

    When visual input has conflicting interpretations, conscious perception can alternate spontaneously between these possible interpretations. This is called bistable perception. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of two right parietal areas in resolving perceptual ambiguity (ant-SPLr and post-SPLr). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies that selectively interfered with the normal function of these regions suggest that they play opposing roles in this type of perceptual switch. In the present study, we investigated this fractionation of parietal function by use of combined TMS with electroencephalography (EEG). Specifically, while participants viewed either a bistable stimulus, a replay stimulus, or resting-state fixation, we applied single pulse TMS to either location independently while simultaneously recording EEG. Combined with participant's individual structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, this dataset allows for complex analyses of the effect of TMS on neural time series data, which may further elucidate the causal role of the parietal cortex in ambiguous perception.

  20. Parietal theta burst TMS: Functional fractionation observed during bistable perception not evident in attention tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Georg; Kanai, Ryota; Brascamp, Jan W

    2016-02-01

    When visual input is ambiguous, perception spontaneously alternates between interpretations: bistable perception. Studies have identified two distinct sites near the right intraparietal sulcus where inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) affects the frequency of occurrence of these alternations, but strikingly with opposite directions of effect for the two sites. Lesion and TMS studies on spatial and sustained attention have also indicated a parcellation of right parietal cortex, into areas serving distinct attentional functions. We used the exact TMS procedure previously employed to affect bistable perception, yet measured its effect on spatial and sustained attention tasks. Although there was a trend for TMS to affect performance, trends were consistently similar for both parietal sites, with no indication of opposite effects. We interpret this as signifying that the previously observed parietal fractionation of function regarding the perception of ambiguous stimuli is not due to TMS-induced modification of spatial or sustained attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early natural stimulation through environmental enrichment accelerates neuronal development in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus is the primary afferent into the hippocampal formation, with important functions in learning and memory. Granule cells, the principle neuronal type in the dentate gyrus, are mostly formed postnatally, in a process that continues into adulthood. External stimuli, including environmental enrichment, voluntary exercise and learning, have been shown to significantly accelerate the generation and maturation of dentate granule cells in adult rodents. Whether, and to what extent, such environmental stimuli regulate the development and maturation of dentate granule cells during early postnatal development is largely unknown. Furthermore, whether natural stimuli affect the synaptic properties of granule cells had been investigated neither in newborn neurons of the adult nor during early development. To examine the effect of natural sensory stimulation on the dentate gyrus, we reared newborn mice in an enriched environment (EE. Using immunohistochemistry, we showed that dentate granule cells from EE-reared mice exhibited earlier morphological maturation, manifested as faster peaking of doublecortin expression and elevated expression of mature neuronal markers (including NeuN, calbindin and MAP2 at the end of the second postnatal week. Also at the end of the second postnatal week, we found increased density of dendritic spines across the entire dentate gyrus, together with elevated levels of postsynaptic scaffold (post-synaptic density 95 and receptor proteins (GluR2 and GABA(ARγ2 of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Furthermore, dentate granule cells of P14 EE-reared mice had lower input resistances and increased glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs. Together, our results demonstrate that EE-rearing promotes morphological and electrophysiological maturation of dentate granule cells, underscoring the importance of natural environmental stimulation on development of the dentate gyrus.

  2. Transcortical selective amygdalohippocampectomy technique through the middle temporal gyrus revisited: An anatomical study laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Baran; da Silva Centeno, Ricardo; Chaddad-Neto, Feres; da Costa, Marcos Devanir Silva; Goiri, Marcelo Augusto Acosta; Karadag, Ali; Tugcu, Bekir; Ovalioglu, Talat Cem; Tanriover, Necmettin; Kaya, Serdar; Yagmurlu, Kaan; Grande, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) have been used for surgical treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined the comprehensive white matter tract anatomy of the temporal lobe to gain an insight into the trans-middle temporal gyrus, a lateral approach which has been commonly used. The transmiddle temporal gyrus approach was performed in a stepwise manner on cadaveric human heads to examine the traversing white matter pathways through it and the structures located in the temporal horn. We reviewed the literature to compare the trans-middle temporal gyrus approach with other SelAH techniques based on surgical outcomes. There does not appear to be a significant difference in seizure outcome between SelAH and ATL. However, the SelAH provides a better neuropsychological outcomes than the ATL in selected patients. Each SelAH approach has individual advantages and disadvantages. Based on our anatomical study, in the transcortical amygdalohippocampectomy technique through the middle temporal gyrus the white matter pathways to be encountered. In the temporal horn, the collateral eminence, hippocampus, lateral ventricular sulcus, choroidal fissure, inferior choroidal point, choroid plexus, fimbria of the fornix, and amygdala are exposed. The subpial dissection is performed along the lateral ventricular sulcus from the collateral eminence on lateral side and from the choroidal fissure on medial side by microdissector for en bloc resection of the hippocampus proper. The trans-middle temporal gyrus approach is commonly used in treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients. A better anatomical and functional understanding of the structures of the temporal lobe is crucial for safer and more accurate surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Counteracting fatigue in multiple sclerosis with right parietal anodal transcranial direct current stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hanken

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time and errors with prolonged time-on-task. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. Methods: In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, anodal tDCS (1,5mA was delivered to the right parietal cortex or the right frontal cortex of 52 healthy participants during the first 20min of a 40min lasting visual vigilance task. Study II, also a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, investigated the effect of anodal tDCS (1.5mA over the right parietal cortex in 46 MS patients experiencing cognitive fatigue. TDCS was delivered for 20min before patients performed a 20min lasting visual vigilance task.Results: Study I showed that right parietal stimulation, but not right frontal stimulation, counteracts the increase in reaction time associated with vigilance decrement. Hence, only right parietal stimulation was applied to the MS patients in study II. Stimulation had a significant effect on vigilance decrement in mildly to moderately cognitively fatigued MS patients. Vigilance testing significantly increased the feeling of fatigue independent of stimulation.Conclusions: Anodal tDCS over the right parietal cortex can counteract the increase in reaction times during vigilance performance but not the increase in subjective fatigue. This finding is compatible with our model of fatigue in MS, suggesting a dissociation between the feeling and the behavioral characteristics of fatigue.

