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Sample records for superior micro-nanostructure endows

  1. Synergistic manipulation of micro-nanostructures and composition: anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 hollow micro-nanospheres with hierarchical mesopores for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Qian, Jieshu; Pan, Hao; Tu, Luo; Zhou, Xingfu

    2011-09-30

    The construction of nanocrystals with controllable composition and desirable micro-nanostructures is a well-known challenge. A combination of favorable composition and optimized micro-nanostructures can enhance the performance of a material significantly. Using TiO(2) as an example, we demonstrate here a facile approach to prepare anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO(2) hollow micro-nanospheres with hierarchical mesopores. Our strategy relies on polymer-assisted assembly of ∼ 5 nm nano-building blocks into three-dimensional hierarchical hollow micro-nanospheres in a mixed alcohol-water solution. This superior micro-nanostructure endows the sample with hierarchical mesopores and a high surface area of 106 m(2) g(-1). We also show that, due to the synergetic effects of the mixed-phase composition and the micro-nanostructures, the sample exhibited significantly improved photovoltaic performance and similar photocatalytic performance compared with the commercial Degussa P25. These results suggested that our sample has great potential for future photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.

  2. Biological and Mechanical Effects of Micro-Nanostructured Titanium Surface on an Osteoblastic Cell Line In vitro and Osteointegration In vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jingzu; Li, Ying; Li, Baoe; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Haipeng; Liu, Shimin; Liang, Chunyong; Wang, Hongshui

    2017-03-20

    Hybrid micro-nanostructure implant surface was produced on titanium (Ti) surface by acid etching and anodic oxidation to improve the biological and mechanical properties. The biological properties of the micro-nanostructure were investigated by simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking test and MC3T3-E1 cell co-culture experiment. The cell proliferation, spreading, and bone sialoprotein (BSP) gene expression were examined by MTT, SEM, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. In addition, the mechanical properties were evaluated by instrumented nanoindentation test and friction-wear test. Furthermore, the effect of the micro-nanostructure surface on implant osteointegration was examined by in vivo experiment. The results showed that the formation of bone-like apatite was accelerated on the micro-nanostructured Ti surface after immersion in simulated body fluid, and the proliferation, spreading, and BSP gene expression of the MC3T3-E1 cells were also upregulated on the modified surface. The micro-nanostructured Ti surface displayed decreased friction coefficient, stiffness value, and Young's modulus which were much closer to those of the cortical bone, compared to the polished Ti surface. This suggested much better mechanical match to the surrounding bone tissue of the micro-nanostructured Ti surface. Furthermore, the in vivo animal experiment showed that after implantation in the rat femora, the micro-nanostructure surface displayed higher bonding strength between bone tissues and implant; hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining suggested that much compact osteoid tissue was observed at the interface of Micro-nano-Ti-bone than polished Ti-bone interface after implantation. Based on these results mentioned above, it was concluded that the improved biological and mechanical properties of the micro-nanostructure endowed Ti surface with good biocompatibility and better osteointegration, implying the enlarged application of the micro-nanostructure

  3. Controllable microwave and ultrasonic wave combined synthesis of ZnO micro-/nanostructures in HEPES solution and their shape-dependent photocatalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qin; Li, Hui; Wang, Runming; Li, Guangfang; Yang, Hao [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and Hubei Novel Reactor and Green Chemical Technology Key Laboratory, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Street, Wuhan 430073 (China); Chen, Rong, E-mail: rchenhku@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and Hubei Novel Reactor and Green Chemical Technology Key Laboratory, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Street, Wuhan 430073 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Lumo Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-08-05

    Grahpical abstract: ZnO micro-/nanostructures with controllable size and morphology were successfully synthesized by microwave and ultrasonic wave combined method in HEPES solution, and exhibit shape-dependent photocatalytic activity for MB degradation under UV light irradiation. Highlights: •ZnO micro-/nanostructures were synthesized by combined microwave-ultrasonic wave method. •Morphologies of ZnO micro-/nanostructures could be modulated by varying reaction conditions. •HEPES plays a crucial role in the controllable synthesis of ZnO micro-/nanostructures. •ZnO micro-/nanostructures exhibit shape-dependent photocatalytic activity. •Spindle-like ZnO microstructures show superior photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: Size- and morphology-controlled zinc oxide (ZnO) micro-/nanostructures have been successfully synthesized via a facile and rapid microwave and ultrasonic wave combined method in HEPES solution (HEPES = 2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethanesulfonic acid). The as-prepared ZnO products are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). Various morphologies of ZnO products, including grenade-like, column-like, spindle-like, rod-like, shuttle-like and flower-like micro-/nanostructures are obtained, which are strongly dependent on Zn/HEPES moral ratio, pH value and Zn precursor. It is found that HEPES plays a crucial role in the formation of ZnO micro-/nanostructures with controllable size and morphology. The photocatalytic activities of the prepared ZnO micro-/nanostructures are evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation, among which spindle-like ZnO microstructures exhibit superior photocatalytic activity compared with other ZnO products.

  4. Hollow Micro-/Nanostructures: Synthesis and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2008-11-03

    Hollow micro-nanostructures are of great interest in many current and emerging areas of technology. Perhaps the best-known example of the former is the use of fly-ash hollow particles generated from coal power plants as partial replacement for Portland cement, to produce concrete with enhanced strength and durability. This review is devoted to the progress made in the last decade in synthesis and applications of hollow micro-nanostructures. We present a comprehensive overview of synthetic strategies for hollow structures. These strategies are broadly categorized into four themes, which include well-established approaches, such as conventional hard-templating and soft-templating methods, as well as newly emerging methods based on sacrificial templating and template-free synthesis. Success in each has inspired multiple variations that continue to drive the rapid evolution of the field. The Review therefore focuses on the fundamentals of each process, pointing out advantages and disadvantages where appropriate. Strategies for generating more complex hollow structures, such as rattle-type and nonspherical hollow structures, are also discussed. Applications of hollow structures in lithium batteries, catalysis and sensing, and biomedical applications are reviewed. © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA,.

  5. Advanced Micro/Nanostructures for Lithium Metal Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Nian-Wu; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Yin, Ya-Xia; Zhang, Qiang; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2017-03-01

    Owning to their very high theoretical capacity, lithium metal anodes are expected to fuel the extensive practical applications in portable electronics and electric vehicles. However, unstable solid electrolyte interphase and lithium dendrite growth during lithium plating/stripping induce poor safety, low Coulombic efficiency, and short span life of lithium metal batteries. Lately, varies of micro/nanostructured lithium metal anodes are proposed to address these issues in lithium metal batteries. With the unique surface, pore, and connecting structures of different nanomaterials, lithium plating/stripping processes have been regulated. Thus the electrochemical properties and lithium morphologies have been significantly improved. These micro/nanostructured lithium metal anodes shed new light on the future applications for lithium metal batteries.

  6. Demystifying Endowments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2009-01-01

    Endowments of major universities such as Cornell have received much attention over the past few years. Last academic year, the U.S. Senate Finance Committee launched an investigation into the finances of universities with endowments that exceeded $500 million dollars and required all of these universities to file reports detailing their finances.…

  7. Micro-/nanostructured multicomponent molecular materials: design, assembly, and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongpeng

    2015-03-23

    Molecule-based micro-/nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention because their properties can vary greatly from the corresponding macro-sized bulk systems. Recently, the construction of multicomponent molecular solids based on crystal engineering principles has emerged as a promising alternative way to develop micro-/nanomaterials. Unlike single-component materials, the resulting multicomponent systems offer the advantages of tunable composition, and adjustable molecular arrangement, and intermolecular interactions within their solid states. The study of these materials also supplies insight into how the crystal structure, molecular components, and micro-/nanoscale effects can influence the performance of molecular materials. In this review, we describe recent advances and current directions in the assembly and applications of crystalline multicomponent micro-/nanostructures. Firstly, the design strategies for multicomponent systems based on molecular recognition and crystal engineering principles are introduced. Attention is then focused on the methods of fabrication of low-dimensional multicomponent micro-/nanostructures. Their new applications are also outlined. Finally, we briefly discuss perspectives for the further development of these molecular crystalline micro-/nanomaterials.

  8. Micro/Nanostructured Films and Adhesives for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungkyu K; Kang, Sung Min; Yang, Sung Ho; Cho, Woo Kyung

    2015-12-01

    The advanced technologies available for micro/nanofabrication have opened new avenues for interdisciplinary approaches to solve the unmet medical needs of regenerative medicine and biomedical devices. This review highlights the recent developments in micro/nanostructured adhesives and films for biomedical applications, including waterproof seals for wounds or surgery sites, drug delivery, sensing human body signals, and optical imaging of human tissues. We describe in detail the fabrication processes required to prepare the adhesives and films, such as tape-based adhesives, nanofilms, and flexible and stretchable film-based electronic devices. We also discuss their biomedical functions, performance in vitro and in vivo, and the future research needed to improve the current systems.

  9. Bacteria-directed construction of hollow TiO2 micro/nanostructures with enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Fan, Tongxiang; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Di; Guo, Qixin

    2012-03-12

    A general method has been developed for the synthesis of various hollow TiO2 micro/nanostructures with bacteria as templates to further study the structural effect on photocatalytic hydrogen evolution properties. TiO2 hollow spheres and hollow tubes, served as prototypes, are obtained via a surface sol-gel process using cocci and bacillus as biotemplates, respectively. The formation mechanisms are based on absorption of metal-alkoxide molecules from solution onto functional cell wall surfaces and subsequent hydrolysis to give nanometer-thick oxide layers. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum shows that the porous TiO2 hollow spheres have enhanced light harvesting property compared with the corresponding solid counterpart. This could be attributed to their unique hollow porous micro/nanostructures with microsized hollow cavities and nanovoids which could bring about multiple scattering and rayleigh scattering of light, respectively. The hollow TiO2 structures exhibit superior photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activities under UV and visible light irradiation in the presence of sacrificial reagents. The hydrogen evolution rate of hollow structures is about 3.6 times higher than the solid counterpart and 1.5 times higher than P25-TiO2. This work demonstrates the structural effect on enhancing the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution performance which would pave a new pathway to tailor and improve catalytic properties over a broad range.

  10. Superhydrophobic Surface With Shape Memory Micro/Nanostructure and Its Application in Rewritable Chip for Droplet Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tong; Cheng, Zhongjun; Zhang, Dongjie; Zhang, Enshuang; Zhao, Qianlong; Liu, Yuyan; Jiang, Lei

    2016-09-21

    Recently, superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable wettability have aroused much attention. Noticeably, almost all present smart performances rely on the variation of surface chemistry on static micro/nanostructure, to obtain a surface with dynamically tunable micro/nanostructure, especially that can memorize and keep different micro/nanostructures and related wettabilities, is still a challenge. Herein, by creating micro/nanostructured arrays on shape memory polymer, a superhydrophobic surface that has shape memory ability in changing and recovering its hierarchical structures and related wettabilities was reported. Meanwhile, the surface was successfully used in the rewritable functional chip for droplet storage by designing microstructure-dependent patterns, which breaks through current research that structure patterns cannot be reprogrammed. This article advances a superhydrophobic surface with shape memory hierarchical structure and the application in rewritable functional chip, which could start some fresh ideas for the development of smart superhydrophobic surface.

  11. Morphologies, Preparations and Applications of Layered Double Hydroxide Micro-/Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingdong Dong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs, also well-known as hydrotalcite-like layered clays, have been widely investigated in the fields of catalysts and catalyst support, anion exchanger, electrical and optical functional materials, flame retardants and nanoadditives. This feature article focuses on the progress in micro-/nanostructured LDHs in terms of morphology, and also on the preparations, applications, and perspectives of the LDHs with different morphologies.

  12. Multifunctional substrate of Al alloy based on general hierarchical micro/nanostructures: superamphiphobicity and enhanced corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuewu; Shi, Tian; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Qiaoxin; Huang, Xingjiu

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum alloys are vulnerable to penetrating and peeling failures in seawater and preparing a barrier coating to isolate the substrate from corrosive medium is an effective anticorrosion method. Inspired by the lotus leaves effect, a wetting alloy surface with enhanced anticorrosion behavior has been prepared via etch, deposition, and low-surface-energy modification. Results indicate that excellent superamphiphobicity has been achieved after the modification of the constructed hierarchical labyrinth-like microstructures and dendritic nanostructures. The as-prepared surface is also found with good chemical stability and mechanical durability. Furthermore, superior anticorrosion behaviors of the resultant samples in seawater are investigated by electrochemical measurements. Due to trapped air in micro/nanostructures, the newly presented solid-air-liquid contacting interface can help to resist the seawater penetration by greatly reducing the interface interaction between corrosive ions and the superamphiphobic surface. Finally, an optimized two-layer perceptron artificial neural network is set up to model and predict the cause-and-effect relationship between preparation conditions and the anticorrosion parameters. This work provides a great potential to extend the applications of aluminum alloys especially in marine engineering fields. PMID:27775053

  13. Higher Education Endowments Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, David; Walda, John D.; Sedlacek, Verne O.

    2012-01-01

    A new study of endowments by the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) and the Commonfund Institute has brought good news to college and universities: While endowment returns dropped precipitously in fiscal year 2009 as a result of the financial crisis and accompanying slide in equity markets, they climbed to an…

  14. Largest College Endowments, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Of all endowments valued at more than $250-million, the UCLA Foundation had the highest rate of growth over the previous year, at 49 percent. This article presents a table of the largest college endowments in 2011. The table covers the "rank," "institution," "market value as of June 30, 2011," and "1-year change" of institutions participating in…

  15. Organic single crystals or crystalline micro/nanostructures: Preparation and field-effect transistor applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Organic single crystals hold great promise for the development of organic semiconductor materials,because they could reveal the intrinsic electronic properties of these materials,providing high-performance electronic devices and probing the structureproperty relationships.This article reviews the preparation methods for organic single crystals or crystalline micro/nanostructures,including vapor phase growth methods and solution-processed methods,and summarizes a few methods employed in the fabrication of field-effect transistors along with dozens of examples concerning both small molecules and polymers with high field-effect performance.

  16. Photoelectrochemical properties of hierarchical ZnO micro-nanostructure sensitized with Sb2S3 nanoparticles

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    Zhimin GUO

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By using electrochemical deposition method, and assisted with additions of PEG-400 and EDA, well-aligned ZnO nanorods and hierarchical ZnO micro-nanostructure are fabricated directly on indium doped tin oxide coated conducting glass (ITO substrate. The shell-core Sb2S3/ZnO nanorod structure and the shell-core hierarchical Sb2S3/ZnO micro-nanostructure are prepared by chemical bath deposition method. SEM, XRD, UV-Vis and photocurrent test are used to characterize the morphology, nanostructures and their photoelectrochemical properties. The studies show that the photocurrent on the array membranes with shell-core hierarchical Sb2S3/ZnO micro-nanostructure is apparently higher than that with shell-core Sb2S3/ZnO nanorods array.

  17. Ordered Micro/Nanostructures with Geometric Gradient: From Integrated Wettability "Library" to Anisotropic Wetting Surface.

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    Xue, Peihong; Nan, Jingjie; Wang, Tieqiang; Wang, Shuli; Ye, Shunsheng; Zhang, Junhu; Cui, Zhanchen; Yang, Bai

    2017-01-01

    Geometric gradients within ordered micro/nanostructures exhibit unique wetting properties. Well-defined and ordered microsphere arrays with geometric gradient (OMAGG) are successfully fabricated through combining colloidal lithography and inclined reactive ion etching (RIE). During the inclined RIE, the graded etching rates in vertical direction of etcher chamber are the key to generating a geometric gradient. The OMAGG can be used as an effective mask for the preparation of micro/nanostructure arrays with geometric gradient by selective RIE. Through this strategy, a well-defined wettability "library" with graded silicon cone arrays is fabricated, and the possibility of screening one desired "book" from the designated wettability "library" is demonstrated. Meanwhile, the silicon cone arrays with geometric gradient (SCAGG) can be applied to control the wetting behavior of water after being modified by hydrophilic or hydrophobic chemical groups. Based on this result, a temperature-responsive wetting substrate is fabricated by modifying poly n-isopropyl acrylamide (PNIPAM) on the SCAGG. These wettability gradients have great potential in tissue engineering, microfluidic devices, and integrated sensors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Endowment and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-05-01

    The 1998 annual report of the Research Corporation ( http://www.rescorp.org) contains fascinating reading for anyone with an interest in science education at private institutions. An article titled "The Midas Touch: Do Soaring Endowments Have Any Impact on College Science" concludes that "college science is seldom more than an incidental beneficiary of endowment resources, even when they are conspicuously plentiful." Written by Research Corporation director of communication W. Stevenson Bacon, the article reports on a survey of leading undergraduate institutions, dividing them between those with endowments above and below 300 million. The first surprise to me was that Harvard's endowment of 727,522 per full-time equivalent (FTE) student is exceeded by Grinnell's 760,404, and Yale's 612,015 per FTE student is far exceeded by Agnes Scott's 692,914 (much of it in Coca-Cola stock and somewhat restricted) and closely rivaled by Swarthmore's 608,955. Of the eleven institutions in the Research Corporation survey, seven were above 300,000 per FTE student and only four were below. Private-college endowments have soared along with a soaring stock market. The Research Corporation report asks whether this increased endowment income is helping colleges to provide improved education in the sciences. A major use of endowment income and gift funds is for construction of buildings. Seven of the eleven institutions surveyed had building programs under way or planned for the sciences, and three of the four remaining expected to stress science facilities in upcoming campaigns. In some cases new buildings are designed to support science effectively, but in others, according to Research Corporation Vice President Michael Doyle, "the building is an elegant shell without modern instrumentation or flexibility for future uses." New construction serves to make a campus attractive to prospective students who will bring in the tuition fees that support most of a college's budget. An "elegant

  19. Formation of Three-Way Scanning Electron Microscope Moiré on Micro/Nanostructures

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    Qinghua Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-way scanning electron microscope (SEM moiré was first generated using a designed three-way electron beam (EB in an SEM. The spot-type three-way SEM moiré comes from the interference between the three-way EB and the specimen grating in which the periodic cells are arranged in a triangular manner. The deformation and the structure information of the specimen grating in three directions can be simultaneously obtained from the three-way SEM moiré. The design considerations of the three-way EB were discussed. As an illustration, the three-way SEM moiré spots produced on a silicon slide were presented. The proposed three-way SEM moiré method is expected to characterize micro/nanostructures in triangular or hexagonal arrangements in three directions at the same time.

  20. Growth of hierarchical based ZnO micro/nanostructured films and their tunable wettability behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, P.; Dhayal Raj, A.; Mangalaraj, D.; Nataraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Li, Lin; Chabrol, G.

    2011-05-01

    Hierarchical zinc oxide (ZnO) micro/nanostructured thin films were grown onto as-prepared and different annealed ZnO seed layer films by a simple two step chemical process. A cost effective successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method was employed to grow the seed layer films at optimal temperature (80 °C) and secondly, different hierarchical based ZnO structured thin films were deposited over the seed layered films by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The influence of seed layer on the structural, surface morphological, optical and wettability behavior of the ZnO thin films were systematically investigated. The XRD analysis confirms the high crystalline nature of both the seed layer and corresponding ZnO micro/nanostructured films with a perfect hexagonal structure oriented along (0 0 2) direction. The surface morphology revels a complex and orientated hierarchical based ZnO structured films with diverse shapes from plates to hexagonal rod-like crystal to tube-like structure and even much more complex needle-like shapes during secondary nucleation, by changing the seed layer conditions. The water contact angle (WCA) measurements on hierarchical ZnO structured films are completely examined to study its surface wettability behavior for its suitability in future self-cleaning application. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the ZnO structured film exhibit UV and visible emissions in the range of 420-500 nm. The present approach demonstrates its potential for low-temperature, large-scale, controlled synthesis of crystalline hierarchical ZnO nanostructures films.

  1. A versatile approach to fabricate modulated micro-/nanostructures by electrohydrodynamic structuring on prepatterned polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hongmiao; Shao, Jinyou; Chen, Xiaoliang; Wang, Li; Ding, Yucheng

    2017-02-01

    Micro-/nanostructures fabricated on functional polymers from physical principles can be highly desirable for polymer devices, owing to the physical integrity of the generated structure, the process economy and their environmentally friendly quality. However, current fabricating approaches can only duplicate a specific structure, or may require a complex technological procedure for the fabrication, i.e. for the fabrication of modulated micro-/nanostructures on polymer films on the basis of the physical principles, a versatile yet simple procedure is lacking. In this paper, electrohydrodynamic structuring on prepatterned polymer (ESPP) based on the electrohydrodynamic behavior of fluidic polymers in an electric field is proposed for the fabrication of a modulated structure on a functional polymer. For this purpose, a voltage is applied between a flat template and a flat substrate, sandwiching a prepatterned polymer and an air gap, resulting in a non-uniform upward pull on the polymer. This leads to a deformation of the polymer resulting in a structure corresponding to the initial morphology. This study explores the capability of ESPP in duplicating modulated structures by manipulating the electric field (which is also influenced by process parameters involving voltage and air gap length) from the perspective of theoretical analysis and experimental tests, which categorize the relationship between electrohydrodynamic pressure and surface tension into two regimes: one consisting of equilibrium modulation for convex structures potentially used as microlens arrays, and another comprising non-equilibrium modulation for high aspect ratio structures and potentially applicable to dry adhesives, superhydrophobic surfaces, etc. Furthermore, a criterion is proposed to distinguish between the two aforementioned regimes.

  2. Chinese Colleges Need More Endowment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.

  3. Endowments: How Big and Where.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    This research brief provides summary data on the size of endowments of U.S. colleges and universities. It notes the estimated market value of endowments, examines their growth from 1977 to 1987, contrasts data from independent institutions to those from public colleges and universities, indicates the heavy concentration of endowment in a…

  4. Precise 3D printing of micro/nanostructures using highly conductive carbon nanotube-thiol-acrylate composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Xiong, W.; Jiang, L. J.; Zhou, Y. S.; Lu, Y. F.

    2016-04-01

    Two-photon polymerization (TPP) is of increasing interest due to its unique combination of truly three-dimensional (3D) fabrication capability and ultrahigh spatial resolution of ~40 nm. However, the stringent requirements of non-linear resins seriously limit the material functionality of 3D printing via TPP. Precise fabrication of 3D micro/nanostructures with multi-functionalities such as high electrical conductivity and mechanical strength is still a long-standing challenge. In this work, TPP fabrication of arbitrary 3D micro/nanostructures using multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-thiolacrylate (MTA) composite resins has been developed. Up to 0.2 wt% MWNTs have been incorporated into thiol-acrylate resins to form highly stable and uniform composite photoresists without obvious degradation for one week at room temperature. Various functional 3D micro/nanostructures including woodpiles, micro-coils, spiral-like photonic crystals, suspended micro-bridges, micro-gears and complex micro-cars have been successfully fabricated. The MTA composite resin offers significant enhancements in electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, and on the same time, preserving high optical transmittance and flexibility. Tightly controlled alignment of MWNTs and the strong anisotropy effect were confirmed. Microelectronic devices including capacitors and resistors made of the MTA composite polymer were demonstrated. The 3D micro/nanofabrication using the MTA composite resins enables the precise 3D printing of micro/nanostructures of high electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, which is expected to lead a wide range of device applications, including micro/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), integrated photonics and 3D electronics.

  5. Focused ion beam-fabricated Au micro/nanostructures used as a surface enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for trace detection of molecules and influenza virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ying-Yi; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Ju, Yu-Hung; Chang, Chia-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Shiau, Ai-Li, E-mail: jdliao@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Cheng Kung University, No 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-06

    The focused ion beam (FIB) technique was used to precisely fabricate patterned Au micro/nanostructures (fibAu). The effects of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on the fibAu samples were investigated by adjusting the geometrical, dimensional, and spacing factors. The SERS mechanism was evaluated using low-concentration rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules, physically adsorbed or suspended on/within the micro/nanostructures. The results indicated that for detecting R6G molecules, hexagon-like micro/nanostructures induced a higher electromagnetic mechanism (EM) due to the availability of multiple edges and small curvature. By decreasing the dimensions from 300 to 150 nm, the laser-focused area contained an increasing number of micro/nanostructures and therefore intensified the excitation of SERS signals. Moreover, with an optimized geometry and dimensions of the micro/nanostructures, the relative intensity/surface area value reached a maximum as the spacing was 22 nm. An exponential decrease was found as the spacing was increased, which most probably resulted from the loss of EM. The spacing between the micro/nanostructures upon the fibAu was consequently regarded as the dominant factor for the detection of R6G molecules. By taking an optimized fibAu to detect low-concentration influenza virus, the amino acids from the outermost surface of the virus can be well distinguished through the SERS mechanism.

  6. Effective SERS-active substrates composed of hierarchical micro/nanostructured arrays based on reactive ion etching and colloidal masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghua; Liu, Dilong; Hang, Lifeng; Li, Xinyang; Liu, Guangqiang; Cai, Weiping; Li, Yue

    2016-09-01

    A facile route has been proposed for the fabrication of morphology-controlled periodic SiO2 hierarchical micro/nanostructured arrays by reactive ion etching (RIE) using monolayer colloidal crystals as masks. By effectively controlling the experimental conditions of RIE, the morphology of a periodic SiO2 hierarchical micro/nanostructured array could be tuned from a dome-shaped one to a circular truncated cone, and finally to a circular cone. After coating a silver thin layer, these periodic micro/nanostructured arrays were used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates and demonstrated obvious SERS signals of 4-Aminothiophenol (4-ATP). In addition, the circular cone arrays displayed better SERS enhancement than those of the dome-shaped and circular truncated cone arrays due to the rougher surface caused by physical bombardment. After optimization of the circular cone arrays with different periodicities, an array with the periodicity of 350 nm exhibits much stronger SERS enhancement and possesses a low detection limit of 10-10 M 4-ATP. This offers a practical platform to conveniently prepare SERS-active substrates.

  7. Efficiency enhancement using ArF laser induced micro/nanostructures on the polymeric layer of solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, P.; Reyhani, A.; Mehrabi, M.; Refahizadeh, M.; Mortazavi, S. Z.; Ranjbar, A.

    2017-02-01

    Here, the solar cell surface is irradiated with ArF excimer laser at 193 nm. This process forms regular micro/nanostructures on the samples, most likely due to the surface resonance phenomena. Laser induced surface rippling in the form of the conical micro/nanostructures or micro/nano-pillars are strongly dependent on the energy dose which induces a great number of micro/nano cavities on the surface. Despite the reflection events are taken into account as the major source of the optical losses, however the laser induced self-micro/nano structuring significantly reduces the spectral reflectivity. It leads to enhance the efficiency of solar cell accordingly. The effect of laser fluence is also investigated as to several forms of the micro/nanostructures are created at various UV doses. Finally, the electrical characterization is carried out based on the current-voltage plots. The surface morphology is analyzed using SEM and the spectral reflectivity is measured by the spectrophotometry, indicating that the current density rises due to the light trapping in micro/nano-cavities.

  8. Extraordinary terahertz absorption bands observed in micro/nanostructured Au/polystyrene sphere arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy is carried out for micro/nanostructured periodic Au/dielectric sphere arrays on Si substrate. We find that the metal-insulator transition can be achieved in THz bandwidth via varying sample parameters such as the thickness of the Au shell and the diameter of the Au/dielectric sphere. The Au/polystyrene sphere arrays do not show metallic THz response when the Au shell thickness is larger than 10 nm and the sphere diameter is smaller than 500 nm. This effect is in sharp contrast to the observations in flat Au films on Si substrate. Interestingly, the Au/polystyrene sphere arrays with a 5-nm-thick Au shell show extraordinary THz absorption bands or metallic optical conductance when the diameter of the sphere is larger than 200 nm. This effect is related to the quantum confinement effect in which the electrons in the structure are trapped in the sphere potential well of the gold shell. PMID:23190688

  9. Micro-Nanostructured Polyaniline Assembled in Cellulose Matrix via Interfacial Polymerization for Applications in Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dingfeng; Fan, Lin; Gao, Lingfeng; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yanfeng; Ye, Qifa; Yu, Aixi; Dai, Honglian; Yin, Yixia; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Lina

    2016-07-13

    Conducting polymers have emerged as frontrunners to be alternatives for nerve regeneration, showing a possibility of the application of polyaniline (PANI) as the nerve guidance conduit. In the present work, the cellulose hydrogel was used as template to in situ synthesize PANI via the limited interfacial polymerization method, leading to one conductive side in the polymer. PANI sub-micrometer dendritic particles with mean diameter of ∼300 nm consisting of the PANI nanofibers and nanoparticles were uniformly assembled into the cellulose matrix. The hydrophobic PANI nanoparticles were immobilized in the hydrophilic cellulose via the phytic acid as "bridge" at presence of water through hydrogen bonding interaction. The PANI/cellulose composite hydrogels exhibited good mechanical properties and biocompatibility as well as excellent guiding capacity for the sciatic nerve regeneration of adult Sprague-Dawley rats without any extra treatment. On the basis of the fact that the pure cellulose hydrogel was an inert material for the neural repair, PANI played an indispensable role on the peripheral nerve regeneration. The hierarchical micro-nanostructure and electrical conductivity of PANI could remarkably induce the adhesion and guiding extension of neurons, showing its great potential in biomedical materials.

  10. SERS active self-assembled diphenylalanine micro/nanostructures: A combined experimental and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogikoski, Sergio; Khanra, Soma; Alves, Wendel A.; Guha, Suchismita

    2017-08-01

    Enhancing Raman signatures of molecules by self-assembled metal nanoparticles, nanolithography patterning, or by designing plasmonic nanostructures is widely used for detection of low abundance biological systems. Self-assembled peptide nanostructures provide a natural template for tethering Au and Ag nanoparticles due to its fractal surface. Here, we show the use of L,L-diphenylalanine micro-nanostructures (FF-MNSs) for the organization of Ag and Au nanoparticles (Nps) and its potential as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates. The FF-MNSs undergo an irreversible phase transition from hexagonally packed (hex) micro-nanotubes to an orthorhombic (ort) structure at ˜150 °C. The metal Nps form chains on hex FF-MNSs as inferred from transmission electron microscopy images and a uniform non-aggregated distribution in the ort phase. The high luminescence from the ort FF-MNS phase precludes SERS measurements with AgNps. The calculated Raman spectra using density-functional theory shows a higher intensity from rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecule in the presence of an Ag atom bound to ort FF compared with hex FF. The SERS spectra obtained from R6G bound to FF-MNSs with AuNps clearly show a higher enhancement for the ort phase compared with hex FF, corroborating our theoretical calculations. Our results indicate that FF-MNSs both in the hex and ort phases can be used as substrates for the SERS analysis with different metal nanoparticles, opening up a novel class of optically active bio-based substrates.

  11. ENDOWMENT LIFE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Sain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper that treats the actuarial model of insurance in case of survival or early death is to show the actuarial methods and methodology for creating a model and an appropriate number of sub-models of the most popular form of life insurance in the world. The paper applies the scientific methodology of the deductive character based on scientific, theoretical knowledge and practical realities. Following the basic theoretical model’s determinants, which are at the beginning of the paper, the basic difference between models further in this paper was carried out according to the character of the premium to be paid. Finally, the financial repercussions of some models are presented at examples in insurance companies. The result of this paper is to show the spectrum of possible forms of capital endowment insurance which can be, without major problems, depending on the financial policy of the company, applied in actual practice. The conclusion of this paper shows the theoretical and the practical reality of this model, life insurance, and its quantitative and qualitative guidelines.

  12. Nerve guidance conduit with a hybrid structure of a PLGA microfibrous bundle wrapped in a micro/nanostructured membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng SW

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Wen Peng,1 Ching-Wen Li,2 Ing-Ming Chiu,3,4 Gou-Jen Wang1–3 1Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, 3PhD Program in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, 4Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan Abstract: Nerve repair in tissue engineering involves the precise construction of a scaffold to guide nerve cell regeneration in the desired direction. However, improvements are needed to facilitate the cell migration/growth rate of nerves in the center of a nerve conduit. In this paper, we propose a nerve guidance conduit with a hybrid structure comprising a microfibrous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA bundle wrapped in a micro/nanostructured PLGA membrane. We applied sequential fabrication processes, including photolithography, nano-electroforming, and polydimethylsiloxane casting to manufacture master molds for the repeated production of the PLGA subelements. After demolding it from the master molds, we rolled the microfibrous membrane into a bundle and then wrapped it in the micro/nanostructured membrane to form a nerve-guiding conduit. We used KT98/F1B-GFP cells to estimate the migration rate and guidance ability of the fabricated nerve conduit and found that both elements increased the migration rate 1.6-fold compared with a flat PLGA membrane. We also found that 90% of the cells in the hybrid nano/microstructured membrane grew in the direction of the designed patterns. After 3 days of culturing, the interior of the nerve conduit was filled with cells, and the microfiber bundle was also surrounded by cells. Our conduit cell culture results also demonstrate that the proposed micro/nanohybrid and microfibrous structures can retain their shapes. The proposed hybrid-structured conduit demonstrates a high capability for guiding nerve cells and promoting cell migration, and, as such, is

  13. Facile synthesis and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jin [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials and Applications, Zhoukou Normal University, Zhoukou 466001 (China); Zhang, Gaoke, E-mail: gkzhang@whut.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres were synthesized by a facile method. • The formation mechanism for the Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres was investigated. • The catalyst exhibited an enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. • The reactive species in the photocatalytic process were studied. - Abstract: Micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres were successfully synthesized by a one-step and low-temperature route under ambient pressure. The micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres have a diameter of 1–2 μm and their shells are composed of numerous nanoparticles and nanorods. The growth process of the micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres was investigated in detail. The results indicated that the morphologies and composition of Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} samples were strongly dependent on the dose of the AgNO{sub 3} and reaction time. Excessive AgNO{sub 3} was favorable for the nucleation and growth rate of Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} crystals and the formation of pure Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4}. Moreover, the formation mechanism of the micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres is related to the Ostwald ripening. Under the same conditions, the photocatalytic activity of micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres is about 1.7 times and 11 times higher than that of bulk Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} and Degussa P25, respectively. These interesting findings could provide new insight on the synthesis of micro/nanostructured ternary-metal oxides with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  14. High speed fabrication of absorbance-enhanced micro-nanostructures on nickel surface using hundred-nanosecond pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinxiang; Zhang, Jingyuan; Liang, Hao; Wang, Yibo; Zhang, Zhiyan; Liu, Yannan; Lin, Xuechun

    2017-01-01

    We report the generation of micro-nanostructures on nickel surface using a pulsed laser with pulse duration of 100/200 ns. The blacken nickel, which is covered with dense broccoli-like clusters having strong light trapping capacity covering broad spectrum (200-2000 nm), can be produced at a high laser scanning speed up to 100 mm/s. The absorbance of the blacken nickel can be over 98% in the UV, more than 97% in the visible, and over 90% in the near IR. In addition, by treating the nickel surface with two crossing scans of the laser, highly organized and shape-controllable periodic arrays of hump-craters can be fabricated.

  15. Fabrication of Corrosion Resistance Micro-Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Anodized Aluminum in a One-Step Electrodeposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation of low surface energy hybrid organic-inorganic micro-nanostructured zinc stearate electrodeposit transformed the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO surface to superhydrophobic, having a water contact angle of 160°. The corrosion current densities of the anodized and aluminum alloy surfaces are found to be 200 and 400 nA/cm2, respectively. In comparison, superhydrophobic anodic aluminum oxide (SHAAO shows a much lower value of 88 nA/cm2. Similarly, the charge transfer resistance, Rct, measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that the SHAAO substrate was found to be 200-times larger than the as-received aluminum alloy substrate. These results proved that the superhydrophobic surfaces created on the anodized surface significantly improved the corrosion resistance property of the aluminum alloy.

  16. Nerve guidance conduit with a hybrid structure of a PLGA microfibrous bundle wrapped in a micro/nanostructured membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shih-Wen; Li, Ching-Wen; Chiu, Ing-Ming; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Nerve repair in tissue engineering involves the precise construction of a scaffold to guide nerve cell regeneration in the desired direction. However, improvements are needed to facilitate the cell migration/growth rate of nerves in the center of a nerve conduit. In this paper, we propose a nerve guidance conduit with a hybrid structure comprising a microfibrous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) bundle wrapped in a micro/nanostructured PLGA membrane. We applied sequential fabrication processes, including photolithography, nano-electroforming, and polydimethylsiloxane casting to manufacture master molds for the repeated production of the PLGA subelements. After demolding it from the master molds, we rolled the microfibrous membrane into a bundle and then wrapped it in the micro/nanostructured membrane to form a nerve-guiding conduit. We used KT98/F1B-GFP cells to estimate the migration rate and guidance ability of the fabricated nerve conduit and found that both elements increased the migration rate 1.6-fold compared with a flat PLGA membrane. We also found that 90% of the cells in the hybrid nano/microstructured membrane grew in the direction of the designed patterns. After 3 days of culturing, the interior of the nerve conduit was filled with cells, and the microfiber bundle was also surrounded by cells. Our conduit cell culture results also demonstrate that the proposed micro/nanohybrid and microfibrous structures can retain their shapes. The proposed hybrid-structured conduit demonstrates a high capability for guiding nerve cells and promoting cell migration, and, as such, is feasible for use in clinical applications. PMID:28138239

  17. Bioinspired multifunctional hetero-hierarchical micro/nanostructure tetragonal array with self-cleaning, anticorrosion, and concentrators for the SERS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiao-Xin; Chen, Yu-Xue; Guo, Zheng; Liu, Hong-Lin; Wang, Da-Peng; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2013-11-13

    Heterohierarchical micro/nanostructure tetragonal array consisted of engineering materials of microprotrusion-like Cu and secondary nanostructured dendrite Ag have been fabricated via a primary cell-induced deposition and a facile galvanic displacement reaction combined with photolithography technique on Cu foil. Confined by the circle microwell tetragonal array of the photoresist template, regular microprotrusion-like Cu with the tunable size of diameter can be easily deposited on the surface of Cu foil. Then, the secondary dendritic Ag nanostructures in situ grow on the surface of microprotrusion via a galvanic displacement reaction, leading to the formation of heterohierarchical micro/nanostructure tetragonal array, which is similar to the surface microstructure of the lotus leaf. Inspired by this novel surface structure of imitating lotus leaf, its wettability has been systematically investigated. The results indicate that the fabricated heterohierarchical micro/nanostructure regular array after the surface fluoration presents a remarkable superhydrophobic performance. Initiated from its superhydrophobicity, an excellent self-cleaning property has also been demonstrated. In addition, the durability of the superhydrophobic surfaces is examined in the wide pH range of corrosive liquids. Notably, the fabricated superhydrophobic surface can be potentially used as concentrators, which presents a great perspective in the field of analysis through employing the SERS detection as an example.

  18. Hierarchical micro/nanostructured titanium with balanced actions to bacterial and mammalian cells for dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Y

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Yu Zhu,1,* Huiliang Cao,2,* Shichong Qiao,1,* Manle Wang,2,3 Yingxin Gu,1 Huiwen Luo,1 Fanhao Meng,2 Xuanyong Liu,2 Hongchang Lai1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Implantology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3School of Materials Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A versatile strategy to endow dental implants with long-term antibacterial ability without compromising the cytocompatibility is highly desirable to combat implant-related infection. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs have been utilized as a highly effective and broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for surface modification of biomedical devices. However, the high mobility and subsequent hazardous effects of the particles on mammalian cells may limit its practical applications. Thus, Ag NPs were immobilized on the surface of sand-blasted, large grit, and acid-etched (SLA titanium by manipulating the atomic-scale heating effect of silver plasma immersion ion implantation. The silver plasma immersion ion implantation-treated SLA surface gave rise to both good antibacterial activity and excellent compatibility with mammalian cells. The antibacterial activity rendered by the immobilized Ag NPs was assessed using Fusobacterium nucleatum and Staphylococcus aureus, commonly suspected pathogens for peri-implant disease. The immobilized Ag NPs offered a good defense against multiple cycles of bacteria attack in both F. nucleatum and S. aureus, and the mechanism was independent of silver release. F. nucleatum showed a higher susceptibility to Ag NPs than S. aureus, which might be explained by the presence of different wall structures. Moreover, the

  19. Synthesis and characterization of PbTe micro/nanostructures through hydrothermal method by using a novel capping agent

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shahla Ahmadian-Fard-Fini; Masoud Salavati-Niasari; Fatemeh Mohandes

    2014-06-01

    For the first time, a Schiff base compound derived from 1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctane and 2-hydroxybenzophenone marked as (2-HBP)-(DaDo) was synthesized, characterized and then used as capping agent for the preparation of PbTe micro/nanostructures. Besides the as-synthesized Schiff base compound, Pb(NO3)2 and Te powders were applied as lead and telluride precursors. In addition, effect of preparation parameters like reaction time and temperature in hydrothermal synthesis on the morphology of the final products was tested. The products were analysed with the aid of SEM, XRD, FT–IR and EDS. Based on the obtained results, it was found that pure cubic phased PbTe has been obtained by this method. According to SEM images, it was found that uniform PbTe micro/nanocubes have been obtained at 180°C for 12 h. On the other hand, by increasing the reaction temperature from 3 to 24 h, the production of cubic-like shapes increased.

  20. Hierarchical plasmonic-metal/semiconductor micro/nanostructures: green synthesis and application in catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuyan; Jia, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhengdao; Chen, Yanli

    2012-03-01

    Hierarchical micro/nano arrays can offer both the advantages of nano-sized building blocks and micro- or submicrometer-sized ordered arrays, therefore representing one kind of potential functional materials and having received enormous attention for a wealth of applications. In this study, four-dimensionally flower-like CuO micro/nanostructures decorated by Au nanoparticles are synthesized via an environmentally friendly route assisted by polyethylene glycol. Experiments reveal that the product demonstrates high catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol using NaBH4 as the reducing agent, which could be attributed to the rich Au/CuO interfaces in the samples. Compared to the pure noble metal catalysts, the obtained sample is quite economic. In terms of methodology and cost-effectiveness, this study proposes an economically useful and green method to produce a highly efficient metal-based catalyst. It is also a good example for the organic combination of green chemistry and functional materials.

  1. Preparation of multifunctional Al-Mg alloy surface with hierarchical micro/nanostructures by selective chemical etching processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tian; Kong, Jianyi; Wang, Xingdong; Li, Xuewu

    2016-12-01

    A superamphiphobic aluminum magnesium alloy surface with enhanced anticorrosion behavior has been prepared in this work via a simple and low-cost method. By successively polishing, etching and boiling treatments, the multifunctional hierarchical binary structures composed of the labyrinth-like concave-convex microstructures and twisty nanoflakes have been prepared. Results indicate that a superhydrophobic contact angle of 160.5° and superoleophobic contact angle larger than 150° as well as low adhesive property to liquids are achieved after such structures being modified with fluoroalkyl-silane. Furthermore, the anticorrosion behaviors in seawater of as-prepared samples are characterized by electrochemical tests including the impedance spectroscopies, equivalent circuits fittings and polarization curves. It is found that the hierarchical micro/nanostructures accompanying with the modified coating are proved to possess the maximal coating coverage rate of 90.0% larger than microstructures of 85.9%, nanostructures of 83.8% and bare polished surface of 67.1% suggesting the optimal anticorrosion. Finally, a great potential application in concentrators for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) analysis of toxic and pollutive ions on the superamphiphobic surface is also confirmed. This work has wider significance in extending further applications of alloys in engineering and environmental detecting fields.

  2. Endowment effects in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayton, Lindsey A; Brosnan, Sarah F; Carrigan, Jodi; Stoinski, Tara S

    2013-11-01

    Reports of endowment effects in nonhuman primates have received considerable attention in the comparative literature in recent years. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these effects. Continuing to explore endowment effects across different species of primate may reveal subtle differences in behavior that can help formulate specific hypotheses about the relevant mechanisms and the social and ecological factors that have shaped them. In this study, we use a paradigm that has previously been used to test chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and orangutans (Pongo spp.) to explore whether western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) exhibit comparable endowment effects. We find that gorillas exhibit endowment effects when in possession of food, but not nonfood, items, and that they show a statistically stronger effect than chimpanzees but not orangutans. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that mechanisms for endowment effects in primates may be related to inhibitory control or risk aversion.

  3. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Tungsten Oxide Micro/Nanostructures%水热法制备微纳结构氧化钨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小青; 饶雪辉; 王吉德; 肖峰; 宿新泰

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten oxides inorganic semiconductor materials have received considerable attention in recent years because of their unique physico-chemical properties and widespread applications in various areas, such as electrochromic (EC) devices, gas sensors, photocatalytic systems, photoelectrochemical devices, and so on. Recently hydrothermal method has been exploited for the preparation of tungsten oxide micro/nanostructures with different sizes and shapes. Combining with our group' s work on the preparation of tungsten oxide micro/ nanomaterials, the progress of preparation of tungsten oxide micro/nanomaterials by hydrothermal method is presented. The key influencing factors, such as the choice of reagents, the reaction time and temperature, are discussed in detail. The development trends of the tungsten oxide micro/nanomaterials fabricated by hydrothermal method are also proposed.%氧化钨(Wox)无机半导体材料因其独特的物理化学性质及在气敏、光催化、电致变色、光致变色和场发射等领域的广泛应用,得到人们的普遍关注.近年来,研究者采用水热法制备出多种不同尺寸和形貌的氧化钨半导体材料.本文结合本课题组在水热法制备WOx粉体方面的最新工作,综述了近十年水热法制备微米及纳米级氧化钨粉体的研究进展,探讨了原料、辅助试剂、表面活性剂、反应时间、反应温度等条件对水热法制备氧化钨粉体材料的影响.最后,对水热法制备氧化钨粉体的发展趋势进行了展望.

