WorldWideScience

Sample records for superior frontal regions

  1. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  2. Development of a superior frontal-intraparietal network for visuo-spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Torkel

    2006-01-01

    Working memory capacity increases throughout childhood and adolescence, which is important for the development of a wide range of cognitive abilities, including complex reasoning. The spatial-span task, in which subjects retain information about the order and position of a number of objects, is a sensitive task to measure development of spatial working memory. This review considers results from previous neuroimaging studies investigating the neural correlates of this development. Older children and adolescents, with higher capacity, have been found to have higher brain activity in the intraparietal cortex and in the posterior part of the superior frontal sulcus, during the performance of working memory tasks. The structural maturation of white matter has been investigated by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). This has revealed several regions in the frontal lobes in which white matter maturation is correlated with the development of working memory. Among these is a superior fronto-parietal white matter region, located close to the grey matter regions that are implicated in the development of working memory. Furthermore, the degree of white matter maturation is positively correlated with the degree of cortical activation in the frontal and parietal regions. This suggests that during childhood and adolescence, there is development of networks related to specific cognitive functions, such as visuo-spatial working memory. These networks not only consist of cortical areas but also the white matter tracts connecting them. For visuo-spatial working memory, this network could consist of the superior frontal and intraparietal cortex.

  3. T'ain't what you say, it's the way that you say it--left insula and inferior frontal cortex work in interaction with superior temporal regions to control the performance of vocal impersonations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Manly, Tom; Wisbey, Duncan; Scott, Sophie K

    2013-11-01

    Historically, the study of human identity perception has focused on faces, but the voice is also central to our expressions and experiences of identity [Belin, P., Fecteau, S., & Bedard, C. Thinking the voice: Neural correlates of voice perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 129-135, 2004]. Our voices are highly flexible and dynamic; talkers speak differently, depending on their health, emotional state, and the social setting, as well as extrinsic factors such as background noise. However, to date, there have been no studies of the neural correlates of identity modulation in speech production. In the current fMRI experiment, we measured the neural activity supporting controlled voice change in adult participants performing spoken impressions. We reveal that deliberate modulation of vocal identity recruits the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus, supporting the planning of novel articulations. Bilateral sites in posterior superior temporal/inferior parietal cortex and a region in right middle/anterior STS showed greater responses during the emulation of specific vocal identities than for impressions of generic accents. Using functional connectivity analyses, we describe roles for these three sites in their interactions with the brain regions supporting speech planning and production. Our findings mark a significant step toward understanding the neural control of vocal identity, with wider implications for the cognitive control of voluntary motor acts.

  4. The Right Superior Frontal Gyrus and Individual Variation in Proactive Control of Impulsive Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sien; Ide, Jaime S; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan R

    2016-12-14

    A hallmark of cognitive control is the ability to rein in impulsive responses. Previously, we used a Bayesian model to describe trial-by-trial likelihood of the stop signal or p(Stop) and related regional activations to p(Stop) to response slowing in a stop signal task. Here, we characterized the regional processes of conflict anticipation in association with intersubject variation in impulse control in 114 young adults. We computed the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) and a measure of motor urgency, indexed by the reaction time (RT) difference between go and stop error trials or "GoRT - SERT," where GoRT is the go trial RT and SERT is the stop error RT. Motor urgency and SSRT were positively correlated across subjects. A linear regression identified regional activations to p(Stop), each in correlation with SSRT and motor urgency. We hypothesized that shared neural activities mediate the correlation between motor urgency and SSRT in proactive control of impulsivity. Activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG) during conflict anticipation correlated negatively with the SSRT. Activation of the right SFG also correlated negatively with GoRT - SERT. Therefore, activation of the right SFG was associated with more efficient response inhibition and less motor urgency. A mediation analysis showed that right SFG activation to conflict anticipation mediates the correlation between SSRT and motor urgency bidirectionally. The current results highlight a specific role of the right SFG in translating conflict anticipation to the control of impulsive response, which is consistent with earlier studies suggesting its function in action restraint.

  5. Downregulation of GABA[Subscript A] Receptor Protein Subunits a6, ß2, d, e, ?2, ?, and ?2 in Superior Frontal Cortex of Subjects with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rustan, Oyvind G.; Rooney, Robert J.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We measured protein and mRNA levels for nine gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptor subunits in three brain regions (cerebellum, superior frontal cortex, and parietal cortex) in subjects with autism versus matched controls. We observed changes in mRNA for a number of GABA[subscript A] and GABA[subscript B] subunits and overall…

  6. Cortical networks for visual reaching: physiological and anatomical organization of frontal and parietal lobe arm regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P B; Ferraina, S; Bianchi, L; Caminiti, R

    1996-01-01

    The functional and structural properties of the dorsolateral frontal lobe and posterior parietal proximal arm representations were studied in macaque monkeys. Physiological mapping of primary motor (MI), dorsal premotor (PMd), and posterior parietal (area 5) cortices was performed in behaving monkeys trained in an instructed-delay reaching task. The parietofrontal corticocortical connectivities of these same areas were subsequently examined anatomically by means of retrograde tracing techniques. Signal-, set-, movement-, and position-related directional neuronal activities were distributed nonuniformly within the task-related areas in both frontal and parietal cortices. Within the frontal lobe, moving caudally from PMd to the MI, the activity that signals for the visuo-spatial events leading to target localization decreased, while the activity more directly linked to movement generation increased. Physiological recordings in the superior parietal lobule revealed a gradient-like distribution of functional properties similar to that observed in the frontal lobe. Signal- and set-related activities were encountered more frequently in the intermediate and ventral part of the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), in area MIP. Movement-and position-related activities were distributed more uniformly within the superior parietal lobule (SPL), in both dorsal area 5 and in MIP. Frontal and parietal regions sharing similar functional properties were preferentially connected through their association pathways. As a result of this study, area MIP, and possibly areas MDP and 7m as well, emerge as the parietal nodes by which visual information may be relayed to the frontal lobe arm region. These parietal and frontal areas, along with their association connections, represent a potential cortical network for visual reaching. The architecture of this network is ideal for coding reaching as the result of a combination between visual and somatic information.

  7. Differential roles for left inferior frontal and superior temporal cortex in multimodal integration of action and language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.M.; Özyürek, A.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies indicate that both posterior superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus (pSTS/MTG) and left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) are involved in integrating information from different modalities. Here we investigated the respective roles of these two areas in integration of action and l

  8. Trauma of the Frontal Region Is Influenced by the Volume of Frontal Sinuses. A Finite Element Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srbislav S. Pajic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy of frontal sinuses varies individually, from differences in volume and shape to a rare case when the sinuses are absent. However, there are scarce data related to influence of these variations on impact generated fracture pattern. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of frontal sinus volume on the stress distribution and fracture pattern in the frontal region. The study included four representative Finite Element models of the skull. Reference model was built on the basis of computed tomography scans of a human head with normally developed frontal sinuses. By modifying the reference model, three additional models were generated: a model without sinuses, with hypoplasic, and with hyperplasic sinuses. A 7.7 kN force was applied perpendicularly to the forehead of each model, in order to simulate a frontal impact. The results demonstrated that the distribution of impact stress in frontal region depends on the frontal sinus volume. The anterior sinus wall showed the highest fragility in case with hyperplasic sinuses, whereas posterior wall/inner plate showed more fragility in cases with hypoplasic and undeveloped sinuses. Well-developed frontal sinuses might, through absorption of the impact energy by anterior wall, protect the posterior wall and intracranial contents.

  9. Evaluating the roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule in deductive reasoning: an rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Sakatani, Kaoru; Masuda, Sayako; Akiyama, Takekazu; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2011-09-15

    This study used off-line repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to examine the roles of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in a deductive reasoning task. Subjects performed a categorical syllogistic reasoning task involving congruent, incongruent, and abstract trials. Twenty four subjects received magnetic stimulation to the SPL region prior to the task. In the other 24 subjects, TMS was administered to the IFG region before the task. Stimulation lasted for 10min, with an inter-pulse frequency of 1Hz. We found that bilateral SPL (Brodmann area (BA) 7) stimulation disrupted performance on abstract and incongruent reasoning. Left IFG (BA 45) stimulation impaired congruent reasoning performance while paradoxically facilitating incongruent reasoning performance. This resulted in the elimination of the belief-bias. In contrast, right IFG stimulation only impaired incongruent reasoning performance, thus enhancing the belief-bias effect. These findings are largely consistent with the dual-process theory of reasoning, which proposes the existence of two different human reasoning systems: a belief-based heuristic system; and a logic-based analytic system. The present findings suggest that the left language-related IFG (BA 45) may correspond to the heuristic system, while bilateral SPL may underlie the analytic system. The right IFG may play a role in blocking the belief-based heuristic system for solving incongruent reasoning trials. This study could offer an insight about functional roles of distributed brain systems in human deductive reasoning by utilizing the rTMS approach.

  10. Cortical thickness of superior frontal cortex predicts impulsiveness and perceptual reasoning in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, C; Kühn, S; Paus, T; Romanowski, A; Banaschewski, T; Barbot, A; Barker, G J; Brühl, R; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Dalley, J W; Flor, H; Ittermann, B; Ivanov, N; Mann, K; Martinot, J-L; Nees, F; Rietschel, M; Robbins, T W; Smolka, M N; Ströhle, A; Kathmann, N; Garavan, H; Heinz, A; Schumann, G; Gallinat, J

    2013-05-01

    Impulsiveness is a pivotal personality trait representing a core domain in all major personality inventories. Recently, impulsiveness has been identified as an important modulator of cognitive processing, particularly in tasks that require the processing of large amounts of information. Although brain imaging studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex to be a common underlying representation of impulsiveness and related cognitive functioning, to date a fine-grain and detailed morphometric analysis has not been carried out. On the basis of ahigh-resolution magnetic resonance scans acquired in 1620 healthy adolescents (IMAGEN), the individual cortical thickness (CT) was estimated. Correlations between Cloninger's impulsiveness and CT were studied in an entire cortex analysis. The cluster identified was tested for associations with performance in perceptual reasoning tasks of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC IV). We observed a significant inverse correlation between trait impulsiveness and CT of the left superior frontal cortex (SFC; Monte Carlo Simulation P<0.01). CT within this cluster correlated with perceptual reasoning scores (Bonferroni corrected) of the WISC IV. On the basis of a large sample of adolescents, we identified an extended area in the SFC as a correlate of impulsiveness, which appears to be in line with the trait character of this prominent personality facet. The association of SFC thickness with perceptual reasoning argues for a common neurobiological basis of personality and specific cognitive domains comprising attention, spatial reasoning and response selection. The results may facilitate the understanding of the role of impulsiveness in several psychiatric disorders associated with prefrontal dysfunctions and cognitive deficits.

  11. Spontaneous Activity Associated with Delusions of Schizophrenia in the Left Medial Superior Frontal Gyrus: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Gao

    Full Text Available Delusions of schizophrenia have been found to be associated with alterations of some brain regions in structure and task-induced activation. However, the relationship between spontaneously occurring symptoms and spontaneous brain activity remains unclear. In the current study, 14 schizophrenic patients with delusions and 14 healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI scan. Patients with delusions of schizophrenia patients were rated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Characteristics of Delusional Rating Scale (CDRS. Regional homogeneity (ReHo was calculated to measure the local synchronization of the spontaneous activity in a voxel-wise way. A two-sample t-test showed that ReHo of the right anterior cingulate gyrus and left medial superior frontal gyrus were higher in patients, and ReHo of the left superior occipital gyrus was lower, compared to healthy controls. Further, among patients, correlation analysis showed a significant difference between delusion scores of CRDS and ReHo of brain regions. ReHo of the left medial superior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with patients' CDRS scores but not with delusional PANSS scores. These results suggested that altered local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity may be related to the pathophysiology of delusion in schizophrenia.

  12. Reconstrucción total del párpado superior mediante colgajo frontal Whole repair made in the upper eyelid using a frontal flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamilé León Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes que han sido sometidos a resecciones quirúrgicas por cáncer, que han sufrido lesiones por quemaduras de espesor total o traumas avulsivos con pérdida extensa de tejidos que engloban la totalidad del párpado superior, acuden con relativa frecuencia a consulta por presentar la cornea expuesta, y dicha exposición resulta en ulceraciones, cicatriz y ceguera. En estos pacientes se observa una gran insatisfacción por el inconveniente que representa no poder usar una prótesis ocular y algo no menos importante, el gran defecto estético. Se presenta el caso de un paciente del sexo masculino, de 30 años de edad, que sufrió múltiples lesiones por el estallido de un artefacto explosivo, con pérdida total del párpado superior derecho y enucleación ocular. Se le realizó reconstrucción palpebral total mediante el colgajo dermograso frontal y se obtuvieron buenos resultados estéticos.Patients underwent to surgical resections from cancer and whole thickness burn lesions or avulsion traumata with an extent loss of tissues which shape the upper eyelid, came with a relative frequency to consultation due to corneal exposition and this exposition resulting in ulcerations, scar, and blindness. These patients are very unsatisfied because they can not use of an ocular prosthesis, and something less important, the big aesthetic defect. Authors present the case of a male patient aged 30 with multiple lesions from explosion of an explosive artifact with loss of right upper eyelid and ocular enucleation. A total palpebral reconstruction was performed using a frontal dermal fatty flap with good aesthetic results.

  13. Fluid intelligence loss linked to restricted regions of damage within frontal and parietal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolgar, Alexandra; Parr, Alice; Cusack, Rhodri; Thompson, Russell; Nimmo-Smith, Ian; Torralva, Teresa; Roca, Maria; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2010-01-01

    Tests of fluid intelligence predict success in a wide range of cognitive activities. Much uncertainty has surrounded brain lesions producing deficits in these tests, with standard group comparisons delivering no clear result. Based on findings from functional imaging, we propose that the uncertainty of lesion data may arise from the specificity and complexity of the relevant neural circuit. Fluid intelligence tests give a characteristic pattern of activity in posterolateral frontal, dorsomedial frontal, and midparietal cortex. To test the causal role of these regions, we examined fluid intelligence in 80 patients with focal cortical lesions. Damage to each of the proposed regions predicted fluid intelligence loss, whereas damage outside these regions was not predictive. The results suggest that coarse group comparisons (e.g., frontal vs. posterior) cannot show the neural underpinnings of fluid intelligence tests. Instead, deficits reflect the extent of damage to a restricted but complex brain circuit comprising specific regions within both frontal and posterior cortex. PMID:20679241

  14. Frontal Eye Field, Where Art Thou? Anatomy, function and non-invasive manipulation of frontal regions involved in eye movements and associated cognitive operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine eVernet

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The planning, control and execution of eye movements in 3D space relies on a distributed system of cortical and subcortical brain regions. Within this network, the Eye Fields have been described in animals as cortical regions in which electrical stimulation is able to trigger eye movements and influence their latency or accuracy. This review will focus on the Frontal Eye Field (FEF a hub region located in Humans in the vicinity of the pre-central sulcus and the dorsal-most portion of the superior frontal sulcus. The straightforward localization of the FEF through electrical stimulation in animals is difficult to translate to the healthy human brain, particularly with non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. Hence, in the first part of this review, we will describe attempts made to characterize the anatomical localization of this area in the human brain. The outcome of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Magneto-encephalography (MEG and particularly, non-invasive mapping methods such a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS will be described and the variability of FEF localization across individuals and mapping techniques will be discussed. In the second part of this review, we will address the role of the FEF. We will explore its involvement both in the physiology of fixation, saccade, pursuit and vergence movements and in associated cognitive processes such as attentional orienting, visual awareness and perceptual modulation. Finally in the third part, we will review recent evidence suggesting the high level of malleability and plasticity of these regions and associated networks to non-invasive stimulation. The exploratory, diagnostic and therapeutic interest of such interventions for the modulation and improvement of perception in 3D space will be discussed.

  15. Steady State Ocean Response to Wind Forcing in Extratropical Frontal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Meghan F.; Tozuka, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    In regions of strong sea surface temperature (SST) gradients, the surface “geostrophic” currents have a vertical shear aligned with the surface density front defined by the temperature. This surface geostrophic (“thermal wind”) shear can balance a portion of the surface wind stress, altering the classic Ekman response to wind forcing. Here we show that these frontal effects cannot be ignored in the Tropics or in strong frontal regions in the extratropics, such as found in coastal regions and in western boundary currents of all basins. Frontal effects also dominate the classic Ekman response in the regions of both hemispheres where Trade winds change to westerlies. Implications for vertical motion and global heat transport are discussed. PMID:27354231

  16. Steady State Ocean Response to Wind Forcing in Extratropical Frontal Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Meghan F; Tozuka, Tomoki

    2016-06-29

    In regions of strong sea surface temperature (SST) gradients, the surface "geostrophic" currents have a vertical shear aligned with the surface density front defined by the temperature. This surface geostrophic ("thermal wind") shear can balance a portion of the surface wind stress, altering the classic Ekman response to wind forcing. Here we show that these frontal effects cannot be ignored in the Tropics or in strong frontal regions in the extratropics, such as found in coastal regions and in western boundary currents of all basins. Frontal effects also dominate the classic Ekman response in the regions of both hemispheres where Trade winds change to westerlies. Implications for vertical motion and global heat transport are discussed.

  17. Steady State Ocean Response to Wind Forcing in Extratropical Frontal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Meghan F.; Tozuka, Tomoki

    2016-06-01

    In regions of strong sea surface temperature (SST) gradients, the surface “geostrophic” currents have a vertical shear aligned with the surface density front defined by the temperature. This surface geostrophic (“thermal wind”) shear can balance a portion of the surface wind stress, altering the classic Ekman response to wind forcing. Here we show that these frontal effects cannot be ignored in the Tropics or in strong frontal regions in the extratropics, such as found in coastal regions and in western boundary currents of all basins. Frontal effects also dominate the classic Ekman response in the regions of both hemispheres where Trade winds change to westerlies. Implications for vertical motion and global heat transport are discussed.

  18. 大脑额上沟的三维重建与可视化%Three-dimensional reconstruction and visualization of cerebral superior frontal sulcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周牧野; 王震寰; 沈龙山; 李成; 陈刘成; 向春锋

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To establish a three-dimensional(3D) visualization model of cerebral superior frontal sulcus in a healthy adult people using MR image for exploring the anatomical characteristics of the superior frontal sulcus and application in brain stereotactic surgery. Methods:The brain slice MR scanning in one healthy adult female was harvested,the data of which was inputted to 3D-Doctor software. The 3D visualization model was reconstructed,and marked with different colors by the manual partition method. Results:The 3D visualization schema graph of cerebral superior frontal sulcus was constructed, which showed successfully the three-dimensional shape of cerebral superior frontal sulcus, lateral ventricle, brain surface and their structural relationships with surrounding brain. Conclusions:The 3D visualization model of cerebral superior frontal sulcus has an important value in the identification of the anatomical structure of superior frontal sulcus and design of stereotactic surgery.%目的::建立健康成人活体MR图像的大脑额上沟三维可视化模型,为探究额上沟的解剖结构特点及脑立体定向手术应用。方法:选取1名健康成年女性颅脑薄层MR扫描数据,将数据导入3D-Doctor软件,利用手动分割方法建立三维可视化模型并用不同颜色进行标记。结果:构建了大脑额上沟的三维可视化模式图,模式图成功显示了大脑额上沟、侧脑室及脑表面的立体形态以及与周围脑组织的结构关系。结论:大脑额上沟的三维可视化模型对额上沟解剖结构的识别、脑立体定向手术设计有重要价值。

  19. Monitoring cerebral tissue oxygen saturation at frontal and parietal regions during carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingzhong; Hall, Melanie; Settecase, Fabio; Higashida, Randall T; Gelb, Adrian W

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral oximetry is normally placed on the upper forehead to monitor the frontal lobe cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2). We present a case in which the SctO2 was simultaneously monitored at both frontal and parietal regions during internal carotid artery (ICA) stenting. Our case involves a 79-year-old man who presented after a sudden fall and was later diagnosed with a watershed ischemic stroke in the distal fields perfused by the left middle cerebral artery. He had diffuse atherosclerotic occlusive lesions in the carotid and cerebral arterial systems including an 85 % stenotic lesion in the left distal cervical ICA. The brain territory perfused by the left ICA was devoid of collateral flow from anterior and posterior communicating arteries due to an abnormal circle of Willis. During stenting, the SctO2 monitored at both frontal and parietal regions tracked the procedure-induced acute flow change. However, the baseline SctO2 values of frontal and parietal regions differed. The SctO2-MAP correlation was more consistent on the stroked hemisphere than the non-stroked hemisphere. This case showed that SctO2 can be reliably monitored at the parietal region, which is primarily perfused by the ICA. SctO2 of the stroked brain is more pressure dependent than the non-stroked brain.

  20. The atmospheric frontal response to SST perturbations in the Gulf Stream region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Rhys; Czaja, Arnaud; Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira

    2016-03-01

    The link between sea surface temperature (SST) gradients and atmospheric fronts is explored in a general circulation model across the Gulf Stream (GS) region from December to February 1981-2000. Two model experiments are analyzed, one with a realistic control SST distribution and one with a spatially smoothed SST distribution. The analysis shows a noticeable change in regional atmospheric frontal frequency between the two experiments (up to 30%), with the distribution of change exhibiting a clear imprint of the GS SST front. Further analysis of the surface sensible heat flux gradient across cold fronts reveals the pattern of change to be mediated by a thermal interaction between the oceanic and atmospheric fronts ("thermal damping and strengthening"). These results not only emphasize the significance of the GS SST gradient for storm development in the North Atlantic but also highlight the importance of resolution in assessing the role of frontal air-sea interaction in midlatitude climate variability.

  1. The mesoproterozoic midcontinent rift system, Lake Superior region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojakangas, R.W.; Morey, G.B.; Green, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Exposures in the Lake Superior region, and associated geophysical evidence, show that a 2000 km-long rift system developed within the North American craton ??? 1109-1087 Ma, the age span of the most of the volcanic rocks. This system is characterized by immense volumes of mafic igneous rocks, mostly subaerial plateau basalts, generated in two major pulses largely by a hot mantle plume. A new ocean basin was nearly formed before rifting ceased, perhaps due to the remote effect of the Grenville continental collision to the east. Broad sagging/subsidence, combined with a system of axial half-grabens separated along the length of the rift by accommodation zones, provided conditions for the accumulation of as much as 20 km of volcanic rocks and as much as 10 km of post-rift clastic sediments, both along the rift axis and in basins flanking a central, post-volcanic horst. Pre-rift mature, quartzose sandstones imply little or no uplift prior to the onset of rift volcanism. Early post-rift red-bed sediments consist almost entirely of intrabasinally derived volcanic sediment deposited in alluvial fan to fluvial settings; the exception is one gray to black carbon-bearing lacustrine(?) unit. This early sedimentation phase was followed by broad crustal sagging and deposition of progressively more mature red-bed, fluvial sediments with an extra-basinal provenance. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimated injury risk for specific injuries and body regions in frontal motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ashley A; Talton, Jennifer W; Barnard, Ryan T; Schoell, Samantha L; Swett, Katrina R; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Injury risk curves estimate motor vehicle crash (MVC) occupant injury risk from vehicle, crash, and/or occupant factors. Many vehicles are equipped with event data recorders (EDRs) that collect data including the crash speed and restraint status during a MVC. This study's goal was to use regulation-required data elements for EDRs to compute occupant injury risk for (1) specific injuries and (2) specific body regions in frontal MVCs from weighted NASS-CDS data. Logistic regression analysis of NASS-CDS single-impact frontal MVCs involving front seat occupants with frontal airbag deployment was used to produce 23 risk curves for specific injuries and 17 risk curves for Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ to 5+ body region injuries. Risk curves were produced for the following body regions: head and thorax (AIS 2+, 3+, 4+, 5+), face (AIS 2+), abdomen, spine, upper extremity, and lower extremity (AIS 2+, 3+). Injury risk with 95% confidence intervals was estimated for 15-105 km/h longitudinal delta-Vs and belt status was adjusted for as a covariate. Overall, belted occupants had lower estimated risks compared to unbelted occupants and the risk of injury increased as longitudinal delta-V increased. Belt status was a significant predictor for 13 specific injuries and all body region injuries with the exception of AIS 2+ and 3+ spine injuries. Specific injuries and body region injuries that occurred more frequently in NASS-CDS also tended to carry higher risks when evaluated at a 56 km/h longitudinal delta-V. In the belted population, injury risks that ranked in the top 33% included 4 upper extremity fractures (ulna, radius, clavicle, carpus/metacarpus), 2 lower extremity fractures (fibula, metatarsal/tarsal), and a knee sprain (2.4-4.6% risk). Unbelted injury risks ranked in the top 33% included 4 lower extremity fractures (femur, fibula, metatarsal/tarsal, patella), 2 head injuries with less than one hour or unspecified prior unconsciousness, and a lung contusion (4

  3. The role of right frontal brain regions in integration of spatial relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiahui; Cao, Bihua; Cao, Yunfei; Gao, Heming; Li, Fuhong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have explored the neural mechanisms of spatial reasoning on a two-dimensional (2D) plane; however, it remains unclear how spatial reasoning is conducted in a three-dimensional (3D) condition. In the present study, we presented 3D geometric objects to 16 adult participants, and asked them to process the spatial relationship between different corners of the geometric objects. In premise-1, the first two corners of a geometric shape (e.g., A vs. B) were displayed. In premise-2, the second and third corners (e.g., B vs. C) were displayed. After integrating the two premises, participants were required to infer the spatial relationship between the first and the third corners (e.g., A and C). Finally, the participants were presented with a conclusion object, and they were required to judge whether the conclusion was true or false based on their inference. The event-related potential evoked by premise-2 revealed that (1) compared with 2D spatial reasoning, 3D reasoning elicited a smaller P3b component, and (2) in the right frontal areas, increased negativities were found in the 3D condition during the N400 and late negative components (LNC). These findings imply that higher brain activity in the right frontal brain regions were related with the integration and maintenance of spatial information in working memory for reasoning.

  4. Long-Term Safety of Topical Bacteriophage Application to the Frontal Sinus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drilling, Amanda J.; Ooi, Mian L.; Miljkovic, Dijana; James, Craig; Speck, Peter; Vreugde, Sarah; Clark, Jason; Wormald, Peter-John

    2017-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus biofilms contribute negatively to a number of chronic conditions, including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). With the inherent tolerance of biofilm-bound bacteria to antibiotics and the global problem of bacterial antibiotic resistance, the need to develop novel therapeutics is paramount. Phage therapy has previously shown promise in treating sinonasal S. aureus biofilms. Methods: This study investigates the long term (20 days) safety of topical sinonasal flushes with bacteriophage suspensions. The bacteriophage cocktail NOV012 against S. aureus selected for this work contains two highly characterized and different phages, P68 and K710. Host range was assessed against S. aureus strains isolated from CRS patients using agar spot tests. NOV012 was applied topically to the frontal sinus region of sheep, twice daily for 20 days. General sheep wellbeing, mucosal structural changes and inflammatory load were assessed to determine safety of NOV012 application. Results: NOV012 could lyse 52/61 (85%) of a panel of locally derived CRS clinical isolates. Application of NOV012 to the frontal sinuses of sheep for 20 days was found to be safe, with no observed inflammatory infiltration or tissue damage within the sinus mucosa. Conclusion: NOV012 cocktail appears safe to apply for extended periods to sheep sinuses and it could infect and lyse a wide range of S. aureus CRS clinical isolates. This indicates that phage therapy has strong potential as a treatment for chronic bacterial rhinosinusitis. PMID:28286740

  5. Distinct roles of left inferior frontal regions that explain individual differences in second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kuniyoshi L; Nauchi, Arihito; Tatsuno, Yoshinori; Hirano, Kazuyoshi; Muraishi, Yukimasa; Kimura, Masakazu; Bostwick, Mike; Yusa, Noriaki

    2009-08-01

    Second language (L2) acquisition is more susceptible to environmental and idiosyncratic factors than first language acquisition. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging for L2 learners of different ages of first exposure (mean: 12.6 and 5.6 years) in a formal school environment, and compared the cortical activations involved in processing English sentences containing either syntactic or spelling errors, where the testing ages and task performances of both groups were matched. We found novel activation patterns in two regions of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) that correlated differentially with the performances of the late and early learners. Specifically, activations of the dorsal and ventral triangular part (F3t) of the left IFG correlated positively with the accuracy of the syntactic task for the late learners, whereas activations of the left ventral F3t correlated negatively with the accuracy for the early learners. In contrast, other cortical regions exhibited differential correlation patterns with the reaction times (RTs) of the syntactic task. Namely, activations of the orbital part (F3O) of the left IFG, as well as those of the left angular gyrus, correlated positively with the RTs for the late learners, whereas those activations correlated negatively with the RTs for the early learners. Moreover, the task-selective activation of the left F3O was maintained for both the late and early learners. These results explain individual differences in L2 acquisition, such that the acquisition of linguistic knowledge in L2 is subserved by at least two distinct inferior frontal regions of the left F3t and F3O.

  6. Directional connectivity between frontal and posterior brain regions is altered with increasing concentrations of propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimow, Anu; Silfverhuth, Minna; Långsjö, Jaakko; Kaskinoro, Kimmo; Georgiadis, Stefanos; Jääskeläinen, Satu; Scheinin, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies using electroencephalography (EEG) suggest that alteration of coherent activity between the anterior and posterior brain regions might be used as a neurophysiologic correlate of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. One way to assess causal relationships between brain regions is given by renormalized partial directed coherence (rPDC). Importantly, directional connectivity is evaluated in the frequency domain by taking into account the whole multichannel EEG, as opposed to time domain or two channel approaches. rPDC was applied here in order to investigate propofol induced changes in causal connectivity between four states of consciousness: awake (AWA), deep sedation (SED), loss (LOC) and return of consciousness (ROC) by gathering full 10/20 system human EEG data in ten healthy male subjects. The target-controlled drug infusion was started at low rate with subsequent gradual stepwise increases at 10 min intervals in order to carefully approach LOC (defined as loss of motor responsiveness to a verbal stimulus). The direction of the causal EEG-network connections clearly changed from AWA to SED and LOC. Propofol induced a decrease (p = 0.002-0.004) in occipital-to-frontal rPDC of 8-16 Hz EEG activity and an increase (p = 0.001-0.040) in frontal-to-occipital rPDC of 10-20 Hz activity on both sides of the brain during SED and LOC. In addition, frontal-to-parietal rPDC within 1-12 Hz increased in the left hemisphere at LOC compared to AWA (p = 0.003). However, no significant changes were detected between the SED and the LOC states. The observed decrease in back-to-front EEG connectivity appears compatible with impaired information flow from the posterior sensory and association cortices to the executive prefrontal areas, possibly related to decreased ability to perceive the surrounding world during sedation. The observed increase in the opposite (front-to-back) connectivity suggests a propofol concentration dependent association and is not directly related

  7. Directional connectivity between frontal and posterior brain regions is altered with increasing concentrations of propofol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Maksimow

    Full Text Available Recent studies using electroencephalography (EEG suggest that alteration of coherent activity between the anterior and posterior brain regions might be used as a neurophysiologic correlate of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. One way to assess causal relationships between brain regions is given by renormalized partial directed coherence (rPDC. Importantly, directional connectivity is evaluated in the frequency domain by taking into account the whole multichannel EEG, as opposed to time domain or two channel approaches. rPDC was applied here in order to investigate propofol induced changes in causal connectivity between four states of consciousness: awake (AWA, deep sedation (SED, loss (LOC and return of consciousness (ROC by gathering full 10/20 system human EEG data in ten healthy male subjects. The target-controlled drug infusion was started at low rate with subsequent gradual stepwise increases at 10 min intervals in order to carefully approach LOC (defined as loss of motor responsiveness to a verbal stimulus. The direction of the causal EEG-network connections clearly changed from AWA to SED and LOC. Propofol induced a decrease (p = 0.002-0.004 in occipital-to-frontal rPDC of 8-16 Hz EEG activity and an increase (p = 0.001-0.040 in frontal-to-occipital rPDC of 10-20 Hz activity on both sides of the brain during SED and LOC. In addition, frontal-to-parietal rPDC within 1-12 Hz increased in the left hemisphere at LOC compared to AWA (p = 0.003. However, no significant changes were detected between the SED and the LOC states. The observed decrease in back-to-front EEG connectivity appears compatible with impaired information flow from the posterior sensory and association cortices to the executive prefrontal areas, possibly related to decreased ability to perceive the surrounding world during sedation. The observed increase in the opposite (front-to-back connectivity suggests a propofol concentration dependent association and is not directly

  8. Localised mixing and heterogeneity in the plankton food web in a frontal region of the Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Bendtsen, Joøgen; Christensen, Jens Tang

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that patches of eel larvae are found in the frontal region of the Subtropical Convergence Zone (STCZ), but to date no clear evidence of why this region might confer advantage to the larvae has been presented. This study demonstrates that there may be localized p...

  9. Time series of glacier frontal variations in the Nanga Parbat region, Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritashya, U. K.; Bishop, M. P.; Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.; Shroder, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    Global trends of glacier response in many mountain environments suggest extensive backwasting and downwasting patterns, with some recent acceleration in the last few decades. Glaciers in the Western Himalaya are perhaps more complicated than other regions due to their complex topography, extensive supraglacial debris cover, and climate system coupling involving the winter westerlies, Indian summer monsoon and possibly the East Asian monsoon. Consequently, we investigated glacier retreat/advance pattern of ten major glaciers in and around the Nanga Parbat massif. Specifically, we used high-quality topographic maps, and Keyhole, SPOT, Landsat and ASTER satellite imageries from 1934-2010. Our results indicate no uniform response of these glaciers to climate change. Some glaciers are retreating and/or maintaining their frontal position whereas others have advanced at different time periods. Average retreat rates, however, are not nearly as large as those reported in the nearby region, and average advance rates are not surge-type. Glacier advances in this region have neither been reported as surge-type glaciers in the past, nor have shown surge-type patterns; therefore, these advances may be due to positive mass balance, or could be an indication of major dynamical change in future. Overall, results indicate that Nanga Parbat glaciers are oscillating and may be responding differently to the current climatic conditions than in the eastern Himalaya (east of the study area), or the Wakhan Pamir/Hindu Kush (northwest of the study area), or Tien Shan region (north of the study area).

  10. Functional connectivity between parietal and frontal brain regions and intelligence in young children: the Generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; Schmidt, Marcus; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; van der Lugt, Aad; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya J H

    2013-12-01

    It has been shown in adults that individual differences in intelligence are related to the integrity of the interaction between parietal and frontal brain regions. Since connectivity between distant brain regions strengthens during childhood, it is unclear when in the course of development this relationship emerges. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether parietal-frontal functional connectivity is associated with intelligence in young children. We performed independent component analyses on resting-state fMRI data of 115 children (6-8 years old) to select seed and target regions for a seed/target region correlation analysis. We found that higher nonverbal intelligence was associated with increased functional connectivity between right parietal and right frontal regions, and between right parietal and dorsal anterior cingulate regions. The association between intelligence and functional connectivity between certain brain regions was stronger in girls than boys. In conclusion, we found that connectivity between the parietal and frontal lobes is critically involved in intelligence in young children. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Aphasia induced by gliomas growing in the ventrolateral frontal region: assessment with diffusion MR tractography, functional MR imaging and neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzi, Alberto; Nava, Simone; Ferrè, Francesca; Castelli, Gianmarco; Aquino, Domenico; Ciaraffa, Francesca; Broggi, Giovanni; DiMeco, Francesco; Piacentini, Sylvie

    2012-02-01

    Lesions in the ventrolateral region of the dominant frontal lobe have been historically associated with aphasia. Recent imaging results suggest that frontal language regions extend beyond classically defined Broca's area to include the ventral precentral gyrus (VPCG) and the arcuate fasciculus (AF). Frontal gliomas offer a unique opportunity to identify structures that are essential for speech production. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the correlation between language deficits and lesion location in patients with gliomas. Nineteen patients with glioma and 10 healthy subjects were evaluated with diffusion tensor imaging magnetic resonance (MR) tractography, functional MR (verb generation task) and the Aachener Aphasie Test. Patients were divided into two groups according to lesion location with respect to the ventral precentral sulcus: (i) anterior (n=8) with glioma growing in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and underlying white matter; (ii) posterior (n=11) with glioma growing in the VPCG and underlying white matter. Virtual dissection of the AF, frontal intralobar tract, uncinate fasciculus (UF) and inferior frontal occipital fasciculus (IFOF) was performed with a deterministic approach. Seven posterior patients showed aphasia classified as conduction (4), Broca (1), transcortical motor (1) and an isolated deficit of semantic fluency; one anterior patient had transcortical mixed aphasia. All posterior patients had invasion of the VPCG, however only patients with aphasia had also lesion extension to the AF as demonstrated by tractography dissections. All patients with language deficits had high grade glioma. Groups did not differ regarding tumour volume. A functional pars opercularis was identified with functional MR imaging (fMRI) in 17 patients. Gliomas growing in the left VPCG are much more likely to cause speech deficits than gliomas infiltrating the IFG, including Broca's area. Lesion extension to the AF connecting frontal to parietal

  12. Localised mixing and heterogeneity in the plankton food web in a frontal region of the Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Bendtsen, Joøgen; Christensen, Jens Tang

    2014-01-01

    the diatom communities at 10 m and > 100 m (in the deep chlorophyll maximum, DCM) than in other parts of the frontal region. Thorpe displacements supported the hypothesis of elevated mixing intensities around these stations, as did vertical mixing rates inferred from stratification and vertical current shear...... influence the plankton food web, as indicated by elevated values/concentrations of (1) primary production, (2) variable fluorescence (F-v/F-m) and (3) total seston. In addition, the fraction of the total biomass of both copepods and nauplii found closest to the DCM in the frontal region correlated...

  13. Phytoplankton abundance and community structure in the Antarctic polar frontal region during austral summer of 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHRAMIK Patil; RAHUL Mohan; SUHAS Shetye; SAHINA Gazi

    2013-01-01

    The Antarctic polar front region in the Southern Ocean is known to be most productive.We studied the phytoplankton community structure in the Indian sector at this frontal location during late austral summer (February,2009) onboard R/V Akademic Boris Petrov.We used the phytoplankton and microheterotrophs abundance,as also the associated physico-chemical parameters to explain the low phytoplankton abundance in the study region.This study emphasizes the shift of phytoplankton,from large (>10 μm) to small (<10 μm) size.The phytoplankton abundance appears to be controlled by physical parameters and by nutrient concentrations and also by the microheterotrophs (ciliates and dinoflagellates) which exert a strong grazing pressure.This probably reduces small (<10 μm) and large (>10 μm)phytoplankton abundance during the late austral summer.This study highlights the highly productive polar front nevertheless becomes a region of low phytoplankton abundance,due to community shifts towards pico-phytoplankton (<10 μm) during late austral summer.

  14. Estimation of Vegetation Aerodynamic Roughness of Natural Regions Using Frontal Area Density Determined from Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Crago, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Parameterizations of the frontal area index and canopy area index of natural or randomly distributed plants are developed, and applied to the estimation of local aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery. The formulas are expressed in terms of the subpixel fractional vegetation cover and one non-dimensional geometric parameter that characterizes the plant's shape. Geometrically similar plants and Poisson distributed plant centers are assumed. An appropriate averaging technique to extend satellite pixel-scale estimates to larger scales is provided. ne parameterization is applied to the estimation of aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery for a 2.3 sq km coniferous portion of the Landes Forest near Lubbon, France, during the 1986 HAPEX-Mobilhy Experiment. The canopy area index is estimated first for each pixel in the scene based on previous estimates of fractional cover obtained using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. Next, the results are incorporated into Raupach's (1992, 1994) analytical formulas for momentum roughness and zero-plane displacement height. The estimates compare reasonably well to reference values determined from measurements taken during the experiment and to published literature values. The approach offers the potential for estimating regionally variable, vegetation aerodynamic roughness lengths over natural regions using satellite imagery when there exists only limited knowledge of the vegetated surface.

  15. Localised mixing and heterogeneity in the plankton food web in a frontal region of the Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Bendtsen, Joøgen; Christensen, Jens Tang;

    2014-01-01

    influence the plankton food web, as indicated by elevated values/concentrations of (1) primary production, (2) variable fluorescence (F-v/F-m) and (3) total seston. In addition, the fraction of the total biomass of both copepods and nauplii found closest to the DCM in the frontal region correlated...

  16. Cross-frequency power correlations reveal the right superior temporal gyrus as a hub region during working memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojin; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Kim, June Sic; Jensen, Ole; Chung, Chun Kee; Lee, Dong Soo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we characterized within- and cross-frequency power correlations from magnetoencephalography (MEG) data in order to understand how different brain regions cooperate as a network to maintain working memory representations with several features. The working memory items were composed of spatially arranged dots supposedly requiring both the dorsal and the ventral stream to be engaged during maintenance. Using a beamforming technique, we localized memory-dependent sources in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands. After the single-trial power values were extracted from these frequency bands with respect to each source, we calculated the correlations within- and cross-frequency bands. The following general picture emerged: gamma power in right superior temporal gyrus (STG) during working memory maintenance was correlated with numerous other sources in the alpha band in prefrontal, parietal, and posterior regions. In addition, the power correlations within the alpha band showed correlations across posterior-parietal-frontal regions. From these findings, we suggest that the STG dominated by gamma activity serves as a hub region for the network nodes responsible for the retention of the stimulus used in this study, which is likely to depend on both the "where-" and the "what-" visual system simultaneously. The present study demonstrates how oscillatory dynamics reflecting the interaction between cortical areas can be investigated by means of cross-frequency power correlations in source space. This methodological framework could be of general utility when studying functional network properties of the working brain.

  17. Fluid intelligence loss linked to restricted regions of damage within frontal and parietal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Woolgar, Alexandra; Parr, Alice; Cusack, Rhodri; Thompson, Russell; Nimmo-Smith, Ian; Torralva, Teresa; Roca, Maria; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2010-01-01

    Tests of fluid intelligence predict success in a wide range of cognitive activities. Much uncertainty has surrounded brain lesions producing deficits in these tests, with standard group comparisons delivering no clear result. Based on findings from functional imaging, we propose that the uncertainty of lesion data may arise from the specificity and complexity of the relevant neural circuit. Fluid intelligence tests give a characteristic pattern of activity in posterolateral frontal, dorsomedi...

  18. Phytoplankton stimulation in frontal regions of Benguela upwelling filaments by internal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Wasmund

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Filaments are intrusions of upwelling water into the sea, separated from the surrounding water by fronts. Current knowledge explains the enhanced primary production and phytoplankton growth found in frontal areas by external factors like nutrient input. The question is whether this enhancement is also caused by intrinsic factors, i.e. simple mixing without external forcing. In order to study the direct effect of frontal mixing on organisms, disturbing external influx has to be excluded. Therefore mixing was simulated by joining waters originating from inside and outside the filament in mesocosms (tanks. These experiments were conducted during two cruises in the northern Benguela upwelling system in September 2013 and January 2014. The mixed waters reached a much higher net primary production and chlorophyll a (chla concentration than the original waters already 2-3 days after their merging. The peak in phytoplankton biomass stays longer than the chla peak. After their maxima, primary production rates decreased quickly due to depletion of the nutrients. The increase in colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM may indicate excretion and degradation. Zooplankton is not quickly reacting on the changed conditions. We conclude that already simple mixing of two water bodies, which occurs generally at fronts between upwelled and ambient water, leads to a short-term stimulation of the phytoplankton growth. However, after the exhaustion of the nutrient stock, external nutrient supply is necessary to maintain the enhanced phytoplankton growth in the frontal area. Based on these data, some generally important ecological factors are discussed as for example nutrient ratios and limitations, silicate requirements and growth rates.

  19. Observations of the frontal region of a buoyant river plume using an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Peter; Terrill, Eric; Chen, Jialin

    2014-11-01

    To characterize the transitional region from the near-field to far-field of a river plume entering coastal waters, we conducted four surveys using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to target the outflow of the New River Inlet, North Carolina, during maximum ebb tide. The utilization of a mobile sensor to synoptically observe current velocity data in tandem with natural river plume tracers (e.g., colored dissolved organic matter, salinity) was essential in understanding the mechanisms driving the observed circulation and mixing patterns within these waters. We find that this region is regularly impacted by two primary processes: (1) the interaction of an old dredged channel plume with the main discharge and (2) the recirculation of the discharge plume by an eddy that persistently forms between the old channel and main discharge location. Wind-driven processes in the nearshore can enhance the interaction of these two plumes resulting in unstable regions where mixing of the merged plume with the receiving waters is accelerated. We also conduct comparisons between AUV velocity observations from two surveys and their corresponding velocity outputs from a parallelized quasi-3-D model. We conclude that the ability to observe the estuarine outflow transitional region at near-synoptic temporal scales and resolutions discussed in this paper is key in providing the mechanisms driving local circulation which is essential for proper parameterization of high-resolution numerical coastal models.

  20. Peperitas del Paleozoico superior en la margen norte del río Mendoza, borde oriental de la Cordillera Frontal Upper Paleozoic peperites at the northern margin of the Mendoza River, eastern border of the Cordillera Frontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koukharsky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un afloramiento perteneciente a la Formación Tambillos del Grupo Choiyoi compuesto dominantemente por peperitas, reconociéndose los tipos ameboidales, globulíticos, blocosos (blocky y de morfologías mixtas. Las lavas que dieron origen a estas rocas tenían composición intermedia o ácida con escasos fenocristales de oligoclasa y de biotita y los sedimentos con los que interaccionaron eran de origen volcánico. También se describen sectores con lavas y retazos de areniscas laminadas, conformando un complejo que se habría originado por la irrupción de lava en el fondo de un lago de unos 130 km². Las rocas están afectadas por alteración arcillosa y silicificación. El conjunto está atravesado por diques basálticos pertenecientes a otro ciclo magmático. Se propone la zona como sitio de interés geológico por su accesibilidad, magnitud y calidad de los afloramientos que ilustran un fenómeno paleovolcánico poco común ocurrido durante el Paleozoico superior.An outcrop of Tambillos Formation of the Choiyoi Group is described. It is composed mostly by peperites, being recognized the types amoeboid, globular, blocky and of mixed morphologies. The lavas that gave origin to these rocks had intermediate or acid compositions with scarce oligoclase and biotite phenocrysts, and the sediments which they had interacted were of volcanic origin. In the outcrop, sectors of lavas and laminated sandstones are also described, and constitute a complex that would have originated by the irruption of lava in the bottom of a lake of about 130 km². The rocks were affected by argillic alteration and silicification. The complex was intruded by basaltic dikes that belong to another magmatic cycle. The area is proposed as a site of geologic interest based on its accessibility, magnitude and quality of the outcrops, which illustrate an uncommon paleovolcanic process, occurred during the Late Paleozoic.

