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Sample records for superior frontal regions

  1. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus

  2. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, M; Pandya, D N

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  3. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  4. Subregions of the human superior frontal gyrus and their connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Qin, Wen; Liu, Huaigui; Fan, Lingzhong; Wang, Jiaojian; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2013-09-01

    The superior frontal gyrus (SFG) is located at the superior part of the prefrontal cortex and is involved in a variety of functions, suggesting the existence of functional subregions. However, parcellation schemes of the human SFG and the connection patterns of each subregion remain unclear. We firstly parcellated the human SFG into the anteromedial (SFGam), dorsolateral (SFGdl), and posterior (SFGp) subregions based on diffusion tensor tractography. The SFGam was anatomically connected with the anterior and mid-cingulate cortices, which are critical nodes of the cognitive control network and the default mode network (DMN). The SFGdl was connected with the middle and inferior frontal gyri, which are involved in the cognitive execution network. The SFGp was connected with the precentral gyrus, caudate, thalamus, and frontal operculum, which are nodes of the motor control network. Resting-state functional connectivity analysis further revealed that the SFGam was mainly correlated with the cognitive control network and the DMN; the SFGdl was correlated with the cognitive execution network and the DMN; and the SFGp was correlated with the sensorimotor-related brain regions. The SFGam and SFGdl were further parcellated into three and two subclusters that are well corresponding to Brodmann areas. These findings suggest that the human SFG consists of multiple dissociable subregions that have distinct connection patterns and that these subregions are involved in different functional networks and serve different functions. These results may improve our understanding on the functional complexity of the SFG and provide us an approach to investigate the SFG at the subregional level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Frontal and superior temporal auditory processing abnormalities in schizophrenia.

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    Chen, Yu-Han; Edgar, J Christopher; Huang, Mingxiong; Hunter, Michael A; Epstein, Emerson; Howell, Breannan; Lu, Brett Y; Bustillo, Juan; Miller, Gregory A; Cañive, José M

    2013-01-01

    Although magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies show superior temporal gyrus (STG) auditory processing abnormalities in schizophrenia at 50 and 100 ms, EEG and corticography studies suggest involvement of additional brain areas (e.g., frontal areas) during this interval. Study goals were to identify 30 to 130 ms auditory encoding processes in schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC) and group differences throughout the cortex. The standard paired-click task was administered to 19 SZ and 21 HC subjects during MEG recording. Vector-based Spatial-temporal Analysis using L1-minimum-norm (VESTAL) provided 4D maps of activity from 30 to 130 ms. Within-group t-tests compared post-stimulus 50 ms and 100 ms activity to baseline. Between-group t-tests examined 50 and 100 ms group differences. Bilateral 50 and 100 ms STG activity was observed in both groups. HC had stronger bilateral 50 and 100 ms STG activity than SZ. In addition to the STG group difference, non-STG activity was also observed in both groups. For example, whereas HC had stronger left and right inferior frontal gyrus activity than SZ, SZ had stronger right superior frontal gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus activity than HC. Less STG activity was observed in SZ than HC, indicating encoding problems in SZ. Yet auditory encoding abnormalities are not specific to STG, as group differences were observed in frontal and SMG areas. Thus, present findings indicate that individuals with SZ show abnormalities in multiple nodes of a concurrently activated auditory network.

  6. Frontal Fibers Connecting the Superior Frontal Gyrus to Broca Area: A Corticocortical Evoked Potential Study.

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    Ookawa, Satoshi; Enatsu, Rei; Kanno, Aya; Ochi, Satoko; Akiyama, Yukinori; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Yamao, Yukihiro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Riki; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2017-11-01

    The frontal aslant tract is a deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) to Broca area. This fiber is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. The aim of this study was to electrophysiologically investigate this network using corticocortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). This study enrolled 8 patients with brain tumors or medically intractable focal epilepsies who underwent frontal craniotomy over the language-dominant side. All patients underwent CCEP recordings during tumor resection or during invasive evaluation for epilepsy surgery. Alternating 1-Hz electrical stimuli were delivered to pars opercularis (pO) and pars triangularis (pT), corresponding to Broca area, and SFG via the subdural grid electrodes with intensity of 10 mA. Electrocorticograms from SFG and pO/pT time-locked to 50 stimuli were averaged in each trial to obtain CCEP responses. In all patients, stimulation of pO/pT induced CCEP responses in SFG. CCEP responses were recorded in lateral SFG in 5 patients and in supplementary motor areas in 4 patients. Reciprocality was observed in 7 patients in the stimulation of SFG. CCEP responses were significantly faster at SFG from pO/pT than at pO/pT from SFG (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.028). The present study demonstrated a corticocortical network connecting Broca areas and SFG in a reciprocal manner. Our findings might provide new insight into language and motor integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Specific marker of feigned memory impairment: The activation of left superior frontal gyrus.

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    Chen, Zi-Xiang; Xue, Li; Liang, Chun-Yu; Wang, Li-Li; Mei, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Hu

    2015-11-01

    Faking memory impairment means normal people complain lots of memory problems without organic damage in forensic assessments. Using alternative forced-choice paradigm, containing digital or autobiographical information, previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that faking memory impairment could cause the activation in the prefrontal and parietal regions, and might involve a fronto-parietal-subcortical circuit. However, it is still unclear whether different memory types have influence on faking or not. Since different memory types, such as long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM), were found supported by different brain areas, we hypothesized that feigned STM or LTM impairment had distinct neural activation mapping. Besides that, some common neural correlates may act as the general characteristic of feigned memory impairment. To verify this hypothesis, the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) combined with an alternative word forced-choice paradigm were used in this study. A total of 10 right-handed participants, in this study, had to perform both STW and LTM tasks respectively under answering correctly, answering randomly and feigned memory impairment conditions. Our results indicated that the activation of the left superior frontal gyrus and the left medial frontal gyrus was associated with feigned LTM impairment, whereas the left superior frontal gyrus, the left precuneus and the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were highly activated while feigning STM impairment. Furthermore, an overlapping was found in the left superior frontal gyrus, and it suggested that the activity of the left superior frontal gyrus might be acting as a specific marker of feigned memory impairment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Selective activation of the superior frontal gyrus in task-switching: an event-related fNIRS study.

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    Cutini, Simone; Scatturin, Pietro; Menon, Enrica; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia; Gamberini, Luciano; Zorzi, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2008-08-15

    In the task-switching paradigm, reaction time is longer and accuracy is worse in switch trials relative to repetition trials. This so-called switch cost has been ascribed to the engagement of control processes required to alternate between distinct stimulus-response mapping rules. Neuroimaging studies have reported an enhanced activation of the human lateral prefrontal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus during the task-switching paradigm. Whether neural activation in these regions is dissociable and associated with separable cognitive components of task switching has been a matter of recent debate. We used multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure brain cortical activity in a task-switching paradigm designed to avoid task differences, order predictability, and frequency effects. The results showed a generalized bilateral activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus in both switch trials and repetition trials. To isolate the activity selectively associated with the task-switch, the overall activity recorded during repetition trials was subtracted from the activity recorded during switch trials. Following subtraction, the remaining activity was entirely confined to the left portion of the superior frontal gyrus. The present results suggest that factors associated with load and maintenance of distinct stimulus-response mapping rules in working memory are likely contributors to the activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex, whereas only activity in the left superior frontal gyrus can be linked unequivocally to switching between distinct cognitive tasks.

  9. Bereitschaftspotentials recorded from the lateral part of the superior frontal gyrus in humans.

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    Ohara, Shinji; Ikeda, Akio; Matsuhashi, Masao; Satow, Takeshi; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Baba, Koichi; Mihara, Tadahiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    2006-05-15

    To demonstrate the Bereitschaftspotentials (BPs) over the high lateral convexity in the superior frontal gyrus, movement-related cortical potentials with respect to the middle finger extension were recorded in seven patients with refractory epilepsy who underwent subdural implantation of platinum electrode grids and/or strips covering the high lateral frontal convexity. In two out of the seven patients, BPs were recorded from the electrodes placed on the superior frontal gyrus in the vicinity of the border between the medial and lateral frontal lobes, which were distinct from those recorded from the primary sensorimotor cortex. The results suggest the possible contribution of either the lateral dorsal non-primary motor area or the SMA to the generation of the BPs.

  10. The Right Superior Frontal Gyrus and Individual Variation in Proactive Control of Impulsive Response.

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    Hu, Sien; Ide, Jaime S; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan R

    2016-12-14

    A hallmark of cognitive control is the ability to rein in impulsive responses. Previously, we used a Bayesian model to describe trial-by-trial likelihood of the stop signal or p(Stop) and related regional activations to p(Stop) to response slowing in a stop signal task. Here, we characterized the regional processes of conflict anticipation in association with intersubject variation in impulse control in 114 young adults. We computed the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) and a measure of motor urgency, indexed by the reaction time (RT) difference between go and stop error trials or "GoRT - SERT," where GoRT is the go trial RT and SERT is the stop error RT. Motor urgency and SSRT were positively correlated across subjects. A linear regression identified regional activations to p(Stop), each in correlation with SSRT and motor urgency. We hypothesized that shared neural activities mediate the correlation between motor urgency and SSRT in proactive control of impulsivity. Activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG) during conflict anticipation correlated negatively with the SSRT. Activation of the right SFG also correlated negatively with GoRT - SERT. Therefore, activation of the right SFG was associated with more efficient response inhibition and less motor urgency. A mediation analysis showed that right SFG activation to conflict anticipation mediates the correlation between SSRT and motor urgency bidirectionally. The current results highlight a specific role of the right SFG in translating conflict anticipation to the control of impulsive response, which is consistent with earlier studies suggesting its function in action restraint. Individuals vary in impulse control. However, the neural bases underlying individual variation in proactive control of impulsive responses remain unknown. Here, in a large sample of young adults, we showed that activation of the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG

  11. Synaptic proteome changes in the superior frontal gyrus and occipital cortex of the alcoholic brain.

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    Etheridge, Naomi; Lewohl, Joanne M; Mayfield, R Dayne; Harris, R Adron; Dodd, Peter R

    2009-06-24

    Cognitive deficits and behavioral changes that result from chronic alcohol abuse are a consequence of neuropathological changes which alter signal transmission through the neural network. To focus on the changes that occur at the point of connection between the neural network cells, synaptosomal preparations from post-mortem human brain of six chronic alcoholics and six non-alcoholic controls were compared using 2D-DIGE. Functionally affected and spared regions (superior frontal gyrus, SFG, and occipital cortex, OC, respectively) were analyzed from both groups to further investigate the specific pathological response that alcoholism has on the brain. Forty-nine proteins were differentially regulated between the SFG of alcoholics and the SFG of controls and 94 proteins were regulated in the OC with an overlap of 23 proteins. Additionally, the SFG was compared to the OC within each group (alcoholics or controls) to identify region specific differences. A selection were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealing proteins involved in vesicle transport, metabolism, folding and trafficking, and signal transduction, all of which have the potential to influence synaptic activity. A number of proteins identified in this study have been previously related to alcoholism; however, the focus on synaptic proteins has also uncovered novel alcoholism-affected proteins. Further exploration of these proteins will illuminate the mechanisms altering synaptic plasticity, and thus neuronal signaling and response, in the alcoholic brain.

  12. [Surgical treatment of gliomas involving the supplementary motor area in the superior frontal gyrus].

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    Liu, Wei; Lai, Jian-jun; Qu, Yuan-ming

    2004-07-07

    To explore surgical treatment of gliomas involving the supplementary motor area (SMA) in the superior frontal gyrus. Clinical data and follow-up outcome of 16 patients with low graded astrocytomas involving the supplementary motor area were analyzed. SMA syndrome was developed in 6 patients in whom the posterior tumor resection line was at a distance of more than 1 cm from the precentral sulcus and resolved after 12 months. Hemiplegia occurred however in 8 patients in whom the resection line was less than 1 cm to precentral sulcus and only resolved in 3 patients during follow period 12 months. When the resection is performed at a distance of less than 1 cm from the precentral sulcus, surgery for gliomas of involving the supplementary motor area in the superior frontal gyrus may be result in permanent morbidity.

  13. Functions of the left superior frontal gyrus in humans: a lesion study.

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    du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle; Seassau, Magali; Duffau, Hughes; Kinkingnehun, Serge; Samson, Yves; Zhang, Sandy; Dubois, Bruno

    2006-12-01

    The superior frontal gyrus (SFG) is thought to contribute to higher cognitive functions and particularly to working memory (WM), although the nature of its involvement remains a matter of debate. To resolve this issue, methodological tools such as lesion studies are needed to complement the functional imaging approach. We have conducted the first lesion study to investigate the role of the SFG in WM and address the following questions: do lesions of the SFG impair WM and, if so, what is the nature of the WM impairment? To answer these questions, we compared the performance of eight patients with a left prefrontal lesion restricted to the SFG with that of a group of 11 healthy control subjects and two groups of patients with focal brain lesions [prefrontal lesions sparing the SFG (n = 5) and right parietal lesions (n = 4)] in a series of WM tasks. The WM tasks (derived from the classical n-back paradigm) allowed us to study the impact of the SFG lesions on domain (verbal, spatial, face) and complexity (1-, 2- and 3-back) processing within WM. As expected, patients with a left SFG lesion exhibited a WM deficit when compared with all control groups, and the impairment increased with the complexity of the tasks. This complexity effect was significantly more marked for the spatial domain. Voxel-to-voxel mapping of each subject's performance showed that the lateral and posterior portion of the SFG (mostly Brodmann area 8, rostral to the frontal eye field) was the subregion that contributed the most to the WM impairment. These data led us to conclude that (i) the lateral and posterior portion of the left SFG is a key component of the neural network of WM; (ii) the participation of this region in WM is triggered by the highest level of executive processing; (iii) the left SFG is also involved in spatially oriented processing. Our findings support a hybrid model of the anatomical and functional organization of the lateral SFG for WM, according to which this region is

  14. GABAA receptor B subunit expression in the superior frontal cortex of human alcoholics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, S.T.; Dodd, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Changes in GABA A receptor pharmacology can be ascribed to alterations in expression of specific GABA A receptor subunits. Ethanol is known to be a potent agonist of the GABA A receptor. Chronic abuse of alcohol in humans results in damage of selective brain regions such as the superior frontal cortex (SFC), leading to neuronal cell loss. Studies in our laboratory 1 and elsewhere 2 have shown differences in expression of a number of GABA A receptor subunits in chronic human alcoholism. This suggests that alterations in GABA A receptor composition may be involved in the pathogenesis of alcoholic brain damage. We analysed the expression of the β 1 ,β 2 and β 3 isoforms of the GABA A receptor by a competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique, which utilised an internal standard (IS) for quantitation. 35 S-dATP was incorporated to enable visualisation of the PCR products. Human brain tissue was obtained at autopsy and stored in 0.32 M sucrose at -80 deg C. Total RNA was extracted from pathologically susceptible and spared regions, SFC and motor cortex respectively,of 22 control and 22 alcoholic patients. 1 μg of total RNA from each sample was co-amplified with 0.5 pg of IS and a ratio determined. A standard consisting of known amounts of β 1 cRNA titrated against 0.5 pg of IS enabled a standard curve to be generated for quantitation of each unknown sample. The samples were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the dried gel exposed to a phosphorimager screen. Data analysis was performed using the ImageQuant program. Initial results indicate that there is a reduction in expression of all the β transcripts in alcoholics when compared with controls, which supports the hypothesis that the GABA A receptor is altered by alcohol abuse. Supported by NHMRC. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  15. Reduced Inhibitory Control Mediates the Relationship Between Cortical Thickness in the Right Superior Frontal Gyrus and Body Mass Index.

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    Lavagnino, Luca; Mwangi, Benson; Bauer, Isabelle E; Cao, Bo; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Prossin, Alan; Soares, Jair C

    2016-08-01

    Unhealthy eating behaviors often develop in the setting of inadequate inhibitory control, a function broadly ascribed to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Regulation of inhibitory control by the PFC and its anatomical components and their contribution to increasing body mass index (BMI) are poorly understood. To study the role of PFC in the regulation of inhibitory control and body weight, we examined measures of cortical thickness in PFC sub-regions, inhibitory control (color-word interference task (CWIT)), and BMI in 91 healthy volunteers. We tested the predictive effect of PFC sub-regional cortical thickness on BMI and mediation by inhibitory control measured with CWIT. Measures of depression (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI-T) and trauma-related symptoms (TSC-40) were collected; the disinhibition scale of the three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess disinhibited eating. We then tested the relationship between BD-II, STAI-T, TSC-40, TFEQ, CWIT, and BMI with correlation analyses. Right superior frontal gyrus cortical thickness significantly predicted BMI (β=-0.91; t=-3.2; p=0.002). Mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of cortical thickness on BMI mediated by inhibitory control (95% CI=-6.1, -0.67). BMI was unrelated to BDI-II, STAI-T, TSC-40, or TFEQ scores. We found an inverse relationship between cortical thickness in the right-superior frontal gyrus and BMI, which was fully mediated by inhibitory control neurocognitive performance. Our results suggest possible targets for neuromodulation in obesity (ie superior frontal gyrus) and a quantifiable mediator of their effects (ie inhibitory control).

  16. Differentiated parietal connectivity of frontal regions for "what" and "where" memory.

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    Rottschy, C; Caspers, S; Roski, C; Reetz, K; Dogan, I; Schulz, J B; Zilles, K; Laird, A R; Fox, P T; Eickhoff, S B

    2013-11-01

    In a previous meta-analysis across almost 200 neuroimaging experiments, working memory for object location showed significantly stronger convergence on the posterior superior frontal gyrus, whereas working memory for identity showed stronger convergence on the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (dorsal to, but overlapping with Brodmann's area BA 44). As similar locations have been discussed as part of a dorsal frontal-superior parietal reach system and an inferior frontal grasp system, the aim of the present study was to test whether the regions of working-memory related "what" and "where" processing show a similar distinction in parietal connectivity. The regions that were found in the previous meta-analysis were used as seeds for functional connectivity analyses using task-based meta-analytic connectivity modelling and task-independent resting state correlations. While the ventral seed showed significantly stronger connectivity with the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), the dorsal seed showed stronger connectivity with the bilateral posterior inferior parietal and the medial superior parietal lobule. The observed connections of regions involved in memory for object location and identity thus clearly demonstrate a distinction into separate pathways that resemble the parietal connectivity patterns of the dorsal and ventral premotor cortex in non-human primates and humans. It may hence be speculated that memory for a particular location and reaching towards it as well as object memory and finger positioning for manipulation may rely on shared neural systems. Moreover, the ensuing regions, in turn, featured differential connectivity with the bilateral ventral and dorsal extrastriate cortex, suggesting largely segregated bilateral connectivity pathways from the dorsal visual cortex via the superior and inferior parietal lobules to the dorsal posterior frontal cortex and from the ventral visual cortex via the IPS to the ventral posterior frontal cortex that may

  17. Downregulation of GABA[Subscript A] Receptor Protein Subunits a6, ß2, d, e, ?2, ?, and ?2 in Superior Frontal Cortex of Subjects with Autism

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    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rustan, Oyvind G.; Rooney, Robert J.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We measured protein and mRNA levels for nine gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptor subunits in three brain regions (cerebellum, superior frontal cortex, and parietal cortex) in subjects with autism versus matched controls. We observed changes in mRNA for a number of GABA[subscript A] and GABA[subscript B] subunits and overall…

  18. Common variants at 1p36 are associated with superior frontal gyrus volume.

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    Hashimoto, R; Ikeda, M; Yamashita, F; Ohi, K; Yamamori, H; Yasuda, Y; Fujimoto, M; Fukunaga, M; Nemoto, K; Takahashi, T; Tochigi, M; Onitsuka, T; Yamasue, H; Matsuo, K; Iidaka, T; Iwata, N; Suzuki, M; Takeda, M; Kasai, K; Ozaki, N

    2014-10-21

    The superior frontal gyrus (SFG), an area of the brain frequently found to have reduced gray matter in patients with schizophrenia, is involved in self-awareness and emotion, which are impaired in schizophrenia. However, no genome-wide association studies of SFG volume have investigated in patients with schizophrenia. To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with SFG volumes, we demonstrated a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gray matter volumes in the right or left SFG of 158 patients with schizophrenia and 378 healthy subjects. We attempted to bioinformatically ascertain the potential effects of the top hit polymorphism on the expression levels of genes at the genome-wide region. We found associations between five variants on 1p36.12 and the right SFG volume at a widely used benchmark for genome-wide significance (P5.0 × 10(-8)); however, the rs4654899 polymorphism was identified as the locus with the second strongest association with the volume of the left SFG (P=1.5 × 10(-6)). In silico analyses revealed a proxy SNP of rs4654899 had effect on gene expression of two genes, HP1BP3 lying 3' to EIF4G3 (P=7.8 × 10(-6)) and CAPN14 at 2p (P=6.3 × 10(-6)), which are expressed in moderate-to-high levels throughout the adult human SFG. These results contribute to understand genetic architecture of a brain structure possibly linked to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  19. Impaired cognitive control mediates the relationship between cortical thickness of the superior frontal gyrus and role functioning in schizophrenia.

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    Tully, Laura M; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Liyanage-Don, Nadia; Hooker, Christine I

    2014-02-01

    Structural abnormalities in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) are well-documented in schizophrenia and recent evidence suggests that these abnormalities relate to functional outcome. Cognitive control mechanisms, reliant on the LPFC, are impaired in schizophrenia and predict functional outcome, thus impaired cognitive control could mediate the relationship between neuroanatomical abnormalities in the LPFC and functional outcome. We used surface-based morphometry to investigate relationships between cortical surface characteristics, cognitive control, and measures of social and role functioning in 26 individuals with schizophrenia and 29 healthy controls. Results demonstrate that schizophrenia participants had thinner cortex in a region of the superior frontal gyrus (BA10). Across all participants, decreased cortical thickness in this region related to decreased cognitive control and decreased role functioning. Moreover, cognitive control fully mediated the relationship between cortical thickness in the superior frontal gyrus and role functioning, indicating that neuroanatomical abnormalities in the LPFC adversely impact role functioning via impaired cognitive control processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Surgical resection of grade II astrocytomas in the superior frontal gyrus.

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    Peraud, Aurelia; Meschede, Magnus; Eisner, Wilhelm; Ilmberger, Josef; Reulen, Hans-Jürgen

    2002-05-01

    Surgery in the superior frontal gyrus partially involving the supplementary motor area (SMA) may be followed by contralateral transient weakness and aphasia initially indistinguishable from damage to the primary motor cortex. However, recovery is different, and SMA deficits may resolve completely within days to weeks. No study has assessed the distinct postoperative deficits after tumor resection in the SMA on a homogeneous patient group. Twenty-four patients with World Health Organization Grade II astrocytomas in the superior frontal gyrus consecutively treated by surgery were studied. Degree and duration of postoperative deficits were evaluated according to tumor location and boundaries via magnetic resonance imaging scans, intraoperative neuromonitoring results, and extent of tumor resection. Postoperatively, motor deficits were evident in 21 of 24 and speech deficits in 9 of 12 patients. Motor function quickly recovered in 11 and speech function in 3 patients. None of the 12 patients in whom the posterior tumor resection line was at a distance of more than 0.5 cm from the precentral sulcus experienced persistent motor deficits. Eight of these patients developed typical SMA syndrome with transient initiation difficulties. Seven of 12 patients in whom the tumor extended to the precentral sulcus still had motor deficits at the 12-month follow-up assessment. Surgery for Grade II gliomas in the superior frontal gyrus is more likely to result in permanent morbidity when the resection is performed at a distance of less than 0.5 cm from the precentral gyrus or positive stimulation points. Therefore, cortical mapping of motor and speech function, in critical cases under local anesthesia with the patient as his or her own monitor, is recommended; resection should be tailored to obtain good functional outcome and maintain quality of life.

  1. Vulnerability of the frontal and parietal regions in hypertensive patients during working memory task.

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    Li, Xin; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Ailin; Li, Peng; Zhang, Junying; Tao, Wuhai; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2017-05-01

    Hypertension is related with cognitive decline in the elderly. The frontal-parietal executive system plays an important role in cognitive aging and is also vulnerable to damage in elderly patients with hypertension. Examination of the brain's functional characteristics in frontal-parietal regions of hypertension is likely to be important for understanding the neural mechanisms of hypertension's effect on cognitive aging. We address this issue by comparing hypertension and control-performers in a functional MRI study. Twenty-eight hypertensive patients and 32 elderly controls were tested with n-back task with two load levels. The hypertensive patients exhibited worse executive and memory abilities than control subjects. The patterns of brain activation changed under different working memory loads in the hypertensive patients, who exhibited reduced activation only in the precentral gyrus under low loads and reduced activation in the middle frontal gyrus, left medial superior frontal gyrus and right precuneus under high loads. Thus, more regions of diminished activation were observed in the frontal and parietal regions with increasing task difficulty. More importantly, we found that lower activation in changed frontal and parietal regions was associated with worse cognitive function in high loads. The results demonstrate the relationship between cognitive function and frontoparietal functional activation in hypertension and their relevance to cognitive aging risk. Our findings provide a better understanding of the mechanism of cognitive decline in hypertension and highlight the importance of brain protection in hypertension.

  2. Characteristics of neuronal lipofuscin in the superior temporal gyrus in Alzheimer's disease do not differ from non-diseased controls: a comparison with disease-related changes in the superior frontal gyrus.

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    Mountjoy, Christopher Q; Dowson, Jonathan H; Harrington, Charles; Cairns, Mary R; Wilton-Cox, Helen

    2005-05-01

    Neuronal lipofuscin characteristics in the superior temporal gyrus from 21 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and from 18 age-matched non-diseased subjects were compared with previously reported findings from the superior frontal gyrus. A discriminant function analysis of lipofuscin characteristics in the superior temporal gyrus did not provide a significant predictive level for cases whose diagnoses were correctly classified (56.4%, P=0.63). In contrast, AD-related decrease in the number of smaller lipofuscin regions in the neurons of the frontal gyrus was confirmed, and the same analysis of lipofuscin characteristics in this region gave a significant predictive level for membership of the AD group of 86.6% (P<0.001). The findings indicate that changes in neuronal lipofuscin related to AD, which may reflect an increased rate of lipofuscin formation, show differences between neocortical regions. This study provides additional information on the distribution of neuropathological characteristics in AD.

  3. Identifying changes in the synaptic proteome of cirrhotic alcoholic superior frontal gyrus.

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    Etheridge, N; Mayfield, R D; Harris, R A; Dodd, P R

    2011-03-01

    Hepatic complications are a common side-effect of alcoholism. Without the detoxification capabilities of the liver, alcohol misuse induces changes in gene and protein expression throughout the body. A global proteomics approach was used to identify these protein changes in the brain. We utilised human autopsy tissue from the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) of six cirrhotic alcoholics, six alcoholics without comorbid disease, and six non-alcoholic non-cirrhotic controls. Synaptic proteins were isolated and used in two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. Many expression differences were confined to one or other alcoholic sub-group. Cirrhotic alcoholics showed 99 differences in protein expression levels from controls, of which half also differed from non-comorbid alcoholics. This may reflect differences in disease severity between the sub-groups of alcoholics, or differences in patterns of harmful drinking. Alternatively, the protein profiles may result from differences between cirrhotic and non-comorbid alcoholics in subjects' responses to alcohol misuse. Ten proteins were identified in at least two spots on the 2D gel; they were involved in basal energy metabolism, synaptic vesicle recycling, and chaperoning. These post-translationally modified isoforms were differentially regulated in cirrhotic alcoholics, indicating a level of epigenetic control not previously observed in this disorder.

  4. Trauma of the Frontal Region Is Influenced by the Volume of Frontal Sinuses. A Finite Element Study

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    Srbislav S. Pajic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy of frontal sinuses varies individually, from differences in volume and shape to a rare case when the sinuses are absent. However, there are scarce data related to influence of these variations on impact generated fracture pattern. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of frontal sinus volume on the stress distribution and fracture pattern in the frontal region. The study included four representative Finite Element models of the skull. Reference model was built on the basis of computed tomography scans of a human head with normally developed frontal sinuses. By modifying the reference model, three additional models were generated: a model without sinuses, with hypoplasic, and with hyperplasic sinuses. A 7.7 kN force was applied perpendicularly to the forehead of each model, in order to simulate a frontal impact. The results demonstrated that the distribution of impact stress in frontal region depends on the frontal sinus volume. The anterior sinus wall showed the highest fragility in case with hyperplasic sinuses, whereas posterior wall/inner plate showed more fragility in cases with hypoplasic and undeveloped sinuses. Well-developed frontal sinuses might, through absorption of the impact energy by anterior wall, protect the posterior wall and intracranial contents.

  5. Association fibers connecting the Broca center and the lateral superior frontal gyrus: a microsurgical and tractographic anatomy.

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    Kinoshita, Masashi; Shinohara, Harumichi; Hori, Osamu; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Ueda, Fumiaki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro; Hayashi, Yutaka

    2012-02-01

    Recently, intraoperative mapping has disclosed that, in addition to the classic language centers (that is, the Broca and Wernicke centers), other cortical regions may also play an important role in language organization. In the prefrontal cortex, although the lateral superior frontal gyrus (LSFG) could have language-related functions, there are no detailed reports that demonstrate the anatomical connection between the LSFG and other well-known language cortices, such as the Broca center. To show the existence of the structural connection, white matter association fibers between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the LSFG were examined using fiber dissection (FD) and diffusion tensor (DT) imaging-based tractography. Eight cadaveric cerebral hemispheres were dissected to reveal the association fibers between the IFG and LSFG. The DT imaging-based tractography studies targeting the prefrontal cortex were obtained in 53 right-handed patients who had no organic cerebral lesions. The association fiber tract between Brodmann area 44/45 (the Broca center in the dominant hemisphere) and LSFG were detected in all specimens by FD. In the DT imaging-based tractography studies, the tract was identified in all patients bilaterally, except for the 4 in whom the tract was detected only in the left hemisphere. This tract was spread significantly wider in the left than in the right hemisphere, and left lateralization was evident in male patients. Based on its character, this tract was named the Broca-LSFG pathway. These findings suggest a close relationship between this pathway and language organization. The structural anatomy of the Broca-LSFG pathway may explain speech disturbances induced by LSFG stimulation that are sometimes observed during intraoperative language mapping.

  6. Intrasurgical mapping of complex motor function in the superior frontal gyrus.

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    Martino, J; Gabarrós, A; Deus, J; Juncadella, M; Acebes, J J; Torres, A; Pujol, J

    2011-04-14

    A lesion to the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) has been associated with long-lasting deficits in complex motor functions. The aim of this study was to analyze the functional role of the SFG by means of electrical cortical stimulation. Direct intraoperative electrical stimulation was used in a group of 21 subjects with lesions within or close to the SFG while they performed three motor tasks that require high skills or bimanual synergy. The results were compared to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ninety-four of the 98 (94.9%) labels identified were located on the convexity surface of the SFG and only four (4.1%) labels were located on the middle surface of the SFG. Areas of blockage of the three tasks were identified in six of the 12 (50%) hemispheres with lesions that had infiltrated the SFG, compared to all 10 of the 10 hemispheres (100%) with lesions that spared the SFG. The difference between these two proportions was statistically significant (P=0.015). fMRI activation was mainly located on the medial aspect of the SFG. We show that the convexity surface of the SFG has an important role in bilateral control of complex movements and in bimanual coordination. The infiltration of the posterior part of the SFG by a lesion disturbs some of the complex hand motor functions, which may be assumed by the contralesional homologous area. Finally, the current study emphasizes the discrepancies between fMRI and intraoperative electrical stimulation maps in complex hand motor function. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the superior frontal gyrus modulates craving for cigarettes.

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    Rose, Jed E; McClernon, F Joseph; Froeliger, Brett; Behm, Frédérique M; Preud'homme, Xavier; Krystal, Andrew D

    2011-10-15

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown strong correlations between cue-elicited craving for cigarettes and activation of the superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) offers a noninvasive means to reversibly affect brain cortical activity, which can be applied to testing hypotheses about the causal role of SFG in modulating craving. Fifteen volunteer smokers were recruited to investigate the effects of rTMS on subjective responses to smoking versus neutral cues and to controlled presentations of cigarette smoke. On different days, participants were exposed to three conditions: 1) high-frequency (10 Hz) rTMS directed at the SFG; 2) low-frequency (1 Hz) rTMS directed at the SFG; and 3) low-frequency (1 Hz) rTMS directed at the motor cortex (control condition). Craving ratings in response to smoking versus neutral cues were differentially affected by the 10-Hz versus 1-Hz SFG condition. Craving after smoking cue presentations was elevated in the 10-Hz SFG condition, whereas craving after neutral cue presentations was reduced. Upon smoking in the 10-Hz SFG condition, ratings of immediate craving reduction as well as the intensity of interoceptive airway sensations were also attenuated. These results support the view that the SFG plays a role in modulating craving reactivity; moreover, the results suggest that the SFG plays a role in both excitatory and inhibitory influences on craving, consistent with prior research demonstrating the role of the prefrontal cortex in the elicitation as well as inhibition of drug-seeking behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Distinct frontal regions for processing sentence syntax and story grammar.

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    Sirigu, A; Cohen, L; Zalla, T; Pradat-Diehl, P; Van Eeckhout, P; Grafman, J; Agid, Y

    1998-12-01

    Time is a fundamental dimension of cognition. It is expressed in the sequential ordering of individual elements in a wide variety of activities such as language, motor control or in the broader domain of long range goal-directed actions. Several studies have shown the importance of the frontal lobes in sequencing information. The question addressed in this study is whether this brain region hosts a single supramodal sequence processor, or whether separate mechanisms are required for different kinds of temporally organised knowledge structures such as syntax and action knowledge. Here we show that so-called agrammatic patients, with lesions in Broca's area, ordered word groups correctly to form a logical sequence of actions but they were severely impaired when similar word groups had to be ordered as a syntactically well-formed sentence. The opposite performance was observed in patients with dorsolateral prefrontal lesions, that is, while their syntactic processing was intact at the sentence level, they demonstrated a pronounced deficit in producing temporally coherent sequences of actions. Anatomical reconstruction of lesions from brain scans revealed that the sentence and action grammar deficits involved distinct, non-overlapping sites within the frontal lobes. Finally, in a third group of patients whose lesions encompassed both Broca's area and the prefrontal cortex, the two types of deficits were found. We conclude that sequence processing is specific to knowledge domains and involves different networks within the frontal lobes.

  9. Spontaneous Activity Associated with Delusions of Schizophrenia in the Left Medial Superior Frontal Gyrus: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

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    Bin Gao

    Full Text Available Delusions of schizophrenia have been found to be associated with alterations of some brain regions in structure and task-induced activation. However, the relationship between spontaneously occurring symptoms and spontaneous brain activity remains unclear. In the current study, 14 schizophrenic patients with delusions and 14 healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI scan. Patients with delusions of schizophrenia patients were rated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Characteristics of Delusional Rating Scale (CDRS. Regional homogeneity (ReHo was calculated to measure the local synchronization of the spontaneous activity in a voxel-wise way. A two-sample t-test showed that ReHo of the right anterior cingulate gyrus and left medial superior frontal gyrus were higher in patients, and ReHo of the left superior occipital gyrus was lower, compared to healthy controls. Further, among patients, correlation analysis showed a significant difference between delusion scores of CRDS and ReHo of brain regions. ReHo of the left medial superior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with patients' CDRS scores but not with delusional PANSS scores. These results suggested that altered local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity may be related to the pathophysiology of delusion in schizophrenia.

  10. Spontaneous Activity Associated with Delusions of Schizophrenia in the Left Medial Superior Frontal Gyrus: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Wang, Yiquan; Liu, Weibo; Chen, Zhiyu; Zhou, Heshan; Yang, Jinyu; Cohen, Zachary; Zhu, Yihong; Zang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Delusions of schizophrenia have been found to be associated with alterations of some brain regions in structure and task-induced activation. However, the relationship between spontaneously occurring symptoms and spontaneous brain activity remains unclear. In the current study, 14 schizophrenic patients with delusions and 14 healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) scan. Patients with delusions of schizophrenia patients were rated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Characteristics of Delusional Rating Scale (CDRS). Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was calculated to measure the local synchronization of the spontaneous activity in a voxel-wise way. A two-sample t-test showed that ReHo of the right anterior cingulate gyrus and left medial superior frontal gyrus were higher in patients, and ReHo of the left superior occipital gyrus was lower, compared to healthy controls. Further, among patients, correlation analysis showed a significant difference between delusion scores of CRDS and ReHo of brain regions. ReHo of the left medial superior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with patients' CDRS scores but not with delusional PANSS scores. These results suggested that altered local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity may be related to the pathophysiology of delusion in schizophrenia.

  11. DETACHING FROM THE NEGATIVE BY REAPPRAISAL: THE ROLE OF RIGHT SUPERIOR FRONTAL GYRUS (BA9/32

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    Rosalux eFalquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reappraise the emotional impact of events is related to long-term mental health. Self-focused reappraisal (REAPPself, i.e., reducing the personal relevance of the negative events, has been previously associated with neural activity in regions near right medial prefrontal cortex, but rarely investigated among brain-damaged individuals. Thus, we aimed to examine the REAPPself ability of brain-damaged patients and healthy controls considering structural atrophies and grey matter intensities, respectively. Twenty patients with well-defined cortex lesions due to an acquired circumscribed tumor or cyst and 23 healthy controls performed a REAPPself task, in which they had to either observe negative stimuli or decrease emotional responding by REAPPself. Next, they rated the impact of negative arousal and valence. REAPPself ability scores were calculated by subtracting the negative picture ratings after applying REAPPself from the ratings of the observing condition. The scores of the patients were included in a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM analysis to identify deficit related areas (ROI. Then, a ROI group-wise comparison was performed. Additionally, a whole-brain voxel-based-morphometry (VBM analysis was run, in which healthy participant’s REAPPself ability scores were correlated with grey matter intensities. Results showed that 1 regions in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG, comprising the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9 and the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA32, were associated with patient’s impaired down-regulation of arousal, 2 a lesion in the depicted ROI occasioned significant REAPPself impairments, 3 REAPPself ability of controls was linked with increased grey matter intensities in the ROI regions. Our findings show for the first time that the neural integrity and the structural volume of right SFG regions (BA9/32 might be indispensable for REAPPself. Implications for neurofeedback research

  12. Detaching from the negative by reappraisal: the role of right superior frontal gyrus (BA9/32).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falquez, Rosalux; Couto, Blas; Ibanez, Agustin; Freitag, Martin T; Berger, Moritz; Arens, Elisabeth A; Lang, Simone; Barnow, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The ability to reappraise the emotional impact of events is related to long-term mental health. Self-focused reappraisal (REAPPself), i.e., reducing the personal relevance of the negative events, has been previously associated with neural activity in regions near right medial prefrontal cortex, but rarely investigated among brain-damaged individuals. Thus, we aimed to examine the REAPPself ability of brain-damaged patients and healthy controls considering structural atrophies and gray matter intensities, respectively. Twenty patients with well-defined cortex lesions due to an acquired circumscribed tumor or cyst and 23 healthy controls performed a REAPPself task, in which they had to either observe negative stimuli or decrease emotional responding by REAPPself. Next, they rated the impact of negative arousal and valence. REAPPself ability scores were calculated by subtracting the negative picture ratings after applying REAPPself from the ratings of the observing condition. The scores of the patients were included in a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analysis to identify deficit related areas (ROI). Then, a ROI group-wise comparison was performed. Additionally, a whole-brain voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) analysis was run, in which healthy participant's REAPPself ability scores were correlated with gray matter intensities. Results showed that (1) regions in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), comprising the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9) and the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA32), were associated with patient's impaired down-regulation of arousal, (2) a lesion in the depicted ROI occasioned significant REAPPself impairments, (3) REAPPself ability of controls was linked with increased gray matter intensities in the ROI regions. Our findings show for the first time that the neural integrity and the structural volume of right SFG regions (BA9/32) might be indispensable for REAPPself. Implications for neurofeedback research are

  13. Intraoperative subcortical mapping of a language-associated deep frontal tract connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area in the dominant hemisphere of patients with glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Masazumi; Maesawa, Satoshi; Motomura, Kazuya; Futamura, Miyako; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Koba, Itsuko; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2015-06-01

    The deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area, recently named the frontal aslant tract (FAT), is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. Injury to the deep frontal lobe is known to cause aphasia that mimics the aphasia caused by damage to the supplementary motor area. Although fiber dissection and tractography have revealed the existence of the tract, little is known about its function. The aim of this study was to determine the function of the FAT via electrical stimulation in patients with glioma who underwent awake surgery. The authors analyzed the data from subcortical mapping with electrical stimulation in 5 consecutive cases (3 males and 2 females, age range 40-54 years) with gliomas in the left frontal lobe. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography of the FAT were performed in all cases. A navigation system and intraoperative MRI were used in all cases. During the awake phase of the surgery, cortical mapping was performed to find the precentral gyrus and Broca's area, followed by tumor resection. After the cortical layer was removed, subcortical mapping was performed to assess language-associated fibers in the white matter. In all 5 cases, positive responses were obtained at the stimulation sites in the subcortical area adjacent to the FAT, which was visualized by the navigation system. Speech arrest was observed in 4 cases, and remarkably slow speech and conversation was observed in 1 case. The location of these sites was also determined on intraoperative MR images and estimated on preoperative MR images with DTI tractography, confirming the spatial relationships among the stimulation sites and white matter tracts. Tumor removal was successfully performed without damage to this tract, and language function did not deteriorate in any of the cases postoperatively. The authors identified the left FAT and confirmed that it was associated with language functions. This

  14. Frontal eye field sends delay activity related to movement, memory, and vision to the superior colliculus.

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    Sommer, M A; Wurtz, R H

    2001-04-01

    Many neurons within prefrontal cortex exhibit a tonic discharge between visual stimulation and motor response. This delay activity may contribute to movement, memory, and vision. We studied delay activity sent from the frontal eye field (FEF) in prefrontal cortex to the superior colliculus (SC). We evaluated whether this efferent delay activity was related to movement, memory, or vision, to establish its possible functions. Using antidromic stimulation, we identified 66 FEF neurons projecting to the SC and we recorded from them while monkeys performed a Go/Nogo task. Early in every trial, a monkey was instructed as to whether it would have to make a saccade (Go) or not (Nogo) to a target location, which permitted identification of delay activity related to movement. In half of the trials (memory trials), the target disappeared, which permitted identification of delay activity related to memory. In the remaining trials (visual trials), the target remained visible, which permitted identification of delay activity related to vision. We found that 77% (51/66) of the FEF output neurons had delay activity. In 53% (27/51) of these neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions. The modulation preceded saccades made into only part of the visual field, indicating that the modulation was movement-related. In some neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions in both memory and visual trials and seemed to represent where to move in general. In other neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions only in memory trials, which suggested that it was a correlate of working memory, or only in visual trials, which suggested that it was a correlate of visual attention. In 47% (24/51) of FEF output neurons, delay activity was unaffected by Go/Nogo instructions, which indicated that the activity was related to the visual stimulus. In some of these neurons, delay activity occurred in both memory and visual trials and seemed to represent a

  15. Evaluating the roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule in deductive reasoning: an rTMS study.

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    Tsujii, Takeo; Sakatani, Kaoru; Masuda, Sayako; Akiyama, Takekazu; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2011-09-15

    This study used off-line repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to examine the roles of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in a deductive reasoning task. Subjects performed a categorical syllogistic reasoning task involving congruent, incongruent, and abstract trials. Twenty four subjects received magnetic stimulation to the SPL region prior to the task. In the other 24 subjects, TMS was administered to the IFG region before the task. Stimulation lasted for 10min, with an inter-pulse frequency of 1Hz. We found that bilateral SPL (Brodmann area (BA) 7) stimulation disrupted performance on abstract and incongruent reasoning. Left IFG (BA 45) stimulation impaired congruent reasoning performance while paradoxically facilitating incongruent reasoning performance. This resulted in the elimination of the belief-bias. In contrast, right IFG stimulation only impaired incongruent reasoning performance, thus enhancing the belief-bias effect. These findings are largely consistent with the dual-process theory of reasoning, which proposes the existence of two different human reasoning systems: a belief-based heuristic system; and a logic-based analytic system. The present findings suggest that the left language-related IFG (BA 45) may correspond to the heuristic system, while bilateral SPL may underlie the analytic system. The right IFG may play a role in blocking the belief-based heuristic system for solving incongruent reasoning trials. This study could offer an insight about functional roles of distributed brain systems in human deductive reasoning by utilizing the rTMS approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reconstrucción total del párpado superior mediante colgajo frontal Whole repair made in the upper eyelid using a frontal flap

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    Yamilé León Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes que han sido sometidos a resecciones quirúrgicas por cáncer, que han sufrido lesiones por quemaduras de espesor total o traumas avulsivos con pérdida extensa de tejidos que engloban la totalidad del párpado superior, acuden con relativa frecuencia a consulta por presentar la cornea expuesta, y dicha exposición resulta en ulceraciones, cicatriz y ceguera. En estos pacientes se observa una gran insatisfacción por el inconveniente que representa no poder usar una prótesis ocular y algo no menos importante, el gran defecto estético. Se presenta el caso de un paciente del sexo masculino, de 30 años de edad, que sufrió múltiples lesiones por el estallido de un artefacto explosivo, con pérdida total del párpado superior derecho y enucleación ocular. Se le realizó reconstrucción palpebral total mediante el colgajo dermograso frontal y se obtuvieron buenos resultados estéticos.Patients underwent to surgical resections from cancer and whole thickness burn lesions or avulsion traumata with an extent loss of tissues which shape the upper eyelid, came with a relative frequency to consultation due to corneal exposition and this exposition resulting in ulcerations, scar, and blindness. These patients are very unsatisfied because they can not use of an ocular prosthesis, and something less important, the big aesthetic defect. Authors present the case of a male patient aged 30 with multiple lesions from explosion of an explosive artifact with loss of right upper eyelid and ocular enucleation. A total palpebral reconstruction was performed using a frontal dermal fatty flap with good aesthetic results.

  17. The neural basis of humour comprehension and humour appreciation: The roles of the temporoparietal junction and superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Darren W; Wallace, Marc G; Modirrousta, Mandana; Polimeni, Joseph O; McKeen, Nancy A; Reiss, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Psychological well-being and social acumen benefit from the recognition of humourous intent and its enjoyment. The enjoyment of humour requires recognition, but humour recognition is not necessarily accompanied by humour enjoyment. Humour recognition is crucial during social interactions, while the associated enjoyment is less critical. Few neuroimaging studies have explicitly differentiated between the neural foundations of humour comprehension and humour appreciation. Among such studies, design limitations have obscured the specification of neural correlates to humour comprehension or appreciation. We implemented a trichotomous response option to address these design limitations. Twenty-four participants rated 120 comics (90 unaltered with humourous intent and 30 caption-altered without humourous intent) as either funny jokes (FJ), not funny jokes but intended to be funny (NFJ), or not intended to be funny or non-jokes (NJ). We defined humour comprehension by NFJ minus NJ and humour appreciation by FJ minus NFJ. We measured localized blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) neural responses with a 3T MRI scanner. We tested for BOLD responses in humour comprehension brain regions of interest (ROIs), humour appreciation ROIs, and across the whole-brain. We found significant NFJ-NJ BOLD responses in our humour comprehension ROIs and significant FJ-NFJ BOLD responses in select humour appreciation ROIs. One key finding is that comprehension accuracy levels correlated with humour-comprehension responses in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). This finding represents a novel and precise neural linkage to humour comprehension. A second key finding is that the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) was uniquely associated with humour-appreciation. The SFG response suggests that complex cognitive processing underlies humour appreciation and that current models of humour appreciation be revised. Finally, our research design provides an operational distinction between humour

  18. Dissociating frontal regions that co-lateralize with different ventral occipitotemporal regions during word processing☆

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    Seghier, Mohamed L.; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    The ventral occipitotemporal sulcus (vOT) sustains strong interactions with the inferior frontal cortex during word processing. Consequently, activation in both regions co-lateralize towards the same hemisphere in healthy subjects. Because the determinants of lateralisation differ across posterior, middle and anterior vOT subregions, we investigated whether lateralisation in different inferior frontal regions would co-vary with lateralisation in the three different vOT subregions. A whole brain analysis found that, during semantic decisions on written words, laterality covaried in (1) posterior vOT and the precentral gyrus; (2) middle vOT and the pars opercularis, pars triangularis, and supramarginal gyrus; and (3) anterior vOT and the pars orbitalis, middle frontal gyrus and thalamus. These findings increase the spatial resolution of our understanding of how vOT interacts with other brain areas during semantic categorisation on words. PMID:23728081

  19. Language, aging, and cognition: frontal aslant tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus contribute toward working memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizio, Avery A; Diaz, Michele T

    2016-06-15

    Previous research has documented change in white matter tract integrity with increasing age. Both interhemispheric and intrahemispheric tracts that underlie language processing are susceptible to these age-related changes. The aim of the current study was to explore age and white matter integrity in language-related tracts as predictors of cognitive task performance in younger and older adults. To this end, we carried out principal component analyses of white matter tracts and confirmatory factor analysis of neuropsychological measures. We next carried out a series of regression analyses that used white matter components to predict scores on each of the neuropsychological components. For both younger and older adults, age was a significant predictor of processing speed and working memory. However, white matter integrity did not contribute independently toward these models. In older adults only, both age and a white matter component that included the bilateral frontal aslant tract and left superior longitudinal fasciculus were significant predictors of working memory. Taken together, these results extend our understanding of the contributions of language-related white matter structure to cognitive processing and highlight the effects of age-related differences in both frontal and dorsal tracts.

  20. Altered Medial Frontal and Superior Temporal Response to Implicit Processing of Emotions in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K; Patriquin, Michelle A; Black, Briley S; Channell, Marie M; Wicker, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting emotional expressions appropriately poses a challenge for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, difficulties with emotional processing in ASD are more pronounced in contexts where emotional expressions are subtle, automatic, and reflexive-that is, implicit. In contrast, explicit emotional processing, which requires the cognitive evaluation of an emotional experience, appears to be relatively intact in individuals with ASD. In the present study, we examined the brain activation and functional connectivity differences underlying explicit and implicit emotional processing in age- and IQ-matched adults with (n = 17) and without (n = 15) ASD. Results indicated: (1) significantly reduced levels of brain activation in participants with ASD in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) during implicit emotion processing; (2) significantly weaker functional connectivity in the ASD group in connections of the MPFC with the amygdala, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and fusiform gyrus; (3) No group difference in performance accuracy or reaction time; and (4) Significant positive relationship between empathizing ability and STG activity in ASD but not in typically developing participants. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms underlying implicit, but not explicit, emotion processing may be altered at multiple levels in individuals with ASD. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Frontal Eye Field, Where Art Thou? Anatomy, function and non-invasive manipulation of frontal regions involved in eye movements and associated cognitive operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine eVernet

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The planning, control and execution of eye movements in 3D space relies on a distributed system of cortical and subcortical brain regions. Within this network, the Eye Fields have been described in animals as cortical regions in which electrical stimulation is able to trigger eye movements and influence their latency or accuracy. This review will focus on the Frontal Eye Field (FEF a hub region located in Humans in the vicinity of the pre-central sulcus and the dorsal-most portion of the superior frontal sulcus. The straightforward localization of the FEF through electrical stimulation in animals is difficult to translate to the healthy human brain, particularly with non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. Hence, in the first part of this review, we will describe attempts made to characterize the anatomical localization of this area in the human brain. The outcome of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Magneto-encephalography (MEG and particularly, non-invasive mapping methods such a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS will be described and the variability of FEF localization across individuals and mapping techniques will be discussed. In the second part of this review, we will address the role of the FEF. We will explore its involvement both in the physiology of fixation, saccade, pursuit and vergence movements and in associated cognitive processes such as attentional orienting, visual awareness and perceptual modulation. Finally in the third part, we will review recent evidence suggesting the high level of malleability and plasticity of these regions and associated networks to non-invasive stimulation. The exploratory, diagnostic and therapeutic interest of such interventions for the modulation and improvement of perception in 3D space will be discussed.

  2. Dissociated roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus in audiovisual processing: top-down and bottom-up mismatch detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Takeshi; Kawai, Kensuke; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Wakebe, Toshihiro; Ibaraki, Takuya; Kunii, Naoto; Matsuo, Takeshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2015-01-01

    Visual inputs can distort auditory perception, and accurate auditory processing requires the ability to detect and ignore visual input that is simultaneous and incongruent with auditory information. However, the neural basis of this auditory selection from audiovisual information is unknown, whereas integration process of audiovisual inputs is intensively researched. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal sulcus (STS) are involved in top-down and bottom-up processing, respectively, of target auditory information from audiovisual inputs. We recorded high gamma activity (HGA), which is associated with neuronal firing in local brain regions, using electrocorticography while patients with epilepsy judged the syllable spoken by a voice while looking at a voice-congruent or -incongruent lip movement from the speaker. The STS exhibited stronger HGA if the patient was presented with information of large audiovisual incongruence than of small incongruence, especially if the auditory information was correctly identified. On the other hand, the IFG exhibited stronger HGA in trials with small audiovisual incongruence when patients correctly perceived the auditory information than when patients incorrectly perceived the auditory information due to the mismatched visual information. These results indicate that the IFG and STS have dissociated roles in selective auditory processing, and suggest that the neural basis of selective auditory processing changes dynamically in accordance with the degree of incongruity between auditory and visual information.

  3. Rostro-Caudal Organization of Connectivity between Cingulate Motor Areas and Lateral Frontal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kep Kee Loh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to contemporary views, the lateral frontal cortex is organized along a rostro-caudal functional axis with increasingly complex cognitive/behavioral control implemented rostrally, and increasingly detailed motor control implemented caudally. Whether the medial frontal cortex follows the same organization remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, the functional connectivity of the 3 cingulate motor areas (CMAs in the human brain with the lateral frontal cortex was investigated. First, the CMAs and their representations of hand, tongue, and eye movements were mapped via task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Second, using resting-state fMRI, their functional connectivity with lateral prefrontal and lateral motor cortical regions of interest (ROIs were examined. Importantly, the above analyses were conducted at the single-subject level to account for variability in individual cingulate morphology. The results demonstrated a rostro-caudal functional organization of the CMAs in the human brain that parallels that in the lateral frontal cortex: the rostral CMA has stronger functional connectivity with prefrontal regions and weaker connectivity with motor regions; conversely, the more caudal CMAs have weaker prefrontal and stronger motor connectivity. Connectivity patterns of the hand, tongue and eye representations within the CMAs are consistent with that of their parent CMAs. The parallel rostral-to-caudal functional organization observed in the medial and lateral frontal cortex could likely contribute to different hierarchies of cognitive-motor control.

  4. Endovascular treatment of a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula by transvenous embolisation through the superior ophthalmic vein via cannulation of a frontal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturi, C.; Bracco, S.; Cerase, A.; Gennari, P.; Lore, F.; Polito, E.; Casasco, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new approach for transvenous embolisation of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulae through the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV), i.e., via percutaneous cannulation of a frontal vein. Modern neurointerventional angiographic materials make it possible to reach the SOV in this way without puncturing it in the orbit or a surgical exposure. Orbital phlebography should still be in the repertoire of interventional neuroradiology units in large centres. (orig.)

  5. Abnormal Degree Centrality of Bilateral Putamen and Left Superior Frontal Gyrus in Schizophrenia with Auditory Hallucinations: A Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Hui-Ling; Wu, Shi-Hao; Huang, Huan; Zou, Ji-Lin; Chen, Jun; Jiang, Tian-Zi; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Gao-Hua

    2015-12-05

    Dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia has been increasingly emphasized. Recent researches showed that this dysconnectivity might be related to occurrence of auditory hallucination (AH). However, there is still no consistent conclusion. This study aimed to explore intrinsic dysconnectivity pattern of whole-brain functional networks at voxel level in schizophrenic with AH. Auditory hallucinated patients group (n = 42 APG), no hallucinated patients group (n = 42 NPG) and normal controls (n = 84 NCs) were analyzed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity metrics index (degree centrality [DC]) across the entire brain networks was calculated and evaluated among three groups. DC decreased in the bilateral putamen and increased in the left superior frontal gyrus in all the patients. However, in APG, the changes of DC were more obvious compared with NPG. Symptomology scores were negatively correlated with the DC of bilateral putamen in all patients. AH score of APG positively correlated with the DC in left superior frontal gyrus but negatively correlated with the DC in bilateral putamen. Our findings corroborated that schizophrenia was characterized by functional dysconnectivity, and the abnormal DC in bilateral putamen and left superior frontal gyrus might be crucial in the occurrence of AH.

  6. The Penokean orogeny in the Lake Superior region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, K.J.; Cannon, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    period of vertical faulting in the Archean basement and overlying Paleoproterozoic strata. This deformation is now known to have post-dated the terminal Penokean plutons by at least several tens of millions of years. Evidence of the Penokean orogen is now largely confined to the Lake Superior region. Comparisons with more recent orogens formed by similar plate tectonic processes implies that significant parts of a once more extensive Penokean orogen have been removed or overprinted by younger tectonic events. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Subcortical surgical anatomy of the lateral frontal region: human white matter dissection and correlations with functional insights provided by intraoperative direct brain stimulation: laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Sarubbo, Silvio; Duffau, Hugues

    2012-12-01

    Recent neuroimaging and surgical results support the crucial role of white matter in mediating motor and higher-level processing within the frontal lobe, while suggesting the limited compensatory capacity after damage to subcortical structures. Consequently, an accurate knowledge of the anatomofunctional organization of the pathways running within this region is mandatory for planning safe and effective surgical approaches to different diseases. The aim of this dissection study was to improve the neurosurgeon's awareness of the subcortical anatomofunctional architecture for a lateral approach to the frontal region, to optimize both resection and postoperative outcome. Ten human hemispheres (5 left, 5 right) were dissected according to the Klingler technique. Proceeding lateromedially, the main association and projection tracts as well as the deeper basal structures were identified. The authors describe the anatomy and the relationships among the exposed structures in both a systematic and topographical surgical perspective. Structural results were also correlated to the functional responses obtained during resections of infiltrative frontal tumors guided by direct cortico-subcortical electrostimulation with patients in the awake condition. The eloquent boundaries crucial for a safe frontal lobectomy or an extensive lesionectomy are as follows: 1) the motor cortex; 2) the pyramidal tract and premotor fibers in the posterior and posteromedial part of the surgical field; 3) the inferior frontooccipital fascicle and the superior longitudinal fascicle posterolaterally; and 4) underneath the inferior frontal gyrus, the head of the caudate nucleus, and the tip of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle in the depth. Optimization of results following brain surgery, especially within the frontal lobe, requires a perfect knowledge of functional anatomy, not only at the cortical level but also with regard to subcortical white matter connectivity.

  8. Atypical frontal-posterior synchronization of Theory of Mind regions in autism during mental state attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K; Keller, Timothy A; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Minshew, Nancy J; Just, Marcel Adam

    2009-01-01

    This study used fMRI to investigate the functioning of the Theory of Mind (ToM) cortical network in autism during the viewing of animations that in some conditions entailed the attribution of a mental state to animated geometric figures. At the cortical level, mentalizing (attribution of metal states) is underpinned by the coordination and integration of the components of the ToM network, which include the medial frontal gyrus, the anterior paracingulate, and the right temporoparietal junction. The pivotal new finding was a functional underconnectivity (a lower degree of synchronization) in autism, especially in the connections between frontal and posterior areas during the attribution of mental states. In addition, the frontal ToM regions activated less in participants with autism relative to control participants. In the autism group, an independent psychometric assessment of ToM ability and the activation in the right temporoparietal junction were reliably correlated. The results together provide new evidence for the biological basis of atypical processing of ToM in autism, implicating the underconnectivity between frontal regions and more posterior areas.