  4. Market Collapse Weighs Heavily on College Endowments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemenstyk, Goldie

    2009-01-01

    College endowments earned an average return of minus-3 percent for the 2008 fiscal year and an estimated minus-22.5 percent in the five months after that, two new reports show. More than a quarter of all institutions said they plan to draw less money from their endowment this year than they had expected to spend. After a half-decade of soaring…

  5. Modifying Endowment Spending Rules: Is it the Cure for Overspending?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Roger T.; Woglom, Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    In this article we analyze the dynamics of endowment spending and real endowment values using rules that tie endowment spending to inflation. Numerical examples demonstrate that under a pure inflation rule, spending rates tend to drift away over time from the appropriate rate, leading to either rising or falling real endowment values. Under a…

  6. Facile synthesis of hierarchical CoMn2O4 microspheres with porous and micro-/nanostructural morphology as anode electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yana; Hou, Xianhua; Li, Yajie; Ru, Qiang; Wang, Shaofeng; Hu, Shejun; Lam, Kwok-ho

    2017-09-01

    Hierarchical CoMn2O4 microspheres assembled by nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method and a subsequent annealing treatment. XRD detection indicate the crystal structure. SEM and TEM results reveal the 3-dimensional porous and micro-/nanostructural microsphere assembled by nanoparticles with a size of 20-100 nm. The CoMn2O4 electrode show initial specific discharge capacity of approximately 1546 mAh/g at the current rates 100 mA/g with a coulombic efficiency of 66.7% and remarkable specific capacities (1029-485 mAh/g) at various current rates (100-2800 mA/g). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Why Real Estate Makes Sense for Endowments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Arthur G., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Attributes of real estate that make it a desirable investment for institutional endowment funds include the uniqueness of each property, its function as a hedge against inflation, its function in stabilizing portfolio volatility, and the potential for income and diversification. (MSE)

  8. Endowments as a Source of Library Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Frederick A.

    To obtain private endowments as a source of library funds the following needs to be done: (1) work hard with a definite goal in view; (2) plan a course of action; (3) contact those individuals whom investigations show may help; (4) search out help from newspapers, banks, radio and television stations; (5) consider the employment of a full time…

  9. Why Real Estate Makes Sense for Endowments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Arthur G., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Attributes of real estate that make it a desirable investment for institutional endowment funds include the uniqueness of each property, its function as a hedge against inflation, its function in stabilizing portfolio volatility, and the potential for income and diversification. (MSE)

  10. Integration of Medical Care and Endowment: A New Exploration of Endowment Mode in the Context of Population Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinpeng; XU; Xiaopeng; FU

    2015-01-01

    China’s aging pressure is increasingly serious. The elderly people are difficult to seek medical advice,the elderly dependency ratio is soaring,finance fails to bear such heavy load,and social endowment service pressure is also constantly increasing. Traditional endowment mode is already incapable of satisfying current endowment demands. On the basis of the population aging,this paper came up with the new endowment mode " hospital + nursing home" and analyzed its feasibility. Finally,it reached the conclusion that this endowment mode is helpful for solving problems of endowment and medical care,and alleviating the problem of population aging.

  11. Self-asseblied Polyaniline Micro/nanostructures and Their Applications%聚苯胺微/纳米结构及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱英; 万梅香; 江雷

    2011-01-01

    导电聚合物微/纳米结构保留了轻质、类金属电导率和可逆化学和电化学特性,又具有纳米材料的高比表面积、尺寸和量子效应,它在电子器件、储能器件、传感器件等领域具有广泛的技术应用前景。其中,由于聚苯胺的制备方法简单、原料易得和独特的质子酸掺杂和脱掺杂机制,使聚苯胺微/纳米结构的可控制备及其应用研究已成为当前导电聚合物研究的热点之一。本文结合我们课题组近年来在导电聚苯胺微/纳米结构可控制备、协同效应实现多尺度和多功能化、电学性能的纳米效应及其机理等方面的研究成果,介绍和评价聚苯胺微/纳米结构的制备方法及其在能量存储、传感和生物等领域的最新研究进展。%Micro/nanostructures of conducting polymers not only have the metallic conductivity, and reversible chemical and electrochemical properties and physical properties upon a novel doping/de- doping process, while processing qualities of conventional polymers, but they also have characteristics of nano-materials in general that lead to a large variety of applications especially in light-emitting and electronic devices, chemical sensors, separation membranes, and antistatic coatings. Micro/nano- structured polyaniline (PANI) has attracted a great deal of interest in recent years because of its low cost, ease of preparation, unique chemical and physical properties controlled by the oxidation and protonation state, and excellent environmental stability. Therefore, the controlled synthesis, multifunctional properties created by a cooperation effect and applications of PANI micro/ nanostructures has become one of the hot topics in the area of nano-materials. In the review, the latest advances of synthesis, properties, and applications of the PANI micro/nanostucutures and related materials are presented based of our research achievements of polyaniline micro/nanostructures

  12. Effect of carbonation temperature on CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of CaO derived from micro/nanostructured aragonite CaCO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlaing, Nwe Ni, E-mail: nwenihlaing76@gmail.com [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Yangon, 11041 Kamayut, Yangon (Myanmar); Sreekantan, Srimala, E-mail: srimala@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hinode, Hirofumi, E-mail: hinode@ide.titech.ac.jp; Kurniawan, Winarto, E-mail: Kurniawan.w.ab@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Thant, Aye Aye, E-mail: a2thant@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Yangon, 11041 Kamayut, Yangon (Myanmar); Othman, Radzali, E-mail: radzali@utem.edu.my [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Malacca (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Rahman, E-mail: chrahman@eng.usm.my [Low Carbon Economy (LCE) Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Salime, Chris, E-mail: chris.salim@surya.ac.id [Environmental Engineering, Surya University, Tangerang, 15810 Banten (Indonesia)

    2016-07-06

    Recent years, CaO-based synthetic materials have been attracted attention as potential adsorbents for CO{sub 2} capture mainly due to their high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity. In this study, micro/nanostructured aragonite CaCO{sub 3} was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method with using polyacrylamide (PAM). The structural, morphological and thermal properties of the synthesized sample were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and thermogravimetry analysis (TG-DTA). The XRD and FESEM results showed that the obtained sample was aragonite CaCO{sub 3} with aggregated nanorods and microspheres composed of nanorods. A TG-DTA apparatus with Thermoplus 2 software was used to investigate the effect of carbonation temperature on the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of CaO derived from aragonite CaCO{sub 3} sample. At 300 °C, the sample reached the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 0.098 g-CO{sub 2}/g-adsorbent, whereas the sample achieved the highest capacity of 0.682 g-CO{sub 2}/g-adsorbent at 700 °C. The results showed that the carbonation temperature significantly influenced on the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of the CaO derived from aragonite CaCO{sub 3}.

  13. Legal Origin,Endowment and Financial Development%Legal Origin, Endowment and Financial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世雯

    2016-01-01

    Since the rise of the economic and financial development theory, around economic and financial development of the determinants and what financial arrangements for promoting economic growth and other issues, thus resulted in a variety of im-portant theoretical debate. This paper will Define what is meant by key terms such as legal tradition and endowment, explain the channels through which legal tradition and endowment affect financial development through talking about the relationship be-tween legal origin, initial in endowment and financial development. By comparing different legal traditions or the"Origins"be-tween the The Continental Law System and Common Law System, a comprehensive analysis of the effects of different origin of law on the financial and economic development.

  14. Monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} micro-/nanostructures: Microwave and ultrasonic wave combined synthesis and their visible-light photocatalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yafang; Li, Guangfang; Yang, Xiaohui; Yang, Hao; Lu, Zhong [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and Hubei Novel Reactor and Green Chemical Technology Key Laboratory, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Avenue, Wuhan 430073 (China); Chen, Rong, E-mail: rchenhku@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and Hubei Novel Reactor and Green Chemical Technology Key Laboratory, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Avenue, Wuhan 430073 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Lumo Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-02-25

    Graphical abstract: Monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} with different sizes and morphologies were synthesized by a facile microwave and ultrasonic wave combined technique for the first time and exhibited different optical properties and visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiVO{sub 4} nanostructures were prepared by microwave and ultrasonic wave combined method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiVO{sub 4} nanostructures could be modulated by varying the solvent and pH value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different BiVO{sub 4} nanostructures exhibited different photocatalytic activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalytic performance was influenced by the band gap, phase and size. - Abstract: Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (m-BiVO{sub 4}) micro-/nanostructures with different sizes and morphologies were successfully prepared via a facile and rapid microwave and ultrasonic wave combined technique. The obtained BiVO{sub 4} products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). It was found that the solvent and pH value had a significant influence on morphology, size and crystalline structure of the product. Nut-like, potato-like and broccoli-like monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} were fabricated in different solvents. The crystal phase could be modulated by varying the pH value of reaction system. The photocatalytic activities of the products were also evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The result revealed that the photocatalytic activities of BiVO{sub 4} nanostructures were closely related to the crystalline phase, band gap and particle size. Monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} nanoparticles with small crystal size and large band gap exhibited remarkable photocatalytic performance.

  15. Analysis on management of philanthropic endowment in Chinese universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Dong-jun; WU Ying-jun; ZHANG Mei-feng

    2005-01-01

    Philanthropic endowment, along with government allocation, tuition fee and extra income, is one of the four major means for funding higher education in China. Research on philanthropic endowment is at its beginning stage, and so it is not yet well known. With a view to providing some useful information to our government, universities and society, this paper aims at making a brief analysis of the status quo and management of philanthropic endowment in Chinese universities.

  16. Preparation of micro-nanostructure on titanium implants and its bioactivity%钛合金植入体表面微纳结构构建及其生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕊; 万熠; 艾兴; 王滕; 门博

    2016-01-01

    Surface modification of medical implants was considered as an effective method to improve the cellular behaviors and the integration of tissue onto materials. The micro-nanostructured surface on the titanium alloy was prepared by laser treatment and multiple acid etching. The surface morphologies of different titanium alloy substrates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of micro-nanostructured surfaces on the cellular responses were investigated in vitro by observing hydroxyapatite formation, cell morphology and cell adhesion. The results indicate that the micro-sized structure promoted the adhesion and proliferation of cultured osteoblasts. Furthermore, the micro-nanostructured surface was more conducive to cell adhension stretching compared with the micro-structured surface. All results suggest that the micro-nanostructured surface improved the biocompatibility and integration of tissue onto titanium alloy implants.%医用植入物的表面改性是改善细胞行为、提高植入体骨整合的一种有效方法。通过激光加工及多重酸蚀在钛合金表面制备出微纳复合结构。采用 SEM 对钛合表面形貌进行表征。通过对不同表面形貌的植入体进行体外细胞培养,观察羟基磷灰石的形成、细胞形态及细胞粘附,分析不同表面形貌的生物活性。结果表明:微米结构表面能够促进成骨细胞粘附与铺展;与微米结构表面相比,微纳复合结构表面更有利于细胞粘附与伸展。微纳复合结构能够提高钛合金植入体的生物活性及骨整合能力。

  17. Boeing Company gives again to engineering design team endowment

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 Virginia Tech's Student Engineers' Council announced the creation of an endowment to benefit student design teams at the university. During the fall semester of 2007, The Boeing Company increased the size of this endowment with a gift of $50,000 from its Global Corporate Citizenship disaster relief team budget and a second gift of $15,000 from its grants program.

  18. Colleges Leverage Large Endowments to Benefit Some Donors and Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    College endowments have beaten the market so consistently in recent years, it is not surprising that individuals would like to take advantage of that institutional wisdom to invest their own money. Increasingly, many are. A small but growing number of universities are trying to entice donors to invest their trusts alongside college endowments,…

  19. Trading experience modulates anterior insula to reduce the endowment effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lester C P; Ye, Karen J; Asai, Kentaro; Ertac, Seda; List, John A; Nusbaum, Howard C; Hortaçsu, Ali

    2016-08-16

    People often demand a greater price when selling goods that they own than they would pay to purchase the same goods-a well-known economic bias called the endowment effect. The endowment effect has been found to be muted among experienced traders, but little is known about how trading experience reduces the endowment effect. We show that when selling, experienced traders exhibit lower right anterior insula activity, but no differences in nucleus accumbens or orbitofrontal activation, compared with inexperienced traders. Furthermore, insula activation mediates the effect of experience on the endowment effect. Similar results are obtained for inexperienced traders who are incentivized to gain trading experience. This finding indicates that frequent trading likely mitigates the endowment effect indirectly by modifying negative affective responses in the context of selling.

  20. academic performance of less endowed high school students in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    rently available to describe the determinants of ... Keywords: Performance, less endowed, student, admission, university .... students, we point out the various paths of ad- mission ... near future. .... of educational attainment, occupation and job.

  1. Effective Factor Endowments, Trade Openness and Income Distribution in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaodong Lu; Guowei Cai

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the empirical relationship among factor endowment, trade openness and individual income distribution. Using panel data, we show that factor endowment characters, to some extent, explains income gap in China. First, land and Capital intensive provinces have a more equal income distribution while human capital and labor-intensive provinces have a less equal income distribution. Second, Trade openness has a significant effect on China¡¯s income distribution; the interaction be...

  2. Mere exposure and the endowment effect on consumer decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Gail; Nelson, Carolyn; Srzentic, Tamara; King, Ryan

    2007-03-01

    Previous researchers (e.g., J. A. Bargh, 1992, 2002) demonstrated the importance of nonconscious processes on consumer choice behavior. Using an advertisement, the authors determined the effect of two nonconscious processes--the mere exposure effect, which increases object preference by increasing consumer exposure to an object, and the endowment effect, which increases object valuation by providing consumer possession of an object--on consumer behavior. Although the mere exposure effect and endowment effect did not produce an interaction, they produced independent effects. The endowment effect increased object valuation but not object preference. The mere exposure effect increased object preference but not object valuation. Thus, at the unconscious level, an increase in object preference does not lead to an increase in object valuation, nor does an increase in object valuation lead to an increase in object preference. The authors discuss the importance of developing measures of unconscious process in advertising effectiveness.

  3. Strategies for establishing an endowed chair in a service setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Simmy; Robinson, Nellie C; Feetham, Suzanne; Church, Tracy; Hinds, Pamela S; Talley, Linda B; Williams, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    To advance care for patients and families requires that providers and administrators in clinical settings place a high priority on the scientific domain of nursing. New knowledge intended to benefit nursing care is most effectively and efficiently achieved when a vibrant and well-supported nursing research program is embedded within a health care system. An endowed chair in nursing research is an esteemed strategy acknowledging the contributions of nursing science, providing credibility to a researcher and research programs, and demonstrating commitment to the infrastructure for nursing research. Organizational readiness through leadership; systems thinking; relationship development; and knowledge of the dynamics, process, and expectations of philanthropy are essential to establishing an endowed chair. Philanthropic endeavors can be used to strategically develop a high-impact campaign that resonates across public and private sectors to secure funding to solidify and advance nursing research. By actively engaging stakeholders including system leaders, frontline nurses, and other care providers and development leaders, a successful campaign can establish and sustain an endowed chair in nursing research. This article describes the stakeholders, processes, structure, and outcomes for the first endowed chair in nursing research at Children's National Health System in Washington, DC.

  4. Talent "and" Expertise: The Empirical Evidence for Genetic Endowment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2007-01-01

    In this commentary, the author focuses on the claim summarized in the last sentence of the target article's abstract. To begin, the concept of talent does not require the existence of "innate constraints to the attainment of elite achievement". On the contrary, genetic endowment may merely influence the rate at which domain-specific expertise is…

  5. As Endowment Values Plummet, Some Institutions Consider Suing Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that as many as five colleges or charitable foundations whose endowments have suffered significant investment losses or were unable to access money in their accounts in recent months are considering legal action against their brokers or investment managers, alleging misrepresentation of risk or mismanagement. Jacob H.…

  6. 75 FR 51116 - National Endowment for the Arts;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... five meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... approximate): Arts Education (application review): September 14-15, 2010 in Room 714. A portion of...

  7. Interaction control of an UAV endowed with a manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Jasper L.J; Fumagalli, Matteo; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design, simulation and experimental validation of a control architecture for an unmanned aerial vehicle endowed with a manipulation system and interacting with a remote environment. The goal of this work is to show that the interaction control allows the ma- nipulator t

  8. For Berkeley's Sports Endowment, a Goal of $1-Billion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Josh

    2009-01-01

    Most athletics programs, if forced to raise $300-million to renovate a football stadium, would not set an ambitious endowment goal at the same time. The University of California at Berkeley is trying to do both. The university's California Memorial Stadium sits directly over an earthquake fault: it needs a major seismic retrofit that will take…

  9. Aspects of endowment: a query theory of value construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric J; Häubl, Gerald; Keinan, Anat

    2007-05-01

    How do people judge the monetary value of objects? One clue is provided by the typical endowment study (D. Kahneman, J. L. Knetsch, & R. H. Thaler, 1991), in which participants are randomly given either a good, such as a coffee mug, that they may later sell ("sellers") or a choice between the good and amounts of cash ("choosers"). Sellers typically demand at least twice as much as choosers, inconsistent with economic theory. This result is usually explained by an increased weighting of losses, or loss aversion. The authors provide a memory-based account of endowment, suggesting that people construct values by posing a series of queries whose order differs for sellers and choosers. Because of output interference, these queries retrieve different aspects of the object and the medium of exchange, producing different valuations. The authors show that the content and structure of the recalled aspects differ for selling and choosing and that these aspects predict valuations. Merely altering the order in which queries are posed can eliminate the endowment effect, and changing the order of queries can produce endowment-like effects without ownership.

  10. Endowments at Birth and Parents’ Investments in Children*

    OpenAIRE

    Adhvaryu, Achyuta; Nyshadham, Anant

    2014-01-01

    Do parents invest more in higher quality children, or do they compensate for lower quality by giving more to children with lower endowments? We answer this question in the context of a large-scale iodine supplementation programme in Tanzania. We find that children with higher programme exposure were more likely to receive necessary vaccines and were breastfed for longer. Siblings of treated children were also more likely to be immunised. Fertility behavior and investments at the time of birth...

  11. Discussionon Establishing the System of Rural Society Endowment Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董超; 厉安健

    2011-01-01

    With the development of rural area's economy and society in China,it is imperative to establish the system of rural society endowment insurance.This paper described the significance and the necessity of establishing this system in details.Meanwhile,it also provided the referencial solution to set up the system of old-age insurance for migrant workers and Chinese farmers whose lands are expropriated by the government.

  12. Prospect Theory: A Study of the Endowment Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Sell Macedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral Finance is a recent field of study which contradicts the presupposition supported by Modern Finance that decision makers act rationally. Prospect Theory, developed by Kahneman and Tversky (1979, is presented as an alternative model to the Theory of Expected Utility in relation to the way people decide in face of possibilities of risk. According to Prospect Theory, people define gains and losses based on a given point of reference, which can be established on grounds of a given level of expected gain. This fact leads to the Endowment Effect - a behavioral trend investigated in this study – whereby investors are influenced by a portfolio which they have received as an inheritance or endowment. The reason this occurs is that individuals usually define their expectations of gain according to the future profitability of the portfolio received, and not according to the future profitability of the market. Using an investment simulation, the Endowment Effect was tested among 226 university students taking courses in the subject of capital markets. The results demonstrate that the students were influenced by the different initial portfolios, which were randomly assigned.

  13. 26 CFR 1.264-2 - Single premium life insurance, endowment, or annuity contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Single premium life insurance, endowment, or..., directly or indirectly, to purchase or to continue in effect a single premium life insurance or endowment... payee of such annuity contract. A contract is considered a single premium life insurance, endowment,...

  14. The limits of endowment effects in great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Santos, Laurie R; Hood, Bruce M; Call, Josep

    2011-11-01

    The endowment effect describes the bias that people often value things that they possess more than things they do not possess. Thus, they are often reluctant to trade items in their possession for items of equivalent value. Some nonhuman primates appear to share this bias with humans, but it remains an open question whether they show endowment effects to the same extent as humans do. We investigated endowment effects in all four great ape species (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) by varying whether apes were endowed with food items (Experiment 1, N = 22) or tools that were instrumental in retrieving food (Experiment 2, N = 23). We first assessed apes' preferences for items of a pair and their willingness to trade items in their possession. We then endowed apes with one item of a pair and offered them to trade for the other item. Apes showed endowment effects for food, but not for tools. In Experiment 3, we endowed bonobos (N = 4) and orangutans (N = 5) with either one or 12 food items. Endowment effects did not differ between species and were not influenced by the number of endowed food items. Our findings suggest that endowment effects in great apes are restricted to immediate food gratification and remain unaffected by the quantity of food rewards. However, endowment effects do not seem to extend to other, nonconsumable possessions even when they are instrumental in retrieving food. In general, apes do not show endowment effects across a range of different commodities as humans typically do.

  15. 45 CFR 1159.7 - Will the Endowment collect information from me for its records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will the Endowment collect information from me for... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1159.7 Will the Endowment collect information from me for its records? The Endowment shall collect information, to the greatest extent practicable, directly from you when the...

  16. Deliberate Design of TiO2 Nanostructures towards Superior Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ziqi; Liao, Ting; Sheng, Liyuan; Kou, Liangzhi; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

    2016-08-01

    TiO2 nanostructures are being sought after as flexibly utilizable building blocks for the fabrication of the mesoporous thin-film photoelectrodes that are the heart of the third-generation photovoltaic devices, such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), and the recently promoted perovskite-type solar cells. Here, we report deliberate tailoring of TiO2 nanostructures for superior photovoltaic cells. Morphology engineering of TiO2 nanostructures is realized by designing synthetic protocols in which the precursor hydrolysis, crystal growth, and oligomer self-organization are precisely controlled. TiO2 nanostructures in forms varying from isolated nanocubes, nanorods, and cross-linked nanorods to complex hierarchical structures and shape-defined mesoporous micro-/nanostructures were successfully synthesized. The photoanodes made from the shape-defined mesoporous TiO2 microspheres and nanospindles presented superior performances, owing to the well-defined overall shapes and the inner ordered nanochannels, which allow not only a high amount of dye uptake, but also improved visible-light absorption. This study provides a new way to seek an optimal synthetic protocol to meet the required functionality of the nanomaterials.

  17. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokke, Stacey; Puelles, Victor G.; Armitage, James A.; Fong, Karen; Bertram, John F.; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E)15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN)21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20–25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment. PMID:27547968

  18. Activities of Endowment Funds for the Period of Destabilization of the Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Pavlovich Abaev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Endowment fund is gaining its importance as a source of financing higher education institution, and, therefore, the research of endowments’ activities is an urgent task. The current state of the economy in Russia is most often characterized as recessionary. The article sets the task to assess the conditions of endowment funds in times of crisis, under existing sanctions, lower oil quotations and other factors, as well as to analyze the profitability of endowment funds in this period. The study showed that the slowdown in the economy was reflected in the activities of endowment funds. Yield investment strategies significantly decreased in comparison with previous periods. The evaluation of the impact of various economic and political factors on the activities of endowment funds reveals their weaknesses and justifies the need for new approaches in the work of endowment funds. According to the author, the main problem is the lack of opportunities to invest in high-yield financial instruments (investments in futures, options, etc.. Therefore, in the years of economic instability it is more difficult for management companies to balance the profitability of the investment portfolios of endowment funds. According to a study of thirty endowment funds, yield for 2014 was 4.68 %, which did not exceed inflation. The financial turmoil in the world is reflected in the activities of endowment funds. Thereby giving rise to the need for new approaches in the work of endowment funds would enable them to overcome the existing problems and be more resilient in the future.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of CuO micro-/nanostructures and their applications in the oxidative degradation of methylene blue and non-enzymatic sensing of glucose/H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathap, M U Anu; Kaur, Balwinder; Srivastava, Rajendra

    2012-03-15

    In this paper, we report on the amino acids-/citric acid-/tartaric acid-assisted morphologically controlled hydrothermal synthesis of micro-/nanostructured crystalline copper oxides (CuO). These oxides were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The surface area of metal oxides depends on the amino acid used in the synthesis. The formation mechanisms were proposed based on the experimental results, which show that amino acid/citric acid/tartaric acid and hydrothermal time play an important role in tuning the morphology and structure of CuO. The catalytic activity of as-synthesized CuO was demonstrated by catalytic oxidation of methylene blue in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). CuO synthesized using tyrosine was found to be the best catalyst compared to a variety of CuO synthesized in this study. CuO (synthesized in this study)-modified electrodes were used for the construction of non-enzymatic sensors, which displayed excellent electrocatalytic response for the detection of H(2)O(2) and glucose compared to conventional CuO. The high electrocatalytic response observed for the CuO synthesized using tyrosine can be correlated with the large surface area, which enhances the accessibility of H(2)O(2)/glucose molecule to the active site that results in high observed current. The methodology adopted in the present study provides a new platform for the fabrication of CuO-based high-performance glucose and other biosensors.

  20. Why I Lost My Secretary: The Effect of Endowment Shocks on University Operations. NBER Working Paper No. 15861

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey; Dimmock, Stephen G.; Kang, Jun-Koo; Weisbenner, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, endowments have become an increasingly important component of the typical university's resource base. We examine how U.S. doctoral institutions' endowment payout policies and spending decisions are affected by financial market shocks to endowments. While most endowments have formal payout policies intended to smooth…

  1. Analysis on Endowment of Empty Nesters in Tulu Village of Hunchun City in Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuji; JIN; Meina; JIANG

    2015-01-01

    with expansion of rural empty nesters,endowment of empty nesters has become a hot spot of the society. By means of questionnaire survey and interview,this paper analyzed basic situations of empty nesters in Tulu Village of Hunchun City in Jilin Province,including economic level,physical health,life care,and spirit situations. Next,it discussed major problems in endowment problem of empty nesters,including limited economic support,unoptimistic physical health,low ability of life care,and feeling of loneliness. Finally,it came up with pertinent recommendations on the basis of the analysis,including strengthening family endowment ability and improving socialized endowment service,strengthening practical living ability,improving life care ability with family endowment as primary and community endowment as auxiliary part,and expanding amusement and recreation ways of empty nesters.

  2. No endowment effect when people transact secondhand goods over the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Da Silva; Raul Matsushita; Eliza Silveira

    2015-01-01

    We set up a field experiment of the endowment effect by considering thrift shops in Facebook chat rooms and college chat rooms dedicated to secondhand goods transactions. Owners of goods held for use are generally expected to show the endowment effect, but here we show these very owners (most of them females) switch to a trader-like behavior when conducting transactions in the thrift shops and, as a result, the endowment effect vanishes.

  3. Constructing Index System for Evaluating Work Level in Rural Endowment Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhigang; WANG Yalin

    2008-01-01

    This paper used fuzzy math principles,analyzed different aspects of the work of the current rural endowment insurance and formed the indices to assess the work level of the rural endowment insurance. After selecting the indices of the work level seientificly, constructed the index system to evaluate the work level of the rural endowment insurance and the index system was expressed in the form of math equation.In this way,an objective standard used to evaluate the work level of rural endowment insurance was establised.

  4. The neural correlates of endowment effect without economic transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votinov, Mikhail; Mima, Tatsuya; Aso, Toshihiko; Abe, Mitsunari; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Shinozaki, Jun; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2010-09-01

    People always concern about what they have and what they might lose even it is just imaginary property. According to Prospect Theory, the losses might be weighted by subjects higher than gain, which would cause the disparity between the willingness to accept (WTA) and willingness to pay (WTP) compensation in economic valuation. Using functional MRI, we investigated neural correlates of this inconsistent value estimation, known as the endowment effect, during a simple pricing task without economic transaction. Brain activation associated with this price discrepancy was observed in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), where voxel-based morphometry of MRI revealed the positive correlation between gray matter concentration and WTA/WTP ratio. These findings suggest the functional relevance of IFG in WTA/WTP discrepancy for pricing without any actual gain and loss, where an integration of loss aversion-related signals from insula and expected value signals may occur.

  5. Proceedings of the ENDOW Workshop 'Offshore Wakes: measurements and Modelling'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The papers presented in these Proceedings are the result of a workshop held at Risø National Laboratory on March 7 and 8 2002 entitled 'Offshore Wakes: Measurements and Modelling'. The Workshop was arranged to showcase results of the European Communitysupported project 'Efficient Development...... of Offshore Windfarms (ENDOW)' and featured a series of eight presentations discussing modelling of wakes and boundary layers, existing and new measurements from offshore wind farms and how these will be linked ina new design tool and applied at planned offshore wind farms. In addition seven invited...... presentations covered a range of relevant topics from analytical approaches to fatigue and extreme loads in wind turbine clusters, current wake modelling in WAsP,optimising power production at Arklow Bank, Particle Image Velocimetry study of a wind turbine wake in a yaw, offshore wind measurements...

  6. Endocrine and other physiologic modulators of perinatal cardiomyocyte endowment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, S S; Louey, S

    2015-01-01

    Immature contractile cardiomyocytes proliferate to rapidly increase cell number, establishing cardiomyocyte endowment in the perinatal period. Developmental changes in cellular maturation, size and attrition further contribute to cardiac anatomy. These physiological processes occur concomitant with a changing hormonal environment as the fetus prepares itself for the transition to extrauterine life. There are complex interactions between endocrine, hemodynamic and nutritional regulators of cardiac development. Birth has been long assumed to be the trigger for major differences between the fetal and postnatal cardiomyocyte growth patterns, but investigations in normally growing sheep and rodents suggest this may not be entirely true; in sheep, these differences are initiated before birth, while in rodents they occur after birth. The aim of this review is to draw together our understanding of the temporal regulation of these signals and cardiomyocyte responses relative to birth. Further, we consider how these dynamics are altered in stressed and suboptimal intrauterine environments. PMID:26432905

  7. Through the Lens of Maslow's Hierarchy: Understanding Endowment Accumulation at Private Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flabiano, Heather Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been questioned regarding their use of endowments, with critics maintaining that these assets have significance beyond the financial benefits they provide and suggesting that institutions hoard endowment to attain unnecessary intangibles such as prestige. A few scholars have attempted to study the purposes of…

  8. Through the Lens of Maslow's Hierarchy: Understanding Endowment Accumulation at Private Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flabiano, Heather Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been questioned regarding their use of endowments, with critics maintaining that these assets have significance beyond the financial benefits they provide and suggesting that institutions hoard endowment to attain unnecessary intangibles such as prestige. A few scholars have attempted to study the purposes of…

  9. The Boeing Company gives $50,000 to Student Design Team Endowment

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2007-01-01

    Last April, Virginia Tech's Student Engineers' Council (SEC) announced the creation of an endowment to benefit student design teams at the university. With the beginning of the fall semester, The Boeing Company increased the size of this endowment with a gift of $50,000 from its Global Corporate Citizenship (GCC) disaster relief team budget.

  10. 76 FR 62094 - National Endowment for the Arts; National Council on the Arts 174th Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; National Council on the Arts 174th Meeting... hereby given that a meeting of the National Council on the Arts will be held on October 28, 2011 in Room..., please contact the Office of AccessAbility, National Endowment for the Arts, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue,...

  11. 36 CFR 1281.14 - What type of endowment is required for a Presidential library?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required for a Presidential library? 1281.14 Section 1281.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.14 What type of endowment is required for a Presidential library? (a) Endowment requirement—new libraries. The foundation or...

  12. Debt, investment and endowment accumulation: the case of not-for-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, William M

    2002-09-01

    Not-for-profit hospitals benefit from special tax rules that allow state authorities to issue tax-exempt bonds on their behalf, which may affect their investment and financing choices. Hospitals may respond by increasing their investment in physical assets; however, they may also engage in tax arbitrage by using the tax-exempt debt while maintaining endowment assets. The paper combines data from tax (information) returns and the annual survey of hospitals by the American Hospital Association for 1993-1996. Overall, the results are consistent with substantial tax planning by not-for-profit hospitals. Of the US$ 55.9 billion in tax-exempt liabilities of hospitals in 1996, as much as US$ 32.6 billion could have been eliminated if hospitals spent their endowments instead of borrowing. Furthermore, controlling for hospital size (in terms of revenues and operating assets), endowment assets are associated with a higher ratio of tax-exempt (or total) debt to operating assets. In contrast, endowment assets are not related to taxable debt suggesting that the effects of the endowment on borrowing are motivated by tax incentives. Investment and endowment accumulation regressions suggest that increases in debt increase both physical investment and endowment accumulation but these effects are concentrated among cash-rich hospitals for which the effects on endowment accumulation effects are larger than the effects on physical investment.

  13. Current Situation and Demand of Rural Endowment Security in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunmei; LIU; Lutang; LI

    2013-01-01

    With intensification of population aging and rise in elderly dependency ratio,the demand for endowment security becomes higher and higher,particularly in rural areas.Taking Shaanxi Province as an example,the authors selected people older than 65 in 18 natural villages in north Shaanxi,south Shaanxi and Guanzhong.With the aid of survey data and related official statistical data,they made an evaluation of current situation of the rural endowment security in Shaanxi Province.Results indicate that home-based endowment is the major endowment method of rural elderly,but such method is influenced by family’s economic support ability and children’s support willingness,thus facing big demand gap.On the basis of analyzing gap problem,the authors recommended that government should increase financial and policy supports,optimize management and monitoring,actively develop non-government organizations,and promote socialization of rural endowment service.

  14. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  15. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  16. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  17. In Situ Binding Sb Nanospheres on Graphene via Oxygen Bonds as Superior Anode for Ultrafast Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fang; Guo, Jin-Zhi; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Yan, Qingyu; Han, Dong-Xue; Niu, Li; Wu, Xing-Long

    2016-03-01

    Graphene incorporation should be one effective strategy to develop advanced electrode materials for a sodium-ion battery (SIB). Herein, the micro/nanostructural Sb/graphene composite (Sb-O-G) is successfully prepared with the uniform Sb nanospheres (∼100 nm) bound on the graphene via oxygen bonds. It is revealed that the in-situ-constructed oxygen bonds play a significant role on enhancing Na-storage properties, especially the ultrafast charge/discharge capability. The oxygen-bond-enhanced Sb-O-G composite can deliver a high capacity of 220 mAh/g at an ultrahigh current density of 12 A/g, which is obviously superior to the similar Sb/G composite (130 mAh/g at 10 A/g) just without Sb-O-C bonds. It also exhibits the highest Na-storage capacity compared to Sb/G and pure Sb nanoparticles as well as the best cycling performance. More importantly, this Sb-O-G anode achieves ultrafast (120 C) energy storage in SIB full cells, which have already been shown to power a 26-bulb array and calculator. All of these superior performances originate from the structural stability of Sb-O-C bonds during Na uptake/release, which has been verified by ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies and infrared spectroscopies.

  18. 34 CFR 628.46 - How shall a grantee calculate the amount of endowment fund income that it may withdraw and spend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENDOWMENT CHALLENGE GRANT PROGRAM What Conditions Must a Grantee Meet Under the Endowment Challenge Grant..., it must— (1) Determine the value of endowment fund income by subtracting the endowment fund corpus from the current total value of the endowment fund on that date; and (2) Calculate the amount...

  19. 34 CFR 628.44 - When and for what purposes may a grantee use the endowment fund corpus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... endowment fund corpus? 628.44 Section 628.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... for what purposes may a grantee use the endowment fund corpus? (a)(1) During the grant period, a grantee may not withdraw or spend any part of the endowment fund corpus. (2) If, during the grant...

  20. PERSISTENT LEFT SUPERIOR VENACAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A Persistent Left Superior Venacava (PLSVC is the most common variation of the thoracic venous system and rare congenital vascular anomaly and is prevalent in 0.3% of the population. It may be associated with other cardiovascular abnormalities including atrial septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of aorta, coronary sinus ostial atresia, and cor triatriatum. Incidental rotation of a dilated coronary sinus on echocardiography should raise the suspicion of PLSVC. The diagnosis should be confirmed by saline contrast echocardiography. Condition is usually asymptomatic. Here we present a rare case of persistent left superior vena cava presented in OPD with dyspnoea & palpitations.

  1. Facile synthesis of hierarchical micro/nanostructured MnO material and its excellent lithium storage property and high performance as anode in a MnO/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Liang; Xu, Yue-Feng; Fang, Jun-Chuan; Fu, Fang; Sun, Hui; Huang, Ling; Yang, Shihe; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2013-07-10

    Hierarchical micro/nanostructured MnO material is synthesized from a precursor of MnCO3 with olive shape that is obtained through a facile one-pot hydrothermal procedure. The hierarchical micro/nanostructured MnO is served as anode of lithium ion battery together with a cathode of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) material, which is synthesized also from the precursor of MnCO3 with olive shape through a different calcination process. The structures and compositions of the as-prepared materials are characterized by TGA, XRD, BET, SEM, and TEM. Electrochemical tests of the MnO materials demonstrate that it exhibit excellent lithium storage property. The MnO material in a MnO/Li half cell can deliver a reversible capacity of 782.8 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at a rate of 0.13 C, and a stable discharge capacity of 350 mAh g(-1) at a high rate of 2.08 C. Based on the outstanding electrochemical property of the MnO material and the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) as well, the MnO/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) full cell has demonstrated a high discharge specific energy ca. 350 Wh kg(-1) after 30 cycles at 0.1 C with an average high working voltage at 3.5 V and a long cycle stability. It can release a discharge specific energy of 227 Wh kg(-1) after 300 cycles at a higher rate of 0.5 C. Even at a much higher rate of 20 C, the MnO/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) full cell can still deliver a discharge specific energy of 145.5 Wh kg(-1). The excellent lithium storage property of the MnO material and its high performance as anode in the MnO/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) lithium ion battery is mainly attributed to its hierarchical micro/nanostructure, which could buffer the volume change and shorten the diffusion length of Li(+) during the charge/discharge processes.

  2. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  3. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  4. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  5. Statistics of superior records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistics of records in a sequence of random variables. These identical and independently distributed variables are drawn from the parent distribution ρ. The running record equals the maximum of all elements in the sequence up to a given point. We define a superior sequence as one where all running records are above the average record expected for the parent distribution ρ. We find that the fraction of superior sequences SN decays algebraically with sequence length N, SN˜N-β in the limit N→∞. Interestingly, the decay exponent β is nontrivial, being the root of an integral equation. For example, when ρ is a uniform distribution with compact support, we find β=0.450265. In general, the tail of the parent distribution governs the exponent β. We also consider the dual problem of inferior sequences, where all records are below average, and find that the fraction of inferior sequences IN decays algebraically, albeit with a different decay exponent, IN˜N-α. We use the above statistical measures to analyze earthquake data.

  6. Frenillo labial superior doble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Albornoz López del Castillo

    Full Text Available El frenillo labial superior doble no sindrómico es una anomalía del desarrollo que no hemos encontrado reportada en la revisión bibliográfica realizada. Se presenta una niña de 11 años de edad que fue remitida al servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "Eduardo Agramonte Piña", de Camagüey, por presentar un frenillo labial superior doble de baja inserción. Se describen los síntomas clínicos asociados a esta anomalía y el tratamiento quirúrgico utilizado para su solución: una frenectomía y plastia sobre la banda muscular frénica anormal que provocaba exceso de tejido en la mucosa labial. Consideramos muy interesante la descripción de este caso, por no haber encontrado reporte similar en la literatura revisada.

  7. ENDOWMENTS: THEIR PLACE IN THE SYSTEM OF FINANCING OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND EXPERIENCE OF THEIR USE IN RUSSIA AND ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Leonov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper demonstrates that existing methods of financing of organizations of higher education in Russia cannot be used as a supporting ttool for knowledge production, which leads to decrease in quality of educational services in the field of higher education. Endowments are proposed as a tool of financing. Endowment statistics for Russia and other countries is given. Obstacles that hinder development of endowments in Russia are analyzed.

  8. Overbidding and heterogeneous behavior in contest experiments: A comment on the endowment effect

    OpenAIRE

    Subhasish M. Chowdhury; Moffatt, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the meta-analysis of Sheremeta (2013) on overbidding in contest experiments and focus on the effect of endowment on overbidding. Whereas Sheremeta (2013) assumes that there is a monotonic relationship between endowment and overbidding in his meta-analysis, Baik et al. (2014) find an inverted-U shaped relationship in the analysis of a single experiment. We use the same data as in Sheremeta (2013), but employ a different econometric model which leads to support for the inverted-U sha...

  9. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  10. Cost vs. Market Value: The Case for Reporting Endowment Investments at Market Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Harold

    1992-01-01

    The difference between cost and market value of endowment investments is significant for many colleges and universities. These investments should always be reported at market value to provide relevant, comparable, consistent, and understandable financial information. Nonmanagement users of institutional financial statements prefer market rather…

  11. A Bull Market Gave Colleges 18% Return on Endowments in 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Martin

    1999-01-01

    A national survey of 346 private and 162 public colleges found that the number of institution with billion-dollar endowments grew from 25 to 31, and that all responding institutions had at least some return on investments, ranging from 3.7% to 38% The greatest change was an increase in the amount of money invested in hedge funds. (MSE)

  12. 76 FR 16842 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...): Arts Education (application review): April 14, 2011, by teleconference. This meeting, from 1 p.m. to...

  13. 76 FR 20719 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... nine meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... recommendations on financial assistance under the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of...

  14. 76 FR 81542 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy Hanks...): Media Arts (application review): January 24-26, 2012 in Room 716. A portion of this meeting, from 3...

  15. 75 FR 63516 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... twelve meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy.... each day, will be closed. Arts Education (application review): November 1-5, 2010 in Room 716....

  16. 75 FR 32817 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... eight meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... a.m. to 3:30 p.m. on July 16th, will be closed. Visual Arts (application review): July 13-16,...

  17. 76 FR 59447 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... two meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...): Arts Education (application review): October 24-26, 2011 in Room 627. This meeting, from 9 a.m. to 6...

  18. 75 FR 26284 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... nine meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...:30 p.m. EDT, will be closed. Folk and Traditional Arts (application review): June 3-4, 2010 in...

  19. 75 FR 41902 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... three meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... assistance under the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, as amended,...

  20. 76 FR 41308 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... two meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... financial assistance under the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, as...

  1. 75 FR 35845 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... three meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, as amended, including information given...

  2. 76 FR 28244 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy..., evaluation, and recommendations on financial assistance under the National Foundation on the Arts and...

  3. 75 FR 44815 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy..., discussion, evaluation, and recommendations on financial assistance under the National Foundation on the...

  4. 76 FR 28101 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... eleven meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... approximate): Folk and Traditional Arts (application review): June 1-2, 2011 in Room 716. This meeting, from...

  5. 76 FR 35049 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... eleven meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... approximate). All meetings will be closed. Visual Arts (application review): July 6-8, 2011 in Room...

  6. 75 FR 11940 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to section 10(a... meeting of the Arts Advisory Committee will be held by teleconference from 1 p.m. to 1:20 p.m. (ending..., discussion, evaluation, and recommendations on financial assistance under the National Foundation on the...

  7. 76 FR 13240 - National Endowment for the Arts; National Council on the Arts 172nd Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; National Council on the Arts 172nd Meeting... hereby given that a meeting of the National Council on the Arts will be held on March 24-25 2011 in Rooms... meeting will begin with opening remarks by the Chairman, followed by presentations on Arts...

  8. 75 FR 69474 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... eleven meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... approximate): Visual Arts (application review): November 30-December 2, 2010 in Room 716. This meeting, from...

  9. 76 FR 78316 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... eleven meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... approximate): Media Arts (application review): January 10-12, 2012 in Room 627. This meeting, from 9 a.m. to...

  10. 75 FR 2163 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... eight meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, as amended, including...

  11. 75 FR 77674 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... nine meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... approximate): State and Regional/Arts Education (review of State Arts Agency Partnership Agreements):...

  12. 76 FR 70510 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a... ten meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... approximate): Arts Education (application review): November 29-December 2, 2011 in Room 714. This...

  13. 75 FR 19664 - National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-8613] NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, notice is hereby given that four meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to...

  14. NMR study of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives endowed with long alkyl and functionalized chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, Margarita; Salfran, Esperanza; Rodriguez, Hortensia; Coro, Julieta, E-mail: msuarez@fq.uh.c [Universidad de La Habana (Cuba). Facultad de Quimica. Lab. de Sintesis Organica; Molero, Dolores; Saez, Elena [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). CAI-RMN; Martinez-Alvarez, Roberto; Martin, Nazario [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica I

    2011-07-01

    The {sup 1}H , {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N NMR spectroscopic data for 1,4-dihydropyridine endowed with long alkyl and functionalized chain on C-3 and C-5, have been fully assigned by combination of one- and two dimensional experiments (DEPT, HMBC, HMQC, COSY, nOe). (author)

  15. 45 CFR 1159.13 - In what other situations will the Endowment disclose its records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations published at 45 CFR part 1100; (3) For a routine use as published in the annual notice in the... disclose its records? 1159.13 Section 1159.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1159.13 In what other situations will the Endowment disclose its...

  16. The Endowed Schools Act, 1869 -- A Middle-Class Conspiracy? The South-West Lancashire Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    The exclusion of poor scholars from the grammar schools of South-West Lancashire resulted from the economic and social conditions of mid-nineteenth century England rather than to the passage of the Endowed Schools Act in 1869. (Author/WM)

  17. 34 CFR 628.5 - What regulations apply to the Endowment Challenge Grant Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Program? 628.5 Section 628.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ENDOWMENT CHALLENGE GRANT PROGRAM....217. (iv) 34 CFR part 79 (Intergovernmental Review of Department of Education Programs and...

  18. Autonomy or Oligarchy? The Changing Effects of University Endowments in Winner-Take-All Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Heinz-Dieter; Zhou, Kai

    2017-01-01

    This paper directs attention to important changes in the role and funding of elite private universities in the USA. At the center of these changes is the private endowment--an institution that has for much of its history been a pivotal element of innovation and autonomy, but which is recently tilting towards the production and reproduction of…

  19. Marketing Strategies for a Low Endowment Private University in the 1990's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Harlan P.; Berger, Karen

    1993-01-01

    It is suggested that low-endowment private universities must apply better marketing techniques in strategic planning to ensure survival. Recommendations are made for using market research effectively, identifying new markets, and directing media communication accurately. The student's role as consumer is seen as the starting point for product and…

  20. 45 CFR 1150.23 - How will the Endowment coordinate salary offsets with other agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS COLLECTION OF... entitled to payments from the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund or other similar payments that... prohibited, that money due and payable to the employee from the Civil Service Retirement and Disability...

  1. 27 CFR 70.164 - Surrender of property subject to levy in the case of life insurance and endowment contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subject to levy in the case of life insurance and endowment contracts. 70.164 Section 70.164 Alcohol... the case of life insurance and endowment contracts. (a) In general. This section provides special rules relating to the surrender of property subject to levy in the case of life insurance and...

  2. 26 CFR 1.61-10 - Alimony and separate maintenance payments; annuities; income from life insurance and endowment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; annuities; income from life insurance and endowment contracts. 1.61-10 Section 1.61-10 Internal Revenue... separate maintenance payments; annuities; income from life insurance and endowment contracts. (a) In general. Alimony and separate maintenance payments, annuities, and income from life insurance...

  3. 45 CFR 1159.5 - What government entities will the Endowment notify of proposed changes to its systems of records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What government entities will the Endowment notify of proposed changes to its systems of records? 1159.5 Section 1159.5 Public Welfare Regulations... ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1159.5 What government entities will...

  4. 75 FR 32818 - National Endowment for the Arts; National Council on the Arts 170th Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; National Council on the Arts 170th Meeting... hereby given that a meeting of the National Council on the Arts will be held on June 24-25, 2009 in Rooms... of this meeting, from 12:30 p.m.-2 p.m. on June 24th, will be closed for National Medal of...

  5. Endowments, power, and democracy: Political economy of multilateral commitments on trade in services

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In spite of their growing importance in international trade as well as in bilateral and multilateral trade negotiations, services have only attracted limited attention from researchers interested in determinants of trade policies and trade cooperation. This paper seeks to account for countries' varying levels of market access commitments under the multilateral General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). I develop an argument suggesting how levels of democracy and factor endowments are asso...