  1. Precondition of right frontal region with anodal tDCS can restore the fear memory impairment induced by ACPA in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteghi, Fariborz; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-01-01

    Fear memory and learning cause behavioural patterns such as fight or flight responses, which increase survival probability, but unfit processing of fear memory and learning can lead to maladaptive behaviours and maladies such as phobias, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and anxiety disorders. The growing prevalence of these maladies shows the need to quest novel methods for their treatment. We used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the right frontal region as a precondition neuromodulator and arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA), a selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist, as a fear memory impairing agent to assess their effects on contextual and auditory fear conditioning (reliable model for fear studies). Right frontal anodal tDCS (0.2 mA for. 20 minutes) 24 hours before the train did not alter contextual and auditory learning and memory in short-term (24 hrs after the training phase). Moreover, intraperitoneal pre-train injection of ACPA (0.1 mg/kg) alone, decreased both contextual and auditory learning and memory in short- but not long-term. Right frontal anodal tDCS improved short-term contextual fear memory in subthreshold doses of ACPA. On the other hand, right frontal anodal tDCS in long-term improved (lower doses of ACPA) and restored (higher doses of ACPA) both fear memories. These findings showed that, aforementioned approach could cause durable learning and memory improvements. Also this combined modality could be useful for fear extinction training and maladies which inflict amnesia. PMID:28337114

  2. Regional Changes in Word-Production Laterality after a Naming Treatment Designed to Produce a Rightward Shift in Frontal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, Bruce; Moore, Anna Bacon; McGregor, Keith M.; Chang, Yu-Ling; Benjamin, Michelle; Gopinath, Kaundinya; Sherod, Megan E.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Peck, Kyung K.; Briggs, Richard W.; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; White, Keith D.

    2009-01-01

    Five nonfluent aphasia patients participated in a picture-naming treatment that used an intention manipulation (opening a box and pressing a button on a device in the box with the left hand) to initiate naming trials and was designed to re-lateralize word production mechanisms from the left to the right frontal lobe. To test the underlying…

  3. Superiority of Filtered Tailings Storage Facility to Conventional Tailings Impoundment in Southern Rainy Regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the superiority of a filtered tailings storage facility (FTSF to conventional tailings impoundment in the southern rainy regions of China (SRRC, the tailings slurry leakage and pollution accident occurring at the wet tailings dam (WTD of Yinshan were analyzed, the properties of the tailings were tested in a laboratory, and the possibility of tailings liquefaction was evaluated. Comparisons of the slope stabilities of the filtered tailings dam (FTD and WTD in normal operation, flood, continuous rainfall, and earthquake situations were simulated using the Slide software. The results show that the FTD has less chance of seepage, lower failure probability, and limited potential destructiveness than the WTD with average slope safety factors of 2.120 for normal operation, 1.919 for flooding, 1.204 for continuous rainfall, and 1.724 for a magnitude-6.0 earthquake. The disaster chain model of the WTD of Yinshan belongs to the bursting and slippage chain. As the most safe and effective active prevention measure, the FTSF has the advantages of saving water, protecting the environment, improving its stability in flood and rainfall situations, and reducing the dam failure probability and potential losses, which is greatly applicable to the SRRC.

  4. Bathymetric distribution of fish in the Apostle Islands region, Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryer, William R.

    1966-01-01

    Records of seasonal and “all-season” (April-December) bathymetric distribution are given for 17 species of fish taken in bottom trawls and experimental gill nets fished on the bottom in 1958–63 in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior. The data are based on catches from 578 trawl tows at 2–59 fathoms and 301,900 linear feet of gill nets fished at 2–89 fathoms. Size of the fish varied widely among different species from the same gear and the same species from different gears. Seasonal differences in depth distribution were greatest for lake trout, bloaters, round whitefish, and older smelt, which exhibited an inshore movement in the summer and fall, and for longnose suckers, which migrated to deeper water with progress of the seasons. The all-season bathymetric distributions varied considerably among species. Round whitefish, 0- and I-group smelt, longnose suckers, ninespine sticklebacks, and johnny darters were most abundant at < 10 fathoms. Concentrations of lake trout, lake herring, lake whitefish, older smelt, trout-perch, and burbot were greatest at 10–29 fathoms. Pygmy whitefish were most common at 30–39 fathoms, bloaters and spoonhead sculpins at 40–49 fathoms, and shortjaw ciscoes, slimy sculpins, and fourhorn sculpins at 50–59 fathoms. The kiyi was most abundant at 70–79 fathoms.

  5. Regional frontal gray matter volume associated with executive function capacity as a risk factor for vehicle crashes in normal aging adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Sakai

    Full Text Available Although low executive functioning is a risk factor for vehicle crashes among elderly drivers, the neural basis of individual differences in this cognitive ability remains largely unknown. Here we aimed to examine regional frontal gray matter volume associated with executive functioning in normal aging individuals, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. To this end, 39 community-dwelling elderly volunteers who drove a car on a daily basis participated in structural magnetic resonance imaging, and completed two questionnaires concerning executive functioning and risky driving tendencies in daily living. Consequently, we found that participants with low executive function capacity were prone to risky driving. Furthermore, VBM analysis revealed that lower executive function capacity was associated with smaller gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA. Thus, the current data suggest that SMA volume is a reliable predictor of individual differences in executive function capacity as a risk factor for vehicle crashes among elderly persons. The implication of our results is that regional frontal gray matter volume might underlie the variation in driving tendencies among elderly drivers. Therefore, detailed driving behavior assessments might be able to detect early neurodegenerative changes in the frontal lobe in normal aging adults.

  6. Spatial and seasonal variability of fractionated phytoplankton biomass and primary production in the frontal region of the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. VADRUCCI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and seasonal patterns of variation of fractionated phytoplankton biomass and primary production and their relationships with nutrient concentrations were analyzed along an inshore - offshore gradient and in relation to the presence of a frontal system in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Sampling was carried out in winter and summer during four oceanographic cruises (June 1996 and 1997, February 1997 and 1998 as part of the PRISMA II project. Water samples for determining nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton biomass (as Chla and primary production (as 14 C assimilation were collected at five optical depths. Sampling stations were located along 2 or 4 parallel transects arranged perpendicularly to the shoreline and the frontal system. The transects were located at such a distance from the coast that the frontal system crossed them at their halfway point. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN and total dissolved phosphorus concentrations (TDP were 12.41 ± 3 .95 mM and 0.146 ± 0 .070 mM, respectively. The values in the two seasonal periods were similar, decreasing along the inshore-offshore gradient. Values for phytoplankton biomass and primary productionwere higher in the winter than the summer cruises, and decreased, in both seasonal periods, along the inshore / offshore gradient. Moreover, in both seasonal periods, picophytoplankton dominated both biomass and productivity, (56% and 44%, respectively at stations beyond the frontal system, while microphytoplankton was more important at stations inside it (44% and 44%, respectively. Total phytoplankton biomass and primary production were directly related to nutrient concentrations. Regarding size classes, significant patterns of variation with nutrients were observed particularly for biomass. The results indicate that the size structure and function of phytoplankton guilds seem to be mediated by nutrient inflow, as well as by competitive interaction among size fractions.

  7. Functional organization of human intraparietal and frontal cortex for attending, looking, and pointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafiev, Serguei V.; Shulman, Gordon L.; Stanley, Christine M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Van Essen, David C.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    We studied the functional organization of human posterior parietal and frontal cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map preparatory signals for attending, looking, and pointing to a peripheral visual location. The human frontal eye field and two separate regions in the intraparietal sulcus were similarly recruited in all conditions, suggesting an attentional role that generalizes across response effectors. However, the preparation of a pointing movement selectively activated a different group of regions, suggesting a stronger role in motor planning. These regions were lateralized to the left hemisphere, activated by preparation of movements of either hand, and included the inferior and superior parietal lobule, precuneus, and posterior superior temporal sulcus, plus the dorsal premotor and anterior cingulate cortex anteriorly. Surface-based registration of macaque cortical areas onto the map of fMRI responses suggests a relatively good spatial correspondence between human and macaque parietal areas. In contrast, large interspecies differences were noted in the topography of frontal areas.

  8. Functional organization of the left inferior precentral sulcus: dissociating the inferior frontal eye field and the inferior frontal junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derrfuss, J.; Vogt, V.L.; Fiebach, C.J.; Cramon, D.Y. von; Tittgemeyer, M.

    2012-01-01

    Two eye fields have been described in the human lateral frontal cortex: the frontal eye field (FEF) and the inferior frontal eye field (iFEF). The FEF has been extensively studied and has been found to lie at the ventral part of the superior precentral sulcus. Much less research, however, has focuse

  9. Bloqueo regional axilar en trauma de miembro superior en el Hospital General Luis Vernaza.

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Ligua, Rosa Mariluz

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar tiempo de analgesia en el posoperatorio, medir analgesia mediante escala visual análoga (EVA), protocolizar el bloqueo axilar del plexo braquial como anestesia de elección en el trauma de miembro superior antebrazo muñeca y mano para disminuir losrequerimientos analgésico posquirúrgicos, valoración demográfica por edad sexo y ASA en el Hospital General Luis Vernaza. Materiales y métodos: El estudio fue prospectivo analítico experi...

  10. Frontal Structural Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nicole R.; O’Shea, Andrew M.; Bryant, Vaughn; Porges, Eric C.; Cohen, Ronald; Woods, Adam J.

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is an executive memory process that allows transitional information to be held and manipulated temporarily in memory stores before being forgotten or encoded into long-term memory. Working memory is necessary for everyday decision-making and problem solving, making it a fundamental process in the daily lives of older adults. Working memory relies heavily on frontal lobe structures and is known to decline with age. The current study aimed to determine the neural correlates of decreased working memory performance in the frontal lobes by comparing cortical thickness and cortical surface area from two demographically matched groups of healthy older adults, free from cognitive impairment, with high versus low N-Back working memory performance (N = 56; average age = 70.29 ± 10.64). High-resolution structural T1-weighted images (1 mm isotropic voxels) were obtained on a 3T Philips MRI scanner. When compared to high performers, low performers exhibited significantly decreased cortical surface area in three frontal lobe regions lateralized to the right hemisphere: medial orbital frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus (FDR p brain structural integrity) in right frontal regions may underlie age-related decline of working memory function. PMID:28101053

  11. Spatio-temporal expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in and surrounding a region of rat frontal lobe damaged with a sharp instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixian He; Zhijun Zhang; Yulin Dong; Guangming Lü; Ting Wang; Hengjian Ni

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) cannot be detected in the neurons and glial cells of normal rats, but iNOS can be found in some neurons and glial cells of rats following ischemic, traumatic, neurotoxic or inflammatory damage.OBJECTIVE: To investigate iNOS expression and iNOS-positive cell types at various time points following damage to the rat frontal lobe using a sharp instrument.DESIGN: A nerve molecular biology, randomized, controlled study.TIME AND SETTING: This experiment was performed at the Department of Human Anatomy, Institute of Neurobiology, Medical School of Nantong University, between April 2006 and December 2007.MATERIALS: Rabbit anti-iNOS antibody (Santa Cruz, USA), biotin labeled goat anti-rabbit antibody (Sigma, USA), reverse transcription kit (Biouniquer, Hong Kong, China) and horseradish peroxidase labeled goat anti-rabbit antibody (Pierce, USA) were used for this study.METHODS: A total of 112 healthy rats aged 3 months were randomly assigned into a sham operation group (n = 28) and a damage group (n = 84). Rat models of frontal lobe damage were induced in the damage group using a sharp instrument to make an incision in the frontal lobe cortex. In the sham operation group, the rat bone window was opened but brain tissues were left intact.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parameters were measured at 3, 6, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 168 hours following damage in both groups. Pathological changes were observed using Nissl staining and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Expression of iNOS mRNA, iNOS protein and iNOS-positive cells were examined by RT-PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively.RESULTS: A large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated the damaged region 12 and 24 hours following damage, iNOS mRNA and iNOS protein expression increased in and around the damaged region 3 hours following damage, reached a peak at 24 hours, and then gradually decreased. The changes in iNOS-positive cell number reflected the changes in i

  12. Cephalic Aura after Frontal Lobe Resection

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate cephalic aura more extensive cortical areas need to be excited. Here we report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. MEG showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed on right frontal region, and the latter involved much m...

  13. Escenarios mundiales y regionales de la educación superior Global and regional scenarios of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López Segrera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta un análisis y un ejercicio prospectivo de posibles escenarios y alternativas globales de la educación superior, de entre ellos: modelo tradicional; modelo de libre mercado; educación permanente; red global de instituciones; desaparición de las universidades. Estos escenarios tienen relaciones con el desarrollo de temas de largo contexto, como la globaliazación, la sociedad del conocimiento, las redes de cooperación regionales, la educación permanente y sobre todo los desdoblamientos de la disputa respecto al significado de la educación superior como bien público o comercio rentable.The article presents an analysis and a prospective exercise of possible global scenarios and alternatives for higher education, such as: traditional model; free market model; permanent education; global chain of institutions; disappearance of the universities. These scenarios are related to the development of the large context topics, such as globalization, the society of knowledge, the chains of regional cooperation, permanent education and all the unfoldings of the dispute on the meaning of higher education as a public good or a profitable business.

  14. Effects of lake trout refuges on lake whitefish and cisco in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.

  15. Analysis of a general circulation model product. I - Frontal systems in the Brazil/Malvinas and Kuroshio/Oyashio regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzoli, Silvia L.; Garraffo, Zulema; Podesta, Guillermo; Brown, Otis

    1992-01-01

    The general circulation model (GCM) of Semtner and Chervin (1992) is tested by comparing the fields produced by this model with available observations in two western boundary current regions, the Brazil/Malvinas and the Kuroshio/Oyashio confluences. The two sets of data used are the sea surface temperature from satellite observations and the temperature field product from the GCM at levels 1 (12.5 m), 2 (37.5 m), and 6 (160 m). It is shown that the model reproduces intense thermal fronts at the sea surface and in the upper layers (where they are induced by the internal dynamics of the model). The location of the fronts are reproduced in the model within 4 to 5 deg, compared with observations. However, the variability of these fronts was found to be less pronounced in the model than in the observations.

  16. Evidence for regional cooling, frontal advances, and East Greenland Ice Sheet changes during the demise of the last interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvalı, Nil; Ninnemann, Ulysses S.; Kleiven, Helga (Kikki) F.; Galaasen, Eirik V.; Morley, Audrey; Rosenthal, Yair

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution lithic and sea surface climate records are used to portray the progression of North Atlantic climate, hydrography, and Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) activity through the peak of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e into the last glacial inception. We use Eirik Drift sediment core MD03-2664 (57°26.34‧N, 48°36.35‧W), recovered south of Greenland, strategically located to monitor fluctuations in GIS extent and iceberg calving events. Our results show that a significant amount of ice-rafted debris (IRD) was present during the early MIS 5e, until gradually tapering off by 122 kyr BP due to a diminishing GIS. Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the northern subpolar gyre reached peak values early in MIS 5e coinciding with peak insolation. Regional cooling leading to the demise of the last interglacial started prior to the end of the MIS 5e benthic δ18O plateau, at approximately 119 kyr BP, as summer insolation waned. This gradual cooling trend is interrupted by an abrupt and brief cooling episode at ∼117 kyr BP. Increased IRD abundance during the 117 kyr BP cooling event suggests that regional ice sheet growth occurred prior to the end of the MIS 5e benthic δ18O plateau, and the major glacial inception. SSTs south of Greenland followed a two-step cooling during the glacial inception similar to the pattern observed across much of the North Atlantic and Europe. Benthic δ18O increases in parallel, suggesting that this two-step cooling is linked to a two-phased intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

  17. Frontal and striatal alterations associated with psychopathic traits in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L; Baker, Laura A; Joshi, Shantanu H; Jahanshad, Neda; Raine, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-03-30

    Neuroimaging research has demonstrated a range of structural deficits in adults with psychopathy, but little is known about structural correlates of psychopathic tendencies in adolescents. Here we examined structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data obtained from 14-year-old adolescents (n=108) using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to isolate global and localized differences in brain tissue volumes associated with psychopathic traits in this otherwise healthy developmental population. We found that greater levels of psychopathic traits were correlated with increased brain tissue volumes in the left putamen, left ansa peduncularis, right superiomedial prefrontal cortex, left inferior frontal cortex, right orbitofrontal cortex, and right medial temporal regions and reduced brain tissues volumes in the right middle frontal cortex, left superior parietal lobule, and left inferior parietal lobule. Post hoc analyses of parcellated regional volumes also showed putamen enlargements to correlate with increased psychopathic traits. Consistent with earlier studies, findings suggest poor decision-making and emotional dysregulation associated with psychopathy may be due, in part, to structural anomalies in frontal and temporal regions whereas striatal structural variations may contribute to sensation-seeking and reward-driven behavior in psychopathic individuals. Future studies will help clarify how disturbances in brain maturational processes might lead to the developmental trajectory from psychopathic tendencies in adolescents to adult psychopathy.

  18. Lake Superior summer water temperatures are increasing more rapidly than regional air temperatures: A positive ice-albedo feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jay A.; Colman, Steven M.

    2007-03-01

    Lake Superior summer (July-September) surface water temperatures have increased approximately 2.5°C over the interval 1979-2006, equivalent to a rate of (11 +/- 6) × 10-2°C yr-1, significantly in excess of regional atmospheric warming. This discrepancy is caused by declining winter ice cover, which is causing the onset of the positively stratified season to occur earlier at a rate of roughly a half day per year. An earlier start of the stratified season significantly increases the period over which the lake warms during the summer months, leading to a stronger trend in mean summer temperatures than would be expected from changes in summer air temperature alone.

  19. Image-guided frontal trephination: a minimally invasive approach for hard-to-reach frontal sinus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharek, Mark A; Fong, Karen J; Hwang, Peter H

    2006-10-01

    Peripherally located frontal sinus pathology may be unreachable with standard endoscopic techniques. Patients with superiorly or laterally based lesions often undergo osteoplastic flap with or without obliteration. Image-guided frontal trephination (IGFT) can localize pathology and provide excellent exposure. We present 13 patients in whom this technique was applied. Medical records of 13 patients undergoing IGFT were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' mean age was 49.2 years, (range 14-79); follow-up time was 29.9 months (range 12-39). Indications for IGFT were superiorly or laterally based mucoceles (3), fibrous dysplasia or osteoma (3), type 4 frontal cells (3), and frontal recess stenosis or ossification (4). In five patients, IGFT was combined with endoscopic transethmoid frontal sinusotomy; eight patients were treated through a trephination approach, and three patients underwent trephination with unilateral frontal sinus obliteration. One patient required revision; all others remain symptom free. IGFT offers an attractive alternative to osteoplastic flap.

  20. Impacts of extensive driftnet fishery and late 1990s climate regime shift on dominant epipelagic nekton in the Transition Region and Subtropical Frontal Zone: Implications for fishery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, T.; Nishikawa, H.; Igarashi, H.; Okamura, H.; Mahapatra, K.; Sakai, M.; Wakabayashi, T.; Inagake, D.; Okada, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the impacts of extensive anthropogenic (high seas driftnet squid fishery) and natural (late 1990s major climate regime shift) events on dominant epipelagic fish, squid, and shark in the central North Pacific Transition Region based on a driftnet survey covering the years 1979-2006. Fishing was conducted by Japan, Korea and Taiwan to target neon flying squid in the period 1979-1992, resulting in a decline in stocks of the target species and non-target species (Pacific pomfret and juvenile blue shark), which were by-catch of this fishery. The catch was found to be at the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) level for neon flying squid, the underfished level for juvenile blue shark, but the overfished level for Pacific pomfret. The MSY of Pacific pomfret indicated that this species is more susceptible to exploitation than previously considered. In response to the late 1990s regime shift, neon flying squid and Pacific saury showed low stock levels in 1999-2002 and 1998-2002, respectively, as a result of reduced productivity in their nursery grounds (the Subtropical Frontal Zone and Kuroshio Extension Bifurcation Region, respectively). On the other hand, Pacific pomfret showed no decreasing trend in stock during the low- and intermediate-productivity regimes because of the high productivity of their main spawning/nursery ground (Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front), which was independent of the regime shifts. Thus, squid and saury appear to be more susceptible to the regime shift than pomfret. We discuss the implications for stock management of the species-specific responses to the fishery and the regime shift.

  1. Human frontal lobes are not relatively large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Robert A; Venditti, Chris

    2013-05-28

    One of the most pervasive assumptions about human brain evolution is that it involved relative enlargement of the frontal lobes. We show that this assumption is without foundation. Analysis of five independent data sets using correctly scaled measures and phylogenetic methods reveals that the size of human frontal lobes, and of specific frontal regions, is as expected relative to the size of other brain structures. Recent claims for relative enlargement of human frontal white matter volume, and for relative enlargement shared by all great apes, seem to be mistaken. Furthermore, using a recently developed method for detecting shifts in evolutionary rates, we find that the rate of change in relative frontal cortex volume along the phylogenetic branch leading to humans was unremarkable and that other branches showed significantly faster rates of change. Although absolute and proportional frontal region size increased rapidly in humans, this change was tightly correlated with corresponding size increases in other areas and whole brain size, and with decreases in frontal neuron densities. The search for the neural basis of human cognitive uniqueness should therefore focus less on the frontal lobes in isolation and more on distributed neural networks.

  2. Task-modulated activation and functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas during speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Q; Zhang, L; Xu, G; Shu, H; Li, P

    2013-05-01

    There is general consensus in the literature that a distributed network of temporal and frontal brain areas is involved in speech comprehension. However, how active versus passive tasks modulate the activation and the functional connectivity of the critical brain areas is not clearly understood. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify intelligibility and task-related effects in speech comprehension. Participants performed a semantic judgment task on normal and time-reversed sentences, or passively listened to the sentences without making an overt response. The subtraction analysis demonstrated that passive sentence comprehension mainly engaged brain areas in the left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG), whereas active sentence comprehension recruited bilateral frontal regions in addition to the aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG regions. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that during passive sentence comprehension, the left aSTS/MTG was functionally connected with the left Heschl's gyrus (HG) and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) but no area was functionally connected with the left pSTS/MTG; during active sentence comprehension, however, both the left aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG were functionally connected with bilateral superior temporal and inferior frontal areas. While these results are consistent with the view that the ventral stream of the temporo-frontal network subserves semantic processing, our findings further indicate that both the activation and the functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas are modulated by task demands. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Myelin in the frontal region of corpus callosum in old rats%老年大鼠胼胝体额区有髓神经纤维与髓鞘改变的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐瑲; 兰欢; 卢伟; 唐勇

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨老年大鼠胼胝体额区有髓神经纤维、髓鞘的结构变化和髓鞘碱性蛋白(Myelin basic protein,MBP)的表达变化,以及二者间的关系.方法:运用透射电子显微镜和新的体视学方法分别对年轻组和老年组雌性Long-Evans大鼠胼胝体额区有髓神经纤维和髓鞘进行定量研究,运用Western blot对年轻组和老年组大鼠胼胝体额区MBP表达进行定量研究.结果:与年轻组相比,老年组胼胝体额区体积存在显著性降低,有髓神经纤维总体积显著性下降,21.5 kD MBP表达量显著性降低.21.5 kD MBP的表达降低与有髓神经纤维总体积、髓鞘总体积的降低之间呈正相关.结论:胼胝体存在显著性老年萎缩,胼胝体额区有髓神经纤维和MBP的老年改变可能与老年大脑额叶功能下降有关.%Objective : To explore the age-related changes of the mvelinated fihers ,myelin sheath and the expression of myelin basic protein in the frontal region of the corpus callosum in old rats , and their relationship. Methods : The myelinated fibers and sheathes in the frontal region of corpus callosum of young and old-aged female Long-Evans rats were quantitatively studied using electron microscope and unhiased stereological techniques.Myelin basic proteins in the frontal region of corpus callosum of young and old-aged female rats were quantitatively studied using Western hlot. Results : When compared with young female rats, the total volume of the frontal region of the corpus callosum and the total volume of the myelinated fibers in the frontal region of old corpus callosum were significantly degraded. The expression of 21.5 kD MBP was significantly decreased in old rats. The reduction of the expression of 21.5 kD MBP,the reduction of the total volume of the myelinated fihers and the total volume of the myelin sheathes were positively correlated. Conclusion : There is age-related atrophy of the frontal region of corpus callosum. The age

  4. Desempenho agronômico das videiras 'Crimson Seedless' e 'Superior Seedless' no norte de Minas Gerais Agronomic performance of 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Superior Seedless' vines in the north region of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Feldberg

    2007-06-01

    productivity for 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Superior Seedless' grapes and can be indicated for cultivation in the Jaíba region.

  5. Comminuted Frontal Sinus Fracture Reconstructed With Titanium Mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakat, Muhammed Sedat; Kilic, Korhan; Altas, Enver; Gozeler, Mustafa Sitki; Ucuncu, Harun

    2016-03-01

    Frontal sinus fractures (FSF) are relatively uncommon maxillofacial injuries. The most common cause of FSF is motor vehicle accidents with 62% percentage. Management of FSF depends on type of fracture, associated injuries, and involvement of naso-frontal duct. In this report, the authors presented a patient with comminuted fracture of anterior wall of frontal sinus reconstructed with titanium mesh. A 40-year-old man presented with depression of the frontal bone, facial pain, and epistaxis consisting of a motor vehicle accident. Computerized tomography scan revealed multiple comminuted fractures of anterior wall of frontal sinus and fractures of left orbital medial and superior walls. Titanium mesh was used for reconstruction. Postoperative course was uneventful. The titanium mesh, which is easy to handle with no complications, may provide excellent frontal contour after comminuted anterior wall fractures.

  6. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Marin E; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2014-05-01

    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here, we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. [2009]: Psychiatry Res 172:147-154 in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field, and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC] and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. 经额上沟入路神经内镜手术治疗高血压脑出血疗效分析%Curative effect analysis of neuroendoscopic surgery via superior frontal sulcus in the treatment of ;hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶亮; 陈治标; 张华平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the surgical technique and the curative effects of neuroendoscopic surgery via superior frontal sulcus in the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods The clinical data of 63 patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage were analyzed retrospectively. Thirty-one of them were treated by neuroendoscopic surgery via superior frontal sulcus(neuroendoscopic surgery group), and 32 of them were treated by mini- invasive drainage (conventional therapy group). All of them were followed up for 6 months, and were assessed by the activity of daily living (ADL) scale. Results After treatment, all patients reviewed CT. The clear rate of hematoma in neuroendoscopic surgery group was 86.0%, in conventional therapy group was 23.3%, and there was significant difference (P<0.05). There were one death case in neuroendoscopic surgery group and 2 death cases in conventional therapy group. The survival patients were followed up for 6 months .The rate of better prognosis in neuroendoscopic surgery group was 83.3%(25/30), in conventional therapy group was 53.3%(16/30), and there was significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusions The surgical technique of neuroendoscopic surgery via superior frontal sulcus in the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage is safe and effective.%目的:探讨经额上沟入路神经内镜辅助脑内血肿清除术治疗高血压脑出血的手术策略及治疗效果。方法63例高血压脑出血患者,31例行经额上沟入路神经内镜辅助脑内血肿清除术(内镜辅助组),32例行常规微创穿刺引流术(常规治疗组)。术后随访6个月,应用日常生活量表(ADL)进行评定并比较。结果术后复查头颅CT,内镜辅助组血肿清除率为86.0%。常规治疗组血肿清除率为23.3%,两组血肿清除率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。内镜辅助组死亡1例,常规治疗组死亡2例。存活患者术后随访6个月,内镜

  8. Increase in oxytocin and vasopressin concentration in the blood outflowing from sella turcica region after superior cervical ganglion stimulation in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinska, S.; Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the stimulation of the superior cervical ganglion influences the oxytocin and vasopressin release into the blood in condition of the of the sella turcica integrity. The experiments were performed on male rats under urethane-chloralose anaesthesia. Four 0.7 ml samples of the blood from the sella turcica region flowing through a tube inserted in the maxillary interna vein were collected in the 30, 35, 60 and 90 min of the experiments. The animals were divided into three groups: 1) control, 2) after the exposition of superior cervical ganglion. 3) after the collection of the 1-st sample of the blood the superior cervical ganglion was electrically stimulated for 30 min with trains of pulses. Vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXY) were determined in the blood plasma by radioimmunoassay. Stimulation of the superior cervical ganglion evoked an significant increase of AVP and OXY release into the blood. The increase of AVP release occurred after 30 min longer latency than the increase of OXY release. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs.

  9. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Yong; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Yoon, Byung Woo; Lee, Sang Bok; Jeon, Beom S. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p<0.05). There was no correlation between the severity of the motor abnormality and any of the regional cerebral perfusion indices (p>0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  10. Frontal headache induced by osteoma of frontal recess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Soo

    2013-01-01

    We reported a case of osteoma involving the frontal recess, which presented as frontal headache and reviewed literatures. Also, this case highlights that sinunasal osteomas can cause pain by local mass effects, referred pain, or prostaglandin E2-mediated mechanisms.

  11. APUNTES SOBRE SOCIOLOGÍA DE LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR EN CONTEXTO INTERNACIONAL, REGIONAL Y LOCAL

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner,José Joaquín

    2009-01-01

    El presente artículo analiza el estadio de desarrollo en que se encuentra la sociología de la educación superior en los países del norte, con énfasis en los Estados Unidos y Europa, y su grado de implantación en América Latina de habla hispana y en Chile, en particular. Revisa los procesos de institucionalización académica, profesionalización de la investigación y producción disciplinaria en los países centrales y su posterior evolución por difusión geográfica, inclusión de nuevos temas, énfa...

  12. Expert cognitive control and individual differences associated with frontal and parietal white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R Edward; Anderson, Elaine J; Husain, Masud

    2010-12-15

    Although many functional imaging studies have reported frontal activity associated with "cognitive control" tasks, little is understood about factors underlying individual differences in performance. Here we compared the behavior and brain structure of healthy controls with fighter pilots, an expert group trained to make precision choices at speed in the presence of conflicting cues. Two different behavioral paradigms--Eriksen Flanker and change of plan tasks--were used to assess the influence of distractors and the ability to update ongoing action plans. Fighter pilots demonstrated superior cognitive control as indexed by accuracy and postconflict adaptation on the Flanker task, but also showed increased sensitivity to irrelevant, distracting choices. By contrast, when pilots were examined on their ability to inhibit a current action plan in favor of an alternative response, their performance was no better than the control group. Diffusion weighted imaging revealed differences in white matter radial diffusivity between pilots and controls not only in the right dorsomedial frontal region but also in the right parietal lobe. Moreover, analysis of individual differences in reaction time costs for conflict trials on the Flanker task demonstrated significant correlations with radial diffusivity at these locations, but in different directions. Postconflict adaptation effects, however, were confined to the dorsomedial frontal locus. The findings demonstrate that in humans expert cognitive control may surprisingly be mediated by enhanced response gain to both relevant and irrelevant stimuli, and is accompanied by structural alterations in the white matter of the frontal and parietal lobe.

  13. Setor educacional do MERCOSUL: convergência e integração regional da educação superior brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleide S. Silveira

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este trabalho busca apreender as recentes modificações na educação superior brasileira por meio de duas mediações principais: o Estado brasileiro e o Setor Educacional do Mercado Comum do Sul (SEM. O contexto é de internacionalização da economia e de relações sociopolíticas que consistem nas formas históricas de estruturas articuladas institucionalmente na organização e funcionamento da educação. Evidencia os esforços de gestão supranacional dos assuntos educacionais ao mesmo tempo em que procura compreender a relação entre a grande política (formulada em nível supranacional no SEM e a pequena política, levada adiante no aparelho de Estado brasileiro, em tono da formulação das políticas públicas de educação superior. Desvela os mecanismos institucionais que vêm propiciando a integração e regionalização da educação superior por meio de dois vetores direcionadores da reforma da educação superior: avaliação e mobilidade. O tempo da pesquisa remonta à gênese do MERCOSUL, no início dos anos 1990, estendendo-se até os dias atuais, com base na análise documental de atas de reuniões, protocolos, planos de ação, tratados e acordos firmados no âmbito do SEM e pelo conjunto de indicações e de legislação formuladas nos mandatos de governos brasileiros, no período 1995-2014, de modo a acrescentar a dimensão do tempo à compreensão da ação política dos sujeitos envolvidos na formulação das políticas de educação superior em âmbito regional e nacional; e, à apreensão dos embates de forças com disputas teóricas e políticas em torno da reforma da educação superior.

  14. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P.; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. PMID:26350727

  15. Frontal white matter anisotropy and antidepressant remission in late-life depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren D Taylor

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroanatomic features associated with antidepressant treatment outcomes in older depressed individuals are not well established. This study used diffusion tensor imaging to examine frontal white matter structure in depressed subjects undergoing a 12-week trial of sertraline. We hypothesized that remission would be associated with higher frontal anisotropy measures, and failure to remit with lower anisotropy. METHODS: 74 subjects with Major Depressive Disorder and age 60 years or older were enrolled in a twelve-week open-label trial of sertraline and completed clinical assessments and 1.5T magnetic resonance brain imaging. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC and fractional anisotropy (FA were measured in regions of interest placed in the white matter of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and corpus callosum. Differences in ADC and FA values between subjects who did and did not remit to treatment over the study period were assessed using generalized estimating equations, controlling for age, sex, medical comorbidity and baseline depression severity. RESULTS: Subjects who did not remit to sertraline exhibited higher FA values in the superior frontal gyri and anterior cingulate cortices bilaterally. There were no statistically significant associations between ADC measures and remission. CONCLUSIONS: Failure to remit to sertraline is associated with higher frontal FA values. Functional imaging studies demonstrate that depression is characterized by functional disconnection between frontal and limbic regions. Those individuals where this disconnection is related to structural changes as detected by DTI may be more likely to respond to antidepressants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00339066.

  16. Integración regional centroamericana de la Educación Superior Pública: escenarios y desafíos / Central america regional integration of the public higher education: challenges and scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Varela, Luis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se aborda aquí un breve análisis acerca de la globalización y de la sociedad del conocimiento, en su relación con las iniciativas de articulación académica interinstitucional y de integración regional impulsadas por las instituciones de educación superior pública de Centroamérica, a partir de 1995 y en el escenario asociativo del Consejo Superior Universitario Centroamericano (CSUCA. El propósito consiste en identificar elementos que permitan discernir el carácter y los niveles de reconfiguración académica e institucional que, de manera general, las nuevas realidades estructurales en curso acarrean para la educación superior pública de Centroamérica.Abstract:This article develops a brief analysis about globalization and the society of knowledge in terms of the attempts of inter-institutional and regional academic articulation proposed –since 1995- by the Central American institutions of higher education through Consejo Superior Universitario Centroamericano (CSUCA. The principal aim is to identify those elements that could clarify the character and the levels of the academic and institutional reconfiguration that, in a general way, the new ongoing structural realities demand from Central American public higher education.

  17. Increased functional connectivity between superior colliculus and brain regions implicated in bodily self-consciousness during the rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivé, Isadora; Tempelmann, Claus; Berthoz, Alain; Heinze, Hans-Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Bodily self-consciousness refers to bodily processes operating at personal, peripersonal, and extrapersonal spatial dimensions. Although the neural underpinnings of representations of personal and peripersonal space associated with bodily self-consciousness were thoroughly investigated, relatively few is known about the neural underpinnings of representations of extrapersonal space relevant for bodily self-consciousness. In the search to unravel brain structures generating a representation of the extrapersonal space relevant for bodily self-consciousness, we developed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to investigate the implication of the superior colliculus (SC) in bodily illusions, and more specifically in the rubber hand illusion (RHi), which constitutes an established paradigm to study the neural underpinnings of bodily self-consciousness. We observed activation of the colliculus ipsilateral to the manipulated hand associated with eliciting of RHi. A generalized form of context-dependent psychophysiological interaction analysis unravelled increased illusion-dependent functional connectivity between the SC and some of the main brain areas previously involved in bodily self-consciousness: right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), bilateral ventral premotor cortex (vPM), and bilateral postcentral gyrus. We hypothesize that the collicular map of the extrapersonal space interacts with maps of the peripersonal and personal space generated at rTPJ, vPM and the postcentral gyrus, producing a unified representation of space that is relevant for bodily self-consciousness. We suggest that processes of multisensory integration of bodily-related sensory inputs located in this unified representation of space constitute one main factor underpinning emergence of bodily self-consciousness.

  18. Reduced frontal brain volume in non-treatment seeking cocaine dependent individuals: exploring the role of impulsivity, depression and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleo Lina Crunelle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In cocaine-dependent patients, grey matter (GM volume reductions have been observed in the frontal lobes that are associated with duration of cocaine use. Studies are mostly restricted to treatment-seekers and studies in non-treatment seeking cocaine abusers are sparse. Here, we assessed GM volume differences between 30 non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals and 33 non drug using controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Additionally, within the group of non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals, we explored the role of frequently co-occurring features such as of trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Score, BIS, smoking, depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, as well as the role of cocaine use duration, on frontal GM volume. Smaller GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals were observed in the left middle frontal gyrus. Moreover, within the group of cocaine users, trait impulsivity was associated with reduced GM volume in the right OFC, the left precentral gyrus and the right superior frontal gyrus, whereas no effect of smoking severity, depressive symptoms or duration of cocaine use was observed on regional GM volumes. Our data show an important association between trait impulsivity and frontal GM volumes in cocaine-dependent individuals. In contrast to previous studies with treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent patients, no significant effects of smoking severity, depressive symptoms or duration of cocaine use on frontal GM volume were observed. Reduced frontal GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent subjects are associated with trait impulsivity and are not associated with co-occurring nicotine dependence or depression.

  19. Patients with Poor Response to Antipsychotics Have a More Severe Pattern of Frontal Atrophy: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of Treatment Resistance in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Quarantelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of schizophrenia patients do not respond adequately to the therapy. Previous MRI studies have suggested that drug treatment resistance is associated with brain morphological abnormalities, although region-of-interest analysis of MR studies from nonresponder and responder patients failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference between these two schizophrenia subgroups. We have used a voxel-based analysis of segmented MR studies to assess structural cerebral differences in 20 nonresponder and 15 responder patients and 16 age-matched normal volunteers. Differences between the three groups emerged bilaterally mainly at the level of the superior and middle frontal gyri, primarily due to reduced grey matter volumes in nonresponders, as compared to both normal volunteers and responder patients. Post hoc direct comparison between the two schizophrenia subgroups demonstrated significantly reduced grey matter volumes in middle frontal gyrus bilaterally, in the dorsolateral aspects of left superior frontal gyrus extending into postcentral gyrus and in the right medial temporal cortex. Our results extend and integrate previous findings suggesting a more severe atrophy in nonresponder schizophrenia patients, compared to responder patients, mainly at the level of the superior and middle frontal gyri. Longitudinal studies in drug-naïve patients are needed to assess the role of these associations.

  20. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging.

  1. Cephalic aura after frontal lobe resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jehi, Lara; Alkawadri, Rafeed; Wang, Zhong I; Enatsu, Rei; Mosher, John C; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Burgess, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate a cephalic aura extensive cortical areas need to be excited. We report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed in the right frontal region, and the latter involved much more widespread areas than the former on MEG sensors. The peculiar seizure onset pattern may indicate that surgical modification of the epileptic network was related to the appearance of cephalic aura. We hypothesize that generation of cephalic aura may be associated with more extensive cortical involvement of epileptic activity than that of interictal activity, in at least a subset of cases.

  2. Frontal White Matter Damage Impairs Response Inhibition in Children Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipszyc, Jonathan; Levin, Harvey; Hanten, Gerri; Hunter, Jill; Dennis, Maureen; Schachar, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition, the ability to suppress inappropriate cognitions or behaviors, can be measured using computer tasks and questionnaires. Inhibition depends on the frontal cortex, but the role of the underlying white matter (WM) is unclear. We assessed the specific impact of frontal WM damage on inhibition in 29 children with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (15 with and 14 without frontal WM damage), 21 children with orthopedic injury, and 29 population controls. We used the Stop Signal Task to measure response inhibition, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function to assess everyday inhibition, and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging to identify lesions. Children with frontal WM damage had impaired response inhibition compared with all other groups and poorer everyday inhibition than the orthopedic injury group. Frontal WM lesions most often affected the superior frontal gyrus. These results provide evidence for the critical role of frontal WM in inhibition. PMID:24618405

  3. Criminal Responsibility of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Mustafa Talip; Ozcan, Halil; Sahingoz, Sadik; Ogul, Hayri

    2015-10-01

    Neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms might be detected due to damage of frontal lobes as detected in damages of many brain regions. Frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) occurs as a result of damage in prefrontal region due to various causes. Symptoms due to prefrontal region damage, varies according to the size and location of the lesion. In most of the cases; executive dysfunctions, attention deficits, inconsistencies in social life, impulse control problems, obsessive behaviors and violence behaviors are common clinical signs. Behavioral symptoms seen in FLS can be confused with personality disorders and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. FLS is a neuropsychiatric disorder rarely assessed in forensic psychiatry and in terms of detection of criminal responsibility. In this case report, criminal responsibility in FLS was assessed through a FLS case in which an offense of "threat" was committed and investigated in terms of criminal responsibility.

  4. Frontal-opercular aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubner, R W; Raymer, A M; Heilman, K M

    1999-11-01

    The standard nomenclature divides nonfluent aphasic syndromes with relatively spared comprehension into Broca's aphasia and transcortical motor aphasia. We report on a patient with a persistent nonfluent aphasia from a discrete, primarily cortical, frontal-opercular lesion who had impaired syntax but intact repetition and, therefore, did not conform to the traditional classification. Based on this patient's behavior and a review of other cases, we have divided the nonfluent aphasias with intact comprehension into five disorders. (1) Verbal akinesia-exhibiting diminished intention or drive to speak and associated with medial frontal lesions (supplementary motor area and cingulate gyrus) or with lesions damaging the efferent projections from these areas. (2) Disorders of syntax-telegraphic and agrammatic utterances that may be associated with dominant pars opercularis lesions. (3) Phonemic disintegration-a failure to correctly produce phonemes, which may be associated with injury to the opercular primary motor cortex or efferent projections from this area. (4) Defects of lexical access-patients who struggle to find words and are impaired at timed word-generation tasks. Defects of lexical access may be associated with lesions of the pars triangularis and adjacent prefrontal cortex. (5) Mixed defects. According to this model, the traditional patient with Broca's aphasia would exhibit disorders of syntax, phonemic disintegration, and defects of lexical access, whereas the traditional patient with transcortical motor aphasia would have verbal akinesia or defects of lexical access or both. Our patient had defects of lexical access and syntax, but only mild symptoms of phonemic disintegration, suggesting that his opercular primary motor cortex was relatively intact. Our patient's ability to repeat normally while his propositional speech remained telegraphic suggests that different neural mechanisms subserve these functions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. La Calidad de las Aguas en el Curso Superior y Medio del Río Traiguén: IX Región-Chile Superior and Medium Water Quality in Traiguén River: IX Region-Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson R Rivera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se establece la calidad de agua del curso superior y medio del río Traiguén ubicado en la IX Región de la Araucanía en Chile. La caracterización fisicoquímica y microbiológica se efectuó fijando seis estaciones de muestreo, desde un lugar cercano a la naciente del río hasta el límite comunal de la ciudad de Victoria con Traiguén. Los valores mas bajos en los parámetros evaluados, los presentan las aguas de las estaciones 1 y 2 ubicadas fuera del límite urbano, contrariamente a lo que ocurre con las estaciones 3, 4 y 5 que muestran los efectos de los afluentes: planta lácteos, curtiembre y aguas servidas respectivamente. Los resultados de la parte microbiológica señalan que las aguas de ninguna de las estaciones del río pueden emplearse como fuente de abastecimiento para consumo humano por estar sobre los límites fijados por la norma chilena (NCh 409, 1984. Se presentan limitaciones en sus comunidades así como para su uso en regadío, y recreación con contacto directo.The water quality in the upper and medium zone of Traiguén river in the Araucanía region was studied in the present work. Physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured at six sample stations in a zone that goes from close to the origin of the river to the limits of the city of Victoria with Traiguén. The influence of the Victoria town on the water quality of Traiguen river generates as consequence low values of studied parameters that were reported in sampling stations 1 and 2 located in the surrounding of Victoria town. A different situation was reported in stations 3, 4 and 5, that show the effects of waste dispose by milky industries, leather industries and waste water respectively. The results of microbiological parameters denoted that the water of all sampled stations can not be used for human use because the parameters are upper than regulations. Also, limitations were denoted in their ecological parameters, and for their

  6. Frontal mucocele with intracranial extension causing frontal lobe syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmayer, Sara

    2015-06-01

    Mucoceles are mucus-containing cysts that form in paranasal sinuses; although mucoceles themselves are benign, this case report highlights the extensive damage they can cause as their expansion may lead to bony erosion and extension of the mucocele into the orbit and cranium; it also presents a rarely reported instance of frontal sinus mucocele leading to frontal lobe syndrome. A thorough discussion and review of mucoceles is included. A 68-year-old white man presented with intermittent diplopia and a pressure sensation in the right eye. He had a history of chronic sinusitis and had had endoscopic sinus surgery 5 years prior. A maxillofacial computed tomography scan revealed a large right frontal sinus mucocele, which had caused erosion along the medial wall of the right orbit and the outer and inner tables of the right frontal sinus. The mucocele had protruded both into the right orbit and intracranially, causing mass effect on the frontal lobe, which led to frontal lobe syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with endoscopic right ethmoidectomy, radial frontal sinusotomy, marsupialization of the mucocele, and transcutaneous irrigation. Paranasal sinus mucoceles may expand and lead to bony erosion and can become very invasive in surrounding structures such as the orbit and cranium. This case not only exhibits a very rare presentation of frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial extension and frontal lobe mass effect causing a frontal lobe syndrome but also demonstrates many of the ocular and visual complications commonly associated with paranasal sinus mucoceles. Early identification and surgical intervention is vital for preventing and reducing morbidity associated with invasive mucoceles, and the patient must be followed regularly to monitor for recurrence.