  9. Increased superior frontal gyrus activation during working memory processing in psychosis: Significant relation to cumulative antipsychotic medication and to negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Smieskova, Renata; Schmidt, André; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Eckert, Anne; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Graf, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Impairment in working memory (WM) is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, little is known about how clinical features influence functional brain activity specific to WM processing during the development of first-episode psychosis (FEP) to schizophrenia (SZ). We compared functional WM-specific brain activity in FEP and SZ patients, including the effects of the duration of illness, psychopathological factors and antipsychotic medication. Cross-sectional study of male FEP (n=22) and SZ (n=20) patients performing an n-back task when undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Clinical features were collected by semi-structured interviews and medical records. The SZ group performed significantly worse than the FEP group in the 2-back condition. The SZ group also showed significantly higher activation in the left superior frontal gyrus in the 2-back versus 0-back condition (2-back>0-back). This frontal activation correlated positively with negative symptoms and with cumulative antipsychotic medication during the year before the fMRI examination. There were no significant correlations between activation and duration of illness. There was greater frontal neural activation in SZ than in FEP. This indicated differences in WM processing, and was significantly related to cumulative antipsychotic exposure and negative symptoms, but not to the duration of illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Sport Expert's Attention Superiority on Skill-related Scene Dynamic by the Activation of left Medial Frontal Gyrus: An ERP and LORETA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mengyang; Qi, Changzhu; Lu, Yang; Song, Amanda; Hayat, Saba Z; Xu, Xia

    2018-05-21

    Extensive studies have shown that a sports expert is superior to a sports novice in visually perceptual-cognitive processes of sports scene information, however the attentional and neural basis of it has not been thoroughly explored. The present study examined whether a sport expert has the attentional superiority on scene information relevant to his/her sport skill, and explored what factor drives this superiority. To address this problem, EEGs were recorded as participants passively viewed sport scenes (tennis vs. non-tennis) and negative emotional faces in the context of a visual attention task, where the pictures of sport scenes or of negative emotional faces randomly followed the pictures with overlapping sport scenes and negative emotional faces. ERP results showed that for experts, the evoked potential of attentional competition elicited by the overlap of tennis scene was significantly larger than that evoked by the overlap of non-tennis scene, while this effect was absent for novices. The LORETA showed that the experts' left medial frontal gyrus (MFG) cortex was significantly more active as compared to the right MFG when processing the overlap of tennis scene, but the lateralization effect was not significant in novices. Those results indicate that experts have attentional superiority on skill-related scene information, despite intruding the scene through negative emotional faces that are prone to cause negativity bias toward their visual field as a strong distractor. This superiority is actuated by the activation of left MFG cortex and probably due to self-reference. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Osteossarcoma extra-esquelético primário da região frontal Extraskeletal primary osteosarcoma of the frontal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Lima

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Osteossarcoma extra-esquelético (OSEE primário de partes moles da cabeça é raro e não há, ao que nos parece, relato dele originando na região frontal. MÉTODOS: Homem de 78 anos, italiano, com história de tumoração em partes moles de região frontal há um mês. Tomografia computadorizada mostrou massa de densidade irregular ocupando tecido celular subcutâneo e fáscia. Nenhum tumor ósseo foi encontrado. A tumoração foi completamente ressecada, media 0,8x0,6x0,5cm, e a superfície de corte era sólida. Diagnosticou-se osteossarcoma osteoblástico extra-esquelético. A neoplasia recorreu quatro meses após o diagnóstico e foi novamente ressecado. O paciente foi submetido também a radioterapia de baixa penetração, e nove meses depois da primeira biópsia tinha sintomas em decorrência da infiltração neoplásica na base do crânio. O óbito ocorreu dez meses após a primeira biópsia. CONCLUSÃO: Os autores descrevem o primeiro caso de OSEE da região frontal sem uma condição preexistente ou história de irradiação.BACKGROUND: Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS in the head as a primary site has seldom been re-ported and none in the frontal region. METHODS: A 78-year-old Italian man presented with one month history of a frontal soft tissue mass. A CT scan showed a mass of uneven density occupying the subcutaneous soft tissue and involving fascial planes. No primary bone tumor was found. The entire mass was excised. The mass was solid measuring 0.8 x 0.6 x 0.5cm. Extraskeletal osteoblastic osteosarcoma was diagnosed by ligh microscopy. The tumor recurred four months after the diagnosis. The tumor was again ressected. The patient was also submitted to low penetration radiation therapy. Nine months after the first biopsy the patient had symptoms due to infiltration to the base of the cranium. He died 10 months after the first biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: The first case with ESOS of the frontal region without a pre

  12. Roles of frontal and temporal regions in reinterpreting semantically ambiguous sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eVitello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Semantic ambiguity resolution is an essential and frequent part of speech comprehension because many words map onto multiple meanings (e.g., bark, bank. Neuroimaging research highlights the importance of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG and the left posterior temporal cortex in this process but the roles they serve in ambiguity resolution are uncertain. One possibility is that both regions are engaged in the processes of semantic reinterpretation that follows incorrect interpretation of an ambiguous word. Here we used fMRI to investigate this hypothesis. 20 native British English monolinguals were scanned whilst listening to sentences that contained an ambiguous word. To induce semantic reinterpretation, the disambiguating information was presented after the ambiguous word and delayed until the end of the sentence (e.g., the teacher explained that the BARK was going to be very damp. These sentences were compared to well-matched unambiguous sentences. Supporting the reinterpretation hypothesis, these ambiguous sentences produced more activation in both the LIFG and the left posterior inferior temporal cortex. Importantly, all but one subject showed ambiguity-related peaks within both regions, demonstrating that the group-level results were driven by high inter-subject consistency. Further support came from the finding that activation in both regions was modulated by meaning dominance. Specifically, sentences containing biased ambiguous words, which have one more dominant meaning, produced greater activation than those with balanced ambiguous words, which have two equally frequent meanings. Because the context always supported the less frequent meaning, the biased words require reinterpretation more often than balanced words. This is the first evidence of dominance effects in the spoken modality and provides strong support that frontal and temporal regions support the updating of semantic representations during speech comprehension.

  13. The role of right frontal brain regions in integration of spatial relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiahui; Cao, Bihua; Cao, Yunfei; Gao, Heming; Li, Fuhong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have explored the neural mechanisms of spatial reasoning on a two-dimensional (2D) plane; however, it remains unclear how spatial reasoning is conducted in a three-dimensional (3D) condition. In the present study, we presented 3D geometric objects to 16 adult participants, and asked them to process the spatial relationship between different corners of the geometric objects. In premise-1, the first two corners of a geometric shape (e.g., A vs. B) were displayed. In premise-2, the second and third corners (e.g., B vs. C) were displayed. After integrating the two premises, participants were required to infer the spatial relationship between the first and the third corners (e.g., A and C). Finally, the participants were presented with a conclusion object, and they were required to judge whether the conclusion was true or false based on their inference. The event-related potential evoked by premise-2 revealed that (1) compared with 2D spatial reasoning, 3D reasoning elicited a smaller P3b component, and (2) in the right frontal areas, increased negativities were found in the 3D condition during the N400 and late negative components (LNC). These findings imply that higher brain activity in the right frontal brain regions were related with the integration and maintenance of spatial information in working memory for reasoning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The variability and forcing of currents within a frontal region off the northeast coast of England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrowicz, E. M.; Brown, J.

    1993-08-01

    During the summer of 1988 a collaborative experiment between the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL) and University College North Wales (UCNW) was undertaken to study the dynamics of a near-shore frontal region off the northeast coast of England. The experiment is one of the most intensive studies of the current structure of a shelf sea front undertaken. Currents were measured using an ocean surface current RADAR (OSCR), ship-borne ADCP, Lagrangian drifters and moored current meters. The current meter moorings held conventional meters at mid-depth and near the bed and S4 electromagnetic current meters near the surface. The mean, low frequency (Continental Shelf Research, 1, 191-207) with some deviations due to nearshore effects.

  15. Localised mixing and heterogeneity in the plankton food web in a frontal region of the Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Bendtsen, Joøgen; Christensen, Jens Tang

    2014-01-01

    the diatom communities at 10 m and > 100 m (in the deep chlorophyll maximum, DCM) than in other parts of the frontal region. Thorpe displacements supported the hypothesis of elevated mixing intensities around these stations, as did vertical mixing rates inferred from stratification and vertical current shear...... influence the plankton food web, as indicated by elevated values/concentrations of (1) primary production, (2) variable fluorescence (F-v/F-m) and (3) total seston. In addition, the fraction of the total biomass of both copepods and nauplii found closest to the DCM in the frontal region correlated...

  16. Pseudohypacusis in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased gray matter volume in the medial frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi; Kinoshita, Sumihito; Korenaga, Yuki; Mabe, Hiroyo

    2012-04-01

    Pseudohypacusis is a somatoform disorder characterized by hearing loss with discrepancies between pure-tone audiometry and auditory brainstem response (ABR), but the underlying neuronal mechanisms remain unclear. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for 14 unmedicated, right-handed patients and 35 healthy control subjects, we investigated whether functional hearing loss was associated with discernible changes of brain morphology. Group differences in gray matter volume (GMV) were assessed using high-resolution, T1-weighted, volumetric MR imaging datasets (3T Trio scanner; Siemens AG) and analyzed with covariant factors of age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and total GMV, which was increased by 27.9% in the left medial frontal gyrus (MFG) (Brodmann area 10) (p=.001, corrected cluster level) and by 14.4% in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the adjacent middle temporal gyrus (MTG) (BA42 to 21) (p=.009, corrected cluster level) in patients with pseudohypacusis. The GMV in the right STG (BA42) and verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) were correlated significantly with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Third Edition (WISC-III) (ß=-.57, p<.0001) and level of SES (ß=-.55, p<.0001). The present findings suggest that the development of the auditory association cortex involved in language processing is affected, causing insufficient pruning during brain development. We therefore assert that differences in the neuroanatomical substrate of pseudohypacusis subjects result from a developmental disorder in auditory processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  17. Auditory enhancement of visual memory encoding is driven by emotional content of the auditory material and mediated by superior frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, A M; De Benedetto, F

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how auditory background interacts with learning and memory. Both facilitatory (e.g., "Mozart effect") and interfering effects of background have been reported, depending on the type of auditory stimulation and of concurrent cognitive tasks. Here we recorded event related potentials (ERPs) during face encoding followed by an old/new memory test to investigate the effect of listening to classical music (Čajkovskij, dramatic), environmental sounds (rain) or silence on learning. Participants were 15 healthy non-musician university students. Almost 400 (previously unknown) faces of women and men of various age were presented. Listening to music during study led to a better encoding of faces as indexed by an increased Anterior Negativity. The FN400 response recorded during the memory test showed a gradient in its amplitude reflecting face familiarity. FN400 was larger to new than old faces, and to faces studied during rain sound listening and silence than music listening. The results indicate that listening to music enhances memory recollection of faces by merging with visual information. A swLORETA analysis showed the main involvement of Superior Temporal Gyrus (STG) and medial frontal gyrus in the integration of audio-visual information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytoplankton stimulation in frontal regions of Benguela upwelling filaments by internal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Wasmund

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Filaments are intrusions of upwelling water into the sea, separated from the surrounding water by fronts. Current knowledge explains the enhanced primary production and phytoplankton growth found in frontal areas by external factors like nutrient input. The question is whether this enhancement is also caused by intrinsic factors, i.e. simple mixing without external forcing. In order to study the direct effect of frontal mixing on organisms, disturbing external influx has to be excluded. Therefore mixing was simulated by joining waters originating from inside and outside the filament in mesocosms (tanks. These experiments were conducted during two cruises in the northern Benguela upwelling system in September 2013 and January 2014. The mixed waters reached a much higher net primary production and chlorophyll a (chla concentration than the original waters already 2-3 days after their merging. The peak in phytoplankton biomass stays longer than the chla peak. After their maxima, primary production rates decreased quickly due to depletion of the nutrients. The increase in colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM may indicate excretion and degradation. Zooplankton is not quickly reacting on the changed conditions. We conclude that already simple mixing of two water bodies, which occurs generally at fronts between upwelled and ambient water, leads to a short-term stimulation of the phytoplankton growth. However, after the exhaustion of the nutrient stock, external nutrient supply is necessary to maintain the enhanced phytoplankton growth in the frontal area. Based on these data, some generally important ecological factors are discussed as for example nutrient ratios and limitations, silicate requirements and growth rates.

  19. Localised mixing and heterogeneity in the plankton food web in a frontal region of the Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Bendtsen, Joøgen; Christensen, Jens Tang

    2014-01-01

    the diatom communities at 10 m and > 100 m (in the deep chlorophyll maximum, DCM) than in other parts of the frontal region. Thorpe displacements supported the hypothesis of elevated mixing intensities around these stations, as did vertical mixing rates inferred from stratification and vertical current shear...... with the stratification (Brunt-V is l frequency), with the greatest fractions found below 75 m at the most weakly stratified stations. While this study cannot directly link these observations to eel larvae ecology, Munk et al. (2010; Proc R Soc B 277: 3593-3599) reported that eel larvae were most abundant at locations...

  20. The anatomy of the human medial forebrain bundle: Ventral tegmental area connections to reward-associated subcortical and frontal lobe regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Arnd Coenen

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite their importance in reward, motivation, and learning there is only sparse anatomical knowledge about the human medial forebrain bundle (MFB and the connectivity of the ventral tegmental area (VTA. A thorough anatomical and microstructural description of the reward related PFC/OFC regions and their connection to the VTA - the superolateral branch of the MFB (slMFB - is however mandatory to enable an interpretation of distinct therapeutic effects from different interventional treatment modalities in neuropsychiatric disorders (DBS, TMS etc.. This work aims at a normative description of the human MFB (and more detailed the slMFB anatomy with respect to distant prefrontal connections and microstructural features. Methods and material: Healthy subjects (n = 55; mean age ± SD, 40 ± 10 years; 32 females underwent high resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging including diffusion tensor imaging. Connectivity of the VTA and the resulting slMFB were investigated on the group level using a global tractography approach. The Desikan/Killiany parceling (8 segments of the prefrontal cortex was used to describe sub-segments of the MFB. A qualitative overlap with Brodmann areas was additionally described. Additionally, a pure visual analysis was performed comparing local and global tracking approaches for their ability to fully visualize the slMFB. Results: The MFB could be robustly described both in the present sample as well as in additional control analyses in data from the human connectome project. Most VTA- connections reached the superior frontal gyrus, the middel frontal gyrus and the lateral orbitofrontal region corresponding to Brodmann areas 10, 9, 8, 11, and 11m. The projections to these regions comprised 97% (right and 98% (left of the total relative fiber counts of the slMFB. Discussion: The anatomical description of the human MFB shows far reaching connectivity of VTA to reward-related subcortical and

  1. Audiovisual speech integration in the superior temporal region is dysfunctional in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zheng; Rüsseler, Jascha; Gerth, Ivonne; Münte, Thomas F

    2017-07-25

    Dyslexia is an impairment of reading and spelling that affects both children and adults even after many years of schooling. Dyslexic readers have deficits in the integration of auditory and visual inputs but the neural mechanisms of the deficits are still unclear. This fMRI study examined the neural processing of auditorily presented German numbers 0-9 and videos of lip movements of a German native speaker voicing numbers 0-9 in unimodal (auditory or visual) and bimodal (always congruent) conditions in dyslexic readers and their matched fluent readers. We confirmed results of previous studies that the superior temporal gyrus/sulcus plays a critical role in audiovisual speech integration: fluent readers showed greater superior temporal activations for combined audiovisual stimuli than auditory-/visual-only stimuli. Importantly, such an enhancement effect was absent in dyslexic readers. Moreover, the auditory network (bilateral superior temporal regions plus medial PFC) was dynamically modulated during audiovisual integration in fluent, but not in dyslexic readers. These results suggest that superior temporal dysfunction may underly poor audiovisual speech integration in readers with dyslexia. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determinantes de la demanda por Educación Superior en cinco regiones de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Giraldo, María Paulina; Pareja Giraldo, Lady Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo estudia algunos de los determinantes de la demanda por educación superior en cinco regiones de Colombia -- Se utiliza información de la gran encuesta integrada de hogares (GEIH) para estimar un modelo Logit dicotómico por cada región, haciendo uso de las variables sociales y personales identificadas como determinantes, permitiendo realizar un análisis comparativo entre estos -- Los resultados del estudio sugieren que la edad, el ingreso percápita en los hogares y la educación de...

  3. Bihemispheric stimulation over left and right inferior frontal region enhances recovery from apraxia of speech in chronic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangolo, Paola; Fiori, Valentina; Cipollari, Susanna; Campana, Serena; Razzano, Carmelina; Di Paola, Margherita; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    Several studies have already shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a useful tool for enhancing recovery in aphasia. However, all tDCS studies have previously investigated the effects using unihemisperic stimulation. No reports to date have examined the role of bihemispheric tDCS on aphasia recovery. Here, eight aphasic persons with apraxia of speech underwent intensive language therapy in two different conditions: real bihemispheric anodic ipsilesional stimulation over the left Broca's area and cathodic contralesional stimulation over the right homologue of Broca's area, and a sham condition. In both conditions, patients underwent concurrent language therapy for their apraxia of speech. The language treatment lasted 10 days (Monday to Friday, then weekend off, then Monday to Friday). There was a 14-day intersession interval between the real and the sham conditions. In all patients, language measures were collected before (T0), at the end of (T10) and 1 week after the end of (F/U) treatment. Results showed that after simultaneous excitatory stimulation to the left frontal hemisphere and inhibitory stimulation to the right frontal hemisphere regions, patients exhibited a significant recovery not only in terms of better accuracy and speed in articulating the treated stimuli but also in other language tasks (picture description, noun and verb naming, word repetition, word reading) which persisted in the follow-up session. Taken together, these data suggest that bihemispheric anodic ipsilesional and cathodic contralesional stimulation in chronic aphasia patients may affect the treated function, resulting in a positive influence on different language tasks. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Contributions of Lateral and Orbital Frontal Regions to Abstract Rule Acquisition and Reversal in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Camera, Giancarlo; Bouret, Sebastien; Richmond, Barry J.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to learn and follow abstract rules relies on intact prefrontal regions including the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Here, we investigate the specific roles of these brain regions in learning rules that depend critically on the formation of abstract concepts as opposed to simpler input-output associations. To this aim, we tested monkeys with bilateral removals of either LPFC or OFC on a rapidly learned task requiring the formation of the abstract concept of same vs. different. While monkeys with OFC removals were significantly slower than controls at both acquiring and reversing the concept-based rule, monkeys with LPFC removals were not impaired in acquiring the task, but were significantly slower at rule reversal. Neither group was impaired in the acquisition or reversal of a delayed visual cue-outcome association task without a concept-based rule. These results suggest that OFC is essential for the implementation of a concept-based rule, whereas LPFC seems essential for its modification once established. PMID:29615854

  5. Resection of the medial temporal lobe disconnects the rostral superior temporal gyrus from some of its projection targets in the frontal lobe and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Monica; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C

    2009-09-01

    Auditory memory in the monkey does not appear to extend beyond the limits of working memory. It is therefore surprising that this ability is impaired by medial temporal lobe (MTL) resections, because such lesions spare working memory in other sensory modalities. To determine whether MTL ablations might have caused the auditory deficit through inadvertent transection of superior temporal gyrus (STG) projections to its downstream targets, and, if so, which targets might have been compromised, we injected anterograde tracer (biotinylated dextran amine) in the STG of both the normal and MTL-lesioned hemispheres of split-brain monkeys. Interhemispheric comparison of label failed to show any effect of the MTL ablation on efferents from caudal STG, which projects to the inferior prefrontal convexity. However, the ablation did consistently interrupt the normally dense projections from rostral STG to both the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and medial thalamic nuclei. The findings support the possibility that the auditory working memory deficit after MTL ablation is due to transection of downstream auditory projections, and indicate that the candidate structures for mediating auditory working memory are the ventral medial prefrontal cortical areas, the medial thalamus, or both.

  6. Endoscopic endonasal anatomy of superior orbital fissure and orbital apex regions: critical considerations for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallan, Iacopo; Castelnuovo, Paolo; de Notaris, Matteo; Sellari-Franceschini, Stefano; Lenzi, Riccardo; Turri-Zanoni, Mario; Battaglia, Paolo; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    The superior orbital fissure is a critical three-dimensional space connecting the middle cranial fossa and the orbit. From an endoscopic viewpoint, only the medial aspect has a clinical significance. It presents a critical relationship with the lateral sellar compartment, the pterygopalatine fossa and the middle cranial fossa. The connective tissue layers and neural and vascular structures of this region are described. The role of Muller's muscle is confirmed, and the utility of the maxillary and optic strut is outlined. Muller's muscle extends for the whole length of the inferior orbital fissure, passes over the maxillary strut and enters the superior orbital fissure, representing a critical surgical landmark. Dividing the tendon between the medial and inferior rectus muscle allows the identification of the main trunk of the oculomotor nerve, and a little laterally, it is usually possible to visualize the first part of the ophthalmic artery. Based on a better knowledge of anatomy, we trust that this area could be readily addressed in clinical situations requiring an extended approach in proximity of the orbital apex.

  7. Characterization of crystalline rocks in the Lake Superior region, USA: implications for nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, M.K.; Flower, M.F.J.; Edgar, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Lake Superior region (Wisconsin, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and Minnesota) contains 41 Precambrian crystalline rock complexes comprising 64 individual but related rock bodies with known surface exposures. Each complex has a map area greater than 78 km 2 . About 54% of the rock complexes have areas of up to 500 km 2 , 15% fall between 500 km 2 and 1000 km 2 , 19% lie between 1000 km 2 and 2500 km 2 , and 12% are over 2500 km 2 . Crystalline rocks of the region vary widely in composition, but they are predominantly granitic. Repeated thermo-tectonic events have produced early Archean gneisses, migmatites, and amphibolites with highly tectonized fabrics that impart a heterogeneous and anisotropic character to the rocks. Late Archean rocks are usually but not invariably gneissose and migmatitic. Proterozoic rocks of the region include synorogenic (foliated) granitic rocks, anorogenic (non-foliated) granites, and the layered gabbro-anorthosite-troctolite intrusives of the rift-related Keweenawan igneous activity. Compared with the Archean rocks of the region, the Proterozoic bodies generally lack highly tectonized fabrics and have more definable contacts where visible. Anorogenic intrusions are relatively homogeneous and isotropic. On the basis of observed geologic characteristics, postorogenic and anorogenic crystalline rock bodies located away from recognized tectonic systems have attributes that make them relatively more desirable as a possible site for a nuclear waste repository in the region. This study was conducted at Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy through the Office of Crystalline Repository Development at Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio. 84 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  8. Characterization of crystalline rocks in the Lake Superior region, USA: implications for nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, M.K.; Edgar, D.E.; Flower, M.F.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Lake Superior region (Wisconsin, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and Minnesota) contains 41 Precambrian crystalline (medium- to coarse-grained igneous and high-grade metamorphic) rock complexes comprising 64 individual but related rock bodies with known surface exposures. Each complex has a map area greater than 78 km 2 . About 54% of the rock complexes have areas of up to 500 km 2 , 15% fall between 500 km 2 and 1000 km 2 , 19% lie between 1000 km 2 and 2500 km 2 , and 12% are over 2500 km 2 . Crystalline rocks of the region vary widely in composition, but they are predominantly granitic. Repeated thermo-tectonic events have produced early Archean gneisses, migmatites, and amphibolites with highly tectonized fabrics that impart a heterogeneous and anisotropic character to the rocks. Late Archean rocks are usually but not invariably gneissose an migmatitic. Proterozoic rocks of the region include synorogenic (foliated) granitic rocks, anorogenic (nonfoliated) granites, and the layered gabbro-anorthosite-troctolite intrusives of the rift-related Keweenawan igneous activity. Compared with the Archean rocks of the region, the Proterozoic bodies generally lack highly tectonized fabrics and have more definable contacts where visible. Anorogenic intrusions are relatively homogeneous and isotropic. On the basis of observed geologic characteristics, postorogenic and anorogenic crystalline rock bodies located away from recognized tectonic systems have attributes that make them relatively more desirable as a possible site for a nuclear waste repository in the region. This study was conducted at Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy through the Office of Crystalline Repository Development at Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio

  9. Neural activity in the posterior superior temporal region during eye contact perception correlates with autistic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Naoya; Kitamura, Hideaki; Murakami, Hiroatsu; Kameyama, Shigeki; Sasagawa, Mutsuo; Egawa, Jun; Endo, Taro; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2013-08-09

    The present study investigated the relationship between neural activity associated with gaze processing and autistic traits in typically developed subjects using magnetoencephalography. Autistic traits in 24 typically developed college students with normal intelligence were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). The Minimum Current Estimates method was applied to estimate the cortical sources of magnetic responses to gaze stimuli. These stimuli consisted of apparent motion of the eyes, displaying direct or averted gaze motion. Results revealed gaze-related brain activations in the 150-250 ms time window in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and in the 150-450 ms time window in medial prefrontal regions. In addition, the mean amplitude in the 150-250 ms time window in the right pSTS region was modulated by gaze direction, and its activity in response to direct gaze stimuli correlated with AQ score. pSTS activation in response to direct gaze is thought to be related to higher-order social processes. Thus, these results suggest that brain activity linking eye contact and social signals is associated with autistic traits in a typical population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Regional CAR-T cell infusions for peritoneal carcinomatosis are superior to systemic delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, S C; Point, G R; Cunetta, M; Thorn, M; Guha, P; Espat, N J; Boutros, C; Hanna, N; Junghans, R P

    2016-05-01

    Metastatic spread of colorectal cancer (CRC) to the peritoneal cavity is common and difficult to treat, with many patients dying from malignant bowel obstruction. Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) immunotherapy has shown great promise, and we previously reported murine and phase I clinical studies on regional intrahepatic CAR-T infusion for CRC liver metastases. We are now studying intraperitoneal (IP) delivery of CAR-Ts for peritoneal carcinomatosis. Regional IP infusion of CAR-T resulted in superior protection against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA+) peritoneal tumors, when compared with systemically infused CAR-Ts. IP CAR-Ts also provided prolonged protection against IP tumor re-challenges and demonstrated an increase in effector memory phenotype over time. IP CAR-Ts provided protection against tumor growth at distant subcutaneous (SC) sites in association with increases in serum IFNγ levels. Given the challenges posed by immunoinhibitory pathways in solid tumors, we combined IP CAR-T treatment with suppressor cell targeting. High frequencies of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and regulatory T cells (Treg) were found within the IP tumors, with MDSC expressing high levels of immunosuppressive PD-L1. Combinatorial IP CAR-T treatment with depleting antibodies against MDSC and Treg further improved efficacy against peritoneal metastases. Our data support further development of combinatorial IP CAR-T immunotherapy for peritoneal malignancies.

  11. Automatic detection of anatomical regions in frontal x-ray images: comparing convolutional neural networks to random forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olory Agomma, R.; Vázquez, C.; Cresson, T.; De Guise, J.

    2018-02-01

    Most algorithms to detect and identify anatomical structures in medical images require either to be initialized close to the target structure, or to know that the structure is present in the image, or to be trained on a homogeneous database (e.g. all full body or all lower limbs). Detecting these structures when there is no guarantee that the structure is present in the image, or when the image database is heterogeneous (mixed configurations), is a challenge for automatic algorithms. In this work we compared two state-of-the-art machine learning techniques in order to determine which one is the most appropriate for predicting targets locations based on image patches. By knowing the position of thirteen landmarks points, labelled by an expert in EOS frontal radiography, we learn the displacement between salient points detected in the image and these thirteen landmarks. The learning step is carried out with a machine learning approach by exploring two methods: Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Random Forest (RF). The automatic detection of the thirteen landmarks points in a new image is then obtained by averaging the positions of each one of these thirteen landmarks estimated from all the salient points in the new image. We respectively obtain for CNN and RF, an average prediction error (both mean and standard deviation in mm) of 29 +/-18 and 30 +/- 21 for the thirteen landmarks points, indicating the approximate location of anatomical regions. On the other hand, the learning time is 9 days for CNN versus 80 minutes for RF. We provide a comparison of the results between the two machine learning approaches.

  12. Regional frontal gray matter volume associated with executive function capacity as a risk factor for vehicle crashes in normal aging adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Sakai

    Full Text Available Although low executive functioning is a risk factor for vehicle crashes among elderly drivers, the neural basis of individual differences in this cognitive ability remains largely unknown. Here we aimed to examine regional frontal gray matter volume associated with executive functioning in normal aging individuals, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. To this end, 39 community-dwelling elderly volunteers who drove a car on a daily basis participated in structural magnetic resonance imaging, and completed two questionnaires concerning executive functioning and risky driving tendencies in daily living. Consequently, we found that participants with low executive function capacity were prone to risky driving. Furthermore, VBM analysis revealed that lower executive function capacity was associated with smaller gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA. Thus, the current data suggest that SMA volume is a reliable predictor of individual differences in executive function capacity as a risk factor for vehicle crashes among elderly persons. The implication of our results is that regional frontal gray matter volume might underlie the variation in driving tendencies among elderly drivers. Therefore, detailed driving behavior assessments might be able to detect early neurodegenerative changes in the frontal lobe in normal aging adults.

  13. Spatial and seasonal variability of fractionated phytoplankton biomass and primary production in the frontal region of the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. VADRUCCI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and seasonal patterns of variation of fractionated phytoplankton biomass and primary production and their relationships with nutrient concentrations were analyzed along an inshore - offshore gradient and in relation to the presence of a frontal system in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Sampling was carried out in winter and summer during four oceanographic cruises (June 1996 and 1997, February 1997 and 1998 as part of the PRISMA II project. Water samples for determining nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton biomass (as Chla and primary production (as 14 C assimilation were collected at five optical depths. Sampling stations were located along 2 or 4 parallel transects arranged perpendicularly to the shoreline and the frontal system. The transects were located at such a distance from the coast that the frontal system crossed them at their halfway point. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN and total dissolved phosphorus concentrations (TDP were 12.41 ± 3 .95 mM and 0.146 ± 0 .070 mM, respectively. The values in the two seasonal periods were similar, decreasing along the inshore-offshore gradient. Values for phytoplankton biomass and primary productionwere higher in the winter than the summer cruises, and decreased, in both seasonal periods, along the inshore / offshore gradient. Moreover, in both seasonal periods, picophytoplankton dominated both biomass and productivity, (56% and 44%, respectively at stations beyond the frontal system, while microphytoplankton was more important at stations inside it (44% and 44%, respectively. Total phytoplankton biomass and primary production were directly related to nutrient concentrations. Regarding size classes, significant patterns of variation with nutrients were observed particularly for biomass. The results indicate that the size structure and function of phytoplankton guilds seem to be mediated by nutrient inflow, as well as by competitive interaction among size fractions.

  14. Frontal and subcortical grey matter reductions in PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Daniel C M; Tickell, Ashleigh; Ryder, Will; Chan, Charles; Hermens, Daniel F; Bennett, Maxwell R; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2017-08-30

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by a range of debilitating psychological, physical and cognitive symptoms. PTSD has been associated with grey matter atrophy in limbic and frontal cortical brain regions. However, previous studies have reported heterogeneous findings, with grey matter changes observed beyond limbic/frontal areas. Seventy-five adults were recruited from the community, 25 diagnosed with PTSD along with 25 healthy and 25 trauma exposed age and gender matched controls. Participants underwent clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. The data-analyses method Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to estimate cortical grey matter volumes. When compared to both healthy and trauma exposed controls, PTSD subjects demonstrated decreased grey matter volumes within subcortical brain regions-including the hippocampus and amygdala-along with reductions in the anterior cingulate cortex, frontal medial cortex, middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, paracingulate gyrus, and precuneus cortex. Significant negative correlations were found between total CAPS lifetime clinical scores/sub-scores and GM volume of both the PTSD and TC groups. GM volumes of the left rACC and right amygdala showed a significant negative correlation within PTSD diagnosed subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nitrogen uptake and regeneration in a frontal region of the Algerian current (western Mediterranean Sea): new evaluation of new production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentilhomme, V.; Raimbault, P.

    1994-01-01

    The uptake and regeneration of four forms of nitrogen (NO 3 - , NO 2 - , NH 4 + and urea) have been studied, in the euphotic layer of a frontal area (Algerian current), in relation with hydrological, chemical and biological parameters. In this area vertical stratification is pronounced; a deep chlorophyll maximum at the bottom of the euphotic layer is present. Results show the importance of measuring urea uptake and regeneration in the study of nitrogen cycling, because this component can be regenerated as rapidly as ammonia, and is a source of nitrogen for phytoplankton. Other results show the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate in the euphotic layer, and particularly at the base of this layer. This nitrification is a source or in situ regenerated nitrate, and could lead to a wrong estimation of the new production estimation. In the deep chlorophyll maximum, there is a maximum of nitrogen primary production but not a maximum of new production. In fact, regenerated production is the most important process over the whole euphotic layer of the Algerian basin. (authors). 56 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Frontal Structural Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nicole R; O'Shea, Andrew M; Bryant, Vaughn; Porges, Eric C; Cohen, Ronald; Woods, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is an executive memory process that allows transitional information to be held and manipulated temporarily in memory stores before being forgotten or encoded into long-term memory. Working memory is necessary for everyday decision-making and problem solving, making it a fundamental process in the daily lives of older adults. Working memory relies heavily on frontal lobe structures and is known to decline with age. The current study aimed to determine the neural correlates of decreased working memory performance in the frontal lobes by comparing cortical thickness and cortical surface area from two demographically matched groups of healthy older adults, free from cognitive impairment, with high versus low N-Back working memory performance ( N = 56; average age = 70.29 ± 10.64). High-resolution structural T1-weighted images (1 mm isotropic voxels) were obtained on a 3T Philips MRI scanner. When compared to high performers, low performers exhibited significantly decreased cortical surface area in three frontal lobe regions lateralized to the right hemisphere: medial orbital frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus (FDR p frontal regions may underlie age-related decline of working memory function.

  17. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Reveals Auditory and Frontal Cortical Regions Involved with Speech Perception and Loudness Adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Berding

    Full Text Available Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of hearing loss with auditory implants. However, there are still many implanted patients that experience hearing deficiencies, such as limited speech understanding or vanishing perception with continuous stimulation (i.e., abnormal loudness adaptation. The present study aims to identify specific patterns of cerebral cortex activity involved with such deficiencies. We performed O-15-water positron emission tomography (PET in patients implanted with electrodes within the cochlea, brainstem, or midbrain to investigate the pattern of cortical activation in response to speech or continuous multi-tone stimuli directly inputted into the implant processor that then delivered electrical patterns through those electrodes. Statistical parametric mapping was performed on a single subject basis. Better speech understanding was correlated with a larger extent of bilateral auditory cortex activation. In contrast to speech, the continuous multi-tone stimulus elicited mainly unilateral auditory cortical activity in which greater loudness adaptation corresponded to weaker activation and even deactivation. Interestingly, greater loudness adaptation was correlated with stronger activity within the ventral prefrontal cortex, which could be up-regulated to suppress the irrelevant or aberrant signals into the auditory cortex. The ability to detect these specific cortical patterns and differences across patients and stimuli demonstrates the potential for using PET to diagnose auditory function or dysfunction in implant patients, which in turn could guide the development of appropriate stimulation strategies for improving hearing rehabilitation. Beyond hearing restoration, our study also reveals a potential role of the frontal cortex in suppressing irrelevant or aberrant activity within the auditory cortex, and thus may be relevant for understanding and treating tinnitus.

  18. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Reveals Auditory and Frontal Cortical Regions Involved with Speech Perception and Loudness Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berding, Georg; Wilke, Florian; Rode, Thilo; Haense, Cathleen; Joseph, Gert; Meyer, Geerd J; Mamach, Martin; Lenarz, Minoo; Geworski, Lilli; Bengel, Frank M; Lenarz, Thomas; Lim, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of hearing loss with auditory implants. However, there are still many implanted patients that experience hearing deficiencies, such as limited speech understanding or vanishing perception with continuous stimulation (i.e., abnormal loudness adaptation). The present study aims to identify specific patterns of cerebral cortex activity involved with such deficiencies. We performed O-15-water positron emission tomography (PET) in patients implanted with electrodes within the cochlea, brainstem, or midbrain to investigate the pattern of cortical activation in response to speech or continuous multi-tone stimuli directly inputted into the implant processor that then delivered electrical patterns through those electrodes. Statistical parametric mapping was performed on a single subject basis. Better speech understanding was correlated with a larger extent of bilateral auditory cortex activation. In contrast to speech, the continuous multi-tone stimulus elicited mainly unilateral auditory cortical activity in which greater loudness adaptation corresponded to weaker activation and even deactivation. Interestingly, greater loudness adaptation was correlated with stronger activity within the ventral prefrontal cortex, which could be up-regulated to suppress the irrelevant or aberrant signals into the auditory cortex. The ability to detect these specific cortical patterns and differences across patients and stimuli demonstrates the potential for using PET to diagnose auditory function or dysfunction in implant patients, which in turn could guide the development of appropriate stimulation strategies for improving hearing rehabilitation. Beyond hearing restoration, our study also reveals a potential role of the frontal cortex in suppressing irrelevant or aberrant activity within the auditory cortex, and thus may be relevant for understanding and treating tinnitus.

  19. "It's Not What You Say, But How You Say it": A Reciprocal Temporo-frontal Network for Affective Prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitman, David I; Wolf, Daniel H; Ragland, J Daniel; Laukka, Petri; Loughead, James; Valdez, Jeffrey N; Javitt, Daniel C; Turetsky, Bruce I; Gur, Ruben C

    2010-01-01

    Humans communicate emotion vocally by modulating acoustic cues such as pitch, intensity and voice quality. Research has documented how the relative presence or absence of such cues alters the likelihood of perceiving an emotion, but the neural underpinnings of acoustic cue-dependent emotion perception remain obscure. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 subjects we examined a reciprocal circuit consisting of superior temporal cortex, amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus that may underlie affective prosodic comprehension. Results showed that increased saliency of emotion-specific acoustic cues was associated with increased activation in superior temporal cortex [planum temporale (PT), posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), and posterior superior middle gyrus (pMTG)] and amygdala, whereas decreased saliency of acoustic cues was associated with increased inferior frontal activity and temporo-frontal connectivity. These results suggest that sensory-integrative processing is facilitated when the acoustic signal is rich in affective information, yielding increased activation in temporal cortex and amygdala. Conversely, when the acoustic signal is ambiguous, greater evaluative processes are recruited, increasing activation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and IFG STG connectivity. Auditory regions may thus integrate acoustic information with amygdala input to form emotion-specific representations, which are evaluated within inferior frontal regions.

  20. White noise improves learning by modulating activity in dopaminergic midbrain regions and right superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Vanessa H; Bauch, Eva M; Bunzeck, Nico

    2014-07-01

    In neural systems, information processing can be facilitated by adding an optimal level of white noise. Although this phenomenon, the so-called stochastic resonance, has traditionally been linked with perception, recent evidence indicates that white noise may also exert positive effects on cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. The underlying neural mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Here, on the basis of recent theories, we tested the hypothesis that auditory white noise, when presented during the encoding of scene images, enhances subsequent recognition memory performance and modulates activity within the dopaminergic midbrain (i.e., substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, SN/VTA). Indeed, in a behavioral experiment, we can show in healthy humans that auditory white noise-but not control sounds, such as a sinus tone-slightly improves recognition memory. In an fMRI experiment, white noise selectively enhances stimulus-driven phasic activity in the SN/VTA and auditory cortex. Moreover, it induces stronger connectivity between SN/VTA and right STS, which, in addition, exhibited a positive correlation with subsequent memory improvement by white noise. Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of auditory white noise on learning depend on dopaminergic neuromodulation and enhanced connectivity between midbrain regions and the STS-a key player in attention modulation. Moreover, they indicate that white noise could be particularly useful to facilitate learning in conditions where changes of the mesolimbic system are causally related to memory deficits including healthy and pathological aging.

  1. Frontal ataxia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, C E; Beems, T; Rotteveel, J J

    2004-12-01

    Frontal ataxia may be the result of a unilateral frontal lesion. In this report three cases are presented with ataxia due to right frontal lesions. One case concerns a boy presenting with an unsteady gait and titubation of the trunk, mimicking developmental disequilibrium and with complex partial seizures. It proved to be caused by a small right-sided cavernoma in the middle frontal gyrus. After surgical intervention the symptoms and the seizures disappeared. Two subsequent cases concern teenage patients presenting with headache after an ENT infection and on physical examination mild dysmetric function of the upper limbs and slight disequilibrium, due to right-sided frontal lobe abscesses. After neurosurgical and antibiotic therapy the symptoms were relieved. The frontal origin of ataxia should be considered in children presenting with a "cerebellar syndrome". Frontal gait disorders consist of a clinical pattern of different gait disorders. The syndrome has been mentioned in the literature under different names. Our patients show signs compatible with the term frontal disequilibrium, a clinical pattern of frontal gait disorder. This assumes walking problems characterized by loss of control of motor planning, leading to imbalance. Remarkably, frontal ataxia may mimic developmental delay as demonstrated in the first case and may be the leading mild symptom in extensive frontal lobe damage as demonstrated by the two other cases. We suppose that frontal ataxia is the result of a disturbance in the cerebellar-frontal circuitries and an impairment of executive and planning functions of the basal ganglia-frontal lobe circuitry.

  2. Effects of lake trout refuges on lake whitefish and cisco in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.

  3. Escenarios mundiales y regionales de la educación superior Global and regional scenarios of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López Segrera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta un análisis y un ejercicio prospectivo de posibles escenarios y alternativas globales de la educación superior, de entre ellos: modelo tradicional; modelo de libre mercado; educación permanente; red global de instituciones; desaparición de las universidades. Estos escenarios tienen relaciones con el desarrollo de temas de largo contexto, como la globaliazación, la sociedad del conocimiento, las redes de cooperación regionales, la educación permanente y sobre todo los desdoblamientos de la disputa respecto al significado de la educación superior como bien público o comercio rentable.The article presents an analysis and a prospective exercise of possible global scenarios and alternatives for higher education, such as: traditional model; free market model; permanent education; global chain of institutions; disappearance of the universities. These scenarios are related to the development of the large context topics, such as globalization, the society of knowledge, the chains of regional cooperation, permanent education and all the unfoldings of the dispute on the meaning of higher education as a public good or a profitable business.

  4. Analysis of a general circulation model product. I - Frontal systems in the Brazil/Malvinas and Kuroshio/Oyashio regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzoli, Silvia L.; Garraffo, Zulema; Podesta, Guillermo; Brown, Otis

    1992-01-01

    The general circulation model (GCM) of Semtner and Chervin (1992) is tested by comparing the fields produced by this model with available observations in two western boundary current regions, the Brazil/Malvinas and the Kuroshio/Oyashio confluences. The two sets of data used are the sea surface temperature from satellite observations and the temperature field product from the GCM at levels 1 (12.5 m), 2 (37.5 m), and 6 (160 m). It is shown that the model reproduces intense thermal fronts at the sea surface and in the upper layers (where they are induced by the internal dynamics of the model). The location of the fronts are reproduced in the model within 4 to 5 deg, compared with observations. However, the variability of these fronts was found to be less pronounced in the model than in the observations.

  5. Frontal Lobe Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of frontal lobe epilepsy remains unknown. Complications Status epilepticus. Frontal lobe seizures tend to occur in clusters and may provoke a dangerous condition called status epilepticus — in which seizure activity lasts much longer than ...

  6. Frontal ataxia in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Erasmus, C.E.; Beems, T.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Frontal ataxia may be the result of a unilateral frontal lesion. In this report three cases are presented with ataxia due to right frontal lesions. One case concerns a boy presenting with an unsteady gait and titubation of the trunk, mimicking developmental disequilibrium and with complex partial seizures. It proved to be caused by a small right-sided cavernoma in the middle frontal gyrus. After surgical intervention the symptoms and the seizures disappeared. Two subsequent cases concern teen...

  7. Frontal ataxia in childhood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, C.E.; Beems, T.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Frontal ataxia may be the result of a unilateral frontal lesion. In this report three cases are presented with ataxia due to right frontal lesions. One case concerns a boy presenting with an unsteady gait and titubation of the trunk, mimicking developmental disequilibrium and with complex partial

  8. The influence of carbon exchange of a large lake on regional tracer-transport inversions: results from Lake Superior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasys, Victoria N; Desai, Ankur R; McKinley, Galen A; Bennington, Val; Michalak, Anna M; Andrews, Arlyn E

    2011-01-01

    Large lakes may constitute a significant component of regional surface-atmosphere fluxes, but few efforts have been made to quantify these fluxes. Tracer-transport inverse models that infer the CO 2 flux from the atmospheric concentration typically assume that the influence from large lakes is negligible. CO 2 observations from a tall tower in Wisconsin segregated by wind direction suggested a CO 2 signature from Lake Superior. To further investigate this difference, source-receptor influence functions derived using a mesoscale transport model were applied and results revealed that air masses sampled by the tower have a transit time over the lake, primarily in winter when the total lake influence on the tower can exceed 20% of the total influence of the regional domain. When the influence functions were convolved with air-lake fluxes estimated from a physical-biogeochemical lake model, the overall total contribution of lake fluxes to the tall tower CO 2 were mostly negligible, but potentially detectable in certain periods of fall and winter when lake carbon exchange can be strong and land carbon efflux weak. These findings suggest that large oligotrophic lakes would not significantly influence inverse models that incorporate tall tower CO 2 .

  9. Auditory properties in the parabelt regions of the superior temporal gyrus in the awake macaque monkey: an initial survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Frey, Stephen; Ross, Deborah; Falchier, Arnaud; Hackett, Troy A; Schroeder, Charles E

    2015-03-11

    The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is on the inferior-lateral brain surface near the external ear. In macaques, 2/3 of the STG is occupied by an auditory cortical region, the "parabelt," which is part of a network of inferior temporal areas subserving communication and social cognition as well as object recognition and other functions. However, due to its location beneath the squamous temporal bone and temporalis muscle, the STG, like other inferior temporal regions, has been a challenging target for physiological studies in awake-behaving macaques. We designed a new procedure for implanting recording chambers to provide direct access to the STG, allowing us to evaluate neuronal properties and their topography across the full extent of the STG in awake-behaving macaques. Initial surveys of the STG have yielded several new findings. Unexpectedly, STG sites in monkeys that were listening passively responded to tones with magnitudes comparable to those of responses to 1/3 octave band-pass noise. Mapping results showed longer response latencies in more rostral sites and possible tonotopic patterns parallel to core and belt areas, suggesting the reversal of gradients between caudal and rostral parabelt areas. These results will help further exploration of parabelt areas. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354140-11$15.00/0.

  10. Frontal assessment battery and frontal atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tatsuhiro; Miyata, Jun; Obi, Tomokazu; Kubota, Manabu; Yoshizumi, Miho; Yamazaki, Kinya; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Murai, Toshiya

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To determine the potential utility of the frontal assessment battery (FAB) in assessing cognitive impairments in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we investigated the association between the FAB score and regional gray matter volume, and ascertained whether the regional brain alterations related to cognitive impairments occur in relatively mild stage of ALS. Materials and Methods Twenty?four ALS patients with a Mini?Mental State Examination score of >23, a normal score ...

  11. Short-Term Memory for Space and Time Flexibly Recruit Complementary Sensory-Biased Frontal Lobe Attention Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalka, Samantha W; Kong, Lingqiang; Rosen, Maya L; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Somers, David C

    2015-08-19

    The frontal lobes control wide-ranging cognitive functions; however, functional subdivisions of human frontal cortex are only coarsely mapped. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals two distinct visual-biased attention regions in lateral frontal cortex, superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and inferior precentral sulcus (iPCS), anatomically interdigitated with two auditory-biased attention regions, transverse gyrus intersecting precentral sulcus (tgPCS) and caudal inferior frontal sulcus (cIFS). Intrinsic functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that sPCS and iPCS fall within a broad visual-attention network, while tgPCS and cIFS fall within a broad auditory-attention network. Interestingly, we observe that spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM), respectively, recruit visual and auditory attention networks in the frontal lobe, independent of sensory modality. These findings not only demonstrate that both sensory modality and information domain influence frontal lobe functional organization, they also demonstrate that spatial processing co-localizes with visual processing and that temporal processing co-localizes with auditory processing in lateral frontal cortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-term memory for space and time flexibly recruit complementary sensory-biased frontal lobe attention networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalka, Samantha W.; Kong, Lingqiang; Rosen, Maya L.; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.; Somers, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The frontal lobes control wide-ranging cognitive functions; however, functional subdivisions of human frontal cortex are only coarsely mapped. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals two distinct visual-biased attention regions in lateral frontal cortex, superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and inferior precentral sulcus (iPCS), anatomically interdigitated with two auditory-biased attention regions, transverse gyrus intersecting precentral sulcus (tgPCS) and caudal inferior frontal sulcus (cIFS). Intrinsic functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that sPCS and iPCS fall within a broad visual-attention network, while tgPCS and cIFS fall within a broad auditory-attention network. Interestingly, we observe that spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM), respectively, recruit visual and auditory attention networks in the frontal lobe, independent of sensory modality. These findings not only demonstrate that both sensory modality and information domain influence frontal lobe functional organization, they also demonstrate that spatial processing co-localizes with visual processing and that temporal processing co-localizes with auditory processing in lateral frontal cortex. PMID:26291168

  13. Impacts of extensive driftnet fishery and late 1990s climate regime shift on dominant epipelagic nekton in the Transition Region and Subtropical Frontal Zone: Implications for fishery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, T.; Nishikawa, H.; Igarashi, H.; Okamura, H.; Mahapatra, K.; Sakai, M.; Wakabayashi, T.; Inagake, D.; Okada, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the impacts of extensive anthropogenic (high seas driftnet squid fishery) and natural (late 1990s major climate regime shift) events on dominant epipelagic fish, squid, and shark in the central North Pacific Transition Region based on a driftnet survey covering the years 1979-2006. Fishing was conducted by Japan, Korea and Taiwan to target neon flying squid in the period 1979-1992, resulting in a decline in stocks of the target species and non-target species (Pacific pomfret and juvenile blue shark), which were by-catch of this fishery. The catch was found to be at the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) level for neon flying squid, the underfished level for juvenile blue shark, but the overfished level for Pacific pomfret. The MSY of Pacific pomfret indicated that this species is more susceptible to exploitation than previously considered. In response to the late 1990s regime shift, neon flying squid and Pacific saury showed low stock levels in 1999-2002 and 1998-2002, respectively, as a result of reduced productivity in their nursery grounds (the Subtropical Frontal Zone and Kuroshio Extension Bifurcation Region, respectively). On the other hand, Pacific pomfret showed no decreasing trend in stock during the low- and intermediate-productivity regimes because of the high productivity of their main spawning/nursery ground (Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front), which was independent of the regime shifts. Thus, squid and saury appear to be more susceptible to the regime shift than pomfret. We discuss the implications for stock management of the species-specific responses to the fishery and the regime shift.

  14. Gelastic seizures and the anteromesial frontal lobe: a case report and review of intracranial EEG recording and electrocortical stimulation case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnwongse, Kanjana; Wehner, Tim; Bingaman, William; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2010-10-01

    Symptomatogenic areas for ictal laughter have been described in the frontal and temporal lobes. Within the frontal lobe, gelastic seizures have been recorded from the cingulate gyrus. Electrocortical stimulation of the cingulate gyrus as well as the superior frontal gyrus induced laughter. We describe a patient whose gelastic seizures were associated with electrographic ictal activity in the mesial aspect of the right anterior frontal gyrus. The symptomatogenic area for ictal laughter in the frontal lobe may reside in the superior frontal gyrus.

  15. Muscle-splitting approach to superior and inferior gluteal vessels: versatile source of recipient vessels for free-tissue transfer to sacral, gluteal, and ischial regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S

    2000-07-01

    The superior gluteal vessel has been reported as a recipient in free-tissue transfer for the coverage of complex soft-tissue defects in the lumbosacral region, where a suitable recipient vessel is difficult to find. The characteristics of proximity, vessel caliber, and constancy make the superior gluteal vessel preferable to previously reported recipient vessels. However, there are technical difficulties in microsurgery (e.g., short pedicle length and deep location) and muscle injury (transection of the muscle) associated with use of the superior gluteal vessel. The purpose of this article is to present a modification of an approach to the gluteal vessel to alleviate technical difficulties and minimize muscle injury. From August of 1997 to January of 1999, six patients received microvascular transfer of the latissimus dorsi muscle or myocutaneous flap to the sacral (4) and ischial (2) regions. The causes of defects were tumor (1), trauma (1), and pressure sores (4). A muscle-splitting approach was used on the superior gluteal vessel and was later applied to the inferior gluteal vessel. The gluteus maximus muscle was split as needed in the direction of its fibers, and the perforators were dissected down to the superior or inferior gluteal artery and vein deep into the muscle. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 22 months, and all of the flaps survived with complete recovery of the lesion. The major drawbacks of using the superior and inferior gluteal vessels can be overcome with the muscle-splitting approach, which provides increased accessibility and additional length to the vascular pedicle while causing minimal injury to the muscle itself. It also proves to be an easy, safe, and reliable method of dissection. When free-tissue transfer to sacral, gluteal, and ischial regions is indicated, the muscle-splitting approach to the superior and inferior gluteal vessels is a recommended option in the selection of a recipient vessel.

  16. Task-modulated activation and functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas during speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Q; Zhang, L; Xu, G; Shu, H; Li, P

    2013-05-01

    There is general consensus in the literature that a distributed network of temporal and frontal brain areas is involved in speech comprehension. However, how active versus passive tasks modulate the activation and the functional connectivity of the critical brain areas is not clearly understood. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify intelligibility and task-related effects in speech comprehension. Participants performed a semantic judgment task on normal and time-reversed sentences, or passively listened to the sentences without making an overt response. The subtraction analysis demonstrated that passive sentence comprehension mainly engaged brain areas in the left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG), whereas active sentence comprehension recruited bilateral frontal regions in addition to the aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG regions. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that during passive sentence comprehension, the left aSTS/MTG was functionally connected with the left Heschl's gyrus (HG) and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) but no area was functionally connected with the left pSTS/MTG; during active sentence comprehension, however, both the left aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG were functionally connected with bilateral superior temporal and inferior frontal areas. While these results are consistent with the view that the ventral stream of the temporo-frontal network subserves semantic processing, our findings further indicate that both the activation and the functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas are modulated by task demands. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Frontal white matter anisotropy and antidepressant remission in late-life depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren D Taylor

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroanatomic features associated with antidepressant treatment outcomes in older depressed individuals are not well established. This study used diffusion tensor imaging to examine frontal white matter structure in depressed subjects undergoing a 12-week trial of sertraline. We hypothesized that remission would be associated with higher frontal anisotropy measures, and failure to remit with lower anisotropy.74 subjects with Major Depressive Disorder and age 60 years or older were enrolled in a twelve-week open-label trial of sertraline and completed clinical assessments and 1.5T magnetic resonance brain imaging. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC and fractional anisotropy (FA were measured in regions of interest placed in the white matter of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and corpus callosum. Differences in ADC and FA values between subjects who did and did not remit to treatment over the study period were assessed using generalized estimating equations, controlling for age, sex, medical comorbidity and baseline depression severity.Subjects who did not remit to sertraline exhibited higher FA values in the superior frontal gyri and anterior cingulate cortices bilaterally. There were no statistically significant associations between ADC measures and remission.Failure to remit to sertraline is associated with higher frontal FA values. Functional imaging studies demonstrate that depression is characterized by functional disconnection between frontal and limbic regions. Those individuals where this disconnection is related to structural changes as detected by DTI may be more likely to respond to antidepressants.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00339066.

  18. Virtual dissection and comparative connectivity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in chimpanzees and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Erin E.; Gutman, David A.; Bradley, Bruce A.; Preuss, Todd M.; Stout, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Many of the behavioral capacities that distinguish humans from other primates rely on fronto-parietal circuits. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is the primary white matter tract connecting lateral frontal with lateral parietal regions; it is distinct from the arcuate fasciculus, which interconnects the frontal and temporal lobes. Here we report a direct, quantitative comparison of SLF connectivity using virtual in vivo dissection of the SLF in chimpanzees and humans. SLF I, the superior-most branch of the SLF, showed similar patterns of connectivity between humans and chimpanzees, and was proportionally volumetrically larger in chimpanzees. SLF II, the middle branch, and SLF III, the inferior-most branch, showed species differences in frontal connectivity. In humans, SLF II showed greater connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas in chimps SLF II showed greater connectivity with the inferior frontal gyrus. SLF III was right-lateralized and proportionally volumetrically larger in humans, and human SLF III showed relatively reduced connectivity with dorsal premotor cortex and greater extension into the anterior inferior frontal gyrus, especially in the right hemisphere. These results have implications for the evolution of fronto-parietal functions including spatial attention to observed actions, social learning, and tool use, and are in line with previous research suggesting a unique role for the right anterior inferior frontal gyrus in the evolution of human fronto-parietal network architecture. PMID:25534109

  19. New insights in the homotopic and heterotopic connectivity of the frontal portion of the human corpus callosum revealed by microdissection and diffusion tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Petit, Laurent; Descoteaux, Maxime; Marras, Carlo Efisio; Barbareschi, Mattia; Corsini, Francesco; Dallabona, Monica; Chioffi, Franco; Sarubbo, Silvio

    2016-12-01

    Extensive studies revealed that the human corpus callosum (CC) plays a crucial role in providing large-scale bi-hemispheric integration of sensory, motor and cognitive processing, especially within the frontal lobe. However, the literature lacks of conclusive data regarding the structural macroscopic connectivity of the frontal CC. In this study, a novel microdissection approach was adopted, to expose the frontal fibers of CC from the dorsum to the lateral cortex in eight hemispheres and in one entire brain. Post-mortem results were then combined with data from advanced constrained spherical deconvolution in 130 healthy subjects. We demonstrated as the frontal CC provides dense inter-hemispheric connections. In particular, we found three types of fronto-callosal fibers, having a dorso-ventral organization. First, the dorso-medial CC fibers subserve homotopic connections between the homologous medial cortices of the superior frontal gyrus. Second, the ventro-lateral CC fibers subserve homotopic connections between lateral frontal cortices, including both the middle frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus, as well as heterotopic connections between the medial and lateral frontal cortices. Third, the ventro-striatal CC fibers connect the medial and lateral frontal cortices with the contralateral putamen and caudate nucleus. We also highlighted an intricate crossing of CC fibers with the main association pathways terminating in the lateral regions of the frontal lobes. This combined approach of ex vivo microdissection and in vivo diffusion tractography allowed demonstrating a previously unappreciated three-dimensional architecture of the anterior frontal CC, thus clarifying the functional role of the CC in mediating the inter-hemispheric connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4718-4735, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Significant decreases in frontal and temporal [11C]-raclopride binding after THC challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Paul R A; Egerton, Alice; Watson, Ben; Reid, Alistair; Breen, Gerome; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Nutt, David J; Mehta, Mitul A

    2010-10-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) increases prefrontal cortical dopamine release in animals, but this is yet to be examined in humans. In man, striatal dopamine release can be indexed using [11C]-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET), and recent reports suggest that cortical [11C]-raclopride binding may also be sensitive to dopaminergic challenges. Using an existing dataset we examined whether THC alters [11C]-raclopride binding potential (BP(ND)) in cortical regions. Thirteen healthy volunteers underwent two [11C]-raclopride PET scans following either oral 10 mg THC or placebo. Significant areas of decreased cortical [11C]-raclopride BP(ND) were identified using whole brain voxel-wise analysis and quantified using a region of interest (ROI) ratio analysis. Effect of blood flow on binding was estimated using a simplified reference tissue model analysis. Results were compared to [11C]-raclopride test-retest reliability in the ROIs identified using a separate cohort of volunteers. Voxel-wise analysis identified three significant clusters of decreased [11C]-raclopride BP(ND) after THC in the right middle frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus. Decreases in [11C]-raclopride BPND following THC were greater than test-retest variability in these ROIs. R1, an estimate of blood flow, significantly decreased in the left superior frontal gyrus in the THC condition but was unchanged in the other ROIs. Decreased frontal binding significantly correlated to catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) val108 status. We have demonstrated for the first time significant decreases in bilateral frontopolar cortical and left superior temporal gyrus [11C]-raclopride binding after THC. The interpretation of these findings in relation to prefrontal dopamine release is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The frontal lobes and inhibitory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Seiki

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies using traditional tasks of inhibitory functions, such as the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) and the Go/No-Go Task have revealed that the frontal lobe is responsible for several types of inhibitory functions. However, the detailed psychological nature of the inhibitory functions and the precise location of their critical foci within the frontal lobe remain to be investigated. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides spatial and temporal resolution that allowed us to illuminate at least 4 frontal regions involved in inhibitory functions: the dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and rostral parts of the frontal lobe and the presupplementary motor area (preSMA). The ventrolateral part of the frontal lobe in the right hemisphere was activated during response inhibition. The preSMA in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition of proactive interference immediately after the dimension changes of the WCST. The rostral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition long after the dimension changes. The dorsolateral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated at the dimension changes in the first time, but not in the second time. These findings provide clues to our understanding of functional differentiation of inhibitory functions and their localization in the frontal lobe. (author)

  2. Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation as a Neural Marker of Successful Lying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshin eVartanian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence to suggest that successful lying necessitates cognitive effort. We tested this hypothesis by instructing participants to lie or tell the truth under conditions of high and low working memory (WM load. The task required participants to register a response on 80 trials of identical structure within a 2 (WM Load: high, low × 2 (Instruction: truth or lie repeated-measures design. Participants were less accurate and responded more slowly when WM load was high, and also when they lied. High WM load activated the fronto-parietal WM network including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC, middle frontal gyrus, precuneus, and intraparietal cortex. Lying activated areas previously shown to underlie deception, including middle and superior frontal gyrus and precuneus. Critically, successful lying in the high vs. low WM load condition was associated with longer response latency, and it activated the right inferior frontal gyrus—a key brain region regulating inhibition. The same pattern of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus was absent when participants told the truth. These findings demonstrate that lying under high cognitive load places a burden on inhibition, and that the right inferior frontal gyrus may provide a neural marker for successful lying.