  4. Counteracting Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis with Right Parietal Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, Katrin; Bosse, Mona; Möhrke, Kim; Eling, Paul; Kastrup, Andreas; Antal, Andrea; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time (RT) and errors with prolonged time-on-task. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, anodal tDCS (1.5 mA) was delivered to the right parietal cortex or the right frontal cortex of 52 healthy participants during the first 20 min of a 40-min lasting visual vigilance task. Study II, also a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, investigated the effect of anodal tDCS (1.5 mA) over the right parietal cortex in 46 MS patients experiencing cognitive fatigue. tDCS was delivered for 20 min before patients performed a 20-min lasting visual vigilance task. Study I showed that right parietal stimulation, but not right frontal stimulation, counteracts the increase in RT associated with vigilance decrement. Hence, only right parietal stimulation was applied to the MS patients in study II. Stimulation had a significant effect on vigilance decrement in mildly to moderately cognitively fatigued MS patients. Vigilance testing significantly increased the feeling of fatigue independent of stimulation. Anodal tDCS over the right parietal cortex can counteract the increase in RTs during vigilance performance, but not the increase in subjective fatigue. This finding is compatible with our model of fatigue in MS, suggesting a dissociation between the feeling and the behavioral characteristics of fatigue.

  5. Optimized gamma synchronization enhances functional binding of fronto-parietal cortices in mathematically gifted adolescents during deductive reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As enhanced fronto-parietal network has been suggested to support reasoning ability of math-gifted adolescents, the main goal of this EEG source analysis is to investigate the temporal binding of the gamma-band (30-60Hz synchronization between frontal and parietal cortices in adolescents with exceptional mathematical ability, including the functional connectivity of gamma neurocognitive network, the temporal dynamics of fronto-parietal network (phase-locking durations and network lability in time domain, and the self-organized criticality of synchronizing oscillation. Compared with the average-ability subjects, the math-gifted adolescents show a highly integrated fronto-parietal network due to distant gamma phase-locking oscillations, which is indicated by lower modularity of the global network topology, more connector bridges between the frontal and parietal cortices and less connector hubs in the sensorimotor cortex. The time-domain analysis finds that, while maintaining more stable phase dynamics of the fronto-parietal coupling, the math-gifted adolescents are characterized by more extensive fronto-parietal connection reconfiguration. The results from sample fitting in the power-law model further find that the phase-locking durations in the math-gifted brain abides by a wider interval of the power-law distribution. This phase-lock distribution mechanism could represent a relatively optimized pattern for the functional binding of frontal-parietal network, which underlies stable fronto-parietal connectivity and increases flexibility of timely network reconfiguration.

  6. The contribution of the human posterior parietal cortex to episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestieri, Carlo; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2017-02-17

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is traditionally associated with attention, perceptual decision making and sensorimotor transformations, but more recent human neuroimaging studies support an additional role in episodic memory retrieval. In this Opinion article, we present a functional-anatomical model of the involvement of the PPC in memory retrieval. Parietal regions involved in perceptual attention and episodic memory are largely segregated and often show a push-pull relationship, potentially mediated by prefrontal regions. Moreover, different PPC regions carry out specific functions during retrieval - for example, representing retrieved information, recoding this information based on task demands, or accumulating evidence for memory decisions.

  7. [Amplitude Changes of Low Frequency Fluctuation in Brain Spontaneous Nervous Activities Induced by Needling at Hand Taiyin Lung Channel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You-long; Su, Cheng-guo; Liu, Shou-fang; Jin, Xiang-yu; Duan, Yan-li; Chen, Xiao-yan; Zhao, Shu-hua; Wang, Quan-liang; Dang, Chang-lin

    2016-05-01

    To observe amplitude changes of low frequency fluctuation in brain spontaneous nervous activities induced by needling at Hand Taiyin Lung Channel, and to preliminarily explore the possible brain function network of Hand Taiyin Lung Channel. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 16 healthy volunteers underwent resting-state scanning (R1) and scanning with retained acupuncture at Hand Taiyin Lung Channel (acupuncture, AP). Data of fMRI collected were statistically calculated using amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF). Under R1 significantly enhanced ALFF occurred in right precuneus, left inferior parietal lobule, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus. Under AP significantly enhanced ALFF occurred in right precuneus, bilateral superior frontal gyrus, cerebellum, bilateral middle frontal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, and so on. Compared with R1, needing at Hand Taiyin Lung Channel could significantly enhance ALFF in right gyrus subcallosum and right inferior frontal gyrus. Significant decreased ALFF appeared in right postcentral gyrus, left precuneus, left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and so on. Needing at Hand Taiyin Lung Channel could significantly change fixed activities of cerebral cortex, especially in right subcallosal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, and so on.

  8. Context-dependent lexical ambiguity resolution: MEG evidence for the time-course of activity in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, Giovanna; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Cornelissen, Piers; Gennari, Silvia P

    An MEG study investigated the role of context in semantic interpretation by examining the comprehension of ambiguous words in contexts leading to different interpretations. We compared high-ambiguity words in minimally different contexts (to bowl, the bowl) to low-ambiguity counterparts (the tray, to flog). Whole brain beamforming revealed the engagement of left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (LPMTG). Points of interest analyses showed that both these sites showed a stronger response to verb-contexts by 200 ms post-stimulus and displayed overlapping ambiguity effects that were sustained from 300 ms onwards. The effect of context was stronger for high-ambiguity words than for low-ambiguity words at several different time points, including within the first 100 ms post-stimulus. Unlike LIFG, LPMTG also showed stronger responses to verb than noun contexts in low-ambiguity trials. We argue that different functional roles previously attributed to LIFG and LPMTG are in fact played out at different periods during processing. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. TMS interferes with lexical-semantic retrieval in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus: Evidence from cyclical picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    We used TMS to investigate the contribution of left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) to lexical/semantic selection and retrieval processes using a cyclical naming paradigm. Participants named pictures that were presented repeatedly across six cycles, either in semantically related or unrelated sets. Previous research has suggested that selection demands are higher for related sets, especially after repetition, since participants experience competition from the activation of semantic neighbours. In contrast, retrieval demands are greater for unrelated sets in the absence of semantic priming, particularly on the first cycle when the target names have not been previously activated. Therefore, this paradigm can reveal independent effects of (i) retrieval demands (i.e., the ease of accessing picture names from visual input) and (ii) selection/competition. We found that rTMS to LIFG and pMTG produced similar behavioural effects: stimulation of both sites disrupted picture naming performance on early cycles (when participants were less practised at producing the picture names) and for semantically-related sets (when there was the potential for increased competition and yet also facilitation from semantic neighbours). There were no effects of TMS when either retrieval or selection requirements were maximal on their own. The data therefore support the view that both LIFG and pMTG contribute to picture name retrieval, with both sites playing a critical role in mediating the semantic facilitation of naming when retrieval demands are high. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Time course of gamma-band oscillation associated with face processing in the inferior occipital gyrus and fusiform gyrus: A combined fMRI and MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2017-04-01