  7. Modulation of frontal effective connectivity during speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Rachel; Leff, Alex P; Penny, William D; Rothwell, John C; Crinion, Jenny

    2016-10-15

    Noninvasive neurostimulation methods such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can elicit long-lasting, polarity-dependent changes in neocortical excitability. In a previous concurrent tDCS-fMRI study of overt picture naming, we reported significant behavioural and regionally specific neural facilitation effects in left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) with anodal tDCS applied to left frontal cortex (Holland et al., 2011). Although distributed connectivity effects of anodal tDCS have been modelled at rest, the mechanism by which 'on-line' tDCS may modulate neuronal connectivity during a task-state remains unclear. Here, we used Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) to determine: (i) how neural connectivity within the frontal speech network is modulated during anodal tDCS; and, (ii) how individual variability in behavioural response to anodal tDCS relates to changes in effective connectivity strength. Results showed that compared to sham, anodal tDCS elicited stronger feedback from inferior frontal sulcus (IFS) to ventral premotor (VPM) accompanied by weaker self-connections within VPM, consistent with processes of neuronal adaptation. During anodal tDCS individual variability in the feedforward connection strength from IFS to VPM positively correlated with the degree of facilitation in naming behaviour. These results provide an essential step towards understanding the mechanism of 'online' tDCS paired with a cognitive task. They also identify left IFS as a 'top-down' hub and driver for speech change.

  8. Determination of hemisphere dominance for language: comparison of frontal and temporal fMRI activation with intracarotid amytal testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spreer, J.; Arnold, S.; Ziyeh, S.; Klisch, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Neurozentrum, University of Freiburg (Germany); Quiske, A.; Altenmueller, D.; Schulze-Bonhage, A. [Section for Presurgical Epilepsy Diagnosis, Neurozentrum, University of Freiburg (Germany); Wohlfarth, R.; Steinhoff, B.J. [Epilepsiezentrum, Kehl-Kork (Germany); Herpers, M.; Kassubek, J. [Department of Neurology, Neurozentrum, University of Freiburg (Germany); Honegger, J. [Department of Neurosurgery, Neurozentrum, University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    The reliability of frontal and temporal fMRI activations for the determination of hemisphere language dominance was evaluated in comparison with intracarotid amytal testing (IAT). Twenty-two patients were studied by IAT (bilateral in 13, unilateral in 9 patients) and fMRI using a paradigm requiring semantic decisions. Global and regional (frontal and temporoparietal) lateralisation indices (LI) were calculated from the number of activated (r>0.4) voxels in both hemispheres. Frontolateral activations associated with the language task were seen in all patients, temporoparietal activations in 20 of 22. Regional LI corresponded better with IAT results than global LI. Frontolateral LI were consistent with IAT in all patients with bilateral IAT (including three patients with right dominant and one patient with bilateral language representation) and were not conflicting in any of the patients with unilateral IAT. Temporoparietal LI were discordant with IAT in two patients with atypical language representation. In the determination of hemisphere dominance for language, regional analysis of fMRI activation is superior to global analysis. In cases with clear-cut fMRI lateralisation, i.e. consistent lateralised activation of frontal and temporoparietal language zones, IAT may be unnecessary. FMRI should be performed prior to IAT in all patients going to be operated in brain regions potentially involved in language. (orig.)

  9. Frontal Sinus Patency after Extended Frontal Sinusotomy Type III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajbeygi, Mansour; Nadjafi, Ali; Amali, Amin; Saedi, Babak; Sadrehosseini, Seyed Mousa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The surgical management of chronic frontal sinus disorders remains a challenge for rhinologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the result of Draf III in a series of patients who underwent this procedure. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients were included in this study. Demographic data, history of prior surgery, asthma, aspirin sensitivity and Lund–Mackay score were recorded. A visual analog scale was used for frontal-related symptoms. Patients were followed for a mean duration of 17.5 months and the patency of the frontal sinus ostium was closely monitored. Results: Fifteen patients with chronic frontal sinusitis, two patients with mucoceles, two with malignancy, and one with osteoma underwent Draf III. The mean symptoms score significantly decreased from 5.9 to 3. No ostial closure was seen in the follow-up period. Among 15 patients with chronic frontal sinusitis, 12 had patent ostia of whom three had significant stenosis. All patients with mucocele and osteoma had patent ostia in the follow-up period but patients with sinonasal malignancy showed significant stenosis. Conclusion: Draf III frontal sinusotomy is successful in alleviating patient symptoms and the frontal sinus neo-ostium will remain patent in long-term follow-up of most patients. Revision surgery will be required in some cases, which seems to be related to the nature of the underlying chronic sinus diseases. PMID:27738610

  10. SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and F-18 FDG PET in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This study attempted to investigate the specific pattern of brain perfusion and glucose metabolism in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) family. Using Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. we assessed brain perfusion in 6 patients at interictal period and 5 patients at ictal period. Interictal F-18 FDG PET was performed on 6 affected family members. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The data of the affected family members were compared to those of the control subjects. Interictal F-18 FDG PET SPM group analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism over the left middle and superior frontal gyri and the left central regions including the anterior parietal lobe. There was a less pronounced decrease in glucose uptake in the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. Interictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis showed similar pattern of decreased perfusion compared to those of interictal F-18 FDG PET. Ictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis revealed increased perfusion over the left pre-and postcentral gyri and less pronounced increased perfusion in the right postcentral gyrus. lnterictal F -18 PET and brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis suggest that major abnormalities of ADNFLE family are in the left frontal lobe. These findings may be helpful to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare disease entity.

  11. [Therapeutic superiority of regional retrograde venous antibiotic pressure infusion versus systemic venous infusions in diabetic patients with infected neuropathic plantar ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, C; Bühler-Singer, S; Tacke, J; Hornstein, O P

    1994-02-01

    Since systemic treatment of neuropathic plantar ulcers in diabetics (DNPU) has so far been rather ineffective, recent reports of successful management of DNPU by short-term retrograde transvenous leg perfusion (RVP) by South American angiologists encouraged us to apply this treatment method in diabetics suffering from chronic DNPU. Hence, in a prospective comparative clinical trial started in 1989 we have treated 45 male diabetics suffering from DNPU with the same daily doses of netilmycin, administered either in systemic venous infusions (SVI: n = 21, three times/day) or in RVP (n = 24, once/day). After 10 consecutive days of treatment, ulcers had closed in 8 of the 24 patients treated with RVP, as against 3 of the 21 treated with SVI. Diminution of the ulcer area by > 30% including full debridement was achieved in 10/24 of the RVP cases (SVI: 4/21). During 6 months of follow-up, amputation of toes or forefoot was necessary in only 1 patient in the RVP group, but in 4 in the SVI group. Partial restitution of osteolytic damage was observed in some cases after RVP. Our results show that regional netilmycin therapy given by the RVP procedure is clearly superior to equal netilmycin doses administered by SVI for the treatment of DNPU. RVP can be recommended in DNPU, particularly when the ulcers are complicated by infections.

  12. Reduced frontal-subcortical white matter connectivity in association with suicidal ideation in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, W; Han, C E; Fava, M; Mischoulon, D; Papakostas, G I; Heo, J-Y; Kim, K W; Kim, S T; Kim, D J H; Kim, D K; Seo, S W; Seong, J-K; Jeon, H J

    2016-06-07

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behavior have been associated with structural and functional changes in the brain. However, little is known regarding alterations of brain networks in MDD patients with suicidal ideation. We investigated whether or not MDD patients with suicidal ideation have different topological organizations of white matter networks compared with MDD patients without suicidal ideation. Participants consisted of 24 patients with MDD and suicidal ideation, 25 age- and gender-matched MDD patients without suicidal ideation and 31 healthy subjects. A network-based statistics (NBS) and a graph theoretical analysis were performed to assess differences in the inter-regional connectivity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to assess topological changes according to suicidal ideation in MDD patients. The Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Korean version of the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) were used to assess the severity of suicidal ideation and impulsivity, respectively. Reduced structural connectivity in a characterized subnetwork was found in patients with MDD and suicidal ideation by utilizing NBS analysis. The subnetwork included the regions of the frontosubcortical circuits and the regions involved in executive function in the left hemisphere (rostral middle frontal, pallidum, superior parietal, frontal pole, caudate, putamen and thalamus). The graph theoretical analysis demonstrated that network measures of the left rostral middle frontal had a significant positive correlation with severity of SSI (r=0.59, P=0.02) and BIS (r=0.59, P=0.01). The total edge strength that was significantly associated with suicidal ideation did not differ between MDD patients without suicidal ideation and healthy subjects. Our findings suggest that the reduced frontosubcortical circuit of structural connectivity, which includes regions associated with executive function and impulsivity, appears to have a role in the emergence of suicidal

  13. Improved design for frontal protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, N.; Vendrig, R.; Houtzager, K.

    2001-01-01

    The requirements of frontal impact legislation and the comparative evaluations of consumer organizations have improved occupant crash protection. Passenger vehicle bodies have crumple zones developed through rigid flat barrier testing and improved passenger cell stability has resulted from considera

  14. The differential relationship between trait anxiety, depression, and resting frontal α-asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Dirk; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    Relatively larger resting right frontal cortical brain activation has been labeled as a risk factor for emotion-related disorders. In light of this framework, the present studies' aim was twofold. First, we wanted to determine whether a relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression and frontal asymmetry does already manifest in a sample of so far healthy individuals showing a large symptom range. This could be expected if frontal asymmetry constitutes a risk factor for depression and anxiety. Second, we aimed to investigate whether symptoms of depression and anxiety are independently related to frontal asymmetry, or whether either anxiety or depression is superior in predicting the relationship with frontal asymmetry. To address these questions, trait-like resting frontal α-asymmetry by means of EEG, as well as trait anxiety and depressive symptoms by questionnaire were measured from 43 healthy students (28 female). Results indicate that higher symptom severity of depression and anxiety were both significantly correlated with relatively larger right frontal cortical activation. However, in a regression analysis, frontal asymmetry was predicted by anxiety only. Controlling for depression and mood, anxiety explained 13% of variance, while controlling for mood and anxiety, depression did explain asymmetry. In conclusion, although both anxiety and depression add to the relationship, relatively larger right frontal cortical activity might be influenced more strongly by symptoms of anxiety. Moreover, as this effect is present already in healthy individuals, the findings might further support the notion that right frontal cortical asymmetry constitutes a risk factor for anxiety or depression.

  15. Athletes in a Slump: Neurophysiological Evidence from Frontal Theta Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingu Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the neurophysiological differences in athletes who suffer from a slump and other athletes who do not. Eighteen high school student athletes participated in this experiment. A subjective questionnaire was conducted to identify athletes in a slump (i.e., the slump group and not in a slump (i.e., the no-slump group. EEG data was recorded at 4 regions (left prefrontal, right prefrontal, left frontal, and right frontal. A two-way (2 groups x 4 regions ANOVA was performed on the dependent variable (i.e., frontal theta power. The findings of this study demonstrated that participants in the no-slump group showed higher frontal theta activity than their counterparts in the slump group. From the findings of this study, it is suggested that mental fatigue may cause low frontal theta activity in athletes who experience a slump. The present study makes an important contribution to the current literature by being the first to report that EEG theta power over frontal regions can be used as a marker of athletes suffering from a slump.

  16. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of specific 'executive functions' show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matched on fluid intelligence, no further frontal deficit remains. For these tasks too, deficits are unrelated to lesion location within the frontal lobe. A second group of tasks, including tests of both cognitive (e.g. Hotel, Proverbs) and social (Faux Pas) function, shows a different pattern. Deficits are not fully explained by fluid intelligence and the data suggest association with lesions in the right anterior frontal cortex. Understanding of frontal lobe deficits may be clarified by separating reduced fluid intelligence, important in most or all tasks, from other more specific impairments and their associated regions of damage.

  17. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of specific ‘executive functions’ show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matched on fluid intelligence, no further frontal deficit remains. For these tasks too, deficits are unrelated to lesion location within the frontal lobe. A second group of tasks, including tests of both cognitive (e.g. Hotel, Proverbs) and social (Faux Pas) function, shows a different pattern. Deficits are not fully explained by fluid intelligence and the data suggest association with lesions in the right anterior frontal cortex. Understanding of frontal lobe deficits may be clarified by separating reduced fluid intelligence, important in most or all tasks, from other more specific impairments and their associated regions of damage. PMID:19903732

  18. Functional organization of the left inferior precentral sulcus: dissociating the inferior frontal eye field and the inferior frontal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrfuss, J; Vogt, V L; Fiebach, C J; von Cramon, D Y; Tittgemeyer, M

    2012-02-15

    Two eye fields have been described in the human lateral frontal cortex: the frontal eye field (FEF) and the inferior frontal eye field (iFEF). The FEF has been extensively studied and has been found to lie at the ventral part of the superior precentral sulcus. Much less research, however, has focused on the iFEF. Recently, it was suggested that the iFEF is located at the dorsal part of the inferior precentral sulcus. A similar location was proposed for the inferior frontal junction area (IFJ), an area thought to be involved in cognitive control processes. The present study used fMRI to clarify the topographical and functional relationship of the iFEF and the IFJ in the left hemispheres of individual participants. The results show that both the iFEF and the IFJ are indeed located at the dorsal part of the inferior precentral sulcus. Nevertheless, the activations were spatially dissociable in every individual examined. The IFJ was located more towards the depth of the inferior precentral sulcus, close to the junction with the inferior frontal sulcus, whereas the iFEF assumed a more lateral, posterior and superior position. Furthermore, the results provided evidence for a functional double dissociation: the iFEF was activated only in a comparison of saccades vs. button presses, but not in a comparison of incongruent vs. congruent Stroop conditions, while the opposite pattern was found at the IFJ. These results provide evidence for a spatial and functional dissociation of two directly adjacent areas in the left posterior frontal lobe.

  19. La Calidad de las Aguas en el Curso Superior y Medio del Río Traiguén: IX Región-Chile Superior and Medium Water Quality in Traiguén River: IX Region-Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson R Rivera; Francisco Encina; Rodrigo Palma; Patricia Mejias

    2009-01-01

    En este trabajo se establece la calidad de agua del curso superior y medio del río Traiguén ubicado en la IX Región de la Araucanía en Chile. La caracterización fisicoquímica y microbiológica se efectuó fijando seis estaciones de muestreo, desde un lugar cercano a la naciente del río hasta el límite comunal de la ciudad de Victoria con Traiguén. Los valores mas bajos en los parámetros evaluados, los presentan las aguas de las estaciones 1 y 2 ubicadas fuera del límite urbano, contrariamente a...

  20. Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis Complicating Typhoid Fever in a Teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Okunola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous sinus (sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT is a rare life-threatening disorder in childhood that is often misdiagnosed. CSVT encompasses cavernous sinus thrombosis, lateral sinus thrombosis, and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST. We present an adolescent girl who was well until two weeks earlier when she had a throbbing frontal headache and fever with chills; she later had dyspnoea, jaundice, melena stool, multiple seizures, nuchal rigidity, and monoparesis of the right lower limb a day before admission. Urine test for Salmonella typhi Vi antigen was positive, and Widal reaction was significant. Serial cranial computerized tomography scans revealed an expanding hypodense lesion in the parafalcine region consistent with SSST or a parasagittal abscess. Inadvertent left parietal limited craniectomy confirmed SSST. She recovered completely with subsequent conservative management. Beyond neuropsychiatric complications of Typhoid fever, CSVT should be highly considered when focal neurologic deficits are present.

  1. Self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus III network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2017-04-21

    Proprioception is somatic sensation that allows us to sense and recognize position, posture, and their changes in our body parts. It pertains directly to oneself and may contribute to bodily awareness. Likewise, one's face is a symbol of oneself, so that visual self-face recognition directly contributes to the awareness of self as distinct from others. Recently, we showed that right-hemispheric dominant activity in the inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF III), is associated with proprioceptive illusion (awareness), in concert with sensorimotor activity. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that visual self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal SLF III network. We scanned brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while twenty-two right-handed healthy adults performed two tasks. One was a proprioceptive illusion task, where blindfolded participants experienced a proprioceptive illusion of right hand movement. The other was a visual self-face recognition task, where the participants judged whether an observed face was their own. We examined whether the self-face recognition and the proprioceptive illusion commonly activated the inferior fronto-parietal cortices connected by the SLF III in a right-hemispheric dominant manner. Despite the difference in sensory modality and in the body parts involved in the two tasks, both tasks activated the right inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are likely connected by the SLF III, in a right-side dominant manner. Here we discuss possible roles for right inferior fronto-parietal activity in bodily awareness and self-awareness. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional gray matter atrophy and neuropsychologcal problems in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiyu Lin; Fuyong Chen; Fang Liu; Zhiwen Li; Ying Liu; Shifang Lin; Xiaoyi Wang; Jiting Zhu

    2013-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis, gray matter atrophy is extensive, and cognitive deficits and mood disorders are frequently encountered. It has been conjectured that focal atrophy is associated with emotional de-cline. However, conventional MRI has revealed that the pathological characteristics cannot ful y account for the mood disorders. Moreover, there is no correlation between cognitive disorders and MRI results in clinical y isolated syndromes or in cases of definite multiple sclerosis. In this case-control study, voxel-based morphometric analysis was performed on 11 subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and the results show that these patients exhibit gray matter atrophy. Moreover, the gray matter atrophy in the superior and middle gyri of the right frontal lobe in patients with multiple sclerosis was correlated with scores from the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. The scores obtained with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status were associated with gray matter atrophy in the middle gyrus of the left frontal lobe, the superior and middle gyrus of the right frontal lobe, the middle gyrus of the left cingulate, the superior and middle gyri of the left frontal lobe, and the triangular area of the left frontal lobe. However, there was no statistical significance. These findings suggest that the cingulate and frontal cortices of the nant hemisphere are the most severely atrophic regions of the brain, and this atrophy is correlated with cognitive decline and emotional abnormalities.

  3. Low-frequency rTMS over the Parieto-frontal network during a sensorimotor task: The role of absolute beta power in the sensorimotor integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Mariana; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Pompeu, Fernando; Droguett, Enrique López; Arias-Carrion, Oscar; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Velasques, Bruna; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2016-01-12

    Several studies have demonstrated that Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) promotes alterations in the Central Nervous System circuits and networks. The focus of the present study is to examine the absolute beta power patterns in the Parieto-frontal network. We hypothesize that rTMS alters the mechanisms of the sensorimotor integration process during a visuomotor task. Twelve young healthy volunteers performed a visuomotor task involving decision making recorded (Catch a ball in a free fall) by Electroencephalography. rTMS was applied on the Superior Parietal Cortex (SPC; Brodmann area [BA] 7) with low-frequency (1 Hz - 15 min - 80% Resting Motor Threshold). For each Frontal and Parietal region, a two-way ANOVA was used to compare the absolute beta power before and after TMS for each condition of the study (Rest 1, Task and Rest 2). The results demonstrated interactions (TMS vs. Condition) for the Frontal electrodes: Fp1, Fp2 and F7 and an effect of TMS (before and after) for F4.The results for the Parietal region showed a main effect of Condition for the P3, PZ and P4 electrodes. Thus, our paradigm was useful to better understand the reorganization and neural plasticity mechanisms in the parieto-frontal network during the sensorimotor integration process.

  4. Generalized anxiety modulates frontal and limbic activation in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlund Michael W

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety is relatively common in depression and capable of modifying the severity and course of depression. Yet our understanding of how anxiety modulates frontal and limbic activation in depression is limited. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and two emotional information processing tasks to examine frontal and limbic activation in ten patients with major depression and comorbid with preceding generalized anxiety (MDD/GAD and ten non-depressed controls. Results Consistent with prior studies on depression, MDD/GAD patients showed hypoactivation in medial and middle frontal regions, as well as in the anterior cingulate, cingulate and insula. However, heightened anxiety in MDD/GAD patients was associated with increased activation in middle frontal regions and the insula and the effects varied with the type of emotional information presented. Conclusions Our findings highlight frontal and limbic hypoactivation in patients with depression and comorbid anxiety and indicate that anxiety level may modulate frontal and limbic activation depending upon the emotional context. One implication of this finding is that divergent findings reported in the imaging literature on depression could reflect modulation of activation by anxiety level in response to different types of emotional information.

  5. Clinical and tomography evolution of frontal osteomyelitis: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Crisóstomo Lima Verde1, , , , ,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The frontal osteomyelitis is a complication of rhinosinusitis which can evolve to acute or chronicle. There is inflammatory reaction by the increasing of intraosseous pressure, ischemia and local necrosis, leading to bone abscess formation. There is no drainage, it will occur detachment of the periosteum, soft tissue invasion and worsening of ischemia with subsequent bone sequestration. Method: Case report of an inpatient in an emergency service of another institution by the complication of rhinosinusitis who was referred to the Otorhinolaryngology Service of University Hospital Professor Edgard Santos of Federal University of Bahia. Case Report: Male patient, 16 years-old, presented himself to the ER of another institution with cephalea, vomits and fever which evolved to periorbital edema and frontal to the left, moving to palpebral fluctuation and frontal. Subjected to frontal and palpebral abscess drainage, with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with no improvement. He was referred to our service keeping edema and fluctuation in region frontal and light edema in left periorbital region. The nasal endoscopy showed edema in meatus to the left and the computerized tomography showed fronto-ethmoid sinusitis to the left and signs of frontal osteomyelitis with bone sequestration and epidural empyema. Subjected to sinasal endoscopy surgery, external Access or removal of the frontal one affected and epidural empyema drainage. Evolved to the remission of the disease. Final Considerations: Failure in the diagnosis and rhinosinusitis complication treatment can lead to sequalae and fatal complications. The diagnosis of the frontal osteomyelitis is confirmed by the clinical suspicion and confirmed by radiological examination. The surgery is indicated when the evolution is insidious, there is bone sequestration and intracranial complications.

  6. Frontal mucocele with an accompanying orbital abscess mimicking a fronto-orbital mucocele: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkuzu Guzin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucoceles are slowly expanding cystic lesions with respiratory epithelium containing mucus most commonly affecting the frontal and ethmoidal sinuses. They are caused by obstruction of sinus ostium. Mucoceles exert pressure on the bony boundaries and due to the proximity to the brain and orbit extension to these areas are common. Case presentation A case of a frontal mucocele with an accompanying orbital abscess mimicking a fronto-orbital mucocele is reported. A 77 year old female patient suffering from left sided proptosis and pain around the left eye was admitted to our department. She had a history of left frontal sinus mucocele one year ago that was offered an osteoplastic frontal sinus surgery that the patient refused. Patient had limitation of eye movements. Fundoscopic examination revealed a minimal papilledema. Coronal computerized tomography and orbital magnetic resonance imaging showed a frontal mucocele with suspicious erosion of the orbital roof and a superiorly localized extraconal mass displacing the orbit lateroinferiorly. Frontal and orbital masses had similar intensities. Thus surgery was planned for a fronto-orbital mucocele. During surgery no defect was found on the orbital roof. Frontal mucocele and orbital cystic mass was removed separately. Pathological examination showed a frontal mucocele and an orbital abscess wall. Postoperatively eye movements returned to normal and papilledema resolved. Conclusion Fronto-orbital mucoceles are commonly encountered pathologies, but frontal mucocele with an orbital abscess is a rarely seen and should be kept in mind because their treatments differ.

  7. Functional brain networks contributing to the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory of Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhtin, Andrei A; Ryman, Sephira G; Flores, Ranee A; Jung, Rex E

    2014-12-01

    The refinement of localization of intelligence in the human brain is converging onto a distributed network that broadly conforms to the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT). While this theory has received support in the neuroimaging literature, no functional magnetic resonance imaging study to date has conducted a whole-brain network-wise examination of the changes during engagement in tasks that are reliable measures of general intelligence (e.g., Raven's Progressive Matrices Test; RPM). Seventy-nine healthy subjects were scanned while solving RPM problems and during rest. Functional networks were extracted from the RPM and resting state data using Independent Component Analysis. Twenty-nine networks were identified, 26 of which were detected in both conditions. Fourteen networks were significantly correlated with the RPM task. The networks' spatial maps and functional connectivity measures at 3 frequency levels (low, medium, & high) were compared between the RPM and rest conditions. The regions involved in the networks that were found to be task related were consistent with the P-FIT, localizing to the bilateral medial frontal and parietal regions, right superior frontal lobule, and the right cingulate gyrus. Functional connectivity in multiple component pairs was differentially affected across all frequency levels during the RPM task. Our findings demonstrate that functional brain networks are more stable than previously thought, and maintain their general features across resting state and engagement in a complex cognitive task. The described spatial and functional connectivity alterations that such components undergo during fluid reasoning provide a network-wise framework of the P-FIT that can be valuable for further, network based, neuroimaging inquiries regarding the neural underpinnings of intelligence.

  8. Venezuela e ALBA: regionalismo contra-hegemônico e ensino superior para todos Venezuela and the ALBA: counter-hegemonic regionalism and higher education for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Muhr

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de um quadro teórico neo-gramsciano crítico à globalização, este artigo aplica a nova teoria do regionalismo (NTR e a teoria do regionalismo regulatório (TRR à sua análise e teorização dos tratados de comércio da Aliança Bolivariana para os Povos da Nossa América (ALBA-TCP como regionalismo contra-hegemônico na América Latina e Caribe (ALC. A ALBA está centrada na ideia de um Socialismo do Século XXI, que, como (inicialmente também a Revolução Bolivariana da Venezuela, substitui a 'vantagem competitiva' pela 'vantagem cooperativa'. Em seu caráter de conjunto de processos multidimensionais e transnacionais a ALBA-TCP opera dentro de/transversalmente a um número de setores e escalas, ao mesmo passo que as transformações estruturais são movidas pela interação de agentes do Estado e agentes não estatais. A política de Educação Superior para Todos (ESPT do governo venezuelano rejeita a agenda neoliberal globalizada de mercadorização, privatização e elitismo e reinvindica educação pública gratuita em todos os níveis como um direito humano fundamental. A ESPT está sendo regionalizado em um espaço educacional emergente da ALBA e assume um papel-chave nos processos de democracia direta e participatória, dos quais a construção popular (bottom-up da contra-hegemonia e a redefinição política e econômica da ALC dependem. Antes de produzir sujeitos empreendedores conformes ao capitalismo global, a ESPT procura formar subjetividades ao longo de valores morais de solidariedade e cooperação. Isso será ilustrado com referência a um estudo etnográfico de caso da Universidade Bolivariana da Venezuela (UBV.This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC regionalism. As (initially the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian

  9. Increased regional homogeneity in internet addiction disorder: a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun; GAO Xue-ping; Isoken Osunde; LI Xin; ZHOU Shun-ke; ZHENG Hui-rong; LI Ling-jiang

    2010-01-01

    Background Internet addition disorder (lAD) is currently becoming a serious mental health problem among Chinese adolescents. The pathogenesis of IAD, however, remains unclear. The purpose of this study applied regional homogeneity (ReHo) method to analyze encephalic functional characteristic of IAD college students under resting state. Methods Functional magnetic resonanc image (fMRI) was performed in 19 IAD college students and 19 controls under resting state. ReHo method was used to analyze the differences between the average ReHo in two groups. Results The following increased ReHo brain regions were found in IAD group compared with control group: cerebellum,brainstem, right cingulate gyrus, bilateral parahippocampus, right frontal lobe (rectal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus), left superior frontal gyrus, left precuneus, right postcentral gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus. The decreased ReHo brain regions were not found in the IAD group compared with the control group. Conclusions There are abnormalities in regional homogeneity in IAD college students compared with the controls and enhancement of synchronization in most encephalic regions can be found. The results reflect the functional change of brain in IAD college students. The connections between the enhancement of synchronization among cerebellum, brainstem, limbic lobe, frontal lobe and apical lobe may be relative to reward pathways.

  10. Impaired List Learning Is Not a General Property of Frontal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael P.; Stuss, Donald; Gillingham, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: List-learning tasks are frequently used to provide measures of "executive functions" that are believed necessary for successful memory performance. Small sample sizes, confounding anomia, and incomplete representation of all frontal regions have prevented consistent demonstration of distinct regional frontal effects on this task.…

  11. Conceptual Models of Frontal Cyclones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleman, Joe R.

    1981-01-01

    This discussion of weather models uses maps to illustrate the differences among three types of frontal cyclones (long wave, short wave, and troughs). Awareness of these cyclones can provide clues to atmospheric conditions which can lead toward accurate weather forecasting. (AM)

  12. [Diagnostic dyspraxia and frontal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnet, A; Schmitt, A; Poncet, M

    1998-05-01

    A 27-year-old ambidexter woman experienced a clinical and psychometric frontal syndrome associated with a partial callosal syndrome following transcallosal surgery for an intraventricular neurocytoma. She also complained of difficulties with her left hand which realized a particular form of diagnostic dyspraxia: there were specific features of an isolated dysfunction of the control of the realization of a program.

  13. Prearcuate cortex in the Cebus monkey has cortical and subcortical connections like the macaque frontal eye field and projects to fastigial-recipient oculomotor-related brainstem nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichnetz, G R; Gonzalo-Ruiz, A

    1996-01-01

    The cortical and subcortical connections of the prearcuate cortex were studied in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, albifrons) using the anterograde and retrograde transport capabilities of the horseradish peroxidase technique. The findings demonstrate remarkable similarities to those of the macaque frontal eye field and strongly support their homology. The report then focuses on specific prearcuate projections to oculomotor-related brainstem nuclei that were shown in a companion experiment to entertain connections with the caudal oculomotor portion of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus. The principal corticocortical connections of the cebus prearcuate cortex were with dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, lateral intraparietal sulcal cortex, posterior medial parietal cortex, and superior temporal sulcal cortex, which were for the most part reciprocal and columnar in organization. The connections of the dorsal prearcuate region were heavier to the dorsomedial prefrontal and posterior medial parietal cortices, and those of the ventral region were heavier to the superior temporal sulcal cortex. The prearcuate cortex projects to several brainstem areas which also receive projections from the caudal fastigial nucleus, including the supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray matter, superior colliculus, medial nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, dorsomedial basilar pontine nucleus, dorsolateral basilar pontine nucleus, nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis, pontine raphe, and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. The findings define a neuroanatomical framework within which convergence of prearcuate (putative frontal eye field) and caudal fastigial nucleus connections might occur, facilitating their potential interaction in saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movement.

  14. The relationship between regional transport superiority and regional economic performance in Hainan%海南省区域交通优势度与经济发展关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓燕; 曹小曙; 李涛

    2011-01-01

    This study takes Hainan as a case and its 18 counties as basic unit for analysis.Choosing 3 indexes, including transport network density, proximity and accessibility, this paper constituted the spatial mathematical model to evaluate transport superiority degree firstly. Then, by utilizing GIS and IDW (Inverse Distance Weighted) technology, this paper studied spatial characteristic of transport network in Hainan. Moreover, we selected 4 aspects, i. e., total economic output and industrial structure, population and urbanization,living standards, transportation and the urban construction, 20 indexes all together and uses SPSS16.0 software with principal component analysis to quantitatively evaluate the level of economic development. By analysing spatial characteristic and summarizing spatial disciplinarian, this paper studied the relationship between regional transport superiority and economic performance in Hainan. The results showed that there were great differences in spatial distribution patterns between accessibility and economic development. But the spatial distribution patterns of transport superiority and regional economic performance are coherent, and there are positive relations between them, which showed an opposite spatial arrangement with geographic characteristics in Hainan.%以海南省为例,选取县级及以上城市为研究节点,采用交通网络密度、邻近度、通达性等指标,构建区域交通优势度综合评价的数理模型,运用GIS网络分析技术及IDW空间插值法定量分析海南省交通网络的地域空间特征.选取了经济总量和产业结构、人口与城市化、人民生活水平、交通与城市建设等4方面共20项主要的经济指标,运用SPSS软件用主成分分析法定量分析海南省区域经济差异及空间格局.通过对海南省各县市交通优势度及经济发展水平的特点及空问结构性规律进行分析,并比较二者间的联系,结果表明:海南省通达性空间格

  15. Multiple parietal-frontal pathways mediate grasping in macaque monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbawie, Omar A.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Qi, Huixin; Kaas, Jon H.

    2011-01-01

    The nodes of a parietal-frontal pathway that mediates grasping in primates are in anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and ventral premotor cortex (PMv). Nevertheless, multiple somatosensory and motor representations of the hand, respectively in parietal and frontal cortex, suggest that additional pathways remain unrealized. We explored this possibility in macaque monkeys by injecting retrograde tracers into grasp zones identified in M1, PMv, and area 2 with long train electrical stimulation. The M1 grasp zone was densely connected with other frontal cortex motor regions. The remainder of the connections originated from somatosensory areas 3a and S2/PV, and from the medial bank and fundus of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The PMv grasp zone was also densely connected with frontal cortex motor regions, albeit to a lesser extent than the M1 grasp zone. The remainder of the connections originated from areas S2/PV and aspects of the inferior parietal lobe such as PF, PFG, AIP, and the tip of the IPS. The area 2 grasp zone was densely connected with the hand representations of somatosensory areas 3b, 1, and S2/PV. The remainder of the connections was with areas 3a and 5 and the medial bank and fundus of the IPS. Connections with frontal cortex were relatively weak and concentrated in caudal M1. Thus, the three grasp zones may be nodes of parallel parietal-frontal pathways. Differential points of origin and termination of each pathway suggest varying functional specializations. Direct and indirect connections between those parietal-frontal pathways likely coordinate their respective functions into an accurate grasp. PMID:21832196

  16. Nontraumatic frontal lobe hemorrhages: Clinical-computed tomographic correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.

    1988-12-01

    Correlation of lesion location and appearance with clinical sequelae in 25 patients with CT-proven frontal lobe hematomas reveals 10 of 25 hematomas were located above the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles. Nine of the 10 patients were normotensive. All presented with contralateral motor and sensory deficits. Four of 25 hematomas were situated inferior to the frontal horns. All these patients were hypertensive, rapidly became comatose and exhibited hemiplegia, hemianestesia and gaze preference contralateral to the hemiplegia. Five patients had frontal hematomas which extended inward from the interhemispheric fissure or caval-septal region. All were normotensive. All had anterior cerebral-anterior communicating artery aneurysms on angiography. Four patients had hematomas involving both the frontal and temporal region. All were normotensive with no known cause for hemorrhage. Two patients had bifrontal hematomas; one had butterfly appearance extending across the interhemispheric fissure and the other was midline but had no interhemispheric blood. Both were normotensive. One had an anterior cerebral-anterior communicating artery aneurysm.

  17. Airborne LiDAR analysis and geochronology of faulted glacial moraines in the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone reveal substantial seismic hazards in the Lake Tahoe region, California-Nevada USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, James F.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Schweickert, Richard A.; Finkel, Robert C.; Hunter, Lewis E.; Rose, Ronn S.; von Twistern, Brent

    2012-01-01

    We integrated high-resolution bare-earth airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) imagery with field observations and modern geochronology to characterize the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone, which forms the neotectonic boundary between the Sierra Nevada and the Basin and Range Province west of Lake Tahoe. The LiDAR imagery clearly delineates active normal faults that have displaced late Pleistocene glacial moraines and Holocene alluvium along 30 km of linear, right-stepping range front of the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone. Herein, we illustrate and describe the tectonic geomorphology of faulted lateral moraines. We have developed new, three-dimensional modeling techniques that utilize the high-resolution LiDAR data to determine tectonic displacements of moraine crests and alluvium. The statistically robust displacement models combined with new ages of the displaced Tioga (20.8 ± 1.4 ka) and Tahoe (69.2 ± 4.8 ka; 73.2 ± 8.7 ka) moraines are used to estimate the minimum vertical separation rate at 17 sites along the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone. Near the northern end of the study area, the minimum vertical separation rate is 1.5 ± 0.4 mm/yr, which represents a two- to threefold increase in estimates of seismic moment for the Lake Tahoe basin. From this study, we conclude that potential earthquake moment magnitudes (Mw) range from 6.3 ± 0.25 to 6.9 ± 0.25. A close spatial association of landslides and active faults suggests that landslides have been seismically triggered. Our study underscores that the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone poses substantial seismic and landslide hazards.

  18. Single photon emission computed tomography with [[sup 99]Tc]-HM-PAO and [[sup 123]I]-IBZM in Alzheimer's disease and dementia of frontal type; Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoni, G.B.; Bianchetti, A.; Trabucchi, M. (Alzheimer' s Disease Care Unit, Ist. S. Cuore-FBF, Brescia (Italy)); Pizzolato, G.; Battistin, L. (Neurology Clinic, University Padua, Padua (Italy)); Chierichetti, F.; Ferlin, G. (Nuclear Medicine, Castelfranco Veneto Hospital, Treviso (Italy))

    1994-03-01

    Dementia of frontal type (DFT) is a fairly common degenerative disease distinct from Alzheimer's disease (AD), whose reportedly distinctive instrumental feature is frontal lobe hypoperfusion on SPECT. We evaluated the cortical dopaminergic system in 6AD, 5 DFT, and 6 control subjects with SPECT and both [[sup 99]Tc]-HM-PAO, a perfusion tracer, and [[sup 123]I]-IBZM, a D2 postsynaptic ligand. Both in AD and DFT patients, [[sup 99]Tc]-HM-PAO SPECT showed a relative frontal hypoperfusion. On the contrary, [[sup 123]I]-IBZM SPECT showed significantly reduced ligand uptake in superior frontal regions of DFT (0.89 [+-] 0.08 relative to control subjects) as compared to AD patients (0.97 [+-] 0.02; difference of means: 0.08, 95% confidence Interval 0.004 to 0.156; p = 0.041). Results suggest more marked involvement of the frontal cortical dopaminergic system in DFT than in AD patients. (au) (24 refs.).

  19. The IMM Frontal Face Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2005-01-01

    This note describes a data set consisting of 120 annotated monocular images of 12 different frontal human faces. Points of correspondence are placed on each image so the data set can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Format specifications and terms of use are also given in...... in this note. The data set is available in two versions: i) low resolution, given in the zip-file electronic version, ii) high, given in the publication link....

  20. Frontal fibroserende alopeci er en variant af lichen planopilaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gameza, Vitaly A; Deleuran, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a scarring alopecia which typically affects the frontotemporal region of the scalp. Loss of hair in the other areas of the skin is present in the majority of cases. The condition is overrepresented among postmenopausal women, but men and premenopausal women can be af...

  1. Frontal fibroserende alopeci er en variant af lichen planopilaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gameza, Vitaly A; Deleuran, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a scarring alopecia which typically affects the frontotemporal region of the scalp. Loss of hair in the other areas of the skin is present in the majority of cases. The condition is overrepresented among postmenopausal women, but men and premenopausal women can...

  2. New Perspectives on Frontal Variability in the Southern Ocean Using a Local Identification Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    The frontal structure of the Southern Ocean is investigated using a sophisticated frontal detection methodology, the Wavelet/Higher Order Statistics Enhancement (WHOSE) method, introduced in \\cite{Chapman2014}. This methodology is applied to 21 years of daily gridded sea-surface height (SSH) data to obtain daily maps of the locations of the fronts. By forming `heat-maps' of the frontal occurrence frequency and then approximating these heat-maps by a superposition of simple functions, the time-mean locations of the fronts, as well as a measure of their capacity to meander, are obtained and related to the frontal locations found by previous studies. The spatial and temporal variability of the frontal structure is then considered. The number of fronts is found to be highly variable throughout the Southern Ocean, increasing (`splitting') downstream of large bathymetric features and decreasing (`merging') in regions where the fronts are tightly controlled by the underlying topography. In contrast, frontal meanderi...

  3. Sustained attention is associated with right superior longitudinal fasciculus and superior parietal white matter microstructure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarborg, Brith; Skak Madsen, Kathrine; Vestergaard, Martin; Skimminge, Arnold; Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C

    2013-12-01

    Sustained attention develops during childhood and has been linked to the right fronto-parietal cortices in functional imaging studies; however, less is known about its relation to white matter (WM) characteristics. Here we investigated whether the microstructure of the WM underlying and connecting the right fronto-parietal cortices was associated with sustained attention performance in a group of 76 typically developing children aged 7-13 years. Sustained attention was assessed using a rapid visual information processing paradigm. The two behavioral measures of interest were the sensitivity index d' and the coefficient of variation in reaction times (RTCV ). Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was extracted from the WM underlying right dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and parietal cortex (PC), and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), as well as equivalent anatomical regions-of-interest (ROIs) in the left hemisphere and mean global WM FA. When analyzed collectively, right hemisphere ROIs FA was significantly associated with d' independently of age. Follow-up analyses revealed that only FA of right SLF and the superior part of the right PC contributed significantly to this association. RTCV was significantly associated with right superior PC FA, but not with right SLF FA. Observed associations remained significant after controlling for FA of equivalent left hemisphere ROIs or global mean FA. In conclusion, better sustained attention performance was associated with higher FA of WM in regions connecting right frontal and parietal cortices. Further studies are needed to clarify to which extent these associations are driven by maturational processes, stable characteristics and/or experience.

  4. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity Triggers Anterior Insula Response to Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Keysers, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The observation of movies of facial expressions of others has been shown to recruit similar areas involved in experiencing one's own emotions: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (IFO). The Causal link bet between activity in these 2 regions, associat

  5. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity Triggers Anterior Insula Response to Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Keysers, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The observation of movies of facial expressions of others has been shown to recruit similar areas involved in experiencing one's own emotions: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (IFO). The Causal link bet between activity in these 2 regions,

  6. [A case of crossed aphasia with echolalia after the resection of tumor in the right medial frontal lobe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, K; Suzuki, K; Yamadori, A; Kumabe, T; Seki, K; Fujii, T

    2001-03-01

    We report a right-handed woman, who developed a non-fluent aphasia after resection of astrocytoma (grade III) in the right medial frontal lobe. On admission to the rehabilitation department, neurological examination revealed mild left hemiparesis, hyperreflexia on the left side and grasp reflex on the left hand. Neuropsychologically she showed general inattention, non-fluent aphasia, acalculia, constructional disability, and mild buccofacial apraxia. No other apraxia, unilateral spatial neglect or extinction phenomena were observed. An MRI demonstrated resected areas in the right superior frontal gyrus, subcortical region in the right middle frontal gyrus, anterior part of the cingulate gyrus, a part of supplementary motor area. Surrounding area in the right frontal lobe showed diffuse signal change. She demonstrated non-fluent aprosodic speech with word finding difficulty. No phonemic paraphasia, or anarthria was observed. Auditory comprehension was fair with some difficulty in comprehending complex commands. Naming was good, but verbal fluency tests for a category or phonemic cuing was severely impaired. She could repeat words but not sentences. Reading comprehension was disturbed by semantic paralexia and writing words was poor for both Kana (syllabogram) and Kanji(logogram) characters. A significant feature of her speech was mitigated echolalia. In both free conversation and examination setting, she often repeated phrases spoken to her which she used to start her speech. In addition, she repeated words spoken to others which were totally irrelevant to her conversation. She was aware of her echoing, which always embarrassed her. She described her echolalic tendency as a great nuisance. However, once echoing being forbidden, she could not initiate her speech and made incorrect responses after long delay. Thus, her compulsive echolalia helped to start her speech. Only four patients with crossed aphasia demonstrated echolalia in the literature. They showed severe

  7. Frontal crash simulation of vehicles against lighting columns using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia A. Abdel-Nasser

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many severe and fatal crashes that result from vehicles colliding with street columns such as lighting columns. These cause extremely high impact forces and deformation on the frontal area of the car. The objective of the study is to demonstrate the frontal crash simulation of vehicle against lighting columns to examine injury risk and potential of safety. In particular, various FE models are used to perform contact–impact nonlinear dynamic analysis of lighting columns with vehicle. In this paper Abaqus explicit code is used to numerically simulate the crash of the vehicle with present columns and other lighting columns fabricated from a new suggested material. The acceleration, contact force and deformed energy at the frontal region of the vehicle are traced. It is found that the lighting columns with new suggested material have impact properties to decelerate the vehicle and absorb higher energy during impact.

  8. Word wins over Face: Emotional Stroop effect activates the frontal cortical network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Ovaysikia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex (PFC has been implicated in higher order cognitive control of behaviour. Sometimes such control is executed through suppression of an unwanted response in order to avoid conflict. Conflict occurs when two simultaneously competing processes lead to different behavioral outcomes, as seen in tasks such as the anti-saccade, go/no-go and the Stroop task. We set out to examine whether different types of stimuli in a modified emotional Stroop task would cause similar interference effects as the original Stroop-colour/word, and whether the required suppression mechanism(s would recruit similar regions of the medial PFC (mPFC. By using emotional words and emotional faces in this Stroop experiment, we examined the two well-learned automatic behaviours of word reading and recognition of face expressions. In our emotional Stroop paradigm, words were processed faster than face expressions with incongruent trials yielding longer reaction times (RT and larger number of errors compared to the congruent trials. This novel Stroop effect activated the anterior and inferior regions of the mPFC, namely the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG as well as the superior frontal gyrus. Our results suggest that prepotent behaviours such as reading and recognition of face expressions are stimulus-dependent and perhaps hierarchical, hence recruiting distinct regions of the mPFC. Moreover, the faster processing of word reading compared to reporting face expressions is indicative of the formation of stronger stimulus-response (SR associations of an over-learned behaviour compared to an instinctive one, which could alternatively be explained through the distinction between awareness and selective attention.