  3. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation as a neural marker of successful lying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Kwantes, Peter J; Mandel, David R; Bouak, Fethi; Nakashima, Ann; Smith, Ingrid; Lam, Quan

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that successful lying necessitates cognitive effort. We tested this hypothesis by instructing participants to lie or tell the truth under conditions of high and low working memory (WM) load. The task required participants to register a response on 80 trials of identical structure within a 2 (WM Load: high, low) × 2 (Instruction: truth or lie) repeated-measures design. Participants were less accurate and responded more slowly when WM load was high, and also when they lied. High WM load activated the fronto-parietal WM network including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), middle frontal gyrus, precuneus, and intraparietal cortex. Lying activated areas previously shown to underlie deception, including middle and superior frontal gyrus and precuneus. Critically, successful lying in the high vs. low WM load condition was associated with longer response latency, and it activated the right inferior frontal gyrus-a key brain region regulating inhibition. The same pattern of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus was absent when participants told the truth. These findings demonstrate that lying under high cognitive load places a burden on inhibition, and that the right inferior frontal gyrus may provide a neural marker for successful lying.

  4. Frontal fibrosing alopecia treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, Raymond; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-11-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a rare dermatologic disease that causes scarring and hair loss and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. FFA patients typically present with hair loss in the frontal scalp region and eyebrows which may be associated with sensations of itching or burning. FFA is a clinically distinct variant of lichen planopilaris (LPP) that affects predominantly postmenopausal women, although men and premenopausal women may also be affected. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are necessary to prevent definitive scarring and permanent hair loss. Data from retrospective studies indicate that 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5aRIs) are effective in stabilizing the disease. In our clinical experience, we have seen optimal results treating FFA patients with oral finasteride in conjunction with hydroxychloroquine, topical calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus) and excimer laser in patients with signs of active inflammation.

  5. Craniotomy Frontal Bone Defect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... Defect reconstruction and fixation of the graft: The defect of ... where all loose fragments of fractured frontal bone was removed via the ... Mandible. • Ilium. • Allograft ... pediatric patients owing to skull growth. Thus, autologous ...

  6. The 1.1-Ga Midcontinent Rift System, central North America: sedimentology of two deep boreholes, Lake Superior region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojakangas, Richard W.; Dickas, Albert B.

    2002-03-01

    distributed over a 1300-km distance along the better known southwest arm of the triple-junction MRS, and can be correlated rather well with the units that are exposed in the Lake Superior region. However, a definitive explanation of the anomalous, deeper St. Amour stratigraphy is elusive and any explanation is tenuous. A possible explanation for this anomalous stratigraphy may be the geographic proximity of the St. Amour borehole to the Keweenawan Hot Spot (mantle plume), the suggested thermal force behind the development of the MRS. Similarly, a drastic change in structural architecture may be explained by this geographic relationship. Thus, within the locale of this rifting center, complexities of expansion tectonics may well be responsible for igneous and sedimentary sequences that differ considerably from those found farther west along the rift arm.

  7. Structural connectivity of right frontal hyperactive areas scales with stuttering severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Anwander, Alfred; Bütfering, Christoph; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Friederici, Angela D; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2018-01-01

    A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain-behaviour and structure-function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants. Using a newly developed structural connectivity measure, we calculated voxel-wise correlations between connection strength and stuttering severity within tract volumes that originated from functionally hyperactive right frontal regions. Correlation analyses revealed that with increasing speech motor deficits the connection strength increased in the right frontal aslant tract, the right anterior thalamic radiation, and in U-shaped projections underneath the right precentral sulcus. In contrast, with decreasing speech motor deficits connection strength increased in the right uncinate fasciculus. Additional group comparisons of whole-brain white matter skeletons replicated the previously reported reduction of fractional anisotropy in the left and right superior longitudinal fasciculus as well as at the junction of right frontal aslant tract and right superior longitudinal fasciculus in adults who stutter compared to control participants. Overall, our investigation suggests that right fronto-temporal networks play a compensatory role as a fluency enhancing mechanism. In contrast, the increased connection strength within subcortical-cortical pathways may be implied in an overly active global response suppression mechanism in stuttering. Altogether, this combined functional MRI-diffusion tensor imaging study disentangles different networks involved in the neuronal underpinnings of the speech motor deficit in

  8. Structural connectivity of right frontal hyperactive areas scales with stuttering severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Bütfering, Christoph; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Friederici, Angela D; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain–behaviour and structure–function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants. Using a newly developed structural connectivity measure, we calculated voxel-wise correlations between connection strength and stuttering severity within tract volumes that originated from functionally hyperactive right frontal regions. Correlation analyses revealed that with increasing speech motor deficits the connection strength increased in the right frontal aslant tract, the right anterior thalamic radiation, and in U-shaped projections underneath the right precentral sulcus. In contrast, with decreasing speech motor deficits connection strength increased in the right uncinate fasciculus. Additional group comparisons of whole-brain white matter skeletons replicated the previously reported reduction of fractional anisotropy in the left and right superior longitudinal fasciculus as well as at the junction of right frontal aslant tract and right superior longitudinal fasciculus in adults who stutter compared to control participants. Overall, our investigation suggests that right fronto-temporal networks play a compensatory role as a fluency enhancing mechanism. In contrast, the increased connection strength within subcortical-cortical pathways may be implied in an overly active global response suppression mechanism in stuttering. Altogether, this combined functional MRI–diffusion tensor imaging study disentangles different networks involved in the neuronal underpinnings of the speech motor

  9. Acute effect of Ethanol and Taurine on frontal cortex absolute beta power before and after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagy, Mauricio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Gongora, Mariana; Alvarenga, Renato; Alonso, Luciano; Pompeu, Fernando A. M. S.

    2018-01-01

    Ethanol (ET) is a substance that modulates the Central Nervous System (CNS). Frequently, ET intake occurs combined with energy drinks, which contain taurine (TA), an important amino acid found in the body (i.e brain and muscles). Although TA administration has been used in the improvement of physical performance, the impact of TA, ET and exercise remains unknown. This study aimed to analyze the acute effect of 6g of Taurine (TA), 0.6 mL∙kg-1 of Ethanol (ET), and Taurine combined with Ethanol (TA+ET) ingestion on the electrocortical activity before and after a moderate intensity exercise in 9 subjects, 5 women (counterbalanced experimental design). In each of the 4 treatments (Placebo—PL, TA, ET and TA+ET), electroencephalography (EEG) tests were conducted in order to analyze changes in absolute beta power (ABP) in the frontal lobe in 3 moments: baseline (before ingestion), peak (before exercise) and post-exercise. In the PL treatment, the frontal areas showed decrease in ABP after exercise. However, in the ET+TA treatment, ABP values were greater after exercise, except for Fp1. The ET treatment had no effect on the Superior Frontal Gyrus area (F3, Fz and F4) and ABP decreased after exercise in Fp1 and Fp2. In the TA treatment, ABP increased after exercise, while it decreased at the peak moment in most of the frontal regions, except for Fp1, F3 and Fz. We concluded that after a moderate intensity exercise, a decrease in cortical activity occurs in placebo treatment. Moreover, we found a inhibitory effect of TA on cortical activity before exercise and a increased in cortical activity after exercise. A small ET dose is not enough to alter ABP in all regions of the frontal cortex and, in combination with TA, it showed an increase in the frontal cortex activity at the post-exercise moment. PMID:29538445

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoh, Masayuki

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured at rest using the 133 Xe inhalation technique in 40 DSM-III-diagnosed schizophrenics (22 males, 18 females: mean age 35.0 years, range 20-49 years) and 31 age-and sex-matched normal controls (16 males, 15 females: mean age 34.3 years, range 21-49 years). The absolute value (AV) and the percent value (PV) of the rCBF in schizophrenics were compared with those in controls. Correlations between rCBF and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores or the performance of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were examined in schizophrenics. Schizophrenics showed significantly lower AVs in all brain regions examined and a significantly lower PV in the left superior frontal region than controls. The hyperfrontal rCBF distribution which was found in both hemispheres in controls, was absent in the left hemisphere in schizophrenics. In schizophrenics, superior frontal blood flows were significantly negatively correlated with the negative symptom scores of the BPRS but not with the total scores and the positive symptom scores of the BPRS. In schizophrenics, inferior frontal blood flows were significantly correlated with the number of sorting categories achieved. These results indicate that rCBF in schizophrenia is reduced in the whole brain and especially in the left superior frontal region. These findings suggest a frontal lobe dysfunction in schizophrenia. (author)

  11. Statistical parametric mapping for analyzing interictal magnetoencephalography in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao; Zhu, Jinlong; Bao, Forrest Sheng; Liu, Hongyi; Zhu, Xuchuang; Wu, Ting; Yang, Lu; Zou, Yuanjie; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy is a common epileptic disorder and is characterized by recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes. The purpose of this study is to identify the epileptogenic regions and other abnormal regions in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy (LFLE) based on the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), and to understand the effects of clinical variables on brain activities in patients with LFLE. Fifteen patients with LFLE (23.20 ± 8.68 years, 6 female and 9 male) and 16 healthy controls (23.13 ± 7.66 years, 6 female and 10 male) were included in resting-stage MEG examinations. Epileptogenic regions of LFLE patients were confirmed by surgery. Regional brain activations were quantified using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The correlation between the activations of the abnormal brain regions and the clinical seizure parameters were computed for LFLE patients. Brain activations of LFLE patients were significantly elevated in left superior/middle/inferior frontal gyri, postcentral gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, insula, parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala, including the epileptogenic regions. Remarkable decreased activations were found mainly in the left parietal gyrus and precuneus. There is a positive correlation between the duration of the epilepsy (in month) and activations of the abnormal regions, while no relation was found between age of seizure onset (year), seizure frequency and the regions of the abnormal activity of the epileptic patients. Our findings suggest that the aberrant brain activities of LFLE patients were not restricted to the epileptogenic zones. Long duration of epilepsy might induce further functional damage in patients with LFLE. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Frontal and occipital perfusion changes in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Unal, Seher N; Ozturk, Erdinc

    2007-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate if there were any characteristics of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in dissociative identity disorder. Twenty-one drug-free patients with dissociative identity disorder and nine healthy volunteers participated in the study. In addition to a clinical evaluation, dissociative psychopathology was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale. A semi-structured interview for borderline personality disorder, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were also administered to all patients. Normal controls had to be without a history of childhood trauma and without any depressive or dissociative disorder. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Tc99m-hexamethylpropylenamine (HMPAO) as a tracer. Compared with findings in the control group, the rCBF ratio was decreased among patients with dissociative identity disorder in the orbitofrontal region bilaterally. It was increased in median and superior frontal regions and occipital regions bilaterally. There was no significant correlation between rCBF ratios of the regions of interest and any of the psychopathology scale scores. An explanation for the neurophysiology of dissociative psychopathology has to invoke a comprehensive model of interaction between anterior and posterior brain regions.

  13. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Yong; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Yoon, Byung Woo; Lee, Sang Bok; Jeon, Beom S. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p<0.05). There was no correlation between the severity of the motor abnormality and any of the regional cerebral perfusion indices (p>0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  14. Beyond the sniffer: frontal sinuses in Carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Abigail A; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2014-11-01

    Paranasal sinuses are some of the most poorly understood features of mammalian cranial anatomy. They are highly variable in presence and form among species, but their function is not well understood. The best-supported explanations for the function of sinuses is that they opportunistically fill mechanically unnecessary space, but that in some cases, sinuses in combination with the configuration of the frontal bone may improve skull performance by increasing skull strength and dissipating stresses more evenly. We used CT technology to investigate patterns in frontal sinus size and shape disparity among three families of carnivores: Canidae, Felidae, and Hyaenidae. We provide some of the first quantitative data on sinus morphology for these three families, and employ a novel method to quantify the relationship between three-dimensional sinus shape and skull shape. As expected, frontal sinus size and shape were more strongly correlated with frontal bone size and shape than with the morphology of the skull as a whole. However, sinus morphology was also related to allometric differences among families that are linked to biomechanical function. Our results support the hypothesis that frontal sinuses most often opportunistically fill space that is mechanically unnecessary, and they can facilitate cranial shape changes that reduce stress during feeding. Moreover, we suggest that the ability to form frontal sinuses allows species to modify skull function without compromising the performance of more functionally constrained regions such as the nasal chamber (heat/water conservation, olfaction), and braincase (housing the brain and sensory structures). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R; Schumann, Cynthia M

    2015-12-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal “executive” dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

  17. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal "executive" dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Frontal cortex gray matter volume alterations in pathological gambling occur independently from substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zois, Evangelos; Kiefer, Falk; Lemenager, Tagrid; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Mann, Karl; Fauth-Bühler, Mira

    2017-05-01

    Neuroimaging in pathological gambling (PG) allows studying brain structure independent of pharmacological/neurotoxic effects occurring in substance addiction. Because of high comorbidity of PG with substance use disorder (SUD), first results on structural deficits in PG are controversial. The current investigation is the first to examine gray matter (GM) volume alterations in PG controlling for the impact of SUD by comparing non-comorbid (PG PURE ) and two comorbid (PG ALCOHOL and PG POLY ) groups. Two hundred and five individuals were included in the analysis: 107 patients diagnosed with PG and 98 healthy controls (HCs). We employed voxel-based morphometry to look for GM volume differences between the groups controlling for age, smoking and depression. GM decreases in the superior medial and orbital frontal cortex occur independently of substance use in PG PURE compared with HCs. The frontal pattern of GM decrease was comparable with PG ALCOHOL group where additionally GM volume was decreased in the anterior cingulate but increased in the amygdala. Moreover, regions in PG ALCOHOL + POLY with reduced GM volume were the medial frontal, anterior cingulate and occipital lobe regions. PG ALCOHOL + POLY not only exhibited structural deficits in comparison with HCs but also relative to PG PURE in the precuneus and post-central gyrus. We demonstrated specific frontal cortex GM deficits in PG without SUD comorbidities. Whereas some target regions reported in earlier studies might result from comorbid substance abuse, there seems to be a core set of frontal alterations associated with addicted gambling behaviour independent of toxic substance effects. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Over-activation in bilateral superior temporal gyrus correlated with subsequent forgetting effect of Chinese words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Ching; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Tseng, Yi-Jhan; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated the subsequent memory and forgotten effects for Chinese using event-related fMRI. Sixteen normal subjects were recruited and performing incidental memory tasks where semantic decision was required during memory encoding. Consistent with previous studies, our results showed bilateral frontal regions as the main locus for the subsequent memory effect. However, contrast between miss and hit responses revealed larger activation in bilateral superior temporal gyrus. We proposed that larger activation in the superior temporal gyrus may reflect alteration of self-monitoring process which resulted in unsuccessful memory encoding for the miss items. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Age, growth, and maturity of round whitefish of the Apostle Islands and Isle Royale Regions, Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Merryll M.

    1963-01-01

    The round whitefish has been of some commercial importance in the upper Great Lakes but production in Lake Superior has generally been small; the United States average was 26,600 pounds for 1929-59. This study is based on 1,173 fish collected in the Apostle Islands in 1958-60 and 103 collected at Isle Royale in 1958 and 1960. The average age of 6.0 years at Isle Royale was concluded to be significantly higher than the mean of 4.2 years in the Apostle Islands. The body-scale relation is a straight line with an intercept of 1.1 inches on the length axis. Weight of Apostle Islands round whitefish captured in several months increased as the 3.22 power of the length. Growth in length was relatively slow; nearly or fully 7 years were required to reach an acceptable commercial length of 14 inches in both the Apostle Islands and at Isle Royale. The calculated weights at the end of the seventh year were 12.6 ounces in the Apostle Islands and 13.8 ounces at Isle Royale. Minimum length at maturity of male round whitefish (7.0-7.4 inches) was less than that of females (8.5-8.9 inches). At age-group II, 11.1 percent of male round whitefish, but only 1.5 percent of the females were mature. All males were mature as age-group V and all females as age-group VI. Males dominated the younger age groups but females were more numerous in the older ones. Estimates of the number of eggs in 37 round whitefish ovaries yielded an average of 5,330 eggs for fish 10.5-17.4 inches long.

  1. Increased functional connectivity between superior colliculus and brain regions implicated in bodily self-consciousness during the rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivé, Isadora; Tempelmann, Claus; Berthoz, Alain; Heinze, Hans-Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Bodily self-consciousness refers to bodily processes operating at personal, peripersonal, and extrapersonal spatial dimensions. Although the neural underpinnings of representations of personal and peripersonal space associated with bodily self-consciousness were thoroughly investigated, relatively few is known about the neural underpinnings of representations of extrapersonal space relevant for bodily self-consciousness. In the search to unravel brain structures generating a representation of the extrapersonal space relevant for bodily self-consciousness, we developed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to investigate the implication of the superior colliculus (SC) in bodily illusions, and more specifically in the rubber hand illusion (RHi), which constitutes an established paradigm to study the neural underpinnings of bodily self-consciousness. We observed activation of the colliculus ipsilateral to the manipulated hand associated with eliciting of RHi. A generalized form of context-dependent psychophysiological interaction analysis unravelled increased illusion-dependent functional connectivity between the SC and some of the main brain areas previously involved in bodily self-consciousness: right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), bilateral ventral premotor cortex (vPM), and bilateral postcentral gyrus. We hypothesize that the collicular map of the extrapersonal space interacts with maps of the peripersonal and personal space generated at rTPJ, vPM and the postcentral gyrus, producing a unified representation of space that is relevant for bodily self-consciousness. We suggest that processes of multisensory integration of bodily-related sensory inputs located in this unified representation of space constitute one main factor underpinning emergence of bodily self-consciousness. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Integración regional centroamericana de la Educación Superior Pública: escenarios y desafíos / Central america regional integration of the public higher education: challenges and scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Varela, Luis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se aborda aquí un breve análisis acerca de la globalización y de la sociedad del conocimiento, en su relación con las iniciativas de articulación académica interinstitucional y de integración regional impulsadas por las instituciones de educación superior pública de Centroamérica, a partir de 1995 y en el escenario asociativo del Consejo Superior Universitario Centroamericano (CSUCA. El propósito consiste en identificar elementos que permitan discernir el carácter y los niveles de reconfiguración académica e institucional que, de manera general, las nuevas realidades estructurales en curso acarrean para la educación superior pública de Centroamérica.Abstract:This article develops a brief analysis about globalization and the society of knowledge in terms of the attempts of inter-institutional and regional academic articulation proposed –since 1995- by the Central American institutions of higher education through Consejo Superior Universitario Centroamericano (CSUCA. The principal aim is to identify those elements that could clarify the character and the levels of the academic and institutional reconfiguration that, in a general way, the new ongoing structural realities demand from Central American public higher education.

  3. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Yong; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Yoon, Byung Woo; Lee, Sang Bok; Jeon, Beom S.; Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Myung Chul

    1996-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p 0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  4. Altered spontaneous activity of posterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal gyrus are associated with a smoking cessation treatment outcome using varenicline revealed by regional homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Shen, Zhujing; Huang, Peiyu; Qian, Wei; Yu, Xinfeng; Sun, Jianzhong; Yu, Hualiang; Yang, Yihong; Zhang, Minming

    2017-06-01

    Compared to nonsmokers, smokers exhibit a number of potentially important differences in regional brain function. However, little is known about the associations between the local spontaneous brain activity and smoking cessation treatment outcomes. In the present analysis, we aimed to evaluate whether the local features of spontaneous brain activity prior to the target quit date was associated with the smoking cessation outcomes. All the participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans and smoking-related behavioral assessments. After a 12-week treatment with varenicline, 23 smokers succeeded in quitting smoking and 32 failed. Smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning prior to an open label smoking cessation treatment trial. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to measure spontaneous brain activity, and whole-brain voxel-wise comparisons of ReHo were performed to detect brain regions with altered spontaneous brain activity between relapser and quitter groups. After controlling for potentially confounding factors including years of education, years smoked, cigarettes smoked per day and FTND score as covariates, compared to quitters, relapsers displayed significantly decreased ReHo in bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), as well as increased ReHo in left superior temporal gyrus (STG). These preliminary results suggest that regional brain function variables may be promising predictors of smoking relapse. This study provided novel insights into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying smoking relapse. A deeper understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms associated with relapse may result in novel pharmacological and behavioral interventions.

  5. Patients with poor response to antipsychotics have a more severe pattern of frontal atrophy: a voxel-based morphometry study of treatment resistance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarantelli, Mario; Palladino, Olga; Prinster, Anna; Schiavone, Vittorio; Carotenuto, Barbara; Brunetti, Arturo; Marsili, Angela; Casiello, Margherita; Muscettola, Giovanni; Salvatore, Marco; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 30% of schizophrenia patients do not respond adequately to the therapy. Previous MRI studies have suggested that drug treatment resistance is associated with brain morphological abnormalities, although region-of-interest analysis of MR studies from nonresponder and responder patients failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference between these two schizophrenia subgroups. We have used a voxel-based analysis of segmented MR studies to assess structural cerebral differences in 20 nonresponder and 15 responder patients and 16 age-matched normal volunteers. Differences between the three groups emerged bilaterally mainly at the level of the superior and middle frontal gyri, primarily due to reduced grey matter volumes in nonresponders, as compared to both normal volunteers and responder patients. Post hoc direct comparison between the two schizophrenia subgroups demonstrated significantly reduced grey matter volumes in middle frontal gyrus bilaterally, in the dorsolateral aspects of left superior frontal gyrus extending into postcentral gyrus and in the right medial temporal cortex. Our results extend and integrate previous findings suggesting a more severe atrophy in nonresponder schizophrenia patients, compared to responder patients, mainly at the level of the superior and middle frontal gyri. Longitudinal studies in drug-naïve patients are needed to assess the role of these associations.

  6. Enhanced activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus in deaf and dyslexic adults during rhyming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacSweeney, Mairéad; Brammer, Michael J; Waters, Dafydd; Goswami, Usha

    2009-07-01

    Hearing developmental dyslexics and profoundly deaf individuals both have difficulties processing the internal structure of words (phonological processing) and learning to read. In hearing non-impaired readers, the development of phonological representations depends on audition. In hearing dyslexics, many argue, auditory processes may be impaired. In congenitally profoundly deaf individuals, auditory speech processing is essentially absent. Two separate literatures have previously reported enhanced activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus in both deaf and dyslexic adults when contrasted with hearing non-dyslexics during reading or phonological tasks. Here, we used a rhyme judgement task to compare adults from these two special populations to a hearing non-dyslexic control group. All groups were matched on non-verbal intelligence quotient, reading age and rhyme performance. Picture stimuli were used since this requires participants to generate their own phonological representations, rather than have them partially provided via text. By testing well-matched groups of participants on the same task, we aimed to establish whether previous literatures reporting differences between individuals with and without phonological processing difficulties have identified the same regions of differential activation in these two distinct populations. The data indicate greater activation in the deaf and dyslexic groups than in the hearing non-dyslexic group across a large portion of the left inferior frontal gyrus. This includes the pars triangularis, extending superiorly into the middle frontal gyrus and posteriorly to include the pars opercularis, and the junction with the ventral precentral gyrus. Within the left inferior frontal gyrus, there was variability between the two groups with phonological processing difficulties. The superior posterior tip of the left pars opercularis, extending into the precentral gyrus, was activated to a greater extent by deaf than dyslexic

  7. Frontal Integration and Coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    reciprocal to Mesolimbic dopamine activity (mood). The study aims to explore interpersonal differences in coping associated with neural properties. Method: Neuroeconomic literature search of how neural centers of Rc2/L shape risk attitude2 or coping. Results: General risk attitude is a right skewed...... to the classical tempers. In prospect, differentiating the Frontal integration pattern by temper (General risk attitude) opens an evidence-based pathway for individually tailored neural training towards advanced social objectives as multidisciplinary collaboration and healthy living. References 1. Larsen T...

  8. Acute Infantile Encephalopathy Predominantly Affecting The Frontal Lobes (AIEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raha, Sarbani; Udani, Vrajesh

    2012-12-01

    Acute Infantile Encephalopathy Predominantly Affecting the Frontal Lobes (AIEF) is a relatively recent described entity. This article includes case reports of two patients who had bifrontal involvement during acute febrile encephalopathy. Case 1 describes a 1-y-old boy who presented with hyperpyrexia and dialeptic seizures. Imaging revealed significant bilateral frontal lobe involvement while serology proved presence of Influenza B infection. Over a period of one wk, he recovered with significant cognitive decline and perseveratory behavior. Another 6-y-old boy presented with language and behavioral problems suggestive of frontal dysfunction after recovering from prolonged impairment of consciousness following a convulsive status epilepticus. Bilateral superior frontal lesions with gyral swelling was evident on neuroimaging. These cases are among the very few cases of AIEF described in recent literature and the article also reviews this unique subtype of acute encephalopathy.

  9. Optimal Placement of Cerebral Oximeter Monitors to Avoid the Frontal Sinus as Determined by Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alexander J; Hatem, Muhammed A; Yee, Kevin; Grocott, Hilary P

    2016-01-01

    To determine the optimal location to place cerebral oximeter optodes to avoid the frontal sinus, using the orbit of the skull as a landmark. Retrospective observational study. Academic hospital. Fifty adult patients with previously acquired computed tomography angiography scans of the head. The distance between the superior orbit of the skull and the most superior edge of the frontal sinus was measured using imaging software. The mean (SD) frontal sinus height was 16.4 (7.2) mm. There was a nonsignificant trend toward larger frontal sinus height in men compared with women (p = 0.12). Age, height, and body surface area did not correlate with frontal sinus height. Head circumference was positively correlated (r = 0.32; p = 0.03) to frontal sinus height, with a low level of predictability based on linear regression (R(2) = 0.10; p = 0.02). Placing cerebral oximeter optodes>3 cm from the superior rim of the orbit will avoid the frontal sinus in>98% of patients. Predicting the frontal sinus height based on common patient variables is difficult. Additional studies are required to evaluate the recommended height in pediatric populations and patients of various ethnic backgrounds. The clinical relevance of avoiding the frontal sinus also needs to be further elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Superior temporal gyrus thickness correlates with cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Asaf; Chapman, Joab; Tal, Sigal; Bercovich, Eran; Gil, Hararai; Achiron, Anat

    2013-07-01

    Decreased cortical thickness that signifies gray matter pathology and its impact on cognitive performance is a research field with growing interest in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and needs to be further elucidated. Using high-field 3.0 T MRI, three-dimensional T1-FSPGR (voxel size 1 × 1 × 1 mm) cortical thickness was measured in 82 regions in the left hemisphere (LH) and right hemisphere (RH) in 20 RRMS patients with low disease activity and in 20 age-matched healthy subjects that in parallel underwent comprehensive cognitive evaluation. The correlation between local cortical atrophy and cognitive performance was examined. We identified seven regions with cortical tissue loss that differed between RRMS and age-matched healthy controls. These regions were mainly located in the frontal and temporal lobes, specifically within the gyrus rectus, inferior frontal sulcus, orbital gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus, with preferential left asymmetry. Increased cortical thickness was identified in two visual sensory regions, the LH inferior occipital gyrus, and the RH cuneus, implicating adaptive plasticity. Correlation analysis demonstrated that only the LH superior temporal gyrus thickness was associated with cognitive performance and its thickness correlated with motor skills (r = 0.65, p = 0.003), attention (r = 0.45, p = 0.042), and information processing speed (r = 0.50, p = 0.025). Our findings show that restricted cortical thinning occurs in RRMS patients with mild disease and that LH superior temporal gyrus atrophy is associated with cognitive dysfunction.

  11. Frontal White Matter Damage Impairs Response Inhibition in Children Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipszyc, Jonathan; Levin, Harvey; Hanten, Gerri; Hunter, Jill; Dennis, Maureen; Schachar, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition, the ability to suppress inappropriate cognitions or behaviors, can be measured using computer tasks and questionnaires. Inhibition depends on the frontal cortex, but the role of the underlying white matter (WM) is unclear. We assessed the specific impact of frontal WM damage on inhibition in 29 children with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (15 with and 14 without frontal WM damage), 21 children with orthopedic injury, and 29 population controls. We used the Stop Signal Task to measure response inhibition, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function to assess everyday inhibition, and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging to identify lesions. Children with frontal WM damage had impaired response inhibition compared with all other groups and poorer everyday inhibition than the orthopedic injury group. Frontal WM lesions most often affected the superior frontal gyrus. These results provide evidence for the critical role of frontal WM in inhibition. PMID:24618405

  12. Pediatric frontal mucocele secondary to a bifid frontal sinus septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikaitis, Christina M; Purzycki, Adam R; Couture, Daniel; David, Lisa R

    2010-09-01

    A mucocele is a mucus-containing sac lined with epithelium that arises within a sinus when its drainage is compromised. The frontal sinus is the most common location, with frontal mucocele development occurring when the nasofrontal duct becomes obstructed because of polyps, bone tumors, prior surgery, sinusitis, trauma, or anatomic variation. We report an unusual case of a sterile pediatric frontal mucocele presenting as a slowly enlarging forehead mass due to a bifid frontal sinus septum. A 9-year-old girl presented to the craniofacial clinic for evaluation of a right frontal mass that had been slowly growing over the past year. She was otherwise healthy and had no history of previous trauma or sinus infections. Computed tomography (CT) scan results revealed a localized frontal fluid collection with protrusion and thinning of the anterior frontal bone between 2 midline bony septii. Surgical cranialization of the frontal sinus was performed. The anatomy of her lesion seen both on CT scan and intraoperatively likely explains this unusual case presentation. Instead of the usual inciting event of an intact frontal sinus drainage system becoming blocked, this patient seemed to have a primary developmental lack of any drainage system that led to her mucocele. During formation of her frontal sinus, she developed a bifid septum within the midline that excluded a portion of her frontal sinus from the lateral nasofrontal ducts. With mucus-producing epithelium trapped within these bony confines, pressure began to mount with expansion and thinning of the bone both anteriorly and posteriorly. The lack of any infectious symptoms and sterile culture results may support that this space developed primarily and was never in continuity with the external drainage system. Only 4 other patients have been reported with asymptomatic forehead swelling as the only presenting symptom, with the age ranging from 33 to 79 years. This patient represents the first clinical report of a congenital

  13. What makes a frontal area of primate brain the frontal eye field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre ePouget

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The frontal eye field region (FEF of the oculomotor pathways has been intensely studied. The primary goal of this review is to illustrate the phylogenetic displacement of the FEF locus in primate species. The locus is arrayed along the arcuate sulcus in monkeys and abuts into the primary motor strip region in humans. The strengths and limitations of the various functional, anatomical and histological methodologies used to identify such regions are also discussed.

  14. Functional and anatomical connectivity abnormalities in left inferior frontal gyrus in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Bumseok; Wible, Cynthia G; Hashimoto, Ryu-ichiro; Kubicki, Marek

    2009-12-01

    Functional studies in schizophrenia demonstrate prominent abnormalities within the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and also suggest the functional connectivity abnormalities in language network including left IFG and superior temporal gyrus during semantic processing. White matter connections between regions involved in the semantic network have also been indicated in schizophrenia. However, an association between functional and anatomical connectivity disruptions within the semantic network in schizophrenia has not been established. Functional (using levels of processing paradigm) as well as diffusion tensor imaging data from 10 controls and 10 chronic schizophrenics were acquired and analyzed. First, semantic encoding specific activation was estimated, showing decreased activation within the left IFG in schizophrenia. Second, functional time series were extracted from this area, and left IFG specific functional connectivity maps were produced for each subject. In an independent analysis, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) values between groups, and to correlate these values with functional connectivity maps. Schizophrenia patients showed weaker functional connectivity within the language network that includes left IFG and left superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus. FA was reduced in several white matter regions including left inferior frontal and left internal capsule. Finally, left inferior frontal white matter FA was positively correlated with connectivity measures of the semantic network in schizophrenics, but not in controls. Our results indicate an association between anatomical and functional connectivity abnormalities within the semantic network in schizophrenia, suggesting further that the functional abnormalities observed in this disorder might be directly related to white matter disruptions. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Frontal dysconnectivity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: an atlas-based functional connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiaccio, Leah M; Coman, Ioana L; Thompson, Carlie A; Fremont, Wanda P; Antshel, Kevin M; Kates, Wendy R

    2018-01-20

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with deficits in cognitive and emotional processing. This syndrome represents one of the highest risk factors for the development of schizophrenia. Previous studies of functional connectivity (FC) in 22q11DS report aberrant connectivity patterns in large-scale networks that are associated with the development of psychotic symptoms. In this study, we performed a functional connectivity analysis using the CONN toolbox to test for differential connectivity patterns between 54 individuals with 22q11DS and 30 healthy controls, between the ages of 17-25 years old. We mapped resting-state fMRI data onto 68 atlas-based regions of interest (ROIs) generated by the Desikan-Killany atlas in FreeSurfer, resulting in 2278 ROI-to-ROI connections for which we determined total linear temporal associations between each. Within the group with 22q11DS only, we further tested the association between prodromal symptoms of psychosis and FC. We observed that relative to controls, individuals with 22q11DS displayed increased FC in lobar networks involving the frontal-frontal, frontal-parietal, and frontal-occipital ROIs. In contrast, FC between ROIs in the parietal-temporal and occipital lobes was reduced in the 22q11DS group relative to healthy controls. Moreover, positive psychotic symptoms were positively associated with increased functional connections between the left precuneus and right superior frontal gyrus, as well as reduced functional connectivity between the bilateral pericalcarine. Positive symptoms were negatively associated with increased functional connectivity between the right pericalcarine and right postcentral gyrus. Our results suggest that functional organization may be altered in 22q11DS, leading to disruption in connectivity between frontal and other lobar substructures, and potentially increasing risk for prodromal psychosis.

  16. Determination of hemisphere dominance for language: comparison of frontal and temporal fMRI activation with intracarotid amytal testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spreer, J.; Arnold, S.; Ziyeh, S.; Klisch, J.; Schumacher, M.; Quiske, A.; Altenmueller, D.; Schulze-Bonhage, A.; Wohlfarth, R.; Steinhoff, B.J.; Herpers, M.; Kassubek, J.; Honegger, J.

    2002-01-01

    The reliability of frontal and temporal fMRI activations for the determination of hemisphere language dominance was evaluated in comparison with intracarotid amytal testing (IAT). Twenty-two patients were studied by IAT (bilateral in 13, unilateral in 9 patients) and fMRI using a paradigm requiring semantic decisions. Global and regional (frontal and temporoparietal) lateralisation indices (LI) were calculated from the number of activated (r>0.4) voxels in both hemispheres. Frontolateral activations associated with the language task were seen in all patients, temporoparietal activations in 20 of 22. Regional LI corresponded better with IAT results than global LI. Frontolateral LI were consistent with IAT in all patients with bilateral IAT (including three patients with right dominant and one patient with bilateral language representation) and were not conflicting in any of the patients with unilateral IAT. Temporoparietal LI were discordant with IAT in two patients with atypical language representation. In the determination of hemisphere dominance for language, regional analysis of fMRI activation is superior to global analysis. In cases with clear-cut fMRI lateralisation, i.e. consistent lateralised activation of frontal and temporoparietal language zones, IAT may be unnecessary. FMRI should be performed prior to IAT in all patients going to be operated in brain regions potentially involved in language. (orig.)

  17. Origami by frontal photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zeang; Wu, Jiangtao; Mu, Xiaoming; Chen, Haosen; Qi, H Jerry; Fang, Daining

    2017-04-01

    Origami structures are of great interest in microelectronics, soft actuators, mechanical metamaterials, and biomedical devices. Current methods of fabricating origami structures still have several limitations, such as complex material systems or tedious processing steps. We present a simple approach for creating three-dimensional (3D) origami structures by the frontal photopolymerization method, which can be easily implemented by using a commercial projector. The concept of our method is based on the volume shrinkage during photopolymerization. By adding photoabsorbers into the polymer resin, an attenuated light field is created and leads to a nonuniform curing along the thickness direction. The layer directly exposed to light cures faster than the next layer; this nonuniform curing degree leads to nonuniform curing-induced volume shrinkage. This further introduces a nonuniform stress field, which drives the film to bend toward the newly formed side. The degree of bending can be controlled by adjusting the gray scale and the irradiation time, an easy approach for creating origami structures. The behavior is examined both experimentally and theoretically. Two methods are also proposed to create different types of 3D origami structures.

  18. The frontal-anatomic specificity of design fluency repetitions and their diagnostic relevance for behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possin, Katherine L; Chester, Serana K; Laluz, Victor; Bostrom, Alan; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2012-09-01

    On tests of design fluency, an examinee draws as many different designs as possible in a specified time limit while avoiding repetition. The neuroanatomical substrates and diagnostic group differences of design fluency repetition errors and total correct scores were examined in 110 individuals diagnosed with dementia, 53 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 37 neurologically healthy controls. The errors correlated significantly with volumes in the right and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the right and left superior frontal gyrus, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the right striatum, but did not correlate with volumes in any parietal or temporal lobe regions. Regression analyses indicated that the lateral OFC may be particularly crucial for preventing these errors, even after excluding patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from the analysis. Total correct correlated more diffusely with volumes in the right and left frontal and parietal cortex, the right temporal cortex, and the right striatum and thalamus. Patients diagnosed with bvFTD made significantly more repetition errors than patients diagnosed with MCI, Alzheimer's disease, semantic dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, or corticobasal syndrome. In contrast, total correct design scores did not differentiate the dementia patients. These results highlight the frontal-anatomic specificity of design fluency repetitions. In addition, the results indicate that the propensity to make these errors supports the diagnosis of bvFTD. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1-11).

  19. Dysfunctional frontal lobe activity during inhibitory tasks in individuals with childhood trauma: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungkean; Kim, Ji Sun; Jin, Min Jin; Im, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Individuals who experience childhood trauma are vulnerable to various psychological and behavioral problems throughout their lifetime. This study aimed to investigate whether individuals with childhood trauma show altered frontal lobe activity during response inhibition tasks. In total, 157 healthy individuals were recruited and instructed to perform a Go/Nogo task during electroencephalography recording. Source activities of N2 and P3 of Nogo event-related potentials (ERP) were analyzed. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) were applied. Individuals were divided into three groups based on their total CTQ score: low CTQ, middle CTQ, and high CTQ groups. The high CTQ group exhibited significantly higher BIS scores than the low CTQ group. P3 amplitudes of the differences between Nogo and Go ERP waves exhibited higher mean values in the low CTQ than the high CTQ group, with trending effects. In Nogo-P3, the source activities of the right anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral medial frontal cortex (MFC), bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and right precentral gyrus were significantly lower in the high CTQ than the low CTQ group. Motor impulsivity showed a significant negative correlation with activities of the bilateral MFC and SFG in Nogo-P3 conditions. Our study revealed that individuals with childhood trauma have inhibitory failure and frontal lobe dysfunction in regions related to Nogo-P3.

  20. SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and F-18 FDG PET in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the specific pattern of brain perfusion and glucose metabolism in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) family. Using Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. we assessed brain perfusion in 6 patients at interictal period and 5 patients at ictal period. Interictal F-18 FDG PET was performed on 6 affected family members. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The data of the affected family members were compared to those of the control subjects. Interictal F-18 FDG PET SPM group analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism over the left middle and superior frontal gyri and the left central regions including the anterior parietal lobe. There was a less pronounced decrease in glucose uptake in the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. Interictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis showed similar pattern of decreased perfusion compared to those of interictal F-18 FDG PET. Ictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis revealed increased perfusion over the left pre-and postcentral gyri and less pronounced increased perfusion in the right postcentral gyrus. lnterictal F -18 PET and brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis suggest that major abnormalities of ADNFLE family are in the left frontal lobe. These findings may be helpful to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare disease entity

  1. SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and F-18 FDG PET in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This study attempted to investigate the specific pattern of brain perfusion and glucose metabolism in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) family. Using Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. we assessed brain perfusion in 6 patients at interictal period and 5 patients at ictal period. Interictal F-18 FDG PET was performed on 6 affected family members. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The data of the affected family members were compared to those of the control subjects. Interictal F-18 FDG PET SPM group analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism over the left middle and superior frontal gyri and the left central regions including the anterior parietal lobe. There was a less pronounced decrease in glucose uptake in the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. Interictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis showed similar pattern of decreased perfusion compared to those of interictal F-18 FDG PET. Ictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis revealed increased perfusion over the left pre-and postcentral gyri and less pronounced increased perfusion in the right postcentral gyrus. lnterictal F -18 PET and brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis suggest that major abnormalities of ADNFLE family are in the left frontal lobe. These findings may be helpful to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare disease entity.

  2. Reduced frontal-subcortical white matter connectivity in association with suicidal ideation in major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, W; Han, C E; Fava, M; Mischoulon, D; Papakostas, G I; Heo, J-Y; Kim, K W; Kim, S T; Kim, D J H; Kim, D K; Seo, S W; Seong, J-K; Jeon, H J

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behavior have been associated with structural and functional changes in the brain. However, little is known regarding alterations of brain networks in MDD patients with suicidal ideation. We investigated whether or not MDD patients with suicidal ideation have different topological organizations of white matter networks compared with MDD patients without suicidal ideation. Participants consisted of 24 patients with MDD and suicidal ideation, 25 age- and gender-matched MDD patients without suicidal ideation and 31 healthy subjects. A network-based statistics (NBS) and a graph theoretical analysis were performed to assess differences in the inter-regional connectivity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to assess topological changes according to suicidal ideation in MDD patients. The Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Korean version of the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) were used to assess the severity of suicidal ideation and impulsivity, respectively. Reduced structural connectivity in a characterized subnetwork was found in patients with MDD and suicidal ideation by utilizing NBS analysis. The subnetwork included the regions of the frontosubcortical circuits and the regions involved in executive function in the left hemisphere (rostral middle frontal, pallidum, superior parietal, frontal pole, caudate, putamen and thalamus). The graph theoretical analysis demonstrated that network measures of the left rostral middle frontal had a significant positive correlation with severity of SSI (r=0.59, P=0.02) and BIS (r=0.59, P=0.01). The total edge strength that was significantly associated with suicidal ideation did not differ between MDD patients without suicidal ideation and healthy subjects. Our findings suggest that the reduced frontosubcortical circuit of structural connectivity, which includes regions associated with executive function and impulsivity, appears to have a role in the emergence of suicidal

  3. Deep neural networks show an equivalent and often superior performance to dermatologists in onychomycosis diagnosis: Automatic construction of onychomycosis datasets by region-based convolutional deep neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Seog Han

    Full Text Available Although there have been reports of the successful diagnosis of skin disorders using deep learning, unrealistically large clinical image datasets are required for artificial intelligence (AI training. We created datasets of standardized nail images using a region-based convolutional neural network (R-CNN trained to distinguish the nail from the background. We used R-CNN to generate training datasets of 49,567 images, which we then used to fine-tune the ResNet-152 and VGG-19 models. The validation datasets comprised 100 and 194 images from Inje University (B1 and B2 datasets, respectively, 125 images from Hallym University (C dataset, and 939 images from Seoul National University (D dataset. The AI (ensemble model; ResNet-152 + VGG-19 + feedforward neural networks results showed test sensitivity/specificity/ area under the curve values of (96.0 / 94.7 / 0.98, (82.7 / 96.7 / 0.95, (92.3 / 79.3 / 0.93, (87.7 / 69.3 / 0.82 for the B1, B2, C, and D datasets. With a combination of the B1 and C datasets, the AI Youden index was significantly (p = 0.01 higher than that of 42 dermatologists doing the same assessment manually. For B1+C and B2+ D dataset combinations, almost none of the dermatologists performed as well as the AI. By training with a dataset comprising 49,567 images, we achieved a diagnostic accuracy for onychomycosis using deep learning that was superior to that of most of the dermatologists who participated in this study.

  4. Deep neural networks show an equivalent and often superior performance to dermatologists in onychomycosis diagnosis: Automatic construction of onychomycosis datasets by region-based convolutional deep neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Seog; Park, Gyeong Hun; Lim, Woohyung; Kim, Myoung Shin; Na, Jung Im; Park, Ilwoo; Chang, Sung Eun

    2018-01-01

    Although there have been reports of the successful diagnosis of skin disorders using deep learning, unrealistically large clinical image datasets are required for artificial intelligence (AI) training. We created datasets of standardized nail images using a region-based convolutional neural network (R-CNN) trained to distinguish the nail from the background. We used R-CNN to generate training datasets of 49,567 images, which we then used to fine-tune the ResNet-152 and VGG-19 models. The validation datasets comprised 100 and 194 images from Inje University (B1 and B2 datasets, respectively), 125 images from Hallym University (C dataset), and 939 images from Seoul National University (D dataset). The AI (ensemble model; ResNet-152 + VGG-19 + feedforward neural networks) results showed test sensitivity/specificity/ area under the curve values of (96.0 / 94.7 / 0.98), (82.7 / 96.7 / 0.95), (92.3 / 79.3 / 0.93), (87.7 / 69.3 / 0.82) for the B1, B2, C, and D datasets. With a combination of the B1 and C datasets, the AI Youden index was significantly (p = 0.01) higher than that of 42 dermatologists doing the same assessment manually. For B1+C and B2+ D dataset combinations, almost none of the dermatologists performed as well as the AI. By training with a dataset comprising 49,567 images, we achieved a diagnostic accuracy for onychomycosis using deep learning that was superior to that of most of the dermatologists who participated in this study.

  5. Self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus III network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2017-04-21

    Proprioception is somatic sensation that allows us to sense and recognize position, posture, and their changes in our body parts. It pertains directly to oneself and may contribute to bodily awareness. Likewise, one's face is a symbol of oneself, so that visual self-face recognition directly contributes to the awareness of self as distinct from others. Recently, we showed that right-hemispheric dominant activity in the inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF III), is associated with proprioceptive illusion (awareness), in concert with sensorimotor activity. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that visual self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal SLF III network. We scanned brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while twenty-two right-handed healthy adults performed two tasks. One was a proprioceptive illusion task, where blindfolded participants experienced a proprioceptive illusion of right hand movement. The other was a visual self-face recognition task, where the participants judged whether an observed face was their own. We examined whether the self-face recognition and the proprioceptive illusion commonly activated the inferior fronto-parietal cortices connected by the SLF III in a right-hemispheric dominant manner. Despite the difference in sensory modality and in the body parts involved in the two tasks, both tasks activated the right inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are likely connected by the SLF III, in a right-side dominant manner. Here we discuss possible roles for right inferior fronto-parietal activity in bodily awareness and self-awareness. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Challenge-driven attention: interacting frontal and brainstem systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev D S Raizada

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is an unpredictable place, presenting challenges that fl uctuate from moment to moment. However, the neural systems for responding to such challenges are far from fully understood. Using fMRI, we studied an audiovisual task in which the trials' diffi culty and onset times varied unpredictably. Two regions were found to increase their activation for challenging trials, with their activities strongly correlated: right frontal cortex and the brainstem. The frontal area matched regions found in previous human studies of cognitive control, and activated in a graded manner with increasing task diffi culty. The brainstem responded only to the most diffi cult trials, showing a phasic activity pattern paralleling locus coeruleus recordings in monkeys. These results reveal a bridge between animal and human studies, and suggest interacting roles for the brainstem and right frontal cortex: the brainstem may signal that an attentional challenge is occurring, while right frontal cortex allocates cognitive resources in response.

  7. Amygdala-frontal connectivity predicts internalizing symptom recovery among inpatient adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla; Patriquin, Michelle; Salas, Ramiro; Newlin, Elizabeth; Curtis, Kaylah; Baldwin, Philip; Fowler, Christopher; Frueh, B Christopher

    2018-01-01

    The possibility of using biological measures to predict the trajectory of symptoms among adolescent psychiatric inpatients has important implications. This study aimed to examine emotion regulation ability (measured via self-report) and a hypothesized proxy in resting-state functional connectivity [RSFC] between the amygdala and frontal brain regions as baseline predictors of internalizing symptom recovery during inpatient care. 196 adolescents (61% female; Mage = 15.20; SD = 1.48) completed the Achenbach Brief Problem Monitor (BPM) each week during their inpatient care. RSFC (n = 45) and self-report data of emotion regulation (n = 196) were collected at baseline. The average internalizing symptom score at admission was high (α 0 = 66.52), exceeding the BPM's clinical cut off score of 65. On average, internalizing symptom scores declined significantly, by 0.40 points per week (p = 0.004). While self-reported emotion regulation was associated with admission levels of internalizing problems, it did not predict change in symptoms. RSFC between left amygdala and left superior frontal gyrus was significantly associated with the intercept-higher connectivity was associated with higher internalizing at admission-and the slope- higher connectivity was associated with a more positive slope (i.e., less decline in symptoms). RSFC between the right amygdala and the left superior frontal gyrus was significantly, positively correlated with the slope parameter. Results indicate the potential of biologically-based measures that can be developed further for personalized care in adolescent psychiatry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Pott's puffy tumor: a rare complication of frontal sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aínsa Laguna, D; Pons Morales, S; Muñoz Tormo-Figueres, A; Vega Senra, M I; Otero Reigada, M C

    2014-05-01

    Pott's puffy tumor is a rare complication of frontal sinusitis characterized by swelling and edema in the brow due to a subperiosteal abscess associated with frontal osteomyelitis. Added complications are cellulitis by extension to the orbit and intracranial infection by posterior extension, with high risk of meningitis, intracranial abscess, and venous sinus thrombosis. Early diagnosis and aggressive medical or surgical treatment are essential for optimal recovery of affected patients. In the antibiotic age it is extremely rare, with very few cases described in the recent literature. A case is presented of a Pott inflammatory tumor in a 7 year-old boy, as a complication of acute pansinusitis who presented with front preseptal swelling and intracranial involvement with thrombosis of ophthalmic and superior orbital veins and frontal epidural abscess extending to the subarachnoid space. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Left-right cortical asymmetries of regional cerebral blood flow during listening to words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishizawa, Y; Olsen, T S; Larsen, B

    1982-01-01

    1. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured during rest and during listening to simple words. The xenon-133 intracarotid technique was used and results were obtained from 254 regions of seven right hemispheres and seven left hemispheres. The measurements were performed just after carotid...... of the entire hemisphere. The focal rCBF increases were localized to the superior part of the temporal regions, the prefrontal regions, the frontal eye fields, and the orbitofrontal regions. Significant asymmetries were found in particular in the superior temporal region with the left side showing a more...

  10. Reduced frontal brain volume in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals: exploring the role of impulsivity, depression, and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Kaag, Anne Marije; van Wingen, Guido; van den Munkhof, Hanna E; Homberg, Judith R; Reneman, Liesbeth; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent patients, gray matter (GM) volume reductions have been observed in the frontal lobes that are associated with the duration of cocaine use. Studies are mostly restricted to treatment-seekers and studies in non-treatment-seeking cocaine abusers are sparse. Here, we assessed GM volume differences between 30 non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals and 33 non-drug using controls using voxel-based morphometry. Additionally, within the group of non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals, we explored the role of frequently co-occurring features such as trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale, BIS), smoking, and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), as well as the role of cocaine use duration, on frontal GM volume. Smaller GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals were observed in the left middle frontal gyrus. Moreover, within the group of cocaine users, trait impulsivity was associated with reduced GM volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, and the right superior frontal gyrus, whereas no effect of smoking severity, depressive symptoms, or duration of cocaine use was observed on regional GM volumes. Our data show an important association between trait impulsivity and frontal GM volumes in cocaine-dependent individuals. In contrast to previous studies with treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent patients, no significant effects of smoking severity, depressive symptoms, or duration of cocaine use on frontal GM volume were observed. Reduced frontal GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent subjects are associated with trait impulsivity and are not associated with co-occurring nicotine dependence or depression.

  11. Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis Complicating Typhoid Fever in a Teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Okunola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous sinus (sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT is a rare life-threatening disorder in childhood that is often misdiagnosed. CSVT encompasses cavernous sinus thrombosis, lateral sinus thrombosis, and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST. We present an adolescent girl who was well until two weeks earlier when she had a throbbing frontal headache and fever with chills; she later had dyspnoea, jaundice, melena stool, multiple seizures, nuchal rigidity, and monoparesis of the right lower limb a day before admission. Urine test for Salmonella typhi Vi antigen was positive, and Widal reaction was significant. Serial cranial computerized tomography scans revealed an expanding hypodense lesion in the parafalcine region consistent with SSST or a parasagittal abscess. Inadvertent left parietal limited craniectomy confirmed SSST. She recovered completely with subsequent conservative management. Beyond neuropsychiatric complications of Typhoid fever, CSVT should be highly considered when focal neurologic deficits are present.

  12. Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding of Discrepant Fractional Anisotropy Between the Frontal and Parietal Lobes After Whole-Brain Irradiation in Childhood Medulloblastoma Survivors: Reflection of Regional White Matter Radiosensitivity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Deqiang; Kwong, Dora; Chan, Godfrey; Leung, Lucullus; Khong, P.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that fractional anisotropy (FA) is more severely reduced in white matter of the frontal lobe compared with the parietal lobe after receiving the same whole-brain irradiation dose in a cohort of childhood medulloblastoma survivors. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two medulloblastoma survivors (15 male, mean [± SD] age = 12.1 ± 4.6 years) and the same number of control subjects (15 male, aged 12.0 ± 4.2 years) were recruited for diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging scans. Using an automated tissue classification method and the Talairach Daemon atlas, FA values of frontal and parietal lobes receiving the same radiation dose, and the ratio between them were quantified and denoted as FFA, PFA, and FA f/p , respectively. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test for significant differences of FFA, PFA, and FA f/p between medulloblastoma survivors and control subjects. Results: Frontal lobe and parietal lobe white matter FA were found to be significantly less in medulloblastoma survivors compared with control subjects (frontal p = 0.001, parietal p = 0.026). Moreover, these differences were found to be discrepant, with the frontal lobe having a significantly larger difference in FA compared with the parietal lobe. The FA f/p of control and medulloblastoma survivors was 1.110 and 1.082, respectively (p = 0.029). Conclusion: Discrepant FA changes after the same irradiation dose suggest radiosensitivity of the frontal lobe white matter compared with the parietal lobe. Special efforts to address the potentially vulnerable frontal lobe after treatment with whole-brain radiation may be needed so as to balance disease control and treatment-related morbidity

  13. Treatment with a GLP-1R agonist over four weeks promotes weight loss-moderated changes in frontal-striatal brain structures in individuals with mood disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansur, Rodrigo B; Zugman, Andre; Ahmed, Juhie

    2017-01-01

    regions (e.g. RR: 1.011, p=0.049 in the left rostral middle frontal area). Changes in regional volumes were associated with improvement in executive function (e.g. r=0.698, p=0.003 for the right superior frontal area). Adjunctive liraglutide results in clinically significant weight loss......, with corresponding improvement in cognitive function; changes in cognitive function were partially moderated by changes in brain morphometry, underscoring the interrelationship between weight and brain structure/function.......Cognitive deficits are a core feature across psychiatric disorders. Emerging evidence indicates that metabolic pathways are highly relevant for the substrates and phenomenology of the cognitive domain. Herein, we aimed to determine the effects of liraglutide, a GLP-1R agonist, on brain structural...