    Debate continues over whether the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) or the fusiform gyrus (FG) represents the first stage of face processing and what role these brain regions play. We investigated this issue by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in normal adults. Participants passively observed upright and inverted faces and houses. First, we identified the IOG and FG as face-specific regions using fMRI. We applied beamforming source reconstruction and time-frequency analysis to MEG source signals to reveal the time course of gamma-band activations in these regions. The results revealed that the right IOG showed higher gamma-band activation in response to upright faces than to upright houses at 100 ms from the stimulus onset. Subsequently, the right FG showed greater gamma-band response to upright faces versus upright houses at around 170 ms. The gamma-band activation in the right IOG and right FG was larger in response to inverted faces than to upright faces at the later time window. These results suggest that (1) the gamma-band activities occurs rapidly first in the IOG and next in the FG and (2) the gamma-band activity in the right IOG at later time stages is involved in configuration processing for faces. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2067-2079, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Heritability analysis of surface-based cortical thickness estimation on a large twin cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kaikai; Doré, Vincent; Rose, Stephen; Fripp, Jurgen; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Thompson, Paul M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Salvado, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the heritability of cerebral cortex, based on measurements of grey matter (GM) thickness derived from structural MR images (sMRI). With data acquired from a large twin cohort (328 subjects), an automated method was used to estimate the cortical thickness, and EM-ICP surface registration algorithm was used to establish the correspondence of cortex across the population. An ACE model was then employed to compute the heritability of cortical thickness. Heritable cortical thickness measures various cortical regions, especially in frontal and parietal lobes, such as bilateral postcentral gyri, superior occipital gyri, superior parietal gyri, precuneus, the orbital part of the right frontal gyrus, right medial superior frontal gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, right paracentral lobule, left precentral gyrus, and left dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus.

  12. Temporo-Parietal Junction Activity in Theory-of-Mind Tasks: Falseness, Beliefs, or Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichhorn, Markus; Perner, Josef; Weiss, Benjamin; Kronbichler, Martin; Staffen, Wolfgang; Ladurner, Gunther

    2009-01-01

    By combining the false belief (FB) and photo (PH) vignettes to identify theory-of-mind areas with the false sign (FS) vignettes, we re-establish the functional asymmetry between the left and right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). The right TPJ (TPJ-R) is specially sensitive to processing belief information, whereas the left TPJ (TPJ-L) is equally…

  13. Interlaminar differences in the pyramidal cell phenotype in parietal cortex of an Indian bat, cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, U C; Pathak, S V

    2010-10-30

    To study interlaminar phenotypic variations in the pyramidal neurons of parietal isocortex in bat (Cynopterus sphinx), Golgi and Nissl methods have been employed. The parietal isocortex is relatively thin in the bat as compared to prototheria with layer III, V and VI accounting for more than two—thirds of total cortical thickness. Thick cell free layer I and thinnest accentuated layer II are quite in connotation with other chiropterids. Poor demarcation of layer III/IV in the present study is also in connotation with primitive eutherian mammal (i.e. prototherian) and other chiropterids. Most of the pyramidal cells in the different layers of the parietal isocortex are of typical type as seen in other eutherians but differ significantly in terms of soma shape and size, extent of dendritic arbor, diameter of dendrites and spine density. Percentage of pyramidal neurons, diameter of apical dendrite and spine density on apical dendrite appear to follow an increasing trend from primitive to advanced mammals; but extent of dendrites are probably governed by the specific life patterns of these mammals. It is thus concluded that 'typical' pyramidal neurons in parietal isocortex are similar in therians but different from those in prototherians. It is possible that these cells might have arisen among early eutherians after divergence from prototherian stock.

  14. Parietal Lobe Volume Deficits in Adolescents with Schizophrenia and Adolescents with Cannabis Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumra, Sanjiv; Robinson, Paul; Tambyraja, Rabindra; Jensen, Daniel; Schimunek, Caroline; Houri, Alaa; Reis, Tiffany; Lim, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), the earliest structural brain volumetric abnormalities appear in the parietal cortices. Early exposure to cannabis may represent an environmental risk factor for developing schizophrenia. This study characterized cerebral cortical gray matter structure in adolescents in regions of interest (ROIs) that…

  15. Spatial summation in macaque parietal area 7a follows a winner-take-all rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Klink, P. Christiaan; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J.M.; Lankheet, Martin J.M.; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton

    2011-01-01

    While neurons in posterior parietal cortex have been found to signal the presence of a salient stimulus among multiple items in a display, spatial summation within their receptive field in the absence of an attentional bias has never been investigated. This information, however, is indispensable

  16. Autoimmune gastritis and parietal cell reactivity in two children with abnormal intestinal permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenwood, Deanne L. V.; Crock, Patricia; Braye, Stephen; Davidson, Patricia; Sentry, John W.

    Autoimmune gastritis is characterised by lymphocytic infiltration of the gastric submucosa, with loss of parietal and chief cells and achlorhydria. Often, gastritis is expressed clinically as cobalamin deficiency with megaloblastic anaemia, which is generally described as a disease of the elderly.

  17. The Role of the Parietal Lobe in Visual Extinction Studied with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battelli, Lorella; Alvarez, George A.; Carlson, Thomas; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    Interhemispheric competition between homologous areas in the human brain is believed to be involved in a wide variety of human behaviors from motor activity to visual perception and particularly attention. For example, patients with lesions in the posterior parietal cortex are unable to selectively track objects in the contralesional side of…

  18. An atretic parietal cephalocele associated with multiple intracranial and eye anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatci, I.; Yelgec, S.; Aydin, K.; Akalan, N.

    1998-01-01

    We present the cranial MRI findings in a 4-month-old girl with an atretic parietal cephalocele associated with multiple cerebral and ocular anomalies including lobar holoprosencephaly, a Dandy-Walker malformation, agenesis of the corpus callosum, grey-matter heterotopia, extra-axial cysts in various locations, bilateral microphthalmia and a retroocular cyst. (orig.)