  9. Gray matter changes in right superior temporal gyrus in criminal psychopaths. Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jürgen L; Gänssbauer, Susanne; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Weber, Tatjana; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Hajak, Göran

    2008-08-30

    "Psychopathy" according to the PCL-R describes a specific subgroup of antisocial personality disorder with a high risk for criminal relapses. Lesion and imaging studies point towards frontal or temporal brain regions connected with disturbed social behavior, antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy. Morphologically, some studies described a reduced prefrontal brain volume, whereas others reported on temporal lobe atrophy. To further investigate whether participants with psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Version (PCL-R) show abnormalities in brain structure, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate region-specific changes in gray matter in 17 forensic male inpatients with high PCL-R scores (PCL-R>28) and 17 male control subjects with low PCL-R scores (PCLright superior temporal gyrus. This is the first study to show that psychopathy is associated with a decrease in gray matter in both frontal and temporal brain regions, in particular in the right superior temporal gyrus, supporting the hypothesis that a disturbed frontotemporal network is critically involved in the pathogenesis of psychopathy.

  10. [Neuroanatomy of Frontal Association Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masahiko

    2016-11-01

    The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas. Given these facts, it is likely that the prefrontal cortex exerts executive functions for behavioral control. The functional input pathways from the posterior and paralimbic association cortical areas to the prefrontal cortex are classified primarily into six groups. Cognitive signals derived from the prefrontal cortex are conveyed to the rostral motor-related areas to transform them into motor signals, which finally enter the primary motor cortex via the caudal motor-related areas. Furthermore, it has been shown that, similar to the primary motor cortex, areas of the frontal association cortex form individual networks (known as "loop circuits") with the basal ganglia and cerebellum via the thalamus, and hence are extensively involved in the expression and control of behavioral actions.

  11. Right anterior superior temporal activation predicts auditory sentence comprehension following aphasic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that recovery of speech comprehension after left hemisphere infarction may depend on a mechanism in the right hemisphere. However, the role that distinct right hemisphere regions play in speech comprehension following left hemisphere stroke has not been established. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate narrative speech activation in 18 neurologically normal subjects and 17 patients with left hemisphere stroke and a history of aphasia. Activation for listening to meaningful stories relative to meaningless reversed speech was identified in the normal subjects and in each patient. Second level analyses were then used to investigate how story activation changed with the patients' auditory sentence comprehension skills and surprise story recognition memory tests post-scanning. Irrespective of lesion site, performance on tests of auditory sentence comprehension was positively correlated with activation in the right lateral superior temporal region, anterior to primary auditory cortex. In addition, when the stroke spared the left temporal cortex, good performance on tests of auditory sentence comprehension was also correlated with the left posterior superior temporal cortex (Wernicke's area). In distinct contrast to this, good story recognition memory predicted left inferior frontal and right cerebellar activation. The implication of this double dissociation in the effects of auditory sentence comprehension and story recognition memory is that left frontal and left temporal activations are dissociable. Our findings strongly support the role of the right temporal lobe in processing narrative speech and, in particular, auditory sentence comprehension following left hemisphere aphasic stroke. In addition, they highlight the importance of the right anterior superior temporal cortex where the response was dissociated from that in the left posterior temporal lobe.

  12. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Said

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  13. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Moore, Christopher D; Norman, Kenneth A; Haxby, James V; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  14. The effects of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and age on frontal white matter integrity in healthy adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune eJonassen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of populations at genetic risk have the potential to explore the underlying structural and functional mechanisms in the development of psychological disorders. The polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 has been associated with major depression (Caspi et al., 2003. In healthy women, variation in the human brain white matter microstructure integrity in the uncinate fascicule (UF has been suggested as an endophenotypes in the development of major depression (MDD. Pacheco et al. (2009 found a unique effect of age and 5-HTTLPR within the left frontal UF. The present study examined whether these associations persist along the adult life span. Thirty-seven right-handed healthy women between 21 and 61 years of age were invited for a diffusion MRI study. The functional polymorphism 5-HTTLPR located in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Fractional anisotropy (FA was generated for the UF based on Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. Models of emotion regulation circuitry suggest that working memory is important in conscious emotion regulation (Price and Drevets, 2010. To explore if 5-HTTLPR is related to this aspects of emotion processing, a working memory pathway, the superior longitudinal fascicule (SLF was included. The results demonstrate that age may explain the hypothesized association between 5-HTTLPR and frontal uncinate fascicule white matter integrity in healthy adult women. Both white matter changes associated with the aging process and those associated with growth and development may explain why the earlier reported unique effects of genotype in frontal UF FA do not persist into adulthood.

  15. Alterations of neurochemical expression of the coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex (CSMG) neurons supplying the prepyloric region of the porcine stomach following partial stomach resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Katarzyna; Całka, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the response of the porcine coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex (CSMG) neurons projecting to the prepyloric area of the porcine stomach to peripheral neuronal damage following partial stomach resection. To identify the sympathetic neurons innervating the studied area of stomach, the neuronal retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) was applied to control and partial stomach resection (RES) groups. On the 22nd day after FB injection, following laparotomy, the partial resection of the previously FB-injected stomach prepyloric area was performed in animals of RES group. On the 28th day, all animals were re-anaesthetized and euthanized. The CSMG complex was then collected and processed for double-labeling immunofluorescence. In control animals, retrograde-labelled perikarya were immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin (GAL). Partial stomach resection decreased the numbers of FB-positive neurons immunopositive for TH and DβH. However, the strong increase of NPY and GAL expression, as well as de novo-synthesis of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and leu5-Enkephalin (LENK) was noted in studied neurons. Furthermore, FB-positive neurons in all pigs were surrounded by a network of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART)-, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-, and substance P (SP)-, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-, LENK- and nNOS- immunoreactive nerve fibers. This may suggest neuroprotective contribution of these neurotransmitters in traumatic responses of sympathetic neurons to peripheral axonal damage.

  16. PLANIFICACIÓN Y DESARROLLO TERRITORIAL EN LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES: el rol del consejo de planificación regional de educación superior en la implementación de políticas educativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo describe y analiza la actuación del Consejo de Planificación Regional de Educación Superior (CPRES desde la sanción de la Ley 24.521/95 hasta 2011 en base a una indagación de su diseño institucional y el desempeño de sus actores relevantes. Del universo, compuesto a nivel nacional por siete regiones CPRES, se seleccionó el caso de la región bonaerense. Ésta representa, junto con el área metropolitana, uno de los territorios con mayor población y actividad económica de la Argentina. Además, concentra a más de un tercio de las instituciones de educación superior que integran la oferta total del país. El trabajo analizó, en profundidad, fuentes documentales y entrevistas a informantes clave del ámbito académico, técnico y político que participaron del Programa de Reforma de la Educación Superior, iniciado en 1995. Los resultados evidencian que el CPRES se constituye como una estructura de autoridad de nivel intermedio con atribuciones jurídico-institucionales para planificar, coordinar, y regular los procesos de elaboración e implementación de políticas públicas en el marco de un contexto sistémico complejo y de alta diferenciación institucional. Sin embargo, aún no logran constituirse en efectivas autoridades de implementación.

  17. PLANIFICACIÓN Y DESARROLLO TERRITORIAL EN LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES: el rol del consejo de planificación regional de educación superior en la implementación de políticas educativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo describe y analiza la actuación del Consejo de Planificación Regional de Edu- cación Superior (CPRES desde la sanción de la Ley 24.521/95 hasta 2011 en base a una indaga- ción de su diseño institucional y el desempeño de sus actores relevantes. Del universo, compuesto a nivel nacional por siete regiones CPRES, se seleccionó el caso de la región bonaerense. Ésta representa, junto con el área metropolitana, uno de los territorios con mayor población y actividad económica de la Argentina. Además, concentra a más de un tercio de las instituciones de educación superior que integran la oferta total del país. El trabajo analizó, en profundidad, fuentes documen- tales y entrevistas a informantes clave del ámbito académico, técnico y político que participaron del Programa de Reforma de la Educación Superior, iniciado en 1995. Los resultados evidencian que el CPRES se constituye como una estructura de autoridad de nivel intermedio con atribuciones jurídico-institucionales para planificar, coordinar, y regular los procesos de elaboración e implemen- tación de políticas públicas en el marco de un contexto sistémico complejo y de alta diferenciación institucional. Sin embargo, aún no logran constituirse en efectivas autoridades de implementación.

  18. Sequential memory: a developmental perspective on its relation to frontal lobe functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Cassandra Burns; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2004-03-01

    The multidimensional nature of the frontal lobes serves to organize and coordinate brain functionings playing a central and pervasive role in human cognition. The executive processes implicated in complex cognition such as novel problem solving, modifying behavior as appropriate in response to changes in the environment, inhibiting prepotent or previous responses, and the implementation of schemas that organize behavior over time are believed to be mediated by the frontal regions of the brain. Overall, the functioning of the frontal lobes assists individuals in goal directed and self-regulatory behavior. Additional theories of frontal lobe functioning have focused on its involvement in temporal, or time-related domains. The organizational and strategic nature of frontal lobe functioning affects memory processes by enhancing the organization of to-be-remembered information. Among the specific memory systems presumed to be based on anterior cerebral structures is the temporal organization of memory. An essential component of memory that involves temporal organization is sequential ordering entailing the ability to judge which stimuli were seen most recently and the temporal ordering of events in memory. Focal lesion studies have demonstrated the importance of the frontal lobes on retrieval tasks in which monitoring, verification, and placement of information in temporal and spatial contexts of critical importance. Similarly, frontal lobe damage has been associated with deficits in memory for the temporal ordering, or sequencing, of events. The acquisition of abilities thought to be mediated by the frontal lobes, including sequential memory, unfolds throughout childhood, serving to condition patterns of behavior for the rest of the brain. Development of the frontal regions of the brain is known to continue through late adolescence and into early adulthood, in contrast to the earlier maturation of other cortical regions. The developmental patterns of the frontal lobes

  19. Dynamics of Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Activity in Human Temporal and Frontal Cortical Areas During Music Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-14

    REPORT Dynamics of electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity in human temporal and frontal cortical areas during music listening 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...information about the sound intensity of music . ECoG activity in the high gamma band recorded from the posterior part of the superior temporal 1. REPORT...ECoG) activity in human temporal and frontal cortical areas during music listening Report Title ABSTRACT Previous studies demonstrated that brain

  20. A beamformer analysis of MEG data reveals frontal generators of the musically elicited mismatch negativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lappe

    Full Text Available To localize the neural generators of the musically elicited mismatch negativity with high temporal resolution we conducted a beamformer analysis (Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry, SAM on magnetoencephalography (MEG data from a previous musical mismatch study. The stimuli consisted of a six-tone melodic sequence comprising broken chords in C- and G-major. The musical sequence was presented within an oddball paradigm in which the last tone was lowered occasionally (20% by a minor third. The beamforming analysis revealed significant right hemispheric neural activation in the superior temporal (STC, inferior frontal (IFC, superior frontal (SFC and orbitofrontal (OFC cortices within a time window of 100-200 ms after the occurrence of a deviant tone. IFC and SFC activation was also observed in the left hemisphere. The pronounced early right inferior frontal activation of the auditory mismatch negativity has not been shown in MEG studies so far. The activation in STC and IFC is consistent with earlier electroencephalography (EEG, optical imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies that reveal the auditory and inferior frontal cortices as main generators of the auditory MMN. The observed right hemispheric IFC is also in line with some previous music studies showing similar activation patterns after harmonic syntactic violations. The results demonstrate that a deviant tone within a musical sequence recruits immediately a distributed neural network in frontal and prefrontal areas suggesting that top-down processes are involved when expectation violation occurs within well-known stimuli.

  1. A slice of pi : an exploratory neuroimaging study of digit encoding and retrieval in a superior memorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Amir; Packard, Mark G; Alexander, Gerianne M; Buhle, Jason T; Zhu, Hongtu; Yu, Shan; Peterson, Bradley S

    2009-10-01

    Subject PI demonstrated superior memory using a variant of a Method of Loci (MOL) technique to recite the first digits of the mathematical constant pi to more than 2(16) decimal places. We report preliminary behavioral, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and brain volumetric data from PI. fMRI data collected while PI recited the first 540 digits of pi (i.e., during retrieval) revealed increased activity in medial frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Encoding of a novel string of 100 random digits activated motor association areas, midline frontal regions, and visual association areas. Volumetric analyses indicated an increased volume of the right subgenual cingulate, a brain region implicated in emotion, mentalizing, and autonomic arousal. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) testing indicated that PI is of average intelligence, and performance on mirror tracing, rotor pursuit, and the Silverman and Eals Location Memory Task revealed normal procedural and implicit memory. PI's performance on the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III) revealed average general memory abilities (50th percentile), but superior working memory abilities (99th percentile). Surprisingly, PI's visual memory (WMS-III) for neutral faces and common events was remarkably poor (3rd percentile). PI's self-report indicates that imagining affective situations and high emotional content is critical for successful recall. We speculate that PI's reduced memory for neutral/non-emotional faces and common events, and the observed increase in volume of the right subgenual cingulate, may be related to extensive practice with memorizing highly emotional material.

  2. Neuropsychological outcome following frontal lobectomy for pharmacoresistant epilepsy in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Robyn M; Floden, Darlene P; Ferguson, Lisa; Mahmoud, Shamseldeen; Mullane, Audrina; Jones, Stephen; Jehi, Lara; Bingaman, William; Najm, Imad M

    2017-02-14

    This retrospective cohort study characterized cognitive and motor outcomes in a large sample of adults who underwent frontal lobe resections for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Ninety patients who underwent unilateral frontal lobe resection for epilepsy (42 language-dominant hemisphere/48 nondominant hemisphere) between 1989 and 2014 completed comprehensive preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological evaluations that included measures of verbal and nonverbal intellectual functioning, attention/working memory, processing speed, language, executive functioning, verbal and visual memory, and motor functioning. Objective methods were used to assess meaningful change across a wide range of abilities and to identify factors associated with neuropsychological decline following frontal lobectomy. Detailed postoperative neuroimaging analysis was conducted to characterize region, extent, and volume of resection. Forty-eight percent of patients did not demonstrate meaningful postoperative declines in cognition and an additional 42% demonstrated decline in 1 or 2 cognitive domains. When cognitive decline was observed, it usually occurred on measures of intelligence, visuomotor processing speed, or executive functioning. Side and site of resection were unrelated to cognitive outcome, but played a role in decline of contralateral manual dexterity following supplementary motor area resection. Higher preoperative ability, older age at surgery, absence of a malformation of cortical development on MRI, and poor seizure outcome were related to cognitive decline on some measures, but had poor sensitivity in identifying at-risk patients. The vast majority of patients who undergo frontal lobectomy for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy demonstrate good cognitive and motor outcomes. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Evaluating the safety of frontal sinus trephination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annie S; Schaitkin, Barry M; Gillman, Grant S

    2010-03-01

    The depth of the frontal sinus was measured using axial computed tomography (CT) images to examine the safety of frontal sinus trephination at selected distances from the midline. Review of 200 sinus CT scans. Two hundred sinus CT scans (400 frontal sinuses) were reviewed to measure the frontal sinus depth at 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm from midline. Males had a significantly deeper frontal sinus than females at all measurements points (P trephine instruments (7 mm) and would risk penetration of the posterior table of the sinus. Of all frontal sinuses studied, 9.54% were trephine instruments, surgeons should recognize that up to 15% of nonhypoplastic frontal sinuses may not be sufficiently deep at a given point to allow safe trephination without risking unintentional transgression of the posterior table. This study suggests that trephination routinely carried out at a given predetermined distance from the midline may be an unsafe practice. Careful evaluation of the imaging is essential in every case to avoid inadvertent injury and to help select the safest distance from the midline for frontal sinus trephination.

  4. Prospectiva para la internacionalización de los estudiantes de la educación superior como factor de integracion regional en el Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Yuyil Cantero Lusardi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prospects for the internationalization of students of higher education as a factor of regional integration in Paraguay, based on the importance of internationalization in higher education we are convinced that it is paramount to our institution for several reasons. Fundamentally, a university that facilitates and supports national and international collaboration, at the same time the mobility of its staff, students and their teachers. Academic mobility is one of the main references of the processes and strategies of educational cooperation and, in addition to direct expression of the collaboration between institutions and governmental structures. Internationalization, regionalization and globalization of higher education should be based on solidarity and mutual respect and promote the values of humanism and intercultural dialogue. The internationalization of higher education at the National University of Caaguazú, started in 2012, with the creation of a directorate in the Rector of the University, its main purpose is to seek strategic agreements for the development of different academic units cooperation agreements are supported by strategic partnerships with various ministries of the Paraguayan Government.

  5. The bifunctional μ opioid agonist/antioxidant [Dmt(1)]DALDA is a superior analgesic in an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome-type i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Peter W; Nguyen, Thi M-D; Saray, Amy; Poon, Annie Wing Hoi; Laferrière, André; Coderre, Terence J

    2015-11-18

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the development of complex regional pain syndrome-Type I (CRPS-I), as also demonstrated with the chronic post ischemia pain (CPIP) animal model of CRPS-I. We show that morphine and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) act synergistically to reduce mechanical allodynia in CPIP rats. The tetrapeptide amide [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2) is a potent and selective μ opioid receptor (MOR) agonist with favorable pharmacokinetic properties and with antioxidant activity due to its N-terminal Dmt (2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) residue. In the CPIP model, [Dmt(1)]DALDA was 15-fold more potent than morphine in reversing mechanical allodynia and 4.5-fold more potent as analgesic in the heat algesia test. The results indicate that bifunctional compounds with MOR agonist/antioxidant activity have therapeutic potential for the treatment of CRPS-I.

  6. El gobierno territorial en la Provincia de Buenos Aires: el desempeño del Consejo de Planificación Regional de Educación Superior en la implementación de políticas educativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es describir y analizar el funcionamiento del Consejo de Planificación Regional de Educación Superior (CPRES a partir de su creación con la Ley 24.521/95 (LES hasta el 2011. Parte de una perspectiva sociopolítica e institucional de las políticas públicas, integra dos enfoques y aplica esta mirada al examen de la región bonaerense en la Provincia de Buenos Aires. La región bonaerense representa uno de los territorios con mayor población y actividad económica de la Argentina. Además, concentra más de un tercio de las instituciones de educación superior que integran la oferta total del país. Se analizaron fuentes documentales y entrevistas a informantes clave del ámbito académico, técnico y político que participaron del Programa de Reforma de la Educación Superior iniciado en 1995. Se concluyó que el CPRES se instituye como una estructura de autoridad de nivel intermedio con atribuciones jurídico-institucionales para planificar, coordinar y regular los procesos de elaboración e implementación de políticas públicas en el marco de un contexto sistémico complejo y de alta diferenciación institucional. Sin embargo, aún no logran constituirse en efectivas autoridades de implementación.

  7. Frontal sinus mucocele with orbital complications: Management by varied surgical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sushil Kumar; Bhavana, Kranti; Keshri, Amit; Kumar, Raj; Srivastava, Arun

    2012-01-01

    A mucocele of a para-nasal sinus is an accumulation of mucoid secretion and desqua-mated epithelium within the sinus with distension of its walls and is regarded as a cyst like expansile and destructive lesion. If the cyst invades the adjacent orbit and continues to expand within the orbital cavity, the mass may mimic the behavior of many benign growths primary in the orbit. The frontal sinus is most commonly involved, whereas sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary mucoceles are rare. Floor of frontal sinus is shared with the superior orbital wall which explains the early displacement of orbit in enlarging frontal mucoceles. Frontal sinus mucoceles are prone to recurrences if not managed adequately. Here, we are evaluating different approaches used to manage various stages of frontal mucoceles which presented to us with orbital complications. Three cases of frontal sinus mucocele are discussed which presented to our OPD with different clinical symptoms and all cases were managed by different surgical approaches according to their severity. We also concluded that it is prudent to collaborate with the neurosurgeons for adequate management of such complex mucoceles by a craniotomy approach. PMID:23293669

  8. Frontal sinus osteoma with osteoblastoma-like histology and associated intracranial pneumatocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, Larisa M; Kissel, Phillip; Ragsdale, Bruce D

    2012-09-01

    Osteomas of the cranial sinuses are rare, benign bony tumors that can be complicated by the formation of an intracranial pneumatocele. If not treated promptly, a pneumatocele can lead to abscess formation, meningitis, or ventriculitis. In the present case, an intracerebral pneumatocele was formed when an 18 cm(3) osteoma breached the posterior wall of the frontal sinus creating a one-way valve through which air could enter the intracranial cavity. The patient presented after forceful sneezing with nonspecific symptoms of headache, nausea, and vomiting. CT demonstrated a frontal collection of loculated air with mass effect within the left cerebral hemisphere. A partly mineralized mass occupied the left superior nasal ethmoid sinus and left frontal sinus. Of interest pathologically in this case, the tumor had a substantial osteoblastoma-like component. Surgical repair involved frontal craniotomy to remove the osteoma and debride frontal sinus mucosa, plugging the frontal nasal ducts and sinus with fat and bone wax, and dural restoration using an underwater closed drainage system to vent intracranial air and stabilize the patient.

  9. Frontal lobe seizures: from clinical semiology to localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; McGonigal, Aileen; Trébuchon, Agnès; Gavaret, Martine; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Giusiano, Bernard; Chauvel, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Frontal lobe seizures are difficult to characterize according to semiologic and electrical features. We wished to establish whether different semiologic subgroups can be identified and whether these relate to anatomic organization. We assessed all seizures from 54 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy that were explored with stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) during presurgical evaluation. Semiologic features and concomitant intracerebral EEG changes were documented and quantified. These variables were examined using Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, and semiologic features correlated with anatomic localization. Four main groups of patients were identified according to semiologic features, and correlated with specific patterns of anatomic seizure localization. Group 1 was characterized clinically by elementary motor signs and involved precentral and premotor regions. Group 2 was characterized by a combination of elementary motor signs and nonintegrated gestural motor behavior, and involved both premotor and prefrontal regions. Group 3 was characterized by integrated gestural motor behavior with distal stereotypies and involved anterior lateral and medial prefrontal regions. Group 4 was characterized by seizures with fearful behavior and involved the paralimbic system (ventromedial prefrontal cortex ± anterior temporal structures). The groups were organized along a rostrocaudal axis, representing bands within a spectrum rather than rigid categories. The more anterior the seizure organization, the more likely was the occurrence of integrated behavior during seizures. Distal stereotypies were associated with the most anterior prefrontal localizations, whereas proximal stereotypies occurred in more posterior prefrontal regions. Meaningful categorization of frontal seizures in terms of semiology is possible and correlates with anatomic organization along a rostrocaudal axis, in keeping with current hypotheses of frontal lobe hierarchical organization

  10. Impact and injury patterns in between-rails frontal crashes of vehicles with good ratings for frontal crash protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Richard M; Cui, Chongzhen; Digges, Kennerly H; Cao, Libo; Kan, Cing-Dao Steve

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated (1) what are the key attributes of the between-rail, frontal crash, (2) what are the types of object contacted, and (3) what is the type of resulting trauma. The method was to study with both weighted and in-depth case reviews of NASS-CDS crash data with direct damage between the longitudinal rails in frontal crashes. Individual case selection was limited to belted occupants in between-rail, frontal impacts of good-rated, late-model vehicles equipped with air bags.This paper evaluates the risk of trauma for drivers in cars and LTVs in between-rail, frontal crashes, and suggests the between-rail impact is more dangerous to car drivers. Using weighted data-representing 227,305 tow-away crashes-the resulting trauma to various body regions was analyzed to suggest greatest injury is to the chest, pelvis/thigh/knee/leg, and foot/ankle. This study analyzed the type of object that caused the direct damage between the rails, including small tree or post, large tree or pole, and another vehicle; and found that the struck object was most often another vehicle or a large tree/pole. Both the extent of damage and the occupant compartment intrusion were explored, and suggest that 64% of the serious injuries are associated with increasing intrusion. Individual NASS cases were reviewed to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanical particulars in the between-rail crash.

  11. Transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals complex cognitive control representations in the rostral frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, J; Beckmann, I; Kuhlemann, I; Schweikard, A; Münte, T F

    2015-08-06

    Convergent evidence suggests that the lateral frontal cortex is at the heart of a brain network subserving cognitive control. Recent theories assume a functional segregation along the rostro-caudal axis of the lateral frontal cortex based on differences in the degree of complexity of cognitive control. However, the functional contribution of specific rostral and caudal sub-regions remains elusive. Here we investigate the impact of disrupting rostral and caudal target regions on cognitive control processes, using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Participants performed three different task-switching conditions that assessed differences in the degree of complexity of cognitive control processes, after temporally disrupting rostral, or caudal target regions, or a control region. Disrupting the rostral lateral frontal region specifically impaired behavioral performance of the most complex task-switching condition, in comparison to the caudal target region and the control region. These novel findings shed light on the neuroanatomical architecture supporting control over goal-directed behavior.

  12. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  13. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  14. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  15. Decreased frontal, striatal and cerebellar activation in adults with ADHD during an adaptive delay discounting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Nick; Parsons, Aisling; Whelan, Robert; Brennan, Katie; Agan, Maria L F; O'Connell, Redmond; Bramham, Jessica; Garavan, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    An important characteristic of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a bias towards small immediate versus larger delayed rewards, but it is not known if this symptom is also a feature of adult ADHD. A delay-discounting task was administered to participants with adult ADHD and a comparison group in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants responded to a series of questions that required judgments between small sums of money available immediately and larger sums obtained after a temporal delay. Question parameters were adjusted by an adaptive algorithm designed to converge on each participant's discounting indifference point, an individual set point at which there is equal valuation of both choices. In all participants, robust task activation was observed in regions previously identified in functional imaging studies of delay discounting. However, adults with ADHD showed less task activation in a number of regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate nucleus and declive of the cerebellum. Additionally, the degree to which a participant discounted delayed rewards was inversely related to task activation in the cerebellum. The results suggest that the bias towards immediate rewards in childhood ADHD may not persist behaviorally, but instead present in adulthood as alterations in frontostriatal and frontocerebellar networks.

  16. Emotional reactions in patients after frontal lobe stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zlatan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Emotional reactions have been documented after tumor lesions and the other damages of the brain. The aim of this paper was to examine the correlation between frontal lobe lesions and emotional reactions in patients with stroke. Methods. The research included 118 patients after stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computed axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression (HRSA and HRSD were carried out 11-40 days after stroke. Statistic data were processed by simple linear/nonlinear regression, Cox's and the generalized linear model. Results. A higher frequency of emotional reactions, i.e. anxiety, was determined in women after stroke (p = 0.024. A negative correlation between the lesion size and the intensity of anxiety manifestations was determined (Spearman’s r = -0.297; p = 0.001. Anxiety was more frequent in patients with frontal lobe lesions in the dominant hemisphere (interaction: frontal lesion * hand dominant hemisphere, p = 0.017. Also, HRSD score values showed the tendency for lesser decline in case of greater frontal lobe lesions in relation to lesions of other regions of prosencephalon (interaction: frontal lesion * lesion area, p = 0.001. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the correlation between evolutionary younger structures of the central nervous system and emotional reactions of man. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake proper early psychopharmacotherapy in the vulnerable group of patients.

  17. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  18. The role of medial frontal gyrus in action anticipation in professional badminton players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex. Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate

  19. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, Mrc Aims; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-02-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate--predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms. Overall these

  20. Management of the entered frontal sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroli, Emanuela; Rocchi, Giovanni; D'Andrea, Giancarlo; Delfini, Roberto

    2004-10-01

    The opening of the frontal sinus is a common occurrence in surgical practice. It may involve many surgical disciplines. The complications that may derive from incorrect treatment of an opened frontal sinus are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, the treatment of patients with injured frontal sinus is not uniform and standardized. Here, we describe our technique of treatment. We propose our treatment modality on the basis of our personal experience, which has been excellent in the past 20 years, that is from the time of the technique's introduction and routine application.

  1. Relation Between Frontal Alpha Asymmetry and Anxiety in Young Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdzieva, Aneta; Pop-Jordanova, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry (the relative difference in power between two signals in different hemispheres) has been suggested as biomarker for anxiety. The goal of this study was to evaluate alpha asymmetry in the frontal region for young people (7-18 years) with generalized anxiety disorder, diagnosed according to two statistic manuals (DMS-IV-R and ICD-10), the medical history and the neuropsychological assessment. The QEEG recording and analysis of the obtained results from alpha spectra power and log of alpha spectra power are made in four conditions (eyes open, eyes closed, VCPT and ACPT). The obtained results for alpha power in general showed higher cortical activity in the right hemisphere, associated with negative emotions. The calculated alpha asymmetry separate for eyes open, eyes closed, VCPT and ACPT conditions showed the right activation in all four conditions. In addition, the right frontal asymmetry was specific for the Fp(1)-Fp(2) region, while a greater left frontal activation was recorded for the F(7)-F(8) region. The log of alpha power in general was additionally analyzed. The calculated asymmetry score in general (in a way that the left log transformed score was subtracted from the right) confirmed a greater right activation. Testing the power of the whole alpha band (μV(2)) in general, for all four conditions and for frontal region confirmed the right alpha asymmetries in all participants. The right alpha asymmetry in the frontal region was specific only for the Fp(1)-Fp(2) region (frontopolar region). The only greater left frontal activation was registered between the F(7)-F(8) region. Our findings are supported by many other studies using specific localization methods like fMRI or LORETA source localization.

  2. Cranialization of the frontal sinus for secondary mucocele prevention following open surgery for benign frontal lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Horowitz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare frontal sinus cranialization to obliteration for future prevention of secondary mucocele formation following open surgery for benign lesions of the frontal sinus. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Sixty-nine patients operated for benign frontal sinus pathology between 1994 and 2011. INTERVENTIONS: Open excision of benign frontal sinus pathology followed by either frontal obliteration (n = 41, 59% or frontal cranialization (n = 28, 41%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of post-surgical complications and secondary mucocele formation were compiled. RESULTS: Pathologies included osteoma (n = 34, 49%, mucocele (n = 27, 39%, fibrous dysplasia (n = 6, 9%, and encephalocele (n = 2, 3%. Complications included skin infections (n = 6, postoperative cutaneous fistula (n = 1, telecanthus (n = 4, diplopia (n = 3, nasal deformity (n = 2 and epiphora (n = 1. None of the patients suffered from postoperative CSF leak, meningitis or pneumocephalus. Six patients, all of whom had previously undergone frontal sinus obliteration, required revision surgery due to secondary mucocele formation. Statistical analysis using non-inferiority test reveal that cranialization of the frontal sinus is non-inferior to obliteration for preventing secondary mucocele formation (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Cranialization of the frontal sinus appears to be a good option for prevention of secondary mucocele development after open excision of benign frontal sinus lesions.

  3. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of regional homogeneity changes in parkinsonian resting tremor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Liu; Bo Liu; Jun Chen; Zhiguang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Regional homogeneity analysis of low-frequency blood oxygenation level-dependent signals from neighboring voxels enables the analysis of local neuronal synchrony. Both structural magnetic resonance imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were collected from nine Parkinson's disease patients with right resting tremor, and from eight age-matched normal controls. Regional homogeneity was compared between Parkinson's disease patients and controls. The results revealed that regional homogeneity was increased in several brain regions, including the right precuneus, right superior parietal gyrus, left anterior cingulate cortex, right middle frontal gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus. Conversely, regional homogeneity was decreased in the cerebellar vermis in Parkinson's disease patients compared with healthy controls.

  4. Dissociating Effects of Scrambling and Topicalization within the Left Frontal and Temporal Language Areas: An fMRI Study in Kaqchikel Maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shinri; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2017-01-01

    Some natural languages grammatically allow different types of changing word orders, such as object scrambling and topicalization. Scrambling and topicalization are more related to syntax and semantics/phonology, respectively. Here we hypothesized that scrambling should activate the left frontal regions, while topicalization would affect the bilateral temporal regions. To examine such distinct effects in our functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we targeted the Kaqchikel Maya language, a Mayan language spoken in Guatemala. In Kaqchikel, the syntactically canonical word order is verb-object-subject (VOS), but at least three non-canonical word orders (i.e., SVO, VSO, and OVS) are also grammatically allowed. We used a sentence-picture matching task, in which the participants listened to a short Kaqchikel sentence and judged whether a picture matched the meaning of the sentence. The advantage of applying this experimental paradigm to an understudied language such as Kaqchikel is that it will allow us to validate the universality of linguistic computation in the brain. We found that the conditions with scrambled sentences [+scrambling] elicited significant activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and lateral premotor cortex, both of which have been proposed as grammar centers, indicating the effects of syntactic loads. In contrast, the conditions without topicalization [-topicalization] resulted in significant activation in bilateral Heschl's gyrus and superior temporal gyrus, demonstrating that the syntactic and phonological processes were clearly dissociated within the language areas. Moreover, the pre-supplementary motor area and left superior/middle temporal gyri were activated under relatively demanding conditions, suggesting their supportive roles in syntactic or semantic processing. To exclude any semantic/phonological effects of the object-subject word orders, we performed direct comparisons while making the factor of topicalization constant, and

  5. Frontal sinus recognition for human identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falguera, Juan Rogelio; Falguera, Fernanda Pereira Sartori; Marana, Aparecido Nilceu

    2008-03-01

    Many methods based on biometrics such as fingerprint, face, iris, and retina have been proposed for person identification. However, for deceased individuals, such biometric measurements are not available. In such cases, parts of the human skeleton can be used for identification, such as dental records, thorax, vertebrae, shoulder, and frontal sinus. It has been established in prior investigations that the radiographic pattern of frontal sinus is highly variable and unique for every individual. This has stimulated the proposition of measurements of the frontal sinus pattern, obtained from x-ray films, for skeletal identification. This paper presents a frontal sinus recognition method for human identification based on Image Foresting Transform and shape context. Experimental results (ERR = 5,82%) have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. PERSISTENT LEFT SUPERIOR VENACAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A Persistent Left Superior Venacava (PLSVC is the most common variation of the thoracic venous system and rare congenital vascular anomaly and is prevalent in 0.3% of the population. It may be associated with other cardiovascular abnormalities including atrial septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of aorta, coronary sinus ostial atresia, and cor triatriatum. Incidental rotation of a dilated coronary sinus on echocardiography should raise the suspicion of PLSVC. The diagnosis should be confirmed by saline contrast echocardiography. Condition is usually asymptomatic. Here we present a rare case of persistent left superior vena cava presented in OPD with dyspnoea & palpitations.

  7. Cognitive priming in sung and instrumental music: activation of inferior frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, B; Koelsch, S; Escoffier, N; Bigand, E; Lalitte, P; Friederici, A D; von Cramon, D Y

    2006-07-15

    Neural correlates of the processing of musical syntax-like structures have been investigated via expectancy violation due to musically unrelated (i.e., unexpected) events in musical contexts. Previous studies reported the implication of inferior frontal cortex in musical structure processing. However - due to the strong musical manipulations - activations might be explained by sensory deviance detection or repetition priming. Our present study investigated neural correlates of musical structure processing with subtle musical violations in a musical priming paradigm. Instrumental and sung sequences ended on related and less-related musical targets. The material controlled sensory priming components, and differences in target processing required listeners' knowledge on musical structures. Participants were scanned with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while performing speeded phoneme and timbre identification judgments on the targets. Behavioral results acquired in the scanner replicated the facilitation effect of related over less-related targets. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal linked to target processing revealed activation of right inferior frontal areas (i.e., inferior frontal gyrus, frontal operculum, anterior insula) that was stronger for less-related than for related targets, and this was independent of the material carrying the musical structures. This outcome points to the implication of inferior frontal cortex in the processing of syntactic relations also for musical material and to its role in the processing and integration of sequential information over time. In addition to inferior frontal activation, increased activation was observed in orbital gyrus, temporal areas (anterior superior temporal gyrus, posterior superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, posterior middle temporal gyrus) and supramarginal gyrus.

  8. Subbrow Approach as a Minimally Invasive Reduction Technique in the Management of Frontal Sinus Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewon Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFrontal sinus fractures, particularly anterior sinus fractures, are relatively common facial fractures. Many agree on the general principles of frontal fracture management; however, the optimal methods of reduction are still controversial. In this article, we suggest a simple reduction method using a subbrow incision as a treatment for isolated anterior sinus fractures.MethodsBetween March 2011 and March 2014, 13 patients with isolated frontal sinus fractures were treated by open reduction and internal fixation through a subbrow incision. The subbrow incision line was designed to be precisely at the lower margin of the brow in order to obtain an inconspicuous scar. A periosteal incision was made at 3 mm above the superior orbital rim. The fracture site of the frontal bone was reduced, and bone fixation was performed using an absorbable plate and screws.ResultsContour deformities were completely restored in all patients, and all patients were satisfied with the results. Scars were barely visible in the long-term follow-up. No complications related to the procedure, such as infection, uncontrolled sinus bleeding, hematoma, paresthesia, mucocele, or posterior wall and brain injury were observed.ConclusionsThe subbrow approach allowed for an accurate reduction and internal fixation of the fractures in the anterior table of the frontal sinus by providing a direct visualization of the fracture. Considering the surgical success of the reduction and the rigid fixation, patient satisfaction, and aesthetic problems, this transcutaneous approach through a subbrow incision is concluded to be superior to the other reduction techniques used in the case of an anterior table frontal sinus fracture.

  9. Changes in Effective Connectivity of the Superior Parietal Lobe during Inhibition and Redirection of Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asscheman, Susanne J.; Thakkar, Katharine N.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Executive control is the ability to flexibly control behavior and is frequently studied with saccadic eye movements. Contrary to frontal oculomotor areas, the role of the superior parietal lobe (SPL) in the executive control of saccades remains unknown. To explore the role of SPL networks in saccade control, we performed a saccadic search-step task while acquiring functional magnetic resonance imaging data for 41 participants. Psychophysiological interaction analyses assessed task-related differences in the effective connectivity of SPL with other brain regions during the inhibition and redirection of saccades. Results indicate an increased coupling of SPL with frontal, posterior, and striatal oculomotor areas for redirected saccades versus visually guided saccades. Saccade inhibition versus unsuccessful inhibition revealed an increased coupling of SPL with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. We discuss how these findings relate to ongoing debates about the implementation of executive control and conclude that early attentional control and rapid updating of saccade goals are important signals for executive control. PMID:27147827

  10. Changes in Effective Connectivity of the Superior Parietal Lobe during Inhibition and Redirection of Eye Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne J. Asscheman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive control is the ability to flexibly control behavior and is frequently studied with saccadic eye movements. Contrary to frontal oculomotor areas, the role of the superior parietal lobe (SPL in the executive control of saccades remains unknown. To explore the role of SPL networks in saccade control, we performed a saccadic search-step task while acquiring functional magnetic resonance imaging data for 41 participants. Psychophysiological interaction analyses assessed task-related differences in the effective connectivity of SPL with other brain regions during the inhibition and redirection of saccades. Results indicate an increased coupling of SPL with frontal, posterior, and striatal oculomotor areas for redirected saccades versus visually guided saccades. Saccade inhibition versus unsuccessful inhibition revealed an increased coupling of SPL with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. We discuss how these findings relate to ongoing debates about the implementation of executive control and conclude that early attentional control and rapid updating of saccade goals are important signals for executive control.

  11. Changes in Effective Connectivity of the Superior Parietal Lobe during Inhibition and Redirection of Eye Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asscheman, Susanne J; Thakkar, Katharine N; Neggers, Sebastiaan F W

    2015-01-01

    Executive control is the ability to flexibly control behavior and is frequently studied with saccadic eye movements. Contrary to frontal oculomotor areas, the role of the superior parietal lobe (SPL) in the executive control of saccades remains unknown. To explore the role of SPL networks in saccade control, we performed a saccadic search-step task while acquiring functional magnetic resonance imaging data for 41 participants. Psychophysiological interaction analyses assessed task-related differences in the effective connectivity of SPL with other brain regions during the inhibition and redirection of saccades. Results indicate an increased coupling of SPL with frontal, posterior, and striatal oculomotor areas for redirected saccades versus visually guided saccades. Saccade inhibition versus unsuccessful inhibition revealed an increased coupling of SPL with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. We discuss how these findings relate to ongoing debates about the implementation of executive control and conclude that early attentional control and rapid updating of saccade goals are important signals for executive control.

  12. Social cognition in schizophrenia: similarities and differences of emotional perception from patients with focal frontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko; Ueda, Keita; Namiki, Chihiro; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Takuji; Ohigashi, Yoshitaka; Murai, Toshiya

    2009-06-01

    The structural and functional abnormalities of the frontal lobes, the region implicated in social information processing, have been suspected to underlie social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, multiple structures, including the limbic/paralimbic areas that are also important for social cognition, have been reported to be abnormal in schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which the frontal lobe dysfunction accounts for social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia by comparing with patients who have focal frontal lobe injuries. Social cognitive abilities, focusing on affective aspects, were examined by an emotion intensity recognition task, which is sensitive to the amygdala function, and the emotion attribution tasks, which rely mainly on the frontal lobe function. Individuals with schizophrenia were impaired on the emotion intensity recognition task as well as on the emotion attribution tasks as compared with healthy subjects. By contrast, the frontal lobe-damaged group was defective in the emotion attribution tasks but not in the emotion intensity recognition task. Our results indicated that social cognitive impairments observed in schizophrenia can be accounted for partly by their frontal lobe pathology. Other aspects of social cognitive impairments could also be associated with the extra-frontal pathology, such as the amygdala.

  13. Cranialization of the frontal sinus for secondary mucocele prevention following open surgery for benign frontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Gilad; Amit, Moran; Ben-Ari, Oded; Gil, Ziv; Abergel, Abraham; Margalit, Nevo; Cavel, Oren; Wasserzug, Oshri; Fliss, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    To compare frontal sinus cranialization to obliteration for future prevention of secondary mucocele formation following open surgery for benign lesions of the frontal sinus. Retrospective case series. Tertiary academic medical center. Sixty-nine patients operated for benign frontal sinus pathology between 1994 and 2011. Open excision of benign frontal sinus pathology followed by either frontal obliteration (n = 41, 59%) or frontal cranialization (n = 28, 41%). The prevalence of post-surgical complications and secondary mucocele formation were compiled. Pathologies included osteoma (n = 34, 49%), mucocele (n = 27, 39%), fibrous dysplasia (n = 6, 9%), and encephalocele (n = 2, 3%). Complications included skin infections (n = 6), postoperative cutaneous fistula (n = 1), telecanthus (n = 4), diplopia (n = 3), nasal deformity (n = 2) and epiphora (n = 1). None of the patients suffered from postoperative CSF leak, meningitis or pneumocephalus. Six patients, all of whom had previously undergone frontal sinus obliteration, required revision surgery due to secondary mucocele formation. Statistical analysis using non-inferiority test reveal that cranialization of the frontal sinus is non-inferior to obliteration for preventing secondary mucocele formation (Pmucocele development after open excision of benign frontal sinus lesions.

  14. Neural evidence for the use of digit-image mnemonic in a superior memorist: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jun eYin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some superior memorists demonstrated exceptional memory for reciting a large body of information. The underlying neural correlates, however, are seldom addressed. C.L., the current holder of Guinness World Record for reciting 67,890 digits in π, participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study. Thirteen participants without any mnemonics training were included as controls. Our previous studies suggested that C.L. used a digit-image mnemonic in studying and recalling lists of digits, namely associating 2-digit groups of ‘00’ to ‘99’ with images and generating vivid stories out of them (Hu, Ericsson, Yang & Lu, 2009. Thus, 2-digit condition was included, with 1-digit numbers and letters as control conditions. We hypothesized that 2-digit condition in C.L. should elicit the strongest activity in the brain regions which are associated with his mnemonic. Functional MRI results revealed that bilateral frontal poles (FPs, BA10, left superior parietal lobule (SPL, left premotor cortex (PMC, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, were more engaged in both the study and recall phase of 2-digit condition for C.L. relative to controls. Moreover, the left middle/inferior frontal gyri (M/IFG and intraparietal sulci (IPS were less engaged in the study phase of 2-digit condition for C.L. (vs. controls. These results suggested that C.L. relied more on brain regions that are associated with episodic memory other than verbal rehearsal while he used his mnemonic strategies. This study supported theoretical accounts of restructured cognitive mechanisms for the acquisition of superior memory performance.

  15. Response inhibition of face stimuli linked to inferior frontal gyrus microstructure in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Skjold, Jonathan; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Jernigan, Terry Lynne

    . Inhibition of negative faces has been shown to be more difficult than that of positive faces1,3. The brain network underlying response inhibition includes the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) bilaterally 4–6. The white...... that better response inhibition (i.e. lower false alarm rate) of negative faces would be associated with higher FA in right IFG, right preSMA, and bilateral SLF in adolescents....