  14. Venezuela e ALBA: regionalismo contra-hegemônico e ensino superior para todos Venezuela and the ALBA: counter-hegemonic regionalism and higher education for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Muhr

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de um quadro teórico neo-gramsciano crítico à globalização, este artigo aplica a nova teoria do regionalismo (NTR e a teoria do regionalismo regulatório (TRR à sua análise e teorização dos tratados de comércio da Aliança Bolivariana para os Povos da Nossa América (ALBA-TCP como regionalismo contra-hegemônico na América Latina e Caribe (ALC. A ALBA está centrada na ideia de um Socialismo do Século XXI, que, como (inicialmente também a Revolução Bolivariana da Venezuela, substitui a 'vantagem competitiva' pela 'vantagem cooperativa'. Em seu caráter de conjunto de processos multidimensionais e transnacionais a ALBA-TCP opera dentro de/transversalmente a um número de setores e escalas, ao mesmo passo que as transformações estruturais são movidas pela interação de agentes do Estado e agentes não estatais. A política de Educação Superior para Todos (ESPT do governo venezuelano rejeita a agenda neoliberal globalizada de mercadorização, privatização e elitismo e reinvindica educação pública gratuita em todos os níveis como um direito humano fundamental. A ESPT está sendo regionalizado em um espaço educacional emergente da ALBA e assume um papel-chave nos processos de democracia direta e participatória, dos quais a construção popular (bottom-up da contra-hegemonia e a redefinição política e econômica da ALC dependem. Antes de produzir sujeitos empreendedores conformes ao capitalismo global, a ESPT procura formar subjetividades ao longo de valores morais de solidariedade e cooperação. Isso será ilustrado com referência a um estudo etnográfico de caso da Universidade Bolivariana da Venezuela (UBV.This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC regionalism. As (initially the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian

  15. Frontal lobe epilepsy may present as myoclonic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Won; Yi, Sang Doe; Motamedi, Gholam K

    2010-04-01

    We describe a patient with seizures arising from right anterior-inferior frontal lobe presenting as myoclonic epilepsy. A 19-year-old man had experienced frequent paroxysmal bilateral myoclonic jerks involving his upper arms, shoulders, neck, and upper trunk since the age of 10. His baseline EEG showed intermittent right frontal spikes, and his ictal EEG showed rhythmic sharp theta discharges in the same area. MRI revealed cortical dysplasia in the right inferior frontal gyrus, and ictal-interictal SPECT analysis by SPM showed increased signal abnormality in this region. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) showed defects in fasciculi in the same area. These findings suggest that frontal lobe epilepsy should be considered in some patients with myoclonic seizures. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inferior frontal gyrus activation predicts individual differences in perceptual learning of cochlear-implant simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Frank; McGettigan, Carolyn; Faulkner, Andrew; Rosen, Stuart; Scott, Sophie K

    2010-05-26

    This study investigated the neural plasticity associated with perceptual learning of a cochlear implant (CI) simulation. Normal-hearing listeners were trained with vocoded and spectrally shifted speech simulating a CI while cortical responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A condition in which the vocoded speech was spectrally inverted provided a control for learnability and adaptation. Behavioral measures showed considerable individual variability both in the ability to learn to understand the degraded speech, and in phonological working memory capacity. Neurally, left-lateralized regions in superior temporal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were sensitive to the learnability of the simulations, but only the activity in prefrontal cortex correlated with interindividual variation in intelligibility scores and phonological working memory. A region in left angular gyrus (AG) showed an activation pattern that reflected learning over the course of the experiment, and covariation of activity in AG and IFG was modulated by the learnability of the stimuli. These results suggest that variation in listeners' ability to adjust to vocoded and spectrally shifted speech is partly reflected in differences in the recruitment of higher-level language processes in prefrontal cortex, and that this variability may further depend on functional links between the left inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus. Differences in the engagement of left inferior prefrontal cortex, and its covariation with posterior parietal areas, may thus underlie some of the variation in speech perception skills that have been observed in clinical populations of CI users.

  17. Superior episodic memory in inconsistent-handers: a replication and extension using fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, Ruth E; Patel, Neil; Christman, Stephen D; Carlei, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    A large body of evidence supports the existence of a robust handedness difference in episodic memory retrieval, with inconsistent-handedness being associated with superior memory across a wide variety of paradigms, including superior retrieval of lab-based and real world memories. Despite superior episidoc memory in inconsistent-handers, and despite neuroanatomical and neurophysiological differences in cortical regions between inconsistent- and consistent-handers, we are aware of no studies to date that have examined physiological activity in the brains of inconsistent- versus consistent-handers while engaged in memory tasks. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to present a first look at this issue, using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a simple, non-invasive measure of frontal lobe activity during encoding and recall of list words in inconsistent- and consistent-handers. Behaviourally, we replicated prior studies, finding a significant inconsistent-handed advantage in free recall. Using fNIRS-derived oxygenated haemoglobin (O 2 Hb) as a measure of frontal lobe activity, we found the first evidence for handedness differences in brain activity that are associated with the handedness differences in episodic retrieval. Specifically, the primary finding was that increased O 2 Hb in the right hemisphere during recall was associated with better retrieval, but for consistent-handers only.

  18. Changing climate in the Lake Superior region: a case study of the June 2012 flood and its effects on the western-lake water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, E. C.; Forsman, B.; Guildford, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    In Lake Superior, the world's largest freshwater lake by area, we are seeing annual surface-water temperature increases outpacing those of the overlying atmosphere. We are also seeing ever earlier onsets of water-column stratification (in data sets from the mid-1980s to the present). In Minnesota, including the Lake Superior watershed, precipitation patterns are also shifting toward fewer and more extreme storm events, such as the June 2012 solstice flood, which impacted the western Lake Superior basin. We are interested in how such climatological changes will affect nutrient and carbon biogeochemistry in Lake Superior. The lake is currently an oligotrophic system exhibiting light limitation of primary production in winter and spring, with summer primary production generally limited by phosphorus and sometimes co-limited by iron. Analyses in the western arm of Lake Superior showed that the June 2012 flood brought large amounts of sediment and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) from the watershed into the lake. There was initially a ~50-fold spike in the total phosphorus concentrations (and a 5 fold spike in soluble reactive phosphorus) in flood-impacted waters. This disappeared rapidly, in large part due to sediment settling and did not lead to an increase in chlorophyll concentrations at monitored sampling sites. Instead, lake phytoplankton appeared light limited by a surface lens of warm water enriched in CDOM that persisted for over a month after the flood event itself. Our observations highlight the need for continuing research on these complex in-lake processes in order to make accurate predictions about longer term impacts of these large episodic inputs in CDOM, sediment, and nutrient loading.

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow changes and neuropsychological functioning in early and late onset alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, B.; Ulug, B.; Ergun, E.; Erbas, B.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Chronic alcoholism is strongly associated with morphologic and functional abnormalities in the brain. The age-of-onset of alcoholism symptoms might be of discriminating value and can be used to subdivide the population into more homogeneous groups. The aim of the study was to compare late and early onset alcoholism with regard to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and neuropsychological functioning. Methods: Ten late onset (Type I) and thirteen early onset (Type II) male alcoholics were included in the study, the criterion being the age of onset for alcohol abuse. Six healthy, age-matched, male volunteers were included as a control group. rCBF changes were assessed using Tc-99m-HMPAO/SPECT after a detoxification period. Transaxial slices were assessed visually and semi quantitatively. Regional mean counts were divided to the mean counts of cerebellar and occipital regions to obtain semiquantitative ratios for superior frontal, middle frontal, inferior frontal, temporal and parietal lobes for the left and right hemispheres. The neuropsychological battery consisted of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Word Fluency Test. Results: Type I and II groups had significantly asymmetric blood flow in the frontal region compared to control group (Left frontal percentage; Type I%46.8±2, Type II=48.3±2.3, Control=50.8±3, p=0.008). The semiquantitative ratios for the frontal subregions were lower for the patients compared to those of control group, however, statistically significant difference was observed only for the ratio of superior frontal region to occipital region in type I patients, for both left and right. The difference between the two subgroups was not statistically significant. Both groups of alcoholic patients also displayed impairment in frontal lobe functions and non-verbal memory. No significant difference was detected between the alcoholic subgroups on neuropsychological measures. There was no significant correlation

  20. Functional brain networks contributing to the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory of Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhtin, Andrei A; Ryman, Sephira G; Flores, Ranee A; Jung, Rex E

    2014-12-01

    The refinement of localization of intelligence in the human brain is converging onto a distributed network that broadly conforms to the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT). While this theory has received support in the neuroimaging literature, no functional magnetic resonance imaging study to date has conducted a whole-brain network-wise examination of the changes during engagement in tasks that are reliable measures of general intelligence (e.g., Raven's Progressive Matrices Test; RPM). Seventy-nine healthy subjects were scanned while solving RPM problems and during rest. Functional networks were extracted from the RPM and resting state data using Independent Component Analysis. Twenty-nine networks were identified, 26 of which were detected in both conditions. Fourteen networks were significantly correlated with the RPM task. The networks' spatial maps and functional connectivity measures at 3 frequency levels (low, medium, & high) were compared between the RPM and rest conditions. The regions involved in the networks that were found to be task related were consistent with the P-FIT, localizing to the bilateral medial frontal and parietal regions, right superior frontal lobule, and the right cingulate gyrus. Functional connectivity in multiple component pairs was differentially affected across all frequency levels during the RPM task. Our findings demonstrate that functional brain networks are more stable than previously thought, and maintain their general features across resting state and engagement in a complex cognitive task. The described spatial and functional connectivity alterations that such components undergo during fluid reasoning provide a network-wise framework of the P-FIT that can be valuable for further, network based, neuroimaging inquiries regarding the neural underpinnings of intelligence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Smile and laughter elicited by electrical stimulation of the frontal operculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, F; Gozzo, F; Pelliccia, V; Cossu, M; Avanzini, P

    2016-08-01

    Laughter and smile are typical expressions of mirth and fundamental means of social communication. Despite their general interest, the current knowledge about the brain regions involved in the production of these expressions is still very limited, and the principal insights come from electrical stimulation (ES) studies in patients, in which, nevertheless, laughter or smile have been elicited very rarely. Previous studies showed that laughter is evoked by the stimulation of nodes of an emotional network encompassing the anterior cingulate, the superior frontal and basal temporal cortex. A common feature of these stimulation studies is that the facial expression was always accompanied by motor awareness and often by mirth, in line with the affective functions attributed to these regions. Little is known, in contrast, on the neural basis of the voluntary motor control of this expression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ES of the frontal operculum (FO), which is considered a crucial node for the linkage of the voluntary motor system for emotional expression and limbic emotional network. We report the case of ES applied to the frontal operculum (FO) in four patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy undergoing stereo-electroencephalographic (SEEG) implantation of intracerebral electrodes. In all patients, ES applied to the FO produced laughter or smile. Interestingly, in one patient, the production of a smiling expression was also clearly accompanied by the lack of motor awareness. Since the lack of motor awareness has been previously observed only after the stimulation of the voluntary motor network, we speculate that FO is involved in the voluntary control of facial expressions, and is placed at the interface with the emotional network, gating limbic information to the motor system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Normal frontal lobe gray matter-white matter CT volume ratio in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Engelhart, J.; Hasso, A.N.; Hinshaw, D.B. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    We attempted to establish a computed tomographic value representing the normal volume ratio of gray matter to white matter (G/W) in children in order to have a baseline for studying various developmental disorders such as white matter hypoplasia. The records of 150 children 16 years of age or younger who had normal cranial computed tomography were reviewed. From these a group of 119 were excluded for various reasons. The remaining 3 were presumed to have normal brains. Using the region of interest function for tracing gray and white matter boundaries, superior and ventral to the foramen of Munro area, measurements were determined for consecutive adjacent frontal slices. Volumes were then calculated for both gray and white matter. A volume ratio of 2.010 (sigma=0.349), G/W, was then derived from each of 31 children. The clinical value of this ratio will be determined by future investigation. (orig.)

  3. Response inhibition of face stimuli linked to inferior frontal gyrus microstructure in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Skjold, Jonathan; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Jernigan, Terry Lynne

    matter underlying these regions continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence, as indicated by in an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA), possibly reflecting ongoing myelination, and/or increase in axon diameter and density7,8. Here we used an emotional Go/Nogo task to test the hypothesis......The ability to inhibit inappropriate behavior is an essential cognitive and social skill. Response inhibition of pre-potent motor responses as measured with a stop-signal or a Go/Nogo task improves throughout adolescence1,2. Performance on these tasks can be modulated by the valence of task stimuli....... Inhibition of negative faces has been shown to be more difficult than that of positive faces1,3. The brain network underlying response inhibition includes the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) bilaterally 4–6. The white...

  4. Gray matter volume reduction in rostral middle frontal gyrus in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikinis, Z; Fallon, J H; Niznikiewicz, M; Nestor, P; Davidson, C; Bobrow, L; Pelavin, P E; Fischl, B; Yendiki, A; McCarley, R W; Kikinis, R; Kubicki, M; Shenton, M E

    2010-11-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a brain region that has figured prominently in studies of schizophrenia and working memory, yet the exact neuroanatomical localization of this brain region remains to be defined. DLPFC primarily involves the superior frontal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). The latter, however is not a single neuroanatomical entity but instead is comprised of rostral (anterior, middle, and posterior) and caudal regions. In this study we used structural MRI to develop a method for parcellating MFG into its component parts. We focused on this region of DLPFC because it includes BA46, a region involved in working memory. We evaluated volume differences in MFG in 20 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls. Mid-rostral MFG (MR-MFG) was delineated within the rostral MFG using anterior and posterior neuroanatomical landmarks derived from cytoarchitectonic definitions of BA46. Gray matter volumes of MR-MFG were then compared between groups, and a significant reduction in gray matter volume was observed (p<0.008), but not in other areas of MFG (i.e., anterior or posterior rostral MFG, or caudal regions of MFG). Our results demonstrate that volumetric alterations in MFG gray matter are localized exclusively to MR-MFG. 3D reconstructions of the cortical surface made it possible to follow MFG into its anterior part, where other approaches have failed. This method of parcellation offers a more precise way of measuring MR-MFG that will likely be important in further documentation of DLPFC anomalies in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The IMM Frontal Face Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2005-01-01

    This note describes a data set consisting of 120 annotated monocular images of 12 different frontal human faces. Points of correspondence are placed on each image so the data set can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Format specifications and terms of use are also given...

  6. Auditory attention enhances processing of positive and negative words in inferior and superior prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyn, Martin; Herbert, Cornelia; Ethofer, Thomas; Flaisch, Tobias; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-11-01

    Visually presented emotional words are processed preferentially and effects of emotional content are similar to those of explicit attention deployment in that both amplify visual processing. However, auditory processing of emotional words is less well characterized and interactions between emotional content and task-induced attention have not been fully understood. Here, we investigate auditory processing of emotional words, focussing on how auditory attention to positive and negative words impacts their cerebral processing. A Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study manipulating word valence and attention allocation was performed. Participants heard negative, positive and neutral words to which they either listened passively or attended by counting negative or positive words, respectively. Regardless of valence, active processing compared to passive listening increased activity in primary auditory cortex, left intraparietal sulcus, and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG). The attended valence elicited stronger activity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left SFG, in line with these regions' role in semantic retrieval and evaluative processing. No evidence for valence-specific attentional modulation in auditory regions or distinct valence-specific regional activations (i.e., negative > positive or positive > negative) was obtained. Thus, allocation of auditory attention to positive and negative words can substantially increase their processing in higher-order language and evaluative brain areas without modulating early stages of auditory processing. Inferior and superior frontal brain structures mediate interactions between emotional content, attention, and working memory when prosodically neutral speech is processed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interaction between DRD2 and lead exposure on the cortical thickness of the frontal lobe in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Jong-Min; Yun, Hyuk Jin; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Bongseog; Chae, Jonghee; Roh, Jaewoo; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2018-03-02

    The dopamine receptor D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and lead exposure are both thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is characterized by delay in brain maturation, most prominent in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The D2 receptor is also mainly located in the PFC, and animal studies show that lead exposure affects the dopaminergic system of the frontal lobe, indicating an overlap in neural correlates of ADHD, DRD2, and lead exposure. We examined the interaction effects of DRD2 rs1800497 and lead exposure on the cortical thickness of the frontal lobe in patients with ADHD. A 1:1 age- and gender-matched sample of 75 participants with ADHD and 75 healthy participants was included in the analysis. The interaction effects of DRD2 and lead exposure on the cortical thickness of 12 regions of interest in the frontal lobe were examined by multivariable linear regression analyses. When we investigated the DRD2×lead effects in the ADHD and HC groups separately, significant DRD2×lead effects were found in the ADHD group, but not in the healthy control group in multiple ROIs of the frontal lobe. There was a significant negative correlation between the cortical thickness of the right superior frontal gyrus and inattention scores. The present findings demonstrated significant interaction effects of DRD2 and lead exposure on the cortical thickness of the frontal lobe in ADHD. Replication studies with larger sample sizes, using a prospective design, are warranted to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Frontally confined versus frontally emergent submarine landslides: A 3D seismic characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey-Martinez, Jose; Cartwright, Joe; James, David [3DLab. School of Earth, Ocean and Planetary Sciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 914, Cardiff CF10 3YE (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data from the continental margin offshore Israel (Eastern Mediterranean) have been used to analyse the compressional structures within the toe regions of two major buried submarine landslides: the ISC and the T20. Both landslides are developed within a Plio-Pleistocene slope succession composed predominately of claystones, limestones and siltstones. The high spatial resolution provided by the seismic data has allowed a detailed analysis of the geometries and deformational structures within the toe regions of the two landslides, and this has been used to develop a mechanical model for their development. Importantly, it has been recognised that submarine landslides may be divided into two main types according to their form of frontal emplacement: frontally confined and frontally emergent. In the former, the landslide undergoes a restricted downslope translation and does not overrun the undeformed downslope strata. In the latter, much larger downslope translation occurs because the landslide is able to ramp up from its original basal shear surface and translate in an unconfined manner over the seafloor. We propose that these two types of submarine landslides are end members of a continuum of gravity-driven slope failure processes, which extends from landslides where the headscarp is completely evacuated, to landslides where the material remains entirely within the headscarp. The differentiation of these two end members is of critical importance as their respective mechanisms of formation, downslope propagation and emplacement are significantly different, and hence need to be taken into consideration when analysing their respective kinematics. (author)

  9. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  10. Airborne LiDAR analysis and geochronology of faulted glacial moraines in the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone reveal substantial seismic hazards in the Lake Tahoe region, California-Nevada USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, James F.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Schweickert, Richard A.; Finkel, Robert C.; Hunter, Lewis E.; Rose, Ronn S.; von Twistern, Brent

    2012-01-01

    We integrated high-resolution bare-earth airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) imagery with field observations and modern geochronology to characterize the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone, which forms the neotectonic boundary between the Sierra Nevada and the Basin and Range Province west of Lake Tahoe. The LiDAR imagery clearly delineates active normal faults that have displaced late Pleistocene glacial moraines and Holocene alluvium along 30 km of linear, right-stepping range front of the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone. Herein, we illustrate and describe the tectonic geomorphology of faulted lateral moraines. We have developed new, three-dimensional modeling techniques that utilize the high-resolution LiDAR data to determine tectonic displacements of moraine crests and alluvium. The statistically robust displacement models combined with new ages of the displaced Tioga (20.8 ± 1.4 ka) and Tahoe (69.2 ± 4.8 ka; 73.2 ± 8.7 ka) moraines are used to estimate the minimum vertical separation rate at 17 sites along the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone. Near the northern end of the study area, the minimum vertical separation rate is 1.5 ± 0.4 mm/yr, which represents a two- to threefold increase in estimates of seismic moment for the Lake Tahoe basin. From this study, we conclude that potential earthquake moment magnitudes (Mw) range from 6.3 ± 0.25 to 6.9 ± 0.25. A close spatial association of landslides and active faults suggests that landslides have been seismically triggered. Our study underscores that the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone poses substantial seismic and landslide hazards.

  11. Nontraumatic frontal lobe hemorrhages: Clinical-computed tomographic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.; Veterans Administration Hospital, New Orleans, LA; Charity Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1988-01-01

    Correlation of lesion location and appearance with clinical sequelae in 25 patients with CT-proven frontal lobe hematomas reveals 10 of 25 hematomas were located above the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles. Nine of the 10 patients were normotensive. All presented with contralateral motor and sensory deficits. Four of 25 hematomas were situated inferior to the frontal horns. All these patients were hypertensive, rapidly became comatose and exhibited hemiplegia, hemianestesia and gaze preference contralateral to the hemiplegia. Five patients had frontal hematomas which extended inward from the interhemispheric fissure or caval-septal region. All were normotensive. All had anterior cerebral-anterior communicating artery aneurysms on angiography. Four patients had hematomas involving both the frontal and temporal region. All were normotensive with no known cause for hemorrhage. Two patients had bifrontal hematomas; one had butterfly appearance extending across the interhemispheric fissure and the other was midline but had no interhemispheric blood. Both were normotensive. One had an anterior cerebral-anterior communicating artery aneurysm. (orig.)

  12. Frontal parenchymal atrophy measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Laura; Zivadinov, Robert; Grop, Attilio; Zorzon, Marino

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measures of whole and regional brain atrophy correlate better with tests assessing the cognitive function than the absolute brain atrophy measures. The neuropsychological performances and disability have been assessed in 39 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). T1- and T2-lesion load (LL) of total brain and frontal lobes (FLs) were measured using a reproducible semiautomated technique. The whole brain volume and the regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of FLs were obtained using a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semiautomated and automated segmentation processes. Normalized measures of brain atrophy, i.e., brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF) of FLs, were calculated. The scan-rescan, inter- and intrarater coefficient of variation (COV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) have been estimated. The RBPF of FLs showed an acceptable level of reproducibility which ranged from 1.7% for intrarater variability to 3.2% for scan-rescan variability. The mean ICC was 0.88 (CI 0.82-0.93). The RBPF of FLs demonstrated stronger magnitudes of correlation with neuropsychological functioning, disability and quantitative MRI lesion measures than RBPV. These differences were statistically significant: PColor Word Interference test, Pcognitive functions, whereas BPAV did not. The correlation analysis results were supported by the results of multiple regression analysis which showed that only the normalized brain atrophy measures were associated with tests exploring the cognitive functions. These data suggest that RBPF is a reproducible and sensitive method for measuring frontal parenchymal atrophy. The normalized measures of whole and regional brain parenchymal atrophy should be preferred to absolute measures in future studies that correlate neuropsychological performances and brain atrophy measures

  13. Single photon emission computed tomography with [[sup 99]Tc]-HM-PAO and [[sup 123]I]-IBZM in Alzheimer's disease and dementia of frontal type; Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoni, G.B.; Bianchetti, A.; Trabucchi, M. (Alzheimer' s Disease Care Unit, Ist. S. Cuore-FBF, Brescia (Italy)); Pizzolato, G.; Battistin, L. (Neurology Clinic, University Padua, Padua (Italy)); Chierichetti, F.; Ferlin, G. (Nuclear Medicine, Castelfranco Veneto Hospital, Treviso (Italy))

    1994-03-01

    Dementia of frontal type (DFT) is a fairly common degenerative disease distinct from Alzheimer's disease (AD), whose reportedly distinctive instrumental feature is frontal lobe hypoperfusion on SPECT. We evaluated the cortical dopaminergic system in 6AD, 5 DFT, and 6 control subjects with SPECT and both [[sup 99]Tc]-HM-PAO, a perfusion tracer, and [[sup 123]I]-IBZM, a D2 postsynaptic ligand. Both in AD and DFT patients, [[sup 99]Tc]-HM-PAO SPECT showed a relative frontal hypoperfusion. On the contrary, [[sup 123]I]-IBZM SPECT showed significantly reduced ligand uptake in superior frontal regions of DFT (0.89 [+-] 0.08 relative to control subjects) as compared to AD patients (0.97 [+-] 0.02; difference of means: 0.08, 95% confidence Interval 0.004 to 0.156; p = 0.041). Results suggest more marked involvement of the frontal cortical dopaminergic system in DFT than in AD patients. (au) (24 refs.).

  14. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity Triggers Anterior Insula Response to Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Keysers, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The observation of movies of facial expressions of others has been shown to recruit similar areas involved in experiencing one's own emotions: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (IFO). The Causal link bet between activity in these 2 regions,

  15. Lower limb and associated injuries in frontal-impact road traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objectives: To study the relationship between severity of injury of the lower limb and severity of injury of the head, thoracic, and abdominal regions in frontal-impact road traffic collisions. Methods: Consecutive hospitalised trauma patients who were involved in a frontal road traffic collision were prospectively stud-.

  16. Emotional reactions in patients after frontal lobe stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Zlatan; Stojanović, Sanja Vukadinović

    2015-09-01

    Emotional reactions have been documented after tumor lesions and the other damages of the brain. The aim of this paper was to examine the correlation between frontal lobe lesions and emotional reactions in patients with stroke. The research included 118 patients after stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computed axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression (HRSA and HRSD) were carried out 11-40 days after stroke. Statistic data were processed by simple linear/nonlinear regression, Cox's and the generalized linear model. A higher frequency of emotional reactions, i.e. anxiety, was determined in women after stroke (p = 0.024). A negative correlation between the lesion size and the intensity of anxiety manifestations was determined (Spearman's r = -0.297; p = 0.001). Anxiety was more frequent in patients with frontal lobe lesions in the dominant hemisphere (interaction: frontal lesion * hand dominant hemisphere, p = 0.017). Also, HRSD score values showed the tendency for lesser decline in case of greater frontal lobe lesions in relation to lesions of other regions of prosencephalon (interaction: frontal lesion * lesion area, p = 0.001). The results of this study indicate the correlation between evolutionary younger structures of the central nervous system and emotional reactions of man. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake proper early psychopharmacotherapy in the vulnerable group of patients.

  17. Differences in the neural correlates of frontal lobe tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Teruyuki; Kato, Yuka; Imai, Ayu; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Keisuke; Nakamura, Kaeko; Yamada, Kei; Narumoto, Jin

    2018-01-01

    The Executive Interview (EXIT25), the executive clock-drawing task (CLOX1), and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) are used to assess executive function at the bedside. These tests assess distinct psychometric properties. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the neural correlates of the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based on magnetic resonance imaging. Fifty-eight subjects (30 with Alzheimer's disease, 10 with mild cognitive impairment, and 18 healthy controls) participated in this study. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the brain regions correlated with the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB scores. Age, gender, and years of education were included as covariates. Statistical thresholds were set to uncorrected P-values of 0.001 at the voxel level and 0.05 at the cluster level. The EXIT25 score correlated inversely with the regional grey matter volume in the left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann areas 6, 9, 44, and 45). The CLOX1 score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11) and the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40). The FAB score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6). The left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 9) and the right lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 46) were identified as common brain regions that showed association with EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based only a voxel-level threshold. The results of this study suggest that the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB may be associated with the distinct neural correlates of the frontal cortex. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  18. [A case of crossed aphasia with echolalia after the resection of tumor in the right medial frontal lobe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, K; Suzuki, K; Yamadori, A; Kumabe, T; Seki, K; Fujii, T

    2001-03-01

    We report a right-handed woman, who developed a non-fluent aphasia after resection of astrocytoma (grade III) in the right medial frontal lobe. On admission to the rehabilitation department, neurological examination revealed mild left hemiparesis, hyperreflexia on the left side and grasp reflex on the left hand. Neuropsychologically she showed general inattention, non-fluent aphasia, acalculia, constructional disability, and mild buccofacial apraxia. No other apraxia, unilateral spatial neglect or extinction phenomena were observed. An MRI demonstrated resected areas in the right superior frontal gyrus, subcortical region in the right middle frontal gyrus, anterior part of the cingulate gyrus, a part of supplementary motor area. Surrounding area in the right frontal lobe showed diffuse signal change. She demonstrated non-fluent aprosodic speech with word finding difficulty. No phonemic paraphasia, or anarthria was observed. Auditory comprehension was fair with some difficulty in comprehending complex commands. Naming was good, but verbal fluency tests for a category or phonemic cuing was severely impaired. She could repeat words but not sentences. Reading comprehension was disturbed by semantic paralexia and writing words was poor for both Kana (syllabogram) and Kanji(logogram) characters. A significant feature of her speech was mitigated echolalia. In both free conversation and examination setting, she often repeated phrases spoken to her which she used to start her speech. In addition, she repeated words spoken to others which were totally irrelevant to her conversation. She was aware of her echoing, which always embarrassed her. She described her echolalic tendency as a great nuisance. However, once echoing being forbidden, she could not initiate her speech and made incorrect responses after long delay. Thus, her compulsive echolalia helped to start her speech. Only four patients with crossed aphasia demonstrated echolalia in the literature. They showed severe

  19. Word wins over Face: Emotional Stroop effect activates the frontal cortical network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Ovaysikia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex (PFC has been implicated in higher order cognitive control of behaviour. Sometimes such control is executed through suppression of an unwanted response in order to avoid conflict. Conflict occurs when two simultaneously competing processes lead to different behavioral outcomes, as seen in tasks such as the anti-saccade, go/no-go and the Stroop task. We set out to examine whether different types of stimuli in a modified emotional Stroop task would cause similar interference effects as the original Stroop-colour/word, and whether the required suppression mechanism(s would recruit similar regions of the medial PFC (mPFC. By using emotional words and emotional faces in this Stroop experiment, we examined the two well-learned automatic behaviours of word reading and recognition of face expressions. In our emotional Stroop paradigm, words were processed faster than face expressions with incongruent trials yielding longer reaction times (RT and larger number of errors compared to the congruent trials. This novel Stroop effect activated the anterior and inferior regions of the mPFC, namely the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG as well as the superior frontal gyrus. Our results suggest that prepotent behaviours such as reading and recognition of face expressions are stimulus-dependent and perhaps hierarchical, hence recruiting distinct regions of the mPFC. Moreover, the faster processing of word reading compared to reporting face expressions is indicative of the formation of stronger stimulus-response (SR associations of an over-learned behaviour compared to an instinctive one, which could alternatively be explained through the distinction between awareness and selective attention.

  20. Gray matter changes in right superior temporal gyrus in criminal psychopaths. Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jürgen L; Gänssbauer, Susanne; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Weber, Tatjana; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Hajak, Göran

    2008-08-30

    "Psychopathy" according to the PCL-R describes a specific subgroup of antisocial personality disorder with a high risk for criminal relapses. Lesion and imaging studies point towards frontal or temporal brain regions connected with disturbed social behavior, antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy. Morphologically, some studies described a reduced prefrontal brain volume, whereas others reported on temporal lobe atrophy. To further investigate whether participants with psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Version (PCL-R) show abnormalities in brain structure, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate region-specific changes in gray matter in 17 forensic male inpatients with high PCL-R scores (PCL-R>28) and 17 male control subjects with low PCL-R scores (PCLright superior temporal gyrus. This is the first study to show that psychopathy is associated with a decrease in gray matter in both frontal and temporal brain regions, in particular in the right superior temporal gyrus, supporting the hypothesis that a disturbed frontotemporal network is critically involved in the pathogenesis of psychopathy.

  1. Bilateral frontal activation associated with cutaneous stimulation of elixir field: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes S; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Yu Leung; Yeung, David K W; Lam, Wan

    2006-01-01

    Elixir Field, or Dan Tian, is the area where energy is stored and nourished in the body according to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Although Dan Tian stimulation is a major concept in Qigong healing and has been practiced for thousands of years, and while there are some recent empirical evidence of its effect, its neurophysiological basis remains unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain activations associated with external stimulation of the lower Elixir Field in ten normal subjects, and compared the results with the stimulation of their right hands. While right-hand stimulation resulted in left postcentral gyrus activation, stimulation of the lower Elixir Field resulted in bilateral activations including the medial and superior frontal gyrus, middle and superior temporal gyrus, thalamus, insula, and cingulate gyrus. These findings suggest that stimulation of the Elixir Field is not only associated with activation of the sensory motor cortex but also with cortical regions that mediate planning, attention, and memory.

  2. [Neuroanatomy of Frontal Association Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masahiko

    2016-11-01

    The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas. Given these facts, it is likely that the prefrontal cortex exerts executive functions for behavioral control. The functional input pathways from the posterior and paralimbic association cortical areas to the prefrontal cortex are classified primarily into six groups. Cognitive signals derived from the prefrontal cortex are conveyed to the rostral motor-related areas to transform them into motor signals, which finally enter the primary motor cortex via the caudal motor-related areas. Furthermore, it has been shown that, similar to the primary motor cortex, areas of the frontal association cortex form individual networks (known as "loop circuits") with the basal ganglia and cerebellum via the thalamus, and hence are extensively involved in the expression and control of behavioral actions.

  3. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Said

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  4. Frontal-posterior coherence and cognitive function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Jessica I; Kuti, Julia; Brown, Jessica; Mahon, Jessica R; Gayda-Chelder, Christine

    2016-12-01

    The reliable measurement of brain health and cognitive function is essential in mitigating the negative effects associated with cognitive decline through early and accurate diagnosis of change. The present research explored the relationship between EEG coherence for electrodes within frontal and posterior regions, as well as coherence between frontal and posterior electrodes and performance on standard neuropsychological measures of memory and executive function. EEG coherence for eyes-closed resting-state EEG activity was calculated for delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. Participants (N=66; mean age=67.15years) had their resting-state EEGs recorded and completed a neuropsychological battery that assessed memory and executive function, two cognitive domains that are significantly affected during aging. A positive relationship was observed between coherence within the frontal region and performance on measures of memory and executive function for delta and beta frequency bands. In addition, an inverse relationship was observed for coherence between frontal and posterior electrode pairs, particularly within the theta frequency band, and performance on Digit Span Sequencing, a measure of working memory. The present research supports a more substantial link between EEG coherence, rather than spectral power, and cognitive function. Continued study in this area may enable EEG to be applied broadly as a diagnostic measure of cognitive ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-regulation therapy increases frontal gray matter in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: evaluation by voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra W. Soh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder show executive function (EF deficits, particularly in self-regulation skills, and abnormalities in brain regions critical for these skills. None of the validated EF interventions for these children has been evaluated with regards to impacts on brain structure. Twenty-nine children with FASD were assigned to either an immediate-treatment (TX or delayed-treatment control group (DTC. Nineteen typically developing children served as healthy controls (CT. All received a structural MRI scan and baseline neuropsychological testing, following which the TX group underwent 12 weekly 1.5-hour sessions of the Alert Program for Self-Regulation®. After treatment or a period of ~14 weeks, all received a repeat scan and post-intervention testing. Whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses using voxel-based morphometry evaluated group differences and changes over time in gray matter (GM. Exploratory analyses revealed significant group changes: (1 At baseline, combined TX and DTC groups demonstrated global GM reductions compared with the CT group. (2 Region-of-interest analysis using a frontal mask, comparing post-intervention to pre-intervention results, showed significantly increased GM in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA10, right frontal pole (BA11, and right anterior cingulate (BA32 in the TX group. Similar results were not found in the DTC or CT groups. (3 At post-intervention, both TX and CT groups showed larger GM volumes than the DTC group in the left superior frontal gyrus (BA9, which was smaller in the FASD group at baseline. These results suggested that Alert led to improvements in post-intervention testing of self-regulation skills and typical brain development in treated children.

  6. Self-regulation therapy increases frontal gray matter in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: evaluation by voxel-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Debra W.; Skocic, Jovanka; Nash, Kelly; Stevens, Sara; Turner, Gary R.; Rovet, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder show executive function (EF) deficits, particularly in self-regulation skills, and abnormalities in brain regions critical for these skills. None of the validated EF interventions for these children has been evaluated with regards to impacts on brain structure. Twenty-nine children with FASD were assigned to either an immediate-treatment (TX) or delayed-treatment control (DTC) group (DTC). Nineteen typically developing children served as healthy controls (CT). All received a structural MRI scan and baseline neuropsychological testing, following which the TX group underwent 12 weekly 1.5-h sessions of the Alert Program for Self-Regulation®. After treatment or a period of ~14 weeks, all received a repeat scan and post-intervention testing. Whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses using voxel-based morphometry evaluated group differences and changes over time in gray matter (GM). Exploratory analyses revealed significant group changes: (1) At baseline, combined TX and DTC groups demonstrated global GM reductions compared with the CT group. (2) Region-of-interest analysis using a frontal mask, comparing post-intervention to pre-intervention results, showed significantly increased GM in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA10), right frontal pole (BA11), and right anterior cingulate (BA32) in the TX group. Similar results were not found in the DTC or CT groups. (3) At post-intervention, both TX and CT groups showed larger GM volumes than the DTC group in the left superior frontal gyrus (BA9), which was smaller in the FASD group at baseline. These results suggested that Alert led to improvements in post-intervention testing of self-regulation skills and typical brain development in treated children. PMID:25788884

  7. Ritidectomía frontal bicoronal subaponeurótica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Gálvez Chávez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Para el tratamiento del envejecimiento del tercio superior de la cara se han empleado diversas técnicas quirúrgicas. El abordaje bicoronal ha sido el más utilizado, pero a su vez el que más variantes y modificaciones ha tenido. Con este trabajo los autores se proponen evaluar los resultados de la ritidectomía frontal bicoronal siguiendo un mismo procedimiento dado por la disección subaponeurótica hasta los rebordes orbitarios, sección horizontal múltiple del músculo frontal y prócer, así como disección y sección de los músculos corrugadores. Solo se modificó la localización de la incisión frontal en dependencia de la longitud de la frente. Fueron operados 31 pacientes y se evaluaron los resultados a los 6 meses de la operación. Con la técnica empleada se modificaron las arrugas frontoglabelares hacia el borramiento o la desaparición, la ptosis de las cejas se corrigió de forma armoniosa y las complicaciones fueron escasas y poco relevantes. No se produjo afectación de la mímica frontoglabelar

  8. The effects of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and age on frontal white matter integrity in healthy adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune eJonassen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of populations at genetic risk have the potential to explore the underlying structural and functional mechanisms in the development of psychological disorders. The polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 has been associated with major depression (Caspi et al., 2003. In healthy women, variation in the human brain white matter microstructure integrity in the uncinate fascicule (UF has been suggested as an endophenotypes in the development of major depression (MDD. Pacheco et al. (2009 found a unique effect of age and 5-HTTLPR within the left frontal UF. The present study examined whether these associations persist along the adult life span. Thirty-seven right-handed healthy women between 21 and 61 years of age were invited for a diffusion MRI study. The functional polymorphism 5-HTTLPR located in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Fractional anisotropy (FA was generated for the UF based on Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. Models of emotion regulation circuitry suggest that working memory is important in conscious emotion regulation (Price and Drevets, 2010. To explore if 5-HTTLPR is related to this aspects of emotion processing, a working memory pathway, the superior longitudinal fascicule (SLF was included. The results demonstrate that age may explain the hypothesized association between 5-HTTLPR and frontal uncinate fascicule white matter integrity in healthy adult women. Both white matter changes associated with the aging process and those associated with growth and development may explain why the earlier reported unique effects of genotype in frontal UF FA do not persist into adulthood.

  9. Frontal and temporal contributions to understanding the iconic co-speech gestures that accompany speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Mok, Eva H; Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Small, Steven L

    2014-03-01

    In everyday conversation, listeners often rely on a speaker's gestures to clarify any ambiguities in the verbal message. Using fMRI during naturalistic story comprehension, we examined which brain regions in the listener are sensitive to speakers' iconic gestures. We focused on iconic gestures that contribute information not found in the speaker's talk, compared with those that convey information redundant with the speaker's talk. We found that three regions-left inferior frontal gyrus triangular (IFGTr) and opercular (IFGOp) portions, and left posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTGp)--responded more strongly when gestures added information to nonspecific language, compared with when they conveyed the same information in more specific language; in other words, when gesture disambiguated speech as opposed to reinforced it. An increased BOLD response was not found in these regions when the nonspecific language was produced without gesture, suggesting that IFGTr, IFGOp, and MTGp are involved in integrating semantic information across gesture and speech. In addition, we found that activity in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STSp), previously thought to be involved in gesture-speech integration, was not sensitive to the gesture-speech relation. Together, these findings clarify the neurobiology of gesture-speech integration and contribute to an emerging picture of how listeners glean meaning from gestures that accompany speech. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Voxel-based morphometry in Alzheimers disease and mild cognitive impairment: Systematic review of studies addressing the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luís Gustavo; Busatto, Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a useful approach for investigating neurostructural brain changes in dementia. We systematically reviewed VBM studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), specifically focusing on grey matter (GM) atrophy in the frontal lobe. Two searches were performed on the Pubmed database. A set of exclusion criteria was applied to ensure the selection of only VBM studies that directly investigated GM volume abnormalities in AD and/or MCI patients compared to cognitively normal controls. From a total of 46 selected articles, 35 VBM studies reported GM volume reductions in the frontal lobe. The frontal subregions, where most of the volume reductions were reported, included the inferior, superior and middle frontal gyri, as well as the anterior cingulate gyrus. We also found studies in which reduced frontal GM was detected in MCI patients who converted to AD. In a minority of studies, correlations between frontal GM volumes and behavioural changes or cognitive deficits in AD patients were investigated, with variable findings. Results of VBM studies indicate that the frontal lobe should be regarded as an important brain area when investigating GM volume deficits in association with AD. Frontal GM loss might not be a feature specific to late AD only. Future VBM studies involving large AD samples are warranted to further investigate correlations between frontal volume deficits and both cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  11. Reduced brain N-acetyl-aspartate in frontal lobes suggests neuronal loss in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, M; Walker, P; Bernard, D; Lemesle, M; Martin, D; Baudouin, N; Brunotte, F; Dumas, R

    1996-06-01

    We performed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in three patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to evaluate the distribution and extent of cortical neuronal damage as demonstrated by decreased N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) levels. We examined primary motor (precentral gyrus) and parietal neocortical (superior parietal gyrus) regions. ALS was defined with lower and upper motor neuron signs. Compared with matched healthy controls, ALS patients had a significant decrease in NAA levels in the primary motor cortex (p upper motor neuron signs present in the ALS, come from a neuronal loss within the primary motor cortex and may explain the frontal syndrome associated with ALS. Second clinical applications of 1H-MRS could include identification of extent of upper motor neuron involvement, aiding diagnosis of syndromes presenting with an ALS-like syndrome.

  12. El gobierno territorial en la Provincia de Buenos Aires: el desempeño del Consejo de Planificación Regional de Educación Superior en la implementación de políticas educativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es describir y analizar el funcionamiento del Consejo de Planificación Regional de Educación Superior (CPRES a partir de su creación con la Ley 24.521/95 (LES hasta el 2011. Parte de una perspectiva sociopolítica e institucional de las políticas públicas, integra dos enfoques y aplica esta mirada al examen de la región bonaerense en la Provincia de Buenos Aires. La región bonaerense representa uno de los territorios con mayor población y actividad económica de la Argentina. Además, concentra más de un tercio de las instituciones de educación superior que integran la oferta total del país. Se analizaron fuentes documentales y entrevistas a informantes clave del ámbito académico, técnico y político que participaron del Programa de Reforma de la Educación Superior iniciado en 1995. Se concluyó que el CPRES se instituye como una estructura de autoridad de nivel intermedio con atribuciones jurídico-institucionales para planificar, coordinar y regular los procesos de elaboración e implementación de políticas públicas en el marco de un contexto sistémico complejo y de alta diferenciación institucional. Sin embargo, aún no logran constituirse en efectivas autoridades de implementación.

  13. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  14. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  15. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  16. A slice of pi : an exploratory neuroimaging study of digit encoding and retrieval in a superior memorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Amir; Packard, Mark G; Alexander, Gerianne M; Buhle, Jason T; Zhu, Hongtu; Yu, Shan; Peterson, Bradley S

    2009-10-01

    Subject PI demonstrated superior memory using a variant of a Method of Loci (MOL) technique to recite the first digits of the mathematical constant pi to more than 2(16) decimal places. We report preliminary behavioral, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and brain volumetric data from PI. fMRI data collected while PI recited the first 540 digits of pi (i.e., during retrieval) revealed increased activity in medial frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Encoding of a novel string of 100 random digits activated motor association areas, midline frontal regions, and visual association areas. Volumetric analyses indicated an increased volume of the right subgenual cingulate, a brain region implicated in emotion, mentalizing, and autonomic arousal. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) testing indicated that PI is of average intelligence, and performance on mirror tracing, rotor pursuit, and the Silverman and Eals Location Memory Task revealed normal procedural and implicit memory. PI's performance on the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III) revealed average general memory abilities (50th percentile), but superior working memory abilities (99th percentile). Surprisingly, PI's visual memory (WMS-III) for neutral faces and common events was remarkably poor (3rd percentile). PI's self-report indicates that imagining affective situations and high emotional content is critical for successful recall. We speculate that PI's reduced memory for neutral/non-emotional faces and common events, and the observed increase in volume of the right subgenual cingulate, may be related to extensive practice with memorizing highly emotional material.

  17. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  18. Altered regional homogeneity of brain spontaneous signals in SIV infected rhesus macaque model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Jing, Bin; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jiaojiao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Hongjun

    2017-04-01

    Regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measurement from resting-state functional magnetic imaging (rs-fMRI) to reflect local synchronization of brain activities, has been widely explored in previous studies of neurological diseases. SIV infected model for detecting the neurological changes with progression was studied. In the study, six rhesus macaques infected by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) were scanned by resting-state fMRI at the following time points: before SIV inoculation (baseline), 12weeks and 24weeks post inoculation (12wpi, 24wpi). Meanwhile, the immunological parameters including serum percentage of CD4+ T cell, CD4/CD8 ratio and absolute CD4+ T cell number were measured and analyzed. In comparison of baseline, significant decreased ReHo was found in the left superior frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, left hippocampus, right precuneus, left angular gyrus, and bilateral occipital gyrus; in contrast increased ReHo in putamen at 12wpi. Moreover, at the time of 24wpi, decreased ReHo was observed in the right postcentral gyrus, left precentral gyrus, posterior cingulated gyrus and thalamus, while ReHo was increased in the left putamen, hippocampus, left anterior cingulated cortex and precentral cortex. The correlation analysis revealed that ReHo in the superior frontal gyrus showed negative association with CD4/CD8 ratio and positive with absolute CD4+ T cell number. The correlation analysis showed that percentage of CD4+ was correlated with the ReHo values in right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral thalamus and amygdala positively; negative relationship with left putamen, left superior frontal gyrus, left superior and middle temporal gyrus. The study first indicates that hippocampus, putamen, frontal and occipital lobe were impaired by using rs-fMRI and correlated with immunological parameters. Thus, ReHo value can be utilized as a noninvasive biomarker of spontaneous brain activity changes caused by the progression of neurological impairments

  19. Co-activation-based parcellation of the lateral prefrontal cortex delineates the inferior frontal junction area

    OpenAIRE

    Muhle-Karbe, Paul Simon; Derrfuss, Jan; Lynn, Maggie; Neubert, Franz Xaver; Fox, Peter; Brass, Marcel; Eickhoff, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The inferior frontal junction (IFJ) area, a small region in the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), has received increasing interest in recent years due to its central involvement in the control of action, attention, and memory. Yet, both its function and anatomy remain controversial. Here, we employed a meta-analytic parcellation of the left LPFC to show that the IFJ can be isolated based on its specific functional connections. A seed region, oriented along the left inferior frontal ...

  20. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  1. Frontal anatomy and reaction time in Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan

    2007-01-01

    Widespread frontal lobe abnormalities, encompassing anatomy and function, are known to be implicated in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The correlation between neurobiology and behaviour, however, is poorly understood in ASD. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal lobe anatomy and

  2. Asymmetric Frontal Brain Activity and Parental Rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffmeijer, R.; Alink, L.R.A.; Tops, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric frontal brain activity has been widely implicated in reactions to emotional stimuli and is thought to reflect individual differences in approach-withdrawal motivation. Here, we investigate whether asymmetric frontal activity, as a measure of approach-withdrawal motivation, also predicts

  3. Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene Associated with the Frontal-Striatal-Cerebellar Loop in Children with ADHD: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Andan; Wang, Xin; Liu, Huiru; Tao, Jiejie; Zhou, Jiejie; Ye, Qiong; Li, Jiance; Yang, Chuang; Cheng, Jingliang; Zhao, Ke; Wang, Meihao

    2018-03-21

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder that has been linked to the dopaminergic system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of regulation of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) on functional brain activity during the resting state in ADHD children using the methods of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed in 49 children with ADHD. All participants were classified as either carriers of the DRD4 4-repeat/4-repeat (4R/4R) allele (n = 30) or the DRD4 2-repeat (2R) allele (n = 19). The results showed that participants with the DRD4 2R allele had decreased ReHo bilaterally in the posterior lobes of the cerebellum, while ReHo was increased in the left angular gyrus. Compared with participants carrying the DRD4 4R/4R allele, those with the DRD4 2R allele showed decreased FC to the left angular gyrus in the left striatum, right inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral lobes of the cerebellum. The increased FC regions included the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, and rectus gyrus. These data suggest that the DRD4 polymorphisms are associated with localized brain activity and specific functional connections, including abnormality in the frontal-striatal-cerebellar loop. Our study not only enhances the understanding of the correlation between the cerebellar lobes and ADHD, but also provides an imaging basis for explaining the neural mechanisms underlying ADHD in children.

  4. Differential activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for pseudo and real words: an event-related functional MRI study on auditory lexical decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhuangwei; Xu Weixiong; Zhang Xuexin; Wang Xiaoyi; Weng Xuchu; Wu Renhua; Wu Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study lexical processing of pseudo words and real words by using a fast event-related functional MRI (ER-fMRI) design. Methods: Participants did an auditory lexical decision task on a list of pseudo-randomly intermixed real and pseudo Chinese two-character (or two-syllable) words. Pseudo words were constructed by recombining constituent characters of the real words to control for sublexical codes properties. Results: The behavioral performance of fourteen participants indicated that response to pseudowords was significantly slower and less accurate than to real words (mean error rate: 9.9% versus 3.9%, mean reaction time: 1618 ms versus 1143 ms). Processing of pseudo words and real words activated a highly comparable network of brain regions, including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, superior, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine and lingual gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus. Mirroring a behavioral lexical effect, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was significantly more activated for pseudo words than for real words. Conclusion: The results indicate that the processing of left inferior frontal gyrus in judging pseudo words and real words is not related to grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, but rather to making positive versus negative responses in decision making. (authors)

  5. Changes in frontal lobe function before and after surgery in patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Saya; Kumon, Yoshiaki; Igase, Keiji; Watanabe, Hideaki; Ohnishi, Takanori

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated neuropsychological function in 18 patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysm who showed good postoperative outcomes. We paid particular attention to frontal lobe function. We also investigated relationships between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and frontal lobe function. Patients were examined using digit span, word fluency (WF), Stroop and trail-making tests to clarify frontal lobe function before and 1-2 months after surgery. We also used the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Raven's colored progressive matrices (RCPM) and revised Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS-R) to examine cognitive function. CBF was measured using 133 Xe-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before and 1-2 months after surgery. Tests revealed that the patients' postoperative neuropsychological status was improved compared to the preoperative status for MMSE, RCPM and WAIS-R. Among the tests of frontal lobe function, WF results had deteriorated significantly after surgery. Resting CBF in the frontal lobe was significantly decreased. Regional CBF in the frontal lobe was decreased significantly in comparison with values in the parietal and temporal lobes in patients showing deterioration of WF. Deterioration of WF correlated with CBF changes in the frontal lobe. These results suggest that surgery for unruptured cerebral aneurysm exerts detrimental effects on frontal lobe function that may be related to CBF changes. (author)

  6. Prominence vs. aboutness in sequencing: a functional distinction within the left inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Grewe, Tanja; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Prior research on the neural bases of syntactic comprehension suggests that activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (lIFG) correlates with the processing of word order variations. However, there are inconsistencies with respect to the specific subregion within the IFG that is implicated by these findings: the pars opercularis or the pars triangularis. Here, we examined the hypothesis that the dissociation between pars opercularis and pars triangularis activation may reflect functional differences between clause-medial and clause-initial word order permutations, respectively. To this end, we directly compared clause-medial and clause-initial object-before-subject orders in German in a within-participants, event-related fMRI design. Our results showed increased activation for object-initial sentences in a bilateral network of frontal, temporal and subcortical regions. Within the lIFG, posterior and inferior subregions showed only a main effect of word order, whereas more anterior and superior subregions showed effects of word order and sentence type, with higher activation for sentences with an argument in the clause-initial position. These findings are interpreted as evidence for a functional gradation of sequence processing within the left IFG: posterior subportions correlate with argument prominence-based (local) aspects of sequencing, while anterior subportions correlate with aboutness-based aspects of sequencing, which are crucial in linking the current sentence to the wider discourse. This proposal appears compatible with more general hypotheses about information processing gradients in prefrontal cortex (Koechlin & Summerfield, 2007). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Emotional reactions in patients after frontal lobe stroke

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    Stojanović Zlatan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Emotional reactions have been documented after tumor lesions and the other damages of the brain. The aim of this paper was to examine the correlation between frontal lobe lesions and emotional reactions in patients with stroke. Methods. The research included 118 patients after stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computed axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression (HRSA and HRSD were carried out 11-40 days after stroke. Statistic data were processed by simple linear/nonlinear regression, Cox's and the generalized linear model. Results. A higher frequency of emotional reactions, i.e. anxiety, was determined in women after stroke (p = 0.024. A negative correlation between the lesion size and the intensity of anxiety manifestations was determined (Spearman’s r = -0.297; p = 0.001. Anxiety was more frequent in patients with frontal lobe lesions in the dominant hemisphere (interaction: frontal lesion * hand dominant hemisphere, p = 0.017. Also, HRSD score values showed the tendency for lesser decline in case of greater frontal lobe lesions in relation to lesions of other regions of prosencephalon (interaction: frontal lesion * lesion area, p = 0.001. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the correlation between evolutionary younger structures of the central nervous system and emotional reactions of man. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake proper early psychopharmacotherapy in the vulnerable group of patients.

  8. [Neuromolecular mechanism of the superiority illusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    The majority of individuals evaluate themselves as above average. This is a cognitive bias called "the superiority illusion". This illusory self-evaluation helps us to have hopes for the future, and has been central to the process of human evolution. Possessing this illusion is also important for mental health, as depressed people appear to have a more realistic perception of themselves, dubbed "depressive realism". Our recent study revealed the spontaneous brain activity and central dopaminergic neurotransmission that generate this illusion, using resting-state fMRI and PET. A functional connectivity between the frontal cortex and striatum, regulated by inhibitory dopaminergic neurotransmission, determines individual levels of the superiority illusion. We further revealed that blocking the dopamine transporter, which enhanced the level of dopamine, increased the degree of the superiority illusion. These findings suggest that dopamine acts on striatal dopamine receptors to suppress fronto-striatal functional connectivity, leading to disinhibited, heuristic, approaches to positive self-evaluation. These findings help us to understand how this key aspect of the human mind is biologically determined, and will suggest treatments for depressive symptoms by targeting specific molecules and neural circuits.

  9. The Role of Medial Frontal Cortex in Action Anticipation in Professional Badminton Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuo'er; Di, Xin; Xu, Guiping; Mo, Lei; Lin, Huiyan; Rao, Hengyi; Jin, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex). Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate cortex, right fusiform gyrus

  10. The role of medial frontal gyrus in action anticipation in professional badminton players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex. Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate

  11. The Role of Medial Frontal Cortex in Action Anticipation in Professional Badminton Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuo’er; Di, Xin; Xu, Guiping; Mo, Lei; Lin, Huiyan; Rao, Hengyi; Jin, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex). Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate cortex, right fusiform gyrus

  12. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, Mrc Aims; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-02-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate--predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms. Overall these

  13. Cranialization of the frontal sinus for secondary mucocele prevention following open surgery for benign frontal lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Horowitz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare frontal sinus cranialization to obliteration for future prevention of secondary mucocele formation following open surgery for benign lesions of the frontal sinus. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Sixty-nine patients operated for benign frontal sinus pathology between 1994 and 2011. INTERVENTIONS: Open excision of benign frontal sinus pathology followed by either frontal obliteration (n = 41, 59% or frontal cranialization (n = 28, 41%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of post-surgical complications and secondary mucocele formation were compiled. RESULTS: Pathologies included osteoma (n = 34, 49%, mucocele (n = 27, 39%, fibrous dysplasia (n = 6, 9%, and encephalocele (n = 2, 3%. Complications included skin infections (n = 6, postoperative cutaneous fistula (n = 1, telecanthus (n = 4, diplopia (n = 3, nasal deformity (n = 2 and epiphora (n = 1. None of the patients suffered from postoperative CSF leak, meningitis or pneumocephalus. Six patients, all of whom had previously undergone frontal sinus obliteration, required revision surgery due to secondary mucocele formation. Statistical analysis using non-inferiority test reveal that cranialization of the frontal sinus is non-inferior to obliteration for preventing secondary mucocele formation (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Cranialization of the frontal sinus appears to be a good option for prevention of secondary mucocele development after open excision of benign frontal sinus lesions.

  14. Focal frontal epileptiform discharges in a patient with eyelid myoclonia and absence seizures

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    Satoru Takahashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyelid myoclonia with absences is classified as a unique type of generalized seizure. Its pathogenesis is proposed to involve the functional abnormalities in cortical–subcortical networks. Here, we describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who had eyelid myoclonia with absences, along with focal motor seizures. Video-EEG monitoring demonstrated eyelid myoclonia associated with 4- to 5-Hz generalized polyspike–waves preceded by focal frontal discharges. Interictal EEG showed focal epileptiform discharges over the frontal regions. Our case suggests an important role of the frontal lobe in the generation of eyelid myoclonia with absences.

  15. Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E E; Jonides, J

    1999-03-12

    The human frontal cortex helps mediate working memory, a system that is used for temporary storage and manipulation of information and that is involved in many higher cognitive functions. Working memory includes two components: short-term storage (on the order of seconds) and executive processes that operate on the contents of storage. Recently, these two components have been investigated in functional neuroimaging studies. Studies of storage indicate that different frontal regions are activated for different kinds of information: storage for verbal materials activates Broca's area and left-hemisphere supplementary and premotor areas; storage of spatial information activates the right-hemisphere premotor cortex; and storage of object information activates other areas of the prefrontal cortex. Two of the fundamental executive processes are selective attention and task management. Both processes activate the anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  16. Frontal negativity: An electrophysiological index of interpersonal guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bingbing; Wang, Xiangling; Cao, Bihua; Li, Fuhong

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the temporal course and electrophysiological correlates of interpersonal guilt. Human participants were asked to perform multiple rounds of a dot-estimation task with their partners, while event-related potential being recorded. The paired participants were informed that they would win money if both responded correctly; otherwise, both of them would lose money. The feeling of guilt in Self-Wrong condition (SW) was significantly higher than that in Both-Wrong and Partner-Wrong conditions. At approximately 350 ms after the onset of feedback presentation, greater negativities were observed in the frontal regions in the guilt condition (i.e., SW) than those in the non-guilt condition. The guilt-modulated frontal negativity might reflect the interactions of self-reflection, condemnation, and negative emotion.

  17. Corpus callosum lipoma with frontal encephalocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa Rao, A.; Rao, V.R.K.; Ravi Mandalam, K.; Gupta, A.K.; Kumar, S.; Joseph, S.; Unni, M.

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomographic and plain X-ray observations in a patient with corpus callosum lipoma associated with frontal encephalocele are reported. The rarity of the lesion and the specific diagnostic criteria on CT are emphasised. (orig.)