  19. Attentional Demands Predict Short-Term Memory Load Response in Posterior Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Hagit; Emmanouil, Tatiana-Aloi; McMains, Stephanie A.; Kastner, Sabine; Treisman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Limits to the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) indicate a maximum storage of only 3 or 4 items. Recently, it has been suggested that activity in a specific part of the brain, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), is correlated with behavioral estimates of VSTM capacity and might reflect a capacity-limited store. In three experiments that…

  20. Primary cultures of glomerular parietal epithelial cells or podocytes with proven origin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabgani, N.; Grigoleit, T.; Schulte, K.; Sechi, A.; Sauer-Lehnen, S.; Tag, C.; Boor, P.; Kuppe, C.; Warsow, G.; Schordan, S.; Mostertz, J.; Chilukoti, R.K.; Homuth, G.; Endlich, N.; Tacke, F.; Weiskirchen, R.; Fuellen, G.; Endlich, K.; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) as well as in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In this study, transgenic mouse lines were used to isolate pure, genetically tagged primary cultures of PECs or

  1. Gastrin receptor characterization: affinity cross-linking of the gastrin receptor on canine gastric parietal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, M.; Park, J.; Yamada, T.

    1987-01-01

    The authors applied affinity cross-linking methods to label the gastrin receptor on isolated canine gastric parietal cells in order to elucidate the nature of its chemical structure. 125 I-labeled Leu 15 -gastrin and 125 I-labeled gastrin/sub 2-17/ bound to intact parietal cells and their membranes with equal affinity, and half-maximal inhibition of binding was obtained at an incubation concentration of 3.2 x 10 -10 M unlabeled gastrin. 125 I-gastrin/sub 2-17/ was cross-linked to plasma membranes or intact parietal cells by incubation in disuccinimidyl suberate. The membrane pellets were solubilized with or without dithiothreitol and applied to electrophoresis on 7.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. Autoradiograms revealed a band of labeling at M/sub r/ 76,000 and labeling of this band was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by addition of unlabeled gastrin to the incubation mixture. Dithiothreitol in concentrations as high as 100 mM did not later the electrophoretic mobility of the labeled band. After taking into account the molecular weight of 125 I-gastrin/sub 2-17/, the results suggest that the gastrin receptor on parietal cells is a single protein of M/sub r/ 74,000 without disulfide-linked subunits

  2. Lateralization of Egocentric and Allocentric Spatial Processing after Parietal Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Conson, Massimiliano; Trojano, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to verify whether left and right parietal brain lesions may selectively impair egocentric and allocentric processing of spatial information in near/far spaces. Two Right-Brain-Damaged (RBD), 2 Left-Brain-Damaged (LBD) patients (not affected by neglect or language disturbances) and eight normal controls were submitted…

  3. Tracing the origin of glomerular extracapillary lesions from parietal epithelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.; Uhlig, S.; Fuss, A.; Mooren, F.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Floege, J.; Moeller, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Cellular lesions form in Bowman's space in both crescentic glomerulonephritis and collapsing glomerulopathy. The pathomechanism and origin of the proliferating cells in these lesions are unknown. In this study, we examined proliferating cells by lineage tracing of either podocytes or parietal

  4. Characterization of visual percepts evoked by noninvasive stimulation of the human posterior parietal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Fried

    Full Text Available Phosphenes are commonly evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to study the functional organization, connectivity, and excitability of the human visual brain. For years, phosphenes have been documented only from stimulating early visual areas (V1-V3 and a handful of specialized visual regions (V4, V5/MT+ in occipital cortex. Recently, phosphenes were reported after applying TMS to a region of posterior parietal cortex involved in the top-down modulation of visuo-spatial processing. In the present study, we systematically characterized parietal phosphenes to determine if they are generated directly by local mechanisms or emerge through indirect activation of other visual areas. Using technology developed in-house to record the subjective features of phosphenes, we found no systematic differences in the size, shape, location, or frame-of-reference of parietal phosphenes when compared to their occipital counterparts. In a second experiment, discrete deactivation by 1 Hz repetitive TMS yielded a double dissociation: phosphene thresholds increased at the deactivated site without producing a corresponding change at the non-deactivated location. Overall, the commonalities of parietal and occipital phosphenes, and our ability to independently modulate their excitability thresholds, lead us to conclude that they share a common neural basis that is separate from either of the stimulated regions.

  5. The role of parietal cortex in the formation of colour and motion based concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel William Cheadle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Imaging evidence shows that separate subdivisions of parietal cortex, in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS, are engaged when stimuli are grouped according to colour and to motion (Zeki and Stutters 2013. Since grouping is an essential step in the formation of concepts, we wanted to learn whether parietal cortex is also engaged in the formation of concepts according to these two attributes. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and choosing the recognition of concept-based colour or motion stimuli as our paradigm, we found that there was strong concept-related activity in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a region whose homologue in the macaque monkey is known to receive direct but segregated anatomical inputs from V4 and V5. Parietal activity related to colour concepts was juxtaposed but did not overlap with activity related to motion concepts, thus emphasizing the continuation of the segregation of colour and motion into the conceptual system. Concurrent retinotopic mapping experiments showed that within the parietal cortex, concept-related activity increases within later stage IPS areas.

  6. The role of frontal and parietal brain areas in bistable perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen, T.; Brascamp, J.; Pearson, J.; van Ee, R.; Blake, R.

    2011-01-01

    When sensory input allows for multiple, competing perceptual interpretations, observers' perception can fluctuate over time, which is called bistable perception. Imaging studies in humans have revealed transient responses in a right-lateralized network in the frontal-parietal cortex (rFPC) around

  7. The Effects of Maternal Hyperthyroidism on Histologic Changes in Parietal Lobe in Rat Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Mirsafi; Gholamreza Kaka; Mahnaz Azarnia

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal hyperthyroidism causes developmental defects on the nervous system of fetuses. Objectives The present study was designed to study the effects of maternal hyperthyroidism on the development of the parietal lobe in the brain of rat embryos. Methods In this experimental study, thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. The control group rec...

  8. Proliferating cells in HIV and pamidronate-associated collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis are parietal epithelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, H.B.P.M.; Weening, J.J.; Smeets, B.; Verrijp, K.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Assmann, K.K.; Steenbergen, E.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS) is characterized by hyperplasia of glomerular epithelial cells. In a mouse model of FSGS and in a patient with recurrent idiopathic FSGS, we identified the proliferating cells as parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In the present study, we have

  9. Proliferating cells in HIV and pamidronate-associated collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis are parietal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, H. B. P. M.; Weening, J. J.; Smeets, B.; Verrijp, K. C. N.; van Kuppevelt, T. H.; Assmann, K. K. J. M.; Steenbergen, E. J.; Wetzels, J. F. M.