  16. The Behavior Of Asymmetric Frontal Couplings With Permanent Magnets In Magnetic Powder And High Temperature Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DOBROTA

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is the comparative analysis of the behavior of frontal couplings with Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets in difficult environments, specific to metallurgy – such as environments with magnetic powders and high temperature – in two constructive variants: symmetric couplings and asymmetric couplings (with divided poles. The results show the superior performance of asymmetric couplings under the given conditions

  17. Auditory aura in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a red flag to suspect an extra-frontal epileptogenic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Lorenzo; Bisulli, Francesca; Nobili, Lino; Tassi, Laura; Licchetta, Laura; Mostacci, Barbara; Stipa, Carlotta; Mainieri, Greta; Bernabè, Giorgia; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    To describe the anatomo-electro-clinical findings of patients with nocturnal hypermotor seizures (NHS) preceded by auditory symptoms, to evaluate the localizing value of auditory aura. Our database of 165 patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) diagnosis confirmed by videopolysomnography (VPSG) was reviewed, selecting those who reported an auditory aura as the initial ictal symptom in at least two NHS during their lifetime. Eleven patients were selected (seven males, four females). According to the anatomo-electro-clinical data, three groups were identified. Group 1 [defined epileptogenic zone (EZ)]: three subjects were studied with stereo-EEG. The EZ lay in the left superior temporal gyrus in two cases, whereas in the third case seizures arose from a dysplastic lesion located in the left temporal lobe. One of these three patients underwent left Heschl's gyrus resection, and is currently seizure-free. Group 2 (presumed EZ): three cases in which a presumed EZ was identified; in the left temporal lobe in two cases and in the left temporal lobe extending to the insula in one subject. Group 3 (uncertain EZ): five cases had anatomo-electro-clinical correlations discordant. This work suggests that auditory aura may be a helpful anamnestic feature suggesting an extra-frontal seizure origin. This finding could guide secondary investigations to improve diagnostic definition and selection of candidates for surgical treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of motivation on control hierarchy in the human frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Jörg; Aarts, Esther; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-02-18

    The frontal cortex mediates cognitive control and motivation to shape human behavior. It is generally observed that medial frontal areas are involved in motivational aspects of behavior, whereas lateral frontal regions are involved in cognitive control. Recent models of cognitive control suggest a rostro-caudal gradient in lateral frontal regions, such that progressively more rostral (anterior) regions process more complex aspects of cognitive control. How motivation influences such a control hierarchy is still under debate. Although some researchers argue that both systems work in parallel, others argue in favor of an interaction between motivation and cognitive control. In the latter case it is yet unclear how motivation would affect the different levels of the control hierarchy. This was investigated in the present functional MRI study applying different levels of cognitive control under different motivational states (low vs high reward anticipation). Three levels of cognitive control were tested by varying rule complexity: stimulus-response mapping (low-level), flexible task updating (mid-level), and sustained cue-task associations (high-level). We found an interaction between levels of cognitive control and motivation in medial and lateral frontal subregions. Specifically, flexible updating (mid-level of control) showed the strongest beneficial effect of reward and only this level exhibited functional coupling between dopamine-rich midbrain regions and the lateral frontal cortex. These findings suggest that motivation differentially affects the levels of a control hierarchy, influencing recruitment of frontal cortical control regions depending on specific task demands. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353207-11$15.00/0.

  19. Frontal MRI findings associated with impairment on the Executive Interview (EXIT25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, D R; Rauch, R; Román, G C; Cordes, J A; Polk, M J

    2001-01-01

    We examined the association between the Executive Interview (EXIT25), a bedside measure of executive control, and regional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pathology among 52 consecutive geriatric patients presenting to a university dementia assessment clinic. Left frontal (p QED]. The EXIT25's associations with right hemisphere lesions did not persist after adjusting for left frontal lesions. Left posterior lesions did not significantly affect the EXIT25. Similarly, left frontal circuit pathology worsened EXIT25 scores (p < .05). Pathology in left anterior subcortical structures showed a trend (p = .052). EXIT25 scores were not affected by right subcortical pathology, nor by pathology in either hippocampus. We conclude that the EXIT25 is specifically affected by frontal system MRI lesions, particularly on the left. This conclusion is consistent with earlier functional neuroimaging studies associating EXIT25 performance with left mesiofrontal perfusion.

  20. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  1. Frontal Sinus Development and Juvenile Age Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kaitlin; Ross, Ann

    2017-09-01

    Assessment of development is an important component of age estimation in juveniles. One area that has not been fully investigated as a possible aging method is the development of the frontal sinus. The frontal sinuses form when the ectocranial table of the frontal bone separates from the endocranial table forming an air pocket in the bone. The endocranial table ceases growth with the brain, while the ectocranial table is displaced anteriorly as the facial bones continue growth. In order to examine growth and the utility of the frontal sinuses for age estimation, 392 radiographs were examined (♀=159 and ♂=233) from the Juvenile Radiograph Database at North Carolina State University and the Patricia Database from Mercyhurst University. The sample included individuals who ranged in age from 0 to 18 years. Anterior view (or AP) radiographs were examined and were grouped based upon the presence or absence of the frontal sinus. Individuals were grouped into four age categories. A one-way ANOVA was performed to test whether developmental phase was related to age. Results from the ANOVA show that developmental phase is significantly related to age (P Anat Rec, 300:1609-1617, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience.

  3. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: Involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo eKitada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus and posterior superior temporal sulcus in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early-blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early-blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control. The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience.

  4. Tratamiento y complicaciones de las fracturas de seno frontal Frontal sinus fracture treatment and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heredero Jung

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las fracturas de seno frontal se producen como resultado de impactos de alta energía. Un tratamiento inadecuado puede conducir a complicaciones serias incluso muchos años después del traumatismo. Objetivos. Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos y revisar las complicaciones asociadas. Estandarizar el protocolo de tratamiento. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron 95 pacientes diagnosticados de fracturas de seno frontal pertenecientes al servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre de Madrid, entre enero de 1990 y diciembre de 2004. Resultados. La edad media de los pacientes revisados es de 34 años. La mayoría son hombres (78% y la causa más frecuente del traumatismo, los accidentes de tráfico. El patrón de fractura más común es el que afecta únicamente a la pared anterior del seno frontal. Las complicaciones descritas son: deformidad estética frontal, sinusitis frontal, mucocele frontal, celulitis fronto-orbitaria, intolerancia al material de osteosíntesis, complicaciones infecciosas del SNC y persistencia de fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Conclusiones. El objetivo ha de estar encaminado a prevenir las complicaciones asociadas a los pacientes con fracturas de seno frontal. Hay que individualizar el protocolo de tratamiento en cada caso. Es recomendable un seguimiento a largo plazo para identificar precozmente las posibles complicaciones.Introduction. Frontal sinus fractures are caused by high velocity impacts. Inappropriate treatment can lead to serious complications, even many years after the trauma. Objectives. To evaluate epidemiological data and associated complications. To standardize the treatment protocol. Materials and methods. the clinical records of 95 patients with frontal sinus fractures treated between January 1990 and December 2004 at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, "12 de Octubre" Hospital (Madrid, Spain, were reviewed. Results. The average age of

  5. Giant Frontal Mucocele Occurring 32 Years after Frontal Bone Fracture: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuta Kamoshima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant mucoceles of the frontal sinus are rare but their recognition is important in the differential diagnosis of proptosis and fronto-orbital lesions. The authors describe a patient with frontal giant mucocele with intracranial as well as orbit and ethmoid sinus involvement. Thirty-two years after a frontal sinus fracture, a 51-year-old female presented with headache, and left exophthalmos and ophthalmoplegia. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a giant frontal sinus mucocele with extension into the left anterior cranial fossa. The mucocele was treated with a transcranial and endoscopic transnasal approach. The frontal sinus was then cranialized with reconstruction of the posterior wall, and finally a wide nasal drainage was performed. The clinical symptoms disappeared immediately after surgery.

  6. Vulnerability of the medial frontal corticospinal projection accompanies combined lateral frontal and parietal cortex injury in rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecraft, R J; Ge, J; Stilwell-Morecraft, K S; McNeal, D W; Hynes, S M; Pizzimenti, M A; Rotella, D L; Darling, W G

    2015-03-01

    Concurrent damage to the lateral frontal and parietal cortex is common following middle cerebral artery infarction, leading to upper extremity paresis, paresthesia, and sensory loss. Motor recovery is often poor, and the mechanisms that support or impede this process are unclear. Since the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere is commonly spared following stroke, we investigated the spontaneous long-term (6 and 12 month) effects of lateral frontoparietal injury (F2P2 lesion) on the terminal distribution of the corticospinal projection (CSP) from intact, ipsilesional supplementary motor cortex (M2) at spinal levels C5 to T1. Isolated injury to the frontoparietal arm/hand region resulted in a significant loss of contralateral corticospinal boutons from M2 compared with controls. Specifically, reductions occurred in the medial and lateral parts of lamina VII and the dorsal quadrants of lamina IX. There were no statistical differences in the ipsilateral CSP. Contrary to isolated lateral frontal motor injury (F2 lesion), which results in substantial increases in contralateral M2 labeling in laminae VII and IX (McNeal et al. [2010] J. Comp. Neurol. 518:586-621), the added effect of adjacent parietal cortex injury to the frontal motor lesion (F2P2 lesion) not only impedes a favorable compensatory neuroplastic response but results in a substantial loss of M2 CSP terminals. This dramatic reversal of the CSP response suggests a critical trophic role for cortical somatosensory influence on spared ipsilesional frontal corticospinal projections, and that restoration of a favorable compensatory response will require therapeutic intervention. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. INTERNACIONALIZAÇÃO DA EDUCAÇÃO SUPERIOR – A OPÇÃO GEOPOLÍTICA PELA INTEGRAÇÃO REGIONAL NOS CASOS DA UNILA E DA UNILAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available No quadro contemporâneo da globalização, derivam das agências multilaterais recomendações que buscam reproduzir, nos sistemas e políticas de educação superior das nações periféricas, a geopolítica das potências, o que se faz, entre outras estratégias, no uso de uma palavra-força: internacionalização. Neste trabalho, apresentamos os casos de duas recém-implantadas universidades federais brasileiras orientadas pela perspectiva da internacionalização, mas que adotaram como foco a integração regional, em conformidade com os objetivos da política externa brasileira de inserção mais soberana na nova (desordem mundial. Dessa forma, tomam as instituições universitárias como braços acadêmicos da política de relações exteriores e contribuem para uma outra geopolítica do conhecimento. O texto propõe análises preliminares, pela Sociologia Política, de dados coletados por meio de pesquisa documental e entrevistas com pró-reitores dessas instituições no período 2014-2015.

  8. Dementia of Frontal Lobe Type and Amyotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ferrer

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia of frontal lobe type may precede motor signs in a number of adult patients with amyotrophy. Neuropathological studies have shown neuron loss, spongiosis and gliosis mainly in layers II and III of the frontal and temporal lobes, together with myelin pallor of the subcortical white matter. Golgi studies revealed loss of dendritic spines on the apical dendrite of layer III pyramidal neurons, decreased numbers of dendrites, amputation and tortuosities of dendrites, and distal and proximal dendritic swellings and enlargements. Calbindin D-28K immunocytochemistry revealed a marked decrease in the number of cortical immunoreactive neurons and loss of immunoreactivity in dendrites of the remaining cells. These features indicate that pyramidal and non-pyramidal neurons in layers II and III are severely damaged, and suggest that cortical processing is seriously impaired in patients with frontal lobe type dementia.

  9. Hypnosis, memory, and frontal executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvolden, Peter; Woody, Erik Z

    2004-01-01

    According to the dissociated-control hypothesis forwarded by Woody and Bowers (1994), the effects of hypnosis are consistent with attenuated frontal lobe functioning. The present study was designed to compare the performance of participants with high and low hypnotic ability on a variety of memory tasks thought to be sensitive to frontal lobe functioning, as well as some control memory tasks not considered to be sensitive to such functioning. Results generally indicated that participants with high hypnotic ability have more difficulty with tasks sensitive to frontal lobe functioning, including free recall, proactive interference, and source amnesia tasks, both within and outside of the context of hypnosis. These differences, which were not found for nonfrontal tasks, are generally supportive of the dissociated control theory of hypnotic responding.

  10. Distinct contributions of lateral orbito-frontal cortex, striatum, and fronto-parietal network regions for rule encoding and control of memory-based implementation during instructed reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, Hannes; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2016-01-15

    A key element of behavioral flexibility is to quickly learn to modify or reverse previously acquired stimulus-response associations. Such reversal learning (RL) can either be driven by feedback or by explicit instruction, informing either retrospectively or prospectively about the changed response requirements. Neuroimaging studies have thus far exclusively focused either on feedback-driven RL or on instructed initial learning of novel rules. The present study examined the neural basis of instructed RL as compared to instructed initial learning, separately assessing reversal-related instruction-based encoding processes and reversal-related control processes required for implementing reversed rules under competition from the initially learned rules. We found that instructed RL is partly supported by similar regions as feedback-driven RL, including lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) and anterior dorsal caudate. Encoding-related activation in both regions determined resilience against response competition during subsequent memory-based reversal implementation. Different from feedback-driven RL, instruction-based RL relied heavily on the generic fronto-parietal cognitive control network--not for encoding but for reversal-related control processes during memory-based implementation. These findings are consistent with a model of partly decoupled, yet interacting, systems of (i) symbolic rule representations that are instantaneously updated upon instruction and (ii) pragmatic representations of reward-associated S-R links mediating the enduring competition from initially learned rules.

  11. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  12. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  13. Frontal destabilization of Stonebreen, Edgeøya, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozzi, Tazio; Kääb, Andreas; Schellenberger, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    In consideration of the strong atmospheric warming that has been observed since the 1990s in polar regions there is a need to quantify mass loss of Arctic ice caps and glaciers and their contribution to sea level rise. In polar regions a large part of glacier ablation is through calving of tidewater glaciers driven by ice velocities and their variations. The Svalbard region is characterized by glaciers with rapid dynamic fluctuations of different types, including irreversible adjustments of calving fronts to a changing mass balance and reversible, surge-type activities. For large areas, however, we do not have much past and current information on glacier dynamic fluctuations. Recently, through frequent monitoring based on repeat optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite data, a number of zones of velocity increases have been observed at formerly slow-flowing calving fronts on Svalbard. Here we present the dynamic evolution of the southern lobe of Stonebreen on Edgeøya. We observe a slowly steady retreat of the glacier front from 1971 until 2011, followed by a strong increase in ice surface velocity along with a decrease of volume and frontal extension since 2012. The considerable losses in ice thickness could have made the tide-water calving glacier, which is grounded below sea level some 6 km inland from the 2014 front, more sensitive to surface meltwater reaching its bed and/or warm ocean water increasing frontal ablation with subsequent strong multi-annual ice-flow acceleration.

  14. Retrieval of frontal cloudiness microstructure characteristics from satellite radiometeric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhanov, V.; Dorman, B.; Kryvobok, A.

    This paper presents results of consecutive numerical simulation of the NOAA satellite signal reflectance of frontal mixed stratiform clouds for channels of AVHRR in visible and near infrared regions of spectrum The simulation is based on the next models a The time-dependent numerical microphysical model of stratiform frontal clouds with 3 forms of ice crystals needles plates columnes b Models of computations of scattering characteristics of drop and crystal systems Simulations of scattering characteristics of liquid drops are based on the Mie theory Simulations of scattering properties of randomly oriented ice crystals are based on the geometric optics and far-field diffraction approximation Computations were realized in visible and near-infrared part of spectrum lambda 1 0 55 mu m lambda 2 1 6 mu m lambda quad 3 quad quad 3 6 quad mu m c The Discrete Ordinate Method DOM for simulation of solar radiation transfer in not uniform clouds Simulations of CR cloud reflrctance show that CR lambda 1 and CR lambda 2 change synchronously with the cloud intrgral optical thickness IOT which is detrmined basically with liquid water content LWC The channel lambda quad 3 3 6 mu m is less sensible to the optical thickness CR lambda 2 and CR lambda 3 are very different in a great LWC region but become close in a region of significant crystallization and precipitation The comparison CR lambda 1 CR lambda quad 2 CR lambda 3 gives

  15. Predictions Shape Confidence in Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Maxine T; Seth, Anil K; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-10-05

    inferior frontal gyrus within an occipitofrontal network, consisting of orbitofrontal cortex and intracalcarine sulcus, which represents and communicates relevant top-down and bottom-up signals. Together, our data reveal a role of frontal regions in the top-down processes enabling perceptual decisions to become available for conscious report. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3610323-14$15.00/0.

  16. Statistics of superior records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistics of records in a sequence of random variables. These identical and independently distributed variables are drawn from the parent distribution ρ. The running record equals the maximum of all elements in the sequence up to a given point. We define a superior sequence as one where all running records are above the average record expected for the parent distribution ρ. We find that the fraction of superior sequences SN decays algebraically with sequence length N, SN˜N-β in the limit N→∞. Interestingly, the decay exponent β is nontrivial, being the root of an integral equation. For example, when ρ is a uniform distribution with compact support, we find β=0.450265. In general, the tail of the parent distribution governs the exponent β. We also consider the dual problem of inferior sequences, where all records are below average, and find that the fraction of inferior sequences IN decays algebraically, albeit with a different decay exponent, IN˜N-α. We use the above statistical measures to analyze earthquake data.

  17. Frenillo labial superior doble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Albornoz López del Castillo

    Full Text Available El frenillo labial superior doble no sindrómico es una anomalía del desarrollo que no hemos encontrado reportada en la revisión bibliográfica realizada. Se presenta una niña de 11 años de edad que fue remitida al servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "Eduardo Agramonte Piña", de Camagüey, por presentar un frenillo labial superior doble de baja inserción. Se describen los síntomas clínicos asociados a esta anomalía y el tratamiento quirúrgico utilizado para su solución: una frenectomía y plastia sobre la banda muscular frénica anormal que provocaba exceso de tejido en la mucosa labial. Consideramos muy interesante la descripción de este caso, por no haber encontrado reporte similar en la literatura revisada.

  18. Slowly progressive anarthria with late anterior opercular syndrome: a variant form of frontal cortical atrophy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussolle, E; Bakchine, S; Tommasi, M; Laurent, B; Bazin, B; Cinotti, L; Cohen, L; Chazot, G

    1996-12-01

    We describe eight patients with slowly progressive speech production deficit combining speech apraxia, dysarthria, dysprosody and orofacial apraxia, and initially no other deficit in other language and non-language neuropsychological domains. Long-term follow-up (6-10 years) in 4 cases showed an evolution to muteness, bilateral suprabulbar paresis with automatic-voluntary dissociation and frontal lobe cognitive slowing without generalised intellectual deterioration. Most disabled patients presented with an anterior opercular syndrome (Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome), and pyramidal or extrapyramidal signs. CT and MRI findings disclosed asymmetric (left > right) progressive cortical atrophy of the frontal lobes predominating in the posterior inferior frontal region, notably the operculum. SPECT and PET revealed a decreased cerebral blood flow and metabolism, prominent in the left posterior-inferior frontal gyrus and premotor cortex, extending bilaterally in the most advanced cases. Pathological study of two cases showed non-specific neuronal loss, gliosis, and spongiosis of superficial cortical layers, mainly confined to the frontal lobes, with no significant abnormalities in the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem (except severe neuronal loss in the substantia nigra in one case), and spinal cord. We propose to call this peculiar syndrome Slowly Progressive Anarthria (SPA), based on its specific clinical presentation, and its metabolic and pathological correlates. SPA represents another clinical expression of focal cortical degeneration syndromes, that may overlap with other similar syndromes, specially primary progressive aphasia and the various frontal lobe dementias.

  19. The frontal bone in the genus Homo: a survey of functional and phylogenetic sources of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athreya, Sheela

    2012-01-01

    The frontal bone is a useful aspect of the craniofacial skeleton to study in physical anthropology because it contains several characters considered to be important for both population- and species-level distinctions. These include forehead (frontal squama) inclination and supraorbital morphology. Because it lies at the interface between the anterior neurocranium and the upper face, it is also informative about the evolution of both of these regions of the skull. Previous research on frontal bone morphology can be grouped into two broad categories. One set of studies explored the relationship between craniofacial structure and function in an attempt to explain biological sources of variation in the torus development of various extant primate species, including modern humans. The second group of studies examined geographical and temporal patterns of variation in frontal morphology to make inferences about the phylogenetic relationship relationships among fossil hominin populations in the Pleistocene. This paper offers a review of both phylogenetic and functional studies of variation in frontal bone morphology, and synthesizes them to offer a comprehensive understanding of what the frontal bone can tell us about bio-behavioral and evolutionary differences both among extant and extinct members of the genus Homo.

  20. Connectivity between Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Supplementary Motor Area Predicts After-Effects of Right Frontal Cathodal tDCS on Picture Naming Speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosso, Charlotte; Valabregue, R.; Arbizy, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the right frontal cortex improves language abilities in post-stroke aphasic patients. Yet little is known about the effects of right frontal cathodal tDCS on normal language function. Objective/hypothesis: To explore...... the cathodal tDCS effects of the right-hemispheric homologue of Broca’s area on picture naming in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that cathodal tDCS improves Picture naming and that this effect is determined by the anatomical and functional connectivity of the targeted region. Methods: Cathodal and sham t......DCS were applied to the right inferior frontal gyrus in 24 healthy subjects before a picture-naming task. All participants were studied with magnetic resonance imaging at pre-interventional baseline. Probabilistic tractography and dynamic causal modeling of functional brain activity during a word...

  1. Acute ethanol and taurine intake affect absolute alpha power in frontal cortex before and after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulucio, Dailson; da Costa, Bruno M; Santos, Caleb G; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Gongora, Mariana; Cagy, Mauricio; Alvarenga, Renato L; Pompeu, Fernando A M S

    2017-09-14

    Taurine and alcohol has been popularly ingested through energy drinks. Reports from both compounds shows they are active on nervous system but little is known about the acute effect of these substances on the frontal cortex in an exercise approach. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 0,6mldL(-1) of ethanol (ET), 6g of taurine (TA), and taurine with ethanol (TA+ET) intake on absolute alpha power (AAP) in the frontal region, before and after exercise. Nine participants were recruited, five women (22±3years) and four men (26±5years), for a counterbalanced experimental design. For each treatment, the tests were performed considering three moments: "baseline", "peak" and "post-exercise". In the placebo treatment (PL), the frontal areas showed AAP decrease at the post-exercise. However, in the TA, AAP decreased at peak and increased at post-exercise. In the ET treatment, AAP increased at the peak moment for the left frontal electrodes. In the TA+ET treatment, an AAP increase was observed at peak, and it continued after exercise ended. These substances were able to produce electrocortical activity changes in the frontal regions after a short duration and low intensity exercise. Left and right regions showed different AAP dynamics during peak and post-exercise moments when treatments were compared. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Music Shifts Frontal EEG in Depressed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Martinez, Alex; Nawrocki, Thomas; Pickens, Jeffrey; Fox, Nathan A.; Schanberg, Saul

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen chronically depressed female adolescents listened to rock music for a 23-minute session. EEG was recorded and saliva samples were collected to determine the effects of the music on stress hormone cortisol levels. No differences were reported for mood state; however, cortisol levels decreased and relative right-frontal activation was…

  3. Infant Frontal Asymmetry Predicts Child Emotional Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Paulus, Markus; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jorg; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    While factors influencing maternal emotional availability (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about the development of child EA. The present longitudinal study investigated the role of frontal brain asymmetry in young children with regard to child EA (child responsiveness and involvement) in mother-child interaction in a sample of 28…

  4. Impaired Picture Arrangement subscores (WAIS-III) associated with decreased place orientation and frontal/occipital blood flow in Alzheimer's disease: Implications for social judgment dysfunction. The Osaki-Tajiri Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuka; Meguro, Kenichi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Nakamura, Kei; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2016-10-30

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients manifest not only memory impairment but also deficit of social judgment. However, contrary to frequently recognized deficit, only two neuropsychological tests have been established for assessing "judgment" : the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument domain Abstraction & judgment and the Picture Arrangement subscale of WAIS-III. For the former, we previously reported an association with decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left parietal lobe. Herein, we analyzed the scores of the Picture Arrangement test. Forty-nine AD patients were classified into two groups, i.e., the high and low PA score groups. The (99m)Tc-ECD SPECT investigation was performed with the voxel-based analysis using SPM5. The Mini-Mental State Examination subscores of "place orientation" showed a correlation with the PA scores. The low PA score group exhibited significantly decreased rCBFs in the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (LIFG), Left Superior Frontal Gyrus (LSFG) and Right Occipital Lobe (ROL), compared with the high PA score group. The ability of PA may be associated with the place orientation, which may be necessary to re-arrange the pictures. The ROL was related to visual recognition. The LSFG may be involved in executive function or "frontal reasoning."

  5. Interactive effects of apolipoprotein E4 and diabetes risk on later myelinating white matter regions in neurologically healthy older aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jessica M; Salat, David H; Stricker, Nikki H; Zink, Tyler A; Grande, Laura J; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Leritz, Elizabeth C

    2014-05-01

    Possession of the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele and diabetes risk are independently related to reduced white matter (WM) integrity that may contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this study is to examine the interactive effects of APOE4 and diabetes risk on later myelinating WM regions among healthy elderly individuals at risk of AD. A sample of 107 healthy elderly (80 APOE4-/27 APOE4+) individuals underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Data were prepared using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, and a priori regions of interest (ROIs) were extracted from T1-based WM parcellations. Regions of interest included later myelinating frontal/temporal/parietal WM regions and control regions measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). There were no APOE group differences in DTI for any ROI. Within the APOE4 group, we found negative relationships between hemoglobin A1c/fasting glucose and APOE4 on FA for all later myelinating WM regions but not for early/middle myelinating control regions. Results also showed APOE4/diabetes risk interactions for WM underlying supramarginal, superior temporal, precuneus, superior parietal, and superior frontal regions. Results suggest interactive effects of APOE4 and diabetes risk on later myelinating WM regions, which supports preclinical detection of AD among this particularly susceptible subgroup.

  6. The influence of frontal sinus in brain activation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy analyzed by realistic head models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Kazuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki; Ito, Hiroshi; Sakatani, Kaoru; Okada, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Adequate modeling of light propagation in the head is important to predict the sensitivity of NIRS signal and the spatial sensitivity profile of source-detector pairs. The 3D realistic head models of which the geometry is based upon the anatomical images acquired by magnetic resonance imaging and x-ray computed tomography are constructed to investigate the influence of the frontal sinus on the NIRS signal and spatial sensitivity. Light propagation in the head is strongly affected by the presence of the frontal sinus. The light tends to propagate around the frontal sinus. The influence of the frontal sinus on the sensitivity of the NIRS signal to the brain activation is not consistent and depends on the depth of the frontal sinus, the optical properties of the superficial tissues and the relative position between the source-detector pair and the frontal sinus. The frontal sinus located in the shallow region of the skull tends to reduce the sensitivity of the NIRS signal while the deep frontal sinus can increase the sensitivity of the NIRS signal. PMID:23024906

  7. Evolución de las estructuras andinas en la region del Río Diamante (34º40'LS: vinculación entre la faja corrida y plegada de Malargüe y la cordillera frontal Evolution of the Andean structures at the Río Diamante region (34º40'SL: linkage between the Malargüe fold-and-thrust belt and the Cordillera Frontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín M. Turienzo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las estructuras andinas en la región del río Diamante y su vinculación con las rocas volcánicas, subvolcánicas y sedimentarias terciarias, permitió establecer un modelo estructural evolutivo para este sector de los Andes. La estructura dominante está conformada por dos sectores que involucran al basamento, entre los cuales se desarrolla un sector con deformación en la cubierta sedimentaria. En el sector occidental, grandes cuñas de basamento asociadas a corrimientos andinos, se propagaron en la cubierta a lo largo de horizontes favorables generando los pliegues y corrimientos del sector central de piel fina. La estructuración de estos dos sectores, que implica un acortamiento de 10 km, tuvo lugar entre los 14,5 Ma y los 10,8 Ma, lo cual representa un importante evento compresivo durante el Mioceno medio (2,7 mm/año. En el sector oriental, la ausencia de despegues eficientes dificultó el desarrollo de cuñas de basamento y en cambio tuvo lugar una importante deformación mediante retrocorrimientos. Numerosos cuerpos subvolcánicos (10,5 Ma a 5,5 Ma presentes en toda la zona donde ocurren los retrocorrimientos sugieren una vinculación entre el magmatismo y el fallamiento antitético. Con la continuidad de la compresión, la falla Carrizalito cortó hacia la superficie montando rocas prejurásicas y mesozoicas sobre terciarias, aunque en la región más austral permanece como una falla ciega que registra sismicidad moderna. Un acortamiento de 4,3 km en el sector oriental ocurrido entre los 10,8 Ma y los 0,5 Ma (0,42 mm/año indica una lentificación de la contracción andina durante el Mioceno tardío-Pleistoceno.The study of the Andean structures at the Río Diamante region and its linkage with the tertiary volcanic, subvolcanic and sedimentary rocks, allow us to propose a structural evolution for this sector of the Andes. Two basement-involved sectors with a thin-skinned sector between them form the dominant structure

  8. Global increase in task-related fronto-parietal activity after focal frontal lobe lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolgar, Alexandra; Bor, Daniel; Duncan, John

    2013-09-01

    A critical question for neuropsychology is how complex brain networks react to damage. Here, we address this question for the well-known executive control or multiple-demand (MD) system, a fronto-parietal network showing increased activity with many different kinds of cognitive demand, including standard tests of fluid intelligence. Using fMRI, we ask how focal frontal lobe damage affects MD activity during a standard fluid intelligence task. Despite poor behavioral performance, frontal patients showed increased fronto-parietal activity relative to controls. The activation difference was not accounted for by difference in IQ. Moreover, rather than specific focus on perilesional or contralesional cortex, additional recruitment was distributed throughout the MD regions and surrounding cortex and included parietal MD regions distant from the injury. The data suggest that, following local frontal lobe damage, there is a global compensatory recruitment of an adaptive and integrated fronto-parietal network.

  9. Time course of the involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum in emotional prosody perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolijn Hoekert

    Full Text Available In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional prosody perception. Here, we used triple-pulse repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to shed light on the precise time course of involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum. We hypothesized that information would be processed in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus before being processed in the right fronto-parietal operculum. Right-handed healthy subjects performed an emotional prosody task. During listening to each sentence a triplet of TMS pulses was applied to one of the regions at one of six time points (400-1900 ms. Results showed a significant main effect of Time for right anterior superior temporal gyrus and right fronto-parietal operculum. The largest interference was observed half-way through the sentence. This effect was stronger for withdrawal emotions than for the approach emotion. A further experiment with the inclusion of an active control condition, TMS over the EEG site POz (midline parietal-occipital junction, revealed stronger effects at the fronto-parietal operculum and anterior superior temporal gyrus relative to the active control condition. No evidence was found for sequential processing of emotional prosodic information from right anterior superior temporal gyrus to the right fronto-parietal operculum, but the results revealed more parallel processing. Our results suggest that both right fronto-parietal operculum and right anterior superior temporal gyrus are critical for emotional prosody perception at a relatively late time period after sentence onset. This may reflect that emotional cues can still be ambiguous at the beginning of sentences, but become

  10. Effects of Level of Retrieval Success on Recall-Related Frontal and Medial Temporal Lobe Activations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldi, Daniela; Mayes, Andrew R.; Barnes, Anna; Hadley, Donald M.; Patterson, Jim; Wyper, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Brain dedicated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was used to compare the neuroactivation produced by the cued recall of response words in a set of studied word pairs with that produced by the cued retrieval of words semantically related to unstudied stimulus words. Six of the 12 subjects scanned were extensively trained so as to have good memory of the studied pairs and the remaining six were minimally trained so as to have poor memory. When comparing episodic with semantic retrieval, the well-trained subjects showed significant left medial temporal lobe activation, which was also significantly greater than that shown by the poorly trained subjects, who failed to show significant medial temporal lobe activation. In contrast, the poorly trained subjects showed significant bilateral frontal lobe activation, which was significantly greater than that shown by the well-trained subjects who failed to show significant frontal lobe activation. The frontal activations occurred mainly in the dorsolateral region, but extended into the ventrolateral and, to a lesser extent, the frontal polar regions. It is argued that whereas the medial temporal lobe activation increased as the proportion of response words successfully recalled increased, the bilateral frontal lobe activation increased in proportion to retrieval effort, which was greater when learning had been less good. PMID:12446952

  11. Frontal terminations for the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle: anatomical dissection, DTI study and functional considerations on a multi-component bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarubbo, Silvio; De Benedictis, Alessandro; Maldonado, Igor L; Basso, Gianpaolo; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    The anatomy and functional role of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle (IFOF) remain poorly known. We accurately analyze its course and the anatomical distribution of its frontal terminations. We propose a classification of the IFOF in different subcomponents. Ten hemispheres (5 left, 5 right) were dissected with Klingler's technique. In addition to the IFOF dissection, we performed a 4-T diffusion tensor imaging study on a single healthy subject. We identified two layers of IFOF. The first one is superficial and antero-superiorly directed, terminating in the inferior frontal gyrus. The second is deeper and consists of three portions: posterior, middle and anterior. The posterior component terminates in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. The middle component terminates in the MFG and lateral orbito-frontal cortex. The anterior one is directed to the orbito-frontal cortex and frontal pole. In vivo tractography study confirmed these anatomical findings. We suggest that the distribution of IFOF fibers within the frontal lobe corresponds to a fine functional segmentation. IFOF can be considered as a "multi-function" bundle, with each anatomical subcomponent subserving different brain processing. The superficial layer and the posterior component of the deep layer, which connects the occipital extrastriate, temporo-basal and inferior frontal cortices, might subserve semantic processing. The middle component of the deep layer could play a role in a multimodal sensory-motor integration. Finally, the anterior component of the deep layer might be involved in emotional and behavioral aspects.

  12. Superior digit memory of abacus experts: an event-related functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Michimata, Chikashi; Kaminaga, Tatsuro; Honda, Manabu; Sadato, Norihiro

    2002-12-01

    Abacus experts exhibit superior short-term memory for digits, but the underlying neurophysiological mechanism remains unknown. Using event-related fMRI, we examined the brain activity of abacus experts and non-experts during the memory retention period of a delayed match-to-sample task using digits as stimuli. In controls, activity was greater in cortical areas related to verbal working memory, including Broca's area. In contrast, in experts, activity was greater in cortical areas related to visuo-spatial working memory, including the bilateral superior frontal sulcus and superior parietal lobule. This provides neurophysiological evidence that abacus experts utilize a visuo-spatial representation for digit memory.

  13. Alterations of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Major Depressive Disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hyoung; Chung, Yong An; Seo, Ye Young; Yoo, Ik Dong; Na, Sae Jung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Ki Jun [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    The authors analyzed how the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings of patients with major depression differ from the normal control, and our results were compared to previous reports. Twelve patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for major depression who were off all psychotropic medications for > 4 weeks (male: 7, female: 5, age range: 19approx52 years, average age: 29.3+-9.9 years) and 14 normal volunteers (male: 8, female: 6, age range: 19approx53 years, average age: 31.4+-9.2 years) were recruited. Images of brain perfusion SPECT were obtained using Tc-99m ECD and patterns of the rCBF were compared between patients with major depression and the healthy control subjects. The patients with major depression showed increase of the r-CBF in right lingual gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left precuneus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and showed decrease of r-CBF in right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus of left limbic lobe, cingulate gyrus of right frontal lobe, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe compared to the normal control. The Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT findings in our study did not differ from the previously reported regional cerebral blood flow pattern of patients with major depression. Especially, decreased rCBF pattern typical to major depression patients in the right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, and cingulate regions was clearly demonstrated

  14. Structural Evolution of a Warm Frontal Precipitation Band During GCPEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Brian A.; Naeger, Aaron; Molthan, Andrew; Nesbitt, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    A warm frontal precipitation band developed over a few hours 50-100 km to the north of a surface warm front. The 3-km WRF was able to realistically simulate band development, although the model is somewhat too weak. Band genesis was associated with weak frontogenesis (deformation) in the presence of weak potential and conditional instability feeding into the band region, while it was closer to moist neutral within the band. As the band matured, frontogenesis increased, while the stability gradually increased in the banding region. Cloud top generating cells were prevalent, but not in WRF (too stable). The band decayed as the stability increased upstream and the frontogenesis (deformation) with the warm front weakened. The WRF may have been too weak and short-lived with the band because too stable and forcing too weak (some micro issues as well).

  15. [Giant vertebro-basilar aneurysm. Frontal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, A; Mizon, J P; Sevestre, H

    1991-01-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with an apparent frontal syndrome. He also had bilateral trigeminal neuralgia, a pyramidal syndrome of all 4 limbs, balance disturbances, a horizontal nystagmus when looking to the left and a right velopalatine paralysis. CT scan with contrast showed a hyperdense rounded lesion in the left cerebello-pontine angle. Cerebral angiography showed this to be a large aneurysm of the end of the vertebral arteries. The patient died suddenly. Autopsy confirmed the site and presence of the aneurysm. Balance disturbances, the pyramidal syndrome and velopalatine paralysis could all be explained by brain stem compression and the bilateral nature of the trigeminal neuralgia by compression of the trigemino-thalamic tract. The apparent frontal syndrome, the authors suggest could have resulted from subacute raised intracranial pressure.

  16. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  17. Role of Frontal Alpha Oscillations in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R.; Foulser, A. Alban; Mellin, Juliann M.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent EEG data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8 – 12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a fundamental role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40Hz-tACS was used in instead of 10Hz-tACS to rule out a general “electrical stimulation” effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal gamma stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. PMID:25913062

  18. Combined endoscopic trephination and endoscopic frontal sinusotomy for management of complex frontal sinus pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Pete S; Citardi, Martin J; Lanza, Donald C

    2005-01-01

    The advances in endoscopic sinus surgery have revolutionized the management of frontal sinus disease. Despite the successes, the purely endoscopic approach has its limitations, especially in patients with alterations in anatomy caused by previous surgical intervention or complex frontal sinus pneumatization patterns. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined endoscopic trephination and endoscopic frontal sinusotomy (the above and below approach) in the management of these difficult cases. Chart review was performed on patients undergoing the combined approach from October 1999 to June 2004. Demographic data, symptomatology, comorbidity, previous surgery, and primary pathology were determined. Outcome was assessed based on subjective symptom relief and objective endoscopic patency. Twenty-two patients with a mean age of 49.2 years underwent the combined approach. The primary pathology included mucoceles (15 patients), frontal sinusitis (2 patients), inverted papilloma (2 patients), osteoma (1 patient), fibrous dysplasia (1 patient), and pneumocephalus (1 patient). A total of 25 above and below procedures (22 primary and 3 revision procedures) were performed to manage the pathology. Postoperatively, headaches resolved in 47%, improved in 35%, and remained unchanged in 18% of the patients. Orbital symptoms resolved in 63%, improved in 25%, and remained unchanged in 12% of the patients. Endoscopic patency of the frontal sinusotomy was confirmed in 19 of 22 cases (86%) at a mean follow-up of 16.2 months. Management of complex frontal sinus pathology may require adjunct approaches in conjunction to the standard endoscopic techniques. In this series, the above and below approach was used successfully in 22 patients. The combined approach may serve as an important adjunct for management of complex frontal sinus disease.

  19. Voxel-based statistical analysis of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Hoon Kim; Young-In Chung; Jung Sub Lee; In-Joo Kim; Yong-Ki Kim; Seong-Jang Kim

    2011-01-01

    The technique of region of interest-based positron emission tomography is limited by its poor reliability and relatively few examined brain regions. In the present study, we compared brain metabolism assessed using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography between 14 attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and 15 normal controls with scoliosis at resting state by statistical parametric mapping. Glucose metabolism was decreased in the left parahippocampal gyrus, left hippocampus, left anterior cingulate gyrus, right anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum, left superior temporal gyrus, left insula, left medial and middle frontal gyri, right medial frontal gyrus, and left basal ganglia (putamen, amygdala, and caudate nucleus) in children with ADHD. These data suggest that children with ADHD exhibit hypometabolism in various brain regions compared to controls, indicating that ADHD symptoms are unlikely the result of abnormalities in specific areas.

  20. The timing and strength of regional brain activation associated with word recognition in children with reading difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh eRezaie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the relative degree and timing of cortical activation across parietal, temporal, and frontal regions during performance of a continuous visual word recognition task in children who experience reading difficulties (N=44, RD and typical readers (N=40, NI. Minimum norm estimates of regional neurophysiological activity were obtained from magnetoencephalographic recordings. Children with RD showed bilaterally reduced neurophysiological activity in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and increased activity in rostral middle frontal and ventral occipitotemporal cortices, bilaterally. The temporal profile of activity in the RD group, featured near-simultaneous activity peaks in temporal, inferior parietal and prefrontal regions, in contrast to a clear temporal progression of activity among these areas in the NI group. These results replicate and extend previous MEG and fMRI results demonstrating atypical, latency-dependent attributes of the brain circuit involved in word reading in children with reading difficulties.

  1. Distinct Frontal Networks Are Involved in Adapting to Internally and Externally Signaled Errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, T.E.; Boissezon, de X.; Leff, A.; Beckmann, C.F.; Hughes, E.; Kinnunen, K.; Leech, R.; Sharp, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Errors trigger changes in behavior that help individuals adapt to new situations. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is thought to be central to this response, but more lateral frontal regions are also activated by errors and may make distinct contributions. We investigated error processing

  2. Error-likelihood prediction in the medial frontal cortex: A critical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, S.; Scheizer, T.S.; Mars, R.B.; Botvinick, M.M.; Hajcal, G.

    2007-01-01

    A recent study has proposed that posterior regions of the medial frontal cortex (pMFC) learn to predict the likelihood of errors ccurring in a given task context. A key prediction of the errorlZelihood (EL) hypothesis is that the pMFC should exhibit enhanced activity to cues that are predictive of h

  3. Aberrant network integrity of the inferior frontal cortex in women with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kullmann

    2014-01-01

    These results suggest that AN patients have reduced connectivity within the cognitive control system of the brain and increased connectivity within regions important for salience processing. Due to its fundamental role in inhibitory behavior, including motor response, altered integrity of the inferior frontal cortex could contribute to hyperactivity in AN.

  4. Left Inferior Frontal Cortex and Syntax: Function, Structure and Behaviour in Patients with Left Hemisphere Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Lorraine K.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Randall, Billi; Wright, Paul; Devereux, Barry J.; Zhuang, Jie; Papoutsi, Marina; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.

    2011-01-01

    For the past 150 years, neurobiological models of language have debated the role of key brain regions in language function. One consistently debated set of issues concern the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus in syntactic processing. Here we combine measures of functional activity, grey matter integrity and performance in patients with left…

  5. Palilalia, echolalia, and echopraxia-palipraxia as ictal manifestations in a patient with left frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yang-Je; Han, Sang-Don; Song, Sook Keun; Lee, Byung In; Heo, Kyoung

    2009-06-01

    Palilalia is a relatively rare pathologic speech behavior and has been reported in various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. We encountered a case of palilalia, echolalia, and echopraxia-palipraxia as ictal phenomena of left frontal lobe epilepsy. A 55-year-old, right-handed man was admitted because of frequent episodes of rapid reiteration of syllables. Video-electroencephalography monitoring revealed stereotypical episodes of palilalia accompanied by rhythmic head nodding and right-arm posturing with ictal discharges over the left frontocentral area. He also displayed echolalia or echopraxia-palipraxia, partially responding to an examiner's stimulus. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed encephalomalacia on the left superior frontal gyrus and ictal single photon emission computed tomography showed hyperperfusion just above the lesion, corresponding to the left supplementary motor area (SMA), and subcortical nuclei. This result suggests that the neuroanatomic substrate involved in the generation of these behaviors as ictal phenomena might exist in the SMA of the left frontal lobe.

  6. Frontal dynamics in a California Current System shallow front: 1. Frontal processes and tracer structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallã S-Sanz, E.; Johnston, T. M. S.; Rudnick, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    The three-dimensional dynamics in a shallow front are examined using density and current data from two surveys 100 km offshore of Monterey Bay, California. Survey 1 is forced by down-front winds, and both surveys have considerable cross-front density gradients and flow curvature. The maximum Rossby numbers on the dense side reached maxima of +0.60 in survey 1 and +0.45 in survey 2. Downwelling occurs in regions of confluence (frontogenesis) associated with potential vorticity (PV) change and thermal wind imbalance. Streamers of particulate matter and PV are advected southeastward by the frontal jet and downward. Nonlinear Ekman currents advect dense water over light water in the presence of down-front winds, which leads to upwelling along the front and downwelling on the light side of the front. At sites of active ageostrophic secondary circulation (ASC), induced by frontogenesis or Ekman effects, the observed cross-front ageostrophic velocity is consistent with the diagnosed vertical velocity. Furthermore, in survey 2, ageostrophic divergence may play an important role at the curved front, presumably counteracting quasi-geostrophic frontogenesis due to isopycnal confluence. Downward frictional vertical PV flux below the surface extracts PV from the pycnocline and reinforces the frontogenetic vertical PV flux. PV destruction at the surface is inferred from a low PV anomaly below the mixed layer in survey 2. Since the magnitude of the frontogenetic ASC is only twice the magnitude of Ekman suction, external forcing may have a considerable impact on the vertical heat and PV fluxes.

  7. Alopecia frontal fibrosante: relato de seis casos Frontal fibrosing alopecia: report of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Mulinari-Brenner

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia frontal fibrosante é forma progressiva de alopecia cicatricial. Os casos iniciais foram relatados a partir 1994, na Austrália, em pacientes do sexo feminino pós-menopausa. Desde então inúmeros casos foram descritos na literatura sugerindo que ela é mais prevalente do que inicialmente se supunha. Seu curso progressivo se assemelha ao da alopecia androgenética; histologicamente, entretanto, o infiltrado liquenóide é evidente. O artigo relata seis casos brasileiros e discute a alopecia frontal fibrosante dentro do grupo das alopecias cicatriciais, como variante do líquen plano pilar.Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a progressive cicatricial alopecia. The first cases were described in Australia in postmenopausal women, in 1994. Since then, numerous cases were reported, suggesting that frontal fibrosing alopecia is more prevalent than initially thought. Its progressive course in postmenopausal women, clinically resembles androgenetic alopecia; however, histologically, lichenoid infiltrate is evident. This article report six brazilian cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia and discusses them in the context of cicatricial alopecias, as a variant of lichen planopilaris.