  6. Analysis on the Optimization of New Rural Social Endowment Insurance in Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the investigation on the status quo of pilot area of rural endowment insurance in Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan,farmers’ demand on insuance in the new pilot area of rural endowment insurance is expounded from two aspects:farmers’ awareness on insurance is increasing gradually;farmers’ ability on insuring is increasing.The growing demand of farmers on insuring and the conflicts between the supply of rural endowment insurance and the system construction are analyzed.The problems are inadequate input of funds,low level of social security;imperfect fund-collecting mechanism,serious vacancy;low level of fund management and operation,poor ability of inflation-proofing and appreciation;backward laws and regulations and instability of system.On the strength of the analysis above,the government should innovate and compound fund-collecting mechanism;establish "G-C-F" three-pillar model and set up "BSI" the third party custodian;accelerate the legislation of new rural pension system so as to push forward the optimization of new rural pension insurance system in Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan.

  7. 泡沫镍负载 Cu/CuO 微纳结构的制备及其对抗坏血酸的检测研究%Synthesis of Ni Foam-Modified Cu/CuO Micro/Nanostructures and Their Application in AA Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彩凤; 秦丽溶; 赵建伟; 贾小亚

    2015-01-01

    利用水热法制备了高电活性的泡沫镍负载Cu/CuO微纳结构 ,形貌与成分分析表明 ,该电极材料从内到外共包含泡沫镍基体、Cu微米颗粒层和CuO纳米结构层三层结构 .电化学测试发现该复合材料在碱性介质中对抗坏血酸具有很好的电催化氧化特性 ,其灵敏度达到6.14 mA/(mmol/L · cm2 ) ,探测范围为1~2.5 mmol/L .%Cu/CuO micro/nanostructures were fabricated on the surface of porous Ni foam by the hydro-thermal method .The products were characterized by XRD ,SEM and EDS .The results revealed that the materials produced were composed of three parts :the Ni foam ,the Cu microparticles and CuO nanostruc-tures .Electrochemical analysis showed that this composite material displayed excellent electrochemical sensitivity and rapid response in detecting AA (ascorbic acid) in an alkaline medium .The sensitivity of the biosensor was found to be 6 .14 mA/(mmol/L · cm2 ) .The linear range for the detection was 1.0 μmol/L to 2.5 mmol/L .

  8. Exploring the effects of working for endowments on behaviour in standard economic games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya Harrison

    Full Text Available In recent years, significant advances have been made in understanding the adaptive (ultimate and mechanistic (proximate explanations for the evolution and maintenance of cooperation. Studies of cooperative behaviour in humans invariably use economic games. These games have provided important insights into the mechanisms that maintain economic and social cooperation in our species. However, they usually rely on the division of monetary tokens which are given to participants by the investigator. The extent to which behaviour in such games may reflect behaviour in the real world of biological markets--where money must be earned and behavioural strategies incur real costs and benefits--is unclear. To provide new data on the potential scale of this problem, we investigated whether people behaved differently in two standard economic games (public goods game and dictator game when they had to earn their monetary endowments through the completion of dull or physically demanding tasks, as compared with simply being given the endowment. The requirement for endowments to be 'earned' through labour did not affect behaviour in the dictator game. However, the requirement to complete a dull task reduced cooperation in the public goods game among the subset of participants who were not familiar with game theory. There has been some effort to test whether the conclusions drawn from standard, token-based cooperation games adequately reflect cooperative behaviour 'in the wild.' However, given the almost total reliance on such games to study cooperation, more exploration of this issue would be welcome. Our data are not unduly worrying, but they do suggest that further exploration is needed if we are to make general inferences about human behaviour from the results of structured economic games.

  9. 养老保险基金研究%A Study on Endowment Insurance Fund

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文斌; 李乐乐; 宋超; 张道棋

    2012-01-01

    本文通过对我国基本养老保险中的“社会统筹”与“个人账户”中的有关数据进行了合理地分析和预测。在我国现行的养老保险制度的基础上,对1978年到2010年山东省职工的年平均工资用matlab进行了指数函数曲线拟合。预测出2011到2035年的年平均工资,从而预测出某企业在2000年-2034年的职工月工资和缴费指数。求出了各年龄段的替代率。计算了养老保险基金的缺口情况。通过lingo软件计算得出满足目标替代率和达到收支平衡时可采取的措施。%In this paper, relational data of society planing as a whole and individual account in Chinese basic endowment insurance are analyzed reasonably and forecasted. In Chinese current endowment insurance system, from 1978 to 2010, average wage of a year in ShanDong province are polyfited by matlab. We forecast average wage of a year from 2011 to 2035 and average wage of a month and paying index from 2000 to 2034 in a enterprise. Substituting probability of every age is solved. Insufficiency of endowment insurance fund is computed. Adopting measure of satisfying big substituting probability and achieving balance of income and outgo is computed by lingo.

  10. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles and responsibilities. DATES... of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee members; Election of... Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  11. [The superior laryngeal nerve and the superior laryngeal artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J; Nachbaur, S; Fischer, K; Vogel, E

    1987-01-01

    Length, diameter and anastomoses of the nervus vagus and its ganglion inferius were measured 44 halved heads. On the average, 8.65 fiber bundles of the vagus nerve leave the retro-olivary area. In the area of the jugular foramen is the near superior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve. In this area were found 1.48 (mean value) anastomoses with the 9th cranial nerve. 11.34 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea branches off the ramus internus of the accessory nerve which has a length of 9.75 mm. Further anastomoses with the 10th cranial nerve were found. The inferior ganglion of the 10th nerve had a length of 25.47 mm and a diameter of 3.46 mm. Five mm below the ganglion the 10th nerve had a width of 2.9 and a thickness of 1.5 mm. The mean length of the superior sympathetic ganglion was 26.6 mm, its width 7.2 and its thickness 3.4 mm. In nearly all specimens anastomoses of the superior sympathetic ganglion with the ansa cervicalis profunda and the inferior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve were found. The superior laryngeal nerve branches off about 36 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea. The width of this nerve was 1.9 mm, its thickness 0.8 mm on the right and 1.0 mm on the left side. The division in the internal and external rami was found about 21 mm below its origin. Between the n. vagus and thyreohyoid membrane the ramus internus had a length of 64 mm, the length of external ramus between the vagal nerve and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle was 89 mm. Its mean length below the thyreopharyngeal part was 10.7 mm, 8.6 branchlets to the cricothyroid muscle were counted. The superior laryngeal artery had its origin in 80% of cases in the superior thyroideal artery, in 6.8% this vessel was a branch of the external carotid artery. Its average outer diameter was 1.23 mm on the right side and 1.39 mm on the left. The length of this vessel between its origin and the thyreohyoid membrane was 34 mm. In 7% on the right side and in 13% on the left, the superior

  12. A Crucial Nexus: Literacy, Endowment and Public Consultation in Energy Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, Steven

    2010-09-15

    Private and public organizations around the world are grappling with several challenging energy issues. In Canada, a recent poll showed that, despite the country's status as an energy exporter, citizens have mixed views on their energy literacy and influence over energy-related decision making. The energy endowment of Canada's varied regions partially explains these findings, but the overall picture is more complex. This research speaks to broader themes in the global energy dialogue such as the contributions of literacy to energy development, the role of public consultation in energy decision making and the value of money in motivating energy-efficiency behaviour.

  13. What are Millian Qualitative Superiorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Riley

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In an article published in Prolegomena 2006, Christoph Schmidt-Petri has defended his interpretation and attacked mine of Mill’s idea that higher kinds of pleasure are superior in quality to lower kinds, regardless of quantity. Millian qualitative superiorities as I understand them are infinite superiorities. In this paper, I clarify my interpretation and show how Schmidt-Petri has misrepresented it and ignored the obvious textual support for it. As a result, he fails to understand how genuine Millian qualitative superiorities determine the novel structure of Mill’s pluralistic utilitarianism, in which a social code of justice that distributes equal rights and duties takes absolute priority over competing considerations. Schmidt-Petri’s own interpretation is a non-starter, because it does noteven recognize that Mill is talking about different kinds of pleasant feelings, such that the higher kinds are intrinsically more valuable than the lower. I conclude by outlining why my interpretation is free of any metaphysical commitment to the “essence” of pleasure.

  14. Isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Palle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA dissection without involvement of the aorta and the SMA origin is unusual. We present a case of an elderly gentleman who had chronic abdominal pain, worse after meals. CT angiography, performed on a 64-slice CT scanner, revealed SMA dissection with a thrombus. A large artery of Drummond was also seen. The patient was managed conservatively.

  15. A escrita no Ensino Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição Pillon Christofoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198464445865 O presente artigo trata de apresentar resultados oriundos de pesquisa realizada no Ensino Superior, enfocando a escrita em contextos universitários. Depoimentos por parte dos acadêmicos evidenciam certa resistência ao ato de escrever, o que acaba muitas vezes distanciando o sujeito da produção de um texto. Assim sendo, mesmo que parciais, os resultados até então analisados dão conta de que: pressuposto 1 – há ruptura da ideia de coerência entre o que pensamos, o que conseguimos escrever, o que entende nosso interlocutor; pressuposto 2 – a autocorreção de textos como exercício de pesquisa é imprescindível para a qualificação da escrita; pressuposto 3 – os diários de aula representam rico instrumento para a qualificação da escrita no Ensino Superior; pressuposto 4 – há necessidade de que o aluno do Ensino Superior escreva variados tipos de escrita, ainda que a universidade cumpra com seu papel, enfatizando a escrita acadêmica; pressuposto 5 – o trabalho com a escrita no Ensino Superior deve enfatizar os componentes básicos da expressão escrita: o código escrito e a composição da escrita. Palavras-chave: Escrita; Ensino Superior; formação de professores.

  16. The endowment edifices of Nikola Spasic and his fund in Knez-Mihailova street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borić Tijana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nikola Spasic (1838-1916, famous merchant and Serbian benefactor, gave a tremendous contribution to the architectural development of our recent past The area of Knez-Mihailova street preserves four magnificent edifices that Nikola Spasic bequeathed to the Serbian people, and those buildings are Spasic’s family house, the House of Serbian National Invalid Fund Saint George, Sloga palace and Grand passage. The plans for these buildings were drawn up by the most notable Serbian architects during the times of extreme scarcity and difficulties. Therefore, Spasic’s endowment edifices represent important testimony of the genesis of Serbian capital urban tissue. The creation of modern city and an uncritical hostile attitude toward the monuments of the epoch of academism, as well as the insufficiently researched field of our recent architectural past, have altogether made that many of valuable buildings have been destroyed or lost over the time. Because of carelessness and ignorance, Spasic’s endowment edifices sank into oblivion and reached us as neglected and of changed form. Nowadays, when the professional architectural revision of the role of the past is undertaken the researches of these important monuments, their evaluation and quality contribute to the creation of the proper critical judgment about our architecture.

  17. 新农保与城保的衔接路径——以河北省为倒%Joining Path between the New Rural Endowment Insurance and Urban Endowment Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳坤; 王晓亚

    2012-01-01

    以新农保与城保的衔接为出发点,分析了河北省社会养老保险制度衔接的障碍因素,提出以“个人账户”为其衔接点,并据此建立了新农保与城保制度衔接的模式和具体操作方案.%Starting from joining between new rural endowment insurance and urban endowment insurance, the restrained factors for social endowment insurance system joining in Hebei Province were analyzed. With individual account as joining point, the joining model and specific operation scheme were established.

  18. Pensamiento Superior y Desarrollo Territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Racancoj Alonzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta reflexión pretende explicar el papel, fundamental, que juega el pensamiento superior, en la formulación y la práctica de modelos de desarrollo territorial local; para que contribuyan de forma sustantiva, en la transformación de las condiciones socioeconómicas adversas que hoy viven comunidades indígenas y rurales de muchos países, como Guatemala, situación que puede resumirse en altos índices de pobreza y desnutrición. Pero, el pensamiento superior, debe ser competencia de la población con pertenencia a lo local, pues si y solo si esta condición existe, se dará validez y viabilidad al desarrollo territorial. Para alcanzar competencias de pensamiento superior, en los espacios locales, se tiene que superar obstáculos en el modelo de universidad, que hoy estamos familiarizados a ver y pensar; modelos que tienen las características de: herencia colonial, disfunción con la problemática económica, cultural, social y política de la sociedad y la negación de los saberes ancestrales.

  19. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach.

  20. The number of fetal nephron progenitor cells limits ureteric branching and adult nephron endowment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian, Cristina; Asai, Naoya; D'Agati, Vivette; Costantini, Frank

    2014-04-10

    Nephrons, the functional units of the kidney, develop from progenitor cells (cap mesenchyme [CM]) surrounding the epithelial ureteric bud (UB) tips. Reciprocal signaling between UB and CM induces nephrogenesis and UB branching. Although low nephron number is implicated in hypertension and renal disease, the mechanisms that determine nephron number are obscure. To test the importance of nephron progenitor cell number, we genetically ablated 40% of these cells, asking whether this would limit kidney size and nephron number or whether compensatory mechanisms would allow the developing organ to recover. The reduction in CM cell number decreased the rate of branching, which in turn allowed the number of CM cells per UB tip to normalize, revealing a self-correction mechanism. However, the retarded UB branching impaired kidney growth, leaving a permanent nephron deficit. Thus, the number of fetal nephron progenitor cells is an important determinant of nephron endowment, largely via its effect on UB branching.

  1. Final report for the endowment of simulator agents with human-like episodic memory LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Lippitt, Carl Edward; Thomas, Edward Victor; Xavier, Patrick Gordon; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schaller, Mark J.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2003-12-01

    This report documents work undertaken to endow the cognitive framework currently under development at Sandia National Laboratories with a human-like memory for specific life episodes. Capabilities have been demonstrated within the context of three separate problem areas. The first year of the project developed a capability whereby simulated robots were able to utilize a record of shared experience to perform surveillance of a building to detect a source of smoke. The second year focused on simulations of social interactions providing a queriable record of interactions such that a time series of events could be constructed and reconstructed. The third year addressed tools to promote desktop productivity, creating a capability to query episodic logs in real time allowing the model of a user to build on itself based on observations of the user's behavior.

  2. Quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide: a versatile scaffold endowed with manifold activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, A; Corona, P; Loriga, M

    2005-01-01

    Since 1940s, Quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides (QdNO's) are known as potent antibacterial agents, and subtherapeutic levels have been used to promote growth and improve efficiency of feed conversion in animal feed. They have also shown a selective cytotoxicity against hypoxic cells present in solid tumours. Furthermore, recent studies have put in evidence that QdNO's are endowed with antitubercular, antiprotozoal and anticandida activities. On the other hand, several authors have reported about photoallergic and mutagenic effects of some derivatives. QdNO's may also cause the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and influence the horizontal transfer of virulence genes between bacteria. In this review article we report the biological properties, the mode of action and Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) studies of the QdNO derivatives. Furthermore, some cytogenetic and genotoxic effects, classical and more recent method of synthesis, the quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides, and some of their most important reactions, were also reported.

  3. WhiteDwarf.org - Establishing a permanent endowment for the Whole Earth Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, T S

    2002-01-01

    White Dwarf Research Corporation is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization dedicated to scientific research and public education on topics relevant to white dwarf stars. It was founded in 1999 in Austin, Texas to help fulfill the need for an alternative research center where scarce funding dollars could be used more efficiently, and to provide a direct link between astronomers who study white dwarf stars and the general public. Due to its administrative simplicity, WDRC can facilitate the funding of multi-institutional and international collaborations, provide seamless grant portability, minimize overhead rates, and actively seek non-governmental funding sources. I describe the motivation for, and current status of, one of the long-term goals of WDRC: to establish a permanent endowment for the operation of the Whole Earth Telescope. I pay particular attention to fund-raising efforts through the website at http://WhiteDwarf.org/donate/

  4. Pseudo-Reimannian manifolds endowed with an almost para f-structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V. Goldberg

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Let M˜(U,Ω˜,η˜,ξ,g˜ be a pseudo-Riemannian manifold of signature (n+1,n. One defines on M˜ an almost cosymplectic para f-structure and proves that a manifold M˜ endowed with such a structure is ξ-Ricci flat and is foliated by minimal hypersurfaces normal to ξ, which are of Otsuki's type. Further one considers on M˜ a 2(n−1-dimensional involutive distribution P⊥ and a recurrent vector field V˜. It is proved that the maximal integral manifold M⊥ of P⊥ has V as the mean curvature vector (up to 1/2(n−1. If the complimentary orthogonal distribution P of P⊥ is also involutive, then the whole manifold M˜ is foliate. Different other properties regarding the vector field V˜ are discussed.

  5. New 1,4-dihydropyridines endowed with NO-donor and calcium channel agonist properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Sonja; Rolando, Barbara; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Novara, Monica; Carbone, Emilio; Roussel, Christian; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Gasco, Alberto

    2004-05-06

    A new series of calcium channel agonists structurally related to Bay K8644, containing NO donor furoxans and the related furazans unable to release NO, is described. The racemic mixtures were studied for their action on L-type Ca(2+) channels expressed in cultured rat insulinoma RINm5F cells. All the products proved to be potent calcium channel agonists. All the racemic mixtures, with the only exception of the carbamoyl derivatives 9, 12 endowed with scanty solubility, were separated by chiral chromatography into the corresponding enantiomers; the (+) enantiomers were found to be potent agonists while the (-) ones were feeble antagonists. The racemic mixtures were also assessed for their positive inotropic activity on electrically stimulated rat papillary muscle and for their ability to increase Ca(2+) entry into the vascular smooth muscle of rat aorta strips. The cyanofuroxan 8 proved to be an interesting product with dual Ca(2+)-dependent positive inotropic and NO-dependent vasodilating activity.

  6. Renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven as lithium-ion battery separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Kong, Qingshan; Zhang, Chuanjian; Pang, Shuping; Yue, Liping; Wang, Xuejiang; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei

    2013-01-01

    A renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven was explored as lithium-ion battery separator via an electrospinning technique followed by a dip-coating process. It was demonstrated that such nanofibrous composite nonwoven possessed good electrolyte wettability, excellent heat tolerance, and high ionic conductivity. The cells using the composite separator displayed better rate capability and enhanced capacity retention, when compared to those of commercialized polypropylene separator under the same conditions. These fascinating characteristics would endow this renewable composite nonwoven a promising separator for high-power lithium-ion battery.

  7. Entidades fiscalizadoras superiores y accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    OBJETIVOS DE LA TESIS: El objetivo general del trabajo es establecer el nivel de eficacia de las Entidades Fiscalizadoras Superiores (EFS) como agencia asignada y herramienta de accountability horizontal, a través de la valoración de su diseño institucional y de la calidad de sus productos finales, los informes de auditoría, estableciéndose los siguientes objetivos específicos: 1. Relevar las nociones de accountability, actualizando el Estado del Arte de la cuestión. 2. Analizar la ...

  8. The sentence superiority effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    A sentence superiority effect was investigated using post-cued word-in-sequence identification with the rapid parallel visual presentation (RPVP) of four horizontally aligned words. The four words were presented for 200ms followed by a post-mask and cue for partial report. They could form a grammatically correct sentence or were formed of the same words in a scrambled agrammatical sequence. Word identification was higher in the syntactically correct sequences, and crucially, this sentence superiority effect did not vary as a function of the target's position in the sequence. Cloze probability measures for words at the final, arguably most predictable position, revealed overall low values that did not interact with the effects of sentence context, suggesting that these effects were not driven by word predictability. The results point to a level of parallel processing across multiple words that enables rapid extraction of their syntactic categories. These generate a sentence-level representation that constrains the recognition process for individual words, thus facilitating parallel word processing when the sequence is grammatically sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization Micro/Nanostructures of Barium Strontium Titanate

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhalim Elbasset; Farid Abdi; Taj-Dine Lamcharfi; Nor-Said Echatoui

    2016-01-01

    Structural characteristics of Ba0.0975S0.025TiO3 (BS0.025T) ceramics calcined at different temperatures at 800, 850 and 900°C for 4 hours hove been investigated. Results DRX showed that the change in the cell parameter along a axis (a) is more important than that along c axis and is accompanied by spacing of these parameters. In addition they indicate that the diminuation of symmetry is caused by the increase of the calcination temperature This trend towards the tetragonale phase was confir...

  10. 76 FR 63665 - National Endowment for the Arts; President's Committee on the Arts and the Humanities: Meeting #67

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-26424] NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; President's Committee on the Arts and the Humanities: Meeting 67 Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... of the President's Committee on the Arts and the Humanities (PCAH) will be held on Tuesday,...

  11. 75 FR 13312 - National Endowment for the Arts; National Council on the Arts 169th Meeting-Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; National Council on the Arts 169th Meeting...) regarding the 169th meeting of the National Council on the Arts. A portion of this meeting, from 9 a.m. to... accessed by going to Art Works blog at http://www.arts.gov/artworks . If, in the course of the open...

  12. 75 FR 52857 - National Endowment for the Humanities Implementation of OMB Guidance on Drug-Free Workplace...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... make no substantive change in NEH's policy or procedures for drug-free workplace. DATES: This final... any unintended changes this action makes in NEH policies and procedures for drug-free workplace. All... Implementation of OMB Guidance on Drug-Free Workplace Requirements AGENCY: National Endowment for the Humanities...

  13. A Comparison of ICT Knowledge and Usage among Female Distance Learners in Endowed and Deprived Communities of a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapong, Olivia Adwoa Tiwaah Frimpong

    2009-01-01

    Working with the premise that information and communications technology (ICT) has the capacity to make or unmake so far as women's empowerment is concerned, this article looks at the ICT situation among female distance learners in both endowed and under-served parts of Ghana, to check the user differentials among the two contrasting groups through…

  14. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Department of the Navy Superior Supplier Incentive Program AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... policy that will establish a Superior Supplier Incentive Program (SSIP). Under the SSIP, contractors that..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6332-2 - Surrender of property subject to levy in the case of life insurance and endowment contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... policy by the taxpayer or by the death of the insured on a date before the 90th day after service of the... case of life insurance and endowment contracts. 301.6332-2 Section 301.6332-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... the case of life insurance and endowment contracts. (a) In general. This section provides...

  16. 45 CFR 1159.16 - Will the Endowment take steps to ensure that its employees involved with its systems of records...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will the Endowment take steps to ensure that its employees involved with its systems of records are familiar with the requirements and implications of the... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1159.16 Will the Endowment take steps to ensure that its employees involved with...

  17. superior en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mureddu Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo desarrolla algunos de los retos que ha traído consigo el acceso a la información existente en la red de Internet y lo que ello supone. Se abordan principalmente las consecuencias de la presencia actual de una sociedad llamada del conocimiento, si se mantiene la confusión entre conocimiento e información. Por ello, la sola gestión de la información no puede ser tomada como definitoria respecto a la función de educación superior confiada a las universidades. Hacerlo sería cometer un error aún más grave que la confusión teórica entre los términos mencionados.

  18. Natural Resources Endowment, Economic Rights Endowment and Regional Economic Growth%自然资源禀赋、经济权利禀赋与区域经济增长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林勇; 朱忠杰; 张瑞

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes the panel data from 2000 to 2011 in 31 provinces of China to build spatial econometric model , and incorporates the economic rights endowment into the analytical framework of natural resources endowment and regional economic growth by spatial panel method , to analyze the effects of natural resources endowment and economic rights endow -ment on regional economic growth .The research results show that natural resources endowment is positive correlations with regional economic growth , and the abundance of natural resources can promote regional economic growth to a certain , but has little effect; besides, in the economic rights endowment , both of physical capital rights and the right to use the labor are positive correlations with the economic growth , and has more effect; human capital rights is negative correlations with regional economic growth , but is not significant; the institutional change rights is positive correlation with regional econom-ic growth, the system supply rights is positive correlations with regional economic growth , but is not significant .%本文选取2000-2011年中国31个省级单元的面板数据构建空间计量模型,采用空间面板方法将经济权利禀赋纳入自然资源禀赋与区域经济增长的分析框架,探讨自然资源禀赋、经济权利禀赋对区域经济增长的影响。研究发现自然资源禀赋与区域经济增长显著正相关,自然资源丰裕在一定程度上能促进地区经济增长,但作用力较小;在经济权利禀赋中,物质资本权利、劳动力使用权利与区域经济增长显著正相关,且作用力度较大;人力资本权利与区域经济增长负相关,但不显著;制度变迁权利与区域经济增长显著正相关,而制度供给权利与区域经济增长虽正相关,但不显著。

  19. No fitness cost of glyphosate resistance endowed by massive EPSPS gene amplification in Amaranthus palmeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Goh, Sou S; Gaines, Todd A; Han, Heping; Busi, Roberto; Yu, Qin; Powles, Stephen B

    2014-04-01

    Amplification of the EPSPS gene has been previously identified as the glyphosate resistance mechanism in many populations of Amaranthus palmeri, a major weed pest in US agriculture. Here, we evaluate the effects of EPSPS gene amplification on both the level of glyphosate resistance and fitness cost of resistance. A. palmeri individuals resistant to glyphosate by expressing a wide range of EPSPS gene copy numbers were evaluated under competitive conditions in the presence or absence of glyphosate. Survival rates to glyphosate and fitness traits of plants under intra-specific competition were assessed. Plants with higher amplification of the EPSPS gene (53-fold) showed high levels of glyphosate resistance, whereas less amplification of the EPSPS gene (21-fold) endowed a lower level of glyphosate resistance. Without glyphosate but under competitive conditions, plants exhibiting up to 76-fold EPSPS gene amplification exhibited similar height, and biomass allocation to vegetative and reproductive organs, compared to glyphosate susceptible A. palmeri plants with no amplification of the EPSPS gene. Both the additive effects of EPSPS gene amplification on the level of glyphosate resistance and the lack of associated fitness costs are key factors contributing to EPSPS gene amplification as a widespread and important glyphosate resistance mechanism likely to become much more evident in weed plant species.

  20. In Situ and Ex Situ Low-Field NMR Spectroscopy and MRI Endowed by SABRE Hyperpolarization**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barskiy, Danila A.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Koptyug, Igor V.; He, Ping; Groome, Kirsten A.; Best, Quinn A.; Shi, Fan; Goodson, Boyd M.; Shchepin, Roman V.; Truong, Milton L.; Coffey, Aaron M.; Waddell, Kevin W.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2015-01-01

    By using 5.75 and 47.5 mT nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, up to 105-fold sensitivity enhancement through signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) was enabled, and subsecond temporal resolution was used to monitor an exchange reaction that resulted in the buildup and decay of hyperpolarized species after parahydrogen bubbling. We demonstrated the high-resolution low-field proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pyridine in a 47.5 mT magnetic field endowed by SABRE. Molecular imaging (i.e. imaging of dilute hyperpolarized substances rather than the bulk medium) was conducted in two regimes: in situ real-time MRI of the reaction mixture (in which pyridine was hyperpolarized), and ex situ MRI (in which hyperpolarization decays) of the liquid hyperpolarized product. Low-field (milli-Tesla range, e.g. 5.75 and 47.5 mT used in this study) parahydrogen-enhanced NMR and MRI, which are free from the limitations of high-field magnetic resonance (including susceptibility-induced gradients of the static magnetic field at phase interfaces), potentially enables new imaging applications as well as differentiation of hyperpolarized chemical species on demand by exploiting spin manipulations with static and alternating magnetic fields. PMID:25367202

  1. Poverty Dynamics, Ecological Endowments, and Land Use among Smallholders in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Gilvan R.; VanWey, Leah K.; Hull, James R.; Antigo, Mariangela; Barbieri, Alisson F.

    2013-01-01

    Rural settlement in previously sparsely occupied areas of the Brazilian Amazon has been associated with high levels of forest loss and unclear long-term social outcomes. We focus here on the micro-level processes in one settlement area to answer the question of how settler and farm endowments affect household poverty. We analyze the extent to which poverty is sensitive to changes in natural capital, land use strategies, and biophysical characteristics of properties (particularly soil quality). Cumulative time spent in poverty is simulated using Markovian processes, which show that accessibility to markets and land use system are especially important for decreasing poverty among households in our sample. Wealthier households are selected into commercial production of perennials before our initial observation, and are therefore in poverty a lower proportion of the time. Land in pasture, in contrast, has an independent effect on reducing the proportion of time spent in poverty. Taken together, these results show that investments in roads and the institutional structures needed to make commercial agriculture or ranching viable in existing and new settlement areas can improve human well-being in frontiers. PMID:24267754

  2. Poverty dynamics, ecological endowments, and land use among smallholders in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Gilvan R; VanWey, Leah K; Hull, James R; Antigo, Mariangela; Barbieri, Alisson F

    2014-01-01

    Rural settlement in previously sparsely occupied areas of the Brazilian Amazon has been associated with high levels of forest loss and unclear long-term social outcomes. We focus here on the micro-level processes in one settlement area to answer the question of how settler and farm endowments affect household poverty. We analyze the extent to which poverty is sensitive to changes in natural capital, land use strategies, and biophysical characteristics of properties (particularly soil quality). Cumulative time spent in poverty is simulated using Markovian processes, which show that accessibility to markets and land use system are especially important for decreasing poverty among households in our sample. Wealtheir households are selected into commercial production of perennials before our initial observation, and are therefore in poverty a lower proportion of the time. Land in pasture, in contrast, has an independent effect on reducing the proportion of time spent in poverty. Taken together, these results show that investments in roads and the institutional structures needed to make commercial agriculture or ranching viable in existing and new settlement areas can improve human well-being in frontiers.

  3. Endowing non-cellulolytic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity aiming for consolidated bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-11-01

    With the exhaustion of fossil fuels and with the environmental issues they pose, utilization of abundant lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for biofuels and bio-based chemicals has recently become an attractive option. Lignocellulosic biomass is primarily composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and has a very rigid and complex structure. It is accordingly much more expensive to process than starchy grains because of the need for extensive pretreatment and relatively large amounts of cellulases for efficient hydrolysis. Efficient and cost-effective methods for the production of biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulose are required. A consolidated bioprocess (CBP), which integrates all biological steps consisting of enzyme production, saccharification, and fermentation, is considered a promising strategy for reducing production costs. Establishing an efficient CBP using lignocellulosic biomass requires both lignocellulose degradation into glucose and efficient production of biofuels or chemicals from glucose. With this aim, many researchers are attempting to endow selected microorganisms with lignocellulose-assimilating ability. In this review, we focus on studies aimed at conferring lignocellulose-assimilating ability not only to yeast strains but also to bacterial strains by recombinant technology. Recent developments in improvement of enzyme productivity by microorganisms and in improvement of the specific activity of cellulase are emphasized.

  4. PH motifs in PAR1&2 endow breast cancer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancharla, A.; Maoz, M.; Jaber, M.; Agranovich, D.; Peretz, T.; Grisaru-Granovsky, S.; Uziely, B.; Bar-Shavit, R.

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging roles of protease-activated receptor1&2 (PAR1&2) in cancer are recognized, their underlying signalling events are poorly understood. Here we show signal-binding motifs in PAR1&2 that are critical for breast cancer growth. This occurs via the association of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain with Akt/PKB as a key signalling event of PARs. Other PH-domain signal-proteins such as Etk/Bmx and Vav3 also associate with PAR1 and PAR2 through their PH domains. PAR1 and PAR2 bind with priority to Etk/Bmx. A point mutation in PAR2, H349A, but not in R352A, abrogates PH-protein association and is sufficient to markedly reduce PAR2-instigated breast tumour growth in vivo and placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion in vitro. Similarly, the PAR1 mutant hPar1-7A, which is unable to bind the PH domain, reduces mammary tumours and EVT invasion, endowing these motifs with physiological significance and underscoring the importance of these previously unknown PAR1 and PAR2 PH-domain-binding motifs in both pathological and physiological invasion processes. PMID:26600192

  5. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  6. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  7. Sport’s selection of volley-ball players: morphological and pedagogical criteria of definition of movement endowments: (information 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Serhiyenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define methodology of initial sports selection of young volley-ball players. Material & Methods: methods of theoretical analysis and generalization, bibliographic method of search and study of scientific information, a systematic analysis are turned to account in this work. Results: the article deals with the theoretical model of the mast important factors, which define sports endowments of volley-ball players. It is shown the point estimation of body structure and composition, motor and psychomotor abilities, dynamic possibilities, psychophisiological indices in the prognosis of volley-ball players gifted for high sports results. Conclusions: criteria of high movement endowments of volley-ball players are defined; norms of estimation of motor abilities of valley-ball players on the initial steps of sports selection are given.

  8. EXISTENCE THEOREM FOR THE PRICES FIXED POINT PROBLEM OF THE OVERLAPPING GENERATIONS MODEL, VIA METRIC SPACES ENDOWED WITH A GRAPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Tilca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the existence of the solution for the overlapping generations model, using fixed point theorems in metric spaces endowed with a graph. The overlapping generations model has been introduced and developed by Maurice Allais (1947, Paul Samuelson (1958, Peter Diamond (1965 and so on. The present paper treats the case presented by Edmond (2008 in (Edmond, 2008 for a continuous time. The theorem of existence of the solution for the prices fixed point problem derived from the overlapping generations model gives an approximation of the solution via the graph theory. The tools employed in this study are based on applications of the Jachymski fixed point theorem on metric spaces endowed with a graph (Jachymski, 2008

  9. 75 FR 34488 - National Endowment for the Arts; National Council on the Arts 170th Meeting; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts; National Council on the Arts 170th Meeting... the Arts. The meeting will be held on June 24-25, 2010 not June 24-25, 2009, in Rooms 527 and M-09 at..., from 12:30 p.m.-2 p.m. on June 24th, will be closed for National Medal of Arts review...

  10. Maximal Sobolev regularity for solutions of elliptic equations in infinite dimensional Banach spaces endowed with a weighted Gaussian measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, G.; Ferrari, S.

    2016-12-01

    Let X be a separable Banach space endowed with a non-degenerate centered Gaussian measure μ. The associated Cameron-Martin space is denoted by H. Let ν =e-U μ, where U : X → R is a sufficiently regular convex and continuous function. In this paper we are interested in the W 2 , 2 regularity of the weak solutions of elliptic equations of the type

  11. Design and synthesis of benzimidazole analogs endowed with oxadiazole as selective COX-2 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Ankita; Rahman, Mujeeb Ur; Siddiqui, Anees Ahamad; Ali, Abuzer; Shaharyar, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    New molecules of benzimidazole endowed with oxadiazole were designed and synthesized from 2-(2-((pyrimidin-2-ylthio)methyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazide as 1-((5-substituted alkyl/aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methyl)-2-((pyrimidin-2-ylthio)methyl)-1H-benzimidazoles (5a-r) with the aim to acquire selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitor activity. The synthesized compounds were screened by in vitro cyclooxygenase assays to determine COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory potency and the results showed that they had good-to-remarkable activity with an IC50 range of 11.6-56.1 µM. The most active compounds were further screened for their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. In vitro anticancer activities of the hybrid compounds were assessed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA, against 60 human cell lines, and the results showed a good spectrum. Compound 5l exhibited significant COX-2 inhibition with an IC50 value of 8.2 µM and a percent protection of 68.4%. Compound 5b evinced moderate cytotoxicity toward the UO-31 cell line of renal cancer. A docking study was performed using Maestro 9.0, to provide the binding mode into the binding sites of the cyclooxygenase enzyme. Hopefully, in the future, compound 5l could serve as a lead compound for developing new COX-2 inhibitors.

  12. AHAS herbicide resistance endowing mutations: effect on AHAS functionality and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Han, Heping; Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Powles, Stephen B

    2010-09-01

    Twenty-two amino acid substitutions at seven conserved amino acid residues in the acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) gene have been identified to date that confer target-site resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides in biotypes of field-evolved resistant weed species. However, the effect of resistance mutations on AHAS functionality and plant growth has been investigated for only a very few mutations. This research investigates the effect of various AHAS resistance mutations in Lolium rigidum on AHAS functionality and plant growth. The enzyme kinetics of AHAS from five purified L. rigidum populations, each homozygous for the resistance mutations Pro-197-Ala, Pro-197-Arg, Pro-197-Gln, Pro-197-Ser or Trp-574-Leu, were characterized and the pleiotropic effect of three mutations on plant growth was assessed via relative growth rate analysis. All these resistance mutations endowed a herbicide-resistant AHAS and most resulted in higher extractable AHAS activity, with no-to-minor changes in AHAS kinetics. The Pro-197-Arg mutation slightly (but significantly) increased the K(m) for pyruvate and remarkably increased sensitivity to feedback inhibition by branched chain amino acids. Whereas the Pro-197-Ser and Trp-574-Leu mutations exhibited no significant effects on plant growth, the Pro-197-Arg mutation resulted in lower growth rates. It is clear that, at least in L. rigidum, these five AHAS resistance mutations have no major impact on AHAS functionality and hence probably no plant resistance costs. These results, in part, explain why so many Pro-197 AHAS resistance mutations in AHAS have evolved and why the Pro-197-Ser and the Trp-574-Leu AHAS resistance mutations are frequently found in many weed species.

  13. Fostering creativity: how the Duke Graduate Medical Education Quasi-Endowment encourages innovation in GME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolsek, Kathryn M; Murphy, Gwendolyn; Nagler, Alisa; Moore, Peggy R; Schlueter, Joanne; Weinerth, John L; Cuffe, Michael S; Dzau, Victor J

    2013-02-01

    The Duke Medicine Graduate Medical Education Quasi-Endowment, established in 2006, provides infrastructure support and encourages educational innovation. The authors describe Duke's experience with the "grassroots innovation" part of the fund, the Duke Innovation Fund, and discuss the Innovation Fund's processes for application, review, and implementation, and also outcomes, impact, and intended and unintended consequences.In the five years of the Innovation Fund described (2007-2011), 105 projects have been submitted, and 78 have been funded. Thirty-seven projects have been completed. Approved funding ranged from $2,363 to $348,750, with an average award of $66,391. This represents 42% of funding originally requested. Funding could be requested for a period of 6 months to 3 years. The average duration of projects was 27 months, with a range from 6 months to 36 months. Eighty percent of projects were completed on time. Two projects were closed because of lack of progress and failure to adhere to reporting requirements. Thirty-nine are ongoing.Program directors report great success in meeting project outcomes and concrete impacts on resident and faculty attitudes and performance. Ninety-two percent report that their projects would have never been accomplished without this funding. Projects have resulted in at least 68 posters, abstracts, and peer-reviewed presentations. At least 12 peer-reviewed manuscripts were published.There has been tremendous diversity of projects; all 13 clinical departments have been represented. Interdepartmental and intradepartmental program cooperation has increased. This modest seed money has resulted in demonstrable sustainable impacts on teaching and learning, and increased morale and scholarly recognition.

  14. Paso superior en una ladera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, O.

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available The Redwood highway, through the Californian forest, runs on a viaduct, as it crosses a mountain slope of about 45° inclination. The firm ground is fairly deep, and as an additional constructional difficulty, it was necessary to respect the natural beauty of the countryside. A structure of portal frames were built, forming a number of short spans. These spans were bridged with metal girders, on which a 19 m wide deck was placed. The columns are hollow and have a transversal cross beam, to join each pair. There was difficulty in excavating the foundations for the columns, as it was necessary to dig through the soft top soil, and also prevent this soil from hurting the trunks of the forest trees. Another significant difficulty in the construction of this viaduct was the access to the working site, since there were no suitable platforms from which to operate the appropriate machinery. This made it necessary to do a lot of the work by manual operation. As one of the edges of the deck is very close to the mountain side, a supporting beam was erected on this side. It was made of concrete, on metal piles. The formwork for the deck structure was placed on the concrete stems of the supporting piles.La autopista denominada Redwood (California salva, con un paso superior, la ladera de un bosque cuya pendiente es del 1/1. El terreno firme se halla a bastante profundidad, añadiéndose, a los naturales problemas de la construcción, el imperativo de respetar la belleza agreste del paraje. La solución adoptada consiste en una estructura porticada, con varios tramos de pequeñas luces, salvados con vigas metálicas, sobre los que se coloca la losa del tablero, de 19 m de anchura total. Los soportes están constituidos por pórticos de dos montantes huecos (con bases de hormigón en masa por debajo del suelo, hasta el firme coronados por un cabezal. La perforación de pozos para el hormigonado de los montantes presentaba la dificultad de atravesar el terreno

  15. Pseudodisplacements of superior vena cava catheter in the persistent left superior vena cava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantsch, H.; Draxler, V.; Muhar, U.; Schlemmer, M.; Waneck, R.

    1983-01-01

    Pseudodisplacement of a left sided superior vena cava catheter in a persistent superior vena cava may be expected in adults in 0,37% and in a group of children with congenital heart disease in 2,5%. Embryology, anatomy and clinical implications is discussed on the basis of our own cases. The vena cava superior sinistra persitents is depending on a sufficient calibre a suitable vessel for a superior cava catheter.

  16. Synthesis and antispasmodic activity of lidocaine derivatives endowed with reduced local anesthetic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jorge C S; Neves, Josiane S; de Souza, Marcus V N; Siqueira, Rodrigo A; Romeiro, Nelilma C; Boechat, Nubia; e Silva, Patrícia M R; Martins, Marco A

    2008-02-01

    The present structure-activity relationship (SAR) study focused on chemical modifications of the structure of the local anesthetic lidocaine, and indicated analogues having reduced anesthetic potency, but with superior potency relative to the prototype in preventing anaphylactic or histamine-evoked ileum contraction. From the SAR analysis, 2-(diethylamino)-N-(trifluoromethyl-phenyl) and 2-(diethylamino)-N-(dimethyl-phenyl) acetamides were selected as the most promising compounds. New insights into the applicability of non-anesthetic lidocaine derivatives as templates in drug discovery for allergic syndromes are provided.

  17. Superiority in value and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    James Griffin has considered a weak form of superiority in value a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this paper, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into a stronger form of superiority. And in a context where value is non-additive, weak...... superiority does not amount to a radical value difference at all. I then spell out the consequences of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest....

  18. Millian superiorities and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2008-01-01

    James Griffin has considered a form of superiority in value that is weaker than lexical priority as a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this article, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into the stronger form of superiority. And in a ......James Griffin has considered a form of superiority in value that is weaker than lexical priority as a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this article, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into the stronger form of superiority...... of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest....

  19. Measuring Financial Gains from Genetically Superior Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Dutrow; Clark Row

    1976-01-01

    Planting genetically superior loblolly pines will probably yield high profits.Forest economists have made computer simulations that predict financial gains expected from a tree improvement program under actual field conditions.

  20. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome causing growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and lifethreateningclinical condition caused by the compressionof the third portion of the duodenum between the aortaand the superior mesenteric artery’s proximal part. Thiscompression may lead to chronic intermittent, acute totalor partial obstruction. Sudden weight-loss and the relateddecrease in the fat tissue are considered to be the etiologicalreason of acute stenosis. Weight-loss accompaniedby nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, andbloating are the leading complaints. Barium radiographs,computerized tomography, conventional angiography,tomographic and magnetic resonance angiography areused in the diagnosis. There are medical and surgical approachesto treatment. We hereby present the case ofa patient with superior mesenteric artery syndrome withdelayed diagnosis.Key words: superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nausea-vomiting, anorexia

  1. Leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaumont, Arthus; Pierret, Charles; de Kerangal, Xavier; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Laborde, François

    2014-08-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava is a very rare tumor and only a few cases have been reported, with various techniques of vascular reconstruction. We describe a new case of leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava in a 61-year-old woman with extension to the brachiocephalic arterial trunk. Resection and vascular reconstruction were performed using, respectively, polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene terephtalate vascular grafts.

  2. Superior mesenteric artery compression syndrome - case report

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Rocha França Neto; Rodrigo de Almeida Paiva; Antônio Lacerda Filho; Fábio Lopes de Queiroz; Teon Noronha

    2011-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is an entity generally caused by the loss of the intervening mesenteric fat pad, resulting in compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery. This article reports the case of a patient with irremovable metastatic adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon, that evolved with intense vomiting. Intestinal transit was carried out, which showed important gastric dilation extended until the third portion of the duodenum, compatible wi...

  3. Superior oblique surgery: when and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Şekeroğlu H

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hande Taylan Şekeroğlu,1 Ali Sefik Sanac,1 Umut Arslan,2 Emin Cumhur Sener11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Biostatistics, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyBackground: The purpose of this paper is to review different types of superior oblique muscle surgeries, to describe the main areas in clinical practice where superior oblique surgery is required or preferred, and to discuss the preferred types of superior oblique surgery with respect to their clinical outcomes.Methods: A consecutive nonrandomized retrospective series of patients who had undergone superior oblique muscle surgery as a single procedure were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis, clinical features, preoperative and postoperative vertical deviations in primary position, type of surgery, complications, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. The primary outcome measures were the type of strabismus and the type of superior oblique muscle surgery. The secondary outcome measure was the results of the surgeries.Results: The review identified 40 (20 male, 20 female patients with a median age of 6 (2–45 years. Nineteen patients (47.5% had Brown syndrome, eleven (27.5% had fourth nerve palsy, and ten (25.0% had horizontal deviations with A pattern. The most commonly performed surgery was superior oblique tenotomy in 29 (72.5% patients followed by superior oblique tuck in eleven (27.5% patients. The amount of vertical deviation in the fourth nerve palsy and Brown syndrome groups (P = 0.01 for both and the amount of A pattern in the A pattern group were significantly reduced postoperatively (P = 0.02.Conclusion: Surgery for the superior oblique muscle requires experience and appropriate preoperative evaluation in view of its challenging nature. The main indications are Brown syndrome, fourth nerve palsy, and A pattern deviations. Superior oblique surgery may be effective in terms of pattern collapse and correction of vertical deviations in primary

  4. Whisker-related afferents in superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A; Favero, Morgana

    2016-05-01

    Rodents use their whiskers to explore the environment, and the superior colliculus is part of the neural circuits that process this sensorimotor information. Cells in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus integrate trigeminotectal afferents from trigeminal complex and corticotectal afferents from barrel cortex. Using histological methods in mice, we found that trigeminotectal and corticotectal synapses overlap somewhat as they innervate the lower and upper portions of the intermediate granular layer, respectively. Using electrophysiological recordings and optogenetics in anesthetized mice in vivo, we showed that, similar to rats, whisker deflections produce two successive responses that are driven by trigeminotectal and corticotectal afferents. We then employed in vivo and slice experiments to characterize the response properties of these afferents. In vivo, corticotectal responses triggered by electrical stimulation of the barrel cortex evoke activity in the superior colliculus that increases with stimulus intensity and depresses with increasing frequency. In slices from adult mice, optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-expressing trigeminotectal and corticotectal fibers revealed that cells in the intermediate layers receive more efficacious trigeminotectal, than corticotectal, synaptic inputs. Moreover, the efficacy of trigeminotectal inputs depresses more strongly with increasing frequency than that of corticotectal inputs. The intermediate layers of superior colliculus appear to be tuned to process strong but infrequent trigeminal inputs and weak but more persistent cortical inputs, which explains features of sensory responsiveness, such as the robust rapid sensory adaptation of whisker responses in the superior colliculus. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    Since the emergence of the practice turn in social sciences (Golsorkhi et al. 2010), studies have shown a number of institutionally relevant aspects as achievements across time and by means of various resources (human and non-human) (Taylor & van Every 2000, Cooren et al. 2006). Such a process view...... on organizational practices relates closely to an increased focus on communication as being constitutive of the organization in general and the superior-subordinate relationship in specific. The current study aims to contribute to this line of research by investigating micro-practices involved in establishing...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...