    2006-01-01

    Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS) is characterized by hyperplasia of glomerular epithelial cells. In a mouse model of FSGS and in a patient with recurrent idiopathic FSGS, we identified the proliferating cells as parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In the present study, we have

  10. Differential Recruitment of Parietal Cortex during Spatial and Non-spatial Reach Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Michel Bernier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The planning of goal-directed arm reaching movements is associated with activity in the dorsal parieto-frontal cortex, within which multiple regions subserve the integration of arm- and target-related sensory signals to encode a motor goal. Surprisingly, many of these regions show sustained activity during reach preparation even when target location is not specified, i.e., when a motor goal cannot be unambiguously formed. The functional role of these non-spatial preparatory signals remains unresolved. Here this process was investigated in humans by comparing reach preparatory activity in the presence or absence of information regarding upcoming target location. In order to isolate the processes specific to reaching and to control for visuospatial attentional factors, the reaching task was contrasted to a finger movement task. Functional MRI and electroencephalography (EEG were used to characterize the spatio-temporal pattern of reach-related activity in the parieto-frontal cortex. Reach planning with advance knowledge of target location induced robust blood oxygenated level dependent and EEG responses across parietal and premotor regions contralateral to the reaching arm. In contrast, reach preparation without knowledge of target location was associated with a significant BOLD response bilaterally in the parietal cortex. Furthermore, EEG alpha- and beta-band activity was restricted to parietal scalp sites, the magnitude of the latter being correlated with reach reaction times. These results suggest an intermediate stage of sensorimotor transformations in bilateral parietal cortex when target location is not specified.

  11. Functional Dysconnection of the Inferior Frontal Gyrus in Young People With Bipolar Disorder or at Genetic High Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gloria; Lord, Anton; Frankland, Andrew; Wright, Adam; Lau, Phoebe; Levy, Florence; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Mitchell, Philip B; Breakspear, Michael

    2017-04-15

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by a dysregulation of affect and impaired integration of emotion with cognition. These traits are also expressed in probands at high genetic risk of BD. The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is a key cortical hub in the circuits of emotion and cognitive control, and it has been frequently associated with BD. Here, we studied resting-state functional connectivity of the left IFG in participants with BD and in those at increased genetic risk. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging we compared 49 young BD participants, 71 individuals with at least one first-degree relative with BD (at-risk), and 80 control subjects. We performed between-group analyses of the functional connectivity of the left IFG and used graph theory to study its local functional network topology. We also used machine learning to study classification based solely on the functional connectivity of the IFG. In BD, the left IFG was functionally dysconnected from a network of regions, including bilateral insulae, ventrolateral prefrontal gyri, superior temporal gyri, and the putamen (p < .001). A small network incorporating neighboring insular regions and the anterior cingulate cortex showed weaker functional connectivity in at-risk than control participants (p < .006). These constellations of regions overlapped with frontolimbic regions that a machine learning classifier selected as predicting group membership with an accuracy significantly greater than chance. Functional dysconnectivity of the IFG from regions involved in emotional regulation may represent a trait abnormality for BD and could potentially aid clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Audiovisual speech integration in the superior temporal region is dysfunctional in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zheng; Rüsseler, Jascha; Gerth, Ivonne; Münte, Thomas F

    2017-07-25

    Dyslexia is an impairment of reading and spelling that affects both children and adults even after many years of schooling. Dyslexic readers have deficits in the integration of auditory and visual inputs but the neural mechanisms of the deficits are still unclear. This fMRI study examined the neural processing of auditorily presented German numbers 0-9 and videos of lip movements of a German native speaker voicing numbers 0-9 in unimodal (auditory or visual) and bimodal (always congruent) conditions in dyslexic readers and their matched fluent readers. We confirmed results of previous studies that the superior temporal gyrus/sulcus plays a critical role in audiovisual speech integration: fluent readers showed greater superior temporal activations for combined audiovisual stimuli than auditory-/visual-only stimuli. Importantly, such an enhancement effect was absent in dyslexic readers. Moreover, the auditory network (bilateral superior temporal regions plus medial PFC) was dynamically modulated during audiovisual integration in fluent, but not in dyslexic readers. These results suggest that superior temporal dysfunction may underly poor audiovisual speech integration in readers with dyslexia. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Distinct Oscillatory Frequencies Underlie Excitability of Human Occipital and Parietal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, Jason; Gosseries, Olivia; Postle, Bradley R

    2017-03-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of human occipital and posterior parietal cortex can give rise to visual sensations called phosphenes. We used near-threshold TMS with concurrent EEG recordings to measure how oscillatory brain dynamics covary, on single trials, with the perception of phosphenes after occipital and parietal TMS. Prestimulus power and phase, predominantly in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), predicted occipital TMS phosphenes, whereas higher-frequency beta-band (13-20 Hz) power (but not phase) predicted parietal TMS phosphenes. TMS-evoked responses related to phosphene perception were similar across stimulation sites and were characterized by an early (200 ms) posterior negativity and a later (>300 ms) parietal positivity in the time domain and an increase in low-frequency (∼5-7 Hz) power followed by a broadband decrease in alpha/beta power in the time-frequency domain. These correlates of phosphene perception closely resemble known electrophysiological correlates of conscious perception of near-threshold visual stimuli. The regionally differential pattern of prestimulus predictors of phosphene perception suggests that distinct frequencies may reflect cortical excitability in occipital versus posterior parietal cortex, calling into question the broader assumption that the alpha rhythm may serve as a general index of cortical excitability. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alpha-band oscillations are thought to reflect cortical excitability and are therefore ascribed an important role in gating information transmission across cortex. We probed cortical excitability directly in human occipital and parietal cortex and observed that, whereas alpha-band dynamics indeed reflect excitability of occipital areas, beta-band activity was most predictive of parietal cortex excitability. Differences in the state of cortical excitability predicted perceptual outcomes (phosphenes), which were manifest in both early and late patterns of evoked activity, revealing the time

  14. Long-term potentiation expands information content of hippocampal dentate gyrus synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromer, Cailey; Bartol, Thomas M; Bowden, Jared B; Hubbard, Dusten D; Hanka, Dakota C; Gonzalez, Paola V; Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M; Parker, Patrick H; Abraham, Wickliffe C; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Harris, Kristen M

    2018-03-06

    An approach combining signal detection theory and precise 3D reconstructions from serial section electron microscopy (3DEM) was used to investigate synaptic plasticity and information storage capacity at medial perforant path synapses in adult hippocampal dentate gyrus in vivo. Induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) markedly increased the frequencies of both small and large spines measured 30 minutes later. This bidirectional expansion resulted in heterosynaptic counterbalancing of total synaptic area per unit length of granule cell dendrite. Control hemispheres exhibited 6.5 distinct spine sizes for 2.7 bits of storage capacity while LTP resulted in 12.9 distinct spine sizes (3.7 bits). In contrast, control hippocampal CA1 synapses exhibited 4.7 bits with much greater synaptic precision than either control or potentiated dentate gyrus synapses. Thus, synaptic plasticity altered total capacity, yet hippocampal subregions differed dramatically in their synaptic information storage capacity, reflecting their diverse functions and activation histories.