  8. Cholesterol Granuloma of the Frontal Sinus: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Manola; Ida, Casorelli; Francesco Luigi, Pietrafesa; Giampiero, Mottola; Domenico, Lacerenza; Giuseppe, Battiloro; Giuseppe, Patitucci; Giulia Anna Carmen, Vita

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol granulomas are common in the mastoid antrum and air cells of the temporal bone. In the paranasal sinuses, especially in the frontal sinus, they have occasionally been mentioned in the literature. The pathogenesis is unknown, but the majority of the authors support the concept of airway obstruction in the cells well pneumatised of temporal bone and paranasal sinuses. The authors report a case of cholesterol granuloma of the frontal sinus treated with radical surgical techniques, and they also recommend an endoscopic approach to frontal sinus to restore or enlarge the nose-frontal canal and promote drainage and ventilation of the frontal sinus. PMID:23150840

  9. Cholesterol Granuloma of the Frontal Sinus: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manola Marco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol granulomas are common in the mastoid antrum and air cells of the temporal bone. In the paranasal sinuses, especially in the frontal sinus, they have occasionally been mentioned in the literature. The pathogenesis is unknown, but the majority of the authors support the concept of airway obstruction in the cells well pneumatised of temporal bone and paranasal sinuses. The authors report a case of cholesterol granuloma of the frontal sinus treated with radical surgical techniques, and they also recommend an endoscopic approach to frontal sinus to restore or enlarge the nose-frontal canal and promote drainage and ventilation of the frontal sinus.

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory depressed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. H.; Chung, Y. A.; Chae, J. H.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Imaging studies by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) demonstrates biological activities of the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after a series of therapeutic rTMS sessions. Nine patients with refractory depression who had not been responsive to appropriate pharmacotherapy over 1 year were randomly assigned to daily 1 Hz right-sided rTMS or 20 Hz left-sided rTMS sessions for over 3 weeks. Baseline and 3-week post-rTMS treatment SPECT images were obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of approximately 740925 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a multi-detector scanner (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) equipped with a low-energy, fan-beam collimator. All patients showed a good clinical outcome. Statistically significant common increase in rCBF patterns was found in the fusiform gyrus of left temporal lobe, left hippocampus, left superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe, right lateral globus pallidus and cingulated gyrus of both limbic lobes. And in the fusiform gyrus of left occipital lobe and middle frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe decreased uptake was seen compared to controls. Low-frequency rTMS on the right prefrontal cortex and high-frequency rTMS on the left prefrontal cortex for 3 weeks as an add-on regimen have increased activity in specific brain regions in patients with treatment refractory depression. Therapeutic TMS seems to influence distinct cortical regions, as well as different pathways, affecting rCBF in a homogeneous manner that is probably region dependent and illness related.

  11. Frontal Lobe Contusion in Mice Chronically Impairs Prefrontal-Dependent Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Chou

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of chronic disability in the world. Moderate to severe TBI often results in damage to the frontal lobe region and leads to cognitive, emotional, and social behavioral sequelae that negatively affect quality of life. More specifically, TBI patients often develop persistent deficits in social behavior, anxiety, and executive functions such as attention, mental flexibility, and task switching. These deficits are intrinsically associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC functionality. Currently, there is a lack of analogous, behaviorally characterized TBI models for investigating frontal lobe injuries despite the prevalence of focal contusions to the frontal lobe in TBI patients. We used the controlled cortical impact (CCI model in mice to generate a frontal lobe contusion and studied behavioral changes associated with PFC function. We found that unilateral frontal lobe contusion in mice produced long-term impairments to social recognition and reversal learning while having only a minor effect on anxiety and completely sparing rule shifting and hippocampal-dependent behavior.

  12. Sample based 3D face reconstruction from a single frontal image by adaptive locally linear embedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian; ZHUANG Yue-ting

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a highly automatic approach for 3D photorealistic face reconstruction from a single frontal image. The key point of our work is the implementation of adaptive manifold learning approach. Beforehand, an active appearance model (AAM) is trained for automatic feature extraction and adaptive locally linear embedding (ALLE) algorithm is utilized to reduce the dimensionality of the 3D database. Then, given an input frontal face image, the corresponding weights between 3D samples and the image are synthesized adaptively according to the AAM selected facial features. Finally, geometry reconstruction is achieved by linear weighted combination of adaptively selected samples. Radial basis function (RBF) is adopted to map facial texture from the frontal image to the reconstructed face geometry. The texture of invisible regions between the face and the ears is interpolated by sampling from the frontal image. This approach has several advantages: (1) Only a single frontal face image is needed for highly automatic face reconstruction; (2) Compared with former works, our reconstruction approach provides higher accuracy; (3) Constraint based RBF texture mapping provides natural appearance for reconstructed face.

  13. Supraorbital Rim Syndrome: Definition, Surgical Treatment, and Outcomes for Frontal Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallucco, Michael A.; Janis, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Supraorbital rim syndrome (SORS) is a novel term attributed to a composite of anatomically defined peripheral nerve entrapment sites of the supraorbital rim region. The SORS term establishes a more consistent nomenclature to describe the constellation of frontal peripheral nerve entrapment sites causing frontal headache pain. In this article, we describe the anatomical features of SORS and evidence to support its successful treatment using the transpalpebral approach that allows direct vision of these sites and the intraconal space. Methods: A retrospective review of 276 patients who underwent nerve decompression or neurectomy procedures for frontal or occipital headache was performed. Of these, treatment of 96 patients involved frontal surgery, and 45 of these patients were pure SORS patients who underwent this specific frontal trigger site deactivation surgery only. All procedures involved direct surgical approach through the upper eyelid to address the nerves of the supraorbital rim at the bony rim and myofascial sites. Results: Preoperative and postoperative data from the Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire were analyzed with paired t test. After surgical intervention, Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire scores decreased significantly at 12 months postoperatively (P myofascial unit for the supraorbital rim nerves. Proper diagnosis, full anatomical site knowledge, and complete decompression allow for consistent treatment. Furthermore, the direct, transpalpebral surgical approach provides significant benefit to allow complete decompression. PMID:27536474

  14. Are orchids left and dandelions right? Frontal brain activation asymmetry and its sensitivity to developmental context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Paz; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Waxman, Jordana A; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Schmidt, Louis A

    2014-08-01

    To clarify long-standing conceptual and empirical inconsistencies in models describing the relation between frontal brain asymmetry and emotion, we tested a theory of biological sensitivity to context. We examined whether asymmetry of alpha activation in frontal brain regions, as measured by resting electroencephalography, is sensitive to early developmental contexts. Specifically, we investigated whether frontal asymmetry moderates the association between birth weight and adult outcomes. Adults with left frontal asymmetry (LFA) who were born at extremely low birth weight exhibited high levels of attention problems and withdrawn behaviors in their 30s, whereas normal-birth-weight adults with LFA had low levels of these problem behaviors. Adults with right frontal asymmetry (RFA) displayed a relatively moderate amount of problem behavior regardless of birth weight. Our findings suggest that LFA is associated with sensitivity to developmental context and may help explain why LFA is associated with both positive and negative outcomes, whereas RFA seems to be associated with a more canalized process in some contexts.

  15. Frontal and Parietal Cortices Show Different Spatiotemporal Dynamics across Problem-solving Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    Arithmetic problem-solving can be conceptualized as a multistage process ranging from task encoding over rule and strategy selection to step-wise task execution. Previous fMRI research suggested a frontal-parietal network involved in the execution of complex numerical and nonnumerical tasks, but evidence is lacking on the particular contributions of frontal and parietal cortices across time. In an arithmetic task paradigm, we evaluated individual participants' "retrieval" and "multistep procedural" strategies on a trial-by-trial basis and contrasted those in time-resolved analyses using combined EEG and MEG. Retrieval strategies relied on direct retrieval of arithmetic facts (e.g., 2 + 3 = 5). Procedural strategies required multiple solution steps (e.g., 12 + 23 = 12 + 20 + 3 or 23 + 10 + 2). Evoked source analyses revealed independent activation dynamics within the first second of problem-solving in brain areas previously described as one network, such as the frontal-parietal cognitive control network: The right frontal cortex showed earliest effects of strategy selection for multistep procedural strategies around 300 msec, before parietal cortex activated around 700 msec. In time-frequency source power analyses, memory retrieval and multistep procedural strategies were differentially reflected in theta, alpha, and beta frequencies: Stronger beta and alpha desynchronizations emerged for procedural strategies in right frontal, parietal, and temporal regions as function of executive demands. Arithmetic fact retrieval was reflected in right prefrontal increases in theta power. Our results demonstrate differential brain dynamics within frontal-parietal networks across the time course of a problem-solving process, and analyses of different frequency bands allowed us to disentangle cortical regions supporting the underlying memory and executive functions.

  16. The correlation between ictal semiology and magnetoencephalographic localization in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xintong; Rampp, Stefan; Weigel, Daniel; Kasper, Burkhard; Zhou, Dong; Stefan, Hermann

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of ictal semiology with localization and/or lateralization by magnetoencephalography (MEG). Seven patients from the Neurology Department of the University Hospital Erlangen who underwent resective surgery for frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) with an Engel 1a outcome were investigated retrospectively. MEG localizations were classified according to five compartments (separate or combined) of the frontal lobe: frontal basal (FB), frontal lateral (FL), frontal polar (FP), frontal mesial (FM), and frontal precentral (FPr). On the basis of previous studies that investigated the value of ictal semiology in localization and lateralization, we compared the experiential localization and/or lateralization of the epileptogenic region deduced from ictal semiology, that is, both seizure history and ictal video/EEG monitoring, with MEG localization. It is easier to determine lateralization than localization from ictal semiology because of the variety of signs and fast propagation in FLE. All of the patients had specific MEG localizations according to favorable postoperative outcome. Three patients had MEG foci associated with ictal semiology; in another four, the MEG localization was adjacent to the estimated area suggested by ictal semiology. Head version signs could be observed in all compartments of the frontal lobe: clonic in FB and FP areas; postural in FPr, FL, and FM areas; hypermotor in FB, FP, FPr, and FM areas; sensation aura in FB, FL, and FM areas; and automatisms in FP, FPr, and FL areas. All patients had concordant lateralizing and limited valuable locating information from ictal semiology, but no complete correlation with MEG foci. Ictal semiology may indicate the involvement of a symptomatogenic brain region during a seizure, but extent of seizure onset in central motor or sensorimotor area is not reliable enough to indicate the seizure onset zone and favorable postoperative outcome in FLE. MEG provided specific

  17. Frontal lobe decortication (frontal lobectomy with ventricular preservation) in epilepsy: anatomical landmarks and surgical technique

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Maria Da Róz

    2016-01-01

    A lobectomia frontal é um procedimento neurocirúrgico frequentemente realizado para o tratamento de tumores cerebrais, epilepsia refratária, e outras patologias que requerem remoção extensa do lobo frontal. Embora seja um procedimento relativamente comum, foram encontrados apenas alguns relatos na literatura acerca da técnica cirúrgica, com pouca consideração acerca da anatomia relevante para esse procedimento. OBJETIVOS: O principal objetivo desta tese é apresentar parâmetros anatômicos e co...

  18. Tratamiento y complicaciones de las fracturas de seno frontal Frontal sinus fracture treatment and complications

    OpenAIRE

    S. Heredero Jung; I. Zubillaga Rodríguez; M. Castrillo Tambay; Sánchez Aniceto, G.; J.J. Montalvo Moreno

    2007-01-01

    Introducción. Las fracturas de seno frontal se producen como resultado de impactos de alta energía. Un tratamiento inadecuado puede conducir a complicaciones serias incluso muchos años después del traumatismo. Objetivos. Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos y revisar las complicaciones asociadas. Estandarizar el protocolo de tratamiento. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron 95 pacientes diagnosticados de fracturas de seno frontal pertenecientes al servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospit...

  19. Frontal lobe neurology and the creative mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cruz De Souza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Concepts from cognitive neuroscience strongly suggest that the prefrontal cortex (PFC plays a crucial role in the cognitive functions necessary for creative thinking. Functional imaging studies have repeatedly demonstrated the involvement of PFC in creativity tasks. Patient studies have demonstrated that frontal damage due to focal lesions or neurodegenerative diseases are associated with impairments in various creativity tasks.However, against all odds, a series of clinical observations has reported the facilitation of artistic production in patients with neurodegenerative diseases affecting PFC, such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD. An exacerbation of creativity in frontal diseases would challenge neuroimaging findings in controls and patients, as well as the theoretical role of prefrontal functions in creativity processes. To explore this paradox, we reported the history of a FTD patient who exhibited the emergence of visual artistic productions during the course of the disease. The patient produced a large amount of drawings, which have been evaluated by a group of professional artists who were blind to the diagnosis. We also reviewed the published clinical cases reporting a change in the artistic abilities in patients with neurological diseases.We attempted to reconcile these clinical observations to previous experimental findings by addressing several questions raised by our review. For instance, to what extent can the cognitive, conative and affective changes following frontal damage explain changes in artistic abilities? Does artistic exacerbation truly reflect increased creative capacities? These considerations could help to clarify the place of creativity - as it has been defined and explored by cognitive neuroscience - in artistic creation and may provide leads for future lesion studies.

  20. Functional segregation of the inferior frontal gyrus for syntactic processes: a functional magnetic-resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Yuji; Toyoda, Hiroshi; Honda, Manabu; Yoshida, Haruyo; Kochiyama, Takanori; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Sadato, Norihiro

    2008-07-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 18 normal volunteers to determine whether there is separate representation of syntactic, semantic, and verbal working memory processing in the left inferior frontal gyrus (GFi). We compared a sentence comprehension task with a short-term memory maintenance task to identify syntactic and semantic processing regions. To investigate the effects of syntactic and verbal working memory load while minimizing the differences in semantic processes, we used comprehension tasks with garden-path (GP) sentences, which require re-parsing, and non-garden-path (NGP) sentences. Compared with the short-term memory task, sentence comprehension activated the left GFi, including Brodmann areas (BAs) 44, 45, and 47, and the left superior temporal gyrus. In GP versus NGP sentences, there was greater activity in the left BAs 44, 45, and 46 extending to the left anterior insula, the pre-supplementary motor area, and the right cerebellum. In the left GFi, verbal working memory activity was located more dorsally (BA 44/45), semantic processing was located more ventrally (BA 47), and syntactic processing was located in between (BA 45). These findings indicate a close relationship between semantic and syntactic processes, and suggest that BA 45 might link verbal working memory and semantic processing via syntactic unification processes.

  1. Resting-state striato-frontal functional connectivity is sensitive to DAT1 genotype and predicts executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Evan M; Devaney, Joseph M; Bean, Stephanie; Vaidya, Chandan J

    2015-02-01

    Individual differences in striatal dopamine (DA) signaling have been associated both with individual differences in executive function in healthy individuals and with risk for psychiatric disorders defined by executive dysfunction. We used resting-state functional connectivity in 50 healthy adults to examine whether a polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1), which regulates striatal DA function, affects striatal functional connectivity in healthy adults, and whether that connectivity predicts executive function. We found that 9/10 heterozygotes, who are believed to have higher striatal DA signaling, demonstrated stronger connectivity between dorsal caudate (DC) and insular, dorsal anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, as well as between ventral striatum and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, than 10/10 homozygotes. Across subjects, stronger DC-seeded connectivity predicted superior N-back working memory performance, while stronger ventral striatum-seeded connectivity predicted reduced impulsivity in everyday life. Further, mediation analysis suggested that connectivity strength mediated relationships between DAT1 genotype and behavior. These findings suggest that resting-state striato-frontal connectivity may be an endophenotype for executive function in healthy individuals. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Neurobehavioral Management of Behavioral Anomalies in Frontal Lobe Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Sharma, Vibha; Singh, Tej Bahadur

    2009-01-01

    Neurobehavioral approach uses behavioral paradigm towards comprehensive rehabilitation by identifying the neurological or neuropsychological constraints that can interfere with learning and behavior of an individual. The present case study highlights the role of functional skills approach in neurobehavioral management towards cognitive rehabilitation to manage behavioral deficits in a 55-year-old man with nicotine dependence having frontal lobe lesions owing to gliosis of fronto-temporal brain regions. Based on detailed neuropsychological and behavioral assessment, a behavioral package was made involving techniques like behavioral counseling, chaining, shaping and operant methods and was carried out with the patient daily (with the help of primary caregiver) over a period of 2 months. Results showed improvement in his self-care and decrease in behavioral problems, on 12-month follow-up. PMID:21938104

  3. Neurobehavioral management of behavioral anomalies in frontal lobe syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Shahzadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobehavioral approach uses behavioral paradigm towards comprehensive rehabilitation by identifying the neurological or neuropsychological constraints that can interfere with learning and behavior of an individual. The present case study highlights the role of functional skills approach in neurobehavioral management towards cognitive rehabilitation to manage behavioral deficits in a 55-year-old man with nicotine dependence having frontal lobe lesions owing to gliosis of fronto-temporal brain regions. Based on detailed neuropsychological and behavioral assessment, a behavioral package was made involving techniques like behavioral counseling, chaining, shaping and operant methods and was carried out with the patient daily (with the help of primary caregiver over a period of 2 months. Results showed improvement in his self-care and decrease in behavioral problems, on 12-month follow-up.

  4. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Luchsinger

    Full Text Available Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing.To compare biathletes (serving as experts and cross-country skiers (novices and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting.EEG frontal theta (4-7 Hz activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill.Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (p<0.01. Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044, but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72.Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers.

  5. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in frontotemporal dementia: a study with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. S.; Jeong, J.; Kang, S. J.; Na, D. L.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T.; Kim, S. E. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a common cause of presenile dementia. We investigated the regional cerebral glucose metabolic impairments in patients with FTD using FDG PET. We analysed the regional metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 30 patients with FTD and age- and sex-matched 15 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 11 healthy subjects using SPM99. We also compared the inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry among the three groups by counting the total metabolic activity of each hemisphere and computing asymmetry index (AL) between hemispheres. The hypometabolic brain regions in FTD patients compared with healthy controls were as follows: superior middle and medial frontal lobules, superior and middle temporal lobules, anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, uncus, insula, lateral globus pallidus and thalamus. The regions with decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with AD patients were as follows: superior, inferior and medial frontal lobules, anterior cingulate gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty-five (83%) out of the 30 FTD patients had AI values that was beyond the 95% confidence interval of the AI values obtained from healthy controls; 10 patients had hypometabolism more severe on the right and 15 patients had the opposite pattern. In comparison, 10 (67%) out of the 15 AD patients had asymmetric metabolism. Our SPM analysis of FDG PET revealed additional areas of decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with prior studies using the ROI method, involving frontal, temporal, cingulate gyrus, corpus callosum, uncus, insula, and some subcortical areas. The inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry was common in FTD patients, which can be another metabolic feature that helps differentiate FTD from AD.

  6. 鼻内镜下额窦开放术治疗慢性额窦炎%Intranasal frontal sinusotomy under nasal en-doscope for chronic frontal sinusitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈昌德; 王文; 黄静江; 王传喜

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨鼻内镜下以钩突上端为标志开放额窦在治疗慢性额窦炎中的应用方法。方法:总结88例慢性额窦炎在鼻内镜下以钩突上端为标志开放额窦。术前仔细阅读鼻窦CT,了解额窦、额隐窝气房发育及病变情况、钩突附着方式,术中以钩突上端为标志准确定位额窦口,清除阻塞额窦口的病变组织,使额窦引流通畅。结果:88例以钩突上端为标志均成功找到额窦开口。术后随访6~12个月,全部病例症状消失或改善,无术后严重并发症发生。结论:鼻内镜下以钩突上端为标志开放额窦是一种解剖结构易辨认、安全有效的术式,适用于大多数额窦病变。%Objective:To explore the treatment methods for chronic frontal si-nusitis by using the mark access of superior attachment of the uncinate process to the frontal sinus .Methods:Eighty-eight patients with chronic fron-tal sinusitis undergone frontal sinus surgery were included .Before procedure , nasal CT findings were examined in great detail to fully understand the struc-ture and lesion condition of the frontal sinus and frontal recess cell as well as the attachment of the uncinate process .Intranasal frontal sinusotomy was per-formed by referring to the tip attachment of the unicinate process ,with remov-al of the diseased tissues around the aperture of frontal sinus to ensure open frontal sinus drainage .Results:Opening of the frontal sinus was successfully anchored in the total 88 cases by the approaches described above .Postopera-tive follow-up from 6 to 12 months showed that all patients had recovered or had partial relief , and no serious postoperative complications occurred . Conclusion:Intranasal frontal sinusotomy under endoscope starting with the superior attachment of the uncinate process ensures easy recognition of the anatomical characteristics of the frontal sinus and safe procedure ,which may be recommendation in most lesions at

  7. Treatment of Frontal Hyperhidrosis With Botulinum Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Esra Koku Aksu

    Full Text Available Focal hyperhidrosis is usually localized to the axillae, palms and soles. Less frequently, hyperhidrosis may be confined to the forehead and may have negative impact on patient’s quality of life. A 34-year-old man presented to our clinic with the complaint of frontal hyperhidrosis. He was treated with botulinum toxin A. Thirty points were marked over the forehead and at each injection point, 0.15 ml (3U botulinum toxin A were injected intracutaneously. Hyperhidrosis was significantly reduced and the effect lasted for 12 months. Skindex-29, a quality-of-life measure for skin disease, was administered to the patient at the beginning and at the end of second week of botulinum toxin A injection. There was a significant improvement on the Skindex-29 scale at the end of the treatment. There was no any side effect detected during and after the treatment. Botulinum toxin A treatment is considered to be effective and safe for frontal hyperhidrosis.

  8. Cranialization of the frontal sinus-the final remedy for refractory chronic frontal sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Wagemakers, Michiel; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Buiter, C. T. Kees; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Mooij, Jan Jakob A.

    2012-01-01

    Object. Chronic sinusitis can be a debilitating disease with significant impact on quality of life. Frontal sinusitis has a relatively low prevalence, but complications can be severe due to its anatomical location. After failure of conservative measures, typically endoscopic procedures are performed

  9. Cranialization of the frontal sinus-the final remedy for refractory chronic frontal sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Wagemakers, Michiel; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Buiter, C. T. Kees; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Mooij, Jan Jakob A.

    2012-01-01

    Object. Chronic sinusitis can be a debilitating disease with significant impact on quality of life. Frontal sinusitis has a relatively low prevalence, but complications can be severe due to its anatomical location. After failure of conservative measures, typically endoscopic procedures are performed

  10. Cranialization of the frontal sinus-the final remedy for refractory chronic frontal sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Wagemakers, Michiel; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Buiter, C. T. Kees; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Mooij, Jan Jakob A.

    Object. Chronic sinusitis can be a debilitating disease with significant impact on quality of life. Frontal sinusitis has a relatively low prevalence, but complications can be severe due to its anatomical location. After failure of conservative measures, typically endoscopic procedures are performed

  11. Perceived communicative intent in gesture and language modulates the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Velnoskey, Kayla R; Rowe, Meredith L

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral evidence and theory suggest gesture and language processing may be part of a shared cognitive system for communication. While much research demonstrates both gesture and language recruit regions along perisylvian cortex, relatively less work has tested functional segregation within these regions on an individual level. Additionally, while most work has focused on a shared semantic network, less has examined shared regions for processing communicative intent. To address these questions, functional and structural MRI data were collected from 24 adult participants while viewing videos of an experimenter producing communicative, Participant-Directed Gestures (PDG) (e.g., "Hello, come here"), noncommunicative Self-adaptor Gestures (SG) (e.g., smoothing hair), and three written text conditions: (1) Participant-Directed Sentences (PDS), matched in content to PDG, (2) Third-person Sentences (3PS), describing a character's actions from a third-person perspective, and (3) meaningless sentences, Jabberwocky (JW). Surface-based conjunction and individual functional region of interest analyses identified shared neural activation between gesture (PDGvsSG) and language processing using two different language contrasts. Conjunction analyses of gesture (PDGvsSG) and Third-person Sentences versus Jabberwocky revealed overlap within left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). Conjunction analyses of gesture and Participant-Directed Sentences to Third-person Sentences revealed regions sensitive to communicative intent, including the left middle and posterior STS and left inferior frontal gyrus. Further, parametric modulation using participants' ratings of stimuli revealed sensitivity of left posterior STS to individual perceptions of communicative intent in gesture. These data highlight an important role of the STS in processing participant-directed communicative intent through gesture and language. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3444-3461, 2016. © 2016 Wiley

  12. Fragmento de hueso frontal del musteriense de Cueva Horá (Granada, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María HABER URIARTE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia un hueso frontal procedente del nivel III de Cueva Horá (Darro, Granada, ubicada al sureste de la Península Ibérica. Es uno de los yacimientos que, junto a la Cueva de La Carigüela, presenta una larga estratigrafía en la que se puede seguir la evolución de las industrias. El fragmento óseo a analizar se localiza en los niveles superiores del Musteriense, definido como Típico, que refleja una pervivencia musteriense durante el Pleniglacial Superior. No sólo se plantea el estudio antropológico de este fragmento neurocraneal, sino que se analiza el contexto en el que aparece, así como sus implicaciones.

  13. Estudo de lidocaína a 0,5% e combinação de lidocaína a 0,25% com fentanil e vecurônio em anestesia regional intravenosa para cirurgias de membros superiores Estudio de la lidocaína al 0,5% y en combinación de lidocaína al 0,25% con fentanilo y vecuronio en anestesia regional intravenosa para cirugías de miembros superiores Study of 0.5% lidocaine alone and combination of 0.25% lidocaine with fentanyl and vecuronium in intravenous regional anesthesia for upper limb surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh MCB

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia regional intravenosa (ARIV para cirurgias de membros superiores com a tradicional alta dose de lidocaína pode levar a efeitos colaterais potencialmente letais. A fim de evitar esses efeitos, muitas técnicas modificadas de ARIV foram experimentadas com o uso de uma dose baixa de lidocaína, relaxante muscular e opioide. MÉTODOS: O presente estudo foi feito com 60 pacientes não medicados previamente, com classificação ASA 1-2, para comparar as características sensoriais e motoras, os parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios e os efeitos colaterais durante o período intraoperatório e de deflação pós-torniquete entre os pacientes que receberam 40 mL de lidocaína a 0,5% (n = 30 e aqueles que receberam uma combinação de 40 mL de lidocaína a 0,25% com 0,05 mg de fentanil e 0,5 mg de vecurônio (n = 30 em ARIV para cirurgias ortopédicas de membros superiores. Os resultados foram analisados com o uso do teste t de Student pareado para identificar a significância estatística. RESULTADO: A diferença entre os dois grupos em relação ao tempo médio de início e completo bloqueio sensitivo e motor foi estatisticamente significante. Porém, houve completo bloqueio sensitivo e motor em ambos os grupos 15 minutos após a injeção da solução anestésica. CONCLUSÃO: Embora a pequena demora observada no início e na obtenção completa dos bloqueios sensitivo e motor possa, teoricamente, atrasar o início da cirurgia em 10-15 minutos, clinicamente esse tempo seria gasto na preparação do campo cirúrgico. Portanto, essa combinação pode ser usada com segurança e eficácia em anestesia regional intravenosa para cirurgias ortopédicas de membros superiores com menor possibilidade de toxicidade anestésica local.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La anestesia regional intravenosa (ARIV para cirugías de miembros superiores con la tradicional dosis alta de lidocaína, puede conllevar a efectos colaterales que

  14. Fluid intelligence allows flexible recruitment of the parieto-frontal network in analogical reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska ePreusse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluid intelligence is the ability to think flexibly and to understand abstract relations. People with high fluid intelligence (hi-fluIQ perform better in analogical reasoning tasks than people with average fluid intelligence (ave-fluIQ. Although previous neuroimaging studies reported involvement of parietal and frontal brain regions in geometric analogical reasoning (which is a prototypical task for fluid intelligence, however, neuroimaging findings on geometric analogical reasoning in hi-fluIQ are sparse. Furthermore, evidence on the relation between brain activation and intelligence while solving cognitive tasks is contradictory. The present study was designed to elucidate the cerebral correlates of geometric analogical reasoning in a sample of hi-fluIQ and ave-fluIQ high school students. We employed a geometric analogical reasoning task with graded levels of task difficulty and confirmed the involvement of the parieto-frontal network in solving this task. In addition to characterizing the brain regions involved in geometric analogical reasoning in hi-fluIQ and ave-fluIQ, we found that blood oxygenation level dependency (BOLD signal changes were greater for hi-fluIQ than for ave-fluIQ in parietal brain regions. However, ave-fluIQ showed greater BOLD signal changes in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial frontal gyrus than hi-fluIQ. Thus, we showed that a similar network of brain regions is involved in geometric analogical reasoning in both groups. Interestingly, the relation between brain activation and intelligence is not mono-directional, but rather, it is specific for each brain region. The negative brain activation–intelligence relationship in frontal brain regions in hi-fluIQ goes along with a better behavioral performance and reflects a lower demand for executive monitoring compared to ave-fluIQ individuals. In conclusion, our data indicate that flexibly modulating the extent of regional cerebral activity is characteristic for

  15. Maternal breast milk odour induces frontal lobe activation in neonates: a NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Shiori; Toshima, Tamotsu; Saito, Yuri; Konishi, Nakao; Motoshige, Kyoko; Ishikawa, Nobutsune; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Masao

    2010-09-01

    We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to examine differences in neonates' orbito-frontal cortical activation in response to the odours of maternal breast milk and formula milk in terms of changes in the oxygenation of cerebral blood flow. Twenty-six healthy neonates were tested in their cribs while they slept in a silent room. The neonates were exposed to each olfactory stimulus by an experimenter. NIRS monitoring was performed using optodes placed above the bilateral anterior orbito-frontal gyri. The differences in oxygenated haemoglobin (oxy-Hb) values between baseline and stimulation were defined as the change in oxy-Hb. The degrees of change were calculated by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). A 2 (stimulus: breast milk and formula milk) × 2 (probe location: right and left) ANOVA showed that the odour of maternal breast milk (right/left: M=0.28/0.48) induced a significantly (F=6.36, pmilk (right/left: M=-0.03/-0.07). Differences in the intensity of odour had no significant influence on the blood oxygenation of the orbito-frontal region. Maternal breast milk odour increased oxygenated blood flow in the orbito-frontal region to a greater extent than did formula milk odour. These results suggest that neonates can distinguish between the odours of maternal breast milk versus formula.

  16. Spatial organization of neurons in the frontal pole sets humans apart from great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semendeferi, Katerina; Teffer, Kate; Buxhoeveden, Dan P; Park, Min S; Bludau, Sebastian; Amunts, Katrin; Travis, Katie; Buckwalter, Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Few morphological differences have been identified so far that distinguish the human brain from the brains of our closest relatives, the apes. Comparative analyses of the spatial organization of cortical neurons, including minicolumns, can aid our understanding of the functionally relevant aspects of microcircuitry. We measured horizontal spacing distance and gray-level ratio in layer III of 4 regions of human and ape cortex in all 6 living hominoid species: frontal pole (Brodmann area [BA] 10), and primary motor (BA 4), primary somatosensory (BA 3), and primary visual cortex (BA 17). Our results identified significant differences between humans and apes in the frontal pole (BA 10). Within the human brain, there were also significant differences between the frontal pole and 2 of the 3 regions studied (BA 3 and BA 17). Differences between BA 10 and BA 4 were present but did not reach significance. These findings in combination with earlier findings on BA 44 and BA 45 suggest that human brain evolution was likely characterized by an increase in the number and width of minicolumns and the space available for interconnectivity between neurons in the frontal lobe, especially the prefrontal cortex.

  17. Early-stage psychotherapy produces elevated frontal white matter integrity in adult major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychotherapy has demonstrated comparable efficacy to antidepressant medication in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Metabolic alterations in the MDD state and in response to treatment have been detected by functional imaging methods, but the underlying white matter microstructural changes remain unknown. The goal of this study is to apply diffusion tensor imaging techniques to investigate psychotherapy-specific responses in the white matter. METHODS: Twenty-one of forty-five outpatients diagnosed with major depression underwent diffusion tensor imaging before and after a four-week course of guided imagery psychotherapy. We compared fractional anisotropy in depressed patients (n = 21 with healthy controls (n = 22, and before-after treatment, using whole brain voxel-wise analysis. RESULTS: Post-treatment, depressed subjects showed a significant reduction in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. As compared to healthy controls, depressed subjects demonstrated significantly increased fractional anisotropy in the right thalamus. Psychopathological changes did not recover post-treatment, but a novel region of increased fractional anisotropy was discovered in the frontal lobe. CONCLUSIONS: At an early stage of psychotherapy, higher fractional anisotropy was detected in the frontal emotional regulation-associated region. This finding reveals that psychotherapy may induce white matter changes in the frontal lobe. This remodeling of frontal connections within mood regulation networks positively contributes to the "top-down" mechanism of psychotherapy.

  18. Auditory aura in frontal opercular epilepsy: sounds from afar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen A; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Bingaman, William; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Bulacio, Juan; Nair, Dileep; So, Norman K

    2015-06-01

    Auditory auras are typically considered to localize to the temporal neocortex. Herein, we present two cases of frontal operculum/perisylvian epilepsy with auditory auras. Following a non-invasive evaluation, including ictal SPECT and magnetoencephalography, implicating the frontal operculum, these cases were evaluated with invasive monitoring, using stereoelectroencephalography and subdural (plus depth) electrodes, respectively. Spontaneous and electrically-induced seizures showed an ictal onset involving the frontal operculum in both cases. A typical auditory aura was triggered by stimulation of the frontal operculum in one. Resection of the frontal operculum and subjacent insula rendered one case seizure- (and aura-) free. From a hodological (network) perspective, we discuss these findings with consideration of the perisylvian and insular network(s) interconnecting the frontal and temporal lobes, and revisit the non-invasive data, specifically that of ictal SPECT.

  19. Jealousy increased by induced relative left frontal cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Eastwick, Paul W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric frontal cortical activity may be one key to the process linking social exclusion to jealous feelings. The current research examined the causal role of asymmetric frontal brain activity in modulating jealousy in response to social exclusion. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the frontal cortex to manipulate asymmetric frontal cortical activity was combined with a modified version of the Cyberball paradigm designed to induce jealousy. After receiving 15 min of tDCS, participants were excluded by a desired partner and reported how jealous they felt. Among individuals who were excluded, tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity caused greater levels of self-reported jealousy compared to tDCS to increase relative right frontal cortical activity or sham stimulation. Limitations concerning the specificity of this effect and implications for the role of the asymmetric prefrontal cortical activity in motivated behaviors are discussed.

  20. Electrical Capacitance Tomography Measurement of the Migration of Ice Frontal Surface in Freezing Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Suo, X. M.; Zhou, S. S.; Meng, S. Q.; Chen, S. S.; Mu, H. P.

    2016-12-01

    The tracking of the migration of ice frontal surface is crucial for the understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms in freezing soil. Owing to the distinct advantages, including non-invasive sensing, high safety, low cost and high data acquisition speed, the electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is considered to be a promising visualization measurement method. In this paper, the ECT method is used to visualize the migration of ice frontal surface in freezing soil. With the main motivation of the improvement of imaging quality, a loss function with multiple regularizers that incorporate the prior formation related to the imaging objects is proposed to cast the ECT image reconstruction task into an optimization problem. An iteration scheme that integrates the superiority of the split Bregman iteration (SBI) method is developed for searching for the optimal solution of the proposed loss function. An unclosed electrodes sensor is designed for satisfying the requirements of practical measurements. An experimental system of one dimensional freezing in frozen soil is constructed, and the ice frontal surface migration in the freezing process of the wet soil sample containing five percent of moisture is measured. The visualization measurement results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the ECT visualization method

  1. Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wei, Haiyang; Reed, Jamie L; Bickford, Martha E; Petry, Heywood M; Kaas, Jon H

    2013-05-01

    The visuomotor functions of the superior colliculus depend not only on direct inputs from the retina, but also on inputs from neocortex. As mammals vary in the areal organization of neocortex, and in the organization of the number of visual and visuomotor areas, patterns of corticotectal projections vary. Primates in particular have a large number of visual areas projecting to the superior colliculus. As tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and they are also highly visual, we studied the distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus by injecting anatomical tracers into the colliculus. Since projections from visuotopically organized visual areas are expected to match the visuotopy of the superior colliculus, injections at different retinotopic locations in the superior colliculus provide information about the locations and organization of topographic areas in extrastriate cortex. Small injections in the superior colliculus labeled neurons in locations within areas 17 (V1) and 18 (V2) that are consistent with the known topography of these areas and the superior colliculus. In addition, the separate locations of clusters of labeled cells in temporal visual cortex provide evidence for five or more topographically organized areas. Injections that included deeper layers of the superior colliculus also labeled neurons in medial frontal cortex, likely in premotor cortex. Only occasional labeled neurons were observed in somatosensory or auditory cortex. Regardless of tracer injection location, we found that, unlike primates, a substantial projection to the superior colliculus from posterior parietal cortex is not a characteristic of tree shrews.

  2. Pott's Puffy Tumor Arising from Frontal Sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Kang, Hyun Koo [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Pott's puffy tumor is an extremely rare and potentially life-threatening complication of frontal sinusitis. We report a case of a 64-year-old man who presented at our emergency department with mild tenderness on the glabellar area and diplopia. Computed Tomography (CT) revealed frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. Following sinus trephination and long-term antibiotic therapy, the patient achieved a complete recovery.

  3. Distinct contributions by frontal and parietal cortices support working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Wayne E; Curtis, Clayton E

    2017-07-21

    Although subregions of frontal and parietal cortex both contribute and coordinate to support working memory (WM) functions, their distinct contributions remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that perturbations to topographically organized human frontal and parietal cortex during WM maintenance cause distinct but systematic distortions in WM. The nature of these distortions supports theories positing that parietal cortex mainly codes for retrospective sensory information, while frontal cortex codes for prospective action.

  4. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2009-01-01

    Many tests of specific ‘executive functions’ show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matche...

  5. Memory of music: roles of right hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yagishita, Sho; Kikyo, Hideyuki

    2008-01-01

    We investigated neural correlates of retrieval success for music memory using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. To minimize the interference from MRI scan noise, we used sparse temporal sampling technique. Newly composed music materials were employed as stimuli, which enabled us to detect regions in absence of effects of experience with the music stimuli in this study. Whole brain analyses demonstrated significant retrieval success activities in the right hippocampus, bilateral lateral temporal regions, left inferior frontal gyrus and left precuneus. Anatomically defined region-of-interests analyses showed that the activity of the right hippocampus was stronger than that of the left, while the activities of the inferior frontal gyri showed the reverse pattern. Furthermore, performance-based analyses demonstrated that the retrieval success activity of the right hippocampus was positively correlated with the corrected recognition rate, suggesting that the right hippocampus contributes to the accuracy of music retrieval outcome.

  6. Electroconvulsive therapy changes the regional resting state function measured by regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in elderly major depressive disorder patients: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Shu-Xian; Sun, Yan; Wang, Ke-Yong; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Ji; Xia, Jin-Xiang; Zhang, Li; Tan, Bo-Jian; Xie, Xin-Hui

    2017-06-30

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective and rapid treatment for severe major depressive disorder (MDD) in elderly patients. The mechanism of ECT is unclear, and studies on ECT in elderly MDD patients by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging are rare. Thirteen elderly MDD patients were scanned before and after ECT using a 3.0T MRI scanner. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were processed to compare resting-state function before and after treatment. Depression and anxiety symptoms of all patients abated after ECT. Decreased ReHo values in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG) were observed after ECT, and the values of right SFG significantly correlated with an altered Hamilton depression rating scale score. Increased ALFF values in the left middle frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, orbital part, and decreased ALFF values in the left midcingulate area, left precentral gyrus, right SFG/middle frontal gyrus after ECT were also observed. These results support the hypothesis that ECT may affect the regional resting state brain function in geriatric MDD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DOES THE INFERIOR FRONTAL SULCUS PLAY A FUNCTIONAL ROLE IN DECEPTION? A NEURONAVIGATED THETA-BURST TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eVerschuere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. By definition, lying involves withholding the truth. Response inhibition may therefore be the cognitive function at the heart of deception. Neuroimaging research has shown that the same brain region that is activated during response inhibition tasks, namely the inferior frontal region, is also activated during deception paradigms. This led to the hypothesis that the inferior frontal region is the neural substrate critically involved in withholding the truth. Objective. We critically examine the functional necessity of the inferior frontal region in withholding the truth during deception. Method. We experimentally manipulated the neural activity level in right inferior frontal sulcus (IFS by means of neuronavigated continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS. Individual structural magnetic resonance brain images (MRI were used to allow precise stimulation in each participant. Twenty-six participants answered autobiographical questions truthfully or deceptively before and after sham and real cTBS. Results. Deception was reliably associated with more errors, longer and more variable response times than truth telling. Despite the potential role of IFS in deception as suggested by neuroimaging data, the cTBS-induced disruption of right IFS did not affect response times or error rates, when compared to sham stimulation. Conclusions. The present findings do not support the hypothesis that the right inferior frontal sulcus is critically involved in deception.

  8. Does the inferior frontal sulcus play a functional role in deception? A neuronavigated theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Verschuere; T. Schuhmann; A.T. Sack

    2012-01-01

    By definition, lying involves withholding the truth. Response inhibition may therefore be the cognitive function at the heart of deception. Neuroimaging research has shown that the same brain region that is activated during response inhibition tasks, namely the inferior frontal region, is also activ

  9. Evaluation and Decision Making in Frontal Sinus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Alok T; Govindaraj, Satish

    2016-08-01

    Management of frontal sinusitis can be challenging for even the most experienced otolaryngologists. A thorough understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of the frontal sinus is essential to properly manage disease affecting the frontal sinus. Being able to distinguish acute viral from acute bacterial and acute from chronic sinusitis is crucial because these distinctions guide appropriate management. Nasal endoscopy can confirm diagnosis, and radiologic imaging, including computed tomography and MRI, is often a necessary adjunct that aids in determining appropriate therapeutic decisions. One must be aware of the many procedures used in the surgical treatment of frontal sinusitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Regional Homogeneity Changes in Nicotine Addicts by Resting-State fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective To reveal the brain functional changes of nicotine addicts compared with those of non-smokers and explore the objective biomarker for nicotine dependence evaluation. Methods A total of 14 smokers and 11 non-smoking controls were recruited for this study. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and regional homogeneity (ReHo) were applied in the neural activity analysis. Two-sample t-test was performed to examine the voxel-wise difference between the smokers and the controls. Correlation analysis between the ReHo values and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores were performed to explore the biomarkers for the clinical characteristics of smokers. Results The ReHo values from the right superior frontal gyrus of the Brodmann’s area (BA) 9 to the right middle frontal gyrus and the ReHo value from the left and right precuneus (BA 23) to the left and right middle cingulum gyrus were lower in the smokers than in the non-smokers. The ReHo value in the precuneus (BA 23) was significantly and positively correlated with the FTND score of smokers. Conclusion The ReHo values in the right superior frontal gyrus and left precuneus can be used to separate the smokers from the non-smokers. In particular, the left precuneus is a potential neuroimaging biomarker for nicotine addicts. PMID:28081226

  11. Lifting frontal apoyado en malla de polipropileno Brow lift supported on polypropylen mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Aracil Kessler

    2006-03-01

    elevado coste económico.The fronto-orbital region is of particular significance in the context of facial ageing. There is a considerable amount of research on the nature of this problem. This area has recently come to be considered as a therapeutic- diagnostic unit and surgical developments mean that focus is switching more towards less invasive physiological solutions. Our study aims to take another step in this direction. Taking a sample of 25 patients, all of them undergoing different procedures on the fronto-orbital region and with a lowering of the eyebrows, a suspension technique was introduced with minimum incisions supported by a polypropylene mesh attached to the frontal muscle and galea in the inferior extreme and to the periosteum and galea in the superior extreme in the supra-periosteum plane and without skin removal. A measuring system based on points of the facial skeleton was used. The results were subjectively and objectively satisfactory compared to those from more complicated and expensive techniques. Complications were of a slight and temporary nature. This section carries out an assessment of the reasons for selecting a polypropylene mesh and specific grammage. In addition, the properties of the material are analysed and its use in this context of preventing infection, tissue tolerance, scar reduction and adhesiveness. Justification of the site of dissection and the choice of positioning, and an assessment of the course of medication given in order to produce a set of controlled and objective results, will also be carried out. The aim of this work is to develop an alternative within minimally invasive techniques for the restructuring of the fronto-orbital region without skin removal and with good results in the correction of facial wrinkles compared to other more complicated and expensive techniques.

  12. Conserved Sequence Processing in Primate Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Petkov, Christopher I

    2017-02-01

    An important aspect of animal perception and cognition is learning to recognize relationships between environmental events that predict others in time, a form of relational knowledge that can be assessed using sequence-learning paradigms. Humans are exquisitely sensitive to sequencing relationships, and their combinatorial capacities, most saliently in the domain of language, are unparalleled. Recent comparative research in human and nonhuman primates has obtained behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for evolutionarily conserved substrates involved in sequence processing. The findings carry implications for the origins of domain-general capacities underlying core language functions in humans. Here, we synthesize this research into a 'ventrodorsal gradient' model, where frontal cortex engagement along this axis depends on sequencing complexity, mapping onto the sequencing capacities of different species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Frictionally decaying frontal warm-core eddies

    CERN Document Server

    Rubino, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of nonstationary, nonlinear, axisymmetric, warm-core geophysical surface frontal vortices affected by Rayleigh friction is investigated semi-analytically using the nonlinear, nonstationary reduced-gravity shallow-water equations. In this frame, it is found that vortices characterized by linear distributions of their radial velocity and arbitrary structures of their section and azimuthal velocity can be described exactly by a set of nonstationary, nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. The first-order problem (i.e., that describing vortices characterized by a linear azimuthal velocity field and a quadratic section) consists of a system of 4 differential equations, and each further order introduces in the system three additional ordinary differential equations and two algebraic equations. In order to illustrate the behavior of the nonstationary decaying vortices, the system's solution for the first-order and for the second-order problem is then obtained numerically using a Runge-Kutta m...