  18. Study of regional cerebral blood flow in obsessive compulsive disorder patients with SPM and ROI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peiyong; Jiang Xufeng; Zhang Liying; Guo Wanhua; Zhu Chengmo

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the alternations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Methods: rCBF measurements using 99 Tc m -ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT was performed on 14 OCD patients and 23 age-matched healthy volunteers. The rCBF distribution was compared between these two groups with SPM under the conditions of increased and decreased perfusion, and with regions of interest (ROIs) using cerebral template. P value was set at 0.01 level. Results: SPM analysis showed that rCBF decreased in cerebral areas including bilateral putamen, superior temporal gyrus and precuneus, and right orbital gyrus, superior and middle frontal gyrus, and left temporo-occipital lobule and superior parietal gyrus, and vermis. rCBF was also increased in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus. With ROIs method, rCBF was decreased in right anterior frontal, temporo-parietal lobule and left temporo-occipital lobule. Conclusions: The study supports the viewpoint that rCBF abnormality of fronto-striatal circuits is involved in OCD patients. SPM method is a forceful tool in analyzing cerebral regional characters

  19. Statistical parametric mapping analysis of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and symptom clusters of the depressive mood in patients with pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong-Jang; Song, Sang Heon; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and symptom clusters of depressive mood in pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease (CKD). Twenty-seven patients with stage 4-5 CKD were subjected to statistical parametric mapping analysis of brain single-photon emission computed tomography. Correlation analyses between separate symptom clusters of depressive mood and rCBF were done. The first factor (depressive mood) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right insula, posterior cingulate gyrus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and positively correlated with rCBF in the left fusiform gyrus. The second factor (insomnia) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyri, right insula, right putamen, and right inferior parietal lobule, and positively correlated with rCBF in left fusiform gyrus and bilateral cerebellar tonsils. The third factor (anxiety and psychomotor aspects) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the left inferior frontal gyms, right superior frontal gyms, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left superior frontal gyrus, and positively correlated with rCBF in the right ligual gyrus and right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, the separate symptom clusters were correlated with specific rCBF patterns similar to those in major depressive disorder patients without CKD. However, some areas with discordant rCBF patterns were also noted when compared with major depressive disorder patients. Further larger scale investigations are needed. (author)

  20. Dissociating Effects of Scrambling and Topicalization within the Left Frontal and Temporal Language Areas: An fMRI Study in Kaqchikel Maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shinri; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2017-01-01

    Some natural languages grammatically allow different types of changing word orders, such as object scrambling and topicalization. Scrambling and topicalization are more related to syntax and semantics/phonology, respectively. Here we hypothesized that scrambling should activate the left frontal regions, while topicalization would affect the bilateral temporal regions. To examine such distinct effects in our functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we targeted the Kaqchikel Maya language, a Mayan language spoken in Guatemala. In Kaqchikel, the syntactically canonical word order is verb-object-subject (VOS), but at least three non-canonical word orders (i.e., SVO, VSO, and OVS) are also grammatically allowed. We used a sentence-picture matching task, in which the participants listened to a short Kaqchikel sentence and judged whether a picture matched the meaning of the sentence. The advantage of applying this experimental paradigm to an understudied language such as Kaqchikel is that it will allow us to validate the universality of linguistic computation in the brain. We found that the conditions with scrambled sentences [+scrambling] elicited significant activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and lateral premotor cortex, both of which have been proposed as grammar centers, indicating the effects of syntactic loads. In contrast, the conditions without topicalization [-topicalization] resulted in significant activation in bilateral Heschl's gyrus and superior temporal gyrus, demonstrating that the syntactic and phonological processes were clearly dissociated within the language areas. Moreover, the pre-supplementary motor area and left superior/middle temporal gyri were activated under relatively demanding conditions, suggesting their supportive roles in syntactic or semantic processing. To exclude any semantic/phonological effects of the object-subject word orders, we performed direct comparisons while making the factor of topicalization constant, and

  1. Frontal Brain Asymmetry in Depression with Comorbid Anxiety: A Neuropsychological Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Brady D.; Sarapas, Casey; Robison-Andrew, E. Jenna; Altman, Sarah E.; Campbell, Miranda L.; Shankman, Stewart A.

    2012-01-01

    The approach-withdrawal model posits that depression and anxiety are associated with a relative right asymmetry in frontal brain activity. Most studies have tested this model using measures of cortical brain activity such as electroencephalography. However, neuropsychological tasks that differentially employ left vs. right frontal cortical regions can also be used to test hypotheses from the model. In two independent samples (Study 1 and 2), the present study investigated the performance of c...

  2. Neural evidence for the use of digit-image mnemonic in a superior memorist: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jun eYin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some superior memorists demonstrated exceptional memory for reciting a large body of information. The underlying neural correlates, however, are seldom addressed. C.L., the current holder of Guinness World Record for reciting 67,890 digits in π, participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study. Thirteen participants without any mnemonics training were included as controls. Our previous studies suggested that C.L. used a digit-image mnemonic in studying and recalling lists of digits, namely associating 2-digit groups of ‘00’ to ‘99’ with images and generating vivid stories out of them (Hu, Ericsson, Yang & Lu, 2009. Thus, 2-digit condition was included, with 1-digit numbers and letters as control conditions. We hypothesized that 2-digit condition in C.L. should elicit the strongest activity in the brain regions which are associated with his mnemonic. Functional MRI results revealed that bilateral frontal poles (FPs, BA10, left superior parietal lobule (SPL, left premotor cortex (PMC, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, were more engaged in both the study and recall phase of 2-digit condition for C.L. relative to controls. Moreover, the left middle/inferior frontal gyri (M/IFG and intraparietal sulci (IPS were less engaged in the study phase of 2-digit condition for C.L. (vs. controls. These results suggested that C.L. relied more on brain regions that are associated with episodic memory other than verbal rehearsal while he used his mnemonic strategies. This study supported theoretical accounts of restructured cognitive mechanisms for the acquisition of superior memory performance.

  3. Functional connections between activated and deactivated brain regions mediate emotional interference during externally directed cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Plinio, Simone; Ferri, Francesca; Marzetti, Laura; Romani, Gian Luca; Northoff, Georg; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2018-04-24

    Recent evidence shows that task-deactivations are functionally relevant for cognitive performance. Indeed, higher cognitive engagement has been associated with higher suppression of activity in task-deactivated brain regions - usually ascribed to the Default Mode Network (DMN). Moreover, a negative correlation between these regions and areas actively engaged by the task is associated with better performance. DMN regions show positive modulation during autobiographical, social, and emotional tasks. However, it is not clear how processing of emotional stimuli affects the interplay between the DMN and executive brain regions. We studied this interplay in an fMRI experiment using emotional negative stimuli as distractors. Activity modulations induced by the emotional interference of negative stimuli were found in frontal, parietal, and visual areas, and were associated with modulations of functional connectivity between these task-activated areas and DMN regions. A worse performance was predicted both by lower activity in the superior parietal cortex and higher connectivity between visual areas and frontal DMN regions. Connectivity between right inferior frontal gyrus and several DMN regions in the left hemisphere was related to the behavioral performance. This relation was weaker in the negative than in the neutral condition, likely suggesting less functional inhibitions of DMN regions during emotional processing. These results show that both executive and DMN regions are crucial for the emotional interference process and suggest that DMN connections are related to the interplay between externally-directed and internally-focused processes. Among DMN regions, superior frontal gyrus may be a key node in regulating the interference triggered by emotional stimuli. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Mind the movement: Frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral motivation, bilateral frontal activation for behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Johannes; Müller, Mathias; Mühlberger, Andreas; Hewig, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry has been investigated over the past 30 years, and several theories have been developed about its meaning. The original theory of Davidson and its diversification by Harmon-Jones & Allen allocated approach motivation to relative left frontal brain activity and withdrawal motivation to relative right frontal brain activity. Hewig and colleagues extended this theory by adding bilateral frontal activation representing a biological correlate of the behavioral activation system if actual behavior is shown. Wacker and colleagues formulated a theory related to the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory by Gray & McNaughton. Here, relative left frontal brain activation represents the revised behavioral activation system and behavior, while relative right frontal brain activation represents the revised behavioral inhibition system, representing the experience of conflict. These theories were investigated with a newly developed paradigm where participants were able to move around freely in a virtual T maze via joystick while having their EEG recorded. Analyzing the influence of frontal brain activation during this virtual reality task on observable behavior for 30 participants, we found more relative left frontal brain activation during approach behavior and more relative right brain activation for withdrawal behavior of any kind. Additionally, there was more bilateral frontal brain activation when participants were engaged in behavior compared to doing nothing. Hence, this study provides evidence for the idea that frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral approach or avoidance motivation, and bilateral frontal activation stands for behavior. Additionally, observable behavior is not only determined by frontal asymmetry, but also by relevant traits. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Subbrow Approach as a Minimally Invasive Reduction Technique in the Management of Frontal Sinus Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewon Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFrontal sinus fractures, particularly anterior sinus fractures, are relatively common facial fractures. Many agree on the general principles of frontal fracture management; however, the optimal methods of reduction are still controversial. In this article, we suggest a simple reduction method using a subbrow incision as a treatment for isolated anterior sinus fractures.MethodsBetween March 2011 and March 2014, 13 patients with isolated frontal sinus fractures were treated by open reduction and internal fixation through a subbrow incision. The subbrow incision line was designed to be precisely at the lower margin of the brow in order to obtain an inconspicuous scar. A periosteal incision was made at 3 mm above the superior orbital rim. The fracture site of the frontal bone was reduced, and bone fixation was performed using an absorbable plate and screws.ResultsContour deformities were completely restored in all patients, and all patients were satisfied with the results. Scars were barely visible in the long-term follow-up. No complications related to the procedure, such as infection, uncontrolled sinus bleeding, hematoma, paresthesia, mucocele, or posterior wall and brain injury were observed.ConclusionsThe subbrow approach allowed for an accurate reduction and internal fixation of the fractures in the anterior table of the frontal sinus by providing a direct visualization of the fracture. Considering the surgical success of the reduction and the rigid fixation, patient satisfaction, and aesthetic problems, this transcutaneous approach through a subbrow incision is concluded to be superior to the other reduction techniques used in the case of an anterior table frontal sinus fracture.

  6. Self and Superior Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    model of the self-evaluation process as it differs from the evaluation process used by superiors. Symbolic Interactionism One view of self assessment is...supplied by the symbolic interactionists (Cooley, 1902; Head, 1934), who state that self perceptions are generated largely from individuals...disagreements remained even immediately after an appraisal interview in which a great deal of feedback was given. Research on the symbolic interactionist

  7. On the functional relevance of frontal cortex for passive and voluntarily controlled bistable vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; de Jong, Maartje C; Goebel, Rainer; van Ee, Raymond; Sack, Alexander T

    2011-10-01

    In bistable vision, one constant ambiguous stimulus leads to 2 alternating conscious percepts. This perceptual switching occurs spontaneously but can also be influenced through voluntary control. Neuroimaging studies have reported that frontal regions are activated during spontaneous perceptual switches, leading some researchers to suggest that frontal regions causally induce perceptual switches. But the opposite also seems possible: frontal activations may themselves be caused by spontaneous switches. Classically implicated in attentional processes, these same regions are also candidates for the origins of voluntary control over bistable vision. Here too, it remains unknown whether frontal cortex is actually functionally relevant. It is even possible that spontaneous perceptual switches and voluntarily induced switches are mediated by the same top-down mechanisms. To directly address these issues, we here induced "virtual lesions," with transcranial magnetic stimulation, in frontal, parietal, and 2 lower level visual cortices using an established ambiguous structure-from-motion stimulus. We found that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was causally relevant for voluntary control over perceptual switches. In contrast, we failed to find any evidence for an active role of frontal cortex in passive bistable vision. Thus, it seems the same pathway used for willed top-down modulation of bistable vision is not used during passive bistable viewing.

  8. The effect of focal cortical frontal and posterior lesions on recollection and familiarity in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenova, Vessela; Gao, Fuqiang; Black, Sandra E; Schwartz, Michael L; Kovacevic, Natasha; Alexander, Michael P; Levine, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Recognition memory can be subdivided into two processes: recollection (a contextually rich memory) and familiarity (a sense that an item is old). The brain network supporting recognition encompasses frontal, parietal and medial temporal regions. Which specific regions within the frontal lobe are critical for recollection vs. familiarity, however, are unknown; past studies of focal lesion patients have yielded conflicting results. We examined patients with focal lesions confined to medial polar (MP), right dorsal frontal (RDF), right frontotemporal (RFT), left dorsal frontal (LDF), temporal, and parietal regions and matched controls. A series of words and their humorous definitions were presented either auditorily or visually to all participants. Recall, recognition, and source memory were tested at 30 min and 24 h delay, along with "remember/know" judgments for recognized items. The MP, RDF, temporal and parietal groups were impaired on subjectively reported recollection; their intact recognition performance was supported by familiarity. None of the groups were impaired on cued recall, recognition familiarity or source memory. These findings suggest that the MP and RDF regions, along with parietal and temporal regions, are necessary for subjectively-reported recollection, while the LDF and right frontal ventral regions, as those affected in the RTF group, are not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Frontal brain asymmetry as a marker of depression and effectiveness of TMS therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, D.; Lithgow, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Resting frontal brain electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry has been hypothesi sed as a diagnostic marker for depression. A number of studies have shown that depressed individuals are characterised by diminished left sided activation of the prefrontal cortex, which is indicated by greater left than right alpha-band power. Relative left frontal region activity is believed to be associated with positive approach related behaviour and relative right frontal activity is seen to be linked to negative withdrawal related behaviour. In this study, frontal brain EEG was recorded from 17 depressed and 19 control subjects, from which frontal brain asymmetry ratios were calculated. The results confirmed the trend of relative left anterior hypoaclivation for individuals with depression compared to the healthy controls. This study also looked at beta and theta band ratios and found theta for depressed is predominantly negative, while the control group dis played mainly positive values. Beta comparison showed little significant difference between control and depressed groups. In addition, there have been few studies that examined frontal brain asymmetry in depression soon after treatment to gauge its effectiv ness. In a very preliminary study, the effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) therapy on the alpha band frontal brain asymmetry ratio for 5 depl'essed subjects before and after treatment found a slight increase in FBA ratio for 4 subjects. Further research and a larger subject group is required to validate these results.

  10. [Mirror movement due to the medial frontal lobe lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N; Kawamura, M; Hirayama, K

    1995-01-01

    We reported a case with acquired mirror movement in upper limbs due to the lesion of right medial frontal lobe including supplementary motor area, and also discussed a possible mechanism underlying it. A 59-year-old right-handed woman developed left hemiparesis caused by cerebral hemorrhage in the right frontoparietal lobe, on April 5, 1981. She had right hemiparesis and right hemianopsia due to cerebral hemorrhage in the left parieto-occipital lobe, 13 days later. As the patient was recovering from paresis, mirror movement appeared on upper limbs. The features of the mirror movement of this case are summarized as follows: (1) it appeared when using both proximal and distal region of upper limbs; (2) it appeared on left upper limb when the patient intended to move right upper limb or on right upper limb when intended to move left upper limb, while it appeared predominantly in the former; and (3) it was more remarkably found in habitual movement using gesture and pantomimic movement for the use of objects, and it was found in lower degree when actual object was used or when the patient tried to imitate the gesture of the examiner. The lesions in MRI were found in medial region of right frontal lobe (supplementary motor area, medial region of motor area, and cingulate gyrus), right medial parietal lobe, posterior region of right occipital lobe, and medial regions of left parietal and occipital lobes. There was no apparent abnormality in corpus callosum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Projections of Somatosensory Cortex and Frontal Eye Fields onto Incertotectal Neurons in the Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Eddie; Warren, Susan; Lin, Rick C.-S.; May, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the input-output characteristics of the zona incerta (ZI) are appropriate for it to serve as a conduit for cortical control over saccade-related activity in the superior colliculus. The study utilized the neuronal tracers wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) and biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) in the cat. Injections of WGA-HRP into primary somatosensory cortex (SI) revealed sparse, widespread nontopographic projections throughout ZI. In addition, region-specific areas of more intense termination were present in ventral ZI, although strict topography was not observed. In comparison, the frontal eye fields (FEF) also projected sparsely throughout ZI, but terminated more heavily, medially, along the border between the two sublaminae. Furthermore, retrogradely labeled incertocortical neurons were observed in both experiments. The relationship of these two cortical projections to incertotectal cells was also directly examined by retrogradely labeling incertotectal cells with WGA-HRP in animals that had also received cortical BDA injections. Labeled axonal arbors from both SI and FEF had thin, sparsely branched axons with numerous en passant boutons. They formed numerous close associations with the somata and dendrites of WGA-HRP-labeled incertotectal cells. In summary, these results indicate that both sensory and motor cortical inputs to ZI display similar morphologies and distributions. In addition, both display close associations with incertotectal cells, suggesting direct synaptic contact. From these data, we conclude that inputs from somatosensory and FEF cortex both play a role in controlling gaze-related activity in the superior colliculus by way of the inhibitory incertotectal projection. PMID:17083121

  12. Auditory aura in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a red flag to suspect an extra-frontal epileptogenic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Lorenzo; Bisulli, Francesca; Nobili, Lino; Tassi, Laura; Licchetta, Laura; Mostacci, Barbara; Stipa, Carlotta; Mainieri, Greta; Bernabè, Giorgia; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    To describe the anatomo-electro-clinical findings of patients with nocturnal hypermotor seizures (NHS) preceded by auditory symptoms, to evaluate the localizing value of auditory aura. Our database of 165 patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) diagnosis confirmed by videopolysomnography (VPSG) was reviewed, selecting those who reported an auditory aura as the initial ictal symptom in at least two NHS during their lifetime. Eleven patients were selected (seven males, four females). According to the anatomo-electro-clinical data, three groups were identified. Group 1 [defined epileptogenic zone (EZ)]: three subjects were studied with stereo-EEG. The EZ lay in the left superior temporal gyrus in two cases, whereas in the third case seizures arose from a dysplastic lesion located in the left temporal lobe. One of these three patients underwent left Heschl's gyrus resection, and is currently seizure-free. Group 2 (presumed EZ): three cases in which a presumed EZ was identified; in the left temporal lobe in two cases and in the left temporal lobe extending to the insula in one subject. Group 3 (uncertain EZ): five cases had anatomo-electro-clinical correlations discordant. This work suggests that auditory aura may be a helpful anamnestic feature suggesting an extra-frontal seizure origin. This finding could guide secondary investigations to improve diagnostic definition and selection of candidates for surgical treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gene expression signature is shared by patients with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia at the superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, Y; Katsel, P; Haroutunian, V; Domany, E

    2011-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia are two common diseases of the brain with significant differences in neuropathology, etiology and symptoms. This dissimilarity in the two diseases makes a comparison of the two ideal for detecting molecular substrates that are common to brain disorders in general. In this study, we compared gene expression profiles across multiple brain areas, taken postmortem from patients with well-characterized Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia, and from cognitively normal control group with no neuro- or psychopathology. Although the totality of gene expression changes in the two diseases is dissimilar, a subset of genes appears to play a role in both diseases in specific brain regions. We find at Brodmann area 22, the superior temporal gyrus, a statistically significant number of genes with apparently disregulated expression in both diseases. Furthermore, we found genes that differentiate the two diseases from the control across multiple brain regions, and note that these genes were usually down-regulated. Brodmann area 8, part of the superior frontal cortex, is relatively abundant with them. We show overwhelming statistical evidence for Alzheimer's and Schizophrenia sharing a specific molecular background at the superior temporal gyrus. We suggest that impairment of the regulation of autophagy pathway is shared, in BA 22, by the two diseases. © 2010 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2010 EFNS.

  14. Frontal and temporal volumes in Childhood Absence Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Rochelle; Levitt, Jennifer; Siddarth, Prabha; Wu, Keng Nei; Gurbani, Suresh; Sankar, Raman; Shields, W Donald

    2009-11-01

    This study compared frontotemporal brain volumes in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) to age- and gender-matched children without epilepsy. It also examined the association of these volumes with seizure, demographic, perinatal, intelligence quotient (IQ), and psychopathology variables. Twenty-six children with CAE, aged 7.5-11.8 years, and 37 children without epilepsy underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at 1.5 Tesla. Tissue was segmented, and total brain, frontal lobe, frontal parcellations, and temporal lobe volumes were computed. All children had IQ testing and structured psychiatric interviews. Parents provided seizure, perinatal, and behavioral information on each child. The CAE group had significantly smaller gray matter volumes of the left orbital frontal gyrus as well as both left and right temporal lobes compared to the age- and gender-matched children without epilepsy. In the CAE group these volumes were related to age, gender, ethnicity, and pregnancy complications but not to seizure, IQ, and psychopathology variables. In the group of children without epilepsy, however, the volumes were related to IQ. These findings suggest that CAE impacts brain development in regions implicated in behavior, cognition, and language. In addition to supporting the cortical focus theory of CAE, these findings also imply that CAE is not a benign disorder.

  15. Superior facet syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-01-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L 5 or/and S 1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively, Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L 5 roots and 11 S 1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L 5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome. (author)

  16. Pertinencia de la educación superior costarricense en las regiones y la extensión como primera acción de la intervención académica: los casos del Programa Académico de las Regiones Huetar Norte y Caribe y la Sede Región Brunca de la Universidad Nacional

    OpenAIRE

    Arauz B., Ileana; Schmidt F., Ileana; Tabash M., Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    La acción de la educación superior en las regiones está supeditada a la pertinencia y el impacto que la presencia universitaria tenga en ellas. Determinar los parámetros sobre lo que es pertinente o no y cuáles son las primeras acciones que permiten generar un impacto rápido y positivo para posicionarse y mantenerse en contacto con su realidad, es vital para no perder la pertinencia. La extensión universitaria, por sus características de ser inclusiva, participativa y de acompañamiento a las ...

  17. Influence of motivation on control hierarchy in the human frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Jörg; Aarts, Esther; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-02-18

    The frontal cortex mediates cognitive control and motivation to shape human behavior. It is generally observed that medial frontal areas are involved in motivational aspects of behavior, whereas lateral frontal regions are involved in cognitive control. Recent models of cognitive control suggest a rostro-caudal gradient in lateral frontal regions, such that progressively more rostral (anterior) regions process more complex aspects of cognitive control. How motivation influences such a control hierarchy is still under debate. Although some researchers argue that both systems work in parallel, others argue in favor of an interaction between motivation and cognitive control. In the latter case it is yet unclear how motivation would affect the different levels of the control hierarchy. This was investigated in the present functional MRI study applying different levels of cognitive control under different motivational states (low vs high reward anticipation). Three levels of cognitive control were tested by varying rule complexity: stimulus-response mapping (low-level), flexible task updating (mid-level), and sustained cue-task associations (high-level). We found an interaction between levels of cognitive control and motivation in medial and lateral frontal subregions. Specifically, flexible updating (mid-level of control) showed the strongest beneficial effect of reward and only this level exhibited functional coupling between dopamine-rich midbrain regions and the lateral frontal cortex. These findings suggest that motivation differentially affects the levels of a control hierarchy, influencing recruitment of frontal cortical control regions depending on specific task demands. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353207-11$15.00/0.

  18. The Association Between Suicidal Behavior, Attentional Control, and Frontal Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Thompson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It can be difficult to identify those at risk of suicide because suicidal thoughts are often internalized and not shared with others. Yet to prevent suicide attempts it is crucial to identify suicidal thoughts and actions at an early stage. Past studies have suggested that deficits in attentional control are associated with suicide, with the argument that individuals are unable to inhibit negative thoughts and direct resources away from negative information. The current study aimed to investigate the association of suicidal behavior with neurological and behavioral markers, measuring attentional bias and inhibition in two Stroop tasks. Fifty-four participants responded to the color of color words in a standard Stroop task and the color of positive, negative, and neutral words in an emotional Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG activity was recorded from frontal areas during each task and at resting. Participants were separated into a low-risk and high-risk group according to their self-reported suicidal behavior. Participants in the high-risk group showed slower response times in the color Stroop and reduced accuracy to incongruent trials, but faster response times in the emotional Stroop task. Response times to the word “suicide” were significantly slower for the high-risk group. This indicates an attentional bias toward specific negative stimuli and difficulties inhibiting information for those with high levels of suicidal behavior. In the emotional Stroop task the high-risk group showed reduced activity in leftward frontal areas, suggesting limitations in the ability to regulate emotional processing via the left frontal regions. The findings support the argument that deficits in attentional control are related to suicidal behavior. The research also suggests that under certain conditions frontal asymmetry may be associated with suicidal behavior.

  19. The Association Between Suicidal Behavior, Attentional Control, and Frontal Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Catherine; Ong, Elsie Li Chen

    2018-01-01

    It can be difficult to identify those at risk of suicide because suicidal thoughts are often internalized and not shared with others. Yet to prevent suicide attempts it is crucial to identify suicidal thoughts and actions at an early stage. Past studies have suggested that deficits in attentional control are associated with suicide, with the argument that individuals are unable to inhibit negative thoughts and direct resources away from negative information. The current study aimed to investigate the association of suicidal behavior with neurological and behavioral markers, measuring attentional bias and inhibition in two Stroop tasks. Fifty-four participants responded to the color of color words in a standard Stroop task and the color of positive, negative, and neutral words in an emotional Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded from frontal areas during each task and at resting. Participants were separated into a low-risk and high-risk group according to their self-reported suicidal behavior. Participants in the high-risk group showed slower response times in the color Stroop and reduced accuracy to incongruent trials, but faster response times in the emotional Stroop task. Response times to the word “suicide” were significantly slower for the high-risk group. This indicates an attentional bias toward specific negative stimuli and difficulties inhibiting information for those with high levels of suicidal behavior. In the emotional Stroop task the high-risk group showed reduced activity in leftward frontal areas, suggesting limitations in the ability to regulate emotional processing via the left frontal regions. The findings support the argument that deficits in attentional control are related to suicidal behavior. The research also suggests that under certain conditions frontal asymmetry may be associated with suicidal behavior. PMID:29593586

  20. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) correlates inversely with cannabis use in a frontal language processing region of neocortex in MDMA (Ecstasy) Polydrug Users: a 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Ronald L; Joers, James M; Dietrich, Mary S

    2008-01-01

    Impaired verbal memory is common in MDMA (Ecstasy) polydrug users. The contributions of Ecstasy or polydrug exposure to reduced verbal memory are unclear, as is the neural basis for this cognitive deficit. Ecstasy users have reduced gray matter in brain regions mediating verbal memory (BA 18, 21 and 45). N-acetylaspartate (NAA) as a neuronal marker and myoinositol (mI) as a glial marker are inconsistently affected in Ecstasy users. We used 3 Tesla MRS in 17 recreational drug users to test the...

  1. Frontal cephalometrics: practical applications, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummons, Duane; Ricketts, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    To (1) demonstrate the needs and benefits of three-dimensional diagnostic and treatment applications; (2) illustrate practical clinical applications of anteroposterior images and frontal analysis; and (3) enhance utilization of the Ricketts and Grummons frontal analyses. Frontal analysis methods and applications are specified and integrated into facial, smile, jaw, and occlusal therapies. Asymmetry conditions must be differentially diagnosed and effectively treated. Frontal and related image analysis and tracing steps are detailed. Asymmetry of facial parts is the rule, rather than the exception. Dental and facial midlines, occlusal plane, chin location, and smile esthetics are primarily emphasized. Beautiful facial proportions and smile harmony can be developed despite initial facial dysmorphosis and disproportions. Patients view themselves from the frontal perspective, so this carries priority when assessing problems. It is important to know the etiology of asymmetry to assist others with genetic counseling. Facial harmony and smile beauty are optimal when facial and maxillary dental midlines are aligned. The maxillary dentition width should be sufficiently wide to be in harmony with the individual patient facial morphology. The occlusal plane should be level and the chin centered as much as possible. Best facial development and proportionality exist when the skeletal and dental components are optimized transversely and are symmetric.

  2. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) correlates inversely with cannabis use in a frontal language processing region of neocortex in MDMA (Ecstasy) polydrug users: a 3 T magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Ronald L; Joers, James M; Dietrich, Mary S

    2009-03-01

    Impaired verbal memory is common in MDMA (Ecstasy) polydrug users. The contributions of Ecstasy or polydrug exposure to reduced verbal memory are unclear, as is the neural basis for this cognitive deficit. Ecstasy users have reduced gray matter in brain regions mediating verbal memory (BA 18, 21 and 45). N-acetylaspartate (NAA) as a neuronal marker and myoinositol (mI) as a glial marker are inconsistently affected in Ecstasy users. We used 3 T MRS in 17 recreational drug users to test the hypothesis that Ecstasy polydrug use would be associated with altered NAA or mI in BA 18, 21 and 45. No effects were seen for mI. Metabolite ratios for NAA (mean+/-SD) were: BA 18-NAA/Cr (2.030+/-0.188); BA 21-NAA/Cr (1.861+/-0.325); BA 45-NAA/Cr (1.925+/-0.329). Lifetime cannabis use was significantly associated with BA 45 NAA/Cr (r=-0.687, p=0.014) but not with NAA in BA 18 or 21. In contrast, there were no statistically significant associations for lifetime use of Ecstasy, alcohol, or cocaine with NAA. These findings suggest that cannabis use may contribute to altered neuronal integrity in Ecstasy polydrug users in a brain region associated with verbal memory processing.

  3. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) correlates inversely with cannabis use in a frontal language processing region of neocortex in MDMA (Ecstasy) Polydrug Users: a 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Ronald L; Joers, James M; Dietrich, Mary S

    2015-01-01

    Impaired verbal memory is common in MDMA (Ecstasy) polydrug users. The contributions of Ecstasy or polydrug exposure to reduced verbal memory are unclear, as is the neural basis for this cognitive deficit. Ecstasy users have reduced gray matter in brain regions mediating verbal memory (BA 18, 21 and 45). N-acetylaspartate (NAA) as a neuronal marker and myoinositol (mI) as a glial marker are inconsistently affected in Ecstasy users. We used 3 Tesla MRS in 17 recreational drug users to test the hypothesis that Ecstasy polydrug use would be associated with altered NAA or mI in BA 18, 21 and 45. No effects were seen for mI. Metabolite ratios for NAA (mean ± SD) were: BA 18--NAA/Cr (2.030 ± 0.188); BA 21--NAA/Cr (1.861 ± 0.325); BA 45--NAA/Cr (1.925 ± 0.329). Lifetime cannabis use was significantly associated with BA 45 NAA/Cr (r = −0.687, p = 0.014) but not with NAA in BA 18 or 21. In contrast, there were no statistically significant associations for lifetime use of Ecstasy, alcohol, or cocaine with NAA. These findings suggest that cannabis use may contribute to altered neuronal integrity in Ecstasy polydrug users in a brain region associated with verbal memory processing. PMID:19032963

  4. Tratamiento y complicaciones de las fracturas de seno frontal Frontal sinus fracture treatment and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heredero Jung

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las fracturas de seno frontal se producen como resultado de impactos de alta energía. Un tratamiento inadecuado puede conducir a complicaciones serias incluso muchos años después del traumatismo. Objetivos. Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos y revisar las complicaciones asociadas. Estandarizar el protocolo de tratamiento. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron 95 pacientes diagnosticados de fracturas de seno frontal pertenecientes al servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre de Madrid, entre enero de 1990 y diciembre de 2004. Resultados. La edad media de los pacientes revisados es de 34 años. La mayoría son hombres (78% y la causa más frecuente del traumatismo, los accidentes de tráfico. El patrón de fractura más común es el que afecta únicamente a la pared anterior del seno frontal. Las complicaciones descritas son: deformidad estética frontal, sinusitis frontal, mucocele frontal, celulitis fronto-orbitaria, intolerancia al material de osteosíntesis, complicaciones infecciosas del SNC y persistencia de fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Conclusiones. El objetivo ha de estar encaminado a prevenir las complicaciones asociadas a los pacientes con fracturas de seno frontal. Hay que individualizar el protocolo de tratamiento en cada caso. Es recomendable un seguimiento a largo plazo para identificar precozmente las posibles complicaciones.Introduction. Frontal sinus fractures are caused by high velocity impacts. Inappropriate treatment can lead to serious complications, even many years after the trauma. Objectives. To evaluate epidemiological data and associated complications. To standardize the treatment protocol. Materials and methods. the clinical records of 95 patients with frontal sinus fractures treated between January 1990 and December 2004 at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, "12 de Octubre" Hospital (Madrid, Spain, were reviewed. Results. The average age of

  5. Synchronous retinotopic frontal-temporal activity during long-term memory for spatial location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2010-05-12

    Early visual areas in occipital cortex are known to be retinotopic. Recently, retinotopic maps have been reported in frontal and parietal cortex during spatial attention and working memory. The present event-related potential (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study determined whether spatial long-term memory was associated with retinotopic activity in frontal and parietal regions, and assessed whether retinotopic activity in these higher level control regions was synchronous with retinotopic activity in lower level visual sensory regions. During encoding, abstract shapes were presented to the left or right of fixation. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented at fixation and participants classified each shape as old and previously on the "left", old and previously on the "right", or "new". Retinotopic effects were manifested by accurate memory for items previously presented on the left producing activity in the right hemisphere and accurate memory for items previously presented on the right producing activity in the left hemisphere. Retinotopic ERP activity was observed in frontal regions and visual sensory (occipital and temporal) regions. In frontal cortex, retinotopic fMRI activity was localized to the frontal eye fields. There were no significant ERP or fMRI retinotopic memory effects in parietal regions. The present long-term memory retinotopic effects complement previous spatial attention and working memory findings (and suggest retinotopic activity in parietal cortex may require an external peripheral stimulus). Furthermore, ERP cross-correlogram analysis revealed that retinotopic activations in frontal and temporal regions were synchronous, indicating that these regions interact during retrieval of spatial information. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience.

  7. Differential activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for pseudowords and real words: an event-related fMRI study on auditory lexical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuangwei; Zhang, John X; Wang, Xiaoyi; Wu, Renhua; Hu, Xiaoping; Weng, Xuchu; Tan, Li Hai

    2005-06-01

    After Newman and Twieg and others, we used a fast event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design and contrasted the lexical processing of pseudowords and real words. Participants carried out an auditory lexical decision task on a list of randomly intermixed real and pseudo Chinese two-character (or two-syllable) words. The pseudowords were constructed by recombining constituent characters of the real words to control for sublexical code properties. Processing of pseudowords and real words activated a highly comparable network of brain regions, including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, superior, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine and lingual gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus. Mirroring a behavioral lexical effect, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was significantly more activated for pseudowords than for real words. This result disconfirms a popular view that this area plays a role in grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, as such a conversion process was unnecessary in our task with auditory stimulus presentation. An alternative view was supported that attributes increased activity in left IFG for pseudowords to general processes in decision making, specifically in making positive versus negative responses. Activation in left supramarginal gyrus was of a much larger volume for real words than for pseudowords, suggesting a role of this region in the representation of phonological or semantic information for two-character Chinese words at the lexical level.

  8. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J.; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience. PMID:23372547

  9. Frontal subregions mediating Elevator Counting task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha S; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Shallice, Tim

    2010-10-01

    Deficits in sustained attention may lead to action slips in everyday life as irrelevant action sequences are inappropriately triggered internally or by the environment. While deficits in sustained attention have been associated with damage to the frontal lobes of the brain, little is known about the role of the frontal lobes in the Elevator Counting subtest of the Test of Everyday Attention. In the current study, 55 frontal patients subdivided into medial, orbital and lateral subgroups, 18 patients with posterior lesions and 82 healthy controls performed the Elevator Counting task. The results revealed that patients with medial and left lateral prefrontal lesions were significantly impaired on the task compared to healthy controls. Research suggests that patients with medial lesions are susceptible to competition from task irrelevant schema; whereas the left lateral group in the current study may fail to keep track of the tones already presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sentence processing in anterior superior temporal cortex shows a social-emotional bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellem, Monika S; Jasmin, Kyle M; Peng, Cynthia; Martin, Alex

    2016-08-01

    The anterior region of the left superior temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus (aSTG/STS) has been implicated in two very different cognitive functions: sentence processing and social-emotional processing. However, the vast majority of the sentence stimuli in previous reports have been of a social or social-emotional nature suggesting that sentence processing may be confounded with semantic content. To evaluate this possibility we had subjects read word lists that differed in phrase/constituent size (single words, 3-word phrases, 6-word sentences) and semantic content (social-emotional, social, and inanimate objects) while scanned in a 7T environment. This allowed us to investigate if the aSTG/STS responded to increasing constituent structure (with increased activity as a function of constituent size) with or without regard to a specific domain of concepts, i.e., social and/or social-emotional content. Activity in the left aSTG/STS was found to increase with constituent size. This region was also modulated by content, however, such that social-emotional concepts were preferred over social and object stimuli. Reading also induced content type effects in domain-specific semantic regions. Those preferring social-emotional content included aSTG/STS, inferior frontal gyrus, posterior STS, lateral fusiform, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and amygdala, regions included in the "social brain", while those preferring object content included parahippocampal gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, and caudate, regions involved in object processing. These results suggest that semantic content affects higher-level linguistic processing and should be taken into account in future studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Injury risk functions for frontal oblique collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andricevic, Nino; Junge, Mirko; Krampe, Jonas

    2018-03-09

    The objective of this article was the construction of injury risk functions (IRFs) for front row occupants in oblique frontal crashes and a comparison to IRF of nonoblique frontal crashes from the same data set. Crashes of modern vehicles from GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study) were used as the basis for the construction of a logistic injury risk model. Static deformation, measured via displaced voxels on the postcrash vehicles, was used to calculate the energy dissipated in the crash. This measure of accident severity was termed objective equivalent speed (oEES) because it does not depend on the accident reconstruction and thus eliminates reconstruction biases like impact direction and vehicle model year. Imputation from property damage cases was used to describe underrepresented low-severity crashes-a known shortcoming of GIDAS. Binary logistic regression was used to relate the stimuli (oEES) to the binary outcome variable (injured or not injured). IRFs for the oblique frontal impact and nonoblique frontal impact were computed for the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 2+ and 3+ levels for adults (18-64 years). For a given stimulus, the probability of injury for a belted driver was higher in oblique crashes than in nonoblique frontal crashes. For the 25% injury risk at MAIS 2+ level, the corresponding stimulus for oblique crashes was 40 km/h but it was 64 km/h for nonoblique frontal crashes. The risk of obtaining MAIS 2+ injuries is significantly higher in oblique crashes than in nonoblique crashes. In the real world, most MAIS 2+ injuries occur in an oEES range from 30 to 60 km/h.

  12. Information Superiority through Data Warehousing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warner, Neil

    2001-01-01

    .... A precursor to a knowledge edge is Information Superiority. Within most current Command Support Systems minimal integration and fusion of data is undertaken to provide the basis of information superiority...

  13. The frontal method in hydrodynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The frontal solution method has proven to be an effective means of solving the matrix equations resulting from the application of the finite element method to a variety of problems. In this study, several versions of the frontal method were compared in efficiency for several hydrodynamics problems. Three basic modifications were shown to be of value: 1. Elimination of equations with boundary conditions beforehand, 2. Modification of the pivoting procedures to allow dynamic management of the equation size, and 3. Storage of the eliminated equations in a vector. These modifications are sufficiently general to be applied to other classes of problems. ?? 1980.

  14. Frontal lobe atrophy in motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, J A; Hudson, A J

    1994-08-01

    Neuronal degeneration in the precentral gyrus alone cannot account for the occurrence of spastic paresis in motor neuron diseases. To look for more extensive cortical atrophy we measured MRIs of the upper parts of the frontal and parietal lobes in 11 sporadic cases of classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), eight patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and an age- and sex-matched group of 49 neurologically normal people. None of the patients had overt dementia or other mental diseases. In PLS there is progressive spastic paresis but in contrast to ALS there is no lower motor neuron degeneration. The surface area of the precentral gyri and the amount of underlying white matter in PLS were consistently approximately 75% of the normal size. By contrast, there was some shrinkage of the precentral gyri in some of the ALS patients but the mean measurements for the group did not differ significantly from the controls. Anterior to the precentral sulci, the cortical surface area in PLS was approximately 85% of that of the controls, with correspondingly reduced white matter. In ALS the cortical surface areas of the anterior frontal lobes did not differ from those of the controls, but the amount of underlying white matter was reduced almost as much in ALS as it was in PLS. The measured changes in the frontal lobes suggest that in PLS there is simultaneous atrophy of the primary, premotor and supplementary motor areas of the cortex, with consequent degeneration of corticospinal and corticoreticular axons descending through the underlying white matter. These changes could account for the progressive upper motor neuron syndrome. In ALS, with no significant frontal cortical atrophy, the shrinkage of the white matter may be due to degeneration of axons projecting to the frontal cortex from elsewhere. Deprivation of afferents could explain the diminution of motor functions of the frontal lobes in ALS and also the changes in word fluency, judgement and attention that

  15. C-terminal region of EBNA-2 determines the superior transforming ability of type 1 Epstein-Barr virus by enhanced gene regulation of LMP-1 and CXCR7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Cancian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV strains immortalize B lymphocytes in vitro much more efficiently than type 2 EBV, a difference previously mapped to the EBNA-2 locus. Here we demonstrate that the greater transforming activity of type 1 EBV correlates with a stronger and more rapid induction of the viral oncogene LMP-1 and the cell gene CXCR7 (which are both required for proliferation of EBV-LCLs during infection of primary B cells with recombinant viruses. Surprisingly, although the major sequence differences between type 1 and type 2 EBNA-2 lie in N-terminal parts of the protein, the superior ability of type 1 EBNA-2 to induce proliferation of EBV-infected lymphoblasts is mostly determined by the C-terminus of EBNA-2. Substitution of the C-terminus of type 1 EBNA-2 into the type 2 protein is sufficient to confer a type 1 growth phenotype and type 1 expression levels of LMP-1 and CXCR7 in an EREB2.5 cell growth assay. Within this region, the RG, CR7 and TAD domains are the minimum type 1 sequences required. Sequencing the C-terminus of EBNA-2 from additional EBV isolates showed high sequence identity within type 1 isolates or within type 2 isolates, indicating that the functional differences mapped are typical of EBV type sequences. The results indicate that the C-terminus of EBNA-2 accounts for the greater ability of type 1 EBV to promote B cell proliferation, through mechanisms that include higher induction of genes (LMP-1 and CXCR7 required for proliferation and survival of EBV-LCLs.

  16. Dysconnection of right parietal and frontal cortex in neglect syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Martin; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    A lesion to the right hemisphere of the brain often leads to perceptual neglect of the left side of the sensorium. The fact that lesions to different cortical regions lead to the same symptoms points to neglect as a dysconnection syndrome that may result from the dysconnection of a distributed...... network, rather than a disruption of computation in any particular brain region. To test this hypothesis, we used Bayesian analysis of effective connectivity based on electroencephalographic recordings in patients with left-sided neglect after a right-hemisphere lesion. While age-matched healthy controls...... connectivity in the left hemisphere when stimuli appeared on their right. Crucially, this parieto-frontal feedback connectivity was aggravated in patients with more severe symptoms. In contrast, patients and controls did not show differences in the local connectivity within regions. These findings suggest...

  17. Frontal alpha asymmetry predicts inhibitory processing in youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Alissa J; Kinzel, Chantelle; Salgari, Giulia C; Loo, Sandra K

    2017-07-28

    Atypical asymmetry in brain activity has been implicated in the behavioral and attentional dysregulation observed in ADHD. Specifically, asymmetry in neural activity in the right versus left frontal regions has been linked to ADHD, as well as to symptoms often associated with ADHD such as heightened approach behaviors, impulsivity and difficulties with inhibition. Clarifying the role of frontal asymmetry in ADHD-like traits, such as disinhibition, may provide information on the neurophysiological processes underlying these behaviors. ADHD youth (ADHD: n = 25) and healthy, typically developing controls (TD: n = 25) underwent an electroencephalography (EEG) recording while completing a go/no-go task-a commonly used test measuring behavioral inhibition. In addition, advanced signal processing for source localization estimated the location of signal generators underlying frontal alpha asymmetry (FA) during correct and incorrect trials. This is the first study in ADHD to demonstrate that the dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) may be responsible for generating frontal alpha. During failed inhibition trials, ADHD youth displayed greater FA than TD youth. In addition, within the ADHD group, frontal asymmetry during later processing stages (i.e., 400-800ms after stimulus) predicted a higher number of commission errors throughout the task. These results suggest that frontal alpha asymmetry may be a specific biomarker of cognitive disinhibition among youth with ADHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Autobiographical memory of the recent past following frontal cortex or temporal lobe excisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiss, Laila; Petrides, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Previous research has raised questions regarding the necessity of the frontal cortex in autobiographical memory and the role that it plays in actively retrieving contextual information associated with personally relevant events. Autobiographical memory was studied in patients with unilateral excisions restricted to the frontal cortex or temporal lobe involving the amygdalo-hippocampal region and in normal controls using an event-sampling method. We examined accuracy of free recall, use of strategies during retrieval and memory for specific aspects of the autobiographical events, including temporal order. Patients with temporal lobe excisions were impaired in autobiographical recall. By contrast, patients with frontal cortical excisions exhibited normal autobiographical recall but were less likely to use temporal order spontaneously to organize event retrieval. Instruction to organize retrieval by temporal order failed to improve recall in temporal lobe patients and increased the incidence of plausible intrusion errors in left temporal patients. In contrast, patients with frontal cortical excisions now surpassed control subjects in recall of autobiographical events. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy for the temporal order of diary events was not impaired in these patients. In a subsequent cued recall test, temporal lobe patients were impaired in their memory for the details of the diary events and their context. In conclusion, a basic impairment in autobiographical memory (including memory for temporal context) results from damage to the temporal lobe and not the frontal cortex. Patients with frontal excisions fail to use organizational strategies spontaneously to aid retrieval but can use these effectively if instructed to do so.

  19. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  20. Is the frontal dysexecutive syndrome due to a working memory deficit? Evidence from patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Martine; Dujardin, Kathy; Hénon, Hilde; Godefroy, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Although frontal dysexecutive disorders are frequently considered to be due to working memory deficit, this has not been systematically examined and very little evidence is available for impairment of working memory in frontal damage. The objective of this study was to examine the components of working memory, their anatomy and the relations with executive functions in patients with stroke involving the frontal or posterior cortex. The study population consisted of 29 patients (frontal: n=17; posterior: n=12) and 29 matched controls. Phonological loop (letter and word spans, phonological store; rehearsal process), visuospatial sketchpad (visuospatial span) and the central executive (working memory span, dual task and updating process) were examined. The group comparison analysis showed impairment in the frontal group of: (i) verbal spans (Pdeficit of the rehearsal process (P=0.006); (iii) visuospatial span (P=0.04); (iv) working memory span (P=0.001) that disappeared after controlling for verbal span and (v) running memory (P=0.05) unrelated to updating conditions. The clinical anatomical correlation study showed that impairment of the central executive depended on frontal and posterior lesion. Cognitive dysexecutive disorders were observed in 11/20 patients with central executive deficit and an inverse dissociation was observed in two patients. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that cognitive dysexecutive disorders had the highest ability to discriminate frontal lesions (area under curve=0.844, 95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.95; P=0.0001; central executive impairment: area under curve=0.732, 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.82; P=0.006). This study reveals that frontal lesions induce mild impairment of short-term memory associated with a deficit of the rehearsal process supporting the role of the frontal lobe in this process; the central executive depends on lesions in the frontal lobe and posterior regions accounting for its low frequency

  1. Preservation of Frontal Sinus Anatomy and Outflow Tract Following Frontal Trauma with Dural Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wei Ming Kwek, MBBS, MRCS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Our case report describes a young male mechanic who was hit in his face by a spring while repairing a car, resulting in traumatic injury to the frontal sinus, with fractures of both the anterior and the posterior tables with dural defect and cerebrospinal fluid leak. Current guidelines recommend that comminuted and/or displaced fractures of the posterior table of the frontal sinus with dural defects should be either cranialized or obliterated. In this patient, instead of cranializing or obliterating the frontal sinus, we managed to preserve the frontal sinus anatomy and its outflow tract using a combined open bicoronal and nasoendoscopic approach. This avoids the long-term complications associated with cranialization or obliteration including mucocele formation and frontocutaneous fistula.

  2. Medial frontal cortex and response conflict: Evidence from human intracranial EEG and medial frontal cortex lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, M.X.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Haupt, S.; Elger, C.E.; Fell, J.

    2008-01-01

    The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has been implicated in the monitoring and selection of actions in the face of competing alternatives, but much remains unknown about its functional properties, including electrophysiological oscillations, during response conflict tasks. Here, we recorded intracranial

  3. Effective Connectivity between Ventral Occipito-Temporal and Ventral Inferior Frontal Cortex during Lexico-Semantic Processing. A Dynamic Causal Modeling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that dorsal and ventral pathways support distinct aspects of language processing. Yet, the full extent of their involvement and their inter-regional connectivity in visual word recognition is still unknown. Studies suggest that they might reflect the dual-route model of reading, with the dorsal pathway more involved in grapho-phonological conversion during phonological tasks, and the ventral pathway performing lexico-semantic access during semantic tasks. Furthermore, this subdivision is also suggested at the level of the inferior frontal cortex, involving ventral and dorsal parts for lexico-semantic and phonological processing, respectively. In the present study, we assessed inter-regional brain connectivity and task-induced modulations of brain activity during a phoneme detection and semantic categorization tasks, using fMRI in healthy subject. We used a dynamic causal modeling approach to assess inter-regional connectivity and task demand modulation within the dorsal and ventral pathways, including the following network components: the ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOTC; dorsal and ventral, the superior temporal gyrus (STG; dorsal, the dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG; dorsal, and the ventral IFG (vIFG; ventral. We report three distinct inter-regional interactions supporting orthographic information transfer from vOTC to other language regions (vOTC -> STG, vOTC -> vIFG and vOTC -> dIFG regardless of task demands. Moreover, we found that (a during semantic processing (direct ventral pathway the vOTC -> vIFG connection strength specifically increased and (b a lack of modulation of the vOTC -> dIFG connection strength by the task that could suggest a more general involvement of the dorsal pathway during visual word recognition. Results are discussed in terms of anatomo-functional connectivity of visual word recognition network.

  4. Time course of the involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum in emotional prosody perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolijn Hoekert

    Full Text Available In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional prosody perception. Here, we used triple-pulse repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to shed light on the precise time course of involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum. We hypothesized that information would be processed in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus before being processed in the right fronto-parietal operculum. Right-handed healthy subjects performed an emotional prosody task. During listening to each sentence a triplet of TMS pulses was applied to one of the regions at one of six time points (400-1900 ms. Results showed a significant main effect of Time for right anterior superior temporal gyrus and right fronto-parietal operculum. The largest interference was observed half-way through the sentence. This effect was stronger for withdrawal emotions than for the approach emotion. A further experiment with the inclusion of an active control condition, TMS over the EEG site POz (midline parietal-occipital junction, revealed stronger effects at the fronto-parietal operculum and anterior superior temporal gyrus relative to the active control condition. No evidence was found for sequential processing of emotional prosodic information from right anterior superior temporal gyrus to the right fronto-parietal operculum, but the results revealed more parallel processing. Our results suggest that both right fronto-parietal operculum and right anterior superior temporal gyrus are critical for emotional prosody perception at a relatively late time period after sentence onset. This may reflect that emotional cues can still be ambiguous at the beginning of sentences, but become

  5. Time course of the involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum in emotional prosody perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekert, Marjolijn; Bais, Leonie; Kahn, René S; Aleman, André

    2008-05-21

    In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody) conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional prosody perception. Here, we used triple-pulse repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to shed light on the precise time course of involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum. We hypothesized that information would be processed in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus before being processed in the right fronto-parietal operculum. Right-handed healthy subjects performed an emotional prosody task. During listening to each sentence a triplet of TMS pulses was applied to one of the regions at one of six time points (400-1900 ms). Results showed a significant main effect of Time for right anterior superior temporal gyrus and right fronto-parietal operculum. The largest interference was observed half-way through the sentence. This effect was stronger for withdrawal emotions than for the approach emotion. A further experiment with the inclusion of an active control condition, TMS over the EEG site POz (midline parietal-occipital junction), revealed stronger effects at the fronto-parietal operculum and anterior superior temporal gyrus relative to the active control condition. No evidence was found for sequential processing of emotional prosodic information from right anterior superior temporal gyrus to the right fronto-parietal operculum, but the results revealed more parallel processing. Our results suggest that both right fronto-parietal operculum and right anterior superior temporal gyrus are critical for emotional prosody perception at a relatively late time period after sentence onset. This may reflect that emotional cues can still be ambiguous at the beginning of sentences, but become more apparent half

  6. Regional homogeneity of the resting-state brain activity correlates with individual intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leiqiong; Song, Ming; Jiang, Tianzi; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui

    2011-01-25

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has confirmed that the strengths of the long distance functional connectivity between different brain areas are correlated with individual differences in intelligence. However, the association between the local connectivity within a specific brain region and intelligence during rest remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between local connectivity and intelligence. Fifty-nine right-handed healthy adults participated in the study. The regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to assess the strength of local connectivity. The associations between ReHo and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) scores were studied in a voxel-wise manner using partial correlation analysis controlling for age and sex. We found that the FSIQ scores were positively correlated with the ReHo values of the bilateral inferior parietal lobules, middle frontal, parahippocampal and inferior temporal gyri, the right thalamus, superior frontal and fusiform gyri, and the left superior parietal lobule. The main findings are consistent with the parieto-frontal integration theory (P-FIT) of intelligence, supporting the view that general intelligence involves multiple brain regions throughout the brain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of typical antipsychotic, haloperidol on regional cerebral blood flow in drug-naive schizophrenic patients-study with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamoya, Masatoshi

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of examining antipsychotic action of haloperidol (HPD), effects of chronic perioral administration of HPD 4.5 mg/day on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were investigated in 12 drug-naive schizophrenic patients with acute hallucinatory and delusional state. Further, the SPECT examinations were performed on 20 normal adult volunteers to investigate differences in rCBFs between schizophrenics and the normal subjects. Results are itemized as follows. The rCBF values were significantly increased in the bilateral superior and middle frontal, cingulate, middle temporal, pre-and post-central gyri, the left superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and the bilateral hippocampal and thalamic cortices in comparison between normal subjects and before the HPD dose in schizophrenics. However, the rCBF values after the HPD dose showed significant increases only in the bilateral pre-and post-central gyri in comparison with the normal subjects. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the bilateral superior, middle and inferior frontal, superior and middle temporal gyri, and the left insular gyrus after the HPD dose in comparison with before the HPD dose. The psychiatric assessment with PANSS showed an improvement of positive symptoms consisting of auditory hallucination and delusions after the HPD dose. Statistical analyses on relationships between the rCBF values and PANSS scores before and after the HPD dose showed positive correlations between the right inferior frontal gyrus and auditory hallucination or positive symptoms, between the right superior temporal gyrus, left thalamus and delusions, and between the left thalamus, insular gyrus and negative symptoms. These results suggest that acute drug-naive schizophrenic patients have widespread cortico-subcortical energic hypermetabolism and HPD reduces the hypermetabolism, leading to whole normalized brain metabolism, in particular with the larger region

  8. Effects of typical antipsychotic, haloperidol on regional cerebral blood flow in drug-naive schizophrenic patients-study with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamoya, Masatoshi [Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of examining antipsychotic action of haloperidol (HPD), effects of chronic perioral administration of HPD 4.5 mg/day on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were investigated in 12 drug-naive schizophrenic patients with acute hallucinatory and delusional state. Further, the SPECT examinations were performed on 20 normal adult volunteers to investigate differences in rCBFs between schizophrenics and the normal subjects. Results are itemized as follows. The rCBF values were significantly increased in the bilateral superior and middle frontal, cingulate, middle temporal, pre-and post-central gyri, the left superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and the bilateral hippocampal and thalamic cortices in comparison between normal subjects and before the HPD dose in schizophrenics. However, the rCBF values after the HPD dose showed significant increases only in the bilateral pre-and post-central gyri in comparison with the normal subjects. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the bilateral superior, middle and inferior frontal, superior and middle temporal gyri, and the left insular gyrus after the HPD dose in comparison with before the HPD dose. The psychiatric assessment with PANSS showed an improvement of positive symptoms consisting of auditory hallucination and delusions after the HPD dose. Statistical analyses on relationships between the rCBF values and PANSS scores before and after the HPD dose showed positive correlations between the right inferior frontal gyrus and auditory hallucination or positive symptoms, between the right superior temporal gyrus, left thalamus and delusions, and between the left thalamus, insular gyrus and negative symptoms. These results suggest that acute drug-naive schizophrenic patients have widespread cortico-subcortical energic hypermetabolism and HPD reduces the hypermetabolism, leading to whole normalized brain metabolism, in particular with the larger region

  9. Resting-state, functional MRI on regional homogeneity changes of brain in the heavy smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shiqi; Wu Guangyao; Lin Fuchun; Kong Xiangquan; Zhou Guofeng; Pang Haopeng; Zhu Ling; Liu Guobing; Lei Hao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the mechanism of self-awareness in the heavy smokers (HS) by using regional homogeneity (ReHo) combined with resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). Methods: Thirty HS and 31 healthy non-smokers (NS) matched for age and sex underwent a 3.0 T resting-state fMRI. The data were post-processed by SPM 5 and then the ReHo values were calculated by REST software. The ReHo values between the two groups were compared by two-sample t-test. The brain map with significant difference of ReHo value was obtained. Results: Compared with that in NS group, the regions with decreased ReHo value included the bilateral precuneus, superior frontal gyrus,medial prefrontal cortex, right angular gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus, cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus in HS group. The regions of increased ReHo value included the bilateral insula, parahippocampal gyrus, white matter of parietal lobe, pons, left inferior parietal lobule, lingual gyrus, thalamus, inferior orbital gyrus, white matter of temporal-frontal lobe, and cerebellum. The difference was more obvious in the left hemisphere. Conclusions: In HS, abnormal ReHo on a resting state which reflects network of smoking addiction. This method may be helpful in understanding the mechanism of self-awareness in HS. (authors)

  10. Frontal and parietal cortical interactions with distributed visual representations during selective attention and action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Natalie; Stokes, Mark; Nobre, Anna C; Rushworth, Matthew F S

    2013-10-16

    Using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we studied how distributed visual representations in human occipitotemporal cortex are modulated by attention and link their modulation to concurrent activity in frontal and parietal cortex. We detected similar occipitotemporal patterns during a simple visuoperceptual task and an attention-to-working-memory task in which one or two stimuli were cued before being presented among other pictures. Pattern strength varied from highest to lowest when the stimulus was the exclusive focus of attention, a conjoint focus, and when it was potentially distracting. Although qualitatively similar effects were seen inside regions relatively specialized for the stimulus category and outside, the former were quantitatively stronger. By regressing occipitotemporal pattern strength against activity elsewhere in the brain, we identified frontal and parietal areas exerting top-down control over, or reading information out from, distributed patterns in occipitotemporal cortex. Their interactions with patterns inside regions relatively specialized for that stimulus category were higher than those with patterns outside those regions and varied in strength as a function of the attentional condition. One area, the frontal operculum, was distinguished by selectively interacting with occipitotemporal patterns only when they were the focus of attention. There was no evidence that any frontal or parietal area actively inhibited occipitotemporal representations even when they should be ignored and were suppressed. Using MVPA to decode information within these frontal and parietal areas showed that they contained information about attentional context and/or readout information from occipitotemporal cortex to guide behavior but that frontal regions lacked information about category identity.

  11. Frontal and Parietal Cortical Interactions with Distributed Visual Representations during Selective Attention and Action Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Mark; Nobre, Anna C.; Rushworth, Matthew F. S.

    2013-01-01

    Using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we studied how distributed visual representations in human occipitotemporal cortex are modulated by attention and link their modulation to concurrent activity in frontal and parietal cortex. We detected similar occipitotemporal patterns during a simple visuoperceptual task and an attention-to-working-memory task in which one or two stimuli were cued before being presented among other pictures. Pattern strength varied from highest to lowest when the stimulus was the exclusive focus of attention, a conjoint focus, and when it was potentially distracting. Although qualitatively similar effects were seen inside regions relatively specialized for the stimulus category and outside, the former were quantitatively stronger. By regressing occipitotemporal pattern strength against activity elsewhere in the brain, we identified frontal and parietal areas exerting top-down control over, or reading information out from, distributed patterns in occipitotemporal cortex. Their interactions with patterns inside regions relatively specialized for that stimulus category were higher than those with patterns outside those regions and varied in strength as a function of the attentional condition. One area, the frontal operculum, was distinguished by selectively interacting with occipitotemporal patterns only when they were the focus of attention. There was no evidence that any frontal or parietal area actively inhibited occipitotemporal representations even when they should be ignored and were suppressed. Using MVPA to decode information within these frontal and parietal areas showed that they contained information about attentional context and/or readout information from occipitotemporal cortex to guide behavior but that frontal regions lacked information about category identity. PMID:24133250

  12. Minimally invasive approach for lesions involving the frontal sinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk of future meningitis. The frontal ... Traditional open surgery for frontal sinus pathology and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks is complex and involves a ... sinus. The wound is closed in two layers ... He had noted displacement of his right eye.