  15. Hilar somatostatin interneuron loss reduces dentate gyrus inhibition in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Gabrielle; Balgooyen, Laura; Mattis, Joanna; Deisseroth, Karl; Buckmaster, Paul S

    2016-06-01

    In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, seizures usually start in the hippocampus, and dentate granule cells are hyperexcitable. Somatostatin interneurons are a major subpopulation of inhibitory neurons in the dentate gyrus, and many are lost in patients and animal models. However, surviving somatostatin interneurons sprout axon collaterals and form new synapses, so the net effect on granule cell inhibition remains unclear. The present study uses optogenetics to activate hilar somatostatin interneurons and measure the inhibitory effect on dentate gyrus perforant path-evoked local field potential responses in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. In controls, light activation of hilar somatostatin interneurons inhibited evoked responses up to 40%. Epileptic pilocarpine-treated mice exhibited loss of hilar somatostatin interneurons and less light-induced inhibition of evoked responses. These findings suggest that severe epilepsy-related loss of hilar somatostatin interneurons can overwhelm the surviving interneurons' capacity to compensate by sprouting axon collaterals. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Investigating the effects of nitrous oxide sedation on frontal-parietal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji-Ho; Kim, Pil-Jong; Kim, Hong-Gee; Koo, Yong-Seo; Shin, Teo Jeon

    2017-06-09

    Although functional connectivity has received considerable attention in the study of consciousness, few studies have investigated functional connectivity limited to the sedated state where consciousness is maintained but impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in functional connectivity of the parietal-frontal network resulting from nitrous oxide-induced sedation, and to determine the neural correlates of cognitive impairment during consciousness transition states. Electroencephalography was acquired from healthy adult patients who underwent nitrous oxide inhalation to induce cognitive impairment, and was analyzed using Granger causality (GC). Periods of awake, sedation and recovery for GC between frontal and parietal areas in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma and total frequency bands were obtained. The Friedman test with post-hoc analysis was conducted for GC values of each period for comparison. As a sedated state was induced by nitrous oxide inhalation, power in the low frequency band showed increased activity in frontal regions that was reversed with discontinuation of nitrous oxide. Feedback and feedforward connections analyzed in spectral GC were changed differently in accordance with EEG frequency bands in the sedated state by nitrous oxide administration. Calculated spectral GC of the theta, alpha, and beta frequency regions in the parietal-to-frontal direction was significantly decreased in the sedated state while spectral GC in the reverse direction did not show significant change. Frontal-parietal functional connectivity is significantly affected by nitrous oxide inhalation. Significantly decreased parietal-to-frontal interaction may induce a sedated state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neural sources of visual working memory maintenance in human parietal and ventral extrastriate visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becke, Andreas; Müller, Notger; Vellage, Anne; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel; Hopf, Jens-Max

    2015-04-15

    Maintaining information in visual working memory is reliably indexed by the contralateral delay activity (CDA) - a sustained modulation of the event-related potential (ERP) with a topographical maximum over posterior scalp regions contralateral to the memorized input. Based on scalp topography, it is hypothesized that the CDA reflects neural activity in the parietal cortex, but the precise cortical origin of underlying electric activity was never determined. Here we combine ERP recordings with magnetoencephalography based source localization to characterize the cortical current sources generating the CDA. Observers performed a cued delayed match to sample task where either the color or the relative position of colored dots had to be maintained in memory. A detailed source-localization analysis of the magnetic activity in the retention interval revealed that the magnetic analog of the CDA (mCDA) is generated by current sources in the parietal cortex. Importantly, we find that the mCDA also receives contribution from current sources in the ventral extrastriate cortex that display a time-course similar to the parietal sources. On the basis of the magnetic responses, forward modeling of ERP data reveals that the ventral sources have non-optimal projections and that these sources are therefore concealed in the ERP by overlapping fields with parietal projections. The present observations indicate that visual working memory maintenance, as indexed by the CDA, involves the parietal cortical regions as well as the ventral extrastriate regions, which code the sensory representation of the memorized content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Examining the role of the temporo-parietal network in memory, imagery and viewpoint transformations

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    Kiret eDhindsa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view of the medial temporal lobe (MTL focuses on its role in episodic memory. However, some of the underlying functions of the MTL can be ascertained from its wider role in supporting spatial cognition in concert with parietal and prefrontal regions. The MTL is strongly implicated in the formation of enduring allocentric representations (e.g. O’Keefe (1976; Ekstrom et al. (2003; King et al. (2002. According to our BBB model (Byrne et al. (2007, these representations must interact with head-centered and body-centered representations in posterior parietal cortex via a transformation circuit involving retrosplenial areas. Egocentric sensory representations in parietal areas can then cue the recall of allocentric spatial representations in long-term memory and, conversely, the products of retrieval in MTL can generate mental imagery within a parietal ’window’. Such imagery is necessarily egocentric and forms part of visuospatial working memory, where it can be manipulated for the purpose of planning/imagining the future. Recent fMRI evidence (Lambrey et al. (2012; Zhang et al. (2012 supports the BBB model. To further test the model, we had participants learn the locations of objects in a virtual scene and tested their spatial memory under conditions that impose varying demands on the transformation circuit. We analyzed how brain activity correlated with accuracy in judging the direction of an object 1 from visuospatial working memory (we assume working memory due to the order of tasks and the consistency viewpoint, but long-term memory is also possible, 2 after a rotation of viewpoint, or 3 after a rotation and translation (judgement of relative direction. We found performance-related activity in both tasks requiring viewpoint rotation in the core medial temporal to medial parietal. These results are consistent with the BBB model and shed further light on the mechanisms underlying spatial memory, mental imagery and viewpoint