  14. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  15. Directed forgetting in frontal patients' episodic recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Pilar; Van der Linden, Martial; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2007-03-25

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of a group of patients with lesions of the prefrontal cortex in directed forgetting in episodic memory, i.e. the capacity to actively forget irrelevant information. Four lists of 24 intermixed to-be-remembered (TBR) and to-be-forgotten (TBF) words were presented for retention. Restricted (TBR only) and unrestricted (TBR and TBF) recall were tested. The results showed that prefrontal patients presented with a general reduction in episodic memory but a normal ability to selectively recall the TBR items during restricted and unrestricted recall. These results are consistent with previous reports of intact directed forgetting in frontal patients and are discussed in terms of their implications for the current debate on the neural substrate of executive functions.

  16. [Brodmann Areas 8 and 9 Including the Frontal Eye Field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masataka

    2017-04-01

    Based on cytoarchitectonic analyses, Brodmann assigned numbers 8 and 9 to certain areas of the dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in humans and monkeys. Petrides and Pandya re-analyzed the cytoarchitectures of the human and monkey PFCs, and proposed slightly different brain maps for both species. They assigned numbers 8, 9 and 9/46 to the areas that were originally named areas 8 and 9. Areas 8 and 9 have both lateral and medial regions respectively. The lateral area 8 is important for conditional discrimination learning. The frontal eye field which occupies the most caudal region of area 8, is responsible for visual attention and control of eye movements. The lateral area 9 and area 9/46 are functionally similar to area 46 and play important roles in executive control. The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) comprises the medial regions of areas 8 and 9 and is related to "Theory of Mind" and social cognition. The DMPFC is also known to show "default mode of brain activity" (i.e., more activity during rest than during cognitive task).

  17. Frontal gray matter abnormalities predict seizure outcome in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle E. Doucet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing more reliable predictors of seizure outcome following temporal lobe surgery for intractable epilepsy is an important clinical goal. In this context, we investigated patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE before and after temporal resection. In detail, we explored gray matter (GM volume change in relation with seizure outcome, using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM approach. To do so, this study was divided into two parts. The first one involved group analysis of differences in regional GM volume between the groups (good outcome (GO, e.g., no seizures after surgery; poor outcome (PO, e.g., persistent postoperative seizures; and controls, N = 24 in each group, pre- and post-surgery. The second part of the study focused on pre-surgical data only (N = 61, determining whether the degree of GM abnormalities can predict surgical outcomes. For this second step, GM abnormalities were identified, within each lobe, in each patient when compared with an ad hoc sample of age-matched controls. For the first analysis, the results showed larger GM atrophy, mostly in the frontal lobe, in PO patients, relative to both GO patients and controls, pre-surgery. When comparing pre-to-post changes, we found relative GM gains in the GO but not in the PO patients, mostly in the non-resected hemisphere. For the second analysis, only the frontal lobe displayed reliable prediction of seizure outcome. 81% of the patients showing pre-surgical increased GM volume in the frontal lobe became seizure free, post-surgery; while 77% of the patients with pre-surgical reduced frontal GM volume had refractory seizures, post-surgery. A regression analysis revealed that the proportion of voxels with reduced frontal GM volume was a significant predictor of seizure outcome (p = 0.014. Importantly, having less than 1% of the frontal voxels with GM atrophy increased the likelihood of being seizure-free, post-surgery, by seven times. Overall, our results suggest

  18. Quantificação da ação do músculo frontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz José Ribamar Souza da

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar a ação do músculo frontal. MÉTODOS: A ação do músculo frontal foi quantificada por meio da medida da mobilidade do supercílio em 81 sujeitos normais, divididos, segundo a faixa etária, em três grupos: crianças com idades entre 6 e 12 anos (n = 20, adultos com idades entre 20 e 38 anos (n = 33 e idosos com idades entre 60 e 80 anos (n = 28. As medidas foram realizadas com o processamento digital de imagem. Obteve-se uma imagem da face do sujeito com o frontal em repouso e outra com contração voluntária da fronte. Como índice de ação frontal foi tomada a excursão do supercílio na parte média da fenda palpebral. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios da excursão superior do supercílio variaram, de acordo com o grupo etário, de 7,57 a 9,02 mm. Apesar de nítida tendência de aumento da mobilidade com a idade, as diferenças entre os três grupos não foram significativas. CONCLUSÕES: A magnitude da excursão da porção central do supercílio independe da idade.

  19. A função da comunicação na autoavaliação das Instituições de Ensino Superior do ABC Paulista The role of communication in self-evaluation of Higher Education establishments of ABC Paulista region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudemir Martins da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discorre sobre o papel que a comunicação apresenta no compartilhamento e na socialização dos resultados apurados no processo de autoavaliação junto à comunidade acadêmica de Instituições de Ensino Superior. O estudo fundamenta-se em referenciais bibliográficos que tratam da avaliação institucional e pesquisa de campo exploratória desenvolvida em quatro instituições de ensino superior localizadas na região do ABC Paulista.The article discusses the role that the communication presents in sharing and socialization of the results obtained in the process of self-evaluation along the academic community of higher education institutions. The study is based on bibliographic references which deals with the institutional evaluation and exploratory field research developed in four higher education institutions located in the region of ABC Paulista.

  20. Is there a reason for performing frontal sinus trephination at 1 cm from midline? A tomographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltcher, Otavio Bejzman; Antunes, Marcelo; Monteiro, Fernanda; Schweiger, Cláudia; Schatkin, Barry

    2006-01-01

    The complex anatomy of the frontoethmoidal recess, as well as its anatomical relationship with the vital adjacent structures in the region explain the reason for considerable surgical care to protect these structures and minimize complications related to healing. Trephination is an accepted procedure to access the frontal sinus. Discuss the best location for performing frontal sinus trephination. Measuring sinus frontal depth at 3 points equidistant to the midline (crista galli) through the axial tomographic sections. We measured 138 frontal sinus (69 patients). Frontal sinus depth at 0,5 cm was statistically larger than 1 cm and 1.5 cm, as well as the 1 cm trephine point was significantly larger than 1.5 cm (12.22+/-4.25 vs 11.78+/-4.65 ptrephine set used (maximum depth of penetration of 0.7 cm) is safe to be applied in approximately 80% of the patients. Analyzing the results, the trephination may be performed at variable points of the frontal sinus, but the distance of 1 cm from midline appears to be safer and shows better aesthetic results.

  1. Theta-alpha EEG phase distributions in the frontal area for dissociation of visual and auditory working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Masakazu; Tero, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nishiura, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is known to be associated with synchronization of the theta and alpha bands observed in electroencephalograms (EEGs). Although frontal-posterior global theta synchronization appears in modality-specific WM, local theta synchronization in frontal regions has been found in modality-independent WM. How frontal theta oscillations separately synchronize with task-relevant sensory brain areas remains an open question. Here, we focused on theta-alpha phase relationships in frontal areas using EEG, and then verified their functional roles with mathematical models. EEG data showed that the relationship between theta (6 Hz) and alpha (12 Hz) phases in the frontal areas was about 1:2 during both auditory and visual WM, and that the phase distributions between auditory and visual WM were different. Next, we used the differences in phase distributions to construct FitzHugh-Nagumo type mathematical models. The results replicated the modality-specific branching by orthogonally of the trigonometric functions for theta and alpha oscillations. Furthermore, mathematical and experimental results were consistent with regards to the phase relationships and amplitudes observed in frontal and sensory areas. These results indicate the important role that different phase distributions of theta and alpha oscillations have in modality-specific dissociation in the brain. PMID:28266595

  2. Unraveling the anxious mind: anxiety, worry, and frontal engagement in sustained attention versus off-task processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Sophie; Nunez Elizalde, Anwar O; Castle, Elizabeth; Bishop, Sonia J

    2015-03-01

    Much remains unknown regarding the relationship between anxiety, worry, sustained attention, and frontal function. Here, we addressed this using a sustained attention task adapted for functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants responded to presentation of simple stimuli, withholding responses to an infrequent "No Go" stimulus. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity to "Go" trials, and dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) activity to "No Go" trials were associated with faster error-free performance; consistent with DLPFC and dACC facilitating proactive and reactive control, respectively. Trait anxiety was linked to reduced recruitment of these regions, slower error-free performance, and decreased frontal-thalamo-striatal connectivity. This indicates an association between trait anxiety and impoverished frontal control of attention, even when external distractors are absent. In task blocks where commission errors were made, greater DLPFC-precuneus and DLPFC-posterior cingulate connectivity were associated with both trait anxiety and worry, indicative of increased off-task thought. Notably, unlike trait anxiety, worry was not linked to reduced frontal-striatal-thalamo connectivity, impoverished frontal recruitment, or slowed responding during blocks without commission errors, contrary to accounts proposing a direct causal link between worry and impoverished attentional control. This leads us to propose a new model of the relationship between anxiety, worry and frontal engagement in attentional control versus off-task thought.

  3. Frontal white matter alterations in short-term medicated panic disorder patients without comorbid conditions: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borah Kim

    Full Text Available The frontal cortex might play an important role in the fear network, and white matter (WM integrity could be related to the pathophysiology of panic disorder (PD. A few studies have investigated alterations of WM integrity in PD. The aim of this study was to determine frontal WM integrity differences between patients with PD without comorbid conditions and healthy control (HC subjects by using diffusion tensor imaging. Thirty-six patients with PD who had used medication within 1 week and 27 age- and sex-matched HC subjects participated in this study. Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed on all participants. Panic Disorder Severity Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI scores were assessed. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS was used for image analysis. TBSS analysis showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA in frontal WM and WM around the frontal lobe, including the corpus callosum of both hemispheres, in patients with PD compared to HC subjects. Moreover, voxel-wise correlation analysis revealed that the BAI scores for patients with PD were positively correlated with their FA values for regions showing group differences in the FA of frontal WM of both hemispheres. Altered integrity in frontal WM of patients with PD without comorbid conditions might represent the structural pathophysiology in these patients, and these changes could be related to clinical symptoms of PD.

  4. Functional heterogeneity of inferior frontal gyrus is shaped by linguistic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, L; Gandour, J; Wong, D; Hutchins, G D

    2001-03-01

    A crosslinguistic, positron emission tomography (PET) study was conducted to determine the influence of linguistic experience on the perception of segmental (consonants and vowels) and suprasegmental (tones) information. Chinese and English subjects (10 per group) were presented binaurally with lists consisting of five Chinese monosyllabic morphemes (speech) or low-pass-filtered versions of the same stimuli (nonspeech). The first and last items were targeted for comparison; the time interval between target tones was filled with irrelevant distractor tones. A speeded-response, selective attention paradigm required subjects to make discrimination judgments of the target items while ignoring intervening distractor tones. PET scans were acquired for five tasks presented twice: one passive listening to pitch (nonspeech) and four active (speech = consonant, vowel, and tone; nonspeech = pitch). Significant regional changes in blood flow were identified from comparisons of group-averaged images of active tasks relative to passive listening. Chinese subjects show increased activity in left premotor cortex, pars opercularis, and pars triangularis across the four tasks. English subjects, on the other hand, show increased activity in left inferior frontal gyrus regions only in the vowel task and in right inferior frontal gyrus regions in the pitch task. Findings suggest that functional circuits engaged in speech perception depend on linguistic experience. All linguistic information signaled by prosodic cues engages left-hemisphere mechanisms. Storage and executive processes of working memory that are implicated in phonological processing are mediated in discrete regions of the left frontal lobe.

  5. Increased Frontal Gyrification Negatively Correlates with Executive Function in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasabayashi, Daiki; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Nishiyama, Shimako; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Nishikawa, Yumiko; Nakamura, Mihoko; Noguchi, Kyo; Suzuki, Michio

    2017-04-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies of gyrification, a possible marker of early neurodevelopment, in schizophrenia patients have reported inconsistent results. In addition, it remains unclear whether aberrant gyrification in schizophrenia patients, if present, is associated with cognitive impairment, which is one of the core features of schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance images were obtained from 62 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 57 healthy control subjects. Using FreeSurfer software, local gyrification index (LGI) of the entire cortex was compared between the groups. The relationship between LGI and performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was also examined in a subgroup of patients (n= 28). Compared with the controls, the patients showed a significantly higher LGI in a wide range of bilateral frontal regions as well as in the right inferior parietal and bilateral occipital regions. The number of WCST categories archived in patients was negatively correlated with the LGI mainly in the rostral middle frontal and anterior cingulate regions in the right hemisphere. Our findings suggested a widespread hypergyrification pattern in schizophrenia patients, which supported early neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Our results also suggested that executive dysfunction in schizophrenia patients may be at least partly related to aberrant neurodevelopment, especially in the right frontal regions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Aplicaciones médico-quirúrgicas de la anatomía ósea del seno frontal en relación al trauma cráneo facial

    OpenAIRE

    Galli, S.; Micheloud, M.; Ferreiro, P.; Viscuso, M.; Scarpinelli, Liliana; Mayo, Esteban

    2012-01-01

    Los senos frontales son dos cavidades en forma de pirámide triangular, de vértice superior y base inferior, a cada lado de la línea media y excavados en el espesor de este hueso. La anatomía y morfología de los senos frontales se utiliza desde hace años en la medicina forense para la identificación de cadáveres dada su gran versatilidad. En lo que respecta a la cirugía maxilofacial es de suma importancia la presencia de megasenos frontales en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de fracturas hundimie...

  7. Plagiocefalia frontal sinostósica: Resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hodelín Tablada

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron de forma retrospectiva 10 niños con craneosinostosis tipo plagiocefalia frontal sinostósica, operados en el Servicio de Neurocirugía Infantil del Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía. Como técnica quirúrgica se empleó la craniectomía lineal en el sitio de la hemisura coronal sinostosada, ampliada hasta la región del pterión. La totalidad de los infantes evolucionaron con hipoplasia orbitaria y abombamiento frontal y a más de la mitad se les realizó operación en los primeros 6 meses de la vida. Hubo importante variación del índice cefálico, así como mejoría estética comparativamente, antes de la operación y después de éstaA retrospective study of 10 children with frontal synostotic plagiocephaly like craniosynostosis operated on at the Children's Neurosurgery Department of the Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery was carried out. It was used the surgical technique of linear craniectomy in the site of the coronal synostotic fissure extended to the pterion region. All children evoluted with orbital hypoplasia and frontal convexity. More than a half underwent surgery during the first six months of life. There was an important cephalic index variation, as well as anaesthetic improvement after the operation

  8. Measuring and modifying abnormal social cognition in frontal variant frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Sinclair; Hodges, John R

    2002-08-01

    We describe a 57-year-old man (MW) with frontal variant frontotemporal dementia (fv-FTD) who presented with a long history of drinking problem and marital disharmony followed by gradual changes in personality with disinhibition, stereotypic checking, overeating and a decline in self-care. Structural MRI imaging confirmed marked frontal atrophy involving particularly the ventromedial region. Performance on standard tests of frontal executive function was largely unremarkable and MW obtained a perfect score on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). In contrast, an experimental battery of tasks designed to evaluate theory of mind (ToM) revealed marked deficits. MW's challenging and disruptive behaviours, notably obsessive checking of car suspension by rocking, and wandering, responded to behavioural modification regimes adapted from the neurorehabilitation literature. In conclusion, deficits in ToM may underline the gross abnormalities in social conduct, which characterise fv-FTD; ToM appears to dissociate from frontal executive function; and behavioural modification approaches can be of benefit in this disorder.

  9. Integración regional de la Educación Superior. El espacio Iberoamericano del conocimiento y el papel pedagógico de la Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Ramírez Díaz

    2011-01-01

    El presente texto analiza las estrategias para la transferencia de políticas de los organismos internacionales a los países de América Latina. Se revisa el papel de la Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos y las Cumbres Iberoamericanas en la producción de políticas para la integración de la educación superior en la región al relevar el circuito por el cual se generan las políticas regionales. Al final del trabajo, se hace una reflexión de la dimensión comercial implícita en el cambio educat...

  10. Frontal oscillatory dynamics predict feedback learning and action adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, I. van de; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Cohen, M.X.

    2011-01-01

    Frontal oscillatory dynamics in the theta (4-8 Hz) and beta (20-30 Hz) frequency bands have been implicated in cognitive control processes. Here we investigated the changes in coordinated activity within and between frontal brain areas during feedback-based response learning. In a time estimation ta

  11. An orbital fistula complicating anaerobic frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); H.J.F. Peeters; G.M. Bleeker

    1982-01-01

    textabstractA patient is described with an orbital fistula complicating frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. The fistula was excised, but a fortnight later an acute exacerbation occurred. From the discharging pus a Staphylococcus aureus was cultured and from mucosa obtained durin

  12. Frontal Oscillatory Dynamics Predict Feedback Learning and Action Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Cohen, Michael X.

    2011-01-01

    Frontal oscillatory dynamics in the theta (4-8 Hz) and beta (20-30 Hz) frequency bands have been implicated in cognitive control processes. Here we investigated the changes in coordinated activity within and between frontal brain areas during feedback-based response learning. In a time estimation task, participants learned to press a button after…

  13. Is the Frontal Assessment Battery reliable in ALS patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Raaphorst; E. Beeldman; B. Jaeger; B. Schmand; L.H. van den Berg; J.G. Weikamp; H.J. Schelhaas; M. de Visser; R.J. de Haan

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of frontal functions in ALS patients is important because of the overlap with the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). We investigated the applicability and reliability of the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) within a cohort of predominantly prevalent ALS patients.

  14. UNIFIED THEORETICAL MOMENT EXPRESSIONS FOR ELUTION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND FRONTAL CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGGengliang; TAOZuyi

    1992-01-01

    The unified theoretical moment expressions for elution chromatography and frontal chromatography when the sorption process is described by a linear model were derived. The moment expressions derived by previous authors can be obtained from these unified theoretical moment expressions. In this paper, a mathematical analysis has been carried out so as to set up a unified theoretical basis for elution and frontal chromatography.

  15. Non-frontal model based approach to forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, Abhishek; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a non-frontal model based approach which ensures that a face recognition system always gets to compare images having similar view (or pose). This requires a virtual suspect reference set that consists of non-frontal suspect images having pose similar to the surveillance vie

  16. An orbital fistula complicating anaerobic frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); H.J.F. Peeters; G.M. Bleeker

    1982-01-01

    textabstractA patient is described with an orbital fistula complicating frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. The fistula was excised, but a fortnight later an acute exacerbation occurred. From the discharging pus a Staphylococcus aureus was cultured and from mucosa obtained durin

  17. Recruitment of Language-, Emotion- and Speech-Timing Associated Brain Regions for Expressing Emotional Prosody: Investigation of Functional Neuroanatomy with fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel L. C.; Jazdzyk, Agnieszka; Stets, Manuela; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to progress understanding of prosodic emotion expression by establishing brain regions active when expressing specific emotions, those activated irrespective of the target emotion, and those whose activation intensity varied depending on individual performance. BOLD contrast data were acquired whilst participants spoke non-sense words in happy, angry or neutral tones, or performed jaw-movements. Emotion-specific analyses demonstrated that when expressing angry prosody, activated brain regions included the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, the insula, and the basal ganglia. When expressing happy prosody, the activated brain regions also included the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and basal ganglia, with additional activation in the anterior cingulate. Conjunction analysis confirmed that the superior temporal gyrus and basal ganglia were activated regardless of the specific emotion concerned. Nevertheless, disjunctive comparisons between the expression of angry and happy prosody established that anterior cingulate activity was significantly higher for angry prosody than for happy prosody production. Degree of inferior frontal gyrus activity correlated with the ability to express the target emotion through prosody. We conclude that expressing prosodic emotions (vs. neutral intonation) requires generic brain regions involved in comprehending numerous aspects of language, emotion-related processes such as experiencing emotions, and in the time-critical integration of speech information. PMID:27803656

  18. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles and responsibilities. DATES... of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee members; Election of... Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  19. Frontal Cardiac area in patent ductus arteriosus patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Choo, Dong Woon [Seoul Natinal University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-03-15

    Cardiac mensuration by radiographic frontal cardiac area method was carried out on 21 patent ductus arteriosus patients, 15 females and 6 males. Formula used in this study is as follows. Frontal cardiac area = {pi}/4 X long diameter X broad diameter. Increase of frontal cardiac area in patent ductus arteriosus patients seems to be evident but the degree of the cardiomegaly is variable. Comparing to normal data by Choo and Kim, frontal cardiac area in patent ductus arteriosus patients in this series is increased in 15.9% to 98.1%. After surgical ligation of the ductus arteriosus, significant decrease of the frontal cardiac area is observed and the average is 12.5%.

  20. [The superior laryngeal nerve and the superior laryngeal artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J; Nachbaur, S; Fischer, K; Vogel, E

    1987-01-01

    Length, diameter and anastomoses of the nervus vagus and its ganglion inferius were measured 44 halved heads. On the average, 8.65 fiber bundles of the vagus nerve leave the retro-olivary area. In the area of the jugular foramen is the near superior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve. In this area were found 1.48 (mean value) anastomoses with the 9th cranial nerve. 11.34 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea branches off the ramus internus of the accessory nerve which has a length of 9.75 mm. Further anastomoses with the 10th cranial nerve were found. The inferior ganglion of the 10th nerve had a length of 25.47 mm and a diameter of 3.46 mm. Five mm below the ganglion the 10th nerve had a width of 2.9 and a thickness of 1.5 mm. The mean length of the superior sympathetic ganglion was 26.6 mm, its width 7.2 and its thickness 3.4 mm. In nearly all specimens anastomoses of the superior sympathetic ganglion with the ansa cervicalis profunda and the inferior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve were found. The superior laryngeal nerve branches off about 36 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea. The width of this nerve was 1.9 mm, its thickness 0.8 mm on the right and 1.0 mm on the left side. The division in the internal and external rami was found about 21 mm below its origin. Between the n. vagus and thyreohyoid membrane the ramus internus had a length of 64 mm, the length of external ramus between the vagal nerve and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle was 89 mm. Its mean length below the thyreopharyngeal part was 10.7 mm, 8.6 branchlets to the cricothyroid muscle were counted. The superior laryngeal artery had its origin in 80% of cases in the superior thyroideal artery, in 6.8% this vessel was a branch of the external carotid artery. Its average outer diameter was 1.23 mm on the right side and 1.39 mm on the left. The length of this vessel between its origin and the thyreohyoid membrane was 34 mm. In 7% on the right side and in 13% on the left, the superior

  1. Plantas Fósiles del Grupo Choiyoi, Cordillera Frontal a la Latitud del río Mendoza Fossil plants from the Choiyoi Group, Frontal Cordillera at the latitude of the Mendoza River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Koukharsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se dan a conocer los primeros restos fósiles hallados en sedimentitas, cuyo componente clástico es de origen volcánico, intercaladas en la Formación Tambillos del Grupo Choiyoi, Cordillera Frontal de Mendoza. Los mismos consisten en abundantes improntas de Sphenophyta en estado de preservación regular a malo. En la zona estudiada, las rocas de la Formación Tambillos, que son dominantemente volcánicas ácidas y de edad pérmica temprana a media según correlaciones regionales, se depositaron sobre una discordancia erosiva labrada en lavas andesíticas intensamente propilitizadas que se atribuyen a la Formación Portezuelo del Cenizo. Los restos vegetales se encuentran a unos 23 metros de la base, contenidos en niveles de areniscas finas y pelitas depositadas en un ambiente fluvial (microdelta, en los bordes de un lago y fueron coetáneas con los primeros episodios de volcanismo riolítico en la región. Si bien la flora encontrada no permite definir la edad, las formas presentes son comunes en niveles del Carbonífero superior-Pérmico y Triásico de Argentina.In this contribution we report the discovery of the first fossil remains in sedimentary strata belonging to the Tambillos Formation, Choiyoi Group, Cordillera Frontal of Mendoza. In the studied area the Tambillos Formation, which is formed dominantly by acid volcanics rocks of alleged Early to the Middle Permian, were deposited over an erosive unconformity on top of propilytic andesites of the Portezuelo del Cenizo Formation. The vegetal remains were found about 23 meters from the base of the formation, hosted in fine-grained sandstones and shales that were deposited in a fluvial environment (microdelta, along the borders of a lake during the first episodes of the rhyolitic volcanism of the region. The fossil flora includes abundant, poorly preserved impressions of Sphenophyta that does not permit to assign a precise age, although these forms are common in the Upper

  2. Alterations of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Tinnitus Patients as Assessed Using Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ueyama

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is the perception of phantom sound without an external auditory stimulus. Using neuroimaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, many studies have demonstrated that abnormal functions of the central nervous system are closely associated with tinnitus. In our previous research, we reported using resting-state fMRI that several brain regions, including the rectus gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, hippocampus, caudate, inferior temporal gyrus, cerebellar hemisphere, and medial superior frontal gyrus, were associated with tinnitus distress and loudness. To reconfirm these results and probe target regions for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS, we investigated the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF between younger tinnitus patients (<60 years old and the age-matched controls using single-photon emission computed tomography and easy Z-score imaging system. Compared with that of controls, the rCBF of tinnitus patients was significantly lower in the bilateral medial superior frontal gyri, left middle occipital gyrus and significantly higher in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres and vermis, bilateral middle temporal gyri, right fusiform gyrus. No clear differences were observed between tinnitus patients with normal and impaired hearing. Regardless of the assessment modality, similar brain regions were identified as characteristic in tinnitus patients. These regions are potentially involved in the pathophysiology of chronic subjective tinnitus.

  3. Microphysical Ice Crystal Properties in Mid-Latitude Frontal Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlage, Romy; Jurkat, Tina; Voigt, Christiane; Minikin, Andreas; Weigel, Ralf; Molleker, Sergej; Klingebiel, Marcus; Borrmann, Stephan; Luebke, Anna; Krämer, Martina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Schäfler, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds modulate the climate by reflection of shortwave solar radiation and trapping of longwave terrestrial radiation. Their net radiative effect can be positive or negative depending on atmospheric and cloud parameters including ice crystal number density, size and shape. Latter microphysical ice crystal properties have been measured during the mid-latitude cirrus mission ML-CIRRUS with a set of cloud instruments on the new research aircraft HALO. The mission took place in March/April 2014 with 16 flights in cirrus formed above Europe and the Atlantic. The ice clouds were encountered at altitudes from 7 to 14 km in the typical mid-latitude temperature range. A focus of the mission was the detection of frontal cirrus linked to warm conveyor belts (WCBs). Within WCBs, water vapor is transported in the warm sector of an extra-tropical cyclone from the humid boundary layer to the upper troposphere. Cirrus cloud formation can be triggered in the WCB outflow region at moderate updraft velocities and additionally at low updrafts within the high pressure system linked to the WCB. Due to their frequent occurrence, WCBs represent a major source for regions of ice supersaturation and cirrus formation in the mid-latitudes. Here, we use data from the Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with detection for POLarization (CAS-POL) and the Cloud Combination Probe (CCP), combining a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) and a greyscale Cloud Imaging Probe (CIPgs) to investigate the ice crystal distribution in the size range from 0.5 µm to 1 mm. We derive microphysical cirrus properties in mid-latitude warm front cirrus. Further, we investigate their variability and their dependence on temperature and relative humidity. Finally, we compare the microphysical properties of these frontal cirrus to cirrus clouds that formed at low updrafts within high pressure systems or at high updraft velocities in lee waves. We quantify statistically significant differences in cirrus properties formed in these

  4. What are Millian Qualitative Superiorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Riley

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In an article published in Prolegomena 2006, Christoph Schmidt-Petri has defended his interpretation and attacked mine of Mill’s idea that higher kinds of pleasure are superior in quality to lower kinds, regardless of quantity. Millian qualitative superiorities as I understand them are infinite superiorities. In this paper, I clarify my interpretation and show how Schmidt-Petri has misrepresented it and ignored the obvious textual support for it. As a result, he fails to understand how genuine Millian qualitative superiorities determine the novel structure of Mill’s pluralistic utilitarianism, in which a social code of justice that distributes equal rights and duties takes absolute priority over competing considerations. Schmidt-Petri’s own interpretation is a non-starter, because it does noteven recognize that Mill is talking about different kinds of pleasant feelings, such that the higher kinds are intrinsically more valuable than the lower. I conclude by outlining why my interpretation is free of any metaphysical commitment to the “essence” of pleasure.

  5. Isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Palle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA dissection without involvement of the aorta and the SMA origin is unusual. We present a case of an elderly gentleman who had chronic abdominal pain, worse after meals. CT angiography, performed on a 64-slice CT scanner, revealed SMA dissection with a thrombus. A large artery of Drummond was also seen. The patient was managed conservatively.

  6. Reabilitação funcional e analgesia com uso de toxina botulínica A na síndrome dolorosa regional complexa tipo I do membro superior: relato de casos Rehabilitación funcional y analgesia con uso de toxina botulínica A en el síndrome doloroso regional compleja tipo I del miembro superior: relato de casos Functional rehabilitation and analgesia with botulinum toxin A in upper limb complex regional pain syndrome type I: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rocha Lauretti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Freqüentemente, soma-se ao quadro de alodínia e hiperalgesia em pacientes portadores de Síndrome Dolorosa Regional Complexa (SDRC tipo I a incapacidade funcional do segmento acometido. Relatam-se dois casos de SDRC em que a aplicação de toxina botulínica-A como fármaco coadjuvante contribuiu na recuperação funcional motora do membro acometido. RELATO DOS CASOS: Duas pacientes portadoras de SDRC tipo I foram inicialmente avaliadas para controle da dor no membro superior direito. Ambas apresentavam incapacidade para abrir a mão e dor pela escala analógica numérica (EAN de 10 em repouso ou quando a mão ou os dedos eram passivamente manipulados. Iniciou-se seqüência de 5 bloqueios, do gânglio estrelado ipsilateral a intervalos semanais, com clonidina e lidocaína. Simultaneamente, durante a realização do terceiro bloqueio do gânglio estrelado, foram administrados 75 UI de toxina botulínica-A nos músculos flexores das falanges e da articulação do punho. Uma semana após a aplicação da toxina botulínica-A, as pacientes apresentavam relaxamento das falanges e punho, relatavam facilidade para execução da fisioterapia passiva e a dor classificada foi como 2 (EAN à manipulação passiva. Ao término da realização da seqüência de bloqueios do gânglio estrelado, as pacientes foram submetidas a 3 sessões semanais de administração por via venosa regional de clonidina, lidocaína e parecoxib. Após 8 meses de avaliação, as pacientes apresentaram 70% e 80% de recuperação motora e funcional do membro acometido. CONCLUSÕES: A aplicação por via muscular de toxina botulínica A resultou em melhora da movimentação do membro acometido, analgesia auxiliando na sua recuperação funcional.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Frecuentemente, se suman al cuadro de alodínia e hiperalgesia en pacientes portadores de Síndrome Doloroso Regional Complejo (SDRC tipo I la incapacidad funcional del segmento

  7. Putative EEG measures of social anxiety: Comparing frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrewijn, A; Van der Molen, M J W; Westenberg, P M

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation during resting state, anticipation, and recovery are electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of social anxiety. For the first time, we jointly examined frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta correlation during resting state and during a social performance task in high (HSA) versus low (LSA) socially anxious females. Participants performed a social performance task in which they first watched and evaluated a video of a peer, and then prepared their own speech. They believed that their speech would be videotaped and evaluated by a peer. We found that HSA participants showed significant negative delta-beta correlation as compared to LSA participants during both anticipation of and recovery from the stressful social situation. This negative delta-beta correlation might reflect increased activity in subcortical brain regions and decreased activity in cortical brain regions. As we hypothesized, no group differences in delta-beta correlation were found during the resting state. This could indicate that a certain level of stress is needed to find EEG measures of social anxiety. As for frontal alpha asymmetry, we did not find any group differences. The present frontal alpha asymmetry results are discussed in relation to the evident inconsistencies in the frontal alpha asymmetry literature. Together, our results suggest that delta-beta correlation is a putative EEG measure of social anxiety.

  8. Differential damage in the frontal cortex with aging, sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuba, Geneviève; Vernay, André; Zimmermann, Vincent; Saini, Krishan; Kraftsik, Rudolf; Savioz, Armand

    2009-10-28

    In order to understand relationships between executive and structural deficits in the frontal cortex of patients within normal aging or Alzheimer's disease, we studied frontal pathological changes in young and old controls compared to cases with sporadic (AD) or familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). We performed a semi-automatic computer assisted analysis of the distribution of beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits revealed by Abeta immunostaining as well as of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) revealed by Gallyas silver staining in Brodman areas 10 (frontal polar), 12 (ventro-infero-median) and 24 (anterior cingular), using tissue samples from 5 FAD, 6 sporadic AD and 10 control brains. We also performed densitometric measurements of glial fibrillary acidic protein, principal compound of intermediate filaments of astrocytes, and of phosphorylated neurofilament H and M epitopes in areas 10 and 24. All regions studied seem almost completely spared in normal old controls, with only the oldest ones exhibiting a weak percentage of beta-amyloid deposit and hardly any NFT. On the contrary, all AD and FAD cases were severely damaged as shown by statistically significant increased percentages of beta-amyloid deposit, as well as by a high number of NFT. FAD cases (all from the same family) had statistically more beta-amyloid and GFAP than sporadic AD cases in both areas 10 and 24 and statistically more NFT only in area 24. The correlation between the percentage of beta-amyloid and the number of NFT was significant only for area 24. Altogether, these data suggest that the frontal cortex can be spared by AD type lesions in normal aging, but is severely damaged in sporadic and still more in familial Alzheimer's disease. The frontal regions appear to be differentially vulnerable, with area 12 having the less amyloid burden, area 24 the less NFT and area 10 having both more amyloid and more NFT. This pattern of damage in frontal regions may represent a strong neuroanatomical support for the

  9. Anatomical coupling among distributed cortical regions in youth varies as a function of individual differences in vocabulary abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Raznahan, Armin; Wallace, Gregory L; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Clasen, Liv S; Lerch, Jason P; Giedd, Jay N

    2014-05-01

    Patient lesion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided convincing evidence that a distributed brain network subserves word knowledge. However, little is known about the structural correlates of this network within the context of typical development and whether anatomical coupling in linguistically relevant regions of cortex varies as a function of vocabulary skill. Here we investigate the association between vocabulary and anatomical coupling in 235 typically developing youth (ages 6-19 years) using structural MRI. The study's primary aim was to evaluate whether higher vocabulary performance was associated with greater vertex-level cortical thickness covariation in distributed regions of cortex known to be associated with word knowledge. Results indicate that better vocabulary skills are associated with greater anatomical coupling in several linguistically relevant regions of cortex, including the left inferior parietal (temporal-parietal junction), inferior temporal, middle frontal, and superior frontal gyri and the right inferior frontal and precentral gyri. Furthermore, in high vocabulary scorers, stronger coupling is found among these regions. Thus, complementing patient and fMRI studies, this is the first investigation to highlight the relevance of anatomical covariance within the cortex to vocabulary skills in typically developing youth, further elucidating the distributed nature of neural systems subserving word knowledge.

  10. Educación intercultural y la gestión de la diversidad en regiones indígenas de México: el caso de la educación superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Guadalupe Mendoza Zuany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En México, la creación de universidades interculturales en 2000 es parte de una política pública tendiente a ofrecer edu-cación culturalmente pertinente a la población indígena. Esto como respuesta a las demandas que desde los años noventa diversas organizaciones han expresado específicamente en el ámbito educativo y a nivel de reformas estructurales que coadyuven a una menor desigualdad y reconocimiento de la diversidad. En el presente artículo se aborda primeramente la legislación y políticas públicas para la gestión de la diversidad desde el ámbito educativo en México, y después se analizan políticas públicas como respuesta desde el ámbito educativo a nivel superior: acción afirmativa y educación intercultural, centrándome fundamentalmente en la segunda.

  11. A escrita no Ensino Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição Pillon Christofoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198464445865 O presente artigo trata de apresentar resultados oriundos de pesquisa realizada no Ensino Superior, enfocando a escrita em contextos universitários. Depoimentos por parte dos acadêmicos evidenciam certa resistência ao ato de escrever, o que acaba muitas vezes distanciando o sujeito da produção de um texto. Assim sendo, mesmo que parciais, os resultados até então analisados dão conta de que: pressuposto 1 – há ruptura da ideia de coerência entre o que pensamos, o que conseguimos escrever, o que entende nosso interlocutor; pressuposto 2 – a autocorreção de textos como exercício de pesquisa é imprescindível para a qualificação da escrita; pressuposto 3 – os diários de aula representam rico instrumento para a qualificação da escrita no Ensino Superior; pressuposto 4 – há necessidade de que o aluno do Ensino Superior escreva variados tipos de escrita, ainda que a universidade cumpra com seu papel, enfatizando a escrita acadêmica; pressuposto 5 – o trabalho com a escrita no Ensino Superior deve enfatizar os componentes básicos da expressão escrita: o código escrito e a composição da escrita. Palavras-chave: Escrita; Ensino Superior; formação de professores.

  12. Cirurgia de osteoma de seio frontal Surgery of frontal sinus osteoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Pessoa de Oliveira Fobe

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Os osteomas do seio frontal correspondem a 57% dos osteomas dos seios paranasais, com incidência variando de 0,01% a 3%. A remoção cirúrgica nos osteomas frontais é indicada nos pacientes sintomáticos. Nos pacientes assintomáticos pode-se adotar a conduta conservadora ou cirúrgica em todos os pacientes independente da sua localização ou extensão. Cinco pacientes com diagnóstico de osteoma de seio frontal foram operados entre 1995 e 1999. A idade média foi 38,4 anos (extremos de 12 a 55 anos, sendo 3 homens e 2 mulheres. O período de sintomatologia variou de 6 meses a 3 anos com média de 10,5 meses. Quatro pacientes apresentaram cefaléia. Um paciente apresentou epistaxe. Os exames complementares realizados foram: radiografia simples e tomografia computadorizada de seios paranasais com cortes axiais e coronais. Em dois pacientes o diâmetro do osteoma foi maior que 3 cm, e menor que 3 cm em três. A decisão da técnica cirúrgica entre coronal e supraciliar foi estética, reservando-se a abordagem supraciliar para um paciente com calvície, apesar do tumor ser volumoso com extensão para seio etmoidal. Nenhuma dificuldade técnica intra-operatória foi atribuída à escolha da abordagem. O óstio nasofrontal não foi obstruído no intra-operatório. O seguimento pós-operatório mínimo foi de dois anos. Em todos os casos a remoção foi total sem recidiva ou resíduos tumorais. Os sintomas clínicos, achados radiológicos e abordagens cirúrgicas são discutidos. Não ocorreram complicações pós-operatórias.Frontal sinus osteomas are 57% of all paranasal sinus osteomas, with an incidence of 00.1 to 3%. Surgical removal of the frontal sinus osteomas is done in symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients can be managed conservatively or submitted to surgery in spite of its location or extension. Five patients having the diagnosis of frontal sinus osteoma were operated on between 1995 and 1999. Medium age was 38.4 years (from 12

  13. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24{+-}4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor.

  14. Frontal sinus parameters in computed tomography and sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Mitra; Bakhtavar, Khadijeh; Moarefdoost, Jhale; Kamali, Artin; Rafeifar, Shahram

    2016-03-01

    The frontal sinus is a sturdy part of the skull that is likely to be retrieved for forensic investigations. We evaluated frontal sinus parameters in paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) images for sex determination. The study was conducted on 200 normal paranasal sinus CT images of 100 men and 100 women of Persian origin. We categorized the studied population into three age groups of 20-34, 35-49 and ⩾ 50 years. The number of partial septa in the right frontal sinus and the maximum height and width were significantly different between the two sexes. The highest precision for sex determination was for the maximum height of the left frontal sinus (61.3%). In the 20-34 years age-group, height and width of the frontal sinus were significantly different between the two sexes and the height of the left sinus had the highest precision (60.8%). In the 35-49 years age-group, right anterior-posterior diameter had a sex determination precision of 52.3%. No frontal sinus parameter reached a statistically significant level for sex determination in the ⩾ 50 years age-group. The number of septa and scallopings were not useful in sex determination. Frontal sinus parameters did not have a high precision in sex determination among Persian adults.

  15. Expert athletes activate somatosensory and motor planning regions of the brain when passively listening to familiar sports sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Elizabeth A; Hernandez, Arturo E; Wagner, Victoria E; Beilock, Sian L

    2014-06-01

    The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural response to familiar and unfamiliar, sport and non-sport environmental sounds in expert and novice athletes. Results revealed differential neural responses dependent on sports expertise. Experts had greater neural activation than novices in focal sensorimotor areas such as the supplementary motor area, and pre- and postcentral gyri. Novices showed greater activation than experts in widespread areas involved in perception (i.e. supramarginal, middle occipital, and calcarine gyri; precuneus; inferior and superior parietal lobules), and motor planning and processing (i.e. inferior frontal, middle frontal, and middle temporal gyri). These between-group neural differences also appeared as an expertise effect within specific conditions. Experts showed greater activation than novices during the sport familiar condition in regions responsible for auditory and motor planning, including the inferior frontal gyrus and the parietal operculum. Novices only showed greater activation than experts in the supramarginal gyrus and pons during the non-sport unfamiliar condition, and in the middle frontal gyrus during the sport unfamiliar condition. These results are consistent with the view that expert athletes are attuned to only the most familiar, highly relevant sounds and tune out unfamiliar, irrelevant sounds. Furthermore, these findings that athletes show activation in areas known to be involved in action planning when passively listening to sounds suggests that auditory perception of action can lead to the re-instantiation of neural areas involved in producing these actions, especially if someone has expertise performing the actions.

  16. The active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction induced differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neural-like cells Superior effects over original formula of Buyang Huanwu decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghui Zheng; Yi Wan; Jianhuai Chi; Dekai Shen; Tingting Wu; Weimin Li; Pengcheng Du

    2012-01-01

    The present study induced in vitro-cultured passage 4 bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into neural-like cells with a mixture of alkaloid, polysaccharide, aglycone, glycoside, essential oils, and effective components of Buyang Huanwu decoction (active principle region of decoction for invigorating yang for recuperation). After 28 days, nestin and neuron-specific enolase were expressed in the cytoplasm. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses showed that nestin and neuron-specific enolase mRNA and protein expression was greater in the active principle region group compared with the original formula group. Results demonstrated that the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction induced greater differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neural-like cells in vitro than the original Buyang Huanwu decoction formula.

  17. Decreased frontal lobe function in people with Internet addiction disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Shunke Zhou; Fatema Esmail; Lingjiang Li; Zhifeng Kou; Weihui Li; Xueping Gao; Zhiyuan Wang; Changlian Tan; Yan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    In our previous studies, we showed that frontal lobe and brainstem functions were abnormal in on-line game addicts. In this study, 14 students with Internet addiction disorder and 14 matched healthy controls underwent proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure cerebral function. Results demonstrated that the ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine decreased, but the ratio of cho-line-containing compounds to creatine increased in the bilateral frontal lobe white matter in people with Internet addiction disorder. However, these ratios were mostly unaltered in the brainstem, suggesting that frontal lobe function decreases in people with Internet addiction disorder.

  18. Functionalized polymer networks: synthesis of microporous polymers by frontal polymerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N S Pujari; A R Vishwakarma; T S Pathak; A M Kotha; S Ponrathnam

    2004-12-01

    A series of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)–ethylene dimethacrylate (EGDM) copolymers of varying compositions were synthesized by free-radically triggered thermal frontal polymerization (FP) as well as by suspension polymerization (SP) using azobisisobutyronitrile [AIBN] as initiator. The two sets of copolymers were characterized by IR spectroscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry, for determination of epoxy number and specific surface area. Frontal polymerization was more efficient, yielding greater conversions at much shorter reaction times. The self-propagating frontal polymerization also generates microporous material with narrow pore size distribution. It yields higher internal pore volume and surface area than suspension polymerization, surface morphologies are, however, inferior.

  19. Frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial and intraorbital extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral Cagigal, Beatriz; Barrientos Lezcano, Javier; Floriano Blanco, Raúl; García Cantera, José Miguel; Sánchez Cuéllar, Luis Antonio; Verrier Hernández, Alberto

    2006-11-01

    Frontal sinus mucoceles can present with a multitude of different symptoms including ophthalmic disturbances. Even benign, they have a tendency to expand by eroding the surrounding bony walls that displaces and destroys structures by pressure and bony resorption. A 32-year-old man with diplopia, proptosis of the right eye and headache was presented. The diagnosis was frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial and intraorbital extension. Possible clinical manifestations of mucoceles, diagnostic imaging techniques and treatment used are discussed. Frontal mucoceles are benign and curable, early recognition and management of them is of paramount importance, because they can cause local, orbital or intracranial complications.

  20. Alteraciones de memoria en daño cerebral frontal

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Rodríguez, Irene de la; Noreña, David de

    2007-01-01

    El córtex frontal está implicado en importantes procesos de memoria, pero tiene un papel diferente al de las estructuras temporales y diencefálicas mediales. Mientras que el daño en estas estructuras produce una grave amnesia anterógrada, en el daño frontal se manifiestan una serie de problemas y distorsiones concretas como las fabulaciones, la amnesia de la fuente, el déficit de memoria prospectiva o las alteraciones en el recuerdo libre. El lóbulo frontal no está implicado en el almacenamie...

  1. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael X Cohen

    Full Text Available Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30-50 Hz, followed by a later alpha-band (8-12 Hz conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4-8 Hz, alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions.

  2. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus) conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30-50 Hz), followed by a later alpha-band (8-12 Hz) conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4-8 Hz), alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials) had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions.