  13. Effects of Level of Retrieval Success on Recall-Related Frontal and Medial Temporal Lobe Activations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Montaldi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain dedicated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was used to compare the neuroactivation produced by the cued recall of response words in a set of studied word pairs with that produced by the cued retrieval of words semantically related to unstudied stimulus words. Six of the 12 subjects scanned were extensively trained so as to have good memory of the studied pairs and the remaining six were minimally trained so as to have poor memory. When comparing episodic with semantic retrieval, the well-trained subjects showed significant left medial temporal lobe activation, which was also significantly greater than that shown by the poorly trained subjects, who failed to show significant medial temporal lobe activation. In contrast, the poorly trained subjects showed significant bilateral frontal lobe activation, which was significantly greater than that shown by the well-trained subjects who failed to show significant frontal lobe activation. The frontal activations occurred mainly in the dorsolateral region, but extended into the ventrolateral and, to a lesser extent, the frontal polar regions. It is argued that whereas the medial temporal lobe activation increased as the proportion of response words successfully recalled increased, the bilateral frontal lobe activation increased in proportion to retrieval effort, which was greater when learning had been less good.

  14. Responses of primate frontal cortex neurons during natural vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cory T; Thomas, A Wren; Nummela, Samuel U; de la Mothe, Lisa A

    2015-08-01

    The role of primate frontal cortex in vocal communication and its significance in language evolution have a controversial history. While evidence indicates that vocalization processing occurs in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex neurons, vocal-motor activity has been conjectured to be primarily subcortical and suggestive of a distinctly different neural architecture from humans. Direct evidence of neural activity during natural vocal communication is limited, as previous studies were performed in chair-restrained animals. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons across multiple regions of prefrontal and premotor cortex while freely moving marmosets engaged in a natural vocal behavior known as antiphonal calling. Our aim was to test whether neurons in marmoset frontal cortex exhibited responses during vocal-signal processing and/or vocal-motor production in the context of active, natural communication. We observed motor-related changes in single neuron activity during vocal production, but relatively weak sensory responses for vocalization processing during this natural behavior. Vocal-motor responses occurred both prior to and during call production and were typically coupled to the timing of each vocalization pulse. Despite the relatively weak sensory responses a population classifier was able to distinguish between neural activity that occurred during presentations of vocalization stimuli that elicited an antiphonal response and those that did not. These findings are suggestive of the role that nonhuman primate frontal cortex neurons play in natural communication and provide an important foundation for more explicit tests of the functional contributions of these neocortical areas during vocal behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Representation of cognitive reappraisal goals in frontal gamma oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jae-Hwan; Jeong, Ji Woon; Kim, Hyun Taek; Kim, Sang Hee; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2014-01-01

    Recently, numerous efforts have been made to understand the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive regulation of emotion, such as cognitive reappraisal. Many studies have reported that cognitive control of emotion induces increases in neural activity of the control system, including the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and increases or decreases (depending upon the regulation goal) in neural activity of the appraisal system, including the amygdala and the insula. It has been hypothesized that information about regulation goals needs to be processed through interactions between the control and appraisal systems in order to support cognitive reappraisal. However, how this information is represented in the dynamics of cortical activity remains largely unknown. To address this, we investigated temporal changes in gamma band activity (35-55 Hz) in human electroencephalograms during a cognitive reappraisal task that was comprised of three reappraisal goals: to decease, maintain, or increase emotional responses modulated by affect-laden pictures. We examined how the characteristics of gamma oscillations, such as spectral power and large-scale phase synchronization, represented cognitive reappraisal goals. We found that left frontal gamma power decreased, was sustained, or increased when the participants suppressed, maintained, or amplified their emotions, respectively. This change in left frontal gamma power appeared during an interval of 1926 to 2453 ms after stimulus onset. We also found that the number of phase-synchronized pairs of gamma oscillations over the entire brain increased when participants regulated their emotions compared to when they maintained their emotions. These results suggest that left frontal gamma power may reflect cortical representation of emotional states modulated by cognitive reappraisal goals and gamma phase synchronization across whole brain regions may reflect emotional regulatory efforts to achieve these goals

  16. Frontal lobe epilepsy and EEG: Neurophysiological approach

    OpenAIRE

    García López, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    La epilepsia del lóbulo frontal es la segunda más frecuente en la mayoría de las series publicadas, después de la epilepsia temporal. Sus características clínicas y electroencefalográficas son muy variadas, lo que hace de su diagnóstico y tratamiento un reto en la práctica clínica. Las crisis frontales suelen aparecen en "clusters", con frecuencia generalizan y el aspecto electroencefalográfico de la actividad intercrítica y crítica suele ser difícil de interpretar por la gran difusión que su...

  17. Structural Evolution of a Warm Frontal Precipitation Band During GCPEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Brian A.; Naeger, Aaron; Molthan, Andrew; Nesbitt, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    A warm frontal precipitation band developed over a few hours 50-100 km to the north of a surface warm front. The 3-km WRF was able to realistically simulate band development, although the model is somewhat too weak. Band genesis was associated with weak frontogenesis (deformation) in the presence of weak potential and conditional instability feeding into the band region, while it was closer to moist neutral within the band. As the band matured, frontogenesis increased, while the stability gradually increased in the banding region. Cloud top generating cells were prevalent, but not in WRF (too stable). The band decayed as the stability increased upstream and the frontogenesis (deformation) with the warm front weakened. The WRF may have been too weak and short-lived with the band because too stable and forcing too weak (some micro issues as well).

  18. Confabulation and memory impairments following frontal lobe lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have provided considerable evidence for frontal lobe involvement in memory processing. Memory impairments arc also frequently reported in patients with frontal lobe lesions. However detailed anatomical localisation is rare, making integration of lesion and imaging findings difficult. An investigation of the functional and anatomical contributions of the frontal lobes to memory was conducted in 42 patients with frontal lobe lesions, examining memory processes identified in...

  19. Intraparenchymal schwannoma of the frontal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogaonkar M

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available A 45 year old woman with bifrontal headaches and progressive diminution in vision over 6 months was found to have bilateral papilloedema. CT scan showed large right frontal lesion with surrounding oedema. Right basal frontotemporal craniotomy was performed to excise the multinodular, intraparenchymatous tumor. Hispathology confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Post-operative course was uneventful with disappearance of pre-operative signs and symptoms.

  20. Alterations of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Major Depressive Disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hyoung; Chung, Yong An; Seo, Ye Young; Yoo, Ik Dong; Na, Sae Jung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Ki Jun [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    The authors analyzed how the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings of patients with major depression differ from the normal control, and our results were compared to previous reports. Twelve patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for major depression who were off all psychotropic medications for > 4 weeks (male: 7, female: 5, age range: 19approx52 years, average age: 29.3+-9.9 years) and 14 normal volunteers (male: 8, female: 6, age range: 19approx53 years, average age: 31.4+-9.2 years) were recruited. Images of brain perfusion SPECT were obtained using Tc-99m ECD and patterns of the rCBF were compared between patients with major depression and the healthy control subjects. The patients with major depression showed increase of the r-CBF in right lingual gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left precuneus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and showed decrease of r-CBF in right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus of left limbic lobe, cingulate gyrus of right frontal lobe, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe compared to the normal control. The Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT findings in our study did not differ from the previously reported regional cerebral blood flow pattern of patients with major depression. Especially, decreased rCBF pattern typical to major depression patients in the right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, and cingulate regions was clearly demonstrated

  1. Alterations of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Major Depressive Disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Hyoung; Chung, Yong An; Seo, Ye Young; Yoo, Ik Dong; Na, Sae Jung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Ki Jun

    2009-01-01

    The authors analyzed how the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings of patients with major depression differ from the normal control, and our results were compared to previous reports. Twelve patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for major depression who were off all psychotropic medications for > 4 weeks (male: 7, female: 5, age range: 19∼52 years, average age: 29.3±9.9 years) and 14 normal volunteers (male: 8, female: 6, age range: 19∼53 years, average age: 31.4±9.2 years) were recruited. Images of brain perfusion SPECT were obtained using Tc-99m ECD and patterns of the rCBF were compared between patients with major depression and the healthy control subjects. The patients with major depression showed increase of the r-CBF in right lingual gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left precuneus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and showed decrease of r-CBF in right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus of left limbic lobe, cingulate gyrus of right frontal lobe, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe compared to the normal control. The Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT findings in our study did not differ from the previously reported regional cerebral blood flow pattern of patients with major depression. Especially, decreased rCBF pattern typical to major depression patients in the right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, and cingulate regions was clearly demonstrated

  2. Frontal lobe function in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, J.; Thompson, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is typically associated with long-term memory dysfunction. The frontal lobes support high-level cognition comprising executive skills and working memory that is vital for daily life functioning. Deficits in these functions have been increasingly reported in TLE. Evidence from both the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature suggests both executive function and working memory are compromised in the presence of TLE. In relation to executive impairment, particular focus has been paid to set shifting as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Other discrete executive functions such as decision-making and theory of mind also appear vulnerable but have received little attention. With regard to working memory, the medial temporal lobe structures appear have a more critical role, but with emerging evidence of hippocampal dependent and independent processes. The relative role of underlying pathology and seizure spread is likely to have considerable bearing upon the cognitive phenotype and trajectory in TLE. The identification of the nature of frontal lobe dysfunction in TLE thus has important clinical implications for prognosis and surgical management. Longitudinal neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies assessing frontal lobe function in TLE patients pre- and postoperatively will improve our understanding further. PMID:22100147

  3. Role of Frontal Alpha Oscillations in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R.; Foulser, A. Alban; Mellin, Juliann M.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent EEG data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8 – 12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a fundamental role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40Hz-tACS was used in instead of 10Hz-tACS to rule out a general “electrical stimulation” effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal gamma stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. PMID:25913062

  4. An unusual case of orbito-frontal rod fence stab injury with a good outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miscusi, Massimo; Arangio, Paolo; De Martino, Luca; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Cascone, Piero; Raco, Antonino

    2013-08-13

    High-energy non-missile penetrating injuries (stab injuries) account for a small percentage of penetrating head injuries and they present a series of special features. A 35-year-old man suffered orbito-frontal? and trans-cranial injuries after falling five meters from a terrace onto a rod iron fence. The removal of the metal rod was performed outside the operating room. The orbital roof was exposed and repaired through a bifrontal craniotomy and the frontal sinuses were cranialised. The orbital floor and zygoma were plated with micro-screws. The patient recovered without significant complications, apart from a slight paresis of the right superior rectus; the ocular globe remained intact.The positive outcome obtained in this very challenging case is attributable to the competency of the Neurotrauma Unit and to the use of a synergistic approach which involved the contribution of neurosurgeons, maxillo-facial surgeons, radiologists and anaesthesiologists.

  5. Frontal lobe hypoperfusion in mild cognitive impairment patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, S.Q.; Chung, C.P.; Liao, Y.C.; Wang, P.N.; Lee, Y.C.; Liu, H.C.; Liu, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Mild cognitive impairement (MCI) refers to the clinical state of individuals who are memory impaired subjectively but are functioning well and do not meet the criteria of dementia. MCI subjects have a high risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is important to detect the earliest evidence of AD for clinicians to recognize the high risk subjects and to implicate the therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the early change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in MCI with high risk of AD by SPECT. Methods: Subjects complained of memory impairment with normal cognitive function and intact daily activities were enrolled. Each patient underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT at the time of initial evaluation. Patients were followed for one to five years. The diagnosis of AD was based on the criteria of the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. There were 8 patients (4 males, 4 females; age range, 64-80 yrs; mean, 73.5 yrs) progressing to AD within one year. Ten gender and age matched normal control subjects (NC) were also included. The SPECT images were analyzed by using SPM 99. The image data were transformed into a standard stereotactic space, using a 12-parameter linear and 2x2x2 nonlinear spatial normalization with the template image. Group comparisons of the SPECT images between the 8 rapid AD converters and 10 NCs were performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using t test. The t statistics was transformed to a normal statistic yielding a Z score for every voxel. Results: In 8 rapid AD converters, rCBF in the right medial frontal gyms (Brodmann area 10; BA 10), anterior cingulated gyms (BA 32) and middle frontal gyms (BA 46) was significantly lower than in NCs (p<0.001). The neuropsychological performances of these 8 cases revealed decrement in short-term memory, mental manipulation and list-generation frequency. Conclusions: rCBF is decreased in right medial frontal, anterior cingulated and middle frontal gyms in MCI patients who

  6. Functional Dysconnection of the Inferior Frontal Gyrus in Young People With Bipolar Disorder or at Genetic High Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gloria; Lord, Anton; Frankland, Andrew; Wright, Adam; Lau, Phoebe; Levy, Florence; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Mitchell, Philip B; Breakspear, Michael

    2017-04-15

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by a dysregulation of affect and impaired integration of emotion with cognition. These traits are also expressed in probands at high genetic risk of BD. The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is a key cortical hub in the circuits of emotion and cognitive control, and it has been frequently associated with BD. Here, we studied resting-state functional connectivity of the left IFG in participants with BD and in those at increased genetic risk. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging we compared 49 young BD participants, 71 individuals with at least one first-degree relative with BD (at-risk), and 80 control subjects. We performed between-group analyses of the functional connectivity of the left IFG and used graph theory to study its local functional network topology. We also used machine learning to study classification based solely on the functional connectivity of the IFG. In BD, the left IFG was functionally dysconnected from a network of regions, including bilateral insulae, ventrolateral prefrontal gyri, superior temporal gyri, and the putamen (p < .001). A small network incorporating neighboring insular regions and the anterior cingulate cortex showed weaker functional connectivity in at-risk than control participants (p < .006). These constellations of regions overlapped with frontolimbic regions that a machine learning classifier selected as predicting group membership with an accuracy significantly greater than chance. Functional dysconnectivity of the IFG from regions involved in emotional regulation may represent a trait abnormality for BD and could potentially aid clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Congenital olfactory impairment is linked to cortical changes in prefrontal and limbic brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, Helena Gásdal; Vestergaard, Martin; Baaré, William F C

    2018-01-01

    differently in individuals who suffer from lifelong olfactory deprivation relative to healthy normosmic individuals. To address this question, we examined if regional variations in gray matter volume were associated with smell ability in seventeen individuals with isolated congenital olfactory impairment (COI...... in left middle frontal gyrus and right superior frontal sulcus (SFS). COI subjects with severe olfactory impairment (anosmia) had reduced grey matter volume in the left mOFC and increased volume in right piriform cortex and SFS. Within the COI group olfactory ability, measured with the "Sniffin' Sticks...... piriform cortex, while olfactory identification was negatively associated with right SFS volume. Our findings suggest that lifelong olfactory deprivation trigger changes in the cortical volume of prefrontal and limbic brain regions previously linked to olfactory memory....

  8. The relationship between clinical findings and therapeutic approach in the treatment of fractured frontal sinus walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of fractured frontal sinus walls vary from 6% to 12% of all craniofacial injuries. Objective Estimated relation between clinical findings and performed therapeutic procedures in treating fractured frontal sinus walls. To estimate success in performed therapeutic procedures, according to the incidence of postoperative complications and the integrity of injured regions from the functional and esthetical aspect. Method We analyzed, by retrospective clinical investigation, 19 patients with fractured frontal sinus walls and dislocated fragments, treated at the Department for Maxillofacial Surgery, Clinic of Dentistry in Niš, in the period March 1995 - March 2006. The success of therapy was estimated based on the incidence and type of complications and esthetical results in relation to preoperative findings. Results Predominant etiological factor in fractures of frontal sinus walls is trauma sustained in traffic accidents, which occurred in 52.6% of patients in our investigation. In clinical findings, the impression was the predominant sign, present in 16 patients. In 6 cases soft tissue access through already present lacerations or their extensions was employed, in 4 cases it was done by supraciliary access and in 9 by bicoronal access. As a therapeutic measure, drainage was performed in 5 cases, cranialisation in one, ostheoneogenetic access in 11 cases and a simple reposition of fragments in 2 patients with fractured frontal sinus walls. Infection as a complication was absent. All patients were satisfied with postoperative esthetical appearance of the injured region. Conclusion The infection, the lacerations and the direction of fractured lines are dominant factors in the determination of therapeutic procedures used to treat fractured frontal sinus walls. This will result in the low incidence of infection as a postoperative complication and in patient’s satisfaction with postoperative esthetical result of the injured

  9. Frontal intradiploic epidomoid cyst with orbital and out cerebral extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Latorre, F.; Revert Ventura, A.; Diaz Ramon, C.; Arana, E.; Esteban Masanet, J.M.; Tortosa Giner, A.

    1995-01-01

    We studied six patients with exophthalmos and inferior displacement of the eyeball produced by orbital extension of a frontal intradiploic epidermoid cyst. All the patients were studied by conventional radiography five with CT and three with MR. Plain x-ray disclosed a single, well-defined lytic lesion with sclerosis margin, located in the outer supraorbital region of the frontal bone in all cases. CT revealed the intradiploic site of the lesion, its expansive nature, the state of the bone tables and demonstrated the existence of an intra orbital mass. MR showed a lesion with a greater signal intensity than LCR, similar to the white matter in T1-weighted sequences in two cases and hyperintense in a third. The lesions were hyperintense in T2-weighted sequences. The preoperative presumed diagnosis was established by means of plain radiography on the basis of site and the sclerosis ring surrounding the lesion. CT disclosed the bone structures and confirmed the existence of an intra orbital mass containing soft portions. The basic contribution of MR was in the assessment of the intracranial extension and in ruling out cerebral involvement.(Author)

  10. Aberrant network integrity of the inferior frontal cortex in women with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kullmann

    2014-01-01

    These results suggest that AN patients have reduced connectivity within the cognitive control system of the brain and increased connectivity within regions important for salience processing. Due to its fundamental role in inhibitory behavior, including motor response, altered integrity of the inferior frontal cortex could contribute to hyperactivity in AN.

  11. Dissociating Parieto-Frontal Networks for Phonological and Semantic Word Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Weigel, Anni; Schuschan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and supramarginal gyrus (SMG) are key regions for phonological decisions, whereas angular gyrus (ANG) and anterior IFG (aIFG) are associated with semantics. However, it is less clear whether the functional contribution of one area changes in the presen...

  12. Palilalia, echolalia, and echopraxia-palipraxia as ictal manifestations in a patient with left frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yang-Je; Han, Sang-Don; Song, Sook Keun; Lee, Byung In; Heo, Kyoung

    2009-06-01

    Palilalia is a relatively rare pathologic speech behavior and has been reported in various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. We encountered a case of palilalia, echolalia, and echopraxia-palipraxia as ictal phenomena of left frontal lobe epilepsy. A 55-year-old, right-handed man was admitted because of frequent episodes of rapid reiteration of syllables. Video-electroencephalography monitoring revealed stereotypical episodes of palilalia accompanied by rhythmic head nodding and right-arm posturing with ictal discharges over the left frontocentral area. He also displayed echolalia or echopraxia-palipraxia, partially responding to an examiner's stimulus. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed encephalomalacia on the left superior frontal gyrus and ictal single photon emission computed tomography showed hyperperfusion just above the lesion, corresponding to the left supplementary motor area (SMA), and subcortical nuclei. This result suggests that the neuroanatomic substrate involved in the generation of these behaviors as ictal phenomena might exist in the SMA of the left frontal lobe.

  13. Inferior frontal gyrus links visual and motor cortices during a visuomotor precision grip force task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadelis, Christos; Arfeller, Carola; Erla, Silvia; Nollo, Giandomenico; Cattaneo, Luigi; Braun, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Coordination between vision and action relies on a fronto-parietal network that receives visual and proprioceptive sensory input in order to compute motor control signals. Here, we investigated with magnetoencephalography (MEG) which cortical areas are functionally coupled on the basis of synchronization during visuomotor integration. MEG signals were recorded from twelve healthy adults while performing a unimanual visuomotor (VM) task and control conditions. The VM task required the integration of pinch motor commands with visual sensory feedback. By using a beamformer, we localized the neural activity in the frequency range of 1-30Hz during the VM compared to rest. Virtual sensors were estimated at the active locations. A multivariate autoregressive model was used to estimate the power and coherence of estimated activity at the virtual sensors. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) during VM was observed in early visual areas, the rostral part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the right IFG, the superior parietal lobules, and the left hand motor cortex (M1). Functional coupling in the alpha frequency band bridged the regional activities observed in motor and visual cortices (the start and the end points in the visuomotor loop) through the left or right IFG. Coherence between the left IFG and left M1 correlated inversely with the task performance. Our results indicate that an occipital-prefrontal-motor functional network facilitates the modulation of instructed motor responses to visual cues. This network may supplement the mechanism for guiding actions that is fully incorporated into the dorsal visual stream. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Frontal lobe activation during object permanence: data from near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Abigail A; Kagan, Jerome; Gaudette, Thomas; Walz, Kathryn A; Hershlag, Natalie; Boas, David A

    2002-08-01

    The ability to create and hold a mental schema of an object is one of the milestones in cognitive development. Developmental scientists have named the behavioral manifestation of this competence object permanence. Convergent evidence indicates that frontal lobe maturation plays a critical role in the display of object permanence, but methodological and ethical constrains have made it difficult to collect neurophysiological evidence from awake, behaving infants. Near-infrared spectroscopy provides a noninvasive assessment of changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin concentration within a prescribed region. The evidence described in this report reveals that the emergence of object permanence is related to an increase in hemoglobin concentration in frontal cortex.

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory depressed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C. H.; Chung, Y. A.; Chae, J. H.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Imaging studies by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) demonstrates biological activities of the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after a series of therapeutic rTMS sessions. Nine patients with refractory depression who had not been responsive to appropriate pharmacotherapy over 1 year were randomly assigned to daily 1 Hz right-sided rTMS or 20 Hz left-sided rTMS sessions for over 3 weeks. Baseline and 3-week post-rTMS treatment SPECT images were obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of approximately 740925 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a multi-detector scanner (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) equipped with a low-energy, fan-beam collimator. All patients showed a good clinical outcome. Statistically significant common increase in rCBF patterns was found in the fusiform gyrus of left temporal lobe, left hippocampus, left superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe, right lateral globus pallidus and cingulated gyrus of both limbic lobes. And in the fusiform gyrus of left occipital lobe and middle frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe decreased uptake was seen compared to controls. Low-frequency rTMS on the right prefrontal cortex and high-frequency rTMS on the left prefrontal cortex for 3 weeks as an add-on regimen have increased activity in specific brain regions in patients with treatment refractory depression. Therapeutic TMS seems to influence distinct cortical regions, as well as different pathways, affecting rCBF in a homogeneous manner that is probably region dependent and illness related

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory depressed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. H.; Chung, Y. A.; Chae, J. H.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Imaging studies by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) demonstrates biological activities of the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after a series of therapeutic rTMS sessions. Nine patients with refractory depression who had not been responsive to appropriate pharmacotherapy over 1 year were randomly assigned to daily 1 Hz right-sided rTMS or 20 Hz left-sided rTMS sessions for over 3 weeks. Baseline and 3-week post-rTMS treatment SPECT images were obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of approximately 740925 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a multi-detector scanner (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) equipped with a low-energy, fan-beam collimator. All patients showed a good clinical outcome. Statistically significant common increase in rCBF patterns was found in the fusiform gyrus of left temporal lobe, left hippocampus, left superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe, right lateral globus pallidus and cingulated gyrus of both limbic lobes. And in the fusiform gyrus of left occipital lobe and middle frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe decreased uptake was seen compared to controls. Low-frequency rTMS on the right prefrontal cortex and high-frequency rTMS on the left prefrontal cortex for 3 weeks as an add-on regimen have increased activity in specific brain regions in patients with treatment refractory depression. Therapeutic TMS seems to influence distinct cortical regions, as well as different pathways, affecting rCBF in a homogeneous manner that is probably region dependent and illness related.

  17. Frontal fibrosing alopecia and lichen planus pigmentosus: diagnosis and therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade; Guilherme, Marina Riedi; Peretti, Murilo Calvo; Werner, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a variant of lichen planopilaris with marginal progressive hair loss on the scalp, eyebrows and axillae. We report a case of frontal fibrosing alopecia and lichen planus pigmentosus in a postmenopausal woman, that started with alopecia on the eyebrows and then on the frontoparietal region, with periocular and cervical hyperpigmentation of difficult management. The condition was controlled with systemic corticosteroid therapy and finasteride. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus frequently associated with frontal fibrosing alopecia in darker phototipes. It should be considered in patients affected by scarring alopecia with a pattern of lichen planopilaris and areas of skin hyperpigmentation revealing perifollicular hyperpigmentation refractory to multiple treatments. This case illustrates diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in face of scarring alopecia and perifollicular hyperpigmentation.

  18. Frontal Lobe Contusion in Mice Chronically Impairs Prefrontal-Dependent Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Chou

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of chronic disability in the world. Moderate to severe TBI often results in damage to the frontal lobe region and leads to cognitive, emotional, and social behavioral sequelae that negatively affect quality of life. More specifically, TBI patients often develop persistent deficits in social behavior, anxiety, and executive functions such as attention, mental flexibility, and task switching. These deficits are intrinsically associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC functionality. Currently, there is a lack of analogous, behaviorally characterized TBI models for investigating frontal lobe injuries despite the prevalence of focal contusions to the frontal lobe in TBI patients. We used the controlled cortical impact (CCI model in mice to generate a frontal lobe contusion and studied behavioral changes associated with PFC function. We found that unilateral frontal lobe contusion in mice produced long-term impairments to social recognition and reversal learning while having only a minor effect on anxiety and completely sparing rule shifting and hippocampal-dependent behavior.

  19. Are orchids left and dandelions right? Frontal brain activation asymmetry and its sensitivity to developmental context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Paz; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Waxman, Jordana A; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Schmidt, Louis A

    2014-08-01

    To clarify long-standing conceptual and empirical inconsistencies in models describing the relation between frontal brain asymmetry and emotion, we tested a theory of biological sensitivity to context. We examined whether asymmetry of alpha activation in frontal brain regions, as measured by resting electroencephalography, is sensitive to early developmental contexts. Specifically, we investigated whether frontal asymmetry moderates the association between birth weight and adult outcomes. Adults with left frontal asymmetry (LFA) who were born at extremely low birth weight exhibited high levels of attention problems and withdrawn behaviors in their 30s, whereas normal-birth-weight adults with LFA had low levels of these problem behaviors. Adults with right frontal asymmetry (RFA) displayed a relatively moderate amount of problem behavior regardless of birth weight. Our findings suggest that LFA is associated with sensitivity to developmental context and may help explain why LFA is associated with both positive and negative outcomes, whereas RFA seems to be associated with a more canalized process in some contexts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Learning of Spatial Relationships between Observed and Imitated Actions allows Invariant Inverse Computation in the Frontal Mirror Neuron System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyuk; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Reggia, James A.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human mirror neuron system can facilitate learning by imitation through coupling of observation and action execution. During imitation of observed actions, the functional relationship between and within the inferior frontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex, and the superior temporal sulcus can be modeled within the internal model framework. The proposed biologically plausible mirror neuron system model extends currently available models by explicitly modeling the intraparietal sulcus and the superior parietal lobule in implementing the function of a frame of reference transformation during imitation. Moreover, the model posits the ventral premotor cortex as performing an inverse computation. The simulations reveal that: i) the transformation system can learn and represent the changes in extrinsic to intrinsic coordinates when an imitator observes a demonstrator; ii) the inverse model of the imitator’s frontal mirror neuron system can be trained to provide the motor plans for the imitated actions. PMID:22255261

  1. Learning of spatial relationships between observed and imitated actions allows invariant inverse computation in the frontal mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyuk; Gentili, Rodolphe J; Reggia, James A; Contreras-Vidal, José L

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human mirror neuron system can facilitate learning by imitation through coupling of observation and action execution. During imitation of observed actions, the functional relationship between and within the inferior frontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex, and the superior temporal sulcus can be modeled within the internal model framework. The proposed biologically plausible mirror neuron system model extends currently available models by explicitly modeling the intraparietal sulcus and the superior parietal lobule in implementing the function of a frame of reference transformation during imitation. Moreover, the model posits the ventral premotor cortex as performing an inverse computation. The simulations reveal that: i) the transformation system can learn and represent the changes in extrinsic to intrinsic coordinates when an imitator observes a demonstrator; ii) the inverse model of the imitator's frontal mirror neuron system can be trained to provide the motor plans for the imitated actions.

  2. Investigating the effects of nitrous oxide sedation on frontal-parietal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji-Ho; Kim, Pil-Jong; Kim, Hong-Gee; Koo, Yong-Seo; Shin, Teo Jeon

    2017-06-09

    Although functional connectivity has received considerable attention in the study of consciousness, few studies have investigated functional connectivity limited to the sedated state where consciousness is maintained but impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in functional connectivity of the parietal-frontal network resulting from nitrous oxide-induced sedation, and to determine the neural correlates of cognitive impairment during consciousness transition states. Electroencephalography was acquired from healthy adult patients who underwent nitrous oxide inhalation to induce cognitive impairment, and was analyzed using Granger causality (GC). Periods of awake, sedation and recovery for GC between frontal and parietal areas in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma and total frequency bands were obtained. The Friedman test with post-hoc analysis was conducted for GC values of each period for comparison. As a sedated state was induced by nitrous oxide inhalation, power in the low frequency band showed increased activity in frontal regions that was reversed with discontinuation of nitrous oxide. Feedback and feedforward connections analyzed in spectral GC were changed differently in accordance with EEG frequency bands in the sedated state by nitrous oxide administration. Calculated spectral GC of the theta, alpha, and beta frequency regions in the parietal-to-frontal direction was significantly decreased in the sedated state while spectral GC in the reverse direction did not show significant change. Frontal-parietal functional connectivity is significantly affected by nitrous oxide inhalation. Significantly decreased parietal-to-frontal interaction may induce a sedated state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Alopecia frontal fibrosante: una enfermedad en auge

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana-Sancho, A. de; Piris-García, X.; Valle-García, N.; Hierro-Cámara, M.

    2016-01-01

    La alopecia frontal fibrosante (AFF) es un tipo de alopecia cicatricial cuya incidencia está aumentando de forma significativa en nuestro país. Se caracteriza por un retroceso en la línea de implantación del pelo a nivel frontotemporal que afecta mayoritariamente a mujeres postmenopaúsicas, con un impacto negativo en su calidad de vida. Se asocia a menopausia precoz en un 14% de los casos y a hipotiroidismo en un 15%. Con respecto al tratamiento, son los inhibidores de la 5alfa-reductasa, los...

  4. Estudo de lidocaína a 0,5% e combinação de lidocaína a 0,25% com fentanil e vecurônio em anestesia regional intravenosa para cirurgias de membros superiores Estudio de la lidocaína al 0,5% y en combinación de lidocaína al 0,25% con fentanilo y vecuronio en anestesia regional intravenosa para cirugías de miembros superiores Study of 0.5% lidocaine alone and combination of 0.25% lidocaine with fentanyl and vecuronium in intravenous regional anesthesia for upper limb surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh MCB

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia regional intravenosa (ARIV para cirurgias de membros superiores com a tradicional alta dose de lidocaína pode levar a efeitos colaterais potencialmente letais. A fim de evitar esses efeitos, muitas técnicas modificadas de ARIV foram experimentadas com o uso de uma dose baixa de lidocaína, relaxante muscular e opioide. MÉTODOS: O presente estudo foi feito com 60 pacientes não medicados previamente, com classificação ASA 1-2, para comparar as características sensoriais e motoras, os parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios e os efeitos colaterais durante o período intraoperatório e de deflação pós-torniquete entre os pacientes que receberam 40 mL de lidocaína a 0,5% (n = 30 e aqueles que receberam uma combinação de 40 mL de lidocaína a 0,25% com 0,05 mg de fentanil e 0,5 mg de vecurônio (n = 30 em ARIV para cirurgias ortopédicas de membros superiores. Os resultados foram analisados com o uso do teste t de Student pareado para identificar a significância estatística. RESULTADO: A diferença entre os dois grupos em relação ao tempo médio de início e completo bloqueio sensitivo e motor foi estatisticamente significante. Porém, houve completo bloqueio sensitivo e motor em ambos os grupos 15 minutos após a injeção da solução anestésica. CONCLUSÃO: Embora a pequena demora observada no início e na obtenção completa dos bloqueios sensitivo e motor possa, teoricamente, atrasar o início da cirurgia em 10-15 minutos, clinicamente esse tempo seria gasto na preparação do campo cirúrgico. Portanto, essa combinação pode ser usada com segurança e eficácia em anestesia regional intravenosa para cirurgias ortopédicas de membros superiores com menor possibilidade de toxicidade anestésica local.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La anestesia regional intravenosa (ARIV para cirugías de miembros superiores con la tradicional dosis alta de lidocaína, puede conllevar a efectos colaterales que

  5. Performance monitoring in the medial frontal cortex and related neural networks: From monitoring self actions to understanding others' actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Taihei; Noritake, Atsushi; Ullsperger, Markus; Isoda, Masaki

    2018-04-27

    Action is a key channel for interacting with the outer world. As such, the ability to monitor actions and their consequences - regardless as to whether they are self-generated or other-generated - is of crucial importance for adaptive behavior. The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has long been studied as a critical node for performance monitoring in nonsocial contexts. Accumulating evidence suggests that the MFC is involved in a wide range of functions necessary for one's own performance monitoring, including error detection, and monitoring and resolving response conflicts. Recent studies, however, have also pointed to the importance of the MFC in performance monitoring under social conditions, ranging from monitoring and understanding others' actions to reading others' mental states, such as their beliefs and intentions (i.e., mentalizing). Here we review the functional roles of the MFC and related neural networks in performance monitoring in both nonsocial and social contexts, with an emphasis on the emerging field of a social systems neuroscience approach using macaque monkeys as a model system. Future work should determine the way in which the MFC exerts its monitoring function via interactions with other brain regions, such as the superior temporal sulcus in the mentalizing system and the ventral premotor cortex in the mirror system. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Functional segregation of the inferior frontal gyrus for syntactic processes: a functional magnetic-resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Yuji; Toyoda, Hiroshi; Honda, Manabu; Yoshida, Haruyo; Kochiyama, Takanori; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Sadato, Norihiro

    2008-07-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 18 normal volunteers to determine whether there is separate representation of syntactic, semantic, and verbal working memory processing in the left inferior frontal gyrus (GFi). We compared a sentence comprehension task with a short-term memory maintenance task to identify syntactic and semantic processing regions. To investigate the effects of syntactic and verbal working memory load while minimizing the differences in semantic processes, we used comprehension tasks with garden-path (GP) sentences, which require re-parsing, and non-garden-path (NGP) sentences. Compared with the short-term memory task, sentence comprehension activated the left GFi, including Brodmann areas (BAs) 44, 45, and 47, and the left superior temporal gyrus. In GP versus NGP sentences, there was greater activity in the left BAs 44, 45, and 46 extending to the left anterior insula, the pre-supplementary motor area, and the right cerebellum. In the left GFi, verbal working memory activity was located more dorsally (BA 44/45), semantic processing was located more ventrally (BA 47), and syntactic processing was located in between (BA 45). These findings indicate a close relationship between semantic and syntactic processes, and suggest that BA 45 might link verbal working memory and semantic processing via syntactic unification processes.

  7. Eutrophication monitoring for Lake Superior's Chequamegon ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A priority for the Lake Superior CSMI was to identify susceptible nearshore eutrophication areas. We developed an integrated sampling design to collect baseline data for Lake Superior’s Chequamegon Bay to understand how nearshore physical processes and tributary loading relate to observed chlorophyll concentrations. Sampling included ship-based water samples combined with vertical CTD casts, continuous in situ towing and data collected from an autonomous underwater glider. Sampling was conducted during June, July and September. The glider collected regional data as part of three extended missions in Lake Superior over the same periods. During the study, two significant storm events impacted the western end of Lake Superior; the first occurred during July 11-12, with 8-10 inches of rain in 24hrs, and the second on July 21 with winds in excess of 161 km/h. Using GIS software, we organized these diverse temporal data sets along a continuous time line with temporally coincident Modis Satellite data to visualize surface sediment plumes in relation to water quality measurements. Preliminary results suggest that both events impacted regional water quality, and that nearshore physical forces (upwelling and currents) influenced the spatial variability. Results comparing in situ measures with remotely sensed images will be discussed. not applicable

  8. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Luchsinger

    Full Text Available Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing.To compare biathletes (serving as experts and cross-country skiers (novices and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting.EEG frontal theta (4-7 Hz activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill.Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (p<0.01. Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044, but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72.Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers.

  9. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in frontotemporal dementia: a study with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. S.; Jeong, J.; Kang, S. J.; Na, D. L.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T.; Kim, S. E. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a common cause of presenile dementia. We investigated the regional cerebral glucose metabolic impairments in patients with FTD using FDG PET. We analysed the regional metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 30 patients with FTD and age- and sex-matched 15 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 11 healthy subjects using SPM99. We also compared the inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry among the three groups by counting the total metabolic activity of each hemisphere and computing asymmetry index (AL) between hemispheres. The hypometabolic brain regions in FTD patients compared with healthy controls were as follows: superior middle and medial frontal lobules, superior and middle temporal lobules, anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, uncus, insula, lateral globus pallidus and thalamus. The regions with decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with AD patients were as follows: superior, inferior and medial frontal lobules, anterior cingulate gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty-five (83%) out of the 30 FTD patients had AI values that was beyond the 95% confidence interval of the AI values obtained from healthy controls; 10 patients had hypometabolism more severe on the right and 15 patients had the opposite pattern. In comparison, 10 (67%) out of the 15 AD patients had asymmetric metabolism. Our SPM analysis of FDG PET revealed additional areas of decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with prior studies using the ROI method, involving frontal, temporal, cingulate gyrus, corpus callosum, uncus, insula, and some subcortical areas. The inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry was common in FTD patients, which can be another metabolic feature that helps differentiate FTD from AD.

  10. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in frontotemporal dementia: a study with FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S. S.; Jeong, J.; Kang, S. J.; Na, D. L.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T.; Kim, S. E.

    2002-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a common cause of presenile dementia. We investigated the regional cerebral glucose metabolic impairments in patients with FTD using FDG PET. We analysed the regional metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 30 patients with FTD and age- and sex-matched 15 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 11 healthy subjects using SPM99. We also compared the inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry among the three groups by counting the total metabolic activity of each hemisphere and computing asymmetry index (AL) between hemispheres. The hypometabolic brain regions in FTD patients compared with healthy controls were as follows: superior middle and medial frontal lobules, superior and middle temporal lobules, anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, uncus, insula, lateral globus pallidus and thalamus. The regions with decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with AD patients were as follows: superior, inferior and medial frontal lobules, anterior cingulate gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty-five (83%) out of the 30 FTD patients had AI values that was beyond the 95% confidence interval of the AI values obtained from healthy controls; 10 patients had hypometabolism more severe on the right and 15 patients had the opposite pattern. In comparison, 10 (67%) out of the 15 AD patients had asymmetric metabolism. Our SPM analysis of FDG PET revealed additional areas of decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with prior studies using the ROI method, involving frontal, temporal, cingulate gyrus, corpus callosum, uncus, insula, and some subcortical areas. The inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry was common in FTD patients, which can be another metabolic feature that helps differentiate FTD from AD

  11. Better without (lateral) frontal cortex? Insight problems solved by frontal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverberi, Carlo; Toraldo, Alessio; D'Agostini, Serena; Skrap, Miran

    2005-12-01

    A recently proposed theory on frontal lobe functions claims that the prefrontal cortex, particularly its dorso-lateral aspect, is crucial in defining a set of responses suitable for a particular task, and biasing these for selection. This activity is carried out for virtually any kind of non-routine tasks, without distinction of content. The aim of this study is to test the prediction of Frith's 'sculpting the response space' hypothesis by means of an 'insight' problem-solving task, namely the matchstick arithmetic task. Starting from Knoblich et al.'s interpretation for the failure of healthy controls to solve the matchstick problem, and Frith's theory on the role of dorsolateral frontal cortex, we derived the counterintuitive prediction that patients with focal damage to the lateral frontal cortex should perform better than a group of healthy participants on this rather difficult task. We administered the matchstick task to 35 patients (aged 26-65 years) with a single focal brain lesion as determined by a CT or an MRI scan, and to 23 healthy participants (aged 34-62 years). The findings seemed in line with theoretical predictions. While only 43% of healthy participants could solve the most difficult matchstick problems ('type C'), 82% of lateral frontal patients did so (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the combination of Frith's and Knoblich et al.'s theories was corroborated.

  12. Regulatory behavior and frontal activity: Considering the role of revised-BIS in relative right frontal asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Neal, Lauren B; Threadgill, A Hunter

    2018-01-01

    Essential to human behavior are three core personality systems: approach, avoidance, and a regulatory system governing the two motivational systems. Decades of research has linked approach motivation with greater relative left frontal-cortical asymmetry. Other research has linked avoidance motivation with greater relative right frontal-cortical asymmetry. However, past work linking withdrawal motivation with greater relative right frontal asymmetry has been mixed. The current article reviews evidence suggesting that activation of the regulatory system (revised Behavioral Inhibition System [r-BIS]) may be more strongly related to greater relative right frontal asymmetry than withdrawal motivation. Specifically, research suggests that greater activation of the r-BIS is associated with greater relative right frontal activity, and reduced r-BIS activation is associated with reduced right frontal activity (greater relative left frontal activity). We review evidence examining trait and state frontal activity using EEG, source localization, lesion studies, neuronal stimulation, and fMRI supporting the idea that r-BIS may be the core personality system related to greater relative right frontal activity. In addition, the current review seeks to disentangle avoidance motivation and r-BIS as substrates of relative right frontal asymmetry. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Fluid intelligence allows flexible recruitment of the parieto-frontal network in analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusse, Franziska; van der Meer Elke; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Krueger, Frank; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2011-01-01

    Fluid intelligence is the ability to think flexibly and to understand abstract relations. People with high fluid intelligence (hi-fluIQ) perform better in analogical reasoning tasks than people with average fluid intelligence (ave-fluIQ). Although previous neuroimaging studies reported involvement of parietal and frontal brain regions in geometric analogical reasoning (which is a prototypical task for fluid intelligence), however, neuroimaging findings on geometric analogical reasoning in hi-fluIQ are sparse. Furthermore, evidence on the relation between brain activation and intelligence while solving cognitive tasks is contradictory. The present study was designed to elucidate the cerebral correlates of geometric analogical reasoning in a sample of hi-fluIQ and ave-fluIQ high school students. We employed a geometric analogical reasoning task with graded levels of task difficulty and confirmed the involvement of the parieto-frontal network in solving this task. In addition to characterizing the brain regions involved in geometric analogical reasoning in hi-fluIQ and ave-fluIQ, we found that blood oxygenation level dependency (BOLD) signal changes were greater for hi-fluIQ than for ave-fluIQ in parietal brain regions. However, ave-fluIQ showed greater BOLD signal changes in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial frontal gyrus than hi-fluIQ. Thus, we showed that a similar network of brain regions is involved in geometric analogical reasoning in both groups. Interestingly, the relation between brain activation and intelligence is not mono-directional, but rather, it is specific for each brain region. The negative brain activation-intelligence relationship in frontal brain regions in hi-fluIQ goes along with a better behavioral performance and reflects a lower demand for executive monitoring compared to ave-fluIQ individuals. In conclusion, our data indicate that flexibly modulating the extent of regional cerebral activity is characteristic for fluid intelligence.

  14. Fluid intelligence allows flexible recruitment of the parieto-frontal network in analogical reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska ePreusse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluid intelligence is the ability to think flexibly and to understand abstract relations. People with high fluid intelligence (hi-fluIQ perform better in analogical reasoning tasks than people with average fluid intelligence (ave-fluIQ. Although previous neuroimaging studies reported involvement of parietal and frontal brain regions in geometric analogical reasoning (which is a prototypical task for fluid intelligence, however, neuroimaging findings on geometric analogical reasoning in hi-fluIQ are sparse. Furthermore, evidence on the relation between brain activation and intelligence while solving cognitive tasks is contradictory. The present study was designed to elucidate the cerebral correlates of geometric analogical reasoning in a sample of hi-fluIQ and ave-fluIQ high school students. We employed a geometric analogical reasoning task with graded levels of task difficulty and confirmed the involvement of the parieto-frontal network in solving this task. In addition to characterizing the brain regions involved in geometric analogical reasoning in hi-fluIQ and ave-fluIQ, we found that blood oxygenation level dependency (BOLD signal changes were greater for hi-fluIQ than for ave-fluIQ in parietal brain regions. However, ave-fluIQ showed greater BOLD signal changes in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial frontal gyrus than hi-fluIQ. Thus, we showed that a similar network of brain regions is involved in geometric analogical reasoning in both groups. Interestingly, the relation between brain activation and intelligence is not mono-directional, but rather, it is specific for each brain region. The negative brain activation–intelligence relationship in frontal brain regions in hi-fluIQ goes along with a better behavioral performance and reflects a lower demand for executive monitoring compared to ave-fluIQ individuals. In conclusion, our data indicate that flexibly modulating the extent of regional cerebral activity is characteristic for

  15. Frontal sinus revision rate after nasal polyposis surgery including frontal recess clearance and middle turbinectomy: A long-term analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhatar, Hakim; Khettab, Idir; Sultanik, Philippe; Laccourreye, Ollivier; Bonfils, Pierre

    2018-08-01

    To determine the frontal sinus revision rate after nasal polyposis (NP) surgery including frontal recess clearance (FRC) and middle turbinectomy (MT), to search for predictive factors and to analyse surgical management. Longitudinal analysis of 153 patients who consecutively underwent bilateral sphenoethmoidectomy with FRC and MT for NP with a minimum follow-up of 7 years. Decision of revision surgery was made in case of medically refractory chronic frontal sinusitis or frontal mucocele. Univariate and multivariate analysis incorporating clinical and radiological variables were performed. The frontal sinus revision rate was 6.5% (10/153). The mean time between the initial procedure and revision surgery was 3 years, 10 months. Osteitis around the frontal sinus outflow tract (FSOT) was associated with a higher risk of frontal sinus revision surgery (p=0.01). Asthma and aspirin intolerance did not increase the risk, as well as frontal sinus ostium diameter or residual frontoethmoid cells. Among revised patients, 60% required multiple procedures and 70% required frontal sinus ostium enlargement. Our long-term study reports that NP surgery including FRC and MT is associated with a low frontal sinus revision rate (6.5%). Patients developing osteitis around the FSOT have a higher risk of frontal sinus revision surgery. As mucosal damage can lead to osteitis, FSOT mucosa should be preserved during initial NP surgery. However, as multiple procedures are common among NP patients requiring frontal sinus revision, frontal sinus ostium enlargement should be considered during first revision in the hope of reducing the need of further revisions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Jealousy increased by induced relative left frontal cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Eastwick, Paul W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric frontal cortical activity may be one key to the process linking social exclusion to jealous feelings. The current research examined the causal role of asymmetric frontal brain activity in modulating jealousy in response to social exclusion. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the frontal cortex to manipulate asymmetric frontal cortical activity was combined with a modified version of the Cyberball paradigm designed to induce jealousy. After receiving 15 min of tDCS, participants were excluded by a desired partner and reported how jealous they felt. Among individuals who were excluded, tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity caused greater levels of self-reported jealousy compared to tDCS to increase relative right frontal cortical activity or sham stimulation. Limitations concerning the specificity of this effect and implications for the role of the asymmetric prefrontal cortical activity in motivated behaviors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Consideration of the method of image diagnosis with respect to frontal lobe atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Sugawara, K.; Narita, Y.; Namura, I.

    1996-12-01

    Proposes a segmentation method for a quantitative image diagnosis as a means of realizing an objective diagnosis of the frontal lobe atrophy. From the data obtained on the grade of membership, the fractal dimensions of the cerebral tissue [cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), gray matter, and white matter] and the contours are estimated. The mutual relationship between the degree of atrophy and the fractal dimension has been analyzed based on the estimated fractal dimensions. Using a sample of 42 male and female cases, ranging In age from 50's to 70's, it has been concluded that the frontal lobe atrophy can be quantified by regarding it as an expansion of CSF region on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Furthermore, when the process of frontal lobe atrophy is separated into early and advanced stages, the volumetric change of CSF and white matter in frontal lobe displays meaningful differences between the two stages, demonstrating that the fractal dimension of CSF rises with the progress of atrophy. Moreover, an interpolation method for three-dimensional (3-D) shape reconstruction of the region of diagnostic interest is proposed and 3-D shape visualization, with respect to the degree and form of atrophy, is performed on the basis of the estimated fractal dimension of the segmented cerebral tissue.

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow in mood disorders. I. Comparison of major depressives and normal controls at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackeim, H.A.; Prohovnik, I.; Moeller, J.R.; Brown, R.P.; Apter, S.; Prudic, J.; Devanand, D.P.; Mukherjee, S.

    1990-01-01

    We measured regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique in 41 patients with major depressive disorder and 40 matched, normal controls during an eyes-closed, resting condition. The depressed group had a marked reduction in global cortical blood flow. To examine topographic abnormalities, traditional multivariate analyses were applied, as well as a new scaled subprofile model developed to identify abnormal functional neural networks in clinical samples. Both approaches indicated that the depressed sample had an abnormality in topographic distribution of blood flow, in addition to the global deficit. The scaled subprofile model identified the topographic abnormality as being due to flow reduction in the depressed patients in selective frontal, central, superior temporal, and anterior parietal regions. This pattern may reflect dysfunction in the parallel distributed cortical network involving frontal and temporoparietal polymodal association areas. The extent of this topographic abnormality, as revealed by the scaled subprofile model, was associated with both patient age and severity of depressive symptoms

  19. Electrical Capacitance Tomography Measurement of the Migration of Ice Frontal Surface in Freezing Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of the migration of ice frontal surface is crucial for the understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms in freezing soil. Owing to the distinct advantages, including non-invasive sensing, high safety, low cost and high data acquisition speed, the electrical capacitance tomography (ECT is considered to be a promising visualization measurement method. In this paper, the ECT method is used to visualize the migration of ice frontal surface in freezing soil. With the main motivation of the improvement of imaging quality, a loss function with multiple regularizers that incorporate the prior formation related to the imaging objects is proposed to cast the ECT image reconstruction task into an optimization problem. An iteration scheme that integrates the superiority of the split Bregman iteration (SBI method is developed for searching for the optimal solution of the proposed loss function. An unclosed electrodes sensor is designed for satisfying the requirements of practical measurements. An experimental system of one dimensional freezing in frozen soil is constructed, and the ice frontal surface migration in the freezing process of the wet soil sample containing five percent of moisture is measured. The visualization measurement results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the ECT visualization method

  20. A função da comunicação na autoavaliação das Instituições de Ensino Superior do ABC Paulista The role of communication in self-evaluation of Higher Education establishments of ABC Paulista region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudemir Martins da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discorre sobre o papel que a comunicação apresenta no compartilhamento e na socialização dos resultados apurados no processo de autoavaliação junto à comunidade acadêmica de Instituições de Ensino Superior. O estudo fundamenta-se em referenciais bibliográficos que tratam da avaliação institucional e pesquisa de campo exploratória desenvolvida em quatro instituições de ensino superior localizadas na região do ABC Paulista.The article discusses the role that the communication presents in sharing and socialization of the results obtained in the process of self-evaluation along the academic community of higher education institutions. The study is based on bibliographic references which deals with the institutional evaluation and exploratory field research developed in four higher education institutions located in the region of ABC Paulista.

  1. White matter microstructural abnormalities in the frontal lobe of adults with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Frederick; Deeley, Quinton; Sarkar, Sagari; Daly, Eileen; Latham, Richard; Craig, Michael; Raczek, Malgorzata; Fahy, Tom; Picchioni, Marco; Barker, Gareth J; Murphy, Declan G M

    2012-02-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy involve significant interpersonal and behavioural impairments. However, little is known about their underlying neurobiology and in particular, abnormalities in white matter (WM) microstructure. A preliminary diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) study of adult psychopaths employing tractography revealed abnormalities in the right uncinate fasciculus (UF) (Craig et al., 2009), indicating fronto-limbic disconnectivity. However, it is not clear whether WM abnormalities are restricted to this tract or are or more widespread, including other tracts which are involved in connectivity with the frontal lobe. We performed whole brain voxel-based analyses on WM fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps acquired with DT-MRI to compare 15 adults with ASPD and healthy age, handedness and IQ-matched controls. Also, within ASPD subjects we related differences in FA and MD to measures of psychopathy. Significant WM FA reduction and MD increases were found respectively in ASPD subjects relative to controls. FA was bilaterally reduced in the genu of corpus callosum while in the right frontal lobe FA reduction was found in the UF, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), anterior corona radiata and anterior limb and genu of the internal capsule. These differences negatively correlated with measures of psychopathy. Also in the right frontal lobe, increased MD was found in the IFOF and UF, and the corpus callosum and anterior corona radiata. There was a significant positive correlation between MD and psychopathy scores. The present study confirms a previous report of reduced FA in the UF. Additionally, we report for the first time, FA deficits in tracts involved in interhemispheric as well as frontal lobe connectivity in conjunction with MD increases in the frontal lobe. Hence, we provide evidence of significant WM microstructural abnormalities in frontal brain regions in ASPD and psychopathy

  2. Pott's Puffy Tumor Arising from Frontal Sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Kang, Hyun Koo [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Pott's puffy tumor is an extremely rare and potentially life-threatening complication of frontal sinusitis. We report a case of a 64-year-old man who presented at our emergency department with mild tenderness on the glabellar area and diplopia. Computed Tomography (CT) revealed frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. Following sinus trephination and long-term antibiotic therapy, the patient achieved a complete recovery.

  3. Memory of music: roles of right hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yagishita, Sho; Kikyo, Hideyuki

    2008-01-01

    We investigated neural correlates of retrieval success for music memory using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. To minimize the interference from MRI scan noise, we used sparse temporal sampling technique. Newly composed music materials were employed as stimuli, which enabled us to detect regions in absence of effects of experience with the music stimuli in this study. Whole brain analyses demonstrated significant retrieval success activities in the right hippocampus, bilateral lateral temporal regions, left inferior frontal gyrus and left precuneus. Anatomically defined region-of-interests analyses showed that the activity of the right hippocampus was stronger than that of the left, while the activities of the inferior frontal gyri showed the reverse pattern. Furthermore, performance-based analyses demonstrated that the retrieval success activity of the right hippocampus was positively correlated with the corrected recognition rate, suggesting that the right hippocampus contributes to the accuracy of music retrieval outcome.

  4. Measuring the volume of frontal lobe in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Lu; Liu Peifang; Ye Zhaoxiang; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the normal range of the volume of frontal lobe in Chinese adults of the Han nationality and provide morphological data for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. Methods: This is a clinical multi-center study. Two hundred Chinese healthy volunteers (age range =18 to 70) recruited from 16 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i.e., age range from 18 to 30, age range from 31 to 40, age range from 41 to 50, age range from 51 to 60, and age range from 61 to 70. Each group contained 20 males and 20 females. All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T 1 weighted three- dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. We used the manual method to trace the region of interest and measured the left and right frontal lobe volumes separately. All the data were analyzed with SPSS (version 13.0). The sex differences in the frontal lobe volumes were analyzed by independent-samples t test, and the side differences were analyzed by paired-samples t test. Correlation and regression analysis was used between the age and the frontal lobe volumes. Results: In 200 healthy Chinese Han volunteers, the total frontal lobe volumes was (563±73) cm 3 . For male, the volumes of the left and the right frontal lobe were (288±42) cm 3 and (292±41) cm 3 , respectively. The volumes of the left and right frontal lobe in 100 women were (273±30)cm 3 and (274±30) cm 3 respectively. The differences of sex (t=3.334, P 0.05). There were negative correlations between the frontal lobe volumes and age in men and women (r=-0.586, -0.498, P< 0.01). Conclusions: The total frontal lobe volume of men was larger than that of women. The volume of the right frontal lobe was larger than the left frontal lobe in men, and the asymmetries didn't exist in women. The total frontal lobe volumes were both shrinking with age in men and women, which was more rapid in men than in women. (authors)

  5. Grammatical distinctions in the left frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, K A; Pascual-Leone, A; Mottaghy, F M; Gangitano, M; Caramazza, A

    2001-08-15

    Selective deficits in producing verbs relative to nouns in speech are well documented in neuropsychology and have been associated with left hemisphere frontal cortical lesions resulting from stroke and other neurological disorders. The basis for these impairments is unresolved: Do they arise because of differences in the way grammatical categories of words are organized in the brain, or because of differences in the neural representation of actions and objects? We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to suppress the excitability of a portion of left prefrontal cortex and to assess its role in producing nouns and verbs. In one experiment subjects generated real words; in a second, they produced pseudowords as nouns or verbs. In both experiments, response latencies increased for verbs but were unaffected for nouns following rTMS. These results demonstrate that grammatical categories have a neuroanatomical basis and that the left prefrontal cortex is selectively engaged in processing verbs as grammatical objects.

  6. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  7. Frontal lobe function in chess players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Majid; Nejati, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players don't have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players don't have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  8. Lifting frontal apoyado en malla de polipropileno Brow lift supported on polypropylen mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Aracil Kessler

    2006-03-01

    elevado coste económico.The fronto-orbital region is of particular significance in the context of facial ageing. There is a considerable amount of research on the nature of this problem. This area has recently come to be considered as a therapeutic- diagnostic unit and surgical developments mean that focus is switching more towards less invasive physiological solutions. Our study aims to take another step in this direction. Taking a sample of 25 patients, all of them undergoing different procedures on the fronto-orbital region and with a lowering of the eyebrows, a suspension technique was introduced with minimum incisions supported by a polypropylene mesh attached to the frontal muscle and galea in the inferior extreme and to the periosteum and galea in the superior extreme in the supra-periosteum plane and without skin removal. A measuring system based on points of the facial skeleton was used. The results were subjectively and objectively satisfactory compared to those from more complicated and expensive techniques. Complications were of a slight and temporary nature. This section carries out an assessment of the reasons for selecting a polypropylene mesh and specific grammage. In addition, the properties of the material are analysed and its use in this context of preventing infection, tissue tolerance, scar reduction and adhesiveness. Justification of the site of dissection and the choice of positioning, and an assessment of the course of medication given in order to produce a set of controlled and objective results, will also be carried out. The aim of this work is to develop an alternative within minimally invasive techniques for the restructuring of the fronto-orbital region without skin removal and with good results in the correction of facial wrinkles compared to other more complicated and expensive techniques.

  9. DOES THE INFERIOR FRONTAL SULCUS PLAY A FUNCTIONAL ROLE IN DECEPTION? A NEURONAVIGATED THETA-BURST TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION STUDY

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    Bruno eVerschuere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. By definition, lying involves withholding the truth. Response inhibition may therefore be the cognitive function at the heart of deception. Neuroimaging research has shown that the same brain region that is activated during response inhibition tasks, namely the inferior frontal region, is also activated during deception paradigms. This led to the hypothesis that the inferior frontal region is the neural substrate critically involved in withholding the truth. Objective. We critically examine the functional necessity of the inferior frontal region in withholding the truth during deception. Method. We experimentally manipulated the neural activity level in right inferior frontal sulcus (IFS by means of neuronavigated continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS. Individual structural magnetic resonance brain images (MRI were used to allow precise stimulation in each participant. Twenty-six participants answered autobiographical questions truthfully or deceptively before and after sham and real cTBS. Results. Deception was reliably associated with more errors, longer and more variable response times than truth telling. Despite the potential role of IFS in deception as suggested by neuroimaging data, the cTBS-induced disruption of right IFS did not affect response times or error rates, when compared to sham stimulation. Conclusions. The present findings do not support the hypothesis that the right inferior frontal sulcus is critically involved in deception.