  19. Enhanced Working Memory Binding by Direct Electrical Stimulation of the Parietal Cortex

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    Agustina Birba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent works evince the critical role of visual short-term memory (STM binding deficits as a clinical and preclinical marker of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. These studies suggest a potential role of posterior brain regions in both the neurocognitive deficits of Alzheimer’s patients and STM binding in general. Thereupon, we surmised that stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC might be a successful approach to tackle working memory deficits in this condition, especially at early stages. To date, no causal evidence exists of the role of the parietal cortex in STM binding. A unique approach to assess this issue is afforded by single-subject direct intracranial electrical stimulation of specific brain regions during a relevant cognitive task. Electrical stimulation has been used both for clinical purposes and to causally probe brain mechanisms. Previous evidence of electrical currents spreading through white matter along well defined functional circuits indicates that visual working memory mechanisms are subserved by a specific widely distributed network. Here, we stimulated the parietal cortex of a subject with intracranial electrodes as he performed the visual STM task. We compared the ensuing results to those from a non-stimulated condition and to the performance of a matched control group. In brief, direct stimulation of the parietal cortex induced a selective improvement in STM. These results, together with previous studies, provide very preliminary but promising ground to examine behavioral changes upon parietal stimulation in AD. We discuss our results regarding: (a the usefulness of the task to target prodromal stages of AD; (b the role of a posterior network in STM binding and in AD; and (c the potential opportunity to improve STM binding through brain stimulation.

  20. A Role for the Left Angular Gyrus in Episodic Simulation and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Thakral, Preston P.; Madore, Kevin P.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) and episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and left angular gyrus, among other regions. Because fMRI data are correlational, it is unknown whether activity increases in c...

  1. Moderate traumatic brain injury causes acute dendritic and synaptic degeneration in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

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    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Hippocampal injury-associated learning and memory deficits are frequent hallmarks of brain trauma and are the most enduring and devastating consequences following traumatic brain injury (TBI. Several reports, including our recent paper, showed that TBI brought on by a moderate level of controlled cortical impact (CCI induces immature newborn neuron death in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In contrast, the majority of mature neurons are spared. Less research has been focused on these spared neurons, which may also be injured or compromised by TBI. Here we examined the dendrite morphologies, dendritic spines, and synaptic structures using a genetic approach in combination with immunohistochemistry and Golgi staining. We found that although most of the mature granular neurons were spared following TBI at a moderate level of impact, they exhibited dramatic dendritic beading and fragmentation, decreased number of dendritic branches, and a lower density of dendritic spines, particularly the mushroom-shaped mature spines. Further studies showed that the density of synapses in the molecular layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly reduced. The electrophysiological activity of neurons was impaired as well. These results indicate that TBI not only induces cell death in immature granular neurons, it also causes significant dendritic and synaptic degeneration in pathohistology. TBI also impairs the function of the spared mature granular neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. These observations point to a potential anatomic substrate to explain, in part, the development of posttraumatic memory deficits. They also indicate that dendritic damage in the hippocampal dentate gyrus may serve as a therapeutic target following TBI.

  2. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression Is Enhanced in Renal Parietal Epithelial Cells of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats and Is Induced by Albumin in In Vitro Primary Parietal Cell Culture

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    Zhang, Yuanyuan; George, Jasmine; Li, Yun; Olufade, Rebecca; Zhao, Xueying

    2015-01-01

    As a subfamily of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), gelatinases including MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix. However, conflicting results have been reported regarding their expression level and activity in the diabetic kidney. This study investigated whether and how MMP-9 expression and activity were changed in glomerular epithelial cells upon albumin overload. In situ zymography, immunostaining and Western blot for renal MMP gelatinolytic activity and MMP-9 protein expression were performed in Zucker lean and Zucker diabetic rats. Confocal microscopy revealed a focal increase in gelatinase activity and MMP-9 protein in the glomeruli of diabetic rats. Increased glomerular MMP-9 staining was mainly observed in hyperplastic parietal epithelial cells (PECs) expressing claudin-1 in the diabetic kidneys. Interestingly, increased parietal MMP-9 was often accompanied by decreased staining for podocyte markers (nephrin and podocalyxin) in the sclerotic area of affected glomeruli in diabetic rats. Additionally, urinary excretion of podocyte marker proteins was significantly increased in association with the levels of MMP-9 and albumin in the urine of diabetic animals. To evaluate the direct effect of albumin on expression and activity of MMP-9, primary cultured rat glomerular PECs were incubated with rat serum albumin (0.25 - 1 mg/ml) for 24 - 48 hrs. MMP-9 mRNA levels were significantly increased following albumin treatment. Meanwhile, albumin administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in MMP-9 protein and activity in culture supernatants of PECs. Moreover, albumin activated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in PECs. Inhibition of p44/42 MAPK suppressed albumin-induced MMP-9 secretion from glomerular PECs. Taken together, we have demonstrated that an up-regulation of MMP-9 in activated parietal epithelium is associated with a loss of adjacent podocytes in progressive diabetic nephropathy

  3. Haptically guided grasping. FMRI shows right-hemisphere parietal stimulus encoding, and bilateral dorso-ventral parietal gradients of object- and action-related processing during grasp execution

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    Mattia eMarangon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural bases of haptically-guided grasp planning and execution are largely unknown, especially for stimuli having no visual representations. Therefore, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to monitor brain activity during haptic exploration of novel 3D complex objects, subsequent grasp planning, and the execution of the pre-planned grasps. Haptic object exploration, involving extraction of shape, orientation and length of the to-be-grasped targets, was associated with the fronto-parietal, temporo-occipital, and insular cortex activity. Yet, only the anterior divisions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC of the right hemisphere were significantly more engaged in exploration of complex objects (vs. simple control disks. None of these regions were re-recruited during the planning phase. Even more surprisingly, the left-hemisphere intraparietal, temporal, and occipital areas that were significantly invoked for grasp planning did not show sensitivity to object features. Finally, grasp execution, involving the re-recruitment of the critical right-hemisphere PPC clusters, was also significantly associated with two kinds of bilateral parieto-frontal processes. The first represents transformations of grasp-relevant target features and is linked to the dorso-dorsal (lateral and medial parieto-frontal networks. The second monitors grasp kinematics and belongs to the ventro-dorsal networks. Indeed, signal modulations associated with these distinct functions follow dorso-ventral gradients, with left aIPS showing significant sensitivity to both target features and the characteristics of the required grasp. Thus, our results from the haptic domain are consistent with the notion that the parietal processing for action guidance reflects primarily transformations from object-related to effector-related coding, and these mechanisms are rather independent of sensory input modality.