  6. Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan is an expression of the best professional judgment of the members of the Lake Superior Task Force as to what is necessary to protect Lake Superior from new aquatic invasive species.

  7. The National Endowment for the Humanities : un levier fédéral des musées amérindiens The National Endowment for the Humanities: A federal lever for integrating American Indian museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Selbach

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH is a federal agency created in 1965 with the mission of “serving the nation by promoting the humanities and giving lessons of history to all Americans.” It finances radio and TV programs on history, music and industry as well as interpretative museum exhibitions and the publishing of catalogs. This article aims at studying one specific type of grant aimed at museums and at exploring the way the compliance with the criteria set by the NEH may affect the organization and contents of exhibitions of tribal museums in particular. It wonders whether the fact of imposing outside scholars (i.e. non-Indian experts is not a means of controlling the interpretation of Native American history and of disguising and furthering the government’s policy of assimilation into the mainstream.

  8. Endovascular treatment of superior vena cava syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvnjak, Stevo; Andersen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    Abstract AIM: The aim of this study was to report our experience with palliative stent treatment of superior vena cava syndrome. METHODS: Between January 2008 and December 2009, 30 patients (mean age 60.7 years) were treated with stents because of stenosed superior vena cava. All patients presented...... there was an immediate clinical improvement with considerable reduction in the edema of upper extremities and head. There was, however, continous dyspnea in five patients (17%) and two patients (7%) had persistent visible collateral venous circulations on the upper chest. There were no stent associated complications...

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of meniscoid superior labrum: normal variant or superior labral tear*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Marcelo Novelino; Vinson, Emily N.; Spritzer, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of a "meniscoid" superior labrum. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of 582 magnetic resonance imaging examinations of shoulders. Of those 582 examinations, 110 were excluded, for a variety of reasons, and the final analysis therefore included 472 cases. Consensus readings were performed by three musculoskeletal radiologists using specific criteria to diagnose meniscoid labra. Results A meniscoid superior labrum was identified in 48 (10.2%) of the 472 cases evaluated. Arthroscopic proof was available in 21 cases (43.8%). In 10 (47.6%) of those 21 cases, the operative report did not include the mention a superior labral tear, thus suggesting the presence of a meniscoid labrum. In only one of those cases were there specific comments about a mobile superior labrum (i.e., meniscoid labrum). In the remaining 11 (52.4%), surgical correlation demonstrated superior labral tears. Conclusion A meniscoid superior labrum is not an infrequent finding. Depending upon assumptions and the requirement of surgical proof, the prevalence of a meniscoid superior labrum in this study was between 2.1% (surgically proven) and 4.8% (projected). However, superior labral tears are just as common and are often confused with meniscoid labra. PMID:27777474

  10. 论我国社区居家养老的发展%On the Development of Community Home Endowment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐健; 彭钢

    2016-01-01

    At present, China is being faced with the challenge of aging population, and how to properly arrange the life of old people has become the hotspot and difficulty in the field of social construction. Community home endowment is suitable for the national conditions of aging population in China, can alleviate the present situation of the lack of social endowment resources, adapt to the life habits and psychological characteristics of old people in China, and provide high quality and professional services. Therefore, this model is feasible in the current Chinese environment. And the development of community home endowment should focus on creating comprehensive community endowment service platform, raise the professional service level of endowment rehabilitation nursing, push forward the construction of the intelligence community home endowment facilities, and improve the network of home service management institutions.%目前,我国正面临着人口老龄化的严峻挑战,如何妥善安置老年人的生活成为当前社会建设领域的热点和难点. 社区居家养老适合中国老龄化的国情,能缓解社会化养老资源的欠缺,适应了我国老年人的生活习惯和心理特征,能提供高质量的专业化服务.因此,该模式在目前中国环境下更加具有可行性.而社区居家养老的发展应侧重于打造社区养老服务综合平台、提高养老康复护理专业化服务水平、推动智慧社区居家养老配套设施建设和完善居家服务管理机构网络.

  11. Furniture Design Development for Older People under Different Pattern of Endowment%不同养老模式下的老年家具设计开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪莲

    2013-01-01

    文章根据当前养老模式的分类和老年人不同生活能力的分类,提出不同生活能力的老年人所适应的养老模式;并从家具设计角度,将多种养老模式归结为居家型养老和机构型养老两种。文章分别阐述在这两种养老模式下老年卧室家具、老年客厅家具、老年厨房家具以及老年餐厅家具等主要家具类型的使用特点和功能分析;根据这些家具类型的特点与功能详述如何进行老年家具的设计与服务。%According to the current classiifcation of patterns of endowment and the older people’s living ability, this paper proposed different patterns of endowment is suitable for different living ability older people. From the perspective of furniture design, patterns of endowment were classified to home endowment and institutions endowment. This paper also proposed characteristics and functions of bedroom furniture for older people, sitting room furniture for older people, kitchen furniture for older people, dining room furniture for older people and other major furniture for older people under the two kinds of mode of endowment. According to its characteristics and functions, how to design furniture and serve for older people was elaborated.

  12. The Significance of Home Endowment Pattern Development%居家养老模式发展的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁慧

    2014-01-01

    目前,我国已经进入老龄化社会,老年人的养老方式和居住问题已经成为整个社会关注与重视的民生问题。对于老年人的养老模式,可大致分为居家养老模式、养老机构模式和独立老年公寓模式三种类型。%At present, Chinese has entered an aging society, and the elderly pension and housing problem have become the social concern and at aches importance to the livelihood of people. The elderly pension mode can be roughly divided into three types of home endowment pat erns, pension institutions and independent elderly apartment.

  13. Linking Child Health, Maternal Labour Force Participation and Household Asset Endowments in Cameroon: What the People Say

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbu Daniel TAMBI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is entitled “Linking Child Health, Maternal Labour Force Participation and Household Asset Endowments in Cameroon: what the people say”. The objectives are: (i document the determinants of child health as informed by focus group discussion, (ii analyze what the people say concerning the relationship between child health and maternal labour force participation, (iii explore the perception of the people on the effects of child health on asset accumulation and (iv suggest public policies on the basis of the findings. We used seven focus groups derived from different backgrounds in our framework. We observed that, parents make used of the extra time accrue to them due to better health for their children and family to do extra work that fetched them more money. Based on this, we recommend that decision makers should promote child health outcomes as it’s a tool to promote maternal labour and wealth accumulation in Cameroon

  14. Trapping neutral particles endowed with a magnetic moment by an electromagnetic wave carrying orbital angular momentum: Semiclassical theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo

    2016-01-01

    The motion of a neutral atom endowed with a magnetic moment interacting with the magnetic field is determined from the Ehrenfest-like equations of motion. These equations for the average values of the translational and spin degrees of freedom are derived from the Schr\\"odinger-Pauli wave equation and they form a set of nine coupled nonlinear evolution equations. The numerical and analytic solutions of these equations are obtained for the combination of the rotating magnetic field of a wave carrying orbital angular momentum and a static magnetic field. The running wave traps the atom only in the transverse direction while the standing wave traps the atom also in the direction of the beam.

  15. Newborn hypoxia/anoxia inhibits cardiomyocyte proliferation and decreases cardiomyocyte endowment in the developing heart: role of endothelin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra N Paradis

    Full Text Available In the developing heart, cardiomyocytes undergo terminal differentiation during a critical window around birth. Hypoxia is a major stress to preterm infants, yet its effect on the development and maturation of the heart remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis in a rat model that newborn anoxia accelerates cardiomyocyte terminal differentiation and results in reduced cardiomyocyte endowment in the developing heart via an endothelin-1-dependent mechanism. Newborn rats were exposed to anoxia twice daily from postnatal day 1 to 3, and hearts were isolated and studied at postnatal day 4 (P4, 7 (P7, and 14 (P14. Anoxia significantly increased HIF-1α protein expression and pre-proET-1 mRNA abundance in P4 neonatal hearts. Cardiomyocyte proliferation was significantly decreased by anoxia in P4 and P7, resulting in a significant reduction of cardiomyocyte number per heart weight in the P14 neonates. Furthermore, the expression of cyclin D2 was significantly decreased due to anoxia, while p27 expression was increased. Anoxia has no significant effect on cardiomyocyte binucleation or myocyte size. Consistently, prenatal hypoxia significantly decreased cardiomyocyte proliferation but had no effect on binucleation in the fetal heart. Newborn administration of PD156707, an ETA-receptor antagonist, significantly increased cardiomyocyte proliferation at P4 and cell size at P7, resulting in an increase in the heart to body weight ratio in P7 neonates. In addition, PD156707 abrogated the anoxia-mediated effects. The results suggest that hypoxia and anoxia via activation of endothelin-1 at the critical window of heart development inhibits cardiomyocyte proliferation and decreases myocyte endowment in the developing heart, which may negatively impact cardiac function later in life.

  16. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    Since the emergence of the practice turn in social sciences (Golsorkhi et al. 2010), studies have shown a number of institutionally relevant aspects as achievements across time and by means of various resources (human and non-human) (Taylor & van Every 2000, Cooren et al. 2006). Such a process view...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...... are shaped, (re)confirmed and re-evaluated. This paper pursues the better understanding of the latter aspect by looking at one substantial and recurrent activity in PAIs: the evaluation of employee performance. One resource for doing the evaluation work is making assessments (e.g. Goodwin & Goodwin, 1987...

  17. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold...... for perception of words, or a higher speed of processing for words than letters. We have investigated the WSE using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention. In an experiment using single stimuli (words or letters) presented centrally, we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual...... processing speed: words are simply processed faster than single letters. It is also clear from this experiment, that the word superiority effect can be observed at a large range of exposure durations, from the perceptual threshold to ceiling performance. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented...

  18. How Art Works: The National Endowment for the Arts' Five-Year Research Agenda, with a System Map and Measurement Model. Appendix A & B

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two appendices supporting the "How Art Works: The National Endowment for the Arts' Five-Year Research Agenda, with a System Map and Measurement Model" report. In Appendix A, brief descriptions of relevant studies and datasets for each node in the "How Art Works" system map are presented. This appendix is meant to supply…

  19. 我国农民工养老保险制度研究%Study on Endowment Insurance System for Migrant Workers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田绒

    2014-01-01

    随着我国经济的快速发展和城市化的不断推进“,农民工”这个具有中国特色的群体被越来越多的人所关注。因此农民工的社会保障问题一直是中央和地方政府以及国内学术界研究的热门话题。其中,养老保险又是重中之重。首先介绍了农民工养老保险的相关概念,其次分析了当前农民工养老保险工作中存在的问题,最后提出了建立农民工养老保险制度的政策建议。%As the surging economy and urbanization progress,migrant workers which are the unique phenomenon in China are being followed by more and more people.Therefore,their social welfare becomes the hottest issue regarded by central and local government,as well as domestic academic fields.Endowment insurance is given emphasis the most.This thesis first describes the relative concepts of migrant workers endowment insurance.Second,analyzes the current problems of migrant workers endowment insurance work.Finally,related measures proposed to improve migrant workers endowment insurance system.

  20. Impact of limited cognitive capacity and feelings of guilt and excuse on the endowment effects for hedonic and utilitarian types of food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.; Cramer, L.

    2013-01-01

    Consumer food choices may partly be explained by the endowment effect. Here, we focus on the influence of limited cognitive capacity on loss aversion related to food choices. We also investigate the effects of anticipated feelings on food choices. Experiments with 1614 pupils of secondary schools sh

  1. Resource Endowments and Responses to Regulatory Pressure: Publications of Economics, Management, and Political Science Departments of Turkish Universities in Indexed Journals, 2000-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Cetin; Kasapoglu-Onder, Rana

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how differences in resource endowments of universities shape variation in their response to regulatory pressures. Earlier research on higher education institutions tends to conceive regulatory rules as the primary basis of action and does not attend to differences in the salient characteristics of universities. This paper…

  2. Impact of limited cognitive capacity and feelings of guilt and excuse on the endowment effects for hedonic and utilitarian types of food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.; Cramer, L.

    2013-01-01

    Consumer food choices may partly be explained by the endowment effect. Here, we focus on the influence of limited cognitive capacity on loss aversion related to food choices. We also investigate the effects of anticipated feelings on food choices. Experiments with 1614 pupils of secondary schools

  3. Resolution of superior oblique myokymia with memantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Saurabh; Farooq, Shegufta J; Gottlob, Irene

    2008-02-01

    We describe a novel treatment of superior oblique myokymia. A 40-year-old woman was treated with gabapentin for this disorder with partial success and reported significant side effects including loss of libido and weight gain. After a drug holiday, memantine therapy was initiated resulting in a substantial improvement in her symptoms with far fewer side effects and stability on long-term maintenance therapy.

  4. Locked Superior Dislocation of the Acromioclavicular Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Eltoum Elamin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acromioclavicular (AC joint injuries account for approximately 3–5% of shoulder girdle injuries (Rockwood et al., 1998. Depending on severity of injury and direction of displacement these are classified using Rockwood classification system for AC joint dislocation. We present an unusual case presenting with locked superior dislocation of the AC joint highlighting the presentation and subsequent successful surgical management of such case. To our knowledge this has not been reported previously in literature.

  5. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  6. Synthesis of High-Quality α-MnSe Nanostructures with Superior Lithium Storage Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Hongyang; Liu, Zhengqing; Zhang, Xinyu; Du, Yaping

    2016-03-21

    High-quality α-MnSe nanocubes were successfully prepared for the first time by an effective hot injection synthesis strategy. This approach was simple but robust and had been applied to the controllable synthesis of different sizes and diverse morphologies of α-MnSe nanostructures. The crystal phases, compositions, and microstructures of these nanostructures had been systematically characterized with a series of techniques. As a proof-of-concept application, the as-prepared α-MnSe nanocubes were used as an anode material for a lithium ion battery, which exhibited superior rate ability and ultralong cycle stability in half-cell and full-cell tests. Importantly, the phase transition from α-MnSe to β-MnSe during the electrochemical process was proved by ex situ X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction. The excellent electrochemical performance of α-MnSe endowed its potential as an anode material candidate for high performance lithium storage.

  7. Facile synthesis of bacitracin-templated palladium nanoparticles with superior electrocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanji; Wang, Zi; Li, Xiaoling; Yin, Tian; Bian, Kexin; Gao, Faming; Gao, Dawei

    2017-02-01

    Palladium nanomaterials have attracted great attention on the development of electrocatalysts for fuel cells. Herein, we depicted a novel strategy in the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles with superior electrocatalytic activity. The new approach, based on the self-assembly of bacitracin biotemplate and palladium salt for the preparation of bacitracin-palladium nanoparticles (Bac-PdNPs), was simple, low-cost, and green. The complex, composed by a series of spherical Bac-PdNPs with a diameter of 70 nm, exhibited a chain-liked morphology in TEM and a face-centered cubic crystal structure in X-Ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction. The palladium nanoparticles were mono-dispersed and stable in aqueous solution as shown in TEM and zeta potential. Most importantly, compared to the commercial palladium on carbon (Pd/C) catalyst (8.02 m2 g-1), the Bac-PdNPs showed a larger electrochemically active surface area (47.57 m2 g-1), which endowed the products an excellent electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium. The strategy in synthesis of Bac-PdNPs via biotemplate approach might light up new ideas in anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  8. Superior visible light hydrogen evolution of Janus bilayer junctions via atomic-level charge flow steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhan, Guangming; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Lizhi

    2016-05-09

    Although photocatalytic hydrogen evolution (PHE) is ideal for solar-to-fuel conversion, it remains challenging to construct a highly efficient PHE system by steering the charge flow in a precise manner. Here we tackle this challenge by assembling 1T MoS2 monolayers selectively and chemically onto (Bi12O17) end-faces of Bi12O17Cl2 monolayers to craft two-dimensional (2D) Janus (Cl2)-(Bi12O17)-(MoS2) bilayer junctions, a new 2D motif different from van der Waals heterostructure. Electrons and holes from visible light-irradiated Bi12O17Cl2 are directionally separated by the internal electric field to (Bi12O17) and (Cl2) end-faces, respectively. The separated electrons can further migrate to MoS2 via Bi-S bonds formed between (Bi12O17) and MoS2 monolayers. This atomic-level directional charge separation endows the Janus bilayers with ultralong carrier lifetime of 3,446 ns and hence a superior visible-light PHE rate of 33 mmol h(-1) g(-1). Our delineated Janus bilayer junctions on the basis of the oriented assembly of monolayers presents a new design concept to effectively steer the charge flow for PHE.

  9. [Mitral surgery by superior biatrial septotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, A; Delepine, G; Lemaitre, C; Baehrel, B

    1995-01-01

    The superior biatrial septotomy approach consists of two semicircular right atrial and septal incisions joined at the superior end of the interatrial septum and extended across the dome of the left atrium, allowing exposure of the mitral valve by reflecting the ventricular side using stay sutures. From 1991 to 1993, 81 patients underwent mitral valve surgery by this technic. Mitral valve operation was combined with other cardiac procedures in 30 patients (37%) and was performed as a second operation in 21 patients (25.9%). Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic occlusion was not significantly different from that of patients operated via a conventional left atrial approach. The five hospital deaths (6.2%) were not related to this operative approach. Only 2 patients (3.3%) with preoperative in sinus rythm were discharged in atrial fibrillation after operation. In one patient (1.6%), atrioventricular block appeared at late follow-up. There were no cases of bleeding, atrioventricular nodal dysfunction or intra-atrial shunting related to the approach. This approach provides excellent exposure of the mitral valve even in unfavorable situations such as a small left atrium, dense adhesions from previous procedures or a previously implanted aortic prosthesis, without damage to various cardiac structures due to excessive traction. No retractor or vena cava repair are required. These data support a wide application of the superior biatrial septotomy approach in mitral valve surgery.

  10. Nanotubes within transition metal silicate hollow spheres: Facile preparation and superior lithium storage performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan; An, Yongling; Zhai, Wei; Gao, Xueping [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Feng, Jinkui, E-mail: jinkui@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Ci, Lijie [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Xiong, Shenglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal method using SiO{sub 2} nanosphere. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were tested as anode materials for lithium batteries. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} delivered superior electrochemical performance. • The lithium storage mechanism is probe via cyclic voltammetry and XPS. - Abstract: A series of transition metal silicate hollow spheres, including cobalt silicate (Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), manganese silicate (MnSiO{sub 3}) and copper silicate (CuSiO{sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O, CuSiO{sub 3} as abbreviation in the text) were prepared via a simple and economic hydrothermal method by using silica spheres as chemical template. Time-dependent experiments confirmed that the resultants formed a novel type of hierarchical structure, hollow spheres assembled by numerous one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes building blocks. For the first time, the transition metal silicate hollow spheres were characterized as novel anode materials of Li-ion battery, which presented superior lithium storage capacities, cycle performance and rate performance. The 1D nanotubes assembly and hollow interior endow this kind of material facilitate fast lithium ion and electron transport and accommodate the big volume change during the conversion reactions. Our study shows that low-cost transition metal silicate with rationally designed nanostructures can be promising anode materials for high capacity lithium-ion battery.

  11. 国内外养老模式研究%A Review of the Researches on Home and Abroad Endowment Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪心; 李巍

    2012-01-01

      老年人生活质量的好坏、是否能够安度晚年,不仅与每个家庭息息相关,而且与国家的稳定紧密相连。国家实行怎样的养老模式才能适应其老龄化的发展是众多学者关心的问题。就当前国内外养老模式来看,可以分为家庭养老、社区养老和机构养老三种。发展阶段不同,我国与国外养老模式也有很大不同,研究国内外养老模式进行探讨,对适合我国养老的新型养老模式进行分析,对我国养老模式的方向有重要意义,对国家制定养老政策有参考借鉴价值。%  With the aging of population becoming increasingly obvious, the aged are considered important all over the world. Whether the quality of life belonging to the aged good or bad, whether the life of the aged happy or unhappy, not only relates to every family, but links with the country's stability. What endowment pattern the nation should adopt is the problem that most scholars are interested in. According to home and abroad endowment pattern, there are three endowment patterns, including family support, community support and organization support. This paper has made a review of the research on home and abroad endowment patterns, analyzed deeply on the endowment's new model which suits Chinese context and found out the problems.

  12. 养老保险的顶层设计制度研究%Endowment insurance system of the top-level design research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧影; 姜姗

    2014-01-01

    随着社会的不断发展,养老保险制度改革涉及到每个人的切身利益。为了完善养老保险制度改革的顶层设计,使这一制度能够保障老年生活、维护社会公平正义,应该通过一系列的措施和手段逐步解决制度问题,平衡养老保险的支柱作用。因此养老保险的顶层设计必须树立正确理念、优化制度安排、注重市场作用等措施,以顶层设计推进养老保险改革,方可避免改革碎片化的思路,从而切实实现养老保险的深化改革措施。%With the continuous development of society, the old-age insurance system reform involves everyone's vital interests In order to improve the system of endowment insurance reform of top-level design, enables the system to safeguard old age life Safeguard social fairness and justice, should be through a series of methods and means to solve the problem of system, balance the pillar of endowment insurance So the top of the endowment insurance design must set up correct concept Optimizing the system arrangement Attention to the top-level design measures such as market effect, promote the reform of endowment insurance, can avoid the thinking of reform of fragmentation, and earnestly implement the deepening the reform of endowment insurance measures.

  13. 江苏省农村养老存在的问题及对策分析%Existed Problems and Countermeasures of Rural Endowment in Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞琦娟; 唐力

    2014-01-01

    Jiangsu keeps ahead of development of new agricultural insurance,but has serious problems in rural en-dowment,such as less annual surplus accumulation,limited individual self-supporting ability,reduction of children, transference of rural people,weakening of the family intergenerational endowment security,lower new agricultural insurance pension and less old-age security capability with the new agricultural insurance.The main reasons are as follows,including lower income,fading of endowment function of agriculture,indifference of children awareness to endowment and large difference between urban and rural endowment insurance.What measures should be taken are to improve farmers'incoming,strengthen land endowment,focus on the intergenerational family pension and devel-op commercial insurance.%江苏新农保发展领先于全国,但农村养老问题仍十分突出,表现为年剩余积累少,个体自我养老保障能力有限;子女人数减少、农村人口转移,家庭代际养老保障功能弱化;新农保养老金额偏低,新农保养老保障能力不强。其主要原因是农民收入低,土地养老功能弱化,子女养老意识淡薄,养老保险城乡差异大。认为应提高农民收入,强化土地养老,重视家庭代际养老,发展商业保险。

  14. Superior mesenteric artery compression syndrome - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rocha França Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is an entity generally caused by the loss of the intervening mesenteric fat pad, resulting in compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery. This article reports the case of a patient with irremovable metastatic adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon, that evolved with intense vomiting. Intestinal transit was carried out, which showed important gastric dilation extended until the third portion of the duodenum, compatible with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Considering the patient's nutritional condition, the medical team opted for the conservative treatment. Four months after the surgery and conservative measures, the patient did not present vomiting after eating, maintaining previous weight. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is uncommon and can have unspecific symptoms. Thus, high suspicion is required for the appropriate clinical adjustment. A barium examination is required to make the diagnosis. The treatment can initially require gastric decompression and hydration, besides reversal of weight loss through adequate nutrition. Surgery should be adopted only in case of clinical treatment failure.A síndrome da artéria mesentérica superior é uma entidade clínica causada geralmente pela perda do tecido adiposo mesentérico, resultando na compressão da terceira porção do duodeno pela artéria mesentérica superior. Esse artigo relata o caso clínico de uma paciente portadora de adenocarcinoma de cólon sigmoide metastático irressecável, que evoluiu com vômitos incoercíveis. Realizou-se, então, trânsito intestinal que evidenciou dilatação gástrica importante, que se prolongava até a terceira porção duodenal, quadro radiológico compatível com pinçamento da artéria mesentérica superior. Diante da condição nutricional da paciente, foi optado por iniciar medidas conservadoras (porções alimentares pequenas e mais frequentes, além de dec

  15. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced

  16. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold for perc...... simultaneously we find a different pattern: In a whole report experiment with six stimuli (letters or words), letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity....

  17. de educación media superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cerón Ferrer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo presenta los resultados obtenidos en relación al conocimiento y manejo que sobre matemáticas tienen los estudiantes de educación media superior, de los Centros de Estudios Tecnológicos y de Servicios del Distrito Federal, de diferentes carreras que se imparten en estos centros escolares, durante el año 2005. El instrumento de análisis es un cuestionario que contestaron los alumnos, la metodología utilizada es de tipo longitudinal y comparativa.

  18. Proceedings of the ENDOW workshop 'Offshore wakes: Measurements and modelling[Efficient Development of Offshore Windfarms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R.J. (ed.)

    2002-03-01

    The papers presented in these Proceedings are the result of a workshop held at Risoe National Laboratory on March 7 and 8 2002 entitled 'Offshore Wakes: Measurements and Modelling'. The Workshop was arranged to showcase results of the European Community supported project 'Efficient Development of Offshore Windfarms (ENDOW)' and featured a series of eight presentations discussing modelling of wakes and boundary layers, existing and new measurements from offshore wind farms and how these will be linked in a new design tool and applied at planned offshore wind farms. In addition seven invited presentations covered a range of relevant topics from analytical approaches to fatigue and extreme loads in wind turbine clusters, current wake modelling in WAsP, optimising power production at Arklow Bank, Particle Image Velocimetry study of a wind turbine wake in a yaw, offshore wind measurements in Massachusetts, accuracy of SODAR measurements for wind energy and tidal influence of offshore wind speeds and turbulence. (au)

  19. How rich is Australia's minerals endowment and is it adequate to sustain a major role in meeting international demand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    Dr Ian Lambert, Geoscience Australia and Secretary General 34th International Geological Congress Australia has comparative advantages in production of mineral commodities compared to most other countries. These stem from its rich and diverse mineral endowment; availability of regional scale (pre-competitive) geoscience information to lower the risks of exploration; advances in exploration, mining and processing technologies; skilled work force; generally benign physical conditions; and low population density. Building on these strengths, Australia is a major producer and exporter of a wide range of mineral and energy commodities to global markets. Given that demand for most major commodities is likely to continue, and that there will be growing markets for some other commodities, Australia needs to have a strategic view of what is likely to be available for mining. Further, Australia (and the world) needs to be attuned to issues that need to be faced in meeting international demand for commodities in the long term. This presentation outlines how Australia's national minerals inventory is compiled. It discusses trends for Australia's identified mineral resources for major commodities, and how these compare with other major mining nations. It then considers some significant issues in relation to sustaining a strong mining sector - in the medium to long term this requires a strategic approach to achieve goals such as more effective/lower risk exploration particularly in greenfields regions; well-Informed decisions on mining proposals; ongoing significant improvements in efficiencies of energy, water and land use.

  20. Genetics of nonspecific immunity: I. Bidirectional selective breeding of lines of mice endowed with maximal or minimal inflammatory responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, O M; Stiffel, C; Ribeiro, O G; Cabrera, W K; Massa, S; de Franco, M; Sant'Anna, O A; Decreusefond, C; Mouton, D; Siqueira, M

    1992-10-01

    The genetic regulation of acute inflammatory reaction (AIR) was studied by the method of bidirectional selective breeding, used to produce a line of mice giving the maximal and a line of mice giving the minimal inflammatory reaction (AIR max and AIR min, respectively). The AIR was triggered by subcutaneous injection of a neutral substrate (suspension of polyacrylamide microbeads), and measured by the leukocyte and serum protein accumulation in the exudate. The two parameters are positively correlated and present a normal frequency distribution. The highly genetically heterogeneous foundation population was produced by the equipoised intercrossing of eight inbred strains of mice, and selective breeding carried out by assortative matings of extreme phenotypes. The response to selection in 11 consecutive generations was highly asymmetrical: a marked AIR increase in the AIR max and no change in the AIR min line occurred. The mean value of realized heritability in the AIR max line was 0.26 and 0.18 for cell and protein concentrations, respectively. The response to selection must have resulted from the interaction of seven to nine independent gene loci endowed with additive effects. The lack of response to selection of the AIR min line is discussed. The large inter-line difference opens new possibilities for studying the biochemistry and molecular genetics of inflammation, and also for investigating the beneficial or detrimental effect of inflammatory responses.

  1. γ-Fe₂O₃ Nanocrystalline Microspheres with Hybrid Behavior of Battery-Supercapacitor for Superior Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei-Lei; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Wu, Chao; Wei, Yi; Zheng, Jia-Xin; Lin, Ling-Piao; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Zhuang, Quan-Chao; Pan, Feng

    2015-12-02

    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanocrystalline microspheres (MNMs) self-assembled with 52 nm nanocrystals bridged with FeOOH around grain boundaries were formed by solvothermal reaction and thermal oxidation. The unique architecture endows the MNMs with the lithium storage behavior of a hybrid battery-supercapacitor electrode: initial charge capacity of 1060 mAh g(-1) at the 100 mA g(-1) rate, stable cyclic capacity of 1077.9 mAh g(-1) at the same rate after 140 cycles, and rate capability of 538.8 mAh g(-1) at 2400 mA g(-1). This outstanding performance was attributed to the nanocrystal superiority, which shortens the Li(+) diffusion paths. The mechanism of this hybrid anode material was investigated with experimental measurements and structural analysis. The results indicate that at the first discharge, the MNM nanocrystal microsphere, whose structure can buffer the volume change that occurs during lithiation/delithiation, goes through four stages: Li(+) insertion in cation vacancies, spinel-to-rocksalt transformation, Li(+) intercalation of Li(1.75+x)Fe2O3 nanocrystals, and interfacial Li storage around nanocrystal boundaries. Only the latter two stages were reversible at and after the second charging/discharging cycle, exhibiting the hybrid behavior of a battery-supercapacitor with superior lithium storage.

  2. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with early superior mesenteric artery dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Fei Xu; Zuo-Jin Liu; Jian-Ping Gong

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death and is one of the most aggressive human tumors. At present, surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment. Early neck division is inadequate when invasion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is suspected or in cases of replaced or accessory right hepatic artery. Malignant periampullary tumors often invade retroperitoneal peripancreatic tissues and a positive resection margin is associated with a poor long-term survival. DATA SOURCES: English-language medical databases, PubMed, ELSEVIER and SPRINGERLINK, were searched for articles on"posterior approach pancreaticoduodenectomy","superior mesenteric artery ifrst approach", "retroperitoneal tissue","hanging maneuver", and related topics. RESULTS:The modiifcation allowed the surgeon to early identify the nonresectability of a replaced right hepatic artery if present, enabling complete dissection of the right side of the SMA and portal vein as well as complete excision of the retroportal pancreatic lamina. CONCLUSION: Pancreaticoduodenectomy with early retro-pancreatic dissection is a useful and safe technical variant, which is indicated for the improvement of the safety and curative effect of the procedure.

  3. Radiation treatment of superior sulcus lung carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.; Ball, D.; Worotniuk, V.; Smith, J.; Crennan, E.; Bishop, M. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Inst., East Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    The survival of patients with superior sulcus lung carcinoma and the effects of treatment were reviewed. From a prospective database of 4123 consecutive new patients with lung carcinoma, 131 (3.2%) cases of superior sulcus lung carcinoma were identified. Seventy-four patients were planned to receive radiation with palliative intent, 53 radical radiotherapy and one was observed only. The remaining three patients, with small-cell carcinoma, were treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Of the 53 radically treated patients, nine were treated with pre-operative radiation prior to intended radical resection. Analysis was carried out on the effect on survival of performance status, nodal involvement, weight loss, vertebral body or rib involvement, treatment intent and radical combined modality treatment compared with radical radiation alone. The estimated median survival for the whole group was 7.6 months; for those treated radically it was 18.3 months, while for the palliatively treated patients it was 3.7 months. Radically treated patients with no initial nodal involvement had an estimated median survival of 22 months, while radically treated patients with nodal involvement had an estimated median survival of 8.4 months (P = 0.003). There were no statistically significant differences in survival between radically treated patients grouped according to initial weight loss, performance status, or vertebral body and rib involvement. Patients treated with pre-operative radiation did not survive significantly longer than patients treated with radiation alone, although the numbers are small. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Studies on zooplankton of Lago Paione Superiore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia COMOLI

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available We report here the results of a three year study on the zooplankton of Lago Paione Superiore, an acid sensitive lake above the tree line in the Italian Alps. The research was carried out within MOLAR, an EC-founded Project on “Measuring and Modeling the dynamic response of remote mountain lakes ecosystems to environmental change”. This study comes after a series of investigations on the effects of acidification, in which we documented the changes occurred with decreasing water pHs, by comparing the recent situation with that in the literature of the 40s, and reconstructed the beginning of anthropogenic disturbance through an analysis of the past cladocera assemblages archived in the lake sediments. A characteristic pattern in seasonal periodicity is a transition from a community dominated by small zooplankton (August to a community where the large particle-feeder Daphnia longispina dominates. This is a typical pattern observed in fishless, copepod-cladocera lakes. Regardless from which food is able to exploit, Daphnia population of Lago Paione Superiore is composed by well-fed organisms, visually rich in lipids, able to produce more than one generation/ year of parthenogenetic females at density levels which are rather high in an oligotrophic high mountain lake.

  5. Cochlear implant outcomes in patients with superior canal dehiscence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Roberts, Daniel S.; Niesten, Marlien E F; Dilger, Amanda E.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether adult cochlear implant (CI) users with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) or asymptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) have different surgical, vestibular, and audiologic outcomes when compared to CI users with normal temporal bone anatomy. Meth

  6. The Superior Transvelar Approach to the Fourth Ventricle and Brainstem

    OpenAIRE

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Bollam, Papireddy; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Objective The superior transvelar approach is used to access pathologies located in the fourth ventricle and brainstem. The surgical path is below the venous structures, through the superior medullary velum. Following splitting the tentorial edge, near the tentorial apex, the superior medullary velum is split in the cerebello-mesencephalic fissure. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial, transtentorial or parietal interhemispheric routes, the superior medullary velum is approached. Splittin...

  7. Discussion on the Construction Form of Family Endowment Service Organization%居家养老服务机构建设形式探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵越

    2012-01-01

    "People-run non enterprise" is the best choice when the nature of family endowment service organization is determined. Family endowment service organization not only has its own advantages but also conform to social needs,advocacy trend of the national policy and the law of the development of market economy.%“民办非企业单位”是确定居家养老服务机构性质时的最佳选择。居家养老服务机构不仅具有自身优势,还具有符合社会需求、符合国家政策倡导趋向以及市场经济发展规律等优点。

  8. Explaining technical inefficiency and the variation in income from apple adoption in highland Ethiopia: The role of unequal endowments and knowledge asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintayehu Hailu Alemu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the performance and quality of apple fruits and seedlings production in Chencha district of southern Ethiopia. The estimated, three-factor (labour, land and capital production frontier reveals that the technical inefficiency is 60% and 48% for fruits and seedlings production, respectively. Endowments in land, apple plantation and manure are important production factors for both fruits and seedlings, while labour is significant only for seedlings production. We could not reject constant returns to scale, neither for apple fruits nor for seedlings. Apart from capital and labour endowments, producer knowledge on apple cultivation is a positive and significant determinant of the level of output, product quality, and income generated from apples. The insignificance of the education variable for fruits and seedlings production suggests that what matters in the apple business is specific knowledge of apple-growing technology rather than formal education, at least beyond primary education.

  9. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned power...

  10. Superiority: China Mobile in the competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The market share between China Mobile and China Unicom has stabilized since 2002.It is found that China Mobile has the superiority in the competition, for example, the scissors movement between its revenue and cost indicates that it has a strong profit generating ability and there is enough room for it to reduce the price.The ratio between its price (marginal income) and marginal cost indicates that there is a very distant limit for it to reduce the price.Its demand is obviously flexible with the price, but it does not use the price weapon abundantly.The reason for the stabilization of the market is that China Mobile withdrew from the competition.

  11. MRI manifestations of enlarged superior ophthalmic vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Rui-li; MA Xiao-ye; CAI Ji-ping; ZHU Huang

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To assess MRI in the evaluation of enlarged superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). Methods: MRI manifestations and etiology of forty-six patients with enlarged SOV were analyzed. Results: SOV enlargement was noted to occur in carotid-cavernous fistula, ophthalmic Graves'disease, Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, inflammation at the apex of the orbit, orbital pseudotumor and thrombosis of cavernous sinus. The dilated vein appeared as signal void tubular shadows on both T1 and T2 weighted images. The diameter of the enlarged vein was 3.5-6.0 mm. Extraocular muscle enlargement, orbital pathologies, enlarged carotid cavernous sinus etc were also revealed by MRI. Conclusion: The dilated SOV may be well demonstrated by MRI. The etiological diagnosis of enlarged SOV can be made in combination with the associated findings.

  12. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  13. Analgesia em modelo animal superior para ortopedia

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira MT, Maria Teresa; Potes, José Alberto; Queiroga, Cristina; Castro, José António; Pereira, Alfredo; Reis, Joana

    2015-01-01

    O teste de novos biomateriais para aplicações clínicas em ortopedia, ou noutras áreas da medicina, em modelos animais vivos e sencientes, em prol do benefício humano, deve ser objecto de planeamento cuidado e ponderado, dado o conflito ético que se coloca. Compete-nos a nós, enquanto investigadores, garantir que as condições de vida, saúde e bem-estar são asseguradas. O uso de ovinos como modelo superior pré-clínico, para investigação em Ortopedia, tem-se evidenciado devido às suas caracterís...

  14. Superior vena cava syndrome in hemodialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeb Molhem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstruction of blood flow in the superior vena cava (SVC results in symptoms and signs of SVC syndrome. SVC obstruction can be caused either by invasion or external compression of the SVC by contagious pathologic processes involving the right lung, lymph nodes, and other mediastinal structures, or by thrombosis of blood within the SVC. Occasionally, both mechanisms co-exist. We hereby report a case of a 28-year-old male, Saudi patient who was diagnosed with end-stage renal disease and was maintained on regular hemodiaysis via right jugular vein dual lumen catheter for ten months. Three years later, the patient presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of SVC obstruction that was successfully managed with SVC stenting.

  15. [Surgical treatment of superior thoracic outlet syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaibov, A D; Kakhorov, A Z; Sadriev, O N; Yunusov, Kh A

    2015-01-01

    The authors present immediate and long-term results of treatment of 117 patients with superior thoracic outlet syndrome (STOS). There were different reasons for compression of neu- rovascular fascicle in outlet of the thorax. The costaclavicular syndrome was a reason in 48 patients, additional cervical ribs had 36 patients. Skalenus syndrome was noted in 26 cases, rudimentary cervical ribs or hypertrophy of cervical vertebrae C7 had 7 patients. Raynaud's syndrome took place in 19 cases. The required volume of diagnostic procedures and surgical treatment of STOS were determined according to the cause of the syndrome. Differentiated approach to the different forms of STOS was used in relation to dominant symptoms of the disease and reasons for compression of neurovascular fascicle. This allowed getting positive results in majority of patients (90,4%) in long- term period.

  16. ANATOMIC RESEARCH OF SUPERIOR CLUNIAL NERVE TRAUMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In order to find the mechanism of superior clunial nerve (SCN) trauma, we dissected and revealed SCN from 12 corpses (24 sides). Combining 100 sides of SCN trauma, we inspected the course of SCN, the relation between SCN and it's neighbour tissues with the situation of SCN when being subjected to force. We found that the following special anatomic characteristics and mechanical elements such as the course of SCN, it's turning angles, the bony fibrous tube at the iliac crest, the posterior layer of the lumbodorsal fascia and SCN neighbour adipose tissue, are the causes of external force inducing SCN trauma. The anatomic revealment is the guidance of SCN trauma treatment with edged needle.

  17. Superiorization: An optimization heuristic for medical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, G T; Davidi, R; Censor, Y

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and mathematically validate the superiorization methodology, which is a recently-developed heuristic approach to optimization, and to discuss its applicability to medical physics problem formulations that specify the desired solution (of physically given or otherwise obtained constraints) by an optimization criterion. Methods: The underlying idea is that many iterative algorithms for finding such a solution are perturbation resilient in the sense that, even if certain kinds of changes are made at the end of each iterative step, the algorithm still produces a constraints-compatible solution. This property is exploited by using permitted changes to steer the algorithm to a solution that is not only constraints-compatible, but is also desirable according to a specified optimization criterion. The approach is very general, it is applicable to many iterative procedures and optimization criteria used in medical physics. Results: The main practical contribution is a procedure for automatically p...

  18. Conicasterol E, a Small Heterodimer Partner Sparing Farnesoid X Receptor Modulator Endowed with a Pregnane X Receptor Agonistic Activity, from the Marine Sponge Theonella swinhoei

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sepe; Ummarino, R.; D'Auria, M. V.; M. G. Chini; Bifulco, G.; Renga, B; D'Amore, C.; Debitus, Cécile; Fiorucci, S.; Zampella, A.

    2012-01-01

    We report the isolation and pharmacological characterization of conicasterol E isolated from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei. Pharmacological characterization of this steroid in comparison to CDCA, a natural FXR ligand, and 6-ECDCA, a synthetic FXR agonist generated by an improved synthetic strategy, and rifaximin, a potent PXR agonist, demonstrated that conicasterol E is an FXR modulator endowed with PXR agonistic activity. Conicasterol E induces the expression of genes involved in bile...

  19. Endowed With Heritage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    UNESCO’s World Heritage Committee inscribes two new sites in China China’s world heritage site num-ber has again increased after two new additions were announced at the 32nd conference of the World Heritage Committee, held in Quebec,

  20. Superior calcium homeostasis of extraocular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Ulrike; Mitchell, Claire H; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2010-11-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) are a unique group of skeletal muscles with unusual physiological properties such as being able to undergo rapid twitch contractions over extended periods and escape damage in the presence of excess intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD). Enhanced Ca(2+) buffering has been proposed as a contributory mechanism to explain these properties; however, the mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated mechanisms modulating Ca(2+) levels in EOM and tibialis anterior (TA) limb muscles. Using Fura-2 based ratiometric Ca(2+) imaging of primary myotubes we found that EOM myotubes reduced elevated Ca(2+) ˜2-fold faster than TA myotubes, demonstrating more efficient Ca(2+) buffering. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blotting revealed higher expression of key components of the Ca(2+) regulation system in EOM, such as the cardiac/slow isoforms sarcoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase 2 (Serca2) and calsequestrin 2 (Casq2). Interestingly EOM expressed monomeric rather than multimeric forms of phospholamban (Pln), which was phosphorylated at threonine 17 (Thr17) but not at the serine 16 (Ser16) residue. EOM Pln remained monomeric and unphosphorylated at Ser16 despite protein kinase A (PKA) treatment, suggesting differential signalling and modulation cascades involving Pln-mediated Ca(2+) regulation in EOM. Increased expression of Ca(2+)/SR mRNA, proteins, differential post-translational modification of Pln and superior Ca(2+) buffering is consistent with the improved ability of EOM to handle elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels. These characteristics provide mechanistic insight for the potential role of superior Ca(2+) buffering in the unusual physiology of EOM and their sparing in DMD.

  1. The management of superior sulcus tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, J.D.; Putnam, J.B. Jr [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Anderson Cancer Center] (and others)

    2001-09-01

    Superior sulcus tumors are a rare type of lung cancer arising in the apex of the lung above the sulcus and cause specific symptoms and signs depending on the location and whether the tumor extends into the surrounding structures. Because of the closeness of critical structures to the tumor (e.g., the subclavian artery for anterior lesions, the brachial plexus for lesions in the middle location, and the sympathetic stellate ganglion causing Horner's syndrome [Pancoast's tumor], the vertebral bodies, nerve foramen, and spinal cord for posterior lesions), superior sulcus tumors were often considered marginally respectable or unresectable. Therefore, for many years, preoperative radiation therapy was considered routine treatment for those tumors. However, with the evolution in our understanding of these tumors and modern imaging techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) and surgical techniques, there is now considerable debate about the roles and timing of surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with these tumors. If mediastinoscopy reveals microscopic mediastinal lymph node involvement, the patient can be treated with preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. If there was a gross mediastinal lymph node involvement (N2) on CT, N3 or T4 lesions, the patient can be treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy with a curative intent; the outcome of such treatment appears to be better than that of sequential chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy. Whenever possible, without compromising the patient's quality of life, surgery should be considered to improve outcome. (author)

  2. STEREO Superior Solar Conjunction Mission Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossing, Daniel A.; Wilson, Daniel; Balon, Kevin; Hunt, Jack; Dudley, Owen; Chiu, George; Coulter, Timothy; Reese, Angel; Cox, Matthew; Srinivasan, Dipak; hide

    2017-01-01

    With its long duration and high gain antenna (HGA) feed thermal constraint; the NASA Solar-TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) solar conjunction mission phase is quite unique to deep space operations. Originally designed for a two year heliocentric orbit mission to primarily study coronal mass ejection propagation, after 8 years of continuous science data collection, the twin STEREO observatories entered the solar conjunction mission phase, for which they were not designed. Nine months before entering conjunction, an unforeseen thermal constraint threatened to stop daily communications and science data collection for 15months. With a 3.5 month long communication blackout from the superior solar conjunction, without ground commands, each observatory will reset every 3 days, resulting in 35 system resets at an Earth range of 2 AU. As the observatories will be conjoined for the first time in 8 years, a unique opportunity for calibrating the same instruments on identical spacecraft will occur. As each observatory has lost redundancy, and with only a limited fidelity hardware simulator, how can the new observatory configuration be adequately and safely tested on each spacecraft? Without ground commands, how would a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft safely manage the ever accumulating system momentum without using propellant for thrusters? Could science data still be collected for the duration of the solar conjunction mission phase? Would the observatories survive? In its second extended mission, operational resources were limited at best. This paper discusses the solutions to the STEREO superior solar conjunction operational challenges, science data impact, testing, mission operations, results, and lessons learned while implementing.

  3. Analysis on the endowment insurance of migrant workers in Beijing%北京农民工养老保险问题初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘一林; 孙素芬

    2013-01-01

    Migrant workers, as the product of the era, have contributed immensely to urban development and prosperity. To investigate the endowment insurance status of the migrant workers in Beijing, we employed the method of questionnaire survey to get the first hand data and interviewed a quantity of migrant workers from some counties in Beijing. Based on the analysis of the questionnaires, we pointed out the problems of the current endowment insurance of the migrant workers and brought forward targeted suggestions for the perfection of the endowment insurance policies.%农民工是时代的必然产物.这个特殊的群体为城市的繁荣和发展做出巨大的贡献.为了充分了解北京地区农民工的社会养老保障现状,采取发放调查问卷的方式,并实地走访部分区县的农民工.在分析调研问卷的前提下,指出现行养老保障体系出现的问题,并对改革完善农民工养老保险制度提出针对性建议.