  10. Ventajas del colgajo frontal expandido para la reconstrucción nasal Advantages of the expanded frontal flap for nasal reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Gálvez Chávez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Desde 1957 la expansión tisular se ha convertido en una técnica muy utilizada en cirugía reconstructiva, pues permite obtener gran cantidad de tejido blando para corregir defectos cutáneos. En Cuba se ha publicado muy poco sobre la utilización de expansores cutáneos de la región frontal para la reconstrucción nasal. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la utilidad del colgajo frontal expandido, para la reconstrucción de defectos nasales distales de espesor total en pacientes con frente corta. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, con pacientes con defectos nasales secundarios a cirugía oncológica, traumatismos y otras causas, a los que se les practicó una reconstrucción nasal con colgajo frontal expandido en el Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología y el Hospital «Hermanos Ameijeiras», entre junio de 1999 y mayo de 2007. RESULTADOS. Hubo una ganancia promedio de 1,0 cm en longitud del colgajo frontal expandido con respecto al diseño oblicuo sin expansión. Se logró la reconstrucción de la cubierta cutánea en todos los casos, incluso en los defectos más distales, como los del ala nasal. El cierre de la zona donante siempre fue de forma directa. CONCLUSIONES. Se pudo caracterizar la utilidad del colgajo frontal expandido en la muestra estudiada y se encontró entre sus ventajas fundamentales la ganancia en longitud con respecto a la distancia vertical de la frente. Concordamos con la mayoría de los autores en cuanto a su utilidad, siempre que esté indicado y disponible, y en que es un recurso alternativo cuando existe poco tejido disponible para la reconstrucción de los defectos nasales.INTRODUCTION. From 1957, the tissues expansion has becomes a very used technique in reconstructive surgery, since allows to obtain abundant soft tissue to correct cutaneous defects. In Cuba there aren't much publications on the use of cutaneous expanders of frontal region to nasal

  11. [Brodmann Areas 8 and 9 Including the Frontal Eye Field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masataka

    2017-04-01

    Based on cytoarchitectonic analyses, Brodmann assigned numbers 8 and 9 to certain areas of the dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in humans and monkeys. Petrides and Pandya re-analyzed the cytoarchitectures of the human and monkey PFCs, and proposed slightly different brain maps for both species. They assigned numbers 8, 9 and 9/46 to the areas that were originally named areas 8 and 9. Areas 8 and 9 have both lateral and medial regions respectively. The lateral area 8 is important for conditional discrimination learning. The frontal eye field which occupies the most caudal region of area 8, is responsible for visual attention and control of eye movements. The lateral area 9 and area 9/46 are functionally similar to area 46 and play important roles in executive control. The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) comprises the medial regions of areas 8 and 9 and is related to "Theory of Mind" and social cognition. The DMPFC is also known to show "default mode of brain activity" (i.e., more activity during rest than during cognitive task).

  12. Electroconvulsive therapy changes the regional resting state function measured by regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in elderly major depressive disorder patients: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Shu-Xian; Sun, Yan; Wang, Ke-Yong; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Ji; Xia, Jin-Xiang; Zhang, Li; Tan, Bo-Jian; Xie, Xin-Hui

    2017-06-30

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective and rapid treatment for severe major depressive disorder (MDD) in elderly patients. The mechanism of ECT is unclear, and studies on ECT in elderly MDD patients by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging are rare. Thirteen elderly MDD patients were scanned before and after ECT using a 3.0T MRI scanner. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were processed to compare resting-state function before and after treatment. Depression and anxiety symptoms of all patients abated after ECT. Decreased ReHo values in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG) were observed after ECT, and the values of right SFG significantly correlated with an altered Hamilton depression rating scale score. Increased ALFF values in the left middle frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, orbital part, and decreased ALFF values in the left midcingulate area, left precentral gyrus, right SFG/middle frontal gyrus after ECT were also observed. These results support the hypothesis that ECT may affect the regional resting state brain function in geriatric MDD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytoarchitecture, probability maps and functions of the human frontal pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bludau, S; Eickhoff, S B; Mohlberg, H; Caspers, S; Laird, A R; Fox, P T; Schleicher, A; Zilles, K; Amunts, K

    2014-06-01

    The frontal pole has more expanded than any other part in the human brain as compared to our ancestors. It plays an important role for specifically human behavior and cognitive abilities, e.g. action selection (Kovach et al., 2012). Evidence about divergent functions of its medial and lateral part has been provided, both in the healthy brain and in psychiatric disorders. The anatomical correlates of such functional segregation, however, are still unknown due to a lack of stereotaxic, microstructural maps obtained in a representative sample of brains. Here we show that the human frontopolar cortex consists of two cytoarchitectonically and functionally distinct areas: lateral frontopolar area 1 (Fp1) and medial frontopolar area 2 (Fp2). Based on observer-independent mapping in serial, cell-body stained sections of 10 brains, three-dimensional, probabilistic maps of areas Fp1 and Fp2 were created. They show, for each position of the reference space, the probability with which each area was found in a particular voxel. Applying these maps as seed regions for a meta-analysis revealed that Fp1 and Fp2 differentially contribute to functional networks: Fp1 was involved in cognition, working memory and perception, whereas Fp2 was part of brain networks underlying affective processing and social cognition. The present study thus disclosed cortical correlates of a functional segregation of the human frontopolar cortex. The probabilistic maps provide a sound anatomical basis for interpreting neuroimaging data in the living human brain, and open new perspectives for analyzing structure-function relationships in the prefrontal cortex. The new data will also serve as a starting point for further comparative studies between human and non-human primate brains. This allows finding similarities and differences in the organizational principles of the frontal lobe during evolution as neurobiological basis for our behavior and cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Study of frontal weather system using satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, J.; Ershad, S.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan which is situated in the south Asian sub continent, has a peculiar climatological position. It is one of the few countries in the world, which undergo a complete transformation from summer to winter season. However this project only pertains to the winter weather conditions in Pakistan. During winter, the land masses cool off rapidly as compared to the seas and so high pressure cells are developed over land causing, weak anti-cyclonic circulation over the country. In between these cells of anti-cyclonic flow of wind, there are zones of convergence, which offer a good breeding place for low-pressure waves. The low-pressure waves are similar to the extra tropical depressions and approach and approach Pakistan from west. From the same reason these are locally called the western Disturbances. Consequently the focus of study is on the extra tropical cyclones which originate along the boundary between polar continental and tropical or polar maritime and tropical maritime air masses. The extra tropical cyclones (also called western disturbances and westerly waves.) which are embedded in westerly flow of air move across north of Pakistan are usually originate from the Mediterranean sea. These systems consist of two types of fronts i.e. warm and cold fronts. In fact these systems can be traced right from the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. The location of frontal weather is generally associated with the surrounding synoptic situation, geographical position of the westerly wave, location of subtropical jet stream, steering wind level etc. although the satellite imageries are quite helpful for forecasting the frontal weather over our region however the weather charts (both surface and upper air ) and jet maps are also very helpful for this purpose

  15. Anhedonia correlates with abnormal functional connectivity of the superior temporal gyrus and the caudate nucleus in patients with first-episode drug-naive major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Tian, Kai; Wang, Dong-Fang; Wang, Yi; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-Rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-08-15

    Recent empirical findings have suggested that imbalanced neural networks may underlie the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the contribution of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the caudate nucleus to its pathophysiology remains unclear. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) date were acquired from 40 patients with first-episode drug-naive MDD and 36 matched healthy controls during wakeful rest. We used whole-brain voxel-wise statistical maps to quantify within-group resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) and between-group differences of bilateral caudate and STG seeds. Compared with healthy controls, first-episode MDD patients were found to have reduced connectivity between the ventral caudate and several brain regions including the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), as well as increased connectivity with the cuneus. We also found increased connectivity between the left STG and the precuneus, the angular gyrus and the cuneus. Moreover, we found that increased anhedonia severity was correlated with the magnitude of ventral caudate functional connectivity with the cuneus and the MTG in MDD patients. Due to our small sample size, we did not correct the statistical threshold in the correlation analyses between clinical variables and connectivity abnormalities. The present study suggests that anhedonia is mainly associated with altered ventral caudate-cortical connectivity and highlights the importance of the ventral caudate in the neurobiology of MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impaired social cognition in patients with interictal epileptiform discharges in the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Jiang, Yubao; Hu, Panpan; Ma, Huijuan; Wang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Patients with epilepsy frequently experience cognitive impairments, including impairments in social cognition. However, there is a lack of direct examinations of the affective and cognitive aspects of social cognition in such patients. The neural correlates remain to be identified. The present study was designed to examine the degree of impairments in different aspects of social cognition including empathy, emotion recognition, and Theory of Mind (ToM) in patients with epilepsy. In addition, we further explored factors related to the impairments, highlighting the specific importance of the frontal region. After 24-hour EEG monitoring, 53 patients with epilepsy were administered a neuropsychological battery of tests for basic intelligence assessment and then were tested with the Interpersonal Reactive Index, the "Yoni" task, the Emotion Recognition Test, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test, and other neuropsychological tests. The clinical variables potentially affecting the ability to accomplish these tests were taken into account. We divided the patients into those having frontal lobe interictal epileptiform discharges (group with frontal IEDs) and those with seizures originating outside the frontal or temporal lobes (group with extrafrontal IEDs). Sixty healthy individuals served as controls. The group with frontal IEDs achieved the most severe deficits in emotion recognition, ToM, and cognitive empathy, while affective empathy was intact. Moreover, the performance scores of empathy in the group with frontal IEDs were selectively correlated with their executive function scores, which are believed to be associated with orbitofrontal functioning. In contrast, patients with epilepsies not originating from the frontal or temporal lobes may also be at risk of impairments in social cognition, albeit to a lesser extent. The preliminary findings suggest that patients with epilepsy, especially those having frontal lobe interictal epileptiform discharges, have associated

  17. Why do patients with neurodegenerative frontal syndrome fail to answer: 'In what way are an orange and a banana alike?'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Julien; Valabrègue, Romain; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Garcin, Béatrice; Volle, Emmanuelle; Le Ber, Isabelle; Vidailhet, Marie; Dubois, Bruno; Levy, Richard

    2015-02-01

    in the frontal-basal-ganglion network. Two types of errors were observed in frontal patients. The most frequent was discriminating instead of grouping items ('linking deficit'). Patients also linked items on a concrete instead of an abstract basis ('abstraction deficit'). Linking and abstraction deficits were related to partially different areas: the linking deficit to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, right middle frontal gyrus and both inferior parietal lobules and the abstraction deficit to the head of the caudate nuclei and the left superior frontal gyrus. These data suggest that verbal concept formation requires the integrity of the prefrontal-basal-ganglion functional network. In addition, it can be divided into two distinct cognitive processes, which are underlain by two partially different neural networks. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Frontal white matter alterations in short-term medicated panic disorder patients without comorbid conditions: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borah Kim

    Full Text Available The frontal cortex might play an important role in the fear network, and white matter (WM integrity could be related to the pathophysiology of panic disorder (PD. A few studies have investigated alterations of WM integrity in PD. The aim of this study was to determine frontal WM integrity differences between patients with PD without comorbid conditions and healthy control (HC subjects by using diffusion tensor imaging. Thirty-six patients with PD who had used medication within 1 week and 27 age- and sex-matched HC subjects participated in this study. Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed on all participants. Panic Disorder Severity Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI scores were assessed. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS was used for image analysis. TBSS analysis showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA in frontal WM and WM around the frontal lobe, including the corpus callosum of both hemispheres, in patients with PD compared to HC subjects. Moreover, voxel-wise correlation analysis revealed that the BAI scores for patients with PD were positively correlated with their FA values for regions showing group differences in the FA of frontal WM of both hemispheres. Altered integrity in frontal WM of patients with PD without comorbid conditions might represent the structural pathophysiology in these patients, and these changes could be related to clinical symptoms of PD.

  19. Theta-alpha EEG phase distributions in the frontal area for dissociation of visual and auditory working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Masakazu; Tero, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nishiura, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2017-03-07

    Working memory (WM) is known to be associated with synchronization of the theta and alpha bands observed in electroencephalograms (EEGs). Although frontal-posterior global theta synchronization appears in modality-specific WM, local theta synchronization in frontal regions has been found in modality-independent WM. How frontal theta oscillations separately synchronize with task-relevant sensory brain areas remains an open question. Here, we focused on theta-alpha phase relationships in frontal areas using EEG, and then verified their functional roles with mathematical models. EEG data showed that the relationship between theta (6 Hz) and alpha (12 Hz) phases in the frontal areas was about 1:2 during both auditory and visual WM, and that the phase distributions between auditory and visual WM were different. Next, we used the differences in phase distributions to construct FitzHugh-Nagumo type mathematical models. The results replicated the modality-specific branching by orthogonally of the trigonometric functions for theta and alpha oscillations. Furthermore, mathematical and experimental results were consistent with regards to the phase relationships and amplitudes observed in frontal and sensory areas. These results indicate the important role that different phase distributions of theta and alpha oscillations have in modality-specific dissociation in the brain.

  20. Altered Regional Brain Cortical Thickness in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Macey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available RationaleObstructive sleep apnea (OSA affects 2–5% of all children and is associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits, resulting in poor school performance. These psychological deficits may arise from brain injury, as seen in preliminary findings of lower gray matter volume among pediatric OSA patients. However, the psychological deficits in OSA are closely related to functions in the cortex, and such brain areas have not been specifically assessed. The objective was to determine whether cortical thickness, a marker of possible brain injury, is altered in children with OSA.MethodsWe examined regional brain cortical thicknesses using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images in 16 pediatric OSA patients (8 males; mean age ± SD = 8.4 ± 1.2 years; mean apnea/hypopnea index ± SD = 11 ± 6 events/h and 138 controls (8.3 ± 1.1 years; 62 male; 138 subjects from the NIH Pediatric MRI database to identify cortical thickness differences in pediatric OSA subjects.ResultsCortical thinning occurred in multiple regions including the superior frontal, ventral medial prefrontal, and superior parietal cortices. The left side showed greater thinning in the superior frontal cortex. Cortical thickening was observed in bilateral precentral gyrus, mid-to-posterior insular cortices, and left central gyrus, as well as right anterior insula cortex.ConclusionChanges in cortical thickness are present in children with OSA and likely indicate disruption to neural developmental processes, including maturational patterns of cortical volume increases and synaptic pruning. Regions with thicker cortices may reflect inflammation or astrocyte activation. Both the thinning and thickening associated with OSA in children may contribute to the cognitive and behavioral dysfunction frequently found in the condition.

  1. Reabilitação funcional e analgesia com uso de toxina botulínica A na síndrome dolorosa regional complexa tipo I do membro superior: relato de casos Rehabilitación funcional y analgesia con uso de toxina botulínica A en el síndrome doloroso regional compleja tipo I del miembro superior: relato de casos Functional rehabilitation and analgesia with botulinum toxin A in upper limb complex regional pain syndrome type I: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rocha Lauretti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Freqüentemente, soma-se ao quadro de alodínia e hiperalgesia em pacientes portadores de Síndrome Dolorosa Regional Complexa (SDRC tipo I a incapacidade funcional do segmento acometido. Relatam-se dois casos de SDRC em que a aplicação de toxina botulínica-A como fármaco coadjuvante contribuiu na recuperação funcional motora do membro acometido. RELATO DOS CASOS: Duas pacientes portadoras de SDRC tipo I foram inicialmente avaliadas para controle da dor no membro superior direito. Ambas apresentavam incapacidade para abrir a mão e dor pela escala analógica numérica (EAN de 10 em repouso ou quando a mão ou os dedos eram passivamente manipulados. Iniciou-se seqüência de 5 bloqueios, do gânglio estrelado ipsilateral a intervalos semanais, com clonidina e lidocaína. Simultaneamente, durante a realização do terceiro bloqueio do gânglio estrelado, foram administrados 75 UI de toxina botulínica-A nos músculos flexores das falanges e da articulação do punho. Uma semana após a aplicação da toxina botulínica-A, as pacientes apresentavam relaxamento das falanges e punho, relatavam facilidade para execução da fisioterapia passiva e a dor classificada foi como 2 (EAN à manipulação passiva. Ao término da realização da seqüência de bloqueios do gânglio estrelado, as pacientes foram submetidas a 3 sessões semanais de administração por via venosa regional de clonidina, lidocaína e parecoxib. Após 8 meses de avaliação, as pacientes apresentaram 70% e 80% de recuperação motora e funcional do membro acometido. CONCLUSÕES: A aplicação por via muscular de toxina botulínica A resultou em melhora da movimentação do membro acometido, analgesia auxiliando na sua recuperação funcional.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Frecuentemente, se suman al cuadro de alodínia e hiperalgesia en pacientes portadores de Síndrome Doloroso Regional Complejo (SDRC tipo I la incapacidad funcional del segmento

  2. Is the Frontal Assessment Battery reliable in ALS patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.; Beeldman, E.; Jaeger, B.; Schmand, B.A.; Berg, L.H. van den; Weikamp, J.G.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Visser, M. de; Haan, R.J. de

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of frontal functions in ALS patients is important because of the overlap with the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). We investigated the applicability and reliability of the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) within a cohort of predominantly prevalent ALS patients.

  3. Non-frontal Model Based Approach to Forensic Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a non-frontal model based approach which ensures that a face recognition system always gets to compare images having similar view (or pose). This requires a virtual suspect reference set that consists of non-frontal suspect images having pose similar to the surveillance

  4. Virtual endoscopy and 3D volume rendering in the management of frontal sinus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belina, Stanko; Cuk, Viseslav; Klapan, Ivica

    2009-12-01

    Frontal sinus fractures (FSF) are commonly caused by traffic accidents, assaults, industrial accidents and gunshot wounds. Classical roentgenography has high proportion of false negative findings in cases of FSF and is not particularly useful in examining the severity of damage to the frontal sinus posterior table and the nasofrontal duct region. High resolution computed tomography was inavoidable during the management of such patients but it may produce large quantity of 2D images. Postprocessing of datasets acquired by high resolution computer tomography from patients with severe head trauma may offer a valuable additional help in diagnostics and surgery planning. We performed virtual endoscopy (VE) and 3D volume rendering (3DVR) on high resolution CT data acquired from a 54-year-old man with with both anterior and posterior frontal sinus wall fracture in order to demonstrate advantages and disadvantages of these methods. Data acquisition was done by Siemens Somatom Emotion scanner and postprocessing was performed with Syngo 2006G software. VE and 3DVR were performed in a man who suffered blunt trauma to his forehead and nose in an traffic accident. Left frontal sinus anterior wall fracture without dislocation and fracture of tabula interna with dislocation were found. 3D position and orientation of fracture lines were shown in by 3D rendering software. We concluded that VE and 3DVR can clearly display the anatomic structure of the paranasal sinuses and nasopharyngeal cavity, revealing damage to the sinus wall caused by a fracture and its relationship to surrounding anatomical structures.

  5. Frontal theta and beta synchronizations for monetary reward increase visual working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2013-06-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is affected by motivational influences; however, little is known about how reward-related brain activities facilitate the VWM systems. To investigate the dynamic relationship between VWM- and reward-related brain activities, we conducted time-frequency analyses using electroencephalograph (EEG) data obtained during a monetary-incentive delayed-response task that required participants to memorize the position of colored disks. In case of a correct answer, participants received a monetary reward (0, 10 or 50 Japanese yen) announced at the beginning of each trial. Behavioral results showed that VWM capacity under high-reward condition significantly increased compared with that under low- or no-reward condition. EEG results showed that frontal theta (6 Hz) amplitudes enhanced during delay periods and positively correlated with VWM capacity, indicating involvement of theta local synchronizations in VWM. Moreover, frontal beta activities (24 Hz) were identified as reward-related activities, because delay-period amplitudes correlated with increases in VWM capacity between high-reward and no-reward conditions. Interestingly, cross-frequency couplings between frontal theta and beta phases were observed only under high-reward conditions. These findings suggest that the functional dynamic linking between VWM-related theta and reward-related beta activities on the frontal regions plays an integral role in facilitating increases in VWM capacity.

  6. Executive functioning of complicated-mild to moderate traumatic brain injury patients with frontal contusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawami, Heshmatollah; Sadeghi, Sadegh; Raghibi, Mahvash; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2017-01-01

    Executive dysfunctions are among the most prevalent neurobehavioral sequelae of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Using culturally validated tests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS: Trail Making, Verbal Fluency, Design Fluency, Sorting, Twenty Questions, and Tower) and the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS: Rule Shift Cards, Key Search, and Modified Six Elements), the current study was the first to examine executive functioning in a group of Iranian TBI patients with focal frontal contusions. Compared with a demographically matched normative sample, the frontal contusion patients showed substantial impairments, with very large effect sizes (p ≤ .003, 1.56 executive measures. Controlling for respective lower-level/fundamental conditions, the differences on the highest-level executive (cognitive switching) conditions were still significant. The frontal patients also committed more errors. Patients with lateral prefrontal (LPFC) contusions were qualitatively worst. For example, only the LPFC patients committed perseverative repetition errors. Altogether, our results support the notion that the frontal lobes, specifically the lateral prefrontal regions, play a critical role in cognitive executive functioning, over and above the contributions of respective lower-level cognitive abilities. The results provide clinical evidence for validity of the cross-culturally adapted versions of the tests.

  7. Plagiocefalia frontal sinostósica: Resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico

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    Ricardo Hodelín Tablada

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron de forma retrospectiva 10 niños con craneosinostosis tipo plagiocefalia frontal sinostósica, operados en el Servicio de Neurocirugía Infantil del Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía. Como técnica quirúrgica se empleó la craniectomía lineal en el sitio de la hemisura coronal sinostosada, ampliada hasta la región del pterión. La totalidad de los infantes evolucionaron con hipoplasia orbitaria y abombamiento frontal y a más de la mitad se les realizó operación en los primeros 6 meses de la vida. Hubo importante variación del índice cefálico, así como mejoría estética comparativamente, antes de la operación y después de éstaA retrospective study of 10 children with frontal synostotic plagiocephaly like craniosynostosis operated on at the Children's Neurosurgery Department of the Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery was carried out. It was used the surgical technique of linear craniectomy in the site of the coronal synostotic fissure extended to the pterion region. All children evoluted with orbital hypoplasia and frontal convexity. More than a half underwent surgery during the first six months of life. There was an important cephalic index variation, as well as anaesthetic improvement after the operation

  8. Frontal and parietal theta burst TMS impairs working memory for visual-spatial conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Helen M; Jackson, Margaret C; van Koningsbruggen, Martijn G; Shapiro, Kimron L; Linden, David E J

    2013-03-01

    In tasks that selectively probe visual or spatial working memory (WM) frontal and posterior cortical areas show a segregation, with dorsal areas preferentially involved in spatial (e.g. location) WM and ventral areas in visual (e.g. object identity) WM. In a previous fMRI study [1], we showed that right parietal cortex (PC) was more active during WM for orientation, whereas left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was more active during colour WM. During WM for colour-orientation conjunctions, activity in these areas was intermediate to the level of activity for the single task preferred and non-preferred information. To examine whether these specialised areas play a critical role in coordinating visual and spatial WM to perform a conjunction task, we used theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to induce a functional deficit. Compared to sham stimulation, TMS to right PC or left IFG selectively impaired WM for conjunctions but not single features. This is consistent with findings from visual search paradigms, in which frontal and parietal TMS selectively affects search for conjunctions compared to single features, and with combined TMS and functional imaging work suggesting that parietal and frontal regions are functionally coupled in tasks requiring integration of visual and spatial information. Our results thus elucidate mechanisms by which the brain coordinates spatially segregated processing streams and have implications beyond the field of working memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bilateral lesions of the medial frontal cortex disrupt recognition of social hierarchy during antiphonal communication in naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosida, Shigeto; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2012-02-01

    Generation of the motor patterns of emotional sounds in mammals occurs in the periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain and is not directly controlled by the cortex. The medial frontal cortex indirectly controls vocalizations, based on the recognition of social context. We examined whether the medial frontal cortex was responsible for antiphonal vocalization, or turn-taking, in naked mole-rats. In normal turn-taking, naked mole-rats vocalize more frequently to dominant individuals than to subordinate ones. Bilateral lesions of the medial frontal cortex disrupted differentiation of call rates to the stimulus animals, which had varied social relationships to the subject. However, medial frontal cortex lesions did not affect either the acoustic properties of the vocalizations or the timing of the vocal exchanges. This suggests that the medial frontal cortex may be involved in social cognition or decision making during turn-taking, while other regions of the brain regulate when animals vocalize and the vocalizations themselves.

  10. Sex determination from the frontal bone: a geometric morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlaza, Néstor A

    2014-09-01

    Sex estimation in human skeletal remains when using the cranium through traditional methods is a fundamental pillar in human identification; however, it may be possible to incur in a margin of error due because of the state of preservation in incomplete or fragmented remains. The aim of this investigation was sex estimation through the geometric morphometric analysis of the frontal bone. The sample employed 60 lateral radiographs of adult subjects of both sexes (30 males and 30 females), aged between 18 and 40 years, with mean age for males of 28 ± 4 and 30 ± 6 years for females. Thin-plate splines evidenced strong expansion of the glabellar region in males and contraction in females. No significant differences were found between sexes with respect to size. The findings suggest differences in shape and size in the glabellar region, besides reaffirming the use of geometric morphometrics as a quantitative method in sex estimation. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. [Language Functions in the Frontal Association Area: Brain Mechanisms That Create Language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kayako; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2016-11-01

    Broca's area is known to be critically involved in language processing for more than 150 years. Recent neuroimaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, enabled the subdivision of Broca's area based on both functional and anatomical aspects. Networks among the frontal association areas, especially the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and other cortical regions in the temporal/parietal association areas, are also important for language-related information processing. Here, we review how neuroimaging studies, combined with research paradigms based on theoretical linguistics, have contributed to clarifying the critical roles of the left IFG in syntactic processing and those of language-related networks, including cortical and cerebellar regions.

  12. The statistical neuroanatomy of frontal networks in the macaque.

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    Bruno B Averbeck

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We were interested in gaining insight into the functional properties of frontal networks based upon their anatomical inputs. We took a neuroinformatics approach, carrying out maximum likelihood hierarchical cluster analysis on 25 frontal cortical areas based upon their anatomical connections, with 68 input areas representing exterosensory, chemosensory, motor, limbic, and other frontal inputs. The analysis revealed a set of statistically robust clusters. We used these clusters to divide the frontal areas into 5 groups, including ventral-lateral, ventral-medial, dorsal-medial, dorsal-lateral, and caudal-orbital groups. Each of these groups was defined by a unique set of inputs. This organization provides insight into the differential roles of each group of areas and suggests a gradient by which orbital and ventral-medial areas may be responsible for decision-making processes based on emotion and primary reinforcers, and lateral frontal areas are more involved in integrating affective and rational information into a common framework.

  13. Frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and mediator of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, James A; Allen, John J B

    2004-10-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry appears to serve as (1) an individual difference variable related to emotional responding and emotional disorders, and (2) a state-dependent concomitant of emotional responding. Such findings, highlighted in this review, suggest that frontal EEG asymmetry may serve as both a moderator and a mediator of emotion- and motivation-related constructs. Unequivocal evidence supporting frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and/or mediator of emotion is lacking, as insufficient attention has been given to analyzing the frontal EEG asymmetries in terms of moderators and mediators. The present report reviews the frontal EEG asymmetry literature from the framework of moderators and mediators, and overviews data analytic strategies that would support claims of moderation and mediation.

  14. Recruitment of Language-, Emotion- and Speech-Timing Associated Brain Regions for Expressing Emotional Prosody: Investigation of Functional Neuroanatomy with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel L C; Jazdzyk, Agnieszka; Stets, Manuela; Kotz, Sonja A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to progress understanding of prosodic emotion expression by establishing brain regions active when expressing specific emotions, those activated irrespective of the target emotion, and those whose activation intensity varied depending on individual performance. BOLD contrast data were acquired whilst participants spoke non-sense words in happy, angry or neutral tones, or performed jaw-movements. Emotion-specific analyses demonstrated that when expressing angry prosody, activated brain regions included the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, the insula, and the basal ganglia. When expressing happy prosody, the activated brain regions also included the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and basal ganglia, with additional activation in the anterior cingulate. Conjunction analysis confirmed that the superior temporal gyrus and basal ganglia were activated regardless of the specific emotion concerned. Nevertheless, disjunctive comparisons between the expression of angry and happy prosody established that anterior cingulate activity was significantly higher for angry prosody than for happy prosody production. Degree of inferior frontal gyrus activity correlated with the ability to express the target emotion through prosody. We conclude that expressing prosodic emotions (vs. neutral intonation) requires generic brain regions involved in comprehending numerous aspects of language, emotion-related processes such as experiencing emotions, and in the time-critical integration of speech information.

  15. Recruitment of language-, emotion- and speech timing associated brain regions for expressing emotional prosody: Investigation of functional neuroanatomy with fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. C. Mitchell

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to progress understanding of prosodic emotion expression by establishing brain regions active when expressing specific emotions, those activated irrespective of the target emotion, and those whose activation intensity varied depending on individual performance. BOLD contrast data were acquired whilst participants spoke nonsense words in happy, angry or neutral tones, or performed jaw-movements. Emotion-specific analyses demonstrated that when expressing angry prosody, activated brain regions included the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, the insula, and the basal ganglia. When expressing happy prosody, the activated brain regions also included the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and basal ganglia, with additional activation in the anterior cingulate. Conjunction analysis confirmed that the superior temporal gyrus and basal ganglia were activated regardless of the specific emotion concerned. Nevertheless, disjunctive comparisons between the expression of angry and happy prosody established that anterior cingulate activity was significantly higher for angry prosody than for happy prosody production. Degree of inferior frontal gyrus activity correlated with the ability to express the target emotion through prosody. We conclude that expressing prosodic emotions (vs neutral intonation requires generic brain regions involved in comprehending numerous aspects of language, emotion-related processes such as experiencing emotions, and in the time-critical integration of speech information.

  16. On the nature of the frontal zone of the Choctawhatchee Bay plume in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguenard, K. D.; Bogucki, D. J.; Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Laxague, N. J. M.; MacMahan, J. H.; Özgökmen, T. M.; Haus, B. K.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Hargrove, J.; Soloviev, A. V.; Graber, H.

    2016-02-01

    River plumes often feature turbulent processes in the frontal zone and interfacial region at base of the plume, which ultimately impact spreading and mixing rates with the ambient coastal ocean. The degree to which these processes govern overall plume mixing is yet to be quantified with microstructure observations. A field campaign was conducted in a river plume in the northeast Gulf of Mexico in December 2013, in order to assess mixing processes that could potentially impact transport and dispersion of surface material near coastal regions. Current velocity, density, and Turbulent Kinetic Energy Values, ɛ, were obtained using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), a Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD) profiler, a Vertical Microstructure Profiler (VMP), and two Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs). The frontal region contained ɛ values on the order of 10-5 m2 s-3, which were markedly larger than in the ambient water beneath (O 10-9 m2 s-3). An energetic wake of moderate ɛ values (O 10-6 m2 s-3) was observed trailing the frontal edge. The interfacial region of an interior section of the plume featured opposing horizontal velocities and a ɛ value on the order of 10-6 m2 s-3. A simplified mixing budget was used under significant assumptions to compare contributions from wind, tides, and frontal regions of the plume. The results from this order of magnitude analysis indicated that frontal processes (59%) dominated in overall mixing. This emphasizes the importance of adequate parameterization of river plume frontal processes in coastal predictive models.

  17. Common brain regions underlying different arithmetic operations as revealed by conjunct fMRI-BOLD activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Code, Chris; Herrmann, Manfred

    2007-10-03

    The issue of how and where arithmetic operations are represented in the brain has been addressed in numerous studies. Lesion studies suggest that a network of different brain areas are involved in mental calculation. Neuroimaging studies have reported inferior parietal and lateral frontal activations during mental arithmetic using tasks of different complexities and using different operators (addition, subtraction, etc.). Indeed, it has been difficult to compare brain activation across studies because of the variety of different operators and different presentation modalities used. The present experiment examined fMRI-BOLD activity in participants during calculation tasks entailing different arithmetic operations -- addition, subtraction, multiplication and division -- of different complexities. Functional imaging data revealed a common activation pattern comprising right precuneus, left and right middle and superior frontal regions during all arithmetic operations. All other regional activations were operation specific and distributed in prominently frontal, parietal and central regions when contrasting complex and simple calculation tasks. The present results largely confirm former studies suggesting that activation patterns due to mental arithmetic appear to reflect a basic anatomical substrate of working memory, numerical knowledge and processing based on finger counting, and derived from a network originally related to finger movement. We emphasize that in mental arithmetic research different arithmetic operations should always be examined and discussed independently of each other in order to avoid invalid generalizations on arithmetics and involved brain areas.

  18. Effects of sleep deprivation on extracellular serotonin in hippocampus and frontal cortex of the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Bjorvatn, B; Grønli, J; Hamre, F; Sørensen, E; Fiske, E; Bjorkum, Alvhild Alette; Portas, CM; Ursin, R

    2002-01-01

    Sleep deprivation improves the mood of depressed patients, but the exact mechanism behind this effect is unclear. An enhancement of serotonergic neurotransmission has been suggested. In this study, we used in vivo microdialysis to monitor extracellular serotonin in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex of rats during an 8 h sleep deprivation period. These brain regions were selected since both have been implicated in depression. The behavioral state of the animal was continuously monitored b...

  19. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K; Stahlhut, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation-the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex-would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure-the prefrontal gamma asymmetry-was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  20. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Z. Ramsøy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure—the prefrontal gamma asymmetry—was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  1. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K.; Stahlhut, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure—the prefrontal gamma asymmetry—was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing. PMID:29662432

  2. The superior precentral gyrus of the insula does not appear to be functionally specialized for articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Fillmore, Paul; Smith, Kimberly; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fridriksson, Julius

    2015-04-01

    Broca (Broca P. Bull Soc Anat Paris 36: 330-357, 1861) influentially argued that posterior left inferior frontal gyrus supports speech articulation. According to an alternative proposal (e.g., Dronkers NF. Nature 384: 159-161, 1996; Wise RJ, Greene J, Buchel C, Scott SK. Lancet 353: 1057-1061, 1999; Baldo JV, Wilkins DP, Ogar J, Willock S, Dronkers NF. Cortex 47: 800-807, 2011), a region in the anterior insula [specifically, the superior precentral gyrus of the insula (SPGI)] is the seat of articulatory abilities. Moreover, Dronkers and colleagues have argued that the SPGI is functionally specialized for (complex) speech articulation. Here, we evaluate this claim using individual-subject functional MRI (fMRI) analyses (e.g., Fedorenko E, Hsieh PJ, Nieto-Castanon A, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Kanwisher N. J Neurophysiol 104: 1177-1194, 2010). We find that the SPGI responds weakly, if at all, during articulation (parts of Broca's area respond 3-4 times more strongly) and does not show a stronger response to higher articulatory demands. This holds regardless of whether the SPGI is defined functionally (by selecting the most articulation-responsive voxels in the vicinity of the SPGI in each subject individually) or anatomically (by using masks drawn on each individual subject's anatomy). Critically, nonspeech oral movements activate the SPGI more strongly than articulation, especially under the anatomical definition of the SPGI. In line with Hillis et al. (Hillis AE, Work M, Barker PB, Jacobs MA, Breese EL, Maurer K. Brain 127: 1479-1487, 2004; also Trupe L, Varma DD, Gomez Y, Race D, Leigh R, Hillis AE, Gottesman RF. Stroke 44: 740-744, 2013), we argue that previous links between the SPGI, and perhaps anterior insula more generally, and articulation may be due to its high base rate of ischemic damage (and activation in fMRI; Yarkoni T, Poldrack RA, Nichols TE, Van Essen DC, Wager TD. Nat Methods 8: 665-670, 2011), combined with its proximity to regions that more directly

  3. Writing superiority in cued recall

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    Carina eFueller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001. In other memory retrieval paradigms, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005. In a series of four experiments using a paired associate (PA learning paradigm we tested (a whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b whether a possible superiority for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c whether the performance in PA word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory task. We found better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a PA learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written versus spoken recall cannot be (solely explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory

  4. Occipital cortex of blind individuals is functionally coupled with executive control areas of frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Ben; Saxe, Rebecca; Bedny, Marina

    2015-08-01

    In congenital blindness, the occipital cortex responds to a range of nonvisual inputs, including tactile, auditory, and linguistic stimuli. Are these changes in functional responses to stimuli accompanied by altered interactions with nonvisual functional networks? To answer this question, we introduce a data-driven method that searches across cortex for functional connectivity differences across groups. Replicating prior work, we find increased fronto-occipital functional connectivity in congenitally blind relative to blindfolded sighted participants. We demonstrate that this heightened connectivity extends over most of occipital cortex but is specific to a subset of regions in the inferior, dorsal, and medial frontal lobe. To assess the functional profile of these frontal areas, we used an n-back working memory task and a sentence comprehension task. We find that, among prefrontal areas with overconnectivity to occipital cortex, one left inferior frontal region responds to language over music. By contrast, the majority of these regions responded to working memory load but not language. These results suggest that in blindness occipital cortex interacts more with working memory systems and raise new questions about the function and mechanism of occipital plasticity.

  5. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

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    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  6. Subliminal semantic priming changes the dynamic causal influence between the left frontal and temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging experiments have revealed that subliminal priming of a target stimulus leads to the reduction of neural activity in specific regions concerned with processing the target. Such findings lead to questions about the degree to which the subliminal priming effect is based only on decreased activity in specific local brain regions, as opposed to the influence of neural mechanisms that regulate communication between brain regions. To address this question, this study recorded EEG during performance of a subliminal semantic priming task. We adopted an information-based approach that used independent component analysis and multivariate autoregressive modeling. Results indicated that subliminal semantic priming caused significant modulation of alpha band activity in the left inferior frontal cortex and modulation of gamma band activity in the left inferior temporal regions. The multivariate autoregressive approach confirmed significant increases in information flow from the inferior frontal cortex to inferior temporal regions in the early time window that was induced by subliminal priming. In the later time window, significant enhancement of bidirectional causal flow between these two regions underlying subliminal priming was observed. Results suggest that unconscious processing of words influences not only local activity of individual brain regions but also the dynamics of neural communication between those regions.

  7. The Superior Fronto-Occipital Fasciculus in the Human Brain Revealed by Diffusion Spectrum Imaging Tractography: An Anatomical Reality or a Methodological Artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yue; Wang, Yong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yibao

    2017-01-01

    The existence of the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (SFOF) in the human brain remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to clarify the existence, course, and terminations of the SFOF. High angular diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) analysis was performed on six healthy adults and on a template of 842 subjects from the Human Connectome Project. To verify tractography results, we performed fiber microdissections of four post-mortem human brains. Based on DSI tractography, we reconstructed the SFOF in the subjects and the template from the Human Connectome Project that originated from the rostral and medial parts of the superior and middle frontal gyri. By tractography, we found that the fibers formed a compact fascicle at the level of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle coursing above the head of caudate nucleus, medial to the corona radiate and under the corpus callosum (CC), and terminated at the parietal region via the lower part of the caudate nucleus. We consider that this fiber bundle observed by tractography is the SFOF, although it terminates mainly at the parietal region, rather than occipital lobe. By contrast, we were unable to identify a fiber bundle corresponding to the SFOF in our fiber dissection study. Although we did not provide definite evidence of the SFOF in the human brain, these findings may be useful for future studies in this field. PMID:29321729

  8. The Superior Fronto-Occipital Fasciculus in the Human Brain Revealed by Diffusion Spectrum Imaging Tractography: An Anatomical Reality or a Methodological Artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Bao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (SFOF in the human brain remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to clarify the existence, course, and terminations of the SFOF. High angular diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI analysis was performed on six healthy adults and on a template of 842 subjects from the Human Connectome Project. To verify tractography results, we performed fiber microdissections of four post-mortem human brains. Based on DSI tractography, we reconstructed the SFOF in the subjects and the template from the Human Connectome Project that originated from the rostral and medial parts of the superior and middle frontal gyri. By tractography, we found that the fibers formed a compact fascicle at the level of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle coursing above the head of caudate nucleus, medial to the corona radiate and under the corpus callosum (CC, and terminated at the parietal region via the lower part of the caudate nucleus. We consider that this fiber bundle observed by tractography is the SFOF, although it terminates mainly at the parietal region, rather than occipital lobe. By contrast, we were unable to identify a fiber bundle corresponding to the SFOF in our fiber dissection study. Although we did not provide definite evidence of the SFOF in the human brain, these findings may be useful for future studies in this field.

  9. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia: The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Marie-José; van der Meer, Lisette; Bruggeman, Richard; Modinos, Gemma; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2014-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia (SZ) have been proposed to result from abnormal local, interregional and interhemispheric integration of brain signals in regions involved in language production and perception. This abnormal functional integration may find its base in morphological abnormalities. Structurally, AVHs have been frequently linked to abnormal morphology of the superior temporal gyrus (STG), but only a few studies investigated the relation of hallucination presence with both whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) morphometry. Using a unified voxel-based morphometry-DARTEL approach, we investigated correlates of AVH presence in 51 schizophrenia patients (20 non-hallucinating [SZ -], 31 hallucinating [SZ +]), and included 51 age and sex matched healthy participants. Effects are reported at p frontal and right parahippocampal gyrus, and higher WM volume of the left postcentral and superior parietal lobule than controls. Finally, volume of the putamen was lower in SZ + compared to SZ -. No effects on corpus callosum morphometry were observed. Delusion severity, general positive and negative symptomatology illness duration, and medication status could not explain the results. Results suggest that STG GM abnormalities underlie the general susceptibility to experience psychotic symptoms and that additional abnormalities in a network of medial temporal, ventrolateral, putaminal, and parietal regions related to verbal memory and speech production may specifically increase the likelihood of experiencing AVH. Future studies should clarify the meaning of morphometry abnormalities for functional interregional communication.

  10. Cirurgia de osteoma de seio frontal Surgery of frontal sinus osteoma

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    Lisete Pessoa de Oliveira Fobe

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Os osteomas do seio frontal correspondem a 57% dos osteomas dos seios paranasais, com incidência variando de 0,01% a 3%. A remoção cirúrgica nos osteomas frontais é indicada nos pacientes sintomáticos. Nos pacientes assintomáticos pode-se adotar a conduta conservadora ou cirúrgica em todos os pacientes independente da sua localização ou extensão. Cinco pacientes com diagnóstico de osteoma de seio frontal foram operados entre 1995 e 1999. A idade média foi 38,4 anos (extremos de 12 a 55 anos, sendo 3 homens e 2 mulheres. O período de sintomatologia variou de 6 meses a 3 anos com média de 10,5 meses. Quatro pacientes apresentaram cefaléia. Um paciente apresentou epistaxe. Os exames complementares realizados foram: radiografia simples e tomografia computadorizada de seios paranasais com cortes axiais e coronais. Em dois pacientes o diâmetro do osteoma foi maior que 3 cm, e menor que 3 cm em três. A decisão da técnica cirúrgica entre coronal e supraciliar foi estética, reservando-se a abordagem supraciliar para um paciente com calvície, apesar do tumor ser volumoso com extensão para seio etmoidal. Nenhuma dificuldade técnica intra-operatória foi atribuída à escolha da abordagem. O óstio nasofrontal não foi obstruído no intra-operatório. O seguimento pós-operatório mínimo foi de dois anos. Em todos os casos a remoção foi total sem recidiva ou resíduos tumorais. Os sintomas clínicos, achados radiológicos e abordagens cirúrgicas são discutidos. Não ocorreram complicações pós-operatórias.Frontal sinus osteomas are 57% of all paranasal sinus osteomas, with an incidence of 00.1 to 3%. Surgical removal of the frontal sinus osteomas is done in symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients can be managed conservatively or submitted to surgery in spite of its location or extension. Five patients having the diagnosis of frontal sinus osteoma were operated on between 1995 and 1999. Medium age was 38.4 years (from 12

  11. Analisis Penyerapan Energi Crash Box Pola Origami pada Pengujian Frontal Impact Posisi Angular Frontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redi Bintarto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the car, the body structure is designed in such a way so as to transfer and absorb energy. This serves to minimize the result of this accident related to kinetic energy. This needs a system to absorb the kinetic energy maximally, so as a result of a frontal collision events that can be reduced optimally and kinetic energy can be absorbed by a front body structure. Devices used for absorbing kinetic energy in the car is usually called a crash box, which is located between the main structure and bumper. Crash Box generally tubular thin shaped. It has been a lot of research about the crash box. In this study using crash box origami patterns and using methods taguchi orthogonal array L9 (34. AA7003-T7 aluminum material modeled as bilinear isotropic hardening, the loading method is Frontal Impact Frontal Angular Position with impact angles of 5, 15 and 30 degree by using the finite element software simulation methods. The simulation results showed that the crash box in the lowest possible energy absorption were happened at crash box with 5 degree, with 683 153 Joule energy absorbsion. The highest result was happened to crash box number 5 with the results of 3,140.778 Joule. Lowest absorption on impact of 15 degree and 30 degree were happened to crash box number 1 and number 3 with a value of 245 685 Joule and 174 845 Joule, while the highest absorption at mumber 3 with each value 1,708.521 Joule and 1,750.872 Joule.

  12. Double elevator weakening for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy with ipsilateral superior rectus contracture and lax superior oblique tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif O

    2012-06-01

    In unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy, a large hypertropia is sometimes associated with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle and apparent overaction of the contralateral superior oblique. Ipsilateral double elevator weakening is one surgical approach; however, this procedure could compromise supraduction. We report a series of three consecutive patients who underwent ipsilateral superior rectus and inferior oblique recessions for unilateral superior oblique palsy. Intraoperatively, all three patients were found to have a lax ipsilateral superior oblique tendon. Postoperatively, all three patients had satisfactory correction of the hypertropia and abnormal head position with minimal supraduction defect. This procedure seems to be an acceptable initial surgical option for treating congenital superior oblique muscle palsy with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle, even when the ipsilateral superior oblique tendon is lax. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24{+-}4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor.

  14. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24±4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor

  15. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and ventromedial frontal lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irle, E; Exner, C; Thielen, K

    1998-01-01

    subjects who had undergone ventromedial frontal leukotomy were evaluated clinically and neuropsychologically and compared to seven well comparison OCD subjects without leukotomy. The 16 leukotomized subjects were divided into three groups according to the main lesion sites as determined by current magnetic...... on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Subjects with lesions of the dorsolateral frontal convexity also showed memory problems, attentional slowing, and lower performance IQ. CONCLUSIONS: Restricted ventromedial frontal leukotomy should be discussed as a last-resort treatment for severe and refractory OCD...

  16. Alteraciones de memoria en daño cerebral frontal

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Rodríguez, Irene de la; Noreña, David de

    2007-01-01

    El córtex frontal está implicado en importantes procesos de memoria, pero tiene un papel diferente al de las estructuras temporales y diencefálicas mediales. Mientras que el daño en estas estructuras produce una grave amnesia anterógrada, en el daño frontal se manifiestan una serie de problemas y distorsiones concretas como las fabulaciones, la amnesia de la fuente, el déficit de memoria prospectiva o las alteraciones en el recuerdo libre. El lóbulo frontal no está implicado en el almacenamie...

  17. Decoding rule search domain in the left inferior frontal gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, the left hemisphere has been thought to extract mainly verbal patterns of information, but recent evidence has shown that the left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) is active during inductive reasoning in both the verbal and spatial domains. We aimed to understand whether the left IFG supports inductive reasoning in a domain-specific or domain-general fashion. To do this we used Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis to decode the representation of domain during a rule search task. Thirteen participants were asked to extract the rule underlying streams of letters presented in different spatial locations. Each rule was either verbal (letters forming words) or spatial (positions forming geometric figures). Our results show that domain was decodable in the left prefrontal cortex, suggesting that this region represents domain-specific information, rather than processes common to the two domains. A replication study with the same participants tested two years later confirmed these findings, though the individual representations changed, providing evidence for the flexible nature of representations. This study extends our knowledge on the neural basis of goal-directed behaviors and on how information relevant for rule extraction is flexibly mapped in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:29547623

  18. Human medial frontal cortex activity predicts learning from errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert; Barre, Natalie; Murphy, Kevin; Silk, Tim J; Mattingley, Jason B

    2008-08-01

    Learning from errors is a critical feature of human cognition. It underlies our ability to adapt to changing environmental demands and to tune behavior for optimal performance. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) has been implicated in the evaluation of errors to control behavior, although it has not previously been shown that activity in this region predicts learning from errors. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined activity in the pMFC during an associative learning task in which participants had to recall the spatial locations of 2-digit targets and were provided with immediate feedback regarding accuracy. Activity within the pMFC was significantly greater for errors that were subsequently corrected than for errors that were repeated. Moreover, pMFC activity during recall errors predicted future responses (correct vs. incorrect), despite a sizeable interval (on average 70 s) between an error and the next presentation of the same recall probe. Activity within the hippocampus also predicted future performance and correlated with error-feedback-related pMFC activity. A relationship between performance expectations and pMFC activity, in the absence of differing reinforcement value for errors, is consistent with the idea that error-related pMFC activity reflects the extent to which an outcome is "worse than expected."

  19. Drug Addiction and Its Underlying Neurobiological Basis: Neuroimaging Evidence for the Involvement of the Frontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Rita Z.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective Studies of the neurobiological processes underlying drug addiction primarily have focused on limbic subcortical structures. Here the authors evaluated the role of frontal cortical structures in drug addiction. Method An integrated model of drug addiction that encompasses intoxication, bingeing, withdrawal, and craving is proposed. This model and findings from neuroimaging studies on the behavioral, cognitive, and emotional processes that are at the core of drug addiction were used to analyze the involvement of frontal structures in drug addiction. Results The orbitofrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate gyrus, which are regions neuroanatomically connected with limbic structures, are the frontal cortical areas most frequently implicated in drug addiction. They are activated in addicted subjects during intoxication, craving, and bingeing, and they are deactivated during withdrawal. These regions are also involved in higher-order cognitive and motivational functions, such as the ability to track, update, and modulate the salience of a reinforcer as a function of context and expectation and the ability to control and inhibit prepotent responses. Conclusions These results imply that addiction connotes cortically regulated cognitive and emotional processes, which result in the overvaluing of drug reinforcers, the undervaluing of alternative reinforcers, and deficits in inhibitory control for drug responses. These changes in addiction, which the authors call I-RISA (impaired response inhibition and salience attribution), expand the traditional concepts of drug dependence that emphasize limbic-regulated responses to pleasure and reward. PMID:12359667

  20. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael X Cohen

    Full Text Available Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30-50 Hz, followed by a later alpha-band (8-12 Hz conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4-8 Hz, alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions.

  1. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus) conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30-50 Hz), followed by a later alpha-band (8-12 Hz) conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4-8 Hz), alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials) had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions.

  2. EEG Source Reconstruction Reveals Frontal-Parietal Dynamics of Spatial Conflict Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus) conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30–50 Hz), followed by a later alpha-band (8–12 Hz) conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4–8 Hz), alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials) had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions. PMID:23451201

  3. Increased frontal sleep slow wave activity in adolescents with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Tesler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep slow wave activity (SWA, the major electrophysiological characteristic of deep sleep, mirrors both cortical restructuring and functioning. The incidence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD substantially rises during the vulnerable developmental phase of adolescence, where essential cortical restructuring is taking place. The goal of this study was to assess characteristics of SWA topography in adolescents with MDD, in order to assess abnormalities in both cortical restructuring and functioning on a local level. All night high-density EEG was recorded in 15 patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for MDD and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The actual symptom severity was assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale—Revised (CDRS-R. Topographical power maps were calculated based on the average SWA of the first non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep episode. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly more SWA in a cluster of frontal electrodes compared to controls. SWA over frontal brain regions correlated positively with the CDRS-R subscore “morbid thoughts”. Self-reported sleep latency was significantly higher in depressed adolescents compared to controls whereas sleep architecture did not differ between the groups. Higher frontal SWA in depressed adolescents may represent a promising biomarker tracing cortical regions of intense use and/or restructuring.

  4. Lower limb and associated injuries in frontal-impact road traffic collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammori, Mohannad B; Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2016-03-01

    To study the relationship between severity of injury of the lower limb and severity of injury of the head, thoracic, and abdominal regions in frontal-impact road traffic collisions. Consecutive hospitalised trauma patients who were involved in a frontal road traffic collision were prospectively studied over 18 months. Patients with at least one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥3 or AIS 2 injuries within two AIS body regions were included. Patients were divided into two groups depending on the severity of injury to the head, chest or abdomen. Low severity group had an AIS chest or abdominal injuries. Eighty-five patients were studied. The backward likelihood logistic regression model defining independent factors affecting severity of head injuries was highly significant (p =0.01, nagelkerke r square = 0.1) severity of lower limb injuries was the only significant factor (p=0.013) having a negative correlation with head injury (Odds ratio of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.45-0.91). Occupants who sustain a greater severity of injury to the lower limb in a frontal-impact collision are likely to be spared from a greater severity of head injury.

  5. Clinical-physiologic correlates of Alzheimer's disease and frontal lobe dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagust, W.J.; Reed, B.R.; Seab, J.P.; Kramer, J.H.; Budinger, T.F.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty patients with degenerative dementia underwent clinical evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with the blood flow tracer [ 123 I]-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine. Five of these patients were clinically and psychologically different from the others, demonstrating predominant behavioral disturbances with relative preservation of memory function. These five patients, who were felt to have a frontal lobe dementia (FLD), showed SPECT perfusion patterns which differed from the remaining 25 patients, who were diagnosed as having Alzheimer's disease (AD), and from 16 healthy control subjects. The FLD patients showed diminished perfusion in orbitofrontal, dorsolateral frontal, and temporal cortex relative to controls, while the AD patients showed lower perfusion in temporal and parietal cortex than controls. The FLD patients also showed hypoperfusion in both frontal cortical regions relative to AD patients. The pattern of performance on neuropsychological testing paralleled these differences in regional perfusion. These results suggest that clinical evaluation and physiological imaging may enable the differentiation of groups of degenerative dementia patients during life

  6. Stopping, goal-conflict, trait anxiety and frontal rhythmic power in the stop-signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Phoebe S-H; Thurlow, Jane K; McNaughton, Neil

    2011-12-01

    The medial right frontal cortex is implicated in fast stopping of an initiated motor action in the stop-signal task (SST). To assess whether this region is also involved in the slower behavioural inhibition induced by goal conflict, we tested for effects of goal conflict (when stop and go tendencies are balanced) on low-frequency rhythms in the SST. Stop trials were divided, according to the delays at which the stop signal occurred, into short-, intermediate-, and long-delay trials. Consistent with goal-conflict processing, intermediate-delay trials were associated with greater 7-8 Hz EEG power than short- or long-delay trials at medial right frontal sites (Fz, F4, and F8). At F8, 7-8 Hz power was linked to high trait anxiety and neuroticism. A separate 4-7 Hz power increase was also seen in stop, relative to go, trials, but this was independent of delay, was maximal at the central midline site Cz, and predicted faster stopping. Together with previous data on the SST, these results suggest that the right frontal region could be involved in multiple inhibition mechanisms. We propose a hierarchical model of the control of stopping that integrates the literature on the neural control of fast motor stopping with that on slower, motive-directed behavioural inhibition.

  7. Preoperative Planning Using 3D Reconstructions and Virtual Endoscopy for Location of the Frontal Sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu, João Paulo Saraiva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Computed tomography (TC generated tridimensional (3D reconstructions allow the observation of cavities and anatomic structures of our body with detail. In our specialty there have been attempts to carry out virtual endoscopies and laryngoscopies. However, such application has been practically abandoned due to its complexity and need for computers with high power of graphic processing. Objective: To demonstrate the production of 3D reconstructions from CTs of patients in personal computers, with a free specific program and compare them to the surgery actual endoscopic images. Method: Prospective study in which the CTs proper files of 10 patients were reconstructed with the program Intage Realia, version 2009, 0, 0, 702 (KGT Inc., Japan. The reconstructions were carried out before the surgeries and a virtual endoscopy was made to assess the recess and frontal sinus region. After this study, the surgery was digitally performed and stored. The actual endoscopic images of the recess and frontal sinus region were compared to the virtual images. Results: The 3D reconstruction and virtual endoscopy were made in 10 patients submitted to the surgery. The virtual images had a large resemblance with the actual surgical images. Conclusion: With relatively simple tools and personal computer, we demonstrated the possibility to generate 3D reconstructions and virtual endoscopies. The preoperative knowledge of the frontal sinus natural draining path location may generate benefits during the performance of surgeries. However, more studies must be developed for the evaluation of the real roles of such 3D reconstructions and virtual endoscopies.

  8. Reduced Inferior and Orbital Frontal Thickness in Adolescent Bulimia Nervosa Persists Over Two-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Marilyn; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Lee, Seonjoo; Chen, Chen; Stefan, Mihaela; Fontaine, Martine; Terranova, Kate; Berner, Laura A; Marsh, Rachel

    2017-10-01

    Cross-sectional data suggest functional and anatomical disturbances in inferior and orbital frontal regions in bulimia nervosa (BN). Using longitudinal data, we investigated whether reduced cortical thickness (CT) in these regions arises early and persists over adolescence in BN, independent of symptom remission, and whether CT reductions are markers of BN symptoms. A total of 33 adolescent females with BN symptoms (BN or other specified feeding or eating disorder) and 28 healthy adolescents participated in this study. Anatomical magnetic resonance imaging and clinical data were acquired at 3 time points within 2-year intervals over adolescence, with 31% average attrition between assessments. Using a region-of-interest approach, we assessed group differences in CT at baseline and over time, and tested whether between- and within-subject variations in CT were associated with the frequency of BN symptoms. Reduced CT in the right inferior frontal gyrus persisted over adolescence in BN compared to healthy adolescents, even in those who achieved full or partial remission. Within the BN group, between-subject variations in CT in the inferior and orbital frontal regions were inversely associated with specific BN symptoms, suggesting, on average over time, greater CT reductions in individuals with more frequent BN symptoms. Reduced CT in inferior frontal regions may contribute to illness persistence into adulthood. Reductions in the thickness of the inferior and orbital frontal regions may be markers of specific BN symptoms. Because our sample size precluded correcting for multiple comparisons, these findings should be replicated in a larger sample. Future study of functional changes in associated fronto-striatal circuits could identify potential circuit-based intervention targets. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Superiority illusion arises from resting-state brain networks modulated by dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko; Uddin, Lucina Q; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Takahata, Keisuke; Kousa, Ririko; Ikoma, Yoko; Eguchi, Yoko; Takano, Harumasa; Ito, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2013-03-12

    The majority of individuals evaluate themselves as superior to average. This is a cognitive bias known as the "superiority illusion." This illusion helps us to have hope for the future and is deep-rooted in the process of human evolution. In this study, we examined the default states of neural and molecular systems that generate this illusion, using resting-state functional MRI and PET. Resting-state functional connectivity between the frontal cortex and striatum regulated by inhibitory dopaminergic neurotransmission determines individual levels of the superiority illusion. Our findings help elucidate how this key aspect of the human mind is biologically determined, and identify potential molecular and neural targets for treatment for depressive realism.