  3. Clinical-physiologic correlates of Alzheimer's disease and frontal lobe dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagust, W.J.; Reed, B.R.; Seab, J.P.; Kramer, J.H.; Budinger, T.F. (Martinez Veterans Administration Medical Center, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Thirty patients with degenerative dementia underwent clinical evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with the blood flow tracer ({sup 123}I)-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine. Five of these patients were clinically and psychologically different from the others, demonstrating predominant behavioral disturbances with relative preservation of memory function. These five patients, who were felt to have a frontal lobe dementia (FLD), showed SPECT perfusion patterns which differed from the remaining 25 patients, who were diagnosed as having Alzheimer's disease (AD), and from 16 healthy control subjects. The FLD patients showed diminished perfusion in orbitofrontal, dorsolateral frontal, and temporal cortex relative to controls, while the AD patients showed lower perfusion in temporal and parietal cortex than controls. The FLD patients also showed hypoperfusion in both frontal cortical regions relative to AD patients. The pattern of performance on neuropsychological testing paralleled these differences in regional perfusion. These results suggest that clinical evaluation and physiological imaging may enable the differentiation of groups of degenerative dementia patients during life.

  4. Increased frontal sleep slow wave activity in adolescents with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Tesler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep slow wave activity (SWA, the major electrophysiological characteristic of deep sleep, mirrors both cortical restructuring and functioning. The incidence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD substantially rises during the vulnerable developmental phase of adolescence, where essential cortical restructuring is taking place. The goal of this study was to assess characteristics of SWA topography in adolescents with MDD, in order to assess abnormalities in both cortical restructuring and functioning on a local level. All night high-density EEG was recorded in 15 patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for MDD and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The actual symptom severity was assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale—Revised (CDRS-R. Topographical power maps were calculated based on the average SWA of the first non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep episode. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly more SWA in a cluster of frontal electrodes compared to controls. SWA over frontal brain regions correlated positively with the CDRS-R subscore “morbid thoughts”. Self-reported sleep latency was significantly higher in depressed adolescents compared to controls whereas sleep architecture did not differ between the groups. Higher frontal SWA in depressed adolescents may represent a promising biomarker tracing cortical regions of intense use and/or restructuring.

  5. Preoperative Planning Using 3D Reconstructions and Virtual Endoscopy for Location of the Frontal Sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu, João Paulo Saraiva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Computed tomography (TC generated tridimensional (3D reconstructions allow the observation of cavities and anatomic structures of our body with detail. In our specialty there have been attempts to carry out virtual endoscopies and laryngoscopies. However, such application has been practically abandoned due to its complexity and need for computers with high power of graphic processing. Objective: To demonstrate the production of 3D reconstructions from CTs of patients in personal computers, with a free specific program and compare them to the surgery actual endoscopic images. Method: Prospective study in which the CTs proper files of 10 patients were reconstructed with the program Intage Realia, version 2009, 0, 0, 702 (KGT Inc., Japan. The reconstructions were carried out before the surgeries and a virtual endoscopy was made to assess the recess and frontal sinus region. After this study, the surgery was digitally performed and stored. The actual endoscopic images of the recess and frontal sinus region were compared to the virtual images. Results: The 3D reconstruction and virtual endoscopy were made in 10 patients submitted to the surgery. The virtual images had a large resemblance with the actual surgical images. Conclusion: With relatively simple tools and personal computer, we demonstrated the possibility to generate 3D reconstructions and virtual endoscopies. The preoperative knowledge of the frontal sinus natural draining path location may generate benefits during the performance of surgeries. However, more studies must be developed for the evaluation of the real roles of such 3D reconstructions and virtual endoscopies.

  6. Stopping, goal-conflict, trait anxiety and frontal rhythmic power in the stop-signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Phoebe S-H; Thurlow, Jane K; McNaughton, Neil

    2011-12-01

    The medial right frontal cortex is implicated in fast stopping of an initiated motor action in the stop-signal task (SST). To assess whether this region is also involved in the slower behavioural inhibition induced by goal conflict, we tested for effects of goal conflict (when stop and go tendencies are balanced) on low-frequency rhythms in the SST. Stop trials were divided, according to the delays at which the stop signal occurred, into short-, intermediate-, and long-delay trials. Consistent with goal-conflict processing, intermediate-delay trials were associated with greater 7-8 Hz EEG power than short- or long-delay trials at medial right frontal sites (Fz, F4, and F8). At F8, 7-8 Hz power was linked to high trait anxiety and neuroticism. A separate 4-7 Hz power increase was also seen in stop, relative to go, trials, but this was independent of delay, was maximal at the central midline site Cz, and predicted faster stopping. Together with previous data on the SST, these results suggest that the right frontal region could be involved in multiple inhibition mechanisms. We propose a hierarchical model of the control of stopping that integrates the literature on the neural control of fast motor stopping with that on slower, motive-directed behavioural inhibition.

  7. Pensamiento Superior y Desarrollo Territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Racancoj Alonzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta reflexión pretende explicar el papel, fundamental, que juega el pensamiento superior, en la formulación y la práctica de modelos de desarrollo territorial local; para que contribuyan de forma sustantiva, en la transformación de las condiciones socioeconómicas adversas que hoy viven comunidades indígenas y rurales de muchos países, como Guatemala, situación que puede resumirse en altos índices de pobreza y desnutrición. Pero, el pensamiento superior, debe ser competencia de la población con pertenencia a lo local, pues si y solo si esta condición existe, se dará validez y viabilidad al desarrollo territorial. Para alcanzar competencias de pensamiento superior, en los espacios locales, se tiene que superar obstáculos en el modelo de universidad, que hoy estamos familiarizados a ver y pensar; modelos que tienen las características de: herencia colonial, disfunción con la problemática económica, cultural, social y política de la sociedad y la negación de los saberes ancestrales.

  8. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach.

  9. Neuronal reduction in frontal cortex of primates after prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Mark W; Palmour, Roberta M; Ervin, Frank R; Ptito, Maurice

    2009-01-07

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) show behavioral and intellectual impairments that indicate frontal lobe dysfunction, but the extent of damage to this region has not been clarified by brain imaging studies. This study uses the St Kitts vervet monkey, a species that voluntarily consumes beverage alcohol, to examine the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure. Pregnant vervets were allowed to drink the equivalent of 3-5 standard drinks four times a week during the third trimester. Using unbiased stereology, we estimated neuronal reduction and found significantly fewer cells in the frontal lobes of FASD offspring as well as an increased density of interstitial white matter neurons. These cytoarchitectonic effects are consistent with the behavioral and cognitive changes observed in FASD.

  10. Longitudinal evidence for diminished frontal cortex function in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Lars; Salami, Alireza; Andersson, Mikael; Eriksson, Johan; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Kauppi, Karolina; Lind, Johanna; Pudas, Sara; Persson, Jonas; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional estimates of age-related changes in brain structure and function were compared with 6-y longitudinal estimates. The results indicated increased sensitivity of the longitudinal approach as well as qualitative differences. Critically, the cross-sectional analyses were suggestive of age-related frontal overrecruitment, whereas the longitudinal analyses revealed frontal underrecruitment with advancing age. The cross-sectional observation of overrecruitment reflected a select elderly sample. However, when followed over time, this sample showed reduced frontal recruitment. These findings dispute inferences of true age changes on the basis of age differences, hence challenging some contemporary models of neurocognitive aging, and demonstrate age-related decline in frontal brain volume as well as functional response. PMID:21156826

  11. Aging, episodic memory feeling-of-knowing, and frontal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchay, C; Isingrini, M; Espagnet, L

    2000-04-01

    Groups of normal old and young adults made episodic memory feeling-of-knowing (FOK) judgments and took 2 types of episodic memory tests (cued recall and recognition). Neuropsychological tests of executive and memory functions thought to respectively involve the frontal and medial temporal structures were also administered. Age differences were observed on the episodic memory measures and on all neuropsychological tests. Compared with young adults, older adults performed at chance level on FOK accuracy judgments. Partial correlations indicated that a composite measure of frontal functioning and FOK accuracy were closely related. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that the composite frontal functioning score accounted for a large proportion of the age-related variance in FOK accuracy. This finding supports the idea that the age-related decline in episodic memory FOK accuracy is mainly the result of executive or frontal limitations associated with aging.

  12. Giant cell tumor of the frontal sinus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matushita, Joao Paulo, E-mail: jpauloejulieta@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas; Matushita, Julieta S.; Matushita Junior, Joao Paulo Kawaoka [Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem Dr. Matsushita, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Matushita, Cristina S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho; Simoes, Luiz Antonio Monteiro; Carvalho Neto, Lizando Franco de

    2013-06-15

    The authors report the case of a giant cell tumor of the frontal sinus in a 54-year-old male patient. This tumor location is rare, and this is the third case reported in the literature with radiographic documentation and histopathological confirmation. The patient underwent surgery, with curettage of frontal sinus and placement of a prosthesis. He died because a voluntary abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids. (author)

  13. Atlasing the frontal lobe connections and their variability due to age and education: a spherical deconvolution tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojkova, K; Volle, E; Urbanski, M; Humbert, F; Dell'Acqua, F; Thiebaut de Schotten, M

    2016-04-01

    In neuroscience, there is a growing consensus that higher cognitive functions may be supported by distributed networks involving different cerebral regions, rather than by single brain areas. Communication within these networks is mediated by white matter tracts and is particularly prominent in the frontal lobes for the control and integration of information. However, the detailed mapping of frontal connections remains incomplete, albeit crucial to an increased understanding of these cognitive functions. Based on 47 high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging datasets (age range 22-71 years), we built a statistical normative atlas of the frontal lobe connections in stereotaxic space, using state-of-the-art spherical deconvolution tractography. We dissected 55 tracts including U-shaped fibers. We further characterized these tracts by measuring their correlation with age and education level. We reported age-related differences in the microstructural organization of several, specific frontal fiber tracts, but found no correlation with education level. Future voxel-based analyses, such as voxel-based morphometry or tract-based spatial statistics studies, may benefit from our atlas by identifying the tracts and networks involved in frontal functions. Our atlas will also build the capacity of clinicians to further understand the mechanisms involved in brain recovery and plasticity, as well as assist clinicians in the diagnosis of disconnection or abnormality within specific tracts of individual patients with various brain diseases.

  14. Variations in resting frontal alpha asymmetry between high- and low-neuroticism females across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yamei; Zhou, Renlai; Cui, Hong; Wu, Mengying; Wang, Qingguo; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Yanfeng

    2015-02-01

    Resting frontal alpha asymmetry measures the relative activation intensity across the left and right frontal regions that represent emotional experience. Here, the focus is on levels of alpha asymmetry between high- and low-neuroticism females across the menstrual cycle. Resting alpha asymmetry in healthy females who scored high or low on neuroticism was assessed during the menstrual phase, the late follicular phase, and the midlate luteal phase. High-neuroticism females exhibited lower relative left prefrontal activity than did low-neuroticism females during the midlate luteal phase, as indexed by alpha1 and alphaTotal asymmetry scores at the prefrontal electrode positions (FP1/2 ). EEG results demonstrate that the resting frontal alpha asymmetry of high- and low-neuroticism females was moderated by the menstrual cycle, and high-neuroticism females should pay particular attention to their emotional experience during the midlate luteal phase.

  15. Heritability of regional and global brain structure at the onset of puberty: a magnetic resonance imaging study in 9-year-old twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Jiska S; Schnack, Hugo G; Brouwer, Rachel M; Van Baal, G Caroline M; Pjetri, Eneda; Székely, Eszter; van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stéphanie M; Collins, D Louis; Evans, Alan C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2009-07-01

    Puberty represents the phase of sexual maturity, signaling the change from childhood into adulthood. During childhood and adolescence, prominent changes take place in the brain. Recently, variation in frontal, temporal, and parietal areas was found to be under varying genetic control between 5 and 19 years of age. However, at the onset of puberty, the extent to which variation in brain structures is influenced by genetic factors (heritability) is not known. Moreover, whether a direct link between human pubertal development and brain structure exists has not been studied. Here, we studied the heritability of brain structures at 9 years of age in 107 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (N = 210 individuals) using volumetric MRI and voxel-based morphometry. Children showing the first signs of secondary sexual characteristics (N = 47 individuals) were compared with children without these signs, based on Tanner-stages. High heritabilities of intracranial, total brain, cerebellum, and gray and white matter volumes (up to 91%) were found. Regionally, the posterior fronto-occipital, corpus callosum, and superior longitudinal fascicles (up to 93%), and the amygdala, superior frontal and middle temporal cortices (up to 83%) were significantly heritable. The onset of secondary sexual characteristics of puberty was associated with decreased frontal and parietal gray matter densities. Thus, in 9-year-old children, global brain volumes, white matter density in fronto-occipital and superior longitudinal fascicles, and gray matter density of (pre-)frontal and temporal areas are highly heritable. Pubertal development may be directly involved in the decreases in gray matter areas that accompany the transition of our brains from childhood into adulthood.

  16. Asymmetric frontal cortical activity and negative affective responses to ostracism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carly K; Gravens, Laura C; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2011-06-01

    Ostracism arouses negative affect. However, little is known about variables that influence the intensity of these negative affective responses. Two studies fill this void by incorporating work on approach- and withdrawal-related emotional states and their associated cortical activations. Study 1 found that following ostracism anger related directly to relative left frontal cortical activation. Study 2 used unilateral hand contractions to manipulate frontal cortical activity prior to an ostracizing event. Right-hand contractions, compared to left-hand contractions, caused greater relative left frontal cortical activation during the hand contractions as well as ostracism. Also, right-hand contractions caused more self-reported anger in response to being ostracized. Within-condition correlations revealed patterns of associations between ostracism-induced frontal asymmetry and emotive responses to ostracism consistent with Study 1. Taken together, these results suggest that asymmetrical frontal cortical activity is related to angry responses to ostracism, with greater relative left frontal cortical activity being associated with increased anger.

  17. Unusual case of frontal mucocele presenting with forehead ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıntaş Kakşi, S; Kakşi, M; Balevi, A; Özdemir, M; Çakır, A

    2014-11-15

    Paranasal mucoceles are benign slow-growing paranasal sinus lesions, which usually develop following the obstruction of the sinus ostiu. They most frequently occur in the frontal sinus. Frontal mucoceles are expansive lesions usually causing visual clinical signs and symptoms such as diminution of vision, visual field defects, diplopia, orbital swelling, retroorbital pain, displacement of eye globe, ptosis, and proptosis. When the frontal mucocele extends intracranially, it can manifest with meningitis, meningoencephalitis, intracranial abscess, seizures, or cerebrospinal fluid fistula. Very rarely it can cause forehead swelling. We report an 80-year-old woman presenting with a forehead skin ulcer and painless subcutaneous forehead induration. Histopathologic examination revealed mucin deposition and inflammation. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed a mass originating from the frontal sinus with frontal bony defect and frontocutaneous fistula. Surgical excision of the mass confirmed the mucocele diagnosis. In this article, we present a case of frontocutaneous fistula and skin ulcer, which is an unexpected complication of frontal mucocele. We propose that in the case of a localized non-healing ulcerated forehead skin lesions, mucocele should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  18. Reabilitação funcional e analgesia com uso de toxina botulínica A na síndrome dolorosa regional complexa tipo I do membro superior: relato de casos

    OpenAIRE

    Lauretti,Gabriela Rocha; Veloso,Fabrício dos Santos; Mattos,Anita Leocádia de

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Freqüentemente, soma-se ao quadro de alodínia e hiperalgesia em pacientes portadores de Síndrome Dolorosa Regional Complexa (SDRC) tipo I a incapacidade funcional do segmento acometido. Relatam-se dois casos de SDRC em que a aplicação de toxina botulínica-A como fármaco coadjuvante contribuiu na recuperação funcional motora do membro acometido. RELATO DOS CASOS: Duas pacientes portadoras de SDRC tipo I foram inicialmente avaliadas para controle da dor no membro supe...

  19. The morphology of midcingulate cortex predicts frontal-midline theta neurofeedback success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eEnriquez-Geppert

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans differ in their ability to learn how to control their own brain activity by neurofeedback. However, neural mechanisms underlying these inter-individual differences, which may determine training success and associated cognitive enhancement, are not well understood. Here, it is asked whether neurofeedback success of frontal-midline (fm theta, an oscillation related to higher cognitive functions, could be predicted by the morphology of brain structures known to be critically involved in fm-theta generation. Nineteen young, right-handed participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of T1-weighted brain images, and took part in an individualized, eight-session neurofeedback training in order to learn how to enhance activity in their fm-theta frequency band. Initial training success, measured at the second training session, was correlated with the final outcome measure. We found that the inferior, superior and middle frontal cortices were not associated with training success. However, volume of the midcingulate cortex as well as volume and concentration of the underlying white matter structures act as predictor variables for the general responsiveness to training. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical foundation for the ability to learn to control one’s own brain activity.

  20. Reanimación palpebral con colgajo frontal miofuncional: Caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. García-García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El párpado es una estructura crítica para la protección y función del globo ocular, y parte primordial en la estética facial. Su reconstrucción está determinada por la extensión de la lesión y el compromiso de las diferentes capas. Siempre se preferirán tejidos loco-regionales debido a su mayor similitud y disposición. Los métodos de reanimación palpebral se pueden dividir en estáticos y dinámicos, considerando a estos últimos como el único medio para restaurar el parpadeo. Presentamos un caso de celulitis orbitaria preseptal con lesión de espesor total del párpado superior y su reconstrucción miofuncional utilizando un colgajo frontal. Este colgajo frontal miocutáneo logró la restauración funcional del párpado comprometido mediante la adición de fibras musculares y permitiendo el fenómeno de reinervación.

  1. Non-primary motor areas in the human frontal lobe are connected directly to hand muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitti, S; Määttä, S; Säisänen, L; Könönen, M; Vanninen, R; Hannula, H; Mervaala, E; Karhu, J

    2008-04-15

    Structural studies in primates have shown that, in addition to the primary motor cortex (M1), premotor areas are a source of corticospinal tracts. The function of these putative corticospinal neuronal tracts in humans is still unclear. We found frontal non-primary motor areas (NPMAs), which react to targeted non-invasive magnetic pulses and activate peripheral muscles as fast as or even faster than those in M1. Hand muscle movements were observed in all our subjects about 20 ms after transcranial stimulation of the superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 6 and 8). Stimulation of NPMA could activate both proximal and distal upper limb muscles with the same delay as a stimulation of the M1, indicating converging motor representations with direct functional connections to the hand. We suggest that these non-primary cortical motor representations provide additional capacity for the fast execution of movements. Such a capacity may play a role in motor learning and in recovery from motor deficits.

  2. Functional MRI approach for assessing hemispheric predominance of regions activated by a phonological and a semantic task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousin, Emilie; Peyrin, Carole; Pichat, Cedric [Laboratoire de Psychologie et Neurocognition, UMR CNRS 5105, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, BP 47, 38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Lamalle, Laurent; Le Bas, Jean-Francois [Unite IRM, IFR1, CHU Grenoble (France); Baciu, Monica [Laboratoire de Psychologie et Neurocognition, UMR CNRS 5105, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, BP 47, 38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)], E-mail: mbaciu@upmf-grenoble.fr

    2007-08-15

    This fMRI study performed in healthy subjects aimed at using a statistical approach in order to determine significant functional differences between hemispheres and to assess specialized regions activated during a phonological and during a semantic task. This approach ('flip' method and subsequent statistical analyses of the parameter estimates extracted from regions of interest) allows identifying: (a) hemispheric specialized regions for each language task [semantic (living categorization) and phonological (rhyme detection)] and (b) condition-specific regions with respect to paradigm conditions (task and control). Our results showed that the rhyme-specific task regions were the inferior frontal (sub-region of BA 44, 45) and left inferior parietal (BA 40, 39) lobules. Furthermore, within the inferior parietal lobule, the angular gyrus was specific to target (rhyming) items (related to successfully grapho-phonemic processing). The categorization-specific task regions were the left inferior frontal (sub-region of BA 44, 45) and superior temporal (BA 22) cortices. Furthermore, the superior temporal gyrus was related to non-target (non-living) items (correlated to task difficulty). The relatively new approach used in this study has the advantage of providing: (a) statistical significance of the hemispheric specialized regions for a given language task and (b) supplementary information in terms of paradigm condition-specificity of the activated regions. The results (standard hemispheric specialized regions for a semantic and for a phonological task) obtained in healthy subjects may constitute a basement for mapping language and assessing hemispheric predominance in epileptic patients before surgery and avoiding post-surgical impairments of language.

  3. Fibromyalgia is characterized by altered frontal and cerebellar structural covariance brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, Jieun; Loggia, Marco L.; Cahalan, Christine; Garcia, Ronald G.; Vangel, Mark G.; Wasan, Ajay D.; Edwards, Robert R.; Napadow, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Altered brain morphometry has been widely acknowledged in chronic pain, and recent studies have implicated altered network dynamics, as opposed to properties of individual brain regions, in supporting persistent pain. Structural covariance analysis determines the inter-regional association in morphological metrics, such as gray matter volume, and such structural associations may be altered in chronic pain. In this study, voxel-based morphometry structural covariance networks were compared between fibromyalgia patients (N = 42) and age- and sex-matched pain-free adults (N = 63). We investigated network topology using spectral partitioning, which can delineate local network submodules with consistent structural covariance. We also explored white matter connectivity between regions comprising these submodules and evaluated the association between probabilistic white matter tractography and pain-relevant clinical metrics. Our structural covariance network analysis noted more connections within the cerebellum for fibromyalgia patients, and more connections in the frontal lobe for healthy controls. For fibromyalgia patients, spectral partitioning identified a distinct submodule with cerebellar connections to medial prefrontal and temporal and right inferior parietal lobes, whose gray matter volume was associated with the severity of depression in these patients. Volume for a submodule encompassing lateral orbitofrontal, inferior frontal, postcentral, lateral temporal, and insular cortices was correlated with evoked pain sensitivity. Additionally, the number of white matter fibers between specific submodule regions was also associated with measures of evoked pain sensitivity and clinical pain interference. Hence, altered gray and white matter morphometry in cerebellar and frontal cortical regions may contribute to, or result from, pain-relevant dysfunction in chronic pain patients. PMID:25844321

  4. Fibromyalgia is characterized by altered frontal and cerebellar structural covariance brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered brain morphometry has been widely acknowledged in chronic pain, and recent studies have implicated altered network dynamics, as opposed to properties of individual brain regions, in supporting persistent pain. Structural covariance analysis determines the inter-regional association in morphological metrics, such as gray matter volume, and such structural associations may be altered in chronic pain. In this study, voxel-based morphometry structural covariance networks were compared between fibromyalgia patients (N = 42 and age- and sex-matched pain-free adults (N = 63. We investigated network topology using spectral partitioning, which can delineate local network submodules with consistent structural covariance. We also explored white matter connectivity between regions comprising these submodules and evaluated the association between probabilistic white matter tractography and pain-relevant clinical metrics. Our structural covariance network analysis noted more connections within the cerebellum for fibromyalgia patients, and more connections in the frontal lobe for healthy controls. For fibromyalgia patients, spectral partitioning identified a distinct submodule with cerebellar connections to medial prefrontal and temporal and right inferior parietal lobes, whose gray matter volume was associated with the severity of depression in these patients. Volume for a submodule encompassing lateral orbitofrontal, inferior frontal, postcentral, lateral temporal, and insular cortices was correlated with evoked pain sensitivity. Additionally, the number of white matter fibers between specific submodule regions was also associated with measures of evoked pain sensitivity and clinical pain interference. Hence, altered gray and white matter morphometry in cerebellar and frontal cortical regions may contribute to, or result from, pain-relevant dysfunction in chronic pain patients.

  5. Entidades fiscalizadoras superiores y accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    OBJETIVOS DE LA TESIS: El objetivo general del trabajo es establecer el nivel de eficacia de las Entidades Fiscalizadoras Superiores (EFS) como agencia asignada y herramienta de accountability horizontal, a través de la valoración de su diseño institucional y de la calidad de sus productos finales, los informes de auditoría, estableciéndose los siguientes objetivos específicos: 1. Relevar las nociones de accountability, actualizando el Estado del Arte de la cuestión. 2. Analizar la ...

  6. Increased frontal electroencephalogram theta amplitude in patients with anorexia nervosa compared to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hestad KA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Knut A Hestad,1–3 Siri Weider,3,4 Kristian Bernhard Nilsen,5–7 Marit Sæbø Indredavik,8,9 Trond Sand7,10 1Department of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Norway; 2Department of Public Health, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway; 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 4Department of Psychiatry, Specialised Unit for Eating Disorder Patients, Levanger Hospital, Health Trust Nord-Trøndelag, Levanger, Norway; 5Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Work Psychology and Physiology, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway; 7Department of Neurology, Section for Clinical Neurophysiology, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway; 8Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 9Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 10Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway Objective: To conduct a blind study of quantitative electroencephalogram-band amplitudes in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN and healthy controls.Methods: Twenty-one patients with AN and 24 controls were examined with eyes-closed 16-channel electroencephalogram. Main variables were absolute alpha, theta, and delta amplitudes in frontal, temporal, and posterior regions.Results: There were no significant differences between the AN patients and controls regarding absolute regional band amplitudes in µV. Borderline significance was found for anterior theta (P=0.051. Significantly increased left and right frontal electrode theta amplitude was found in AN patients (F3, P=0.014; F4, P

  7. The sentence superiority effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    A sentence superiority effect was investigated using post-cued word-in-sequence identification with the rapid parallel visual presentation (RPVP) of four horizontally aligned words. The four words were presented for 200ms followed by a post-mask and cue for partial report. They could form a grammatically correct sentence or were formed of the same words in a scrambled agrammatical sequence. Word identification was higher in the syntactically correct sequences, and crucially, this sentence superiority effect did not vary as a function of the target's position in the sequence. Cloze probability measures for words at the final, arguably most predictable position, revealed overall low values that did not interact with the effects of sentence context, suggesting that these effects were not driven by word predictability. The results point to a level of parallel processing across multiple words that enables rapid extraction of their syntactic categories. These generate a sentence-level representation that constrains the recognition process for individual words, thus facilitating parallel word processing when the sequence is grammatically sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Intracranial pressure monitoring for special patterns of frontal lobe contusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ji-rong; CAI Xue-jian; WANG Biao; WANG Yu-hai; SHI Zhong-hua; LIU Bing; CAI Sang; XU Qin-yi

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect and indications of intracranial pressure(ICP)monitoring for frontal lobe contusion patients.Methods:During January 2005-December 2008,34 cases of frontal lobe contusion received ICP monitoring in our department(monitoring group).Different treatment protocols were adopted according to the results of ICP.Meanwhile 46 cases of same type of head-injured patients who did not undergo ICP monitoring served as control group.Results:We found that ICP elevated dramatically within 24 hours after head injury if the contusions were located in frontal longitudinal dehiscence,bilateral undersurface of frontal lobe or dispersed in bilateral lobe.After half a year follow-up and on the basis of Glasgow Coma Scale assessment,the monitoring group showed better outcome than the control group with good recovery in 24 cases(70.6%),moderate disability in 7 cases(20.6%),severe disability in 2(5.88%)and death in 1(2.94%).The outcome of control group displayed good condition in 25 cases(54.3%),moderate disabilities in 8(17.4%),severe disability in 7(15.2%),and death in 6(13.0%).Conclusions:Frontal lobe contusions are vulnerable and complex head injuries,especially when the contusions are located in frontal longitudinal dehiscence,bilateral undersurface of frontal lobe or diffused in bilateral lobes.These patients should undergo ICP monitoring regardless of their consciousness status.If ICP elevates over 25 mm Hg,the craniotomy is mandatory and will markedly reduce the mortality and disability of these patients.

  9. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Mizuno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS. We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.

  10. Frontal lobe changes occur early in the course of affective disorders in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagopoulos Jim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More severe and persistent forms of affective disorders are accompanied by grey matter loss in key frontal and temporal structures. It is unclear whether such changes precede the onset of illness, occur early in the course or develop gradually with persistence or recurrence of illness. A total of 47 young people presenting with admixtures of depressive and psychotic symptoms were recruited from specialist early intervention services along with 33 age matched healthy control subjects. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and patients were rated clinically as to current stage of illness. Twenty-three patients were identified as being at an early 'attenuated syndrome' stage, while the remaining were rated as having already reached the 'discrete disorder' or 'persistent or recurrent illness' stage. Contrasts were carried out between controls subjects and patients cohorts with attenuated syndromes and discrete disorders, separately. Results The patients that were identified as having a discrete or persisting disorder demonstrated decreased grey matter volumes within distributed frontal brain regions when contrasted to both the control subjects as well as those patients in the attenuated syndrome stage. Overall, patients who were diagnosed as more advanced in terms of the clinical stage of their illness, exhibited the greatest grey matter volume loss of all groups. Conclusions This study suggests that, in terms of frontal grey matter changes, a major transition point may occur in the course of affective illness between early attenuated syndromes and later discrete illness stages.

  11. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Joudoi, Takako; Kawatani, Junko; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tomoda, Akemi; Miike, Teruhisa; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS). We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension) and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC) and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.

  12. Extramedullary Plasmacytoma of the Frontal Sinus: Case Report and Turkish Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Verim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMPs are nonepithelial neoplasms of plasma cell origin categorized among non- Hodgkin lymphomas, without the bone marrow involvement and systemic spread seen in multiple myeloma. They are uncommon tumors comprising 3% of all plasma cell neoplasias. Although they usually occur in the upper respiratory tract, only 1 case of EMP localized to the frontal sinus has been reported in the English literature. We present in this report a rare case of EMP originated from the left frontal sinus leading to left eyeball proptosis and movement restriction. A survey of sinonasal EMPs in the Turkish literature is reported, as well. Paranasal computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of a 69-year-old female who presented with left eyeball proptosis and left-sided headache revealed a solid mass in the left frontal sinus. Histopathological analysis of the completely excised mass supported the diagnosis of plasmacytoma. The definitive diagnosis of solitary EMP was confirmed with further investigations at hematology and oncology clinics. The patient was treated with surgery followed by local radiotherapy to the head and neck region, and she was disease-free at her 1-year follow-up. Treatment of sinonasal EMP is surgery alone or surgery combined with radiotherapy. Long-term follow-up is a requisite for systemic control because of the disease’s high potential to transform into multiple myeloma.

  13. [Contributions and results of lipo-structure in repair and rejuvenation of frontal anatomical unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichery, A; Mojallal, A; Voulliaume, D; Comparin, J-P; Foyatier, J-L

    2009-04-01

    Forehead is the most large anatomical unit of face. It includes forehead and anterior part of temple. Deteriorations of frontal anatomical units are numerous, ageing forehead has atrophy with eyebrow ptosis. In this work, we want to estimate contribution of lipo-structure in repair and rejuvenation of frontal anatomical unit (FAU). We present seven cases of repair of FAU and three cases of rejuvenation of the forehead. Results are satisfactory, particularly about frontal band. Results are questionable about Lipo-structure of temple. Applications of Lipo-structure in plastic and aesthetic surgery of the forehead are huge. Lipo-structure is the reference technique of volumetric filling. It is preferred to other techniques as flaps (pediculed or free) or materials, because it is a safe, easy and efficient technique, which permits large fillings. In aesthetic surgery, Lipo-structure gives volume to eyebrow region and fills root of the nose. It can be used with injections of botulinum toxin A. Lipo-structure of forehead takes part in rejuvenation of eye and nose. In conclusion, lipo-structure is actually the major technique of filling with a large implication in plastic and aesthetic surgery of FAU.

  14. Healing results of prolonged acute frontal sinusitis treated with endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wide, Kristina; Antila, Jukka; Sipilä, Jukka; Suonpää, Jouko; Parkkola, Riitta

    2002-12-01

    In a marked part of patients suffering from acute frontal sinusitis, the symptoms do not resolve after initial therapy (antibiotics and/or trephination). The prolongation of the healing or recurrences may be caused by persistent inflammation or by structural abnormalities at the nasofrontal connection. During the last decade endoscopic surgery (FES) has become a very useful method to restore the frontonasal drainage although long term results of this kind of population are rare. We evaluated the results of endoscopic surgery in two patient groups (total number of 50) both operated after prolongation (persistent symptoms after 4 weeks) of the initial acute phase of the frontal sinusitis. The first group (A, 15 patients, first trephined) was followed-up 4 years, the number of recurrences after the first FES was 60% and in the other group (B, no initial trephination) with over 6 months follow-up, 91% of patients had recurrences. In group A pre- and postoperative CT-scanning was used to determine the possible anatomical variations that could be causing the failures. All but 3 patients showed some kind of abnormal anatomical variation. In group B only preoperative CT was done. In most cases the reasons for recurrences of frontal sinusitis were polyps and/or chronic inflammation at the ethmoidal region.

  15. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  16. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  17. Superior Memorizers Employ Different Neural Networks for Encoding and Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eMallow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL to memorize large amounts of information. The method of loci, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, fMRI data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  18. Enhanced metabolic capacity of the frontal cerebral cortex after Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchey, A K; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2008-03-18

    While Pavlovian conditioning alters stimulus-evoked metabolic activity in the cerebral cortex, less is known about the effects of Pavlovian conditioning on neuronal metabolic capacity. Pavlovian conditioning may increase prefrontal cortical metabolic capacity, as suggested by evidence of changes in cortical synaptic strengths, and evidence for a shift in memory initially processed in subcortical regions to more distributed prefrontal cortical circuits. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry was used to measure cumulative changes in brain metabolic capacity associated with both cued and contextual Pavlovian conditioning in rats. The cued conditioned group received tone-foot-shock pairings to elicit a conditioned freezing response to the tone conditioned stimulus, while the contextually conditioned group received pseudorandom tone-foot-shock pairings in an excitatory context. Untrained control group was handled daily, but did not receive any tone presentations or foot shocks. The cued conditioned group had higher cytochrome oxidase activity in the infralimbic and anterior cingulate cortex, and lower cytochrome oxidase activity in dorsal hippocampus than the other two groups. A significant increase in cytochrome oxidase activity was found in anterior cortical areas (medial, dorsal and lateral frontal cortex; agranular insular cortex; lateral and medial orbital cortex and prelimbic cortex) in both conditioned groups, as compared with the untrained control group. In addition, no differences in cytochrome oxidase activity in the somatosensory regions and the amygdala were detected among all groups. The findings indicate that cued and contextual Pavlovian conditioning induces sustained increases in frontal cortical neuronal metabolic demand resulting in regional enhancement in the metabolic capacity of anterior cortical regions. Enhanced metabolic capacity of these anterior cortical areas after Pavlovian conditioning suggests that the frontal cortex may play a

  19. Calving on tidewater glaciers amplified by submarine frontal melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Leary

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While it has been shown repeatedly that ocean conditions exhibit an important control on the behaviour of grounded tidewater glaciers, modelling studies have focused largely on the effects of basal and surface melting. Here, a finite-element model of stresses near the front of a tidewater glacier is used to investigate the effects of frontal melting on calving, independently of the calving criterion used. Applications of the stress model to idealized scenarios reveal that undercutting of the ice front due to frontal melting can drive calving at up to ten times the mean melt rate. Factors which cause increased frontal melt-driven calving include a strong thermal gradient in the ice, and a concentration of frontal melt at the base of the glacier. These properties are typical of both Arctic and Antarctic tidewater glaciers. The finding that frontal melt near the base is a strong driver of calving leads to the conclusion that water temperatures near the bed of the glacier are critically important to the glacier front, and thus the flow of the glacier. These conclusions are robust against changes in the basal boundary condition and the choice of calving criterion, as well as variations in the glacier size or level of crevassing.

  20. Attentional inhibition in patients with focal frontal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Carrie R; Bauer, Russell M; Filoteo, J Vincent; Grande, Laura; Roper, Steven N; Gilmore, Robin

    2005-05-01

    Patients with unilateral, frontal lobe damage and matched controls performed an identity negative priming task as a measure of inhibition in selective attention. Control participants demonstrated a normal negative priming effect, as evidenced by slower reaction times when a previously to-be-ignored item became the target on a subsequent trial (distractor suppression). On the other hand, patients with left medial frontal lobe damage showed positive priming in the distractor suppression condition suggesting facilitation of distractor information. Patients with right frontal lobe damage showed an unreliable pattern of negative priming, some demonstrating an absence of negative priming and others demonstrating enhanced negative priming in the distractor suppression condition. Neither patient group nor controls demonstrated slower responses on a target-to-distractor condition included to evaluate a noninhibitory (i.e., episodic retrieval) account of negative priming. Taken together, our results suggest that (a) the negative priming effect represents active inhibition of a distractor representation, rather than a noninhibitory mismatch between retrieval episodes, and (b) that the frontal lobes, especially the left frontal lobes, contribute to this active inhibition.

  1. Calving on tidewater glaciers amplified by submarine frontal melting

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Martin

    2012-01-01

    While it has been shown repeatedly that ocean conditions exhibit an important control on the behaviour of grounded tidewater glaciers, modelling studies have focused largely on the effects of basal and surface melting. Here, a finite-element model of stresses near the front of a tidewater glacier is used to investigate the effects of frontal melting on calving, independently of the calving criterion used. Applications of the stress model to idealized scenarios reveal that undercutting of the ice front due to frontal melting can drive calving at up to ten times the mean melt rate. Factors which cause increased frontal melt-driven calving include a strong thermal gradient in the ice, and a concentration of frontal melt at the base of the glacier. These properties are typical of both Arctic and Antarctic tidewater glaciers. The finding that frontal melt near the base is a strong driver of calving leads to the conclusion that water temperatures near the bed of the glacier are critically important to the glacier f...

  2. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Department of the Navy Superior Supplier Incentive Program AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... policy that will establish a Superior Supplier Incentive Program (SSIP). Under the SSIP, contractors that..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors...

  3. BRING THE SUPERIORITY OF PROFESSION AND REGION INTO PLAY OPEN UP NEW DOMAIN OF ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT ——The Tentative Plan of Building the Mineral Network Station%发挥行业和地域优势开辟经济发展新领域 ——矿业网站的建设设想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    息飏; 张明平

    2001-01-01

    Network economy has already been a new representation of social productive forces. Guangxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development should been use the superiority of profession and region, participate in the network economy positively, open up the mineral market, and the tentative plan of building the mineral network station has been proposed in this paper.%网络经济已成为新的社会生产力的代表。广西地质矿产勘查开发局应该利用其行业和地域方面的固有优势,积极参与网络经济,以期打开矿业市场。文章提出了建立矿业网站的设想和框架。

  4. Parietal and Frontal Cortex Encode Stimulus-Specific Mnemonic Representations during Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ester, Edward F; Sprague, Thomas C; Serences, John T

    2015-08-19

    Working memory (WM) enables the storage and manipulation of information in an active state. WM storage has long been associated with sustained increases in activation across a network of frontal and parietal cortical regions. However, recent evidence suggests that these regions primarily encode information related to general task goals rather than feature-selective representations of specific memoranda. These goal-related representations are thought to provide top-down feedback that coordinates the representation of fine-grained details in early sensory areas. Here, we test this model using fMRI-based reconstructions of remembered visual details from region-level activation patterns. We could reconstruct high-fidelity representations of a remembered orientation based on activation patterns in occipital visual cortex and in several sub-regions of frontal and parietal cortex, independent of sustained increases in mean activation. These results challenge models of WM that postulate disjoint frontoparietal "top-down control" and posterior sensory "feature storage" networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dyslexic children lack word selectivity gradients in occipito-temporal and inferior frontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Olulade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available fMRI studies using a region-of-interest approach have revealed that the ventral portion of the left occipito-temporal cortex, which is specialized for orthographic processing of visually presented words (and includes the so-called “visual word form area”, VWFA, is characterized by a posterior-to-anterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in typically reading adults, adolescents, and children (e.g. Brem et al., 2006, 2009. Similarly, the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC has been shown to exhibit a medial-to-lateral gradient of print selectivity in typically reading adults (Vinckier et al., 2007. Functional brain imaging studies of dyslexia have reported relative underactivity in left hemisphere occipito-temporal and inferior frontal regions using whole-brain analyses during word processing tasks. Hence, the question arises whether gradient sensitivities in these regions are altered in dyslexia. Indeed, a region-of-interest analysis revealed the gradient-specific functional specialization in the occipito-temporal cortex to be disrupted in dyslexic children (van der Mark et al., 2009. Building on these studies, we here (1 investigate if a word-selective gradient exists in the inferior frontal cortex in addition to the occipito-temporal cortex in normally reading children, (2 compare typically reading with dyslexic children, and (3 examine functional connections between these regions in both groups. We replicated the previously reported anterior-to-posterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in the left occipito-temporal cortex in typically reading children, and its absence in the dyslexic children. Our novel finding is the detection of a pattern of increasing selectivity for words along the medial-to-lateral axis of the left inferior frontal cortex in typically reading children and evidence of functional connectivity between the most lateral aspect of this area and the anterior aspects of the occipito-temporal cortex. We

  6. superior en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mureddu Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo desarrolla algunos de los retos que ha traído consigo el acceso a la información existente en la red de Internet y lo que ello supone. Se abordan principalmente las consecuencias de la presencia actual de una sociedad llamada del conocimiento, si se mantiene la confusión entre conocimiento e información. Por ello, la sola gestión de la información no puede ser tomada como definitoria respecto a la función de educación superior confiada a las universidades. Hacerlo sería cometer un error aún más grave que la confusión teórica entre los términos mencionados.

  7. Is the Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold Technique Superior to the Free Breathing Technique in Cardiac and Lung Sparing while Treating both Left-Sided Post-Mastectomy Chest Wall and Supraclavicular Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Darapu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of the deep inspirational breath-hold (DIBH technique and its dosimetric advantages over the free breathing (FB technique in cardiac (heart and left anterior descending artery [LAD] and ipsilateral lung sparing in left-sided post-mastectomy field-in-field conformal radiotherapy. DIBH is highly reproducible, and this study aims to find out its dosimetric benefits over FB. Materials and Methods: Nineteen left-sided mastectomy patients were immobilized using breast boards with both arms positioned above the head. All patients had 2 sets of planning CT images (one in FB and another in DIBH with a Biograph TruePoint HD CT scanner in the same setup. DIBH was performed by tracking the respiratory cycles using a Varian Real-Time Position Management system. The target (chest wall and supraclavicular region, organs at risk (OARs; ipsilateral lung, contralateral lung, heart, LAD, and contralateral breast, and other organs of interests were delineated as per the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring guidelines. The single-isocenter conformal fields in the field treatment plans were generated with the Eclipse Treatment Planning System (Varian Medical Systems for both FB and DIBH images, and the doses to the target and OARs were compared. The standard fractionation regimen of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over a period of 5 weeks was used for all patients in this study. Results and Discussion: The target coverage parameters (V95, V105, V107, and Dmean were found to be 97.8 ± 0.9, 6.1 ± 3.4, 0.2 ± 0.3, and 101.9 ± 0.5% in the FB plans and 98.1 ± 0.8, 6.1 ± 3.2, 0.2 ± 0.3, and 101.9 ± 0.4% in the DIBH plans, respectively. The plan quality indices (conformity index and homogeneity index also showed 1.3 ± 0.2 and 0.1 for the FB plans and 1.2 ± 0.3 and 0.1 for the DIBH plans, respectively. There was a significant reduction in dose to the heart in the DIBH plans compared to the FB plans, with p values of nearly 0 for the

  8. Type III frontal sinusotomy: surgical technique, indications, outcomes, a multi-university retrospective study of 120 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, P; Vlaminck, S; Jorissen, M; Hellings, P; Timmermans, M; Daele, J; Ransky, P; Hassid, S; Van Zele, T; Bachert, C; Poirrier, A L; Bertrand, B

    2011-01-01

    Draf in 1991. The procedure--which is also known as the modified endoscopic Lothrop procedure--aims to create the largest possible anteroposterior and lateral to lateral opening between both frontal sinuses and the nasal cavities. This requires the resection of the medial floor of both frontal sinuses, the intersinus septum and the superior nasal septum. The authors present a retrospective study including a cohort of 120 patients who underwent surgery in six Belgian university ENT departments. Mean follow-up was 24.6 months (range: 5-36 months). This paper describes the surgical procedure and reviews the indications, comorbidities, outcomes and complications of the type III frontal sinusotomy. Some correlations are also established with the data published in the worldwide literature. The authors conclude that the Draf III is a demanding procedure requiring considerable expertise in endoscopic sinus surgery. The procedure is effective with a success rate of 87.5%. Indeed, 12.5% of patients only experienced closure of the neoostium while 20% of all the patients had unchanged or worse symptomatology. The percentage of post-operative complications is 7.5%. All complications were managed successfully.

  9. Estudo de lidocaína a 0,5% e combinação de lidocaína a 0,25% com fentanil e vecurônio em anestesia regional intravenosa para cirurgias de membros superiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh MCB

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia regional intravenosa (ARIV para cirurgias de membros superiores com a tradicional alta dose de lidocaína pode levar a efeitos colaterais potencialmente letais. A fim de evitar esses efeitos, muitas técnicas modificadas de ARIV foram experimentadas com o uso de uma dose baixa de lidocaína, relaxante muscular e opioide. MÉTODOS: O presente estudo foi feito com 60 pacientes não medicados previamente, com classificação ASA 1-2, para comparar as características sensoriais e motoras, os parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios e os efeitos colaterais durante o período intraoperatório e de deflação pós-torniquete entre os pacientes que receberam 40 mL de lidocaína a 0,5% (n = 30 e aqueles que receberam uma combinação de 40 mL de lidocaína a 0,25% com 0,05 mg de fentanil e 0,5 mg de vecurônio (n = 30 em ARIV para cirurgias ortopédicas de membros superiores. Os resultados foram analisados com o uso do teste t de Student pareado para identificar a significância estatística. RESULTADO: A diferença entre os dois grupos em relação ao tempo médio de início e completo bloqueio sensitivo e motor foi estatisticamente significante. Porém, houve completo bloqueio sensitivo e motor em ambos os grupos 15 minutos após a injeção da solução anestésica. CONCLUSÃO: Embora a pequena demora observada no início e na obtenção completa dos bloqueios sensitivo e motor possa, teoricamente, atrasar o início da cirurgia em 10-15 minutos, clinicamente esse tempo seria gasto na preparação do campo cirúrgico. Portanto, essa combinação pode ser usada com segurança e eficácia em anestesia regional intravenosa para cirurgias ortopédicas de membros superiores com menor possibilidade de toxicidade anestésica