  4. Analysis of Endowment Pressure of the Single-Child Family in the City%城市独生子女家庭养老压力浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹丹

    2011-01-01

    Along with the parents of the first generation of only children coming into the old age,when China's old-age security is not perfect,the family endowment is weakening,socialization endowment develops slow,the single-child family support for overweight elderly parents' economic and psychological and physical pressure.How to solve the problem of endowment of the single-child family in the city is a challenge we have face.%随着第一代独生子女父母进入老年期,在我国养老保障还不健全,家庭养老功能弱化,社会化养老方式发展迟缓的情况下,独生子女家庭承担了过重的赡养老年父母的经济、心理和体力压力。如何解决城市独生子女家庭养老问题是我们面临的又一大挑战。

  5. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  6. Phytohormone production endowed with antagonistic potential and plant growth promoting abilities of culturable endophytic bacteria isolated from Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passari, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Leo, Vincent Vineeth; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2016-12-01

    6 was reported to produce altogether three phytohormones (IAA, Kinetin and 6-Benzyladenine). This study is the first report that bacteria isolated from C. colebrookianum has biocontrol as well as PGP abilities endowed with phytohormones production and can be used for the preparation of bioinoculant for plant growth promotion.

  7. Carbon phosphide monolayers with superior carrier mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaoxue; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P.

    2016-04-01

    Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great promise for applications in high-performance electronics and optoelectronics.Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great

  8. Absent right superior caval vein in situs solitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Sundberg, Karin; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    no postnatal complications. All children were found to have healthy hearts at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In all cases, the findings proved to be a benign condition with no clinical manifestations or complications. Although isolated absent right superior caval vein does not seem to affect the outcome, associated......Introduction In up to 0.07% of the general population, the right anterior cardinal vein obliterates and the left remains open, creating an absent right superior caval vein and a persistent left superior caval vein. Absent right superior caval vein is associated with additional congenital heart...... disease in about half the patients. We wished to study the consequences of absent right superior caval vein as an incidental finding on prenatal ultrasonic malformation screening. Material and methods This is a retrospective case series study of all foetuses diagnosed with absent right superior caval vein...

  9. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William

    2015-08-04

    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  10. Coronary artery bypass and superior vena cava syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, T V; Masrani, K; Thomas, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Superior vena cava syndrome is the obstruction of the superior vena cava or its main tributaries by benign or malignant lesions. The syndrome causes edema and engorgement of the vessels on the face, neck, and arms, nonproductive cough, and dyspnea. We discuss the case of a 48-year-old obese diabetic woman who was admitted with unstable angina. She had previously been diagnosed with superior vena cava syndrome. Urgent coronary artery bypass grafting was necessary Although thousands of coronary...

  11. Superiorization of incremental optimization algorithms for statistical tomographic image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, E. S.; Zibetti, M. V. W.; Miqueles, E. X.

    2017-04-01

    We propose the superiorization of incremental algorithms for tomographic image reconstruction. The resulting methods follow a better path in its way to finding the optimal solution for the maximum likelihood problem in the sense that they are closer to the Pareto optimal curve than the non-superiorized techniques. A new scaled gradient iteration is proposed and three superiorization schemes are evaluated. Theoretical analysis of the methods as well as computational experiments with both synthetic and real data are provided.

  12. 77 FR 48856 - Safety Zone; Superior Bay, Duluth, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... spectators during the Superior Man Triathlon. DATES: This rule is effective from 6 a.m. to 8:30 a.m. on... Triathlon, which are discussed further below. Under 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3), the Coast Guard finds that good... inaugural Superior Man Triathlon will occur along the Bay of Lake Superior. The 1.2 mile swim leg of...

  13. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: An Infrequent Complication of Scoliosis Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Keskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare condition that causes a proximal small intestinal obstruction due to contraction of the angle between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta. Scoliosis surgery is one of the 15 reasons for superior mesenteric artery syndrome, which can present with acute or chronic manifestations. Although conservative treatment is usually possible, surgical treatment is required in certain cases that cannot be treated using conservative methods. In this paper, we describe a patient who developed superior mesenteric artery syndrome after scoliosis surgery and was treated with duodenojejunostomy due to failure and complications of conservative treatment.

  14. Superior Vena Cava Thrombosis in a Case of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superior vena cava syndrome is a common presentation of bronchogenic carcinoma. The mechanism of obstruction is by compression of superior vena cava by the bronchogenic tumor itself or enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However obstruction due to intravascular thrombosis is extremely uncommon. Here, we report a rare case of a 65-year-old male smoker who presented with superior vena cava syndrome and bilateral pleural and pericardial effusion with thrombotic occlusion of the superior vena cava in adenocarcinoma of the lung. He was given chemotherapy with carboplatin and gemcitabine with anticoagulant therapy.

  15. [Catheter in the superior vena cava for hemodialysis as a last resort in superior hemithorax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo Valencia, C A; Buritica Barragán, C M; Arango, A

    2010-01-01

    We report four patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing haemodialysis therapy, which had exhausted conventional venous access (internal jugular, subclavian) and non-conventional access (axillary, innominate) in the upper hemithorax for haemodialysis. This was primarily due to thrombosis of these veins caused by previous catheterisation. These patients did not qualify for peritoneal dialysis. Using the technique recommended by Archundia et al., 4 indwelling catheters were implanted directly in the superior vena cava in each of the patients with subsequent subcutaneous tunneling. The catheters operated correctly and are currently permeable after being used for an average of 19 months.

  16. 农村养老性别偏好影响因素分析%Analysis of Influencing Factors of Gender Preference for Endowment in the Countryside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏利香; 钟涨宝

    2015-01-01

    Based on a rural survey in Xunwu ,Yibin ,Guangshui and Wenzhou ,we analyze whether the rural people have gender preference for endowment and the influencing factors of gender preference .The results of logis‐tic regression analysis show that:On the one hand ,rural people’s endowment gender preference is different ,the acceptance of daughter endow ment is different in various regions .On the other hand ,the traditional idea of “rai‐sing sons to support elderly parents”still has a far‐reaching influence on the rural people ,the majority of rural peo‐ple still has strong endowment gender preference ,and they are more willing to live with sons to get endowment re‐sources .Age ,marital status ,number of children and family income have significant influences on people’s accept‐ance for living with daughter to get support when they are old .The people aged ,married ,have more children , have more family income ,the more possible they can’t accept the daughter to support them w hen they are old ,and they show stronger endowment gender preference .Gender ,education and family income have significant influences on living with the son or daughter to get endowment resources .The male ,those who have lower education ,have more family income ,are more willing to live with son to get endowment resources ,they showed stronger endow‐ment gender preference .Annual household income has positive influence on both whether one can accept to get en‐dowment resources from daughter and prefer to live with son or daughter ,it shows the importance of family re‐sources for endowment gender preference .%基于对寻乌、宜宾、广水、温州农村的问卷调查,实证分析了农村是否存在养老性别偏好以及影响养老性别偏好的因素。养老性别偏好影响因素的Logistic回归分析结果显示:一方面农村人的养老性别偏好呈现差异性,各个地区对于在女儿家里养老的接受程度不同。另一方面,“养

  17. Weil Representation of a Generalized Linear Group over a Ring of Truncated Polynomials over a Finite Field Endowed with a Second Class Involution

    OpenAIRE

    Frez, Luis Gutiérrez; Pantoja, José

    2015-01-01

    We construct a complex linear Weil representation $\\rho$ of the generalized special linear group $G={\\rm SL}_*^{1}(2,A_n)$ ($A_n=K[x]/\\langle x^n\\rangle$, $K$ the quadratic extension of the finite field $k$ of $q$ elements, $q$ odd), where $A_n$ is endowed with a second class involution. After the construction of a specific data, the representation is defined on the generators of a Bruhat presentation of $G$, via linear operators satisfying the relations of the presentation. The structure of ...

  18. Study on perfecting the Social Endowment Service System in Binzhou%滨州市社会养老服务体系完善研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦丛丛

    2015-01-01

    滨州市人口老龄化形势非常严峻,为积极应对人口老龄化带来的压力和挑战,滨州市不断推进社会养老服务体系建设,在推行敬老院“一院两制”管理模式、发展社区村办独立型老年公寓、建立政府购买居家养老服务制度、推行“爱心时间银行”储蓄卡制度等方面取得了成功探索。为进一步推进滨州市社会养老服务体系建设,提出了鼓励社会力量兴办养老事业、加快完善养老服务机构建设、建立虚拟养老院、推行居家养老有偿服务等建议。%In recent years,Binzhou city population aging situation is very serious. For coping with an ageing popula-tion pressure and challenges,Binzhou city continuously push forward the construction of the social endowment service system and is successful in“one institute,two systems”management pattern,the development of independent apart-ments for the elderly run by establishing the system of government purchase home endowment service,adopting the system of“Love Time Bank”and deposit cards. To promote social endowment service system construction of Binzhou city,suggestions are put forward as following:encouraging social forces to set up pension business,accelerating the construction of perfect endowment service agencies,establishing a virtual nursing home,and carrying out the paid serv-ices of home-based care for the aged.

  19. 赋予数学课堂教学立体的坐标%Endowing a Three-Dimensional Coordinate to Mathematics Classroom Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕楠

    2011-01-01

    In mathematics classroom teaching the teaching should,in accordance with principle features and students' age features, organize effective teaching,build a meaningful class and endow a three-dimensional coordinate to mathematics class.%数学课堂教学要根据学科特点和学生年龄特点,组织有效的教学.构建有意义的课堂.赋予数学课堂立体的坐标体系。

  20. Endowment nursing status and countermeasures at private nursing home of Nankai district in Tianjin.%天津市南开区民营养老院养老护理现状与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵赛; 赵力洁; 孙静; 苏亚苹; 王燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To know about the present situation of endowment nursing in private nursing home at Nankai district, and provide reference for education and research of endowment nursing. Meanwhile give advices to the government departments to promote the development of endowment nursing work and pensions agency in a harmonious and comprehensive way. Methods: Extraction 8 of nursing homes with simply random sampling from nursing homes in Nankai District. The endowment nurse and awareness of the elderly carried on the questionnaire survey. Results:The majority endowment nurses in Nankai district private nursing home are older and with lower levels of education. They have lower salary. Endowment of nursing overall design is insufficient, psychological nursing does not reach the designated position, while endowment nursing mode also has deficiencies. Conclusion: At present endowment nursing need the support of our government. The overall quality of endowment nurse should be enhanced urgently, and endowment nursing mode needs further improvement.%目的:了解天津市南开区民营养老院养老护理现状,为养老护理教育及研究提供参考,为政府部门提供建议,促进养老护理工作与养老机构的和谐发展.方法:对南开区民营养老院进行单纯随机抽样,抽取8家养老院进行实地考察,并对其中的养老护理员及意识清晰的老年人进行问卷调查.结果:南开区民营养老院养老护理员年龄偏大,学历偏低,职业待遇偏低,养老护理工作的全面化不足,心理护理不到位,养老护理模式存在缺陷.结论:目前养老护理工作需要政府支持,养老护理员整体素质亟待提高,养老护理模式有待改善.

  1. Willingness-to-pay for steelhead trout fishing: Implications of two-step consumer decisions with short-run endowments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, John R.; Johnson, Donn; Taylor, R. Garth

    2010-09-01

    Choice of the appropriate model of economic behavior is important for the measurement of nonmarket demand and benefits. Several travel cost demand model specifications are currently in use. Uncertainty exists over the efficacy of these approaches, and more theoretical and empirical study is warranted. Thus travel cost models with differing assumptions about labor markets and consumer behavior were applied to estimate the demand for steelhead trout sportfishing on an unimpounded reach of the Snake River near Lewiston, Idaho. We introduce a modified two-step decision model that incorporates endogenous time value using a latent index variable approach. The focus is on the importance of distinguishing between short-run and long-run consumer decision variables in a consistent manner. A modified Barnett two-step decision model was found superior to other models tested.

  2. Fatal pericardial tamponade after superior vena cava stenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegmakers, M.J.M.; Rutten, M.J.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a fatal complication of percutaneous superior vena cava (SVC) self-expandable stent placement in a patient with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). The SVCS was caused by a malignant mediastinal mass with total occlusion of the SVC. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, the patient died

  3. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw of the S82 bridge, mile 6.3, in Cameron...

  4. [Superior vena cava syndrome--surgical solution--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galie, N; Vasile, R; Savu, C; Petreanu, C; Grigorie, V; Tabacu, E

    2010-01-01

    The patient of 52-year-old smoker was admitted in emergency with headaches, dyspnea, oedema and cyanosis of the cephalic extremity and of the superior members. This signs and symptoms suggest a superior vena cava sindrom. Thoracic CT scan shows the thrombosis of the superior vena cava and a tumor localized in the Bariety's Lodge of about 30/40 mm witch is around the right lateral wall of the traheea.This tumor is also tangent to the superior the superior vena cava. The patient was operated by total median sternotomy. By this approach we performed a complete excision of the mediastinal tumor mass. After that we effected a longitudinal cavotomy, we took out the endoluminal clot and we sutured the superior vena cava. The histological diagnosis of the mediastinal tumor was adenocarcinoma tubular-papillary moderately differentiated. The evolution post operative period was favorable the superior vena cava sindrom was a complet remission. The thoracic CT scan control after 9 months later didn't show a local relapse and blood flow was normally throw the superior vena cava.

  5. Fatal pericardial tamponade after superior vena cava stenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegmakers, M.J.M.; Rutten, M.J.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a fatal complication of percutaneous superior vena cava (SVC) self-expandable stent placement in a patient with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). The SVCS was caused by a malignant mediastinal mass with total occlusion of the SVC. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, the patient died

  6. The superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle and brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Bollam, Papireddy; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Objective The superior transvelar approach is used to access pathologies located in the fourth ventricle and brainstem. The surgical path is below the venous structures, through the superior medullary velum. Following splitting the tentorial edge, near the tentorial apex, the superior medullary velum is split in the cerebello-mesencephalic fissure. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial, transtentorial or parietal interhemispheric routes, the superior medullary velum is approached. Splitting this velum provides a detailed view of the fourth ventricle and its floor. Materials and Methods A total of 10 formalin-fixed specimens were dissected in a stepwise manner to simulate the superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle. The exposure gained the distance from the craniotomy site and the ease of access was assessed for each of the routes. We also present an illustrative case, operated by the senior author (AN). Results The superior transvelar approach provides access to the entire length of the fourth ventricle floor, from the aqueduct to the obex, when using the parietal interhemispheric route. In addition, this approach provides access to the entire width of the floor of the fourth ventricle; however, this requires retracting the superior cerebellar peduncle. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial route gives a limited exposure of the superior part of the fourth ventricle. The occipital interhemispheric route is a compromise between these two. Conclusion The superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle provides a route for approaching the fourth ventricle from above. This approach does not require opening the posterior fossa in the traditional way, and provides a reasonable alternative for accessing the superior fourth ventricle.

  7. Effect of herbicide resistance endowing Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly ACCase gene mutations on ACCase kinetics and growth traits in Lolium rigidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Yu, Qin; Han, Heping; Powles, Stephen B

    2015-08-01

    The rate of herbicide resistance evolution in plants depends on fitness traits endowed by alleles in both the presence and absence (resistance cost) of herbicide selection. The effect of two Lolium rigidum spontaneous homozygous target-site resistance-endowing mutations (Ile-1781-Leu, Asp-2078-Gly) on both ACCase activity and various plant growth traits have been investigated here. Relative growth rate (RGR) and components (net assimilation rate, leaf area ratio), resource allocation to different organs, and growth responses in competition with a wheat crop were assessed. Unlike plants carrying the Ile-1781-Leu resistance mutation, plants homozygous for the Asp-2078-Gly mutation exhibited a significantly lower RGR (30%), which translated into lower allocation of biomass to roots, shoots, and leaves, and poor responses to plant competition. Both the negligible and significant growth reductions associated, respectively, with the Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly resistance mutations correlated with their impact on ACCase activity. Whereas the Ile-1781-Leu mutation showed no pleiotropic effects on ACCase kinetics, the Asp-2078-Gly mutation led to a significant reduction in ACCase activity. The impaired growth traits are discussed in the context of resistance costs and the effects of each resistance allele on ACCase activity. Similar effects of these two particular ACCase mutations on the ACCase activity of Alopecurus myosuroides were also confirmed.

  8. Síndrome de Deiscência de Canal Semicircular Superior Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane da Cunha Ferreira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome de Deiscência de Canal Semicircular Superior (SDCSS, primeiramente descrita em 1998 por Minor et al., caracteriza-se por vertigem associada à presença de nistagmo, relacionados à exposição a estímulos sonoros intensos ou a modificações de pressão dentro da orelha média ou intracraniana. Disacusia, em sua maioria de padrão condutivo à audiometria tonal, também pode estar presente. Nesta revisão da literatura objetivou-se abordar a SDCSS, com seus principais sinais e sintomas, achados diagnósticos e tratamento, assim como enfatizar a importância de sua inclusão dentre as causas de vertigem, visto tratar-se de acometimento ainda pouco conhecido até mesmo entre especialistas. O diagnóstico correto, além de possibilitar seu tratamento, impede que abordagens diagnósticas e terapêuticas inapropriadas sejam realizadas.The Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome (SCDS was first reported by Minor at. Al. (1998, and has been characterized by vertigo and vertical-torsional eye movements related to loud sounds or stimuli that change middle ear or intracranial pressure. Hearing loss, for the most part with conductive patterns on audiometry, may be present in this syndrome. We performed a literature survey in order to to present symptoms, signs, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the SCDS, also aiming at stressing the great importance of including this syndrome among the tractable cause of vertigo. We should emphasize that this is a recent issue, still unknown by some specialists. The Correct SCDS diagnosis, besides enabling patient treatment, precludes misdiagnosis and inadequate therapeutic approaches.

  9. Acquired Brown Syndrome Treated With Traction of Superior Oblique Tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwang Hoon; Paik, Hae Jung; Chi, Mijung

    2016-03-01

    Brown syndrome is a rare strabismic disease characterized by a limited elevation in adduction of the eye. The lengthening/weakening of superior oblique muscle is the main way of surgical intervention for this disease. A 7-year-old boy was diagnosed as having acquired Brown syndrome in his right eye after injury in his face. We experienced successful release of this Brown syndrome through mere pulling outward of superior oblique tendon during surgical exploration. We briefly discuss why this manipulation of superior oblique tendon that we performed was successful.

  10. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Batisse, Alain [Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, Paris (France); Vouhe, Pascal [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Ou, Phalla [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

    2008-08-15

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  11. Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J.

    2017-06-01

    Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  12. Quantitative assessment of future development of cooper/silver resources in the Kootenai National Forest, Idaho/Montana: Part I-Estimation of the copper and silver endowments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanski, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    Faced with an ever-increasing diversity of demand for the use of public lands, managers and planners are turning more often to a multiple-use approach to meet those demands. This approach requires the uses to be mutually compatible and to utilize the more valuable attributes or resource values of the land. Therefore, it is imperative that planners be provided with all available information on attribute and resource values in a timely fashion and in a format that facilitates a comparative evaluation. The Kootenai National Forest administration enlisted the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Bureau of Mines to perform a quantitative assessment of future copper/silver production potential within the forest from sediment-hosted copper deposits in the Revett Formation that are similar to those being mined at the Troy Mine near Spar Lake. The U.S. Geological Survey employed a quantitative assessment technique that compared the favorable host terrane in the Kootenai area with worldwide examples of known sediment-hosted copper deposits. The assessment produced probabilistic estimates of the number of undiscovered deposits that may be present in the area and of the copper and silver endowment that might be contained in them. Results of the assessment suggest that the copper/silver deposit potential is highest in the southwestern one-third of the forest. In this area there is an estimated 50 percent probability of at least 50 additional deposits occurring mostly within approximately 260,000 acres where the Revett Formation is thought to be present in the subsurface at depths of less than 1,500 meters. A Monte Carlo type simulation using data on the grade and tonnage characteristics of other known silver-rich, sediment-hosted copper deposits predicts a 50 percent probability that these undiscovered deposits will contain at least 19 million tonnes of copper and 100,000 tonnes of silver. Combined with endowments estimated for identified, but not thoroughly explored deposits, and

  13. Euclidean Closed Linear Transformations of Complex Spacetime and generally of Complex Spaces of dimension four endowed with the Same or Different Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossos, Spyridon; Vossos, Elias

    2016-08-01

    Relativity Theory and the corresponding Relativistic Quantum Mechanics are the fundamental theories of physics. Special Relativity (SR) relates the frames of Relativistic Inertial observers (RIOs), through Linear Spacetime Transformation (LSTT) of linear spacetime. Classic Special Relativity uses real spacetime endowed with Lorentz metric and the frames of two RIOs with parallel spatial axes are always related through Lorentz Boost (LB). This cancels the transitive attribute in parallelism, when three RIOs are related, because LB is not closed transformation, causing Thomas Rotation. In this presentation, we consider closed LSTT of Complex Spacetime, so there is no necessity for spatial axes rotation and all the frames are chosen having parallel spatial axes. The solution is expressed by a 4x4 matrix (Λ) containing components of the complex velocity of one Observer wrt another and two functions depended by the metric of Spacetime. Demanding isometric transformation, it emerges a class of metrics that are in accordance with the closed LSTT and the transformation matrix contains one parameter ω depended by the metric of Spacetime. In case that we relate RIOs with steady metric, it emerges one steady number (ωI ) depended by the metric of Spacetime of the specific SR. If ωI is an imaginary number, the elements of the Λ are complex numbers, so the corresponding spacetime is necessarily complex and there exists real Universal Speed (UI). The specific value ωI =±i gives Vossos transformation (VT) endowed with Lorentz metric (for gii=1) of complex spacetime and invariant spacetime interval (or equivalently invariant speed of light in vacuum), which produce the theory of Euclidean Complex Relativistic Mechanics (ECRMs). If ωI is a real number (ωI #0) the elements of the Λ are real numbers, so the corresponding spacetime is real, but there exist imaginary UI. The specific value ωI =0 gives Galileo Transformation (GT) with the invariant time, in which any other

  14. 2010 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Bathymetric Lidar: Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained in this file contain hydrographic and topographic data collected by the Fugro LADS Mk II system along the Lake Superior coast of Minnessota,...

  15. 28 CFR 2.60 - Superior program achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2... or a case with both superior program achievement and minor disciplinary infraction(s)). Advancements...

  16. Coronary artery bypass and superior vena cava syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T V; Masrani, K; Thomas, J L

    1999-01-01

    Superior vena cava syndrome is the obstruction of the superior vena cava or its main tributaries by benign or malignant lesions. The syndrome causes edema and engorgement of the vessels on the face, neck, and arms, nonproductive cough, and dyspnea. We discuss the case of a 48-year-old obese diabetic woman who was admitted with unstable angina. She had previously been diagnosed with superior vena cava syndrome. Urgent coronary artery bypass grafting was necessary Although thousands of coronary artery bypasses are performed every year, there are not many reports on patients with superior vena cava syndrome who successfully undergo cardiopulmonary bypass and coronary artery grafting with an internal mammary artery as the conduit. The results of the case and alternative recommended methods are discussed.

  17. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  18. Superior Memorizers Employ Different Neural Networks for Encoding and Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eMallow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL to memorize large amounts of information. The method of loci, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, fMRI data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  19. Differential diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy and superior pulmonary sulcus tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Rui; KANG Ming-yang; GAO Zhong-li; ZHAO Jian-wu; WANG Jin-cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The result would be disastrous if the superior pulmonary sulcus tumor (Pancoast tumor) was misdiagnosed as degenerative cervical spine diseases.The aim of this study was to investigate the differential diagnosis methods of cervical radiculopathy and superior pulmonary sulcus tumor.Methods Clinical manifestations,physical,and radiological findings of 10 patients,whose main complaints were radiating shoulder and arm pain and later were diagnosed with superior pulmonary sulcus tumor,were reviewed and compared with those of cervical radiculopathy.Results Superior pulmonary sulcus tumor patients have shorter mean history and fewer complaints of neck pain or limitation of neck movement.Physical examination showed almost normal cervical spine range of motion.Spurling's neck compression test was negative in all patients.Anteroposterior cervical radiographs showed the lack of pulmonary air at the top of the affected lung in all cases and first rib encroachment in one case.The diagnosis of superior pulmonary sulcus tumor can be further confirmed by CT and MRI.Conclusions By the method of combination of history,physical examination,and radiological findings,superior pulmonary sulcus tumor can be efficiently differentiated from cervical radiculopathy.Normal motion range of the cervical spine,negative Spurling's neck compression test,and the lack of pulmonary air at the top of the affected lung in anteroposterior cervical radiographs should be considerad as indications for further chest radiograph examinations.

  20. Veia cava superior esquerda anômala com ausência de veia cava superior direita: achados de imagem Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava: image findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrillo Rodrigues de Araújo Júnior

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A persistência da veia cava superior esquerda com ausência da veia cava superior direita é uma anomalia rara, com menos de 150 casos descritos na literatura. A não-obliteração e regressão da veia cardinal anterior esquerda durante o desenvolvimento embriológico promove uma variação sistêmica de retorno venoso ao coração, com persistência da veia cava superior esquerda. Sua incidência varia de 0,3% em pacientes sem alterações cardíacas congênitas concomitantes a 4,3% naqueles com cardiopatias. Na maioria das vezes coexiste a veia cava superior direita, porém se houver regressão e degeneração da veia cardinal anterior direita, implicará a sua ausência e a drenagem venosa para o coração será feita pela veia cava superior esquerda ao átrio direito, através do seio coronariano. Mostramos um caso de um paciente submetido a radiografia de tórax e tomografia computadorizada para avaliação de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, tendo como achado a persistência da veia cava superior esquerda com ausência da direita, sem qualquer cardiopatia associada e com a drenagem cardíaca sendo feita, através do seio coronariano, para o átrio direito.Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava is a rare anomaly, with less than 150 cases reported in the literature. Congenitally persistent left superior vena cava is the most common variant of systemic venous return to the heart, resulting embryologically from failure of the left anterior cardinal vein to become obliterated. Its incidence varies from 0.3% in patients with otherwise normal heart to 4.3% in patients with congenital heart disease. In the majority of the patients, a right superior vena cava is present as well, but rarely the right anterior cardinal vein degenerates resulting in the absence of the normal right superior vena cava. The blood from the right side is carried by the persistent left superior vena cava to the right atrium through the

  1. Fabrication and Applications of Micro/Nanostructured Devices for Tissue Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tania Limongi; Luca Tirinato; Francesca Pagliari; Andrea Giugni; Marco Allione; Gerardo Perozziello; Patrizio Candeloro; Enzo Di Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology allows the realization of new materials and devices with basic structural unit in the range of 1–100 nm and characterized by gaining control at the atomic, molecular, and supramolecular level. Reducing the dimensions of a material into the nanoscale range usually results in the change of its physiochemical properties such as reactivity, crystallinity, and solubility. This review treats the convergence of last research news at the interface of nanostructured biomaterials and tissue engineering for emerging biomedical technologies such as scaffolding and tissue regeneration. The present review is organized into three main sections. The introduction concerns an overview of the increasing utility of nanostructured materials in the field of tissue engineering. It elucidates how nanotechnology, by working in the submicron length scale, assures the realization of a biocompatible interface that is able to reproduce the physiological cell–matrix interaction. The second, more technical section, concerns the design and fabrication of biocompatible surface characterized by micro-and submicroscale features, using microfabrication, nanolithography, and miscellaneous nanolithographic techniques. In the last part, we review the ongoing tissue engineering application of nanostructured materials and scaffolds in different fields such as neurology, cardiology, orthopedics, and skin tissue regeneration.

  2. Fabrication and Applications of Micro/Nanostructured Devices for Tissue Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tania Limongi; Luca Tirinato; Francesca Pagliari; Andrea Giugni; Marco Allione; Gerardo Perozziello; Patrizio Candeloro; Enzo Di Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology allows the realization of new materials and devices with basic structural unit in the range of1–100 nm and characterized by gaining control at the atomic, molecular, and supramolecular level. Reducing the dimensions of a material into the nanoscale range usually results in the change of its physiochemical properties such as reactivity,crystallinity, and solubility. This review treats the convergence of last research news at the interface of nanostructured biomaterials and tissue engineering for emerging biomedical technologies such as scaffolding and tissue regeneration. The present review is organized into three main sections. The introduction concerns an overview of the increasing utility of nanostructured materials in the field of tissue engineering. It elucidates how nanotechnology, by working in the submicron length scale, assures the realization of a biocompatible interface that is able to reproduce the physiological cell–matrix interaction. The second, more technical section, concerns the design and fabrication of biocompatible surface characterized by micro- and submicroscale features, using microfabrication, nanolithography, and miscellaneous nanolithographic techniques.In the last part, we review the ongoing tissue engineering application of nanostructured materials and scaffolds in different fields such as neurology, cardiology, orthopedics, and skin tissue regeneration.

  3. Contact angle hysteresis of non-flattened-top micro/nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Sona; Englezos, Peter; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G

    2014-03-25

    A two-dimensional (2D) thermodynamic model is proposed to predict the contact angle (CA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of different types of surface geometries, particularly those with asperities having nonflattened tops. The model is evaluated by micro/nano sinusoidal and parabolic patterns fabricated by laser ablation. These microstructures are analyzed thermodynamically through the use of the Gibbs free energy to obtain the equilibrium contact angle (CA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH). The effects of the geometrical details of two types of microstructures on maximizing the superhydrophobicity of the nanopatterned surface are also discussed in an attempt to design surfaces with desired and/or optimum wetting characteristics. The analysis of the various surfaces reveals the important geometrical parameters that may lead to the lotus effect (high CA > 150° and low CAH 150° and high CAH ≫ 10°).

  4. Micro/nanostructured surface modification using femtosecond laser pulses on minimally invasive electrosurgical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Cheng; Lin, Hao-Jan; Lin, Yun-Ho; Sugiatno, Erwan; Ruslin, Muhammad; Su, Chen-Yao; Ou, Keng-Liang; Cheng, Han-Yi

    2016-01-29

    The purpose of the present study was to examine thermal damage and a sticking problem in the tissue after the use of a minimally invasive electrosurgical device with a nanostructured surface treatment that uses a femtosecond laser pulse (FLP) technique. To safely use an electrosurgical device in clinical surgery, it is important to decrease thermal damage to surrounding tissues. The surface characteristics and morphology of the FLP layer were evaluated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy; element analysis was performed using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In the animal model, monopolar electrosurgical devices were used to create lesions in the legs of 30 adult rats. Animals were sacrificed for investigations at 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days postoperatively. Results indicated that the thermal damage and sticking situations were reduced significantly when a minimally invasive electrosurgical instrument with an FLP layer was used. Temperatures decreased while film thickness increased. Thermographic data revealed that surgical temperatures in an animal model were significantly lower in the FLP electrosurgical device compared with that in the untreated one. Furthermore, the FLP device created a relatively small area of thermal damage. As already mentioned, the biomedical nanostructured layer reduced thermal damage and promoted the antisticking property with the use of a minimally invasive electrosurgical device. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  5. Poly (dimethyl siloxane) micro/nanostructure replication using proton beam written masters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, P. G.; van Kan, J. A.; Ansari, K.; Bettiol, A. A.; Watt, F.

    2007-07-01

    Proton beam writing (PBW) has been proven to be a powerful tool for fabricating micro and nanostructures with high aspect ratio. However, being a direct-write technique, and therefore, a serial process, PBW is not economic for low cost multiple component production. Techniques for replicating PBW structures with low cost are necessary for applications in for example nanofluidics, tissue engineering and optical devices. We have investigated casting poly (dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS Sylgard 184, Dow Corning Corp.) with PBW structures as masters. First, a 2 MeV focused H2+ beam was written into a 2 μm thick PMMA layer spin coated onto 50 μm thick Kapton film substrate. Next, these PMMA structures, with details down to 700 nm, were replicated with PDMS. Without any release coating treatment, PDMS circular pillars, 700 nm in diameter were successfully replicated. We also fabricated a nickel master with nanofeature dimensions and 2 μm depth using proton beam writing and sulfamate electroplating. The nickel master was used to successfully replicate a prototype DNA separation chip using PDMS.

  6. Micro/Nanostructure and Tribological Characteristics of Pressureless Sintered Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Aluminium Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Manikandan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the manufacture, microstructure, and tribological behaviour of carbon nanotube reinforced aluminium composites against pure aluminium. The specimens were fabricated using powder metallurgy method. The nanotubes in weight percentages of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 were homogeneously dispersed and mechanically alloyed using a high energy ball milling. The milled powders were cold compacted and then isothermally sintered in air. The density of all samples was measured using Archimedes method and all had a relative density between 92.22% and 97.74%. Vickers hardness increased with increasing CNT fraction up to 1.5 wt% and then reduced. The microstructures and surfaces were investigated using high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM. The tribological tests showed that the CNT reinforced composites displayed lower wear rate and friction coefficient compared to the pure aluminium under mild wear conditions. However, for severe wear conditions, the CNT reinforced composites exhibited higher friction coefficient and wear rate compared to the pure aluminium. It was also found that the friction and wear behaviour of CNT reinforced composites is significantly dependent on the applied load and there is a critical load beyond which CNTs could have adverse impact on the wear resistance of aluminium.

  7. Size dependent properties of one dimensional CdSe micro/nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chetna; Chauhan, R. P.

    2017-09-01

    Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) micro/nanowires of different diameters were synthesized in polycarbonate membranes on copper substrate by template assisted electro-deposition method at room temperature. The structure, morphology, elemental, optical and electrical properties of CdSe micro/nanowires were investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and probe station assisted with Keithley source meter. Structural analysis by X-ray diffraction depicted polycrystalline nature with hexagonal phase of micro/nanowires at all diameters. An increase in the value of average crystallite size was seen with increase in diameter. Morphological investigation confirmed the micro/nanowire synthesis and revealed an ordered array of prepared CdSe micro/nanowires of uniform diameters and having high aspect ratios. Optical band gap is found to increase from 1.89eV to 2.24 eV as the diameter is decreased from 1 μm to 50 nm. Using the band gap values, refractive index and optical dielectric constants (static and high frequency) were also evaluated. The electrical conductivity of CdSe micro/nanowires varied from 21.58 × 102 Ω-1 m-1to 1.93 × 102 Ω-1 m-1 when diameter was decreased. These semiconducting micro/nanowires arrays of different diameters may have potential applications in future nanoscale based electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  8. Fabrication and Applications of Micro/Nanostructured Devices for Tissue Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Limongi, Tania

    2016-09-02

    Nanotechnology allows the realization of new materials and devices with basic structural unit in the range of 1-100 nm and characterized by gaining control at the atomic, molecular, and supramolecular level. Reducing the dimensions of a material into the nanoscale range usually results in the change of its physiochemical properties such as reactivity, crystallinity, and solubility. This review treats the convergence of last research news at the interface of nanostructured biomaterials and tissue engineering for emerging biomedical technologies such as scaffolding and tissue regeneration. The present review is organized into three main sections. The introduction concerns an overview of the increasing utility of nanostructured materials in the field of tissue engineering. It elucidates how nanotechnology, by working in the submicron length scale, assures the realization of a biocompatible interface that is able to reproduce the physiological cell-matrix interaction. The second, more technical section, concerns the design and fabrication of biocompatible surface characterized by micro- and submicroscale features, using microfabrication, nanolithography, and miscellaneous nanolithographic techniques. In the last part, we review the ongoing tissue engineering application of nanostructured materials and scaffolds in different fields such as neurology, cardiology, orthopedics, and skin tissue regeneration.

  9. Poly(hydridocarbyne as Highly Processable Insulating Polymer Precursor to Micro/Nanostructures and Graphite Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Katzenmeyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-based electronic materials have received much attention since the discovery and elucidation of the properties of the nanotube, fullerene allotropes, and conducting polymers. Amorphous carbon, graphite, graphene, and diamond have also been the topics of intensive research. In accordance with this interest, we herein provide the details of a novel and facile method for synthesis of poly(hydridocarbyne (PHC, a preceramic carbon polymer reported to undergo a conversion to diamond-like carbon (DLC upon pyrolysis and also provide electrical characterization after low-temperature processing and pyrolysis of this material. The results indicate that the strongly insulating polymer becomes notably conductive in bulk form upon heating and contains interspersed micro- and nanostructures, which are the subject of ongoing research.

  10. Development of FDTD simulation tool for designing micro-nanostructured based optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Anil; Mizuno, Genki; Oduor, Patrick; Islam, Saif; Dutta, Achyut K.; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2016-05-01

    The use of Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for computational work has revolutionized how complex electromagnetic problems are solved. Complex problems which required supercomputers in the past for analysis can now be tackled and solved using personal computers by channeling the computational work towards GPUs instead of the traditional computer Central Processing Unit (CPU). Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) analysis, which is a computationally expensive method of solving electromagnetic problems is highly parallel in nature and can be readily executed in a GPU. We have developed an algorithm for three dimensional FDTD analysis of optical devices with micro and nano-structures using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). The developed algorithm exploits the benefits of multiple cores of GPU chips and boosts the speed of simulation without sacrificing its accuracy. We achieved a 25-fold speed up of simulation using CUDA compared to MATLAB code in CPU.

  11. Empirical Analysis of Population Scale, Resources Endowment and Economic Growth%人口规模、资源禀赋与经济增长实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智新; 梁翠

    2012-01-01

    虽然在学界“入口规模”假说和“资源诅咒”假说至今还没有取得共识,但在当今人口危机和资源危机的大背景下,重新审视人口规模与资源禀赋在经济增长中的作用显得尤为紧迫.我国是否存在“人口规模”假说和“资源诅咒”假说?本文构建了新兴古典经济学模型和面板数据模型,得出以下结论:两种假说在中国根本不存在;无论人口规模或资源禀赋状况如何,不同地区均可通过交易效率传导机制实现经济增长.具体来说,不同人口规模或资源禀赋的地区可以积极探索制度改革,提高社会分工水平,大幅改善交易效率,诱导不同类型的社会实验和组织创新,就有可能创造出新的生产力,实现区域经济增长.这些结论一定程度上解决了学界存在的争论,具有重要的理论价值.在政策层面上,由于人口规模、资源禀赋仅是经济增长的两种要素,交易效率才是经济增长的支撑点和动力源,所以政府应该更加重视如何扩大市场容量、促进分工深化和提高交易效率.%Although "population scale" hypothesis and "resource curse" hypothesis have yet to be admitted in academia, it is especially urgent to have another look at the roles that population size and resources endowment play in economic growth at the background of population crisis and resources crisis today. Are there "population scale" hypothesis and "resource curse" hypothesis in China? By building and analyzing new classical economics models, we draw conclusions that two hypotheses do not exist in China, and it is possible for different districts to achieve economic growth by transaction efficiency transmission mechanism, no matter how population scale and resource endowment are. Specifically, different districts which have different population size or resources endowment situation can create new productive forces and promote the economy fast growth by actively exploring system

  12. Conicasterol E, a small heterodimer partner sparing farnesoid X receptor modulator endowed with a pregnane X receptor agonistic activity, from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepe, Valentina; Ummarino, Raffaella; D'Auria, Maria Valeria; Chini, Maria Giovanna; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Renga, Barbara; D'Amore, Claudio; Debitus, Cécile; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela

    2012-01-12

    We report the isolation and pharmacological characterization of conicasterol E isolated from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei. Pharmacological characterization of this steroid in comparison to CDCA, a natural FXR ligand, and 6-ECDCA, a synthetic FXR agonist generated by an improved synthetic strategy, and rifaximin, a potent PXR agonist, demonstrated that conicasterol E is an FXR modulator endowed with PXR agonistic activity. Conicasterol E induces the expression of genes involved in bile acids detoxification without effect on the expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP), thus sparing the expression of genes involved in bile acids biosynthesis. The relative positioning in the ligand binding domain of FXR, explored through docking calculations, demonstrated a different spatial arrangement for conicasterol E and pointed to the presence of simultaneous and efficient interactions with the receptor. In summary, conicasterol E represents a FXR modulator and PXR agonist that might hold utility in treatment of liver disorders.

  13. 基础养老保险缴费率膨胀系数研究%A STUDY OF EXPANSION COEFFICIENT OF ENDOWMENT INSURANCE PAYMENT RATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆怀中; 陈洋; 陈曦

    2015-01-01

    围绕国家提出降低养老保险缴费率的宗旨,本文研究适度降低基础养老保险缴费率的路径,提出养老保险缴费率膨胀系数概念和定量研究数理模型。本文提出,社会保障体制转轨的“成本叠加”、全社会代际交叠的“有限责任”、个人生命周期的“不可预期”是导致养老保险缴费率膨胀的主要原因和内在规律。定量研究发现,现存养老保险缴费率膨胀系数为9.44%,其中覆盖面膨胀系数为5.59%,遵缴率膨胀系数为3.69%,提前退休膨胀系数为0.16%。纵向回归研究发现,覆盖面的膨胀系数弹性为-0.15,遵缴率的膨胀系数弹性为-0.2,提前退休的膨胀系数弹性为0.938。在此基础上,本文提出了相关建议。%In order to reduce the endowment insurance payment rate and moderately reduce the urban employee basic pension payment rate,this paper put forward the concept of endowment insurance payment rate expansion coefficient and set up quantitative mathematical model.This paper concluded the superposi-tion cost of social security system in transition,the limited liability of intergenerational overlapping in the whole society and the unpredictable of personal life cycle were the main reasons and internal rules of en-dowment insurance payment rate’ s expansion.Quantitative study found that the current expansion coeffi-cient of endowment insurance payment rate was 9. 44%and the coverage expansion coefficient was 5. 5 9%, the rate of payment according to system requirements expansion coefficient was 3. 6 9%and the early retire-ment expansion coefficient was 0. 1 6%.Longitudinal regression analysis showed that the coverage expan-sion coefficient elasticity was -0. 1 5 ,the rate of payment according to system requirements expansion co-efficient elasticity was -0. 2,the early retirement expansion coefficient elasticity was 0. 938.Some policy suggestions were provided.

  14. The furoxan system: design of selective nitric oxide (NO) donor inhibitors of COX-2 endowed with anti-aggregatory and vasodilating activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, Erika; Boschi, Donatella; Lazzarato, Loretta; Cena, Clara; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Moro, Stefano; Gasco, Alberto

    2005-07-01

    Several NO donor 3,4-diphenylfuroxan (= 3,4-diphenyl-1,2,5-oxadiazole 2-oxide) derivatives were synthesized and tested for their COX-inhibiting activities. The products were found to be selective COX-2 inhibitors, similar to the structurally related furazans (3,4-diphenyl-1,2,5-oxadiazole), devoid of the NO release property. This behavior was confirmed by a molecular-docking study. The NO-dependent platelet anti-aggregatory and vasodilating activities of the new furoxans 5-7 were studied in vitro. These properties can be modulated by inserting an appropriate spacer between the 4-phenyl group and the furoxan ring, giving rise to new, selective COX-2 furoxan derivatives endowed with anti-aggregatory and vasodilating activities, and with potentially reduced cardiotoxicities.

  15. Chinese Traditional Filial Piety and Modern Endowment System Research%中国传统孝道与现代养老制度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田彪

    2012-01-01

    Chinese traditional culture contains abundant thought of filial piety. As the core of Chinese traditional morals Filial piety, it plays a positive and negative role in China's economic and social development, and we should take it from the historical di- alectical point of view. With China's aging population continues increasing, The social endowment is experiencing severe profound change, Endowment conflict has already appeared increasingly diversified and complicated situation, and have restricted the eco- nomic development and social harmony and stability of important factor. Therefore, we called on country to construct the social wel- fare for the foundation of modern pension system, so as to maintain safeguarding our country's social and economic in well operation and healthy development.%中国传统文化包含丰富的孝道思想。作为古代伦理规范核心内容的传统孝道,对中国经济社会发展起着正负双重作用,我们应当历史、辩证地看待。随着我国老龄人口数量持续增加,社会养老正经历着剧烈的深刻变迁,养老冲突已呈现日益多元化和复杂化局面,并已成为制约中国经济发展和社会和谐稳定的重要因素。因此,呼吁国家构建以社会福利为基础的现代养老制度,切实有效维护我国社会经济良好运行和健康发展。

  16. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome: Lessons from the First 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan K. Ward

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome was first reported by Lloyd Minor and colleagues in 1998. Patients with a dehiscence in the bone overlying the superior semicircular canal experience symptoms of pressure or sound-induced vertigo, bone conduction hyperacusis, and pulsatile tinnitus. The initial series of patients were diagnosed based on common symptoms, a physical examination finding of eye movements in the plane of the superior semicircular canal when ear canal pressure or loud tones were applied to the ear, and high-resolution computed tomography imaging demonstrating a dehiscence in the bone over the superior semicircular canal. Research productivity directed at understanding better methods for diagnosing and treating this condition has substantially increased over the last two decades. We now have a sound understanding of the pathophysiology of third mobile window syndromes, higher resolution imaging protocols, and several sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. Furthermore, we have a treatment (surgical occlusion of the superior semicircular canal that has demonstrated efficacy. This review will highlight some of the fundamental insights gained in SCDS, propose diagnostic criteria, and discuss future research directions.

  17. La educación superior como eje del desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Afanador Vargas

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Este documento analiza cómo ha sido la interacción entre la política educativa y las estrategiasde desarrollo en Colombia, a lo largo del siglo XX. Se presenta una revisión del estadoactual de la educación en Colombia, tanto a nivel de educación básica y media, como de laeducación superior. Para ello se toman tres criterios básicos que son la cobertura, la calidady la equidad en el acceso a la educación. Para el caso de la educación superior, se comparala oferta de cupos con la demanda existente, se clasifican los distintos segmentos en que sedivide la educación superior y se hace una breve reseña sobre el recurso humano con que secuenta en la educación superior colombiana. Así mismo, se expone una conceptualización delos retos que enfrenta la educación superior, sobretodo para lograr una cohesión de la sociedad,evitando que algunos de sus integrantes sean excluidos y permitiendo que todos losestamentos de la sociedad puedan compartir los mismos ideales y los consideren asequibles.Finalmente, se presentan unas conclusiones que se derivan del estudio y se proponen algunasrecomendaciones de política .

  18. Design of a fifth generation air superiority fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atique, Md. Saifuddin Ahmed; Barman, Shuvrodeb; Nafi, Asif Shahriar; Bellah, Masum; Salam, Md. Abdus

    2016-07-01

    Air Superiority Fighter is considered to be an effective dogfighter which is stealthy & highly maneuverable to surprise enemy along with improve survivability against the missile fire. This new generation fighter aircraft requires fantastic aerodynamics design, low wing loading (W/S), high thrust to weight ratio (T/W) with super cruise ability. Conceptual design is the first step to design an aircraft. In this paper conceptual design of an Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft is proposed to carry 1 crew member (pilot) that can fly at maximum Mach No of 2.3 covering a range of 1500 km with maximum ceiling of 61,000 ft. Payload capacity of this proposed aircraft is 6000 lb that covers two advanced missiles & one advanced gun. The Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft was designed to undertake all the following missions like: combat air petrol, air to air combat, maritime attack, close air support, suppression, destruction of enemy air defense and reconnaissance.