  4. The left superior temporal gyrus is a shared substrate for auditory short-term memory and speech comprehension: evidence from 210 patients with stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Leff, Alexander P.; Schofield, Thomas M.; Crinion, Jennifer T.; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Grogan, Alice; Green, David W.; Price, Cathy J.

    2009-01-01

    Competing theories of short-term memory function make specific predictions about the functional anatomy of auditory short-term memory and its role in language comprehension. We analysed high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images from 210 stroke patients and employed a novel voxel based analysis to test the relationship between auditory short-term memory and speech comprehension. Using digit span as an index of auditory short-term memory capacity we found that the structural integrit...

  5. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia : The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Meer, Lisette; Bruggeman, Richard; Modinos, Gemma; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia (SZ) have been proposed to result from abnormal local, interregional and interhemispheric integration of brain signals in regions involved in language production and perception. This abnormal functional integration may find its base

  6. Kindled seizures selectively reduce a subpopulation of (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites in rat dentate gyrus

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    Savage, D.D.; McNamara, J.O.

    1982-09-01

    Amygdala-kindled seizures reduced significantly the total number of (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites in both dentate and hippocampal gyri compared to electrode implanted unstimulated controls. Both high and low affinity carbachol displaceable binding site populations were significantly reduced in hippocampal gyrus. By contrast, a selective decline of low affinity sites was found in dentate gyrus membranes. The selectivity of the decline in dentate but not hippocampus gyrus underscores the specificity of this molecular response to amygdala-kindled seizures. We suggest that these receptor alterations underlie adaptive mechanisms which antagonize kindled epileptogenesis.

  7. Radial glial cells in the adult dentate gyrus: what are they and where do they come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Daniel A; Bond, Allison M; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2018-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs in the dentate gyrus in the mammalian hippocampus. These new neurons arise from neural precursor cells named radial glia-like cells, which are situated in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Here, we review the emerging topic of precursor heterogeneity in the adult subgranular zone. We also discuss how this heterogeneity may be established during development and focus on the embryonic origin of the dentate gyrus and radial glia-like stem cells. Finally, we discuss recently developed single-cell techniques, which we believe will be critical to comprehensively investigate adult neural stem cell origin and heterogeneity.

  8. Kindled seizures selectively reduce a subpopulation of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites in rat dentate gyrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, D.D.; McNamara, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    Amygdala-kindled seizures reduced significantly the total number of [ 3 H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites in both dentate and hippocampal gyri compared to electrode implanted unstimulated controls. Both high and low affinity carbachol displaceable binding site populations were significantly reduced in hippocampal gyrus. By contrast, a selective decline of low affinity sites was found in dentate gyrus membranes. The selectivity of the decline in dentate but not hippocampus gyrus underscores the specificity of this molecular response to amygdala-kindled seizures. We suggest that these receptor alterations underlie adaptive mechanisms which antagonize kindled epileptogenesis

  9. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Affects Progenitor Cell Numbers in Olfactory Bulbs and Dentate Gyrus of Vervet Monkeys

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    Mark W. Burke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE alters hippocampal cell numbers in rodents and primates, and this may be due, in part, to a reduction in the number or migration of neuronal progenitor cells. The olfactory bulb exhibits substantial postnatal cellular proliferation and a rapid turnover of newly formed cells in the rostral migratory pathway, while production and migration of postnatal neurons into the dentate gyrus may be more complex. The relatively small size of the olfactory bulb, compared to the hippocampus, potentially makes this structure ideal for a rapid analysis. This study used the St. Kitts vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus to (1 investigate the normal developmental sequence of post-natal proliferation in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus and (2 determine the effects of naturalistic prenatal ethanol exposure on proliferation at three different ages (neonate, five months and two years. Using design-based stereology, we found an age-related decrease of actively proliferating cells in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus for both control and FAE groups. Furthermore, at the neonatal time point, the FAE group had fewer actively proliferating cells as compared to the control group. These data are unique with respect to fetal ethanol effects on progenitor proliferation in the primate brain and suggest that the olfactory bulb may be a useful structure for studies of cellular proliferation.

  10. Molecular and functional characterization of GAD67-expressing, newborn granule cells in mouse dentate gyrus

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    Carolina eCabezas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs have been suggested to synthesize both GABA and glutamate immediately after birth and under pathological conditions in the adult. Expression of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD67 by GCs during the first few weeks of postnatal development may then allow for transient GABA synthesis and synaptic release from these cells. Here, using the GAD67-EGFP transgenic strain G42, we explored the phenotype of GAD67-expressing GCs in the mouse dentate gyrus. We report a transient, GAD67-driven EGFP expression in differentiating GCs throughout ontogenesis. EGFP expression correlates with the expression of GAD and molecular markers of GABA release and uptake in 2-4 weeks postmitotic GCs. These rather immature cells are able to fire action potentials and are synaptically integrated in the hippocampal network. Yet they show physiological properties that differentiate them from mature GCs. Finally, GAD67-expressing GCs express a specific complement of GABAA receptor subunits as well as distinctive features of synaptic and tonic GABA signaling. Our results reveal that GAD67 expression in dentate gyrus granule cells is a transient marker of late differentiation that persists throughout life and the G42 strain may be used to visualize newborn GCs at a specific, well-defined differentiation stage.

  11. Bilateral reorganization of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal sclerosis: a postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, M; Martinian, L; Catarino, C; Yogarajah, M; Koepp, M J; Caboclo, L; Sisodiya, S M

    2009-09-29

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common surgical pathology associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). HS is typically characterized by mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) and reorganization of neuropeptide Y (NPY) fiber networks in the dentate gyrus. One potential cause of postoperative seizure recurrence following temporal lobe surgery may be the presence of seizure-associated bilateral hippocampal damage. We aimed to investigate patterns of hippocampal abnormalities in a postmortem series as identified by NPY and dynorphin immunohistochemistry. Analysis of dentate gyrus fiber reorganization, using dynorphin (to demonstrate MFS) and NPY immunohistochemistry, was carried out in a postmortem epilepsy series of 25 cases (age range 21-96 years). In 9 patients, previously refractory seizures had become well controlled for up to 34 years prior to death. Bilateral MFS or abnormal NPY patterns were seen in 15 patients including those with bilateral symmetric, asymmetric, and unilateral HS by conventional histologic criteria. MFS and NPY reorganization was present in all classical HS cases, more variably in atypical HS, present in both MTLE and non-MTLE syndromes and with seizure histories of up to 92 years, despite seizure remission in some patients. Synaptic reorganization in the dentate gyrus may be a bil