  10. Pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy : white matter abnormalities and cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, H.M.H.; Vaessen, M.J.; Jansen, J.F.A.; Debeij-van Hall, M.H.J.A.; Louw, de A.; Hofman, P.A.M.; Vles, J.S.H.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Backes, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cognitive impairment is frequent in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Its etiology remains unknown. With diffusion tensor imaging, we have studied cerebral white matter properties and associations with cognitive functioning in children with FLE and healthy controls.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with ADNFLE have experienced psychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia), behavioral problems, or intellectual disability. It is unclear ... Epilepsy Society Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE) GeneReviews (1 link) Autosomal Dominant Nocturnal Frontal Lobe ...

  12. Right-frontal cortical asymmetry predicts increased proneness to nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullett, Alexa M; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Nostalgia is often triggered by feelings-such as sadness, loneliness, or meaninglessness-that are typically associated with withdrawal motivation. Here, we examined whether a trait tendency to experience withdrawal motivation is associated with nostalgia proneness. Past work indicates that baseline right-frontal cortical asymmetry is a neural correlate of withdrawal-related motivation. We therefore hypothesized that higher baseline levels of right-frontal asymmetry would predict increased proneness to nostalgia. We assessed participants' baseline levels of frontal cortical activity using EEG. Results supported the hypothesis and demonstrated that the association between relative right-frontal asymmetry and increased nostalgia remained significant when controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Overall, these findings indicate that individuals with a stronger dispositional tendency to experience withdrawal-related motivation are more prone to nostalgia. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Gaze-related mimic word activates the frontal eye field and related network in the human brain: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki; Osaka, Mariko

    2009-09-18

    This is an fMRI study demonstrating new evidence that a mimic word highly suggestive of an eye gaze, heard by the ear, significantly activates the frontal eye field (FEF), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), dorsolateral premotor area (PMdr) and superior parietal lobule (SPL) connected with the frontal-parietal network. However, hearing a non-sense words that did not imply gaze under the same task does not activate this area in humans. We concluded that the FEF would be a critical area for generating/processing an active gaze, evoked by an onomatopoeia word that implied gaze closely associated with social skill. We suggest that the implied active gaze may depend on prefrontal-parietal interactions that modify cognitive gaze led by spatial visual attention associated with the SPL.

  14. Frontal Mucocele following Previous Facial Trauma with Hardware Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan EuDaly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoceles are cysts that can develop after facial bone fractures, especially those involving the frontal sinuses. Despite being rare, mucoceles can result in serious delayed sequelae. We present a case of a frontal mucocele that developed two years after extensive facial trauma following a motor vehicle crash (MVC and review the emergency department (ED evaluation and treatment of mucocele. Early recognition, appropriate imaging, and an interdisciplinary approach are essential for managing these rare sequelae of facial trauma.

  15. Frontal Mucocele following Previous Facial Trauma with Hardware Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    EuDaly, Megan; Kraus, Chadd K.

    2016-01-01

    Mucoceles are cysts that can develop after facial bone fractures, especially those involving the frontal sinuses. Despite being rare, mucoceles can result in serious delayed sequelae. We present a case of a frontal mucocele that developed two years after extensive facial trauma following a motor vehicle crash (MVC) and review the emergency department (ED) evaluation and treatment of mucocele. Early recognition, appropriate imaging, and an interdisciplinary approach are essential for managing ...

  16. Giant cell tumor of the frontal sinus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matushita, Joao Paulo, E-mail: jpauloejulieta@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas; Matushita, Julieta S.; Matushita Junior, Joao Paulo Kawaoka [Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem Dr. Matsushita, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Matushita, Cristina S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho; Simoes, Luiz Antonio Monteiro; Carvalho Neto, Lizando Franco de

    2013-06-15

    The authors report the case of a giant cell tumor of the frontal sinus in a 54-year-old male patient. This tumor location is rare, and this is the third case reported in the literature with radiographic documentation and histopathological confirmation. The patient underwent surgery, with curettage of frontal sinus and placement of a prosthesis. He died because a voluntary abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids. (author)

  17. Dissociations in Hippocampal and Frontal Contributions to Episodic Memory Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Joel H.; Rosen, Howard J.; Du, An-Tao; Schuff, Norbert; Hollnagel, Caroline; Weiner, Michael W.; Miller, Bruce L.; Delis, Dean C.

    2005-01-01

    The hippocampus and frontal lobes both contribute to episodic memory performance. In the present study, the authors evaluated the relative contributions of hippocampus, frontal lobes, anterior temporal cortex, and posterior cortex to memory performance in neurodegenerative patients and normal older controls. Subjects (n = 42) were studied with structural MRI and a memory paradigm that measured delayed recall, semantic clustering during recall, recognition discriminability, and recognition res...

  18. Frontal Lobe Tuberculoma: A Clinical and Imaging Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Alemayehu, Tinsae; Ergete, Wondwossen; Abebe, Workeabeba

    2017-01-01

    Background Pediatric nervous system tuberculomas are usually infra-tentorial and multiple. A frontal lobe location is rare. Case Details We report a 10 year-old boy who presented with a chronic headache and episodes of loss of consciousness. He had no signs of primary pulmonary tuberculosis and a diagnosis of frontal tuberculoma was made upon a post-operative biopsy. He improved following treatment with anti-tubercular drugs. Conclusion Tuberculosis should be considered in children with a chr...

  19. Let's inhibit our excitement: the relationships between Stroop, behavioral disinhibition, and the frontal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Lara H; Laluz, Victor; Jang, Jung; Ketelle, Robin; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2011-09-01

    The Stroop (Stroop, 1935) is a frequently used neuropsychological test, with poor performance typically interpreted as indicative of disinhibition and frontal lobe damage. This study tested those interpretations by examining relationships between Stroop performance, behavioral disinhibition, and frontal lobe atrophy. Participants were 112 patients with mild cognitive impairment or dementia, recruited through UCSF's Memory and Aging Center. Participants received comprehensive dementia evaluations including structural MRI, neuropsychological testing, and informant interviews. Freesurfer, a semiautomated parcellation program, was used to analyze 1.5T MRI scans. Behavioral disinhibition was measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (Cummings, 1997; Cummings et al., 1994) Disinhibition Scale. The sample (n = 112) mean age was 65.40 (SD = 8.60) years, education was 16.64 (SD = 2.54) years, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; Folstein et al., 1975) was 26.63 (SD = 3.32). Hierarchical linear regressions were used for data analysis. Controlling for age, MMSE, and color naming, Stroop performance was not significantly associated with disinhibition (β = 0.01, ΔR² = 0.01, p = .29). Hierarchical regressions controlling for age, MMSE, color naming, intracranial volume, and temporal and parietal lobes, examined whether left or right hemisphere regions predict Stroop performance. Bilaterally, parietal lobe atrophy best predicted poorer Stroop (left: β = 0.0004, ΔR² = 0.02, p = .002; right: β = 0.0004, ΔR² = 0.02, p = .002). Of frontal regions, only dorsolateral prefrontal cortex atrophy predicted poorer Stroop (β = 0.001, ΔR² = 0.01, p = .03); left and right anterior cingulate cortex atrophy predicted better Stroop (left: β = -0.003, ΔR² = 0.01, p = .02; right: β = -0.004, ΔR² = 0.01, p = .02). These findings suggest Stroop performance is a poor measure of behavioral disinhibition and frontal lobe atrophy even among a relatively high-risk population

  20. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  1. Marketing at Superior: Theory meets application in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, S.

    1992-01-01

    The field marketing practices of Superior Propane in rural Ontario are illustrated. In the Smithville area, Superior's customer base consists of agricultural, industrial, commercial, and residential customers, plus a large market for auto propane. A 6,900 ft 2 showroom presents a representative selection of the wide range of appliances using propane. Superior's Smithville branch is one of the top five in Canada, in terms of volume. To expand business beyond its traditional branch structures, Superior has an Independent Partners Program which is aimed at all phases of business including independent sales agents, conversions, propane fuel stops, appliance installations, and building contractors. In Keswick, located in the summer resort region on the south shore of Lake Simcoe, Superior's base load is 40% commercial and 20% each agricultural, residential, and automotive. A new 4,100 ft 2 showroom was recently constructed with separate display units for each appliance. The new building has brought increases in auto propane and appliance sales. The different branches of Superior Propane are able to tailor their marketing programs according to local needs by choosing the appropriate programs from those available at head office. 5 figs

  2. Functional MRI approach for assessing hemispheric predominance of regions activated by a phonological and a semantic task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousin, Emilie; Peyrin, Carole; Pichat, Cedric [Laboratoire de Psychologie et Neurocognition, UMR CNRS 5105, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, BP 47, 38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Lamalle, Laurent; Le Bas, Jean-Francois [Unite IRM, IFR1, CHU Grenoble (France); Baciu, Monica [Laboratoire de Psychologie et Neurocognition, UMR CNRS 5105, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, BP 47, 38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)], E-mail: mbaciu@upmf-grenoble.fr

    2007-08-15

    This fMRI study performed in healthy subjects aimed at using a statistical approach in order to determine significant functional differences between hemispheres and to assess specialized regions activated during a phonological and during a semantic task. This approach ('flip' method and subsequent statistical analyses of the parameter estimates extracted from regions of interest) allows identifying: (a) hemispheric specialized regions for each language task [semantic (living categorization) and phonological (rhyme detection)] and (b) condition-specific regions with respect to paradigm conditions (task and control). Our results showed that the rhyme-specific task regions were the inferior frontal (sub-region of BA 44, 45) and left inferior parietal (BA 40, 39) lobules. Furthermore, within the inferior parietal lobule, the angular gyrus was specific to target (rhyming) items (related to successfully grapho-phonemic processing). The categorization-specific task regions were the left inferior frontal (sub-region of BA 44, 45) and superior temporal (BA 22) cortices. Furthermore, the superior temporal gyrus was related to non-target (non-living) items (correlated to task difficulty). The relatively new approach used in this study has the advantage of providing: (a) statistical significance of the hemispheric specialized regions for a given language task and (b) supplementary information in terms of paradigm condition-specificity of the activated regions. The results (standard hemispheric specialized regions for a semantic and for a phonological task) obtained in healthy subjects may constitute a basement for mapping language and assessing hemispheric predominance in epileptic patients before surgery and avoiding post-surgical impairments of language.

  3. Functional MRI approach for assessing hemispheric predominance of regions activated by a phonological and a semantic task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Emilie; Peyrin, Carole; Pichat, Cedric; Lamalle, Laurent; Le Bas, Jean-Francois; Baciu, Monica

    2007-01-01

    This fMRI study performed in healthy subjects aimed at using a statistical approach in order to determine significant functional differences between hemispheres and to assess specialized regions activated during a phonological and during a semantic task. This approach ('flip' method and subsequent statistical analyses of the parameter estimates extracted from regions of interest) allows identifying: (a) hemispheric specialized regions for each language task [semantic (living categorization) and phonological (rhyme detection)] and (b) condition-specific regions with respect to paradigm conditions (task and control). Our results showed that the rhyme-specific task regions were the inferior frontal (sub-region of BA 44, 45) and left inferior parietal (BA 40, 39) lobules. Furthermore, within the inferior parietal lobule, the angular gyrus was specific to target (rhyming) items (related to successfully grapho-phonemic processing). The categorization-specific task regions were the left inferior frontal (sub-region of BA 44, 45) and superior temporal (BA 22) cortices. Furthermore, the superior temporal gyrus was related to non-target (non-living) items (correlated to task difficulty). The relatively new approach used in this study has the advantage of providing: (a) statistical significance of the hemispheric specialized regions for a given language task and (b) supplementary information in terms of paradigm condition-specificity of the activated regions. The results (standard hemispheric specialized regions for a semantic and for a phonological task) obtained in healthy subjects may constitute a basement for mapping language and assessing hemispheric predominance in epileptic patients before surgery and avoiding post-surgical impairments of language

  4. The morphology of midcingulate cortex predicts frontal-midline theta neurofeedback success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eEnriquez-Geppert

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans differ in their ability to learn how to control their own brain activity by neurofeedback. However, neural mechanisms underlying these inter-individual differences, which may determine training success and associated cognitive enhancement, are not well understood. Here, it is asked whether neurofeedback success of frontal-midline (fm theta, an oscillation related to higher cognitive functions, could be predicted by the morphology of brain structures known to be critically involved in fm-theta generation. Nineteen young, right-handed participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of T1-weighted brain images, and took part in an individualized, eight-session neurofeedback training in order to learn how to enhance activity in their fm-theta frequency band. Initial training success, measured at the second training session, was correlated with the final outcome measure. We found that the inferior, superior and middle frontal cortices were not associated with training success. However, volume of the midcingulate cortex as well as volume and concentration of the underlying white matter structures act as predictor variables for the general responsiveness to training. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical foundation for the ability to learn to control one’s own brain activity.

  5. Non-primary motor areas in the human frontal lobe are connected directly to hand muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitti, S; Määttä, S; Säisänen, L; Könönen, M; Vanninen, R; Hannula, H; Mervaala, E; Karhu, J

    2008-04-15

    Structural studies in primates have shown that, in addition to the primary motor cortex (M1), premotor areas are a source of corticospinal tracts. The function of these putative corticospinal neuronal tracts in humans is still unclear. We found frontal non-primary motor areas (NPMAs), which react to targeted non-invasive magnetic pulses and activate peripheral muscles as fast as or even faster than those in M1. Hand muscle movements were observed in all our subjects about 20 ms after transcranial stimulation of the superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 6 and 8). Stimulation of NPMA could activate both proximal and distal upper limb muscles with the same delay as a stimulation of the M1, indicating converging motor representations with direct functional connections to the hand. We suggest that these non-primary cortical motor representations provide additional capacity for the fast execution of movements. Such a capacity may play a role in motor learning and in recovery from motor deficits.

  6. Reanimación palpebral con colgajo frontal miofuncional: Caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. García-García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El párpado es una estructura crítica para la protección y función del globo ocular, y parte primordial en la estética facial. Su reconstrucción está determinada por la extensión de la lesión y el compromiso de las diferentes capas. Siempre se preferirán tejidos loco-regionales debido a su mayor similitud y disposición. Los métodos de reanimación palpebral se pueden dividir en estáticos y dinámicos, considerando a estos últimos como el único medio para restaurar el parpadeo. Presentamos un caso de celulitis orbitaria preseptal con lesión de espesor total del párpado superior y su reconstrucción miofuncional utilizando un colgajo frontal. Este colgajo frontal miocutáneo logró la restauración funcional del párpado comprometido mediante la adición de fibras musculares y permitiendo el fenómeno de reinervación.

  7. The role of the right inferior frontal gyrus in the pathogenesis of post-stroke psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Michael J; Bentley, Paul; Jones, Brynmor; Hotton, Gary; Greenwood, Richard J; Jenkins, I Harri; Joyce, Eileen M; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2014-03-01

    Psychotic symptoms have previously been reported following right hemisphere brain injury. We sought to identify the specific neuroanatomical basis of delusions following stroke by studying a series of patients with post-stroke psychosis. Lesion overlap analysis was conducted on three individuals with delusions following right hemisphere stroke. These cases were compared with a control group of patients with similar anatomical damage. The main outcome measures were presence of delusions and presence of behavioural susceptibility. The right inferior frontal gyrus and underlying white matter, including the superior longitudinal fasciculus and anterior corona radiata, were involved in all three cases. All three had a preexisting untreated psychiatric disorder. In contrast, only one of nine control cases with equivalent lesions had evidence of previous psychiatric disorder (p = 0.0182, Fisher's exact test), and this was being treated at the time of stroke. We provide clinical evidence from patients with structural brain lesions implicating damage to the right inferior frontal lobe in the generation of persistent psychosis following stroke. We suggest that preexisting psychiatric disease provided a behavioural susceptibility to develop delusions in these individuals.

  8. Co-speech gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Hasson, Uri; Skipper, Jeremy I; Small, Steven L

    2009-11-01

    Everyday communication is accompanied by visual information from several sources, including co-speech gestures, which provide semantic information listeners use to help disambiguate the speaker's message. Using fMRI, we examined how gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information. The BOLD response was recorded while participants listened to stories under three audiovisual conditions and one auditory-only (speech alone) condition. In the first audiovisual condition, the storyteller produced gestures that naturally accompany speech. In the second, the storyteller made semantically unrelated hand movements. In the third, the storyteller kept her hands still. In addition to inferior parietal and posterior superior and middle temporal regions, bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and left anterior inferior frontal gyrus responded more strongly to speech when it was further accompanied by gesture, regardless of the semantic relation to speech. However, the right inferior frontal gyrus was sensitive to the semantic import of the hand movements, demonstrating more activity when hand movements were semantically unrelated to the accompanying speech. These findings show that perceiving hand movements during speech modulates the distributed pattern of neural activation involved in both biological motion perception and discourse comprehension, suggesting listeners attempt to find meaning, not only in the words speakers produce, but also in the hand movements that accompany speech.

  9. Frontal white matter hyperintensity predicts lower urinary tract dysfunction in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogama, Noriko; Yoshida, Masaki; Nakai, Toshiharu; Niida, Shumpei; Toba, Kenji; Sakurai, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms often limit activities of daily life and impair quality of life in the elderly. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether regional white matter hyperintensity (WMH) can predict lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. The participants were 461 patients aged 65-85 years diagnosed with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. Patients and their caregivers were asked about symptoms of lower urinary tract symptoms (urinary difficulty, frequency and incontinence). Cognition, behavior and psychological symptoms of dementia and medication were evaluated. WMH and brain atrophy were analyzed using an automatic segmentation program. Regional WMH was evaluated in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. Patients with urinary incontinence showed significantly greater volume of WMH. WMH increased with age, especially in the frontal lobe. WMH in the frontal lobe was closely associated with urinary incontinence after adjustment for brain atrophy and classical confounding factors. Frontal WMH was a predictive factor for urinary incontinence in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. Urinary incontinence in demented older adults is not an incidental event, and careful insight into regional WMH on brain magnetic resonance imaging might greatly help in diagnosing individuals with a higher risk of urinary incontinence. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Increased frontal electroencephalogram theta amplitude in patients with anorexia nervosa compared to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hestad KA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Knut A Hestad,1–3 Siri Weider,3,4 Kristian Bernhard Nilsen,5–7 Marit Sæbø Indredavik,8,9 Trond Sand7,10 1Department of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Norway; 2Department of Public Health, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway; 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 4Department of Psychiatry, Specialised Unit for Eating Disorder Patients, Levanger Hospital, Health Trust Nord-Trøndelag, Levanger, Norway; 5Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Work Psychology and Physiology, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway; 7Department of Neurology, Section for Clinical Neurophysiology, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway; 8Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 9Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 10Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway Objective: To conduct a blind study of quantitative electroencephalogram-band amplitudes in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN and healthy controls.Methods: Twenty-one patients with AN and 24 controls were examined with eyes-closed 16-channel electroencephalogram. Main variables were absolute alpha, theta, and delta amplitudes in frontal, temporal, and posterior regions.Results: There were no significant differences between the AN patients and controls regarding absolute regional band amplitudes in µV. Borderline significance was found for anterior theta (P=0.051. Significantly increased left and right frontal electrode theta amplitude was found in AN patients (F3, P=0.014; F4, P

  11. Are personality traits of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy related to frontal lobe dysfunctions? A proton MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria; Lin, Katia; Lin, Jaime; Peruchi, Mirella M; Caboclo, Luís Otávio S F; Guaranha, Mirian S B; Guilhoto, Laura M F F; Carrete, Henrique; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T

    2009-05-01

    Personality traits characterized by emotional instability and immaturity, unsteadiness, lack of discipline, hedonism, frequent and rapid mood changes, and indifference toward one's disease have been associated with patients who have juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Literature data demonstrate worse seizure control and more psychosocial dysfunctions among patients with JME who have those traits. In this controlled study we performed a correlation analysis of psychiatric scores with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) values across JME patients, aiming to verify the existence of a possible relation between frontal lobe dysfunction and the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) in JME. Sixteen JME patients with cluster B PDs, 41 JME patients without any psychiatric disorder, and 30 healthy controls were submitted to a psychiatric evaluation and to a quantitative multivoxel MRS of thalamus; insula; cingulate gyrus; striatum; and frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. Groups were homogeneous according to age, gender, and manual dominance. Psychiatric evaluation was performed through the Scheduled Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Axis I and II (SCID I and II, respectively). A significant reduction of N-acetyl-aspartate over creatinine (NAA/Cr) ratio was observed mainly in the left frontal lobe in the JME and PD group. In addition, a significant increase in the glutamate-glutamine over creatinine GLX/Cr ratio was also observed in this referred region in the same group. These data support the hypothesis that PDs in JME could represent neuronal dysfunction and possibly a more severe form of this epileptic syndrome.

  12. The effects of boreal forest expansion on the summer Arctic frontal zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liess, Stefan; Snyder, Peter K.; Harding, Keith J. [University of Minnesota, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, Saint Paul, MN (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Over the last 100 years, Arctic warming has resulted in a longer growing season in boreal and tundra ecosystems. This has contributed to a slow northward expansion of the boreal forest and a decrease in the surface albedo. Corresponding changes to the surface and atmospheric energy budgets have contributed to a broad region of warming over areas of boreal forest expansion. In addition, mesoscale and synoptic scale patterns have changed as a result of the excess energy at and near the surface. Previous studies have identified a relationship between the positioning of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and the Arctic frontal zone in summer. This study examines the climate response to hypothetical boreal forest expansion and its influence on the summer Arctic frontal zone. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model over the Northern Hemisphere, an experiment was performed to evaluate the atmospheric response to expansion of evergreen and deciduous boreal needleleaf forests into open shrubland along the northern boundary of the existing forest. Results show that the lower surface albedo with forest expansion leads to a local increase in net radiation and an average hemispheric warming of 0.6 C at and near the surface during June with some locations warming by 1-2 C. This warming contributes to changes in the meridional temperature gradient that enhances the Arctic frontal zone and strengthens the summertime jet. This experiment suggests that continued Northern Hemisphere high-latitude warming and boreal forest expansion might contribute to additional climate changes during the summer. (orig.)

  13. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Joudoi, Takako; Kawatani, Junko; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tomoda, Akemi; Miike, Teruhisa; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS). We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension) and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC) and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue. PMID:26594619

  14. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Joudoi, Takako; Kawatani, Junko; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tomoda, Akemi; Miike, Teruhisa; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS). We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension) and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC) and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.

  15. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Mizuno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS. We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.

  16. Frontal brain asymmetry in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): extending the motivational dysfunction hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Philipp M; Wiedemann, Eva; Schneidt, Alexander; Schönenberg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves motivational dysfunction, characterized by excessive behavioral approach tendencies. Frontal brain asymmetry in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) in resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) represents a neural correlate of global motivational tendencies, and abnormal asymmetry, indicating elevated approach motivation, was observed in pediatric and adult patients. To date, the relation between ADHD symptoms, depression and alpha asymmetry, its temporal metric properties and putative gender-specificity remain to be explored. Adult ADHD patients (n=52) participated in two resting-state EEG recordings, two weeks apart. Asymmetry measures were aggregated across recordings to increase trait specificity. Putative region-specific associations between asymmetry, ADHD symptoms and depression, its gender-specificity and test-retest reliability were examined. ADHD symptoms were associated with approach-related asymmetry (stronger relative right-frontal alpha power). Approach-related asymmetry was pronounced in females, and also associated with depression. The latter association was mediated by ADHD symptoms. Test-retest reliability was sufficient. The association between reliably assessable alpha asymmetry and ADHD symptoms supports the motivational dysfunction hypothesis. ADHD symptoms mediating an atypical association between asymmetry and depression may be attributed to depression arising secondary to ADHD. Gender-specific findings require replication. Frontal alpha asymmetry may represent a new reliable marker of ADHD symptoms. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive performance change of pediatric patients after conducting frontal transcortical approach to treat lateral ventricular tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wanchun; He, Jintao; Li, Xiang; Wang, Lei; Lu, Zheng; Li, Chunde; Gong, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Applying frontal transcortical approach to treat lateral ventricular tumor is one of the most common neurosurgical manipulations. The frontal transcortical approach generally passes through the middle frontal gyrus in which there is no major function involved in the traditional sense. However, current researches have suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a central role in the whole network of the brain cognitive frame. In addition, cognitive function is crucial in growing and developmental stages and essential for the educational achievement, especially for children. Based on this, the authors in this study analyzed cognitive performance change of pediatric patients who had accepted frontal transcortical operation in 1-year follow-up and discussed the possibility of higher cognitive functions of the damaged region. In this single-center study, 15 pediatric patients (median age at surgery, 9.21 years old; range, 6.42-14.17 years old) who had been treated with frontal transcortical approach for lateral ventricular tumors were selected as research objects. The cognitive function assessment was conducting by adopting the revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-fourth edition (WISC-IV). In addition, the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (resting-state fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were carried out to measure the level of co-activation and to explore the functional connectivity between the brain regions at the preoperative period and 1-year follow-up after surgery. GTR was achieved in all patients, and all patients were in good condition after surgery. Compared to the preoperative indices of WISC-IV, patients generally had a lower level of indices of the WISC-IV after surgery, for example, the total IQ was declined to M = 83.60, SD = 9.500 from M = 95.33, SD = 13.844 within 1 year convalescence. The data of perceptual reasoning (t = - 2.392, p = 0.016), processing speed (t = - 2.121, p = 0.033), and

  18. Recurrent meningitis and frontal encephalocele as delayed complications of craniofacial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumussoy, Murat; Ugur, Omer; Cukurova, Ibrahim; Uluyol, Sinan

    2014-03-01

    Frontal sinus back table fractures are seen rarely; also, typical presentation of frontal sinus encephalocele as a delayed complication of frontal sinus fracture is seen more rarely. We present a case of frontal encephalocele and recurrent meningitis as delayed complications of craniofacial trauma. Diagnosis, management, and treatment approaches of these complications are discussed.

  19. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  20. [Successive subcortical hemorrhages in the superior parietal lobule and postcentral gyrus in a 23-year-old female].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Yoshikawa, H; Komai, K; Takamori, M

    1998-04-01

    We report a non-hypertensive 23-year-old female with successive hemorrhages in parietal subcortical regions. She had first experienced a transient pain in the left upper extremity one month before admission. She noticed dysesthesia in the same limb and weakness on her left hand, and, five days after, visited our hospital because of suddenly developed convulsion in the limb and loss of consciousness for a few minutes. Neurological examination revealed distal dominant flaccid paresis, positive pathological reflex and touch and position sense disturbances in the affected limb. Brain CT detected two high-density areas in the parietal lobe. Brain MRI demonstrated an acute phase subcortical hematoma in the left postcentral gyrus and a subacute phase one in the left superior parietal lobule. SPECT indicated hypoperfusion in the left frontal and parietal cortex. Cerebral angiography showed no abnormal findings. Her symptoms gradually improved, but left ulnar-type pseudoradicular sensory impairment remained on discharge. We considered the hemorrhage in this patient have arisen from rupture of cavernous hemangioma, because she was relatively young, the hematomas were oval in shape and successively developed in the left parietal lobe. Our patient suggests that a subcortical hemorrhage in the post-central gyrus causes flaccid paresis and pyramidal tract involvement.

  1. Modeling Conflict and Error in the Medial Frontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Andrew R.; Teshiba, Terri M.; Franco, Alexandre R.; Ling, Josef; Shane, Matthew S.; Stephen, Julia M.; Jung, Rex E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite intensive study, the role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex (dMFC) in error monitoring and conflict processing remains actively debated. The current experiment manipulated conflict type (stimulus conflict only or stimulus and response selection conflict) and utilized a novel modeling approach to isolate error and conflict variance during a multimodal numeric Stroop task. Specifically, hemodynamic response functions resulting from two statistical models that either included or isolated variance arising from relatively few error trials were directly contrasted. Twenty-four participants completed the task while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 1.5-Tesla scanner. Response times monotonically increased based on the presence of pure stimulus or stimulus and response selection conflict. Functional results indicated that dMFC activity was present during trials requiring response selection and inhibition of competing motor responses, but absent during trials involving pure stimulus conflict. A comparison of the different statistical models suggested that relatively few error trials contributed to a disproportionate amount of variance (i.e., activity) throughout the dMFC, but particularly within the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus (rACC). Finally, functional connectivity analyses indicated that an empirically derived seed in the dorsal ACC/pre-SMA exhibited strong connectivity (i.e., positive correlation) with prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex but was anticorrelated with the default-mode network. An empirically derived seed from the rACC exhibited the opposite pattern, suggesting that sub-regions of the dMFC exhibit different connectivity patterns with other large scale networks implicated in internal mentations such as daydreaming (default-mode) versus the execution of top-down attentional control (fronto-parietal). PMID:21976411

  2. Modeling conflict and error in the medial frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Andrew R; Teshiba, Terri M; Franco, Alexandre R; Ling, Josef; Shane, Matthew S; Stephen, Julia M; Jung, Rex E

    2012-12-01

    Despite intensive study, the role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex (dMFC) in error monitoring and conflict processing remains actively debated. The current experiment manipulated conflict type (stimulus conflict only or stimulus and response selection conflict) and utilized a novel modeling approach to isolate error and conflict variance during a multimodal numeric Stroop task. Specifically, hemodynamic response functions resulting from two statistical models that either included or isolated variance arising from relatively few error trials were directly contrasted. Twenty-four participants completed the task while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 1.5-Tesla scanner. Response times monotonically increased based on the presence of pure stimulus or stimulus and response selection conflict. Functional results indicated that dMFC activity was present during trials requiring response selection and inhibition of competing motor responses, but absent during trials involving pure stimulus conflict. A comparison of the different statistical models suggested that relatively few error trials contributed to a disproportionate amount of variance (i.e., activity) throughout the dMFC, but particularly within the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus (rACC). Finally, functional connectivity analyses indicated that an empirically derived seed in the dorsal ACC/pre-SMA exhibited strong connectivity (i.e., positive correlation) with prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex but was anti-correlated with the default-mode network. An empirically derived seed from the rACC exhibited the opposite pattern, suggesting that sub-regions of the dMFC exhibit different connectivity patterns with other large scale networks implicated in internal mentations such as daydreaming (default-mode) versus the execution of top-down attentional control (fronto-parietal). Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mechanisms and factors involved in hip injuries during frontal crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Gennarelli, T A; Maltese, M R; Eppinger, R H

    2001-11-01

    This study was conducted to collect data and gain insights relative to the mechanisms and factors involved in hip injuries during frontal crashes and to study the tolerance of hip injuries from this type of loading. Unembalmed human cadavers were seated on a standard automotive seat (reinforced) and subjected to knee impact test to each lower extremity. Varying combinations of flexion and adduction/abduction were used for initial alignment conditions and pre-positioning. Accelerometers were fixed to the iliac wings and twelfth thoracic vertebral spinous process. A 23.4-kg padded pendulum impacted the knee at velocities ranging from 4.3 to 7.6 m/s. The impacting direction was along the anteroposterior axis, i.e., the global X-axis, in the body-fixed coordinate system. A load cell on the front of the pendulum recorded the impact force. Peak impact forces ranged from 2,450 to 10,950 N. The rate of loading ranged from 123 to 7,664 N/msec. The impulse values ranged from 12.4 to 31.9 Nsec. Injuries were not apparent in three tests. Eight tests resulted in trauma. Fractures involving the pelvis including the acetabulum and proximal femur occurred in five out of the eight tests, and distal femoral bone fracture occurred in one test. These results underscore the importance of leg pre-positioning and the orientation of the impacting axis to produce specific types of trauma to the pelvic region of the lower extremity.

  4. Frontal lobe atrophy of the brain in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Tomio

    1981-01-01

    Reported here are the CT findings on cerebral atrophic lesion chiefly developed in the frontal lobe in schizophrenics with unusual organic encephalopathy. Encephalopathy was recognized in 84 (73%) of 115 schizophrenics and 13 (33%) of 40 neurotics. In an attempt to exclude the effects of aging on encephalopathy, the ages at CT and at the development of disease, the number of morbid years, subtypical schizophrenia and relation between the clinical severity and the atrophic condition were comparatively studied. As a result, cerebral atrophy tended to increase along with aging, but the findings differed in that atrophia classified by age covered the entire brain in general, whereas atrophia in schizophrenics was found in the frontal lobe. In particular, because of the fact that clinical severity and atrophia in the frontal lobe are high correlated and that severe atrophia is recognized even in young people, schizophrenia and atrophia in the frontal lobe are considered to be closely related to each other. It is therefore suggested that the CT findings are useful to clinicians for finding appropriate methods to deal with the prognosis of schizophrenics in their daily diagnosis and for the therapeutic prevention of encephalatrophy by stimulating the frontal lobe, thereby delaying mental deterioration. (author)

  5. Case Report: A Rare Case Report of Frontal Lobe Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Nouri- Khajavi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The frontal lobe syndrome is a permanent personality change disorder with characteristic clinical pictures, which followed by frontal lobes damage. Clinical picture include: Affective instability, recurrent aggressive behavior, impaired social judgment, apathy and undifferentiating or suspiciousness and paranoid ideations. According DSM-IV classification frontal lobe syndrome named personality change due to head trauma on Axis I. Herein we report a case of 46 years-old man, who has developed behavioral disturbances following head trauma, about 10 years ago. Main clinical figures in this case are apathy, avolition and, undifferentiating. Clinical pictures are constant during these 10 years. The diagnostic approach has been based on patient’s problems history which, has taken from his family, mental status examination, Neurological examination, Brain imaging and Neuropsychological assessments which related to frontal lobes function. Because of rarity & neglection due to mysterious function of frontal lobes, and also considering that personality change from previous level is prominent figure of this syndrome and also brain imaging findings, which compatible with clinical findings, with this aim, we have reported this case.

  6. The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, C W E M; Smulders, F T Y; Meyer, T; Peeters, F; Merckelbach, H; Smeets, T

    2016-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillations is assumed to be associated with psychopathology and individual differences in emotional responding. Brain-activity-based feedback is a promising tool for the modulation of cortical activity. Here, we validated a neurofeedback protocol designed to change relative frontal asymmetry based on individual alpha peak frequencies, including real-time average referencing and eye-correction. Participants (N = 60) were randomly assigned to a right, left or placebo neurofeedback group. Results show a difference in trainability between groups, with a linear change in frontal alpha asymmetry over time for the right neurofeedback group during rest. Moreover, the asymmetry changes in the right group were frequency and location specific, even though trainability did not persist at 1 week and 1 month follow-ups. On the behavioral level, subjective stress on the second test day was reduced in the left and placebo neurofeedback groups, but not in the right neurofeedback group. We found individual differences in trainability that were dependent on training group, with participants in the right neurofeedback group being more likely to change their frontal asymmetry in the desired direction. Individual differences in trainability were also reflected in the ability to change frontal asymmetry during the feedback. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Time organization of frontal-motor cortex interneuron interactions in the cat neocortex in conditions of different levels of food motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzhanova, G Kh; Dolbakyan, E E

    1997-01-01

    Studies were carried out in conscious cats with recording of multicellular activity in moderate hunger and after 24-h food deprivation. Cross-correlation analysis was used to assess statistical interneuron interactions between closely-located neurons in the frontal and sensorimotor regions of the neocortex (local networks), and between the cells of these regions (distributed networks). One-day food deprivation increased the number of interactions formed within both local and distributed neuron networks. Increases in intercortical connections between the frontal and motor regions was seen at all time intervals studied (0-100 msec), though the most significant changes occurred at time intervals of up to 30 msec.

  8. Structural characteristics around the frontal thrust along the Nankai Trough revealed by bathymetric and seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Nakanishi, A.; Moore, G. F.; Kodaira, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Miura, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Great earthquakes with tsunamis with recurrence intervals of 100-200 years have occurred along the Nankai Trough near central Japan where the Shikoku Basin is subducting with thick sediments on the Philippine Sea plate. To predict the exact height of the tsunami on the coast region generated by these large ruptures, it is important to estimate the vertical deformation that occurs on the seaward end of the rupture area. Recent drilling results have also yielded evidence not only of splay faults that generate tsunamigenic rupture, but also new evidence of tsunamigenic rupture along the frontal thrust at the trench axis in the Nankai Trough. In order to understand the deformation around the frontal thrust at the trench axis, we conducted a dense high-resolution seismic reflection survey with 10-20 km spacing over 1500 km of line length during 2013 and 2014. Clear seismic reflection images of frontal thrusts in the accretionary prism and subducting Shikoku Basin, image deformation along the trench axis between off Muroto Cape and off Ashizuri Cape. The cumulative displacement along the frontal thrust and second thrust are measured from picked distinct reflectors in depth-converted profiles. The average value of cumulative displacement of the frontal thrust is more than 100 m within 2 km depth beneath the seafloor. The location of highest displacement of 300 m displacement agree with the seaward end of slip distribution of the 1946 Nankai event calculated by numerical simulations. We also evaluate the seaward structure for understanding the future rupture distribution. The protothrust zone (PTZ) consisting of many incipient thrusts is identifiable in the portion of trough-fill sediments seaward of the frontal thrust. In order to emphasize the characteristics of frontal thrust and PTZ, we construct the detailed relief image for focusing on the lineated slope of the PTZ at the trough axis. Although our surveys covered a part of Nankai seismogenic zone, it is important to

  9. A slice of π: An exploratory neuroimaging study of digit encoding and retrieval in a superior memorist

    OpenAIRE

    Raz, Amir; Packard, Mark G.; Alexander, Gerianne M.; Buhle, Jason T.; Zhu, Hongtu; Yu, Shan; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    Subject PI demonstrated superior memory using a variant of a Method of Loci (MOL) technique to recite the first digits of the mathematical constant π to more than 216 decimal places. We report preliminary behavioral, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and brain volumetric data from PI. fMRI data collected while PI recited the first 540 digits of π (i.e., during retrieval) revealed increased activity in medial frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Encoding of a novel str...

  10. Family Nurture Intervention in preterm infants alters frontal cortical functional connectivity assessed by EEG coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M M; Grieve, P G; Stark, R I; Isler, J R; Hofer, M A; Yang, J; Ludwig, R J; Welch, M G

    2015-07-01

    To assess the impact of Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) on cortical function in preterm infants at term age. Family Nurture Intervention is a NICU-based intervention designed to establish emotional connection between mothers and preterm infants. Infants born at 26-34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) were divided into two groups, standard care (SC, N = 49) and FNI (FNI, N = 56). Infants had EEG recordings of ~one hour duration with 124 lead nets between 37 and 44 weeks PMA. Coherence was measured between all pairs of electrodes in ten frequency bands. Data were summarised both within and between 12 regions during two sleep states (active, quiet). Coherence levels were negatively correlated with PMA age in both groups. As compared to SC infants, FNI infants showed significantly lower levels of EEG coherence (1-18 Hz) largely within and between frontal regions. Coherence in FNI infants was decreased in regions where we previously found robust increases in EEG power. As coherence decreases with age, results suggest that FNI may accelerate brain maturation particularly in frontal brain regions, which have been shown in research by others to be involved in regulation of attention, cognition and emotion regulation; domains deficient in preterm infants. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Dyslexic children lack word selectivity gradients in occipito-temporal and inferior frontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Olulade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available fMRI studies using a region-of-interest approach have revealed that the ventral portion of the left occipito-temporal cortex, which is specialized for orthographic processing of visually presented words (and includes the so-called “visual word form area”, VWFA, is characterized by a posterior-to-anterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in typically reading adults, adolescents, and children (e.g. Brem et al., 2006, 2009. Similarly, the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC has been shown to exhibit a medial-to-lateral gradient of print selectivity in typically reading adults (Vinckier et al., 2007. Functional brain imaging studies of dyslexia have reported relative underactivity in left hemisphere occipito-temporal and inferior frontal regions using whole-brain analyses during word processing tasks. Hence, the question arises whether gradient sensitivities in these regions are altered in dyslexia. Indeed, a region-of-interest analysis revealed the gradient-specific functional specialization in the occipito-temporal cortex to be disrupted in dyslexic children (van der Mark et al., 2009. Building on these studies, we here (1 investigate if a word-selective gradient exists in the inferior frontal cortex in addition to the occipito-temporal cortex in normally reading children, (2 compare typically reading with dyslexic children, and (3 examine functional connections between these regions in both groups. We replicated the previously reported anterior-to-posterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in the left occipito-temporal cortex in typically reading children, and its absence in the dyslexic children. Our novel finding is the detection of a pattern of increasing selectivity for words along the medial-to-lateral axis of the left inferior frontal cortex in typically reading children and evidence of functional connectivity between the most lateral aspect of this area and the anterior aspects of the occipito-temporal cortex. We

  12. Positron-emission tomography of brain regions activated by recognition of familiar music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, M; Takeda, K; Nagata, K; Shimosegawa, E; Kuzuhara, S

    2006-05-01

    We can easily recognize familiar music by listening to only one or 2 of its opening bars, but the brain regions that participate in this cognitive processing remain undetermined. We used positron-emission tomography (PET) to study changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) that occur during listening to familiar music. We used a PET subtraction technique to elucidate the brain regions associated with the recognition of familiar melodies such as well-known nursery tunes. Nonmusicians performed 2 kinds of musical tasks: judging the familiarity of musical pieces (familiarity task) and detecting deliberately altered notes in the pieces (alteration-detecting task). During the familiarity task, bilateral anterior portions of bilateral temporal lobes, superior temporal regions, and parahippocampal gyri were activated. The alteration-detecting task bilaterally activated regions in the precunei, superior/inferior parietal lobules, and lateral surface of frontal lobes, which seemed to show a correlation with the analysis of music. We hypothesize that during the familiarity task, activated brain regions participate in retrieval from long-term memory and verbal and emotional processing of familiar melodies. Our results reinforced the hypothesis reported in the literature as a result of group and case studies, that temporal lobe regions participate in the recognition of familiar melodies.

  13. Frontal-insula gray matter deficits in first-episode medication-naïve patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te

    2014-05-01

    This study is designed to investigate the gray matter volume (GMV) deficits in patients with first-episode medication-naïve major depressive disorder (MDD). We enrolled 38 patients with first-episode medication-naïve MDD and 27 controls in this project. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare GMV differences between two groups. Besides, the relationship between GMV of patients and the severity of clinical symptoms was estimated to confirm the role of GMV deficits in clinical symptoms. The correlation between total GMV and illness duration was also performed to elucidate the impacts of untreated duration on the GMV. We found that first-episode medication-naïve MDD patients had significant GMV deficits in bilateral superior frontal gyri, left middle frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus and left insula. The GMV of patient group was negatively correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms and the illness duration. A pattern of GMV deficits in fronto-insula might represent the biomarker for first-episode medication-naïve MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lower trait frontal theta activity in mindfulness meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guaraci Ken Tanaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute and long-term effects of mindfulness meditation on theta-band activity are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal theta differences between long- and short-term mindfulness practitioners before, during, and after mindfulness meditation. Twenty participants were recruited, of which 10 were experienced Buddhist meditators. Despite an acute increase in the theta activity during meditation in both the groups, the meditators showed lower trait frontal theta activity. Therefore, we suggested that this finding is a neural correlate of the expert practitioners’ ability to limit the processing of unnecessary information (e.g., discursive thought and increase the awareness of the essential content of the present experience. In conclusion, acute changes in the theta band throughout meditation did not appear to be a specific correlate of mindfulness but were rather related to the concentration properties of the meditation. Notwithstanding, lower frontal theta activity appeared to be a trait of mindfulness practices.

  15. Results of testing the frontal AK-3 extraction unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, N I; Dolinskii, A M; Kolesnikov, M A

    1978-10-01

    From August to November 1970, on site testing of a protype frontal AK excavating rig developed by Giprouglemesh for use on gentle sloping seams was conducted in the Novaya mine of the Kuzbass Ugol Consolidated. The AK-3 consists of a cutting assembly in the form of a ring frontal slicer with two drives, hydraulic operated sectionalized support timbers of the enclosed lift type, conjugated timbering with ventilation and conveyor shafts, personnel elevator and hydraulic and electrical ancillary equipment. The production capacity of the rig in longwalls is 2.2 times greater on the average than by using drillhole blasting methods. Tests demonstrated that the main advantage of the Ak-3 was the single operation, continuous flow mode of coal extraction and remote frontal movement of timber sections, which ensured high capacity loading at the face and the capability of automating all procedures and eliminating all workers from the extraction face.

  16. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  17. Relative left frontal activity in reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion: Evidence from frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Damee; Sekiya, Takahiro; Minote, Natsumi; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that reappraisal (changing the way that one thinks about emotional events) is an effective strategy for regulating emotion, compared with suppression (reducing emotion-expressive behavior). In the present study, we investigated relative left frontal activity when participants were instructed to use reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion, by measuring frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA). Two electroencephalography (EEG) experiments were conducted; FAA was analyzed while 102 healthy participants (59 men, 43 women) watched negative images after being instructed to perform reappraisal (Experiment 1) and suppression (Experiment 2). Habitual use of reappraisal and suppression was also assessed using the emotion regulation questionnaire (ERQ). The results of Experiment 1 showed that relative left frontal activity was greater when instructed to use reappraisal of negative images than when normally viewing negative images. In contrast, we observed no difference between conditions of instructed suppression and normal viewing in Experiment 2. In addition, in male participants, habitual use of reappraisal was positively correlated with increased relative left frontal activity for instructed reappraisal, while habitual use of suppression did not show a significant correlation with changes in relative left frontal activity for instructed suppression. These results suggest that emotional responses to negative images might be decreased for instructed reappraisal, but not suppression. These findings support previous reports that reappraisal is an effective emotion regulation strategy, compared with suppression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inferior parietal and right frontal contributions to trial-by-trial adaptations of attention to memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilirmak, Jasmin M; Rösler, Frank; Bien, Siegfried; Khader, Patrick H

    2015-07-21

    The attention to memory theory (AtoM) proposes that the same brain regions might be involved in selective processing of perceived stimuli (selective attention) and memory representations (selective retrieval). Although this idea is compelling, given consistently found neural overlap between perceiving and remembering stimuli, recent comparisons brought evidence for overlap as well as considerable differences. Here, we present a paradigm that enables the investigation of the AtoM hypothesis from a novel perspective to gain further insight into the neural resources involved in AtoM. Selective attention in perception is often investigated as a control process that shows lingering effects on immediately following trials. Here, we employed a paradigm capable of modulating selective retrieval in a similarly dynamic manner as in such selective-attention paradigms by inducing trial-to-trial shifts between relevant and irrelevant memory representations as well as changes of the width of the internal focus on memory. We found evidence for an involvement of bilateral inferior parietal lobe and right inferior frontal gyrus in reorienting the attentional focus on previously accessed memory representations. Moreover, we could dissociate the right inferior from the parietal activation in separate contrasts, suggesting that the right inferior frontal gyrus plays a role in facilitating attentional reorienting to memory representations when competing representations have been activated in the preceding trial, potentially by resolving this competition. Our results support the AtoM theory, i.e. that ventral frontal and parietal regions are involved in automatic attentional reorienting in memory, and highlight the importance of further investigations of the overlap and differences between regions involved in internal (memory) and external (perceptual) attentional selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Conventional frontal radiographs compared with frontal radiographs obtained from cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Metin; Kayipmaz, Saadettin; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Kilkis, Dogan; Sezgin, Omer Said

    2012-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is no difference between measurements performed on conventional frontal radiographs (FRs) and those performed on FRs obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. This study consisted of conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs obtained from 30 young adult patients. Twenty-three landmarks were identified on both types of cephalometric radiographs. Twenty-one widely used cephalometric variables (14 linear distances, 4 angles, and 3 ratios) were calculated. Paired t-tests were performed to compare the means of corresponding measurements on two cephalometric radiographs of the same patient. Reproducibility of measurements ranged from 0.85 to 0.99 for CBCT-constructed FRs, and from 0.78 to 0.96 for conventional FRs. A statistically significant difference was observed between conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs for all linear measurements (eurR-eurL, loR-loL, moR-moL, zygR-zygL, lapR-lapL, mxR-mxL, maR-maL, umR-umL, lmR-lmL, agR-agL, me-ans) (P .05). However, no statistically significant differences were noted between conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs for ratios and angular measurements (P > .05). The hypothesis was rejected. A difference has been noted between measurements performed on conventional FRs and those performed on CBCT-constructed FRs, particularly in terms of linear measurements.

  20. Action word Related to Walk Heard by the Ears Activates Visual Cortex and Superior Temporal Gyrus: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Osaka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience of language of action processing is one of the interesting issues on the cortical “seat” of word meaning and related action (Pulvermueller, 1999 Behavioral Brain Sciences 22 253–336. For example, generation of action verbs referring to various arm or leg actions (e.g., pick or kick differentially activate areas along the motor strip that overlap with those areas activated by actual movement of the fingers or feet (Hauk et al., 2004 Neuron 41 301–307. Meanwhile, mimic words like onomatopoeia have the other potential to selectively and strongly stimulate specific brain regions having a specified “seat” of action meaning. In fact, mimic words highly suggestive of laughter and gaze significantly activated the extrastriate visual /premotor cortices and the frontal eye field, respectively (Osaka et al., 2003 Neuroscience Letters 340 127–130; 2009 Neuroscience Letters 461 65–68. However, the role of a mimic word related to walk on specific brain regions has not yet been investigated. The present study showed that a mimic word highly suggestive of human walking, heard by the ears with eyes closed, significantly activated the visual cortex located in extrastriate cortex and superior temporal gyrus while hearing non-sense words that did not imply walk under the same task did not activate these areas. These areas would be a critical region for generating visual images of walking and related action.

  1. Gaint frontal sinus mucocoele with intracranial extension and Orbital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On avait opéré tout de suite un défaut surgissant à partir d'os frontal à l'aide d'un acier métallique d'une longueur de 0,5mm courbé et attaché en trios couches en traves l'os infecté, l'os frontal par-dessus lequel on avait traité les tissues mou du front à travers l'occlusion primaire sur la sonde d'os (sound bone).

  2. Modeling and simulation of cars in frontal collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deac, S. C.; Perescu, A.; Simoiu, D.; Nyaguly, E.; Crâştiu, I.; Bereteu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Protection of cars, mainly drivers and passengers in a collision are very important issues worldwide. Statistics given by “World Health Organization” are alarming rate of increase in the number of road accidents, most claiming with serious injury, human and material loss. For these reasons has been a continuous development of protection systems, especially car causing three quarters of all accidents. Mathematical modeling and simulation of a car behavior during a frontal collision leads to new solutions in the development of protective systems. This paper presents several structural models of a vehicle during a frontal collision and its behavior is analyzed by numerical simulation using Simulink.

  3. Spatial and temporal variability of precipitation and chemistry: Case studies from the Frontal Boundary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dana, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    Regional and larger-scale models of pollutant transport and deposition generally, by practical necessity, must be limited in output of precipitation rate and chemical composition to values for selected time intervals representing areas on the order of 10 4 km 2 . Naturally, it is of some concern that these values be reasonably representative of natural variations both in time and space. This question may be approached through field studies involving detailed spatial (using a network of samplers on the model grid scale) and temporal (using sequential sampling) measurements. This paper presents an initial analysis, using simple statistical concepts, of data bases from such a field study, the Frontal Boundary Study (FBS)

  4. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity: Associated with structural network topology alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior-anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior-anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal-thalamic-striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated with

  5. Lateral frontal cortex volume reduction in Tourette syndrome revealed by VBM

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    Wittfoth Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural changes have been found predominantly in the frontal cortex and in the striatum in children and adolescents with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS. The influence of comorbid symptomatology is unclear. Here we sought to address the question of gray matter abnormalities in GTS patients with co-morbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM in twenty-nine adult actually unmedicated GTS patients and twenty-five healthy control subjects. Results In GTS we detected a cluster of decreased gray matter volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, but no regions demonstrating volume increases. By comparing subgroups of GTS with comorbid ADHD to the subgroup with comorbid OCD, we found a left-sided amygdalar volume increase. Conclusions From our results it is suggested that the left IFG may constitute a common underlying structural correlate of GTS with co-morbid OCD/ADHD. A volume reduction in this brain region that has been previously identified as a key region in OCD and was associated with the active inhibition of attentional processes may reflect the failure to control behavior. Amygdala volume increase is discussed on the background of a linkage of this structure with ADHD symptomatology. Correlations with clinical data revealed gray matter volume changes in specific brain areas that have been described in these conditions each.

  6. Increased frontal functional networks in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors

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    Hongbo Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood brain tumors and associated treatment have been shown to affect brain development and cognitive outcomes. Understanding the functional connectivity of brain many years after diagnosis and treatment may inform the development of interventions to improve the long-term outcomes of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors. This work investigated the frontal region functional connectivity of 16 adult survivors of childhood cerebellar tumors after an average of 14.9 years from diagnosis and 16 demographically-matched controls using resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI. Independent component analysis (ICA was applied to identify the resting state activity from rs-fMRI data and to select the specific regions associated with executive functions, followed by the secondary analysis of the functional networks connecting these regions. It was found that survivors exhibited differences in the functional connectivity in executive control network (ECN, default mode network (DMN and salience network (SN compared to demographically-matched controls. More specifically, the number of functional connectivity observed in the survivors is higher than that in the controls, and with increased strength, or stronger correlation coefficient between paired seeds, in survivors compared to the controls. Observed hyperconnectivity in the selected frontal functional network thus is consistent with findings in patients with other neurological injuries and diseases.

  7. Dissociable Changes of Frontal and Parietal Cortices in Inherent Functional Flexibility across the Human Life Span.

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    Yin, Dazhi; Liu, Wenjing; Zeljic, Kristina; Wang, Zhiwei; Lv, Qian; Fan, Mingxia; Cheng, Wenhong; Wang, Zheng

    2016-09-28

    Extensive evidence suggests that frontoparietal regions can dynamically update their pattern of functional connectivity, supporting cognitive control and adaptive implementation of task demands. However, it is largely unknown whether this flexibly functional reconfiguration is intrinsic and occurs even in the absence of overt tasks. Based on recent advances in dynamics of resting-state functional resonance imaging (fMRI), we propose a probabilistic framework in which dynamic reconfiguration of intrinsic functional connectivity between each brain region and others can be represented as a probability distribution. A complexity measurement (i.e., entropy) was used to quantify functional flexibility, which characterizes heterogeneous connectivity between a particular region and others over time. Following this framework, we identified both functionally flexible and specialized regions over the human life span (112 healthy subjects from 13 to 76 years old). Across brainwide regions, we found regions showing high flexibility mainly in the higher-order association cortex, such as the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), lateral parietal cortex, and lateral temporal lobules. In contrast, visual, auditory, and sensory areas exhibited low flexibility. Furthermore, we observed that flexibility of the right LPFC improved during maturation and reduced due to normal aging, with the opposite occurring for the left lateral parietal cortex. Our findings reveal dissociable changes of frontal and parietal cortices over the life span in terms of inherent functional flexibility. This study not only provides a new framework to quantify the spatiotemporal behavior of spontaneous brain activity, but also sheds light on the organizational principle behind changes in brain function across the human life span. Recent neuroscientific research has demonstrated that the human capability of adaptive task control is primarily the result of the flexible operation of frontal brain networks. However

  8. Abnormal hubs of white matter networks in the frontal-parieto circuit contribute to depression discrimination via pattern classification.

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    Qin, Jiaolong; Wei, Maobin; Liu, Haiyan; Chen, Jianhuai; Yan, Rui; Hua, Lingling; Zhao, Ke; Yao, Zhijian; Lu, Qing

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies had explored the diagnostic and prognostic value of the structural neuroimaging data of MDD and treated the whole brain voxels, the fractional anisotropy and the structural connectivity as classification features. To our best knowledge, no study examined the potential diagnostic value of the hubs of anatomical brain networks in MDD. The purpose of the current study was to provide an exploratory examination of the potential diagnostic and prognostic values of hubs of white matter brain networks in MDD discrimination and the corresponding impaired hub pattern via a multi-pattern analysis. We constructed white matter brain networks from 29 depressions and 30 healthy controls based on diffusion tensor imaging data, calculated nodal measures and identified hubs. Using these measures as features, two types of feature architectures were established, one only included hubs (HUB) and the other contained both hubs and non hubs. The support vector machine classifiers with Gaussian radial basis kernel were used after the feature selection. Moreover, the relative contribution of the features was estimated by means of the consensus features. Our results presented that the hubs (including the bilateral dorsolateral part of superior frontal gyrus, the left middle frontal gyrus, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and the bilateral inferior temporal gyrus) played an important role in distinguishing the depressions from healthy controls with the best accuracy of 83.05%. Moreover, most of the HUB consensus features located in the frontal-parieto circuit. These findings provided evidence that the hubs could be served as valuable potential diagnostic measure for MDD, and the hub-concentrated lesion distribution of MDD was primarily anchored within the frontal-parieto circuit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgical Treatment of A Dissecting Aneurysm of the Superior Cerebellar Artery: Case Report

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    Stefanescu Florin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dissecting aneurysm located in the peripheral region of the superior cerebellar artery is very rare. There is little experience regarding their surgical or endovascular treatment. We present the case of a peripheral dissecting superior cerebellar artery aneurysm treated by surgical clipping.

  10. Widening of mediastinum with persistent left superior Vena cava - CT diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuwirth, J.; Kolar, J.

    1992-01-01

    Described in this paper are radiographic findings recorded from a case of persistent left superior vena cava which grew manifest by widening of the left contour of the upper mediastinal region. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was undertaken to clear up suspicion of mediastinal tumour and revealed double superior vena cava. The diagnosis was then confirmed by digital subtraction venography. (orig.) [de

  11. Functional magnetic resonance imaging study of neuronal activation during cognitive tasks related to frontal lobe functions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Hazuki

    2010-01-01

    Previous neurological studies and brain activation studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI) have suggested frontal lobe dysfunctions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, no f-MRI study has used cognitive tasks reflecting fluency of ideas and memory related to frontal lobe functions. The purposes of this study are to assess the neuropsychological examinations and brain activities of OCD patients using f-MRI, as well as, to investigate the relationship between the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and frontal lobe functions. The subjects were 22 right-handed persons consisting of 11 outpatients who had received a diagnosis of OCD based on diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-fourth edition (DMS-IV) and age- and sex-matched 11 healthy controls. All subjects were examined using Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3 rd edition (WAIS-III), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Modified Stroop Test (MST), Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Idea Fluency Test (IFT), and Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The brain activities were measured with f-MRI during three cognitive tasks; Task 1: idea generation (IFT), Task 2: word generation (VFT), and Task 3: remembrance of words (RAVLT). The block design was used in the trials, in which rest and activating tasks were alternated for five times in each task. The neuropsychological examinations revealed significant differences in the numbers of categories achieved and total errors in WCST, times of Part I in MST, scores of VFT and IFT, and the results of RAVLT between the OCD patients and healthy controls. Using functional brain imaging with f-MRI, noticeable activations were found in the superior, middle, inferior frontal gyri, and the cingulate gyrus during all tasks in both the OCD and control groups. The OCD patients had significantly higher activation in the cingulate gyrus than normal controls during Task 1 (IFT

  12. Cyclonic entrainment of preconditioned shelf waters into a frontal eddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, J. D.; Macdonald, H.; Baird, M. E.; Humphries, J.; Roughan, M.; Suthers, I. M.

    2015-02-01

    The volume transport of nutrient-rich continental shelf water into a cyclonic frontal eddy (entrainment) was examined from satellite observations, a Slocum glider and numerical simulation outputs. Within the frontal eddy, parcels of water with temperature/salinity signatures of the continental shelf (18-19°C and >35.5, respectively) were recorded. The distribution of patches of shelf water observed within the eddy was consistent with the spiral pattern shown within the numerical simulations. A numerical dye tracer experiment