  19. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  20. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramendi, José I; Rey, Estibaliz; Hamzeh, Gadah; Crespo, Alejandro; Luis, Maite; Voces, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    We describe the surgical technique of reimplantation of the right superior pulmonary vein into the left atrium in 2 patients with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava without atrial septal defect. A right axillary minithoracotomy is done through the fourth intercostal space. The pulmonary vein is detached from its origin in the superior vena cava. This is sutured with 6-0 reabsorbable polydioxanone suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ). A lateral clamp is applied to the left atrium, and the pulmonary vein is reimplanted. The patient is extubated in the operating room. Neither cardiopulmonary bypass nor blood transfusion was required. It is simple, safe, and reproducible. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolated abscess in superior rectus muscle in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushank Ashok Bhalerao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyomyositis is a primary bacterial infection of striated muscles nearly always caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Development of the intramuscular abscess involving the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs remains an extremely rare process. We herein present a case of isolated EOM pyomyositis involving superior rectus muscle in a 2-year male child who was referred with complaints of swelling in left eye (LE and inability to open LE since last 1-month. Orbital computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined, hypo-dense, peripheral rim-enhancing lesion in relation to left superior rectus muscle suggestive of left superior rectus abscess. The abscess was drained through skin approach. We concluded that pyomyositis of EOM should be considered in any patient presenting with acute onset of orbital inflammation and characteristic CT or magnetic resonance imaging features. Management consists of incision and drainage coupled with antibiotic therapy.

  2. Anthropogenic climate change has altered primary productivity in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, M. D.; Werne, J. P.; Hecky, R. E.; Johnson, T. C.; Katsev, S.; Reavie, E. D.

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has the potential to alter many facets of Earth's freshwater resources, especially lacustrine ecosystems. The effects of anthropogenic changes in Lake Superior, which is Earth's largest freshwater lake by area, are not well documented (spatially or temporally) and predicted future states in response to climate change vary. Here we show that Lake Superior experienced a slow, steady increase in production throughout the Holocene using (paleo)productivity proxies in lacustrine sediments to reconstruct past changes in primary production. Furthermore, data from the last century indicate a rapid increase in primary production, which we attribute to increasing surface water temperatures and longer seasonal stratification related to longer ice-free periods in Lake Superior due to anthropogenic climate warming. These observations demonstrate that anthropogenic effects have become a prominent influence on one of Earth's largest, most pristine lacustrine ecosystems.

  3. Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J

    2017-08-06

    Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. INFORMATION ASSURANCE - INTELLIGENCE - INFORMATION SUPERIORITY RELATIONSHIP WITHIN NATO OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BOARU, Ioan-Mihai ILIEŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a tight relationship between information assurance, the intelligence cycle and information superiority within NATO operations. The intelligence cycle has a discrete architecture and provides on-time and relevant intelligence products to the joint force commanders and to other authorized users in a specifi c joint area of operations. The intelligence cycle must follow the evolution of the operation. A permanent intelligence estimate will be performed during the military decision making process and operations execution. Information superiority is one of the most powerful intelligence cycle achievements. and decisively infuences the success of NATO joint operations. Information superiority must be preserved and enhanced through information assurance. Information assurance is an information operation that must be planned by the military in charge of operation security or by non-military experts, executed by all personnel during the entire intelligence cycle life time and employed during the planning and execution of NATO joint operations.

  5. Status of the shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Michael H.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    The shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) was historically found in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior, but has been extirpated in Lakes Huron and Michigan apparently as the result of commercial overharvest. During 1999-2001, we conducted an assessment of shortjaw cisco abundance in five areas, spanning the U.S. waters of Lake Superior, and compared our results with the abundance measured at those areas in 1921-1922. The shortjaw cisco was found at four of the five areas sampled, but abundances were so low that they were not significantly different from zero. In the four areas where shortjaw ciscoes were found, abundance declined significantly by 99% from the 1920s to the present. To increase populations of this once economically and ecologically important species in Lake Superior, an interagency rehabilitation effort is needed. Population monitoring is recommended to assess population trends and to evaluate success of rehabilitation efforts.

  6. The Endowment Effect on Interpersonal Communication of University Students and Its Relationship with Personality%大学生人际交往中的禀赋效应及其与人格的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庭; 刘琴

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the endowment effect on interpersonal communication of the university students and its relationship with personality.148 subjects from 3 universities in Nanjing were tested with BFI (The Big Five Inventory) and self-edited questionnaire of the endowment effect.The result shows that the endowment-effect questionnaire has fair reliabi lity and validity,and that there's no significant relevance between the endowment effect and the factors of personality.%研究了大学生人际交往中的禀赋效应与大五人格之间的关系。采用大五人格问卷和编制的“大学生人际交往禀赋效应”问卷对来自南京3所高校的148名被试者进行测试。结果发现.编制的“大学生人际交往禀赋效应“问卷具有一定的信度和效度.禀赋效应与大五人格各维度之间不存在明显的相关性。

  7. The postdiction superiority effect in metacomprehension of text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, B H; Smith, S M

    2001-01-01

    Metacomprehension accuracy for texts was greater after, rather than before, answering test questions about the texts-a postdiction superiority effect. Although postdiction superiority was found across successive sets of test questions and across successive texts, there was no improvement in metacomprehension accuracy after participants had taken more tests. Neither prediction nor postdiction gamma correlations with test performance improved with successive tests. Although the results are consistent with retrieval hypotheses, they contradict predictions made by test knowledge hypotheses, which state that increasing knowledge of the nature of the tests should increase metacomprehension accuracy.

  8. Imaging Evaluation of Superior Labral Anteroposterior (SLAP) Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubin, Jeremy; Maderazo, Alex; Fitzpatrick, Darren

    2015-10-01

    Superior labral anteroposterior (SLAP) tears are common injuries that are best evaluated with magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA), as it provides the most detailed evaluation of the bicipital labral complex. Given the variety and complexity of SLAP tears, distention of the joint with intra-articular dilute gadolinium contrast properly separates the intra-articular biceps tendon, superior labrum, glenoid cartilage and glenohumeral ligaments to optimize assessment of these structures. This allows for increased diagnostic confidence of the interpreting radiologist and provides a better road map for the surgeon prior to arthroscopy. Indirect MRA and high-field magnetic resonance imaging are sensitive and specific alternative modalities if MRA cannot be performed.

  9. SUPERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY SYNDROME - AN UNUSUAL CAUSE OF DUODENAL OBSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu SK, , , , , , ,; Singh PK; Ray J; Uniyal M; Sharma C; Sekhar C; Kapruwan H; Sachan PK

    2012-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arising from aorta at the level of first lumbar vertebra usually takes an angular downward course from ventral surface of aorta. It is through this vascular angle that the 3rd part of duodenum passes at the level of 4th lumbar vertebra. Fat and lymphatics around SMA maintains the angle at 25° to 60° with a mean of 450 and provide protection against duodenal compression. In Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome, the SMA-aorta angle in narrowed down to 7° to 22° w...

  10. Síndrome de veia cava superior Superior vena cava syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMUEL ZUÍNGLIO DE BIASI CORDEIRO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A obstrução ao fluxo sanguíneo na VCS e suas manifestações clínicas têm hoje como causa principal o câncer de pulmão. A história relata que no século XVIII a sífilis e a tuberculose eram responsáveis por 40% dos casos conhecidos. O conhecimento das alterações hemodinâmicas compreendidas nesta síndrome assim como a apuração das técnicas de diagnóstico de imagem e de citopatologia permitem hoje que o médico possa tratar de seu paciente com mais segurança e conforto do que há 10 anos. A TC contrastada e a RM auxiliam no diagnóstico de localização da obstrução e técnicas mais antigas como a cavografia puderam ser abandonadas. O diagnóstico de obstrução da VCS e o estudo por Doppler realizado à beira do leito em muito contribuem para a realização de procedimentos de desobstrução como a angioplastia transluminal percutânea nos casos de trombose ou estenose do vaso. Também a utilização de próteses como PTFE é de importância fundamental na condução de casos de lesão traumática da VCS durante cirurgias para câncer pulmonar ou mediastinal. No campo da radioterapia, a técnica de fracionamento permite que altas doses de irradiação sejam administradas aos pacientes portadores de neoplasias malignas, com benefícios em 70% dos casos.Lung cancer is now the main cause of blood flow obstruction in the superior vena cava and of its clinical manifestations. History tells that in the 18th Century, syphilis and tuberculosis were responsible for 40% of the known cases. The knowledge of hemodynamic changes seen in this syndrome and the improvement of diagnostic and cytopathologic techniques allow for a safer and more comfortable treatment of the patient than 10 years ago. Contrast CT and MR added to the identification and location of the obstruction, and older techniques such as cavography could be abandoned. SVC obstruction diagnosis and Doppler studies carried out at the bed of the patient contribute to

  11. 中外养老保险基金管理模式的比较分析%Comparative Analysis on the Management Model of Endowment Insurance Fund at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方鹏

    2014-01-01

    养老保险基金管理对于一个国家的养老保险体系来说至关重要。本文首先从多个方面详细介绍了美国、智利、瑞典三国的养老保险基金管理模式,总结了各国现有模式的优势和弊端,并通过对账户设置、管理主体、投资运营机构、基金收益、管理成本、基金风险六方面内容进行中外对比,直观地展现出我国管理模式的漏洞。最后对我国养老保险基金管理提出了建议。%The management of endowment insurance fund is very important for national endowment insurance. Ac-cording to the comparison of management mode between foreign countries, this paper explains many types of endow-ment insurance management model. First, it introduces America, Chile and Sweden’s endowment insurance fund management model by many ways,summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of the existing model in the manage-ment system and brings inspiration to Chinese mode from each country. Then it describes the horizontal comparison be-tween Chinese model and other countries from 6 areas,namely,the account setup,management subject,investment operation mechanism, fund income, management cost and fund risk to show the vulnerability of our country’s man-agement model. Base on the analysis and study above, this paper sums up a feasible solution which suits our country’s situation.

  12. 对机关事业单位养老保险改革的思考%Reflection about Reform of Civil Servants’Endowment Insurance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟年祥; 刘丹霞; 黄芮

    2015-01-01

    The system about pension which suffered condemning has finally been abolished.With the re-form of civil servants’endowment insurance system,Chinese pension system has made great progress. But there is still a dispute about equity.The great costs of transition and three kinds of risk are to be solved.In order to promote the reform and perfect the measures,we can combine national conditions and international experiences.What’s more,the government should delay retirement,build Notional Defined Contribution,introduce deferred benefits,expand coverage of enterprise annuity,build multi-level endowment insurance system,acquire the unity between equality and efficiency,and realize sus-tainable development of the pension system.%一直以来遭受口诛笔伐的养老金双轨制终被废除,伴随着机关事业单位养老保险的改革,养老金制度取得了里程碑式的进步。但并轨后,退休金差别却“涛声依旧”,公务员职业年金的建立掀起了大众关于养老金公平又一轮的争议。巨大的转制成本、三大风险的应对,都是养老金改革亟待解决的问题。如何顺利推进改革,完善政策措施,我们可以结合本国国情,借鉴国际经验,推迟退休年龄。同时引入弹性退休制,建立名义账户制,实行延期福利,促进企业年金的广覆盖,建立多层次养老保险制度,实现公平和效率以及养老制度可持续发展。

  13. Fund Deficit of Basic Endowment Insurance in China%刍议我国基本养老保险资金缺口问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范荣欣

    2013-01-01

    The fund deficit of China's basic endowment insurance is increasingly attracting the extensive attention of the society in recent years. The main factors of the problem include the revealing of potential pension liability, empty individual accounts, and an aging popula-tion. To effectively respond to the problem, the government should carry on adding the investment in social security, fully fund the individ-ual accounts, take initiatives to pay back the potential liability, broaden the funding channels of the endowment insurance fund, and raise the investment profit of the pension. The government should also go on reforming and improving the current old-age insurance system to set up a liability system undertaken by the government, enterprises and individuals together. In addition, in the context of a fast aging soci-ety and long life span, delay retirement is one of the effective approaches alleviating the pension payment stress.%近年来,我国基本养老保险金缺口问题越来越引起了社会的广泛关注。养老保险隐形债务显性化、个人账户空账、人口老龄化等是导致基本养老资金缺口的主要因素。为有效应对基本养老金缺口问题,政府应该继续增加对社会保障的投入,做实个人账户,主动并尽快偿还养老保险金的隐性债务,拓宽养老保险资金的筹资渠道,提高养老保险金的投资运营收益;要继续改革和完善现有的养老保险制度,建立起政府、企业和个人三方共同负担的责任体系。同时,在社会老龄化加速和平均寿命提高的背景下,适当延迟退休年龄也是有效缓解养老保险资金支付压力的途径之一。

  14. Biological Motion Task Performance Predicts Superior Temporal Sulcus Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, John D.; Nymberg, Charlotte; Schultz, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies implicate superior temporal sulcus (STS) in the perception of human movement. More recent theories hold that STS is also involved in the "understanding" of human movement. However, almost no studies to date have associated STS function with observable variability in action understanding. The present study directly associated STS…

  15. O MARKETING NO ENSINO SUPERIOR: COMPARATIVO BRASIL-PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Alves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao abordar o marketing aplicado ao ensino superior, este estudo tem como objetivos discutir os conceitos teóricos do marketing educacional e aplicálos aos contextos brasileiro e português. Tendo em consideração que o marketing educacional tem a sua maior expressão nos E.U.A., a sua aplicação a diferentes realidades e culturas requer adaptações. Inicialmente, fez-se uma revisão dos conceitos tradicionais de marketing educacional, com ênfase nas vantagens, desvantagens e no marketing-mix aplicado à educação. Posteriormente realizou-se uma caraterização dos contextos atuais do ensino superior no Brasil e em Portugal, e fez-se uma comparação da aplicação do marketing educacional nas realidades brasileira e portuguesa, focando as análises no marketing-mix educacional. Percebeu-se que o ensino superior no Brasil tem caraterísticas muito diversas do ensino superior em Portugal e ambos divergem na aplicação dos conceitos mais tradicionais do marketing à educação. Desta forma, faz-se necessária a construção de abordagens teóricas específicas para a aplicação do marketing educacional a diferentes nações.

  16. Organizational Self-Awareness in the Key to Knowledge Superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    a divisionalized bureaucracy (Mintzberg 1981). Designed as an innovation center, it is responsible for, among other things, forecasting and...the system, which prioritizes the needs and selection criteria for that system. 14. SUBJECT TERMS knowledge superiority, innovation , organizational...competitive advantage, knowledge is the critical element needed for any organization to innovate and succeed (Porter and Millar 1985). Its timely and

  17. Radiologic classification of superior canal dehiscence : Implications for surgical repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lookabaugh, Sarah; Kelly, Hillary R.; Carter, Margaret S.; Niesten, Marlien E F; McKenna, Michael J.; Curtin, Hugh; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Surgical access to repair a superior canal dehiscence (SCD) is influenced by the location of the bony defect and its relationship to surrounding tegmen topography as seen on computed tomography. There are currently no agreed-upon methods of characterizing these radiologic findings. We

  18. Mnemonic Training Reshapes Brain Networks to Support Superior Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresler, M.; Shirer, W.R.; Konrad, B.N.; Muller, N.C.J.; Wagner, I.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Czisch, M.; Greicius, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Memory skills strongly differ across the general population; however, little is known about the brain characteristics supporting superior memory performance. Here we assess functional brain network organization of 23 of the world's most successful memory athletes and matched controls with fMRI

  19. Perturbation resilience and superiorization methodology of averaged mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongjin; Xu, Hong-Kun

    2017-04-01

    We first prove the bounded perturbation resilience for the successive fixed point algorithm of averaged mappings, which extends the string-averaging projection and block-iterative projection methods. We then apply the superiorization methodology to a constrained convex minimization problem where the constraint set is the intersection of fixed point sets of a finite family of averaged mappings.

  20. Measurement of ocular torsion variation following superior oblique tenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Lana Ducca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purposes: To objectively evaluate the torsional effect of the superior oblique muscle-weakening surgery using the tenectomy technique proposed by Souza-Dias. Methods: The present prospective study included 10 patients (20 eyes with horizontal strabismus, bilateral superior oblique overaction and A-pattern of 15 to 30 prism diopters who underwent superior oblique tenectomy. Objective assessment of ocular torsion was performed by retinography immediately before and one month after surgery. The amount of ocular torsion was determined by measuring the angle formed by a horizontal line drawn across the geometric center of the optic disc and a second line connecting this point to the fovea. Results: The median preoperative angle was 5.56° in the right eyes and -3.43° in the left eyes. The median postoperative angle was 1.84° in the right eyes and -3.12° in the left eyes. The angle variation was statistically significant in both eyes (p=0.012 and p=0.01, respectively. Conclusion: The present study suggests that superior oblique tenectomy has an extorter effect, decreasing the intorsion detected on overaction of this muscle.

  1. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome in a Young Military Basic Trainee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    patients with severe anorexia nervosa .10 Severe cases may require surgery or parenteral feeding because of food avoidance leading to further loss of...2012. 10. Gwee K, Teh A, Huang C: Acute superior mesenteric artery syndrome and pancreatitis in anorexia nervosa . Australas Psychiatry 2010; 18(6): 523

  2. Morphological variation of siscowet lake trout in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, C.R.; Moore, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, Lake Superior has contained many morphologically distinct forms of the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that have occupied specific depths and locations and spawned at specific times of the year. Today, as was probably the case historically, the siscowet morphotype is the most abundant. Recent interest in harvesting siscowets to extract oil containing omega-3 fatty acids will require additional knowledge of the biology and stock structure of these lightly exploited populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether shape differences exist among siscowet populations across Lake Superior and whether these shape differences can be used to infer stock structure. Morphometric analysis (truss protocol) was used to differentiate among siscowets sampled from 23 locations in Lake Superior. We analyzed 31 distance measurements among 14 anatomical landmarks taken from digital images of fish recorded in the field. Cluster analysis of size-corrected data separated fish into three geographic groups: The Isle Royale, eastern (Michigan), and western regions (Michigan). Finer scales of stock structure were also suggested. Discriminant function analysis demonstrated that head measurements contributed to most of the observed variation. Cross-validation classification rates indicated that 67–71% of individual fish were correctly classified to their region of capture. This is the first study to present shape differences associated with location within a lake trout morphotype in Lake Superior.

  3. El contexto virtual en la educación superior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vera Quintana, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    ... técnicos, organizativos y metodológicos, por tanto, la virtualización de la educación superior durante su relativa corta vida, ha sido ese nuevo paradigma educativo resultante del uso de las tecnologías...

  4. Evaluation of the Superior Gluteal Nerve During Proximal Femoral Nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sonmez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The superior gluteal nerve may be compromised during hip surgery. We retrospectively evaluated the patients who underwent proximal femoral nailing for unstable trochanteric fractures in order to investigate the presence of superior gluteal nerve injury and its clinical findings. Material and Method: Twenty five patients (14 women, 11 men were included in the study who had femoral nailing between January 2004 and March 2010 at Hamidiye Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital Department of Orthopaedics. Two different types of nails which have similar designs and surgical techniques were used for fracture fixation. Patients who had a history of cerebrovascular disease, electromyography findings of polyneuropathy, or degenerative vertebral disease were excluded from the study. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically. Findings related to acute denervation in the gluteus medius muscle and motor unit action potential changes were accepted as signs of superior gluteal nerve injury. Results: Eight patients were using support during walking and three of these patients had positive Trendelenburg sign, but only one patient had acute denervation signs of the superior gluteal nerve. Discussion: Based on the present study the incidence of iatrogenic nerve injury is a rare complication of proximal femoral nailing. Elderly patients, regardless of whether they have nerve injury, may limp and need to use a walking support.

  5. The effect of superior auditory skills on vocal accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ofer; Amir, Noam; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2003-02-01

    The relationship between auditory perception and vocal production has been typically investigated by evaluating the effect of either altered or degraded auditory feedback on speech production in either normal hearing or hearing-impaired individuals. Our goal in the present study was to examine this relationship in individuals with superior auditory abilities. Thirteen professional musicians and thirteen nonmusicians, with no vocal or singing training, participated in this study. For vocal production accuracy, subjects were presented with three tones. They were asked to reproduce the pitch using the vowel /a/. This procedure was repeated three times. The fundamental frequency of each production was measured using an autocorrelation pitch detection algorithm designed for this study. The musicians' superior auditory abilities (compared to the nonmusicians) were established in a frequency discrimination task reported elsewhere. Results indicate that (a) musicians had better vocal production accuracy than nonmusicians (production errors of 1/2 a semitone compared to 1.3 semitones, respectively); (b) frequency discrimination thresholds explain 43% of the variance of the production data, and (c) all subjects with superior frequency discrimination thresholds showed accurate vocal production; the reverse relationship, however, does not hold true. In this study we provide empirical evidence to the importance of auditory feedback on vocal production in listeners with superior auditory skills.

  6. Visuospatial Superiority in Developmental Dyslexia: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Marzano, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence indicates that dyslexia is positively associated with superior visuospatial ability but empirical evidence is inconsistent. We explicitly tested the hypothesis that dyslexia is associated with visuospatial advantage in 20 dyslexic and 21 unimpaired adult readers using paper-and-pencil measures and tests of "everyday"…

  7. Early detection of non-indigenous fishes in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species pose a serious threat to the ecological stability of the Great Lakes warranting continual monitoring for the arrival of new species. Three locations in Lake Superior were identified as “high risk” for new introductions: St. Louis River near Duluth, M...

  8. Preference for concentric orientations in the mouse superior colliculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadlou, Mehran; Heimel, J Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The superior colliculus is a layered structure important for body- and gaze-orienting responses. Its superficial layer is, next to the lateral geniculate nucleus, the second major target of retinal ganglion axons and is retinotopically organized. Here we show that in the mouse there is also a

  9. Funciones superiores en pacientes con accidente cerebro vascular

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felipe Rodríguez; Alfonso Urzúa

    2009-01-01

    .... Con base a esto el objetivo de esta investigación fue elaborar un perfil de deterioro neuropsicológico de las diversas funciones cerebrales superiores causado por un ACV, en un grupo de 50 pacientes de la Unidad de Medicina...

  10. Absence of the superior petrosal veins and sinus: Surgical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Matsushima

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In cases in which the superior petrosal sinus and veins are absent, care should be directed to preserving the collateral drainage through the galenic and tentorial tributaries. Although surgical strategies for intraoperative management and preservation of venous structures are still controversial, knowledge of the possible anatomical variations is considered to be essential to improve surgical outcomes.

  11. Lake Superior supports novel clusters of cyanobacterial picoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanikova, Natalia V; Popels, Linda C; McKay, R Michael L; Bullerjahn, George S

    2007-06-01

    Very little is known about the biodiversity of freshwater autotrophic picoplankton (APP) in the Laurentian Great Lakes, a system comprising 20% of the world's lacustrine freshwater. In this study, the genetic diversity of Lake Superior APP was examined by analyzing 16S rRNA gene and cpcBA PCR amplicons from water samples. By neighbor joining, the majority of 16S rRNA gene sequences clustered within the "picocyanobacterial clade" consisting of freshwater and marine Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus. Two new groups of Synechococcus spp., the pelagic Lake Superior clusters I and II, do not group with any of the known freshwater picocyanobacterial clusters and were the most abundant species (50 to 90% of the sequences) in samples collected from offshore Lake Superior stations. Conversely, at station Portage Deep (PD), located in a nearshore urbanized area, only 4% of the sequences belonged to these clusters and the remaining clones reflected the freshwater Synechococcus diversity described previously at sites throughout the world. Supporting the 16S rRNA gene data, the cpcBA library from nearshore station PD revealed a cosmopolitan diversity, whereas the majority of the cpcBA sequences (97.6%) from pelagic station CD1 fell within a unique Lake Superior cluster. Thus far, these picocyanobacteria have not been cultured, although their phylogenetic assignment suggests that they are phycoerythrin (PE) rich, consistent with the observation that PE-rich APP dominate Lake Superior picoplankton. Lastly, flow cytometry revealed that the summertime APP can exceed 10(5) cells ml-1 and suggests that the APP shifts from a community of PE and phycocyanin-rich picocyanobacteria and picoeukaryotes in winter to a PE-rich community in summer.

  12. [Examination of the hypothesis 'the factors and mechanisms of superiority'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Fitzgerald, O; Quevedo-Caicedo, J; López-Calderón, M G

    INTRODUCTION. The hypothesis of Geschwind and Galaburda suggests that specific cognitive superiority arises as a result of an alteration in development of the nervous system. In this article we review the co existence of superiority and inferiority . PATIENTS AND METHODS. A study was made of six children aged between 6 and 8 years old at the Instituto de Belles Artes Antonio Maria Valencia in Cali,Columbia with an educational level between second and third grade at a primary school and of medium low socio economic status. The children were considered to have superior musical ability by music experts, which is the way in which the concept of superiority was to be tested. The concept of inferiority was tested by neuropsychological tests = 1.5 DE below normal for the same age. We estimated the perinatal neurological risk in each case. Subsequently the children s general intelligence and specific cognitive abilities were evaluated. In the first case the WISC R and MSCA were used. The neuropsychological profiles were obtained by broad evaluation using a verbal fluency test, a test using counters, Boston vocabulary test, the Wechster memory scale, sequential verbal memory test, super imposed figures test, Piaget Head battery, Rey Osterrieth complex figure and the Wisconsin card classification test. The RESULTS showed slight/moderate deficits in practical construction ability and mild defects of memory and concept abilities. In general the results supported the hypothesis tested. The mechanisms of superiority proposed in the classical hypothesis mainly involve the contralateral hemisphere: in this study the ipsilateral mechanism was more important.

  13. Genomic and metabolic traits endow Bacillus velezensis CC09 with a potential biocontrol agent in control of wheat powdery mildew disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xun-Chao; Liu, Chang-Hong; Wang, Bao-Tong; Xue, Ya-Rong

    2017-03-01

    Bacillus velezensis CC09, which was isolated from healthy leaves of Cinnamomum camphora and previously identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CC09, shows great potential as a new biocontrol agent, in control of many phytopathogenic diseases. To extend our understanding of the potential antifungal capacities, we did a whole genome analysis of strain CC09. Result shows that strain CC09 has a relatively large genome size (4.17Mb) with an average GC content of 46.1%, and 4021 predicted genes. Thirteen secondary metabolites encoding clusters have been identified within the genome of B. velezensis CC09 using genome mining technique. Data of comparative genomic analysis indicated that 3 of the clusters are conserved by all strains of B. velezensis, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis 168, 9 by B. velezensis and B. amyloliquefaciens, and 2 by all strains of B. velezensis. Another 2 clusters encoding NRPS (Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetases) and NRPS-TransATPKS (NRPS and trans-Acyl Transferase Polyketide Synthetases) respectively are observed only in 15 B. velezensis strains, which might lead to the synthesis of novel bioactive compounds and could be explored as antimicrobial agents in the future. These clusters endow B. velezensis CC09 with strong and broad antimicrobial activities, for example, in control of wheat powdery mildew disease. Moreover, our data further confirmed the taxonomy of strain CC09 is a member of B. velezensis rather than a strain of B. amyloliquefaciens based on core genome sequence analysis using phylogenomic approach.

  14. Analysis on the Endowments and Characteristics of Wuyuan Village Tourism Resource%婺源乡村旅游资源禀赋及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊云明; 徐培

    2011-01-01

    The endowments of rural tourism resource in Wuyuan were analyzed from aspects of nature and humanity, its elegant natural ecological environment and heavy humanity historical background were protruded. The characteristics of great variety and high quality of the tourism resource were summarized, meanwhile, the defect of uneven spatial distribution was pointed out, which aimed to develop tourism economic.%从自然旅游资源、人文旅游资源的角度分析了婺源乡村旅游资源的禀赋,突出其秀美的自然生态环境和厚重的人文历史背景,总结出其旅游资源种类繁多,质量较高的特点,同时也指出其旅游资源空间分布不均的缺陷,以期有助于当地在充分利用得天独厚的乡村旅游条件的基础上更好地发展旅游经济.

  15. Phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor bisperoxovanadium endows myogenic cells with enhanced muscle stem cell functions via epigenetic modulation of Sca-1 and Pw1 promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, Piera; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Masciarelli, Silvia; Madaro, Luca; Iosue, Ilaria; Marrocco, Valeria; Relaix, Frédéric; Fazi, Francesco; Marazzi, Giovanna; Sassoon, David A; Bouché, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the regulation of the stem cell fate is fundamental for designing novel regenerative medicine strategies. Previous studies have suggested that pharmacological treatments with small molecules provide a robust and reversible regulation of the stem cell program. Previously, we showed that treatment with a vanadium compound influences muscle cell fatein vitro In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with the phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor bisperoxovanadium (BpV) drives primary muscle cells to a poised stem cell stage, with enhanced function in muscle regenerationin vivofollowing transplantation into injured muscles. Importantly, BpV-treated cells displayed increased self-renewal potentialin vivoand replenished the niche in both satellite and interstitial cell compartments. Moreover, we found that BpV treatment induces specific activating chromatin modifications at the promoter regions of genes associated with stem cell fate, includingSca-1andPw1 Thus, our findings indicate that BpV resets the cell fate program by specific epigenetic regulations, such that the committed myogenic cell fate is redirected to an earlier progenitor cell fate stage, which leads to an enhanced regenerative stem cell potential.-Smeriglio, P., Alonso-Martin, S., Masciarelli, S., Madaro, L., Iosue, I., Marrocco, V., Relaix, F., Fazi, F., Marazzi, G., Sassoon, D. A., Bouché, M. Phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor bisperoxovanadium endows myogenic cells with enhanced muscle stem cell functionsviaepigenetic modulation of Sca-1 and Pw1 promoters.

  16. Bioaccumulation of toxaphene congeners in the lake superior food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, D.C.G.; Whittle, D.M.; De Vault, D. S.; Bronte, C.R.; Karlsson, H.; Backus, S.; Teixeira, C.

    2004-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of toxaphene was examined in the food webs of Lake Superior and Siskiwit Lake (Isle Royale) using congener specific analysis as well as stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to characterize food webs. Toxaphene concentrations (calculated using technical toxaphene) in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the western basin of Lake Superior (N = 95) averaged (±SD) 889 ± 896 ng/g wet wt and 60 ± 34 ng/g wet wt in Siskiwit Lake. Major congeners in lake trout were B8-789 (P38), B8-2226 (P44), B9-1679 (P50), and B9-1025 (P62). Toxaphene concentrations were found to vary seasonally, especially in lower food web organisms in Lake Superior and to a lesser extent in Siskiwit Lake. Toxaphene concentrations declined significantly in lake herring (Coregonus artedii), rainbow smelt (Omerus mordax), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) as well as in zooplankton (> 102 &mn;m) and Mysis (Mysis relicta) between May and October. The seasonal variation may reflect seasonal shifts in the species abundance within the zooplankton community. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) derived from regressions of toxaphene congener concentrations versus δ15N were > 1 for most octa- and nonachlorobornanes in Lake Superior except B8-1413 (P26) and B9-715. Log bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for toxaphene congeners in lake trout (ng/g lipid/ng/L dissolved) ranged from 4.54 to 9.7 and were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficients. TMFs observed for total toxaphene and congener B9-1679 in Lake Superior were similar to those in Arctic lakes, as well as to previous studies in the Great Lakes, which suggests that the bioaccumulation behavior of toxaphene is similar in pelagic food webs of large, cold water systems. However, toxaphene concentrations were lower in lake trout from Siskiwit Lake and lakes in northwestern Ontario than in Lake Superior possibly because of shorter food chains and greater reliance on zooplankton or

  17. 面向用户满意的养老社区服务体系构建%Study on Building Endowment Community Service System from the Perspective of Customer Satisfaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓冬; 武永祥; 姚嘉玉

    2016-01-01

    The traditional family endowment and the institutional pension cannot take the full responsibility of social retirement along with the problems of population aging and declining birthrate. At the same time,the endowment model relying on community, though not mature enough, increasingly becomes a feasible way of pension. This study made a survey on the supply and demand condition of endowment community service from the perspective of custom satisfaction, and established the customer satisfaction model of endowment community service. We have constructed a modern and humanistic endowment community service system from the aspects of service function,service environment and service support system, based on the literature review and the results of satisfaction measurement. The result provides a foundation of improving the custom satisfaction of endowment community and a theoretical support for the advance of the service system.%人口老龄化和家庭结构的少子化,导致我国传统家庭和养老机构已经不足以单独承担社会养老责任,依托社区的养老方式逐渐成为解决养老难题的突破口。我国养老社区起步较晚,且发展不够成熟。本文从用户满意的视角对养老社区服务的供给情况和服务需求情况进行调查和分析,建立养老社区服务满意度模型,在借鉴先进经验和结合我国国情的基础上,针对满意度测量结果,从服务功能、服务环境、服务支持体系三方面构建了现代化、人性化、系统化的养老社区服务体系,为提升养老社区用户满意程度奠定理论基础,为养老社区服务体系的完善提供理论支持。

  18. Can linear superiorization be useful for linear optimization problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censor, Yair

    2017-04-01

    Linear superiorization (LinSup) considers linear programming problems but instead of attempting to solve them with linear optimization methods it employs perturbation resilient feasibility-seeking algorithms and steers them toward reduced (not necessarily minimal) target function values. The two questions that we set out to explore experimentally are: (i) does LinSup provide a feasible point whose linear target function value is lower than that obtained by running the same feasibility-seeking algorithm without superiorization under identical conditions? (ii) How does LinSup fare in comparison with the Simplex method for solving linear programming problems? Based on our computational experiments presented here, the answers to these two questions are: ‘yes’ and ‘very well’, respectively.

  19. Anterior superior instability with rotator cuff tearing: SLAC lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, F H; Field, L D; Atchinson, S

    2001-07-01

    Anterosuperior instability of the shoulder may occur from a variety of pathologic lesions. We describe a specific entity, the SLAC (superior labrum, anterior cuff) lesion that involves an association of anterior-superior labral tear with a partial supraspinatus tear. We retrospectively isolated a group of 40 patients with this lesion. The presenting complaints, physical examination findings, surgical findings, and results were isolated. Overhead activities were the most common etiology; load and shift instability testing and whipple rotator cuff testing were the most common physical examination findings. Surgical repair was successful in 37 of the 40 patients. The SLAC lesion is a definable clinical entity with predictable history, examination, surgical pathology, and satisfactory results from surgery.

  20. Superior gluteal nerve entrapment between two bellies of piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Y

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A double belly composition of piriformis muscle with superior gluteal nerve entrapment between the two muscle masses was detected. Piriformis muscle and its relation to sciatic nerve has been suggested as a cause of piriformis syndrome. Patients suffering from buttock pain are most often diagnosed as having piriformis syndrome, where anatomical variation of the piriformis is an important contributor. The present variation showed two distinct bellies of piriformis muscle. Interestingly the superior gluteal nerve was interposed between the two bellies. Such incidental findings on cadavers may help the clinicians to establish a rare yet important cause of piriformis syndrome. Furthermore, such observations are also relevant to the radiologists while interpreting MRI scans in cases of undiagnosed chronic gluteal pain.

  1. Laparoscopic Pancreaticoduodenectomy: Right Posterior Superior Mesenteric Artery "First" Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittau, Gabriella; Sànchez-Cabùs, Santiago; Laurenzi, Andrea; Gelli, Maximiliano; Cunha, Antonio Sa

    2015-12-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is considered one of the most challenging abdominal operations for several reasons, including the anatomy, which is surrounded by vital vascular structures and also because of the serious complications that are possible in the postoperative period. Nowadays, thanks to the development of minimally invasive surgery and improvement of patients' selection, laparoscopic pancreatic resections have been proven to be technically feasible and safe especially in the case of left pancreatectomies. More recently, many series of laparoscopic PD for adenocarcinoma have been published demonstrating the feasibility of this technique. In pancreatic cancer, the advantage of superior mesenteric artery "first approach" is already known to achieve an oncological resection. The purpose of this video is to describe the different technical aspects of the laparoscopic superior mesenteric artery first approach in the right posterior fashion.

  2. Surgical approach to the superior mid-orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn-Hansen, Dag; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Meling, Torstein R; Haaskjold, Erling

    2013-09-01

    Access to the superior mid-orbit is required for procedures on the levator muscle in the correction of upper eyelid ptosis and in surgery aimed at local lesions in this region. The purpose with this human cadaver study was to clarify the anatomical substrate for a surgical approach to the levator muscle and the upper mid-orbit structures, in which the orbital septum and the retroseptal fat pad is not harmed during surgery. Macro-anatomical dissections and histological examinations were performed on five human orbits from three formalin embalmed cadaver heads. It was found that the orbital septum extends posteriorly from its junction with the levator aponeurosis. This posterior continuation of the orbital septum encloses the superior orbital fat pad and separates this from the anterior surface of the levator muscle. In between the orbital septum and the levator, there is a dissection space that provides a minimal invasive access corridor to the structures in the upper mid-orbit.

  3. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J; LePort, Aurora K R; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M; Stark, Craig E L; McGaugh, James L; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2013-12-24

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes.

  4. Genomes for jeans: cotton genomics for engineering superior fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Shahid; Paterson, Andrew H

    2012-10-01

    Twenty years ago, scientists predicted that better understanding of fiber development would lead to novel ways to engineer superior cotton fiber. Advances in genetic resources, DNA markers, DNA sequence information, and gene expression data have indeed provided new insights into fiber initiation, elongation and maturation. Many exciting applications of this knowledge offer the potential to select better cotton genotypes more effectively in mainstream breeding programs or engineer genotypes with improved agronomic and/or quality traits. Here, we discuss recent progress in understanding genes involved in fiber development, and their regulation and manipulation to engineer improved fibers. Better understanding of quantitative trait loci/gene interactions that influence fiber quality and yield may help to tailor superior cotton genotypes to diverse environments.

  5. Tullio phenomenon in superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Cronin, Scott J; Heidenreich, Katherine D

    2014-03-18

    Tullio phenomenon refers to eye movements induced by sound.(1) This unusual examination finding may be seen in superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) syndrome.(2) This disorder is due to absent bone over the superior semicircular canal (figure). Patients complain of dizziness triggered by loud sound, aural fullness, autophony, and pulsatile tinnitus. When Tullio phenomenon exists in SSCD syndrome, the patient develops a mixed vertical-torsional nystagmus in which the slow phase rotates up and away from the affected ear (video on the Neurology® Web site at Neurology.org). This pattern of nystagmus aligns in the plane of the dehiscent semicircular canal and is due to excitation of its afferent nerves.

  6. CURRENT COLLOIDAL DISPERSION GELS ARE NOT SUPERIOR TO POLYMER FLOODING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seright Randy; Han Peihui; Wang Dongmei

    2006-01-01

    The suggestion that the colloidal-dispersion-gel (CDG) process is superior to normal polymer flooding is misleading and generally incorrect. Colloidal dispersion gels, in their present state of technological development, should not be advocated as an improvement to, or substitute for, polymer flooding. Gels made from aluminum-citrate crosslinked polyacrylamides can act as conventional gels and provide effective conformance improvement in treating some types of excess water production problems if sound scientific and engineering principles are respected.

  7. Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery following polytrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dennis [Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia and Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Legiehn, Gerald M. [Vancouver General Hospital, Interventional Radiology, University of British Columbia and Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Munk, Peter L. [Vancouver General Hospital, MSK Section, University of British Columbia and Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    Gluteal artery aneurysms are rare and often secondary to pelvic fractures, blunt or penetrating trauma. We describe a case of a superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm that presented as back pain with numbness and weakness of the lower extremities. Diagnosis was confirmed by color Doppler sonography and angiography. A proximal and distal control was obtained over the aneurysm neck via coil embolization with excellent hemostasis within the pseudoaneurysm and maintenance of perfusion to the left pelvis. (orig.)

  8. [Superior gluteal nerve: a new block on the block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Miguel; Graça, Rita; Reis, Hugo; Cardoso, José Miguel; Sampaio, José; Pinheiro, Célia; Machado, Duarte

    2017-05-24

    The superior gluteal nerve is responsible for innervating the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and tensor fascia latae muscles, all of which can be injured during surgical procedures. We describe an ultrasound-guided approach to block the superior gluteal nerve which allowed us to provide efficient analgesia and anesthesia for two orthopedic procedures, in a patient who had significant risk factors for neuraxial techniques and deep peripheral nerve blocks. An 84-year-old female whose regular use of clopidogrel contraindicated neuraxial techniques or deep peripheral nerve blocks presented for urgent bipolar hemiarthroplasty in our hospital. Taking into consideration the surgical approach chosen by the orthopedic team, we set to use a combination of general anesthesia and superficial peripheral nerve blocks (femoral, lateral cutaneous of thigh and superior gluteal nerve) for the procedure. A month and a half post-discharge the patient was re-admitted for debriding and correction of suture dehiscence; we performed the same blocks and light sedation. She remained comfortable in both cases, and reported no pain in the post-operative period. Deep understanding of anatomy and innervation empowers anesthesiologists to solve potentially complex cases with safer, albeit creative, approaches. The relevance of this block in this case arises from its innervation of the gluteus medius muscle and posterolateral portion of the hip joint. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an ultrasound-guided superior gluteal nerve block with an analgesic and anesthetic goal, which was successfully achieved. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Superior gluteal nerve entrapment between two bellies of piriformis muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav Y; Mehta V; Roy S; Suri R; Rath G

    2010-01-01

    A double belly composition of piriformis muscle with superior gluteal nerve entrapment between the two muscle masses was detected. Piriformis muscle and its relation to sciatic nerve has been suggested as a cause of piriformis syndrome. Patients suffering from buttock pain are most often diagnosed as having piriformis syndrome, where anatomical variation of the piriformis is an important contributor. The present variation showed two distinct bellies of piriformis muscle. Interestingly the sup...

  10. Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery following polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dennis; Legiehn, Gerald M; Munk, Peter L

    2007-09-01

    Gluteal artery aneurysms are rare and often secondary to pelvic fractures, blunt or penetrating trauma. We describe a case of a superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm that presented as back pain with numbness and weakness of the lower extremities. Diagnosis was confirmed by color Doppler sonography and angiography. A proximal and distal control was obtained over the aneurysm neck via coil embolization with excellent hemostasis within the pseudoaneurysm and maintenance of perfusion to the left pelvis.

  11. Superior vesical fissure concealed by giant omphalocele: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danial Hayek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect characterized by exteriorization of abdominal viscera that is covered by a membrane. Omphalocele has a well-known association with chromosome abnormalities. Here we present a case of a superior vesical fissure (SVF initially disguised as a giant omphalocele in a newborn with trisomy 18. We also show unique prenatal imaging and discuss the importance and limitations of prenatal genetic testing.

  12. Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics Information management and especially geoscience information delivery is a very delicate task. If it is carried out successfully, geoscientific data will provide the main foundation of Information Superiority. However, improper implementation of geodata generation, assimilation, distribution or storage will not only waste valuable resources like manpower or money, but could also give rise to crucial deficiency in knowledge and might lead to potentially extremely harmful disasters or wrong decisions. Comprehensive Approach, Effect Based Operations and Network Enabled Capabilities are the current buzz terms in the security regime. However, they also apply to various interdisciplinary tasks like catastrophe relief missions, civil task operations or even in day to day business operations where geo-science data is used. Based on experience in the application of geoscience data for defence applications the following procedure or tool box for generating geodata should lead to the desired information superiority: 1. Understand and analyse the mission, the task and the environment for which the geodata is needed 2. Carry out a Information Exchange Requirement between the user or customer and the geodata provider 3. Implementation of current interoperability standards and a coherent metadata structure 4. Execute innovative data generation, data provision, data assimilation and data storage 5. Apply a cost-effective and reasonable data life cycle 6. Implement IT security by focusing of the three pillar concepts Integrity, Availability and Confidentiality of the critical data 7. Draft and execute a service level agreement or a memorandum of understanding between the involved parties 8. Execute a Continuous Improvement Cycle These ideas from the IT world should be transferred into the geoscience community and applied in a wide set of scenarios. A standardized approach of how to generate, provide

  13. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: An Infrequent Complication of Scoliosis Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Keskin; Turgut Akgül; Adem Bayraktar; Fatih Dikici; Emre Balık

    2014-01-01

    Case Report Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: An Infrequent Complication of Scoliosis Surgery Metin Keskin,1 Turgut Akgül,2 Adem Bayraktar,1 Fatih Dikici,2 and Emre BalJk3 1 General Surgery Department, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Capa, Millet Caddesi, 34093 Istanbul, Turkey 2Orthopedic Department, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Capa, Millet Caddesi, 34093 Istanbul, Turkey 3 General Surgery Department, School of Medicine, Koc¸ Uni...

  14. São os membros superiores na Paralisia Cerebral negligenciados?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubiratan Brum Castro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar se num serviço de atendimento especializado, o membro superior é preterido ou negligenciado no tratamento das alterações motoras da Paralisia Cerebral. Casuística e métodos: Foram analisados 80 pacientes portadores de Paralisia Cerebral menores de dezessete anos tratados institucionalmente. Foram avaliados pelo mesmo examinador quanto à classificação e tratamentos (cirúrgico ou não do aparelho locomotor. Resultados: O membro superior teve a seguinte abordagem terapêutica considerando o grupo de mão comprometida, 1 (2% foi submetido a transferência tendinosa no punho e 53 (98% não foram operados. Quanto a órteses, 9 (17% usavam estabilizadores de punho e 45 (83% não usavam. Quanto à toxina botulínica não houve aplicação nos membros superiores. Nos membros inferiores, considerando o total de pacientes, 16 (20% foram submetidos à cirurgia e 64(80% não foram operados. As cirurgias foram um tratamento cirúrgico de luxação do quadril, 7 a alongamentos múltiplos em membros inferiores, 5 alongamento de tendão calcâneo, 3 tenotomia de adutores. Quanto ao uso de órteses, 49 (61% faziam uso e 31(39% não utilizavam. Dos pacientes que faziam uso de órteses, 48 usavam tala estabilizadora de tornozelo, um usava estabilizador de joelho. Quanto à  o uso de toxina botulínica: 32 tiveram aplicação (40% e 48 não receberam aplicação (60%. Conclusão: No presente estudo, o tratamento do membro superior foi negligenciado.

  15. Effect of bilateral superior oblique split lengthening on torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Jethani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Superior oblique split lengthening (SOSL is done for weakening of superior oblique. It corrects the superior oblique overaction (SOOA and A pattern. Its effect on the torsion of the eye is not known. We present our data on the effect of this particular procedure on torsion. Materials and Methods: We did a study of 16 patients (32 eyes who underwent bilateral SOSL and compared the disc foveal angle (DFA preoperatively and postoperatively. The split lengthening was done from 4 mm to 7 mm depending upon the overaction of superior oblique. Results: The mean age was 15.3 ± 8.4 years. Mean preoperative DFA in the right eye (RE was −3.9° and in the left eye (LE was −2.9°. Mean postoperative DFA in RE was 0.2° and in LE was 0.9°. The mean change in the DFA for RE was 4.1° ± 1.3° and for LE was 3.8° ± 1.2°. All the patients were aligned horizontally within 6 prism diopter and no pattern and no diplopia postoperatively. The A pattern was corrected in all the patient postsurgery. For each mm of surgery, an improvement of 0.8° was seen in the DFA. Conclusion: We report the effect of SOSL on torsion. The SOSL reduces intorsion postsurgery and is, therefore, a valuable procedure in SOOA where both pattern and in torsion needs to be corrected.

  16. A Rare Complication of Acute Appendicitis: Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Koncoro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric vein (SMV thrombosis caused by acute appendicitis is quite rare nowadays. These conditions occurs secondary to infection in the region drained by the portal venous system. In this case, we report a successfully treated case of SMV thrombosis and liver abscess associated with appendicitis with antibiotics and anticoagulant.Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are basic to a favorable clinical course.

  17. Superior Gas Sensing Properties of Monolayer PtSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Sajjad, Muhammad

    2016-12-15

    First-principles calculations of the structural and electronic properties of monolayer 1T-PtSe2 with adsorbed (a) NO2, (b) NO, (c) NH3, (d) H2O, (e) CO2, and (f) CO molecules are discussed. The results point to great potential of the material in gas sensor applications. Superior sensitivity is demonstrated by transport calculations using the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method.

  18. Conversion of uniform graphene oxide/polypyrrole composites into functionalized 3D carbon nanosheet frameworks with superior supercapacitive and sodium-ion storage properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanwen; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Wenping; Tan, Hui Teng; Franklin, Joseph B.; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fan, Haosen; Ulaganathan, Mani; Wu, Xing-Long; Luo, Zhong-Zhen; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Yan, Qingyu

    2016-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide/polypyrrole (GO/PPy) hybrid materials derived from in-situ polymerization are used as precursors for constructing functionalized three-dimensional (3D) porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheet frameworks (FT-PNCNFs) through a one-step activation strategy. In the formation process of FT-PNCNFs, PPY is directly converted into hierarchical porous nitrogen-doped carbon layers, while GO is simultaneously reduced to become electrically conductive. The complementary functions of individual components endow the FT-PNCNFs with excellent properties for both supercapacitors (SCs) and sodium ion batteries (SIBs) applications. When tested in symmetrical SC, the FT-PNCNFs demonstrate superior energy storage behaviour. At an extremely high scan rate of 3000 mV s-1, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) curve retains an inspiring quasi-rectangle shape in KOH solution. Meanwhile, high capacitances (∼247 F g-1 at 10 mV s-1; ∼146 F g-1 at 3000 mV s-1) and good cycling stability (∼95% retention after 8000 cycles) are achieved. In addition, an attractive SIB anode performance could be achieved. The FT-PNCNFs electrode delivers a reversible capacity of 187 mAh g-1 during 160th cycle at 100 mA g-1. Its reversible capacity retains 144 mAh g-1 after extending the number of cycles to 500 at 500 mA g-1.

  19. Superior parathyroid gland approach to the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Ezzeddin

    2017-07-01

    The superior parathyroid gland is known to be almost constant in its location under the false thyroid capsule. Could it be a landmark to point to the site of incision of the false thyroid capsule and find the plane of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) during thyroidectomy? The study included 48 patients with benign goiter scheduled for hemithyroidectomy or total thyroidectomy; there were 16 cases of solitary thyroid nodules, 27 cases of multinodular goiter, and 5 cases of toxic goiter. This study included 80 lobectomies. All patients showed no evidence of postoperative RLN palsy, bleeding, or hypoparathyroidism. The superior parathyroid gland was consistently found within the false capsule in all cases, whereas the inferior parathyroid was found within the same layer in 64 sides (80%). The described approach can accurately guide dissection between true and false capsules of the thyroid to reach and preserve both the RLN and the superior parathyroid gland. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 1287-1290, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hacia una educación superior inclusiva en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lucia Arizabaleta Dominguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan concepciones teórico-conceptuales básicas que subyacen a la educación superior inclusiva, en el marco de los Lineamientos de la Política de Educación Superior Inclusiva del Ministerio de Educación Nacional de Colombia (men. Además, se plantean los desafíos que deben asumir las instituciones de educación superior (ies en la identificación de barreras de aprendizaje de su población estudiantil y la promoción de estrategias que garanticen la accesibilidad, permanencia, pertinencia académica y la graduación. Esta situación lleva a las ies a reflexionar y repensarse a partir de los procesos de autoevaluación institucional para crear estrategias participativas que promuevan la gestión inclusiva en un sistema educativo equitativo, pertinente y de calidad

  1. Anatomo-radiological study of the Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crovetto, M., E-mail: macdlt@telefonica.net [Otolaryngology Department, Hospital de Basurto, University of the Basque Country, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain); Whyte, J., E-mail: jwhite@unizar.es [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Zaragoza, C/Domingo Mirall s/n, Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, O.M., E-mail: OLIVIAMARIA.RODRIGUEZSANVICENT@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Lecumberri, I., E-mail: INIGO.LECUMBERRICORTES@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida Montevideo 18, Bilbao 498013 (Spain); Martinez, C., E-mail: claudiorayosx@yahoo.es [Hospital General de la Defensa, Via Iberica s/n Zaragoza (Spain); Elexpuru, J., E-mail: jelexpuru@mac.com [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to determine the radiological incidence of Superior (SSCD) and Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (PSCD) and to compare radiologic SSCD to the incidence of this condition on cadaver specimen. We have also analysed the relation between the ossification state of the semicircular canals and the degree of mastoid pneumatization and integrity of Tegmen Tympani. Material and methods: Temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan on patients and direct observation on cadaver specimen, respectively. Results: 604 ears and 160 cadaver temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan and direct observation, respectively. 3.6% and 0.3% of the studied ears had SSCD and PSCD, respectively, on CT scan. Only 0.6% of the cadaver specimen ears did have anatomical SSCD. Degree of pneumatization of the mastoid bone is related to the mean thickness of bone overlying the Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal. Radiological absence of Tegmen Tympani is more frequent in ears that also have radiologic SSCD. Conclusion: CT scanning gives higher incidence figures of SSCD than anatomical studies, 3.6% vs. 0.6%. We also found a 0.6% incidence of radiological PSCD in the studied ears. There is a direct relation between the degree of ossification of Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal and certain temporal bone anatomic features: temporal bone pneumatization and absence/presence of Tegmen Tympani or Antri.

  2. Relative superiority analysis of Garut lamb and its crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to evaluate the relative superiority of Garut lamb and its crosses with St. Croix and Moulton Charollais. The research was conducted at Animal Research Station, Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor, Indonesia. The data used for this paper was collected from 1995 to 2002. The results revealed that individual lamb weight at birth, at weaning, preweaning daily gain, at 6, 9 and 12 months of age of the composite sheep (HG = 50% St. Croix : 50% Garut, MG = 50% M. Charollais : 50% Garut, MHG (MG X HG dan HMG (HG X MG = 25% St. Croix : 25% M. Charollais : 50% Garut were higher than Garut sheep. The relative superiority were 6.7-13.1% for lamb weight at birth, 6.6- 15.6% for lamb weight at weaning, 3.2-20.8% for preweaning daily gain dan 6.2-17.9% for lamb weight at 9 month of age, respectively. The superiority of composite sheep were obtained in good and limited feed condition. Lamb growth parameters were also affected by feed condition, parity, sex, and rearing type.

  3. Superior metallic alloys through rapid solidification processing (RSP) by design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flinn, J.E. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Rapid solidification processing using powder atomization methods and the control of minor elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon can provide metallic alloys with superior properties and performance compared to conventionally processing alloys. Previous studies on nickel- and iron-base superalloys have provided the baseline information to properly couple RSP with alloy composition, and, therefore, enable alloys to be designed for performance improvements. The RSP approach produces powders, which need to be consolidated into suitable monolithic forms. This normally involves canning, consolidation, and decanning of the powders. Canning/decanning is expensive and raises the fabrication cost significantly above that of conventional, ingot metallurgy production methods. The cost differential can be offset by the superior performance of the RSP metallic alloys. However, without the performance database, it is difficult to convince potential users to adopt the RSP approach. Spray casting of the atomized molten droplets into suitable preforms for subsequent fabrication can be cost competitive with conventional processing. If the fine and stable microstructural features observed for the RSP approach are preserved during spray casing, a cost competitive product can be obtained that has superior properties and performance that cannot be obtained by conventional methods.

  4. Stomatitis sub-prosthesis in patients with superior dental prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Martina Francisco Local

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stomatitis sub-prosthesis is one of the most frequent changes in hard palate mucous membrane in patients with mucous-supported dental prosthesis. It can be caused by multiple factors, which makes its study and prognosis more difficult. Objective: To describe the occurrence of stomatitis sub-prosthesis and its causes in patients with superior dental prosthesis. Method: Descriptive study including all the patients with superior dental prosthesis examined in the odontology consultation “Barrio Adentro” in the state of Miranda, Venezuela, from November, 2005 to March, 2006. The analysed variables were: age, sex, stomatitis level, teeth brushing frequency, prosthesis condition and use, palate mucous condition and frequency of odontology consultations. Results: 89 patients were attended, more 50% of them had superior dental prosthesis and presented stomatitis sub-prosthesis; the group between 35 and 59 years was the most affected, mainly females. Sub-prosthesis stomatitis type II was the most common and the main causes included constant use of the prosthesis and loose prosthesis. Buccal hygiene was not adequate in these patients. Most of them declared never attending to the dentist, or just when presenting some particular problem. Conclusion: Stomatitis prevalence was related with incorrect hygiene habits and lack of knowledge; it shows the importance of performing educative tasks to reduce this disease incidence.  

  5. Water quality of streams tributary to Lakes Superior and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jerome W.

    1968-01-01

    Water quality of streams tributary to Lakes Superior and Michigan was analyzed for 142 stations on 99 streams tributary to Lake Superior and 83 stations on 56 streams tributary to Lake Michigan during 1962-65. Concentrations of aluminum, copper, and iron were not affected greatly by flow or season. Magnesium, calcium, chlorides, total alkalinity, total hardness, and conductivity varied with the flow, temperature, and season; the lowest values were during the spring runoff and heavy rains, and the highest were during low water in late summer and the colder periods of winter. Concentrations of nitrate, silica, and sulfates were lowest in the spring and summer. Concentrations of tanninlike and ligninlike compounds were highest during the spring runoff and other high-water periods, and were lowest during freezeup when surface runoff was minimal. The pH values were highest from June to September and lowest during the spring runoff. Phenolphthalein alkalinity was detected primarily in the summer and coincided occasionally with low flows just before the spring thaw. Total hardness usually was lower in streams tributary to Lake Superior than in streams tributary to Lake Michigan. The total hardness was higher in the streams in Wisconsin than in the streams in Michigan along the west shore of Lake Michigan. It was lowest in the northernmost streams. The water quality of the streams in an area was related to the geological characteristics of the land.

  6. Cooperation between ligninolytic enzymes produced by superior mixed flora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-lei; LI Zong-yi; GUO Wei-yun; WANG Zhen-yu; PAN Feng

    2005-01-01

    Since the ability to degrade lignin with one kind of white-rot fungi or bacteria was very limited, superior mixed flora's ability to degrade lignin was investigated by an orthogonal experiment in this paper. The results showed that superior mixed flora reinforced the ability to degrade lignin, the degradation rates of both sample 9 and 10 were beyond 80% on the day 9. The cooperation between lignin peroxidase(LiP), Mn-dependent peroxidase(MnP) and laccase (Lac) for lignin degradation was also studied. By examining the activities of three enzymes produced by superior mixed flora, it was found that Lac was a key enzyme in the process of biological degradation of lignin but Lip was not; the enzyme activity ratios of Lac/MnP and Lac/LiP were significantly correlative with the degradation rate of lignin at the 0.01 level; and the ratio of MnP/LiP was an important factor affecting the degradation rate of lignin.

  7. Preference for Audiovisual Speech Congruency in Superior Temporal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttke, Claudia S; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A J; de Lange, Floris P

    2016-01-01

    Auditory speech perception can be altered by concurrent visual information. The superior temporal cortex is an important combining site for this integration process. This area was previously found to be sensitive to audiovisual congruency. However, the direction of this congruency effect (i.e., stronger or weaker activity for congruent compared to incongruent stimulation) has been more equivocal. Here, we used fMRI to look at the neural responses of human participants during the McGurk illusion--in which auditory /aba/ and visual /aga/ inputs are fused to perceived /ada/--in a large homogenous sample of participants who consistently experienced this illusion. This enabled us to compare the neuronal responses during congruent audiovisual stimulation with incongruent audiovisual stimulation leading to the McGurk illusion while avoiding the possible confounding factor of sensory surprise that can occur when McGurk stimuli are only occasionally perceived. We found larger activity for congruent audiovisual stimuli than for incongruent (McGurk) stimuli in bilateral superior temporal cortex, extending into the primary auditory cortex. This finding suggests that superior temporal cortex prefers when auditory and visual input support the same representation.

  8. Anatase-TiO{sub 2}/CNTs nanocomposite as a superior high-rate anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinlong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Feng, Haibo; Jiang, Jianbo [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Qian, Dong, E-mail: qiandong6@vip.sina.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Junhua; Peng, Sanjun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Youcai, E-mail: liuyoucai@126.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Anatase-TiO{sub 2}/CNTs nanocomposite was prepared by a facile and scalable hydrolysis route. • The composite exhibits super-high rate capability and excellent cycling stability for LIBs. • The nanocomposite shows great potential as a superior anode material for LIBs. - Abstract: Anatase-TiO{sub 2}/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with robust nanostructure is fabricated via a facile two-step synthesis by ammonia water assisted hydrolysis and subsequent calcination. The as-synthesized nanocomposite was characterized employing X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, Raman spectrophotometry, thermal gravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electronic diffraction, and its electrochemical properties as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic discharge/charge test and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy. The results show that the pure anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with diameters of about 10 nm are uniformly distributed on/among the CNTs conducting network. The as-synthesized nanocomposite exhibits remarkably improved performances in LIBs, especially super-high rate capability and excellent cycling stability. Specifically, a reversible capacity as high as 92 mA h g{sup −1} is achieved even at a current density of 10 A g{sup −1} (60 C). After 100 cycles at 0.1 A g{sup −1}, it shows good capacity retention of 185 mA h g{sup −1} with an outstanding coulombic efficiency up to 99%. Such superior Li{sup +} storage properties demonstrate the reinforced synergistic effects between the nano-sized TiO{sub 2} and the interweaved CNTs network, endowing the nanocomposite with great application potential in high-power LIBs.

  9. 居家养老呼叫救助服务平台建设研究%Research on construction of home-based endowment call rescue service platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌敏

    2015-01-01

    Home-based endowment service information platform is an information network platform built by the enterprise service institutions. At the same time, perfect home-based endowment service system should be set up to make the old people get full-scale, convenient, authoritative and professional online services without going out. That’s also the trend of social development.%居家养老服务信息化平台是在企事业服务机构设立网点,设立信息化网络平台,同时建立完善的居家养老服务体系,使老年人足不出户,就可以上网获得全面、便捷、权威、专业的服务,它的建立和完善是社会发展的趋势。

  10. 山东省机构养老社会化服务需求现状调查研究%Socialized service needs about institution endowment in Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑾凤; 魏秀红; 吴炳义; 张建; 田敏; 韩云玲; 陈新娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To understand the current socialized service of institutions endowment in Shandong province. Methods: We recruited 234 old people in institutions and 324 old people at home in Shandong province by convenience and stratified sampling methods. The old people were investigated by self-designed questionnaires to compare the expected needs of old people at home and real evaluation of old people in institution. Results: About 49.1% of old people at home would choose institution endowment if their physical condition need to be cared for and similarly 41.9% old people in institution chose the same reason for going to endowment institution. About 45.7% old people at home hoped government to pay for their endowment costs, however, 60.7% old people in institution paid their costs by their children. About 54.0% old people at home thought that the service quality was the most important for the endowment institution, but only 26.9% old people in institution thought it important. About 63.0% old people at home and 49.1% old people in institution need psychological consultation service. Conclusions: The old people have high needs for institution endowment but most of their needs can not be met. Therefore, the government and society should improve the socialized service quality of institution endowment and gradually meet the old people's needs for endowment service.%目的:了解山东省机构养老社会化服务现状.方法:应用自行设计的调查问卷采用分层、方便抽样的方法选取山东省70岁及其以上的机构养老老人234例和居家老人324例,对居家老人的预期需求与机构养老老人的现实评价进行对比.结果:49.1%的居家老人因为“身体状况需要照顾”选择机构养老,并且41.9%的机构养老老人也是因此入住养老机构;45.7%的居家老人最期望政府支付其养老费用,然而60.7%的机构养老老人养老费用由子女支付;54.0%的居家老人认为养老机构的服务

  11. Síndrome da artéria mesentérica superior Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Haberlandh Sodré Lima; Accyoli Moreira Maia; Antonio Kneipp Pitta de Castro Neto

    2000-01-01

    The Superior Mesenteric Syndrome is a rare and controversial disease. The compression of the duodenum by the mesenteric artery and aorta causes an intermitent obstruction. Preoperative diagnosis is very difficult.We present one case of this syndrome in a pacient with severe weight loss and signs of high intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis was based on clinical and radiologic findings. A duodenojejunostomy was performed after medical treatment failure.This patient died on the 20th posoperati...

  12. Decoding the superior parietal lobule connections of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, A; Sair, H I; Radmanesh, A; Hasan, K M

    2014-09-26

    The temporo-parietal (TP) white matter connections between the inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus as part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus (SLF/AF) or middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF) have been studied in prior diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) studies. However, few studies have been focusing on the higher TP connections of the superior parietal lobule with the temporal lobe. These higher TP connections have been shown to have a role in core processes such as attention, memory, emotions, and language. Our most recent study, for the first time, hinted to the possibility of a long white matter connection interconnecting the superior parietal lobule (SPL) with the posterior temporal lobe in human brain which we call the SLF/AF TP-SPL and for a shorter abbreviation, the TP-SPL. We decided to further investigate this white matter connection using fiber assignment by continuous tracking deterministic tractography and high spatial resolution diffusion tensor imaging on 3T. Five healthy right-handed men (age range 24-37 years) were studied. We delineated the SPL connections of the SLF/AF TP bilaterally in five normal adult human brains. Using a high resolution DTT technique, we demonstrate for the first time, the trajectory of a long fiber bundle connectivity between the SPL and posterior temporal lobe, called the SLF/AF TP-SPL (or the TP-SPL), bilaterally in five healthy adult human brains. We also demonstrate the trajectory of the vertically oriented posterior TP connections, interconnecting the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) with the posterior temporal lobe (TP-IPL) in relation to the TP-SPL, arcuate fasciculus and other major language pathways. In the current study, for the first time, we categorized the TP connections into the anterior and posterior connectivity groups and subcategorized each one into the SPL or IPL connections. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. ARE THERE DIFFERENCES REFFERING TO THE LIVING STANDARD IN ROMANIA ACCORDING TO THE OCCUPATIONAL STATUS? EMPIRIC RESEARCH REFFERING TO THE ENDOWMENT WITH DURABLE GOODS IN ROMANIAN HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUELA ROZALIA GABOR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The endowment with durable goods is both a barometer of the living standard and life quality published as a statisticindicator by the National Institute for Statistics from Romania (INS and at European level – comparative – byEurostat, for European countries. For both national and European level , this indicator is reported taking into accountsocio-demographic characteristics of the of the family head and of the household itself , such as : occupational status ,education level, gender, the age of the family head , the number of the persons from the household, etc. From all thesocio-demographic variables , we consider the most important the one referring to the occupational status of thefamily head, this being correlated directly with the educational level and implicitly with the income, variables whichwere the foundation of constituting the sample basis of this research. Previous research proved that the endowmentwith durable goods presents significant differences from a statistical point of view at the level of the developmentregions from Romania. In this work, we complete previous research for Romania, based on a representative sample aturban national level consisting of 300 households, using a double scheme of sampling, stratified samples and on levels.For this I used methods of descriptive and non-parametric statistics starting from the hypothesis that, the livingstandard and the quality of life in Romania are significantly different from a statistical point of view according to theoccupational status of the household head. The conclusions of this research present importance from the point of viewof social and macroeconomical politics as well as for the “’actors” of the market for these consumption goods.

  14. Maternal Stress and Initial Endowments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardardottir, Arna

    In this paper, I estimate the causal effect of exposure to the stress associated with the collapse of the Icelandic economy during the fall of 2008 using data from the National Birth Register. Iceland experienced the deepest and most rapid financial crisis recorded in peacetime history when its...... three major banks all collapsed during the same week, triggering a systemic crisis, the first in any advanced economy. I use this sudden deterioration in economic conditions to capture the causal effect that financial stress had on the birth outcomes of the cohort in utero during the collapse. I also...... estimate how birth outcomes change with the business cycle in general, using data covering all births in the country over a 30-year period. My analysis shows that birth outcomes are affected by both sudden and smooth declines in economic conditions....

  15. $100 million Alaskan Scientific Endowment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan M.

    Governor Steve Cowper has seen a longtime goal and campaign promise realized as he signed a law creating the Alaska Science and Technology Foundation on May 13. Its purpose is to fund Alaska-related scientific research projects and to promote economic and technological development and public health through basic and applied research.Cowper first proposed the foundation in 1980 and feels strongly that Alaska's natural resources must be treated wisely to insure their future. According to Cowper, “Alaska has more coastline than the rest of the nation combined. We have more forest, more minerals, and more oil and gas than any other state. And we're the only Arctic region the U.S. has.” He does not believe that the oil industry or the federal government can sufficiently handle the state's resources, thus his devotion to creating and supporting the foundation.

  16. 家庭禀赋、农民工回流与创业参与——来自湖北恩施州的经验证据%Family Endowment, Return Migration and Self-Entrepreneurship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石智雷; 杨云彦

    2012-01-01

    begin in China until the mid-1980s, urban -rural return migration is a relatively recent phenomenon and research on return migration is relatively scant. Still, several recent studies have shown that urban-rural return migration is quite prevalent. However, the body of research on return migration is small and we have little empirical information on who the returnees are and how they made their decisions. In the empirical analysis below, we aim at examining the selectivity of return migration and illustrating how return reasons can shed light on our arguments. This paper, which is based on 1598 farmer samples and 62 villages samples drawn from Hubei provinces, fo- cuses on how the farmer' s household endowments influence the returning and venture of rural labor. Firstly, we establish a micro model for explaining the return migration and analyzing how the labor, given the family endowment changes the expect of migration and the return on investment, responds to institutional constraints and improves their long-term welfare through the multi-directional migration decision. And then it uses methods of Econometrics and the relevant data from the results of surveys undertaken in rural area by the writer, to set up multi-line regressive models, which proves theoretical model and the conclusion. Based on the study above, this paper finds out that there is the Family Endowment Effect. With effective use of family endowments, the returner can get more return on investment at home. It is the major way for capability development to achieve, after they return. The farmer' s Economic capital and natural capital, as well as the social capital of the returner will play very important roles in influencing the migrant workers" willingness to venture. The internal mechanism of family endowments effect on the labor returning. Regarding the method of neoclassicism, on the one hand, the former studies mainly adopted individual as their subject, while in this paper, from the view of

  17. THE HUMAN SUBJECTIVITY BETWEEN THE SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR TYPES A SUBJETIVIDADE HUMANA ENTRE OS TIPOS SUPERIORES E INFERIORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to solve the following contradiction of Nietzsche's thought: man has a subjective drive constitution, these drives, however, are individuals, and its being (the being of the drives, is constituted for more power fight (the will to power. Nietzsche's superior man (educated and cultivated man is that one, in which there is harmony in the drives, who can give greater freedom to its most terrible drives, without, however, loses the control over them. That is the contradiction: if man has to control the drives, they are not harmonics. There is incompatibility between harmony and control. In other words, the superior man is indeed the man of culture and cultivated man of Nietzsche? If the answer to this question is yes, then, in this man, reigns the drives harmony. If, on the other hand, the answer is no, then, for this man does not become a barbarian destroyer, dangerous to himself and to others it is necessary that a drive dominates the others. However it is not possible to escape the contradiction: either there is harmony in human drive or control.Este artigo busca resolver a seguinte contradição do pensamento de Nietzsche: o homem possui uma constituição subjetiva pulsional, estas pulsões, porém, são individuais, e o seu ser, o das pulsões, constitui-se da luta por mais poder (vontade de poder. O homem superior de Nietzsche (homem culto e cultivado é aquele no qual há harmonia nas pulsões, aquele que pode dar mais liberdade às suas mais terríveis pulsões, sem, no entanto, perder o controle sobre elas. Eis a contradição: se o homem superior exerce controle sobre as pulsões então elas não são harmônicas. Há, aqui, a incompatibilidade entre harmonia e controle. Em outros termos: o homem superior é de fato o homem culto e cultivado de Nietzsche? Se a resposta para esta pergunta for sim, então neste homem reina a harmonia pulsional. Se, por outro lado, a resposta for não, então, para que este homem n

  18. Superior facet syndrome. Findings on metrizamide CT myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-02-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L5 or/and S1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively. Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L5 roots and 11 S1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome.

  19. QUAL DEMOCRATIZAÇÃO DO ENSINO SUPERIOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Dubet

    Full Text Available Esse artigo, resultante de uma conferência, discute traços do processo de democratização do ensino superior. Procura distinguir analiticamente várias dimensões da democratização, baseadas, por sua vez, em concepções diferentes da justiça: igualdade de oportunidades, meritocracia, utilidades e equidade dos procedimentos. Cada sociedade constrói modelos de democratização desse ensino. A massificação do ensino superior desempenhou papel democrático objetivo, favorável aos grupos sociais antes excluídos. Mas massificação não equivale à democratização. Todas as categorias sociais não se beneficiam da mesma forma da massificação. A democratização do acesso ao ensino superior não depende apenas das famílias. Depende também da estrutura geral do sistema educativo. A meritocracia acadêmica constrói uma hierarquia de competências que é também social, com forte impacto reprodutivo. As desigualdades de utilidade das diferentes formações têm impacto sobre o conjunto das desigualdades sociais. Os sistemas educativos implementam distintos procedimentos de seleção, de concessão de gratuidades, bolsas e auxílios, que podem ser considerados como mais ou menos equitativos segundo as normas de justiça que mobilizam.

  20. Lipid peroxidation following superior mesenteric artery occlusion in rat intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pasbakhsh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the level of lipid peroxidation and tissue protein after superior mesenteric artery occlusion tissue damage. The effect of melatonin as anti oxidant and free radical scavenger in prevention of tissue damage, were also evaluated. Methods: Thity six young male Wisatr-Albino rats (weight: 80-120 gr, were divided equally in 6 group with different concentrations of melatonin (10,20,30 mg/kg treatment. Group 1was control, group 2 the sham that surgical process was applied until superior mesenteric artery dissection and received vehicle solution only in equally volume by intra muscular route. Group 3 was ischemia- reperfusion (I/R, group 4 was I/R plus melatonin 10 mg/kg, group 5 I/R plus melatonin 20 mg/kg and finally group 6 I/R plus melatonin 30 mg/kg. After laparatomy, a microvascular atraumatic clip was placed across the superior mesenteric artery under general anaesthesia and itbremoved after ischemia for 30 minutes. The first dose of melatonin was applied just beforereperfusion, second dose, after reperfusion and third dose on the second day .On third day rats were killed and their bowels were removed. The level of tissue melandialdehyde (MDA as index of lipid peroxidation and tissue protein was determined. Results: The level of tissue MDA were significantly lower in group 4, 5, 6 than group 3 (p0, 05. Conclusion: These results suggest that melatonin 10 mg/kg has antioxidant effect in prevention of inducing tissue damage during SMA occlusion in rat intestine.

  1. LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR CUBANA: LOGROS Y PERSPECTIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acela Cantero Zayas

    Full Text Available Resumen: El impetuoso desarrollo de la ciencia y la técnica contemporâneo en general y muy específicamente en la realidad cubana, estâ dirigido a satisfacer las necesidades creciente de nuestra sociedad, lo que conlleva a un continuo perfeccionamiento de todo el sistema educativo en correspondencia con las exigencias, demandas y necesidades de nuestro pueblo. En tal sentido, para comprender los resultados que exhibe la Educación cubana y dentro de ella la Educación Superior, se precisa de toda una reflexión histórica, como soporte lógico y metodológico del hecho educativo cubano. En la actualidad, el mayor impacto de nuestra Educación Superior, desde los puntos de vista social, político, económico y en especial formativo, lo constituye, el diseno e implementación del modelo de Universalización, el cual tiene como objetivo supremo la extensión de la Universidad a los distintos municipios del país, con la finalidad de irradiar cultura y saber, que son las únicas modalidades de garantizar un hombre libre y de hecho una sociedad independiente. En el presente trabajo se muestra una panorâmica de la Educación Superior en Cuba, partiendo del elemento histórico hasta la contemporaneidad y en ésta, los nuevos retos impuestos por el contexto socio-político a escala mundial.

  2. LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR CUBANA: LOGROS Y PERSPECTIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acela Cantero Zayas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El impetuoso desarrollo de la ciencia y la técnica contemporáneo en general y muy específicamente en la realidad cubana, está dirigido a satisfacer las necesidades creciente de nuestra sociedad, lo que conlleva a un continuo perfeccionamiento de todo el sistema educativo en correspondencia con las exigencias, demandas y necesidades de nuestro pueblo. En tal sentido, para comprender los resultados que exhibe la Educación cubana y dentro de ella la Educación Superior, se precisa de toda una reflexión histórica, como soporte lógico y metodológico del hecho educativo cubano. En la actualidad, el mayor impacto de nuestra Educación Superior, desde los puntos de vista social, político, económico y en especial formativo, lo constituye, el diseño e implementación del modelo de Universalización, el cual tiene como objetivo supremo la extensión de la Universidad a los distintos municipios del país, con la finalidad de irradiar cultura y saber, que son las únicas modalidades de garantizar un hombre libre y de hecho una sociedad independiente. En el presente trabajo se muestra una panorámica de la Educación Superior en Cuba, partiendo del elemento histórico hasta la contemporaneidad y en ésta, los nuevos retos impuestos por el contexto socio-político a escala mundial.

  3. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-02-29

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. CALIDAD Y EXPERIENCIA DOCENTE EN EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Lafuente Guantes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se considera la forma de entender la calidad en la experiencia docente en educación superior a partir de la práctica del profesorado, y en relación con las orientaciones educativas hoy al uso. Se analiza en tres trabajos: las nociones en que se basa esta experiencia, su valor en el proceso docente, qué condiciones se requieren para lograr que la creencia en la calidad alcance su efectuación.

  5. A standardized surgical technique for rat superior cervical ganglionectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savastano, Luis Emilio; Castro, Analía Elizabeth; Fitt, Marcos René

    2010-01-01

    injury. Despite having several experimental applications in the rat, a thorough description of a standardized procedure has never been published. Here, we provide a brief review of the principal features and experimental uses of the SCGx, the surgical anatomy of the neck and sympathetic cervical chain......, and a step-by-step description of how to consistently remove the superior cervical ganglia through the omohyoid muscle or the carotid triangle. Furthermore, we suggest procedures and precautions to be taken during and after surgery to optimize results and describe tools to validate surgical success. We...

  6. Superior Valley photovoltaic power processing and system controller evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonn, R.; Ginn, J.; Zirzow, J.; Sittler, G.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management, conducts the photovoltaic balance-of-system program. Under this program, Sandia supports the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research Development Plan, SERDP, which is advancing the use of photovoltaics in operational DoD facilities. This report details the acceptance testing of the first of these photovoltaic hybrid systems: the Superior Valley photovoltaic-diesel hybrid system. This is the first of several photovoltaic installations for the Department of Defense. The system hardware tested at Sandia included an inverter, maximum power trackers, and a system controller.

  7. Study on evaluation system of high & new technology superior enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the globalization of economy and science & technology, high & new technology enterprises have become the point of Chinese economic growth and the important basis for constructing innovative country. By analyzing the characteristics of high & new technology superior enterprises and the influential factors, the evaluation index and method based on Grey Relation Analysis are designed. Some high & new technology enterprises in Heilongjiang province are evaluated and application tactics of evaluation system are proposed. This study provides scientific method and basis for government to obtain development state about high & new technology enterprises and design planning and policies of high & new technology industry.

  8. Viabilidade de uma rede social no ensino superior do Turismo

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Manuel; Faria, César

    2010-01-01

    O artigo estuda a organização da rede de instituições presentes no ensino superior do Turismo em Portugal e o interesse de criar uma rede social neste âmbito. No seguimento apresenta-se o projecto Observatório Nacional de Educação em Turismo, que constituirá uma plataforma tecnológica de trabalho para esta comunidade académica, com vista à sua organização e funcionamento eficiente em rede, partilhando conhecimento e experiências relevantes a nível nacional e regional, gerando valor acrescenta...

  9. El lenguaje y la educación superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vergara Silva

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea el análisis de algunos retos que genera la relación entre el lenguaje y la educación superior en una sociedad digital; así mismo, se establece cómo los usuarios de las nuevas tecnologías exigen al docente universitario un manejo efectivo de los lenguajes hipertextuales a fin de superar el esquema de "transmisor de información", heredado de los modelos tradicionales de educación.

  10. El volcanismo del Terciario superior del sur de Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. Nullo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe por primera vez la petrografía y geoquímica de unidades volcánicas terciarias del sur de la provincia de Mendoza. Se analizan la nomenclatura estratigráfica y sus edades, estableciéndose una secuencia de eventos magmáticos ocurridos durante el Neógeno, comenzando con la evolución de un retro-arco, seguido por un arco magmático más joven. Se intenta respetar la nomenclatura estratigráfica existente, sin embargo, la definición de unidades se ha realizado sobre la base de las edades radimétricas y sus edades de cristalización, más sobre sus características petrográficas. La actividad magmática se extiende desde el Oligoceno superior al Mioceno superior, correspondiendo a el Ciclo Eruptivo Molle y el Ciclo Eruptivo Huincán, y comenzó con un episodio magmático basáltico inicial (CEM. Esta actividad se generó en la corteza inferior dominada por la concentración de gabros, dioritas y rocas híbridas (granulitas máficas. Debido a un engrosamiento de la corteza como consecuencia de la actividad tectónica durante Mioceno superior o por el estancamiento de magmas o por la combinación de ambos procesos, la formación de granulitas granatíferas resultó un producto distintivo de la corteza inferior. Con el desarrollo del arco magmático (CEH en el Mioceno superior, los magmas ascendieron desde la fuente mantélica, encontrándose con una corteza inferior granatífera, perdiendo capacidad de ascenso por falta de contraste de densidades, produciéndose una fusión extendida, la homogeinización y el ascenso, en equilibrio con la corteza baja, proceso que caracteriza el volcanismo de un arco magmático.

  11. Polyarteritis nodosa in superior mesenteric artery : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young Lan; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Ho Chul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Lee, Eil Seong; Nam, Eun Sook [Hallym Univ., Choonchun (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a multisystem disease characterized by necrotizing vasculitis of small and medium-sized arteries, and in 50 % of all cases there is gastrointestinal involvement. We describe a patient with PAN involving the gastrointestinal tract. A small bowel series showed nodular fold thickening, submucosal filling defects, shallow ulcerations, segmental luminal narrowing, and decreased peristalsis at the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum; superior mesenteric arteriography showed hypervascularity and microaneurysm. Segmental resection of the small bowel indicated the presence of PAN. (author). 10 refs.,3 figs.

  12. Superior dislocation of the patella: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Balletbo Montserrat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Superior dislocation of the patella is an uncommon condition that mainly occurs in knees with a high patella and medial femorotibial degenerative arthritis. There are no previous reports of this condition occurring in association with tibial valgus osteotomy. Case report: We report the case of a patient in whom vertical dislocation recurred twice at 4 months after tibial valgus osteotomy. To avert additional recurrence or new dislocations, the patient was treated surgically to remove the existing osteophytes. Conclusions: An arthroscopic approach was decided because of the lower associated morbidity and good results with this technique compared to open surgery.

  13. Enlarged transacromial superior approach with reverse shoulder arthroplasty for fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Poignard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a step-by-step technique for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty using arthrotomy via the enlarged transacromial superior approach. This technique seems ideal for reinsertion of the tuberosities and to ensure adequate postoperative tensional balance of the infraspinatus and the subscapularis, which is critical for the rotator cuffs to function properly and to achieve optimal arthroplasty stability. Reviewing these different steps helps understanding each rotator cuff individual component's contribution to achieve optimal arthroplasty stability and external rotation with a reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

  14. CHALLENGES IN ENGINEERINGS DEGREE BASED ON SUPERIOR EDUCATION COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricela Sánchez López

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Nineties are characterized by the sprouting of projects of curricular reform that respond to certain educative demands. UNESCO, indicates that the new generations will have to be prepared with new competitions and new knowledge reason why the education superior faces the formation based on the competitions and the relevance of the curricula that constantly are adapted to the present and future needs of the society for which it requires one better joint with the problems of the society and the enterprise world.

  15. Concomitant Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava and Horseshoe Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Jaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC and horseshoe kidney (HSK are common congenital abnormalities; however presence of both in the same person is extremely rare. A patient with hepatitis C cirrhosis awaiting transplant presented with worsening liver dysfunction, diagnosed with acute renal failure secondary to hepatorenal syndrome, and required X-ray fluoroscopy guided tunneled venous catheter placement for hemodialysis. Review of imaging studies demonstrated coexistence of PLSVC and HSK. PLSVC in adulthood is usually incidental with the most common drainage pattern being without physiologic dysfunction. Isolated horseshoe kidney is still the most common of renal fusion anomalies; however etiology of coexistent PLSVC remains unknown.

  16. Double innervations to the superior belly of omohyoid

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    Rao TR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Awareness in the variations of infrahyoid muscles is useful guide for both in studies of human anatomy and in clinical practice today. The use of muscular flaps as a reconstructive tool requires a thorough anatomical knowledge of its blood supply and innervations. These muscles vary considerably in the extent of their development. The omohyoid is the most frequently absent muscle of this group. We present a rare case of double nerve supply to the superior belly of omohyoid, which was found during our routine anatomical dissection on the right side of the neck of a 55-year-old male cadaver.

  17. [Clinical manifestation and surgical treatment of superior lumbar disc herniation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishin, D N; Dreval', O N; Gorozhanin, A V

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of presentation and surgical treatment of 103 patients with lumbar disc herniation the authors performed comparative assessment of symptoms and therapeutic techniques in patients with higher and lower lumbar disc disease. Short-term and long-term results were evaluated using visual analogue scale and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Statistically significant differences in dynamics of pain and ODI were not present. In spite of differences in clinical presentation, the results of surgical treatment in both groups were similar. They depended on severity of preoperative neurological deficit regardless of level of lesion. Specific features of surgical procedure in superior lumbar disk herniation are described.

  18. I problemi di matematica della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa

    CERN Document Server

    Profeti, Alessandro

    1998-01-01

    Nasce come aggiornamento del volume precedente ("I problemi di Matematica della Scuola Normale", 1984) e raccoglie gli esercizi di matematica assegnati all'esame di ammissione alla Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa dal 1985 al 1997, con la loro risoluzione. Per rendere più efficace lo scopo didattico viene anche presentata una scelta di problemi relativi al periodo precedente (1905-1984). Il libro si rivolge a studenti e docenti della Scuola Secondaria, e si chiude con un Glossario in cui vengono richiamati i termini usati.

  19. Complication of Right Subclavian Vein Catheterization: Superior Vena Cava Perforation

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELİK, B.; KOCAMANOĞLU, S.; BÜYÜKKARABACAK, Y. B.; SARIHASAN, E.

    2013-01-01

    Central venous catheterization is an invasive approach which is routinely used in thoracic surgery operations. Pneumothorax and hemothorax are among the most frequent complications. Vena cava superior (VCS) perforation (0.5 %) is very rarely observed. A 65-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with the complaint of cough. With the examinations performed, he was diagnosed with epidermoid lung cancer located in the right lower lobe of the lung (Stage IB, T2N0M0). To prepare the pat...

  20. Retos y perspectivas de la Educación Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tünnermann Bemheim

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Las características de una educación superior capaz de hacer frente a las demandas de los próximos años, - los primeros de un nuevo siglo y un nuevo milenio, durante los cuales asistimos, además, a un cambio de épocas - , son analizados en este trabajo. Para ello, el autor se apoya en los aportes de diferentes documentos internacionales sobre este asunto, en las reflexiones del ex Director General de la UNESCO, Profesor Federico Mayor Zaragoza y, sobre todo, en su propia dilatadísima experiencia en el ámbito universitario.

  1. Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection after Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy

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    Christos Bakoyiannis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of shockwave lithotripsy is currently the mainstay of treatment in renal calculosis. Several complications including vessel injuries have been implied to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. We report an isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery in a 60-year-old male presenting with abdominal pain which occurred three days after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. The patient was treated conservatively and the abdominal pain subsided 24 hours later. The patient's history, the course of his disease, and the timing may suggest a correlation between the dissection and the ESWL.

  2. Abordagem do marketing de relacionamento no ensino superior

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. A presente dissertação é um estudo exploratório sobre a viabilidade de implementação de uma abordagem de marketing de relacionamento nas universidades privadas e comunitárias do Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Realiza uma análise do atual cenário competitivo do ensino superior brasileiro e catarinense por meio de levantamentos oficiais, com o objetivo ...

  3. Superiority, competition, and opportunism in the evolutionary radiation of dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Benton, Michael J; Ruta, Marcello; Lloyd, Graeme T

    2008-09-12

    The rise and diversification of the dinosaurs in the Late Triassic, from 230 to 200 million years ago, is a classic example of an evolutionary radiation with supposed competitive replacement. A comparison of evolutionary rates and morphological disparity of basal dinosaurs and their chief "competitors," the crurotarsan archosaurs, shows that dinosaurs exhibited lower disparity and an indistinguishable rate of character evolution. The radiation of Triassic archosaurs as a whole is characterized by declining evolutionary rates and increasing disparity, suggesting a decoupling of character evolution from body plan variety. The results strongly suggest that historical contingency, rather than prolonged competition or general "superiority," was the primary factor in the rise of dinosaurs.

  4. An unusual cause of intraoperative acute superior vena cava syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Amundson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intraoperative superior vena cava (SVC syndrome is an exceedingly rare complication in the cardiac surgical population. We describe the case of a 71-year-old female undergoing multi-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting who developed acute intraoperative SVC syndrome following internal thoracic artery harvest retractor placement. Her symptoms included severe plethora, facial engorgement and scleral edema, which was associated with hypotension and severe elevation of central venous pressure. Transesophageal echocardiography was crucial in the diagnosis, management, and optimal retractor placement ensuring adequate SVC flow. Potential causes of intraoperative SVC syndrome are reviewed as well as management options.

  5. Proceso de la educación superior en Colombia

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    Jorge Eliécer Ruíz

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Que las instituciones presentan características congruentes con la realidad que las sustenta, no es un hallazgo tortuoso ni una verdad cuyo descubrimiento debamos a los esfuerzos dialécticos del marxismo. Desgraciadamente al no contar con una historia confiable de nuestra sociedad y de nuestras instituciones, hemos de apelar a testimonios aislados que nos permitan inferir lo que ha sido la educación, y principalmente la educación superior, dentro del proceso evolutivo de nuestro pueblo.

  6. Continuous nanoscale carbon fibers with superior mechanical strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Yue, Zhongren; Fong, Hao

    2009-03-01

    Continuous nanoscale carbon fibers can be developed by stabilization and carbonization of highly aligned and extensively stretched electrospun polyacrylonitrile copolymer nanofiber precursor under optimal tension. These carbon fibers, with diameters of tens of nanometers, are expected to possess a superior mechanical strength that is unlikely to be achieved through conventional approaches. This is because i) the innovative precursor, with a fiber diameter approximately 100 times smaller than that of conventional counterparts, possesses an extremely high degree of macromolecular orientation and a significantly reduced amount of structural imperfections, and ii) the ultrasmall fiber diameter also effectively prevents the formation of structural inhomogeneity, particularly sheath/core structures during stabilization and carbonization.

  7. Do institutional investors have superior stock selection ability in China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yihong; Deng; Yongxing; Xu

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses unique data on the shareholdings of both institutional and individual investors to directly investigate whether institutional investors have better stock selection ability than individual investors in China.Controlling for other factors,we find that institutional investors increase(decrease)their shareholdings in stocks that subsequently exhibit positive(negative)short-and long-term cumulative abnormal returns.In contrast individual investors decrease(increase)their shareholdings in stocks that subsequently exhibit positive(negative)short-and long-term cumulative abnormal returns.These findings indicate that institutional investors have superior stock selection ability in China.

  8. Research on the Reverse Mortgage Endowment Insurance of the Insurance Companies in China%我国保险公司开展住房反向抵押养老保险的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远卓

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, with the deepening of China's aging population, the traditional family structure of basic pension system changes and social pressures, how to improve the living condition of the elderly, improve old people's self-protection ability, has become a major problem faced by society as a whole, "house-for-pension scheme" mode of voice the rising, and the insurance company to carry out a reverse mortgage endowment insurance business can provide an effective path for the implementation of house-for-pension scheme "mode. This paper will introduce the concept and features of housing reverse mortgage endowment insurance, signiifcance and feasibility analysis of our country to carry out reverse mortgage endowment insurance business, and explore our country to carry out a reverse mortgage housing endowment pattern. On this basis, this paper will systematically elaborate the insurance company to carry out the housing reverse mortgage endowment insurance business has the unique advantages and the existence of obstacles, and to solve these obstacles put forward related suggestions.%近年来,随着我国人口老龄化程度加深、传统家庭结构发生变化和社会基本养老保障体系的压力加剧,如何改善老年人群体的生活状况,提高老年人的自我保障能力,成为了整个社会面临的一大难题,“以房养老”模式的呼声日益高涨,而保险公司开展住房反向抵押养老保险业务就可以为“以房养老”模式提供一种切实有效的实施路径。本文将介绍住房反向抵押养老保险的概念与产品特征,我国开展住房反向抵押养老保险业务的意义和可行性分析,以及我国开展住房反向抵押养老模式的探索。在此基础上,本文将系统阐述保险公司开展住房反向抵押养老保险业务所具备的独特优势和存在的阻碍因素,并对解决这些阻碍因素提出相关建议。

  9. A Study of further improving migrant workers' participating in social endowment insurance system mechanism%进一步完善农民工参加社会养老保险制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琳

    2012-01-01

    促进农村劳动力向非农产业和城镇转移,加强农村社会保障工作是建设现代农业、解决“三农”问题的重要途径.当前,进城务工已成为农民增收的“铁杆庄稼”,是农民收入的重要来源,有力地促进了农民增收和农村经济的发展.进城务工的农民逐年增加,总量规模巨大,严重考量着我国的社会保障制度.虽然社会养老保险制度对农民工参加社会养老保险有明确规定,但由于种种原因,大部分农民工对国家的社会保障制度认识不够,参加社会保险率低、依法参保的权利易受侵犯等诸多问题.为了进一步解决我国农民工参加社会养老保险的问题,应进一步完善社会养老保险制度,逐步提高社会养老保险统筹层次,加强社会养老保险经办管理,建立统一的社会养老保险制度,维护农民工参加社会养老保险的合法权益.%To promote the transfer of labor force from countryside to non-agricultural industry and cities, and to strengthen social security work of rural area is a way to construct modern agriculture and solve the issues of agriculture. At present, working in cities and towns has become the main source and the way of increasing income for peasants, which strongly promote the income increase for peasants and economic development of urban areas. The number of peasant-workers coming to work in cities and towns is increasing year by year. The number is becoming so large that it brings great pressure to the management of social security system. Although there are very well defined rules for peasant workers to attend social endowment insurance system, for various reasons, most of peasant workers are short of the understanding of national social security system, and the rate of attending social insurance is still low. Thus there are numerous problems, for example, their right of attending insurance is often violated. In order to solve the

  10. Cognitive abilities and superior decision making under risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward T. Cokely

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive abilities and skills can predict normatively superior and logically consistent judgments and decisions. The current experiment investigates the processes that mediate individual differences in risky choices. We assessed working memory span, numeracy, and cognitive impulsivity and conducted a protocol analysis to trace variations in conscious deliberative processes. People higher in cognitive abilities made more choices consistent with expected values; however, expected-value choices rarely resulted from expected-value calculations. Instead, the cognitive ability and choice relationship was mediated by the number of simple considerations made during decision making --- e.g., transforming probabilities and considering the relative size of gains. Results imply that, even in simple lotteries, superior risky decisions associated with cognitive abilities and controlled cognition can reflect metacognitive dynamics and elaborative heuristic search processes, rather than normative calculations. Modes of cognitive control (e.g., dual process dynamics and implications for process models of risky decision-making (e.g., priority heuristic are discussed.

  11. Treatment of Superior Lobe Central Lung Cancer with Lung Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulun YANG

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Patients suffering from lung cancer often have poor quality of life after pneumonectomy. It has clinical significances to preserve maximum lobes of the “healthy” lung. The aim of this study is to report the applications of lung replantation in treatment of superior lobe central lung cancer. Methods Three lung cancer cases were included and analysed. The bronchus and margin of lower lung lobe were encroached by cancer. Pulmonary artery was invaded and surrounded by metastatic lymph node. Complete pneumonectomy, antegrade perfusion and retroperfusion with low-potassium dextran (LPD solution in vitro were performed. The retainable lower pulmonary lobe was selected from the isolated lung and superior pulmonary vein was replaced with inferior pulmonary veins. The bronchus and pulmonary artery were inosculated by turns. Results The operative cumulative time ranged from 220 min to 250 min. The isolated time of lobus inferior pulmonary ranged from 120 min to 150 min. The chest tube was pulled out after chest X-ray confirmed the reimplant lung full re-expansion. The patients were followed up for 4 months to 8 months and accomplished adjuvant chemotherapy for 3 or 4 periodicities. The patients had a sound quality of life. Conclusion Lung replantation removing the extensive tumor tissue and retaining the maximum pulmonary normal tissue is an useful method for treatment of lung cancer.

  12. Notas sobre o CNE e a qualidade do ensino superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Silke

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto contém algumas notas a respeito da atuação do Conselho Nacional de Educação (CNE, especialmente da Câmara de Educação Superior, desde a sua criação em 1996 pela Lei 9131/1996. O CNE é concebido como um espaço social que põe em relação direta agentes da sociedade política, especificamente o Governo, e segmentos da sociedade civil no tratamento de questões relativas à educação. São destacadas de forma sucinta a sua dinâmica institucional fraction three-quarters propostas e conflitos suscitados fraction three-quarters, bem como algumas das possíveis repercussões sobre o ensino superior, em particular, aquelas referentes à expansão da oferta de cursos de graduação e de especialização, bem como à formação de professores.

  13. A standardized surgical technique for rat superior cervical ganglionectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Luis Emilio; Castro, Analía Elizabeth; Fitt, Marcos René; Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Romeo, Horacio Eduardo; Muñoz, Estela Maris

    2010-09-30

    Superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx) is a valuable microsurgical model to study the role of the sympathetic nervous system in a vast array of physiological and pathological processes, including homeostatic regulation, circadian biology and the dynamics of neuronal dysfunction and recovery after injury. Despite having several experimental applications in the rat, a thorough description of a standardized procedure has never been published. Here, we provide a brief review of the principal features and experimental uses of the SCGx, the surgical anatomy of the neck and sympathetic cervical chain, and a step-by-step description of how to consistently remove the superior cervical ganglia through the omohyoid muscle or the carotid triangle. Furthermore, we suggest procedures and precautions to be taken during and after surgery to optimize results and describe tools to validate surgical success. We expect that the following standardized and optimized protocol will allow researchers to organize knowledge into a cohesive framework in those areas where the SCGx is applied. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. SUPERIOR MESENTERIC AND PORTAL VEIN THROMBOSIS WITH HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare & life threatening condition. We report a case of 18 years old boy presented to emergency department with pain abdomen, fever, Melena for almost week duration. Bowel sounds were absent since two days. With a preoperative diagnosis of peritonitis Patient was taken up for emergency laparotomy. Resection of gangrenous small bowel and end to end anastomosis was done. Intra operatively thrombus in SMV was found. Coagulation profile was normal except for elevated homocystine levels. Early postoperative period was stormy. Patient was started on LMV Heparin from day - 1. Pregangrenous changes were seen in contrast CT abdomen on Day - 4. We managed conservatively with anticoagulation therapy in the postoperative period. Pregangrenous changes disappeared with conservative management. Patient was shifted to oral warfarin and discharged on 3 rd week. Follow up Doppler USG abdomen revealed a portal vein of normal size & caliber with no evidence of thrombus. On postoperative follow up for one year, patient is doing well. Hyperhomocycteinemia is an independent predisposing factor to superior mesenteric venous thrombus.

  15. Visual sensitivity of deepwater fishes in Lake Superior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Harrington

    Full Text Available The predator-prey interactions in the offshore food web of Lake Superior have been well documented, but the sensory systems mediating these interactions remain unknown. The deepwater sculpin, (Myoxocephalus thompsoni, siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet, and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi inhabit low light level environments. To investigate the potential role of vision in predator-prey interactions, electroretinography was used to determine visual sensitivity for each species. Spectral sensitivity curves revealed peak sensitivity at 525 nm for each species which closely corresponds to the prevalent downwelling light spectrum at depth. To determine if sufficient light was available to mediate predator-prey interactions, visual sensitivity was correlated with the intensity of downwelling light in Lake Superior to construct visual depth profiles for each species. Sufficient daytime irradiance exists for visual interactions to approximately 325 m for siscowet and kiyi and 355 m for the deepwater sculpin during summer months. Under full moon conditions, sufficient irradiance exists to elicit ERG response to light available at approximately 30 m for the siscowet and kiyi and 45 m for the deepwater sculpin. Visual interactions are therefore possible at the depths and times when these organisms overlap in the water column indicating that vision may play a far greater role at depth in deep freshwater lakes than had been previously documented.

  16. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    Full Text Available The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  17. Designing functionally graded materials with superior load-bearing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Ming-Jie; Zhang, Denzil

    2012-03-01

    Ceramic prostheses often fail from fracture and wear. We hypothesize that these failures may be substantially mitigated by an appropriate grading of elastic modulus at the ceramic surface. In this study, we elucidate the effect of elastic modulus profile on the flexural damage resistance of functionally graded materials (FGMs), providing theoretical guidelines for designing FGMs with superior load-bearing property. The Young's modulus of the graded structure is assumed to vary in a power-law relation with a scaling exponent n; this is in accordance with experimental observations from our laboratory and elsewhere. Based on the theory for bending of graded beams, we examine the effect of n value and bulk-to-surface modulus ratio (E(b)/E(s)) on stress distribution through the graded layer. Theory predicts that a low exponent (0.15graded materials with various n values and E(b)/E(s) ratios can be fabricated by infiltrating alumina and zirconia with a low-modulus glass. Flexural tests show that graded alumina and zirconia with suitable values of these parameters exhibit superior load-bearing capacity, 20-50% higher than their homogeneous counterparts. Improving load-bearing capacity of ceramic materials could have broad impacts on biomedical, civil, structural, and an array of other engineering applications.

  18. Origen de la Escuela Normal Superior de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ducoing

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este texto se pretende analizar el origen universitario de la Escuela Normal Superior de México, en el marco del período denominado “porfiriato”, el cual, pese a haberse convertido en una dictadura, enarboló los principios de la ideología liberal, los que unidos al pensamiento positivista cotidiano, posibilitaron el desarrollo económico y social y particularmente, educativo, a través de la creación de instituciones y de programas que potenciaron la conformación de un discurso pedagógico moderno. La Escuela Normal Superior nace, en el seno de la Universidad Nacional, como expresión de un proyecto político-cultural que integra las aspiraciones de la época en materia educativa: la organización y homogeneización de un sistema de formación de profesores que contribuyera a garantizar la ruptura con los postulados y símbolos del régimen colonial, los cuales habrían de ser suplantados por otros: la unidad, la cientificidad, el pragmatismo y la secularidad -entre otros-.

  19. Adjuvant chemotherapy compliance is not superior after thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter B; Schytte, Tine; Jakobsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that patient compliance with adjuvant chemotherapy is superior after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery compared with open lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of evidence for this assumption, however, is limited to single-institution, ......BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that patient compliance with adjuvant chemotherapy is superior after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery compared with open lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of evidence for this assumption, however, is limited to single...... histopathology. A clinical oncologist, who was blinded to the surgical approach, reviewed all medical oncology charts for types of adjuvant chemotherapy, reasons for not initiating or stopping treatment, number of cycles delivered, and time interval from surgery to initial chemotherapy. RESULTS: During a 6-year...... adjuvant chemotherapy and 121 (38.7%) completed all four cycles. Ordinal logistic regression revealed that chemotherapy compliance (none, partial, and full chemotherapy) was significantly reduced by the patient's age (p

  20. Fish community change in Lake Superior, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, Charles R.; Ebener, Mark P.; Schreiner, Donald R.; DeVault, David S.; Petzold, Michael M.; Jensen, Douglas A.; Richards, Carl; Lozano, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in Lake Superior's fish community are reviewed from 1970 to 2000. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) stocks have increased substantially and may be approaching ancestral states. Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) have also recovered, but under sporadic recruitment. Contaminant levels have declined and are in equilibrium with inputs, but toxaphene levels are higher than in all other Great Lakes. Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control, harvest limits, and stocking fostered recoveries of lake trout and allowed establishment of small nonnative salmonine populations. Natural reproduction supports most salmonine populations, therefore further stocking is not required. Nonnative salmonines will likely remain minor components of the fish community. Forage biomass has shifted from exotic rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to native species, and high predation may prevent their recovery. Introductions of exotics have increased and threaten the recovering fish community. Agencies have little influence on the abundance of forage fish or the major predator, siscowet lake trout, and must now focus on habitat protection and enhancement in nearshore areas and prevent additional species introductions to further restoration. Persistence of Lake Superior's native deepwater species is in contrast to other Great Lakes where restoration will be difficult in the absence of these ecologically important fishes.

  1. Medical image of the week: persistent left superior vena cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammode E

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 19 year old man with acute lymphocytic leukemia was admitted to the ICU with septic shock. Due to areas of cellulitis on the right side of the chest and neck and femoral venous thrombi, a left subclavian central access was attempted. The chest x-ray obtained after line placement is shown below (Figure 1. Blood gas done from the line was consistent with venous blood and venous tranduction was seen. A CT of the chest (Figure 2 confirmed the diagnosis of persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC. A persistent left superior vena cava is the most common congenital thoracic venous anomaly, seen in 0.3-0.5% of the population (1. Incidence is increased in patients with congenital heart disease to 5%. In most patients a right sided SVC is also present; hence the term SVC duplication has also been used. Embryologically a PLSVC is formed when the left anterior cardinal vein is ...

  2. Phlegmonous gastritis secondary to superior mesenteric artery syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Nomura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We herein report a case of phlegmonous gastritis secondary to superior mesenteric artery syndrome. An 80-year-old woman visited the hospital emergency department with the chief complaints of epigastric pain and vomiting. She was hospitalized urgently following the diagnosis of superior mesenteric artery syndrome based on abdominal computed tomography findings. Conservative therapy was not effective, and phlegmonous gastritis was diagnosed based on the findings of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy performed on the 12th day of the disease. Undernutrition and reduced physical activity were observed on hospital admission, and proactive nutritional therapy with enteral nutrition was started. An upper gastrointestinal series, performed approximately 1 month later, confirmed the persistence of strictures and impaired gastric emptying. Because conservative therapy was unlikely to improve oral food intake, open total gastrectomy was performed on the 94th day of the disease. Examination of surgically resected specimens revealed marked inflammation and fibrosis, especially in the body of the stomach. Following a good postoperative recovery, the patient was able to commence oral intake and left our hospital on foot approximately 1 month after surgery.

  3. Personality assessment with children of superior intelligence: divergence versus psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, N T

    1989-01-01

    The perceptual and cognitive functioning of children with intelligence quotients greater than 135 was examined with the Rorschach Inkblot Test. A criterion measure, the Child Behavior Checklist, was also administered so as to determine whether deviations for Rorschach variables from age-appropriate norms indicated the presence of psychopathology or were evidence of nonentrenched, novel, or creative styles of encoding and processing information. Rorschach variables indicative of intellectual sophistication, nonentrenched thinking or inaccurate reality perception, and cognitive slippage were reliably elevated for this sample versus norms. Results for the Child Behavior Checklist demonstrated that the incidence of psychopathology in the intellectually superior and average samples were comparable. There was a lack of covariance between Rorschach makers of inaccurate reality perception, cognitive slippages, and schizophrenia, and the sum of behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist. Results for the Rorschach and Child Behavior Checklist variables were comparable for children with intelligence quotients greater than 150 versus between 136 and 140. It was concluded that the intellectually superior children did process the Rorschach stimuli in a manner that was nonentrenched and reliably different from norms, but that these differences should not routinely be considered as indications of psychopathology.

  4. de tomada de decisão em cursos superiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Shitsuka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As empresas têm obtido vantagens competitivas com o uso extensivo dos sistemas de informação. Em sua forma atual, esses sistemas se compõem, principalmente, de tecnologia de informação, organização e pessoas. No presente trabalho, estuda-se o uso, no ensino superior, de ferramentas de planilhas eletrônicas como parte dos sistemas de informação, destinados ao apoio computacional à tomada de decisão. Conta-se, para isso, com a experiência dos autores, como docentes em cursos de bacharelado e tecnologia, nas disciplinas que utilizam esse recurso, e de pesquisas que apontam a tendência para o uso dessas ferramentas. Sugere-se, para os interessados em ingressar na área empresarial, o aprendizado dessas importantes ferramentas computacionais, a exemplo do que vem ocorrendo no ensino superior, com a utilização crescente de planilhas eletrônicas no apoio ao processo de tomada de decisões.

  5. La educación superior en Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Palomar Áviles

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo parte de un análisis de la ubicación geográfica y espacial del departamento de Cundinamarca, destacando la marcada centralización que tiene Bogotá en todos los órdenes, dada su cercanía. Destaca que, a pesar de la metropolización que tiene a ejercer Bogotá, el departamento cuenta con cuatro ciudades intermedias y alternas con la posibilidad de convertirse en polos de desarrollo regional autónomos. Presenta una descripción de la Educación superior en Cundinamarca, tanto en  la modalidad presencial como en la modalidad  a distancia. Concluye que la cobertura de este nivel educativo es casi nula precisamente por la dependencia que existen 900 cupos en 2 instituciones de Educación Superior, ubicadas en 4 ciudades, para atender  una población de 6.800 bachilleres que egresan anualmente.

  6. Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Syndrome – Diagnosis and Surgical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma Diaz, Marite; Cisneros Lesser, Juan Carlos; Vega Alarcón, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome was described by Minor et al in 1998. It is a troublesome syndrome that results in vertigo and oscillopsia induced by loud sounds or changes in the pressure of the external auditory canal or middle ear. Patients may present with autophony, hyperacusis, pulsatile tinnitus and hearing loss. When symptoms are mild, they are usually managed conservatively, but surgical intervention may be needed for patients with debilitating symptoms. Objective The aim of this manuscript is to review the different surgical techniques used to repair the superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Data Sources PubMed and Ovid-SP databases. Data Synthesis The different approaches are described and discussed, as well as their limitations. We also review the advantages and disadvantages of the plugging, capping and resurfacing techniques to repair the dehiscence. Conclusions Each of the surgical approaches has advantages and disadvantages. The middle fossa approach gives a better view of the dehiscence, but comes with a higher morbidity than the transmastoid approach. Endoscopic assistance may be advantageous during the middle cranial fossa approach for better visualization. The plugging and capping techniques are associated with higher success rates than resurfacing, with no added risk of hearing loss. PMID:28382131

  7. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V; Rowland, Lisa J

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  8. The Word Superiority Effect in central and peripheral vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Katrine; Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The Word Superiority Effect (WSE) is a well-known phenomenon in reading research, where words are reported more accurately than single letters or non-words. We report two experiments that investigate the WSE in the central and peripheral visual field, as well as laterality differences in the perc......The Word Superiority Effect (WSE) is a well-known phenomenon in reading research, where words are reported more accurately than single letters or non-words. We report two experiments that investigate the WSE in the central and peripheral visual field, as well as laterality differences...... in the perception of words and letters, using methods based on the Theory of Visual Attention. The results show a WSE in the central visual field, reflected in mean scores, perception thresholds, and processing speed, whereas the effect is eliminated or reversed in the periphery. This may be caused by crowding......, which prevents lexical analysis of a word in the periphery. We conclude that perception of words and letters differs according to location in the visual field. Linking our results to previous studies of crowding effects in patients with reading impairments, we hypothesize that similar mechanisms may...

  9. Mnemonic Training Reshapes Brain Networks to Support Superior Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Martin; Shirer, William R; Konrad, Boris N; Müller, Nils C J; Wagner, Isabella C; Fernández, Guillén; Czisch, Michael; Greicius, Michael D

    2017-03-08

    Memory skills strongly differ across the general population; however, little is known about the brain characteristics supporting superior memory performance. Here we assess functional brain network organization of 23 of the world's most successful memory athletes and matched controls with fMRI during both task-free resting state baseline and active memory encoding. We demonstrate that, in a group of naive controls, functional connectivity changes induced by 6 weeks of mnemonic training were correlated with the network organization that distinguishes athletes from controls. During rest, this effect was mainly driven by connections between rather than within the visual, medial temporal lobe and default mode networks, whereas during task it was driven by connectivity within these networks. Similarity with memory athlete connectivity patterns predicted memory improvements up to 4 months after training. In conclusion, mnemonic training drives distributed rather than regional changes, reorganizing the brain's functional network organization to enable superior memory performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sustained attention is associated with right superior longitudinal fasciculus and superior parietal white matter microstructure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarborg, Brith; Skak Madsen, Kathrine; Vestergaard, Martin; Skimminge, Arnold; Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C

    2013-12-01

    Sustained attention develops during childhood and has been linked to the right fronto-parietal cortices in functional imaging studies; however, less is known about its relation to white matter (WM) characteristics. Here we investigated whether the microstructure of the WM underlying and connecting the right fronto-parietal cortices was associated with sustained attention performance in a group of 76 typically developing children aged 7-13 years. Sustained attention was assessed using a rapid visual information processing paradigm. The two behavioral measures of interest were the sensitivity index d' and the coefficient of variation in reaction times (RTCV ). Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was extracted from the WM underlying right dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and parietal cortex (PC), and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), as well as equivalent anatomical regions-of-interest (ROIs) in the left hemisphere and mean global WM FA. When analyzed collectively, right hemisphere ROIs FA was significantly associated with d' independently of age. Follow-up analyses revealed that only FA of right SLF and the superior part of the right PC contributed significantly to this association. RTCV was significantly associated with right superior PC FA, but not with right SLF FA. Observed associations remained significant after controlling for FA of equivalent left hemisphere ROIs or global mean FA. In conclusion, better sustained attention performance was associated with higher FA of WM in regions connecting right frontal and parietal cortices. Further studies are needed to clarify to which extent these associations are driven by maturational processes, stable characteristics and/or experience.

  11. A Human Lin(-) CD123(+) CD127(low) Population Endowed with ILC Features and Migratory Capabilities Contributes to Immunopathological Hallmarks of Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Velandia, Luz María; Castro-Escamilla, Octavio; Méndez, Andrés González; Aguilar-Flores, Cristina; Velázquez-Avila, Martha; Tussié-Luna, María Isabel; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Maldonado-García, César; Jurado-Santacruz, Fermín; Ferat-Osorio, Eduardo; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesus; Pelayo, Rosana; Bonifaz, Laura C

    2017-01-01

    expresses skin-homing receptors (cutaneous lymphocyte antigen and CXCR4) and transmigrates through endothelial cells in response to SDF-1. An equivalent Lin(-) CD123(low) population was identified in control skin, which shows a broader phenotypic diversity and cytokine production, including IL-22 and IL-17. Remarkably, the CD123(low) population in the lesion and non-lesion skin of psoriasis patients expresses IL-17 and IL-22. Our findings suggest the identification of an alternative Lin(-) CD123(+) CD127(low) population with ILC features endowed with migratory capabilities that might contribute to immunopathological hallmarks of psoriasis.

  12. A Human Lin− CD123+ CD127low Population Endowed with ILC Features and Migratory Capabilities Contributes to Immunopathological Hallmarks of Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Velandia, Luz María; Castro-Escamilla, Octavio; Méndez, Andrés González; Aguilar-Flores, Cristina; Velázquez-Avila, Martha; Tussié-Luna, María Isabel; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Maldonado-García, César; Jurado-Santacruz, Fermín; Ferat-Osorio, Eduardo; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesus; Pelayo, Rosana; Bonifaz, Laura C.

    2017-01-01

    -homing receptors (cutaneous lymphocyte antigen and CXCR4) and transmigrates through endothelial cells in response to SDF-1. An equivalent Lin− CD123low population was identified in control skin, which shows a broader phenotypic diversity and cytokine production, including IL-22 and IL-17. Remarkably, the CD123low population in the lesion and non-lesion skin of psoriasis patients expresses IL-17 and IL-22. Our findings suggest the identification of an alternative Lin− CD123+ CD127low population with ILC features endowed with migratory capabilities that might contribute to immunopathological hallmarks of psoriasis. PMID:28303135

  13. The Anatomic Course of the First Jejunal Branch of the Superior Mesenteric Vein in Relation to the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos Papavasiliou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study is to determine the anatomic course of the first jejunal branch of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV in relation to the superior mesenteric artery (SMA. Methods. Three hundred consecutive contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT scans were reviewed by a surgical oncologist with confirmation of findings by a radiologist. Results. The overall incidence of a first jejunal branch coursing anterior to the SMA was 41%. There was no correlation between patient gender and position of the jejunal branch. In addition, there was no correlation between size of the first jejunal branch and its location in relation to the SMA. The IMV drained into the SMV in 27% of the patients. The IMV drained into the SMV-portal vein confluence in 17% of patients and inserted into the splenic vein in 54%. An anterior coursing first jejunal branch statistically correlated with an IMV that drained into the SMV-portal vein confluence (=0.009. Conclusion. The first jejunal branch of the SMV has a highly variable course in relation to the SMA and has a higher incidence of an anterior location in this population than previously reported.

  14. Surgical Results in Unilateral Superior Oblique Muscle Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Tenlik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the surgical treatments and results of the patients with superior oblique muscle palsy (SOMP. Materials and Methods: Clinical charts of the patients with unilateral SOMP who were operated in our clinic between 1999 and 2009 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients’ demographics, preoperative signs, surgical procedure, complications, and final results were recorded. Results: Thirty-seven patients were included in the study, [21 (59% male, 15 (41% female]. The mean age was 20.6 years at the time of operation. The mean time interval between diagnosis and operation was 7.3 years. Postoperative follow-up period was 2.04 (ranging 1-10 years. Diplopia was determined in seven (18.9% patients, and abnormal head position in 36 (97.3% patients. Only inferior oblique tenotomy with distal muscle resection was performed in 25 patients. In addition, five patients had recession of the contralateral inferior rectus muscle and two patients had recession of the ipsilateral superior rectus muscle additional to inferior oblique tenotomy. Abnormal head position was completely improved in all of the patients postoperatively. The preoperative average score of the inferior oblique muscle (IOM overaction was +3.3±0.8, and postoperative overaction was found in only two patients (+1.5. There was statistically significant difference between the two periods (p<0.001. The average score of the superior oblique muscle hypofunction was -2.18 preoperatively, and in only three patients, the score was found -1.0 postoperatively. Difference between the two periods was statistically significant (p<0.001. While the preoperative average vertical deviation was 22 PD in primary position, none of the patients had hyperdeviation postoperatively. Diplopia was resolved in all seven affected patients postoperatively. Contralateral IOM hyperfunction was the most common complication (13.5%. Adherence syndrome was seen in none of the patients. Conclusion: It was found

  15. Quadrilobed superior gluteal artery perforator flap for sacrococcygeal defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI Heng-lin; SHEN Chuan-an; CHAI Jia-ke; LI Hua-tao; YU Yong-ming; LI Da-wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Perforator flaps are used extensively in repairing soft tissue defects.Superior gluteal artery perforatorflaps are used for repairing sacral defects,but the tension required for direct closure of the donor area after harvesting ofrelatively large flaps carries a risk of postoperative dehiscence.This research was to investigate a modified superiorgluteal artery perforator flap for repairing sacrococcygeal soft tissue defects.Methods From June 2003 to April 2010,we used our newly designed superior gluteal artery perforator flap for repair of sacrococcygeal soft tissue defects in 10 patients (study group).The wound and donor areas were measured,and the flaps were designed accordingly.Wound healing was assessed over a follow-up period of 6-38 months.From January 1998 to February 2003,twelve patients with sacrococcygeal pressure sores were treated with traditional methods,VY advancement flaps or oblong flaps,as control group.Results After debridement,the soft tissue defects ranged from 12 cm × 10 cm to 26 cm × 22 cm (mean 16.3 cm x 13.5cm).Four patients were treated using right-sided flaps ranging from 15 cm × 11 cm to 25 cm × 20 cm (mean 18.2 cm × 14cm).Four patients were treated using left-sided flaps,and two were treated using both right-and left-sided flaps.Suction drains were removed on postoperative Days 3-21 (mean 5.9) and sutures were removed on postoperative Days 12-14.Each flap included 1-2 perforators for each of the donor and recipient sites.Donor sites were closed directly.All flaps survived.In eight patients,the wounds healed after single-stage surgery.After further debridement,the wounds of the remaining two patients were considered healed on postoperative Days 26 and 33,respectively.The rate of first intention in the study group (80%,8/10) significantly increased than that of control group ((25%,3/12),X2=4.583,P=-0.032).Follow-up examinations found that the flaps had a soft texture without ulceration.In the two patients without

  16. Tissue preserving total hip arthroplasty using superior capsulotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, N; Del Buono, A; Maffulli, N

    2015-08-01

    The goals of a tissue-preserving minimally invasive approach to the hip are to allow early short-term recovery, achieve hip joint stability, minimize muscle strength loss from surgery, spare the peri-articular soft tissues, and allow unrestricted motion in the long term. Hip arthroplasty in patients with no pre-existing hardware, with a sufficient space between the acetabular rim and greater trochanter; management of subcapital femoral fractures in older patients. Protrusio acetabuli. Joint stiffness. This is the main concern when undertaking the superior capsulotomy. Stiffness may result from bone causes, including ankylosis, large osteophytes, bone bridges etc., extra-articular retraction of surrounding soft tissues with capsular contracture of both ligaments and muscles, or a combination of bony and soft tissues causes, resulting in limited adduction. Indeed, maximal adduction is necessary to increase the distance between the apex of the greater trochanter and the superior acetabular edge. In the approach described in the present article, the real limitation is the impossibility to introduce a straight stem through the trochanteric fossa without weakening the trochantericarea. If adduction is restricted, excessive lateralization of the femoral stem would result in postoperative pain and discomfort, especially as we advocate immediate full weight bearing. Even though patients fare better when the trochanteric area is intact, many types of stem such as the GTS (Biomet), or stem Microplasty (Biomet) or even stem Parva (Adler Ortho) may pressurize the internal bone of the trochanteric structures. Therefore, these stems may be implanted in maximal hip adduction. This is the case in coxa profunda or coxa vara, which require more invasive and destabilizing surgical approaches. Lateral position, 5-8 cm incision from the tip of the greater trochanter, identification and transaction of piriformis tendon. Anterior mobilization of the gluteus minimus and exposure of the

  17. Coastal geology and recent origins for Sand Point, Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Krantz, David E.; Castaneda, Mario R.; Loope, Walter L.; Jol, Harry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Higley, Melinda C.; DeWald, Samantha; Hansen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Sand Point is a small cuspate foreland located along the southeastern shore of Lake Superior within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore near Munising, Michigan. Park managers’ concerns for the integrity of historic buildings at the northern periphery of the point during the rising lake levels in the mid-1980s greatly elevated the priority of research into the geomorphic history and age of Sand Point. To pursue this priority, we recovered sediment cores from four ponds on Sand Point, assessed subsurface stratigraphy onshore and offshore using geophysical techniques, and interpreted the chronology of events using radiocarbon and luminescence dating. Sand Point formed at the southwest edge of a subaqueous platform whose base is probably constructed of glacial diamicton and outwash. During the post-glacial Nipissing Transgression, the base was mantled with sand derived from erosion of adjacent sandstone cliffs. An aerial photograph time sequence, 1939–present, shows that the periphery of the platform has evolved considerably during historical time, infl uenced by transport of sediment into adjacent South Bay. Shallow seismic refl ections suggest slump blocks along the leading edge of the platform. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and shallow seismic refl ections to the northwest of the platform reveal large sand waves within a deep (12 m) channel produced by currents fl owing episodically to the northeast into Lake Superior. Ground-penetrating radar profi les show transport and deposition of sand across the upper surface of the platform. Basal radiocarbon dates from ponds between subaerial beach ridges range in age from 540 to 910 cal yr B.P., suggesting that Sand Point became emergent during the last ~1000 years, upon the separation of Lake Superior from Lakes Huron and Michigan. However, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from the beach ridges were two to three times as old as the radiocarbon ages, implying that emergence of Sand Point may have begun

  18. Recurrent cerebral venous infarcts and superior vena cava obstruction: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzao, A. [Department of Radiology, University of Rome ``Tor Vergata``, Rome (Italy)]|[Istituto di Radiologia, Ospedale S. Eugenio, Piazzale dell`Umanesimo 10 I-00144 Roma (Italy); Gallucci, M. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of L`Aquila, L`Aquila (Italy); Marsili, L. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of L`Aquila, L`Aquila (Italy); Cerone, G. [Department of Neurology, Collemaggio Hospital, L`Aquila (Italy)

    1997-06-01

    We report a patient with repeated venous infarcts in the occipital lobe and occlusion of the superior vena cava. The pathogenetic relationships between the superior vena cava occlusion and the brain infarcts are discussed. High pressure in the superior venous territory and incomplete patency of the transverse sinus are probably responsible for the venous infarcts. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  19. Superiority of Bessel function over Zernicke polynomial as base function for radial expansion in tomographic reconstruction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Chattopadhyay; C V S Rao

    2003-07-01

    Here we describe the superiority of Bessel function as base function for radial expansion over Zernicke polynomial in the tomographic reconstruction technique. The causes for the superiority have been described in detail. The superiority has been shown both with simulated data for Kadomtsev’s model for saw-tooth oscillation and real experimental x-ray data from W7-AS Stellarator.

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  1. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Superior Cerv...ical Ganglion http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Superior_Cervical_Ganglion.bed ...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis Complicating Typhoid Fever in a Teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Okunola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous sinus (sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT is a rare life-threatening disorder in childhood that is often misdiagnosed. CSVT encompasses cavernous sinus thrombosis, lateral sinus thrombosis, and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST. We present an adolescent girl who was well until two weeks earlier when she had a throbbing frontal headache and fever with chills; she later had dyspnoea, jaundice, melena stool, multiple seizures, nuchal rigidity, and monoparesis of the right lower limb a day before admission. Urine test for Salmonella typhi Vi antigen was positive, and Widal reaction was significant. Serial cranial computerized tomography scans revealed an expanding hypodense lesion in the parafalcine region consistent with SSST or a parasagittal abscess. Inadvertent left parietal limited craniectomy confirmed SSST. She recovered completely with subsequent conservative management. Beyond neuropsychiatric complications of Typhoid fever, CSVT should be highly considered when focal neurologic deficits are present.

  4. Superior orbital fissure syndrome in herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kirwan, R P

    2012-02-01

    AIM: To report a case of superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) in a patient with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case report. RESULTS: A 71-year-old male with HZO presented acutely to accident and emergency complaining of right vision loss, double vision and drowsiness. The right visual acuity was counting fingers. There was no relative afferent pupillary defect. He had interstitial keratitis, ptosis, proptosis and total ophthalmoplaegia. The signs indicated HZO complicated by SOFS. Brain imaging and lumbar puncture confirmed the diagnosis of varicella zoster encephalitis. Systemic acyclovir and prednisolone led to recovery of visual acuity and ocular motility in addition to resolution of his proptosis and ptosis. CONCLUSION: SOFS is a rare complication of herpes zoster infection. With the appropriate treatment and follow-up, patients may be reassured that recovery of their visual acuity and ocular motility will occur.

  5. No superior adaptations to carbohydrate periodization in elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Kasper Degn; Thams, Line; Hansen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    content (18 ± 5%), CS activity (11 ± 5%) and pACC (38 ± 19%) (Ptraining had no superior effects on performance and muscle...... endurance training, while matched and randomized into two groups training with (Low) or without (High) carbohydrate (CHO) manipulation three days a week. The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-hr high intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 hrs while consuming isocaloric diets containing...... either high CHO (414±2.4 g) or low CHO (79.5±1.0 g), and a 2-hr moderate bike session in the afternoon with or without CHO. VO2max, maximal fat oxidation and power output during a 30-min time trial (TT) were determined before and after the training period. The TT was undertaken after 90 mins...

  6. Superior optical nonlinearity of an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Tingchao [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Division of Physics and Applied Physics, Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Yanli [Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Gao, Yang; Grimsdale, Andrew C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lin, Xiaodong, E-mail: linxd@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Sun, Handong, E-mail: linxd@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-03-16

    Strong multiphoton absorption and harmonic generation in organic fluorescent chromophores are, respectively, significant in many fields of research. However, most of fluorescent chromophores fall short of the full potential due to the absence of the combination of such different nonlinear upconversion behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye could exhibit efficient two- and three-photon absorption under the excitation of femtosecond pulses in solution phase. Benefiting from its biocompatibility and strong excited state absorption behavior, in vitro two-photon bioimaging and superior optical limiting have been exploited, respectively. Simultaneously, the chromophore could generate efficient three-photon excited fluorescence and third-harmonic generation (THG) when dispersed into PMMA film, circumventing the limitations of classical fluorescent chromophores. Such chromophore may find application in the production of coherent light sources of higher photon energy. Moreover, the combination of three-photon excited fluorescence and THG can be used in tandem to provide complementary information in biomedical studies.

  7. Superior optical nonlinearity of an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tingchao; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Gao, Yang; Grimsdale, Andrew C.; Zhao, Yanli; Lin, Xiaodong; Sun, Handong

    2015-03-01

    Strong multiphoton absorption and harmonic generation in organic fluorescent chromophores are, respectively, significant in many fields of research. However, most of fluorescent chromophores fall short of the full potential due to the absence of the combination of such different nonlinear upconversion behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye could exhibit efficient two- and three-photon absorption under the excitation of femtosecond pulses in solution phase. Benefiting from its biocompatibility and strong excited state absorption behavior, in vitro two-photon bioimaging and superior optical limiting have been exploited, respectively. Simultaneously, the chromophore could generate efficient three-photon excited fluorescence and third-harmonic generation (THG) when dispersed into PMMA film, circumventing the limitations of classical fluorescent chromophores. Such chromophore may find application in the production of coherent light sources of higher photon energy. Moreover, the combination of three-photon excited fluorescence and THG can be used in tandem to provide complementary information in biomedical studies.

  8. superior o atractivo artilugio estético?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Munive Villanueva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo se presenta un análisis de la acreditación bajo la idea de que es el mejor instrumento para fortalecer la mejora de la calidad de la educación superior, lo que da lugar a la reflexión sobre la manera en que se logran sus objetivos y resultados. Este preámbulo es la pauta que sirve para abordar la acreditación no como la simple conquista o adjudicación de una constancia de un órgano o instancia acreditadora, poniendo de realce que la efectividad y trascendencia de la acreditación, y particularmente de la evaluación, radica en su integración formal a los procesos de planeación de las tareas académicas y de apoyo de las entidades académicas.

  9. Phonetic Feature Encoding in Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesgarani, Nima; Cheung, Connie; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    During speech perception, linguistic elements such as consonants and vowels are extracted from a complex acoustic speech signal. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) participates in high-order auditory processing of speech, but how it encodes phonetic information is poorly understood. We used high-density direct cortical surface recordings in humans while they listened to natural, continuous speech to reveal the STG representation of the entire English phonetic inventory. At single electrodes, we found response selectivity to distinct phonetic features. Encoding of acoustic properties was mediated by a distributed population response. Phonetic features could be directly related to tuning for spectrotemporal acoustic cues, some of which were encoded in a nonlinear fashion or by integration of multiple cues. These findings demonstrate the acoustic-phonetic representation of speech in human STG. PMID:24482117

  10. ENSINO SUPERIOR E OS PARADIGMAS DA POLÍTICA NEOLIBERAL

    OpenAIRE

    Hebert de Melo

    2010-01-01

    Este artigo científico procurou investigar o processo de adaptação da Universidade Brasileira aos novos paradigmas impostos pelas políticas neoliberais. A análise se faz a partir de breve histórico do liberalismo e de suas imbricações no ensino. Apontando também a relativização da suposta democratização e modernização do ensino pelas novas perspectivas impostas pelo mercado. São levantadas também questões como autonomia universitária e legitimação da instituição de ensino superior....

  11. Superhydrophobic paper with superior stability against deformations and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Xiong, Dangsheng; Pan, Sai; Deng, Yaling; Shi, Yan; Wang, Kun

    2016-12-01

    Superhydrophobic coatings on paper were achieved by means of incorporating micro-nano hierarchical topography, where the water droplet was repelled and rested in a spherical shape. A silica sol, which was prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and trimethylethoxysilane (TMES) as co-precursor, was poured on the paper to form a superhydrophobic surface. The coating was fluorine-free, environmentally friend, and could be easily fabricated on different kinds of papers. Besides, the transmittance of prepared coating reached up to 92% in visible light range, and the words on treated paper showed a good visualization. Moreover, the treated paper showed superior mechanical durability against 100 times of deformation, remarkable stability towards both the acidic and basic solutions. The treated paper could withstand 70 cycles of water condensation test (from 60 °C, 90% relative humidity to 10 °C) without losing superhydrophobicity, suggesting a long-term protection for paper.

  12. Firm-specific information, analysts’ superiority and investment value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu; Li; Erjia; Yang; Tusheng; Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of Chinese security analysts’recommendations from 2005 to2010,we examine the source of analysts’superiority and the investment value of their recommendations.Using a calendar-time portfolio approach,we find that,on average,analysts’recommendations are valuable and that analysts are better at analyzing and transferring firm-specific information than market-wide or industry-level information.In addition,we show that the investment value of recommendations increases as firm-specific information becomes more important in stock pricing.Our empirical results are useful in guiding investors and helping brokerage houses to evaluate the output of research departments.

  13. Phonetic feature encoding in human superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesgarani, Nima; Cheung, Connie; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F

    2014-02-28

    During speech perception, linguistic elements such as consonants and vowels are extracted from a complex acoustic speech signal. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) participates in high-order auditory processing of speech, but how it encodes phonetic information is poorly understood. We used high-density direct cortical surface recordings in humans while they listened to natural, continuous speech to reveal the STG representation of the entire English phonetic inventory. At single electrodes, we found response selectivity to distinct phonetic features. Encoding of acoustic properties was mediated by a distributed population response. Phonetic features could be directly related to tuning for spectrotemporal acoustic cues, some of which were encoded in a nonlinear fashion or by integration of multiple cues. These findings demonstrate the acoustic-phonetic representation of speech in human STG.

  14. [Human interaction, social cognition, and the superior temporal sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Francis; Saitovitch, Anna; Boddaert, Nathalie; Grevent, David; Cambier, Jean; Lelord, Gilbert; Samson, Yves; Zilbovicius, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are social animals. This ability to live together is ensured by cognitive functions, the neuroanatomical bases of which are starting to be unraveled by MRI-based studies. The regions and network engaged in this process are known as the "social brain ". The core of this network is the superior temporal sulcus (STS), which integrates sensory and emotional inputs. Modeling studies of healthy volunteers have shown the role of the STS.in recognizing others as biological beings, as well as facial and eye-gaze recognition, intentionality and emotions. This cognitive capacity has been described as the "theory of mind ". Pathological models such as autism, in which the main clinical abnormality is altered social abilities and communication, have confirmed the role of the STS in the social brain. Conceptualisation of this empathic capacity has been described as "meta cognition ", which forms the basis of human social organizationand culture.

  15. Mediastinal seminoma presenting with superior vena cava syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanous, Amanda; McPhail, Ian R; Quevedo, J Fernando; Sandhu, Nicole P

    2017-06-08

    We present a rare cause of superior vena cava syndrome (SVC) in a previously healthy male aged 31 years. Malignancy was suspected due to unintentional weight loss and childhood exposure to radioactive fallout from a nuclear facility accident. A very large anterior mediastinal mass was identified and demonstrated to be an extragonadal seminoma. Extragonadal germ cell tumours are rare tumours with a high potential for cardiovascular, pulmonary and vascular sequelae. Studies have documented an increased risk of developing seminoma in patients with radioactive exposure. Chemotherapy was initiated, during which the patient experienced progressive and new symptoms, found to be due to extensive thromboembolic disease, which responded well to anticoagulation. Seventy-two months after completing chemotherapy, without need for surgical management, he remains free of the disease. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Voice range in superior laryngeal nerve paresis and paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, C A; Sataloff, R T; Hawkshaw, M; Spiegel, J R; Mandel, S

    1998-09-01

    Evaluation of Physiologic Frequency Range (PFR) and Musical Frequency Range (MRP) of Phonation was performed on 56 adults (singers and nonsingers) presenting with superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) paresis or paralysis confirmed by laryngeal electromyography. The most common etiology was neuritis (69.7%), followed by iatrogenic and unknown causes,each accounting for 10.2% of cases, and finally trauma (8.9%). Both female and male singers with SLN paresis or paralysis had significantly higher PFR and MPR than nonsingers. Female classical singers presented PFR and MPR of up to 10 semitones (ST) higher than nonclassical singers and nonsingers. The lowest PFR and musical ranges were found in patients with SLN paresis associated with recurrent laryngeal nerve paresis or paralysis. The authors suggest that voice range measurement is a useful parameter for analyzing the effects of SLN paresis or paralysis on voice and that it may also assist in measuring outcome following voice therapy.

  17. Ensino superior, para quê? Higher education, what for?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Giroux

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O texto propõe retomar a universidade democrática como referência ética, em face dos desafios do mundo globalizado. Discute a situação atual das universidades, caracterizada como uma crise mundial no Ensino Superior, tendo como referência as IES dos Estados Unidos da América e do Canadá. São destacados três aspectos nessa questão-problema: 1- as consequências do movimento de globalização, que atinge todas as esferas da vida humana, entre elas a educação, e demandam do Ensino Superior o exercício da função de educar as gerações futuras para enfrentar os desafios de uma democracia global, evitando adotar a prática da indução dos professores e alunos à instrumentalização e ao imediatismo, subvalorizando o conhecimento crítico. 2- a retomada pelas universidades de seus objetivos de conhecimento e autonomia, posicionando-se contra a instrumentalização, a mercantilização e a militarização, essa última, como monitoramento de diferentes sujeitos sociais, e do Estado, exercidos sobre as IES. Para isso, propõe a colaboração inclusiva como uma das principais formas de divulgação da universidade e da importância da liberdade e da autonomia da Instituição Superior em suas decisões e ações. 3- a universidade acessível a todos que, além de possibilitar o desenvolvimento de uma educação crítica e de uma cultura intelectual verdadeira, adota metodologias prazerosas, estimulantes e capacitadoras, e valoriza os professores extinguindo os "contratos alternativos de trabalho" que têm contribuído para o empobrecimento da qualidade do Ensino Superior.The text proposes to reinstitute the democratic university as an ethic reference, given the challenges of the globalized world. It discusses the universities' current situation, which is characterized as a global crisis in higher education, taking as reference American and Canadian higher education institutions. Three aspects of such characterization are highlighted: 1

  18. Retinal Origin of Direction Selectivity in the Superior Colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuefeng; Barchini, Jad; Ledesma, Hector Acaron; Koren, David; Jin, Yanjiao; Liu, Xiaorong; Wei, Wei; Cang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Detecting visual features in the environment such as motion direction is crucial for survival. The circuit mechanisms that give rise to direction selectivity in a major visual center, the superior colliculus (SC), are entirely unknown. Here, we optogenetically isolate the retinal inputs that individual direction-selective SC neurons receive and find that they are already selective as a result of precisely converging inputs from similarly-tuned retinal ganglion cells. The direction selective retinal input is linearly amplified by the intracollicular circuits without changing its preferred direction or level of selectivity. Finally, using 2-photon calcium imaging, we show that SC direction selectivity is dramatically reduced in transgenic mice that have decreased retinal selectivity. Together, our studies demonstrate a retinal origin of direction selectivity in the SC, and reveal a central visual deficit as a consequence of altered feature selectivity in the retina. PMID:28192394

  19. Retinal origin of direction selectivity in the superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuefeng; Barchini, Jad; Ledesma, Hector Acaron; Koren, David; Jin, Yanjiao; Liu, Xiaorong; Wei, Wei; Cang, Jianhua

    2017-04-01

    Detecting visual features in the environment, such as motion direction, is crucial for survival. The circuit mechanisms that give rise to direction selectivity in a major visual center, the superior colliculus (SC), are entirely unknown. We optogenetically isolate the retinal inputs that individual direction-selective SC neurons receive and find that they are already selective as a result of precisely converging inputs from similarly tuned retinal ganglion cells. The direction-selective retinal input is linearly amplified by intracollicular circuits without changing its preferred direction or level of selectivity. Finally, using two-photon calcium imaging, we show that SC direction selectivity is dramatically reduced in transgenic mice that have decreased retinal selectivity. Together, our studies demonstrate a retinal origin of direction selectivity in the SC and reveal a central visual deficit as a consequence of altered feature selectivity in the retina.

  20. ENSINO SUPERIOR E OS PARADIGMAS DA POLÍTICA NEOLIBERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert de Melo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo científico procurou investigar o processo de adaptação da Universidade Brasileira aos novos paradigmas impostos pelas políticas neoliberais. A análise se faz a partir de breve histórico do liberalismo e de suas imbricações no ensino. Apontando também a relativização da suposta democratização e modernização do ensino pelas novas perspectivas impostas pelo mercado. São levantadas também questões como autonomia universitária e legitimação da instituição de ensino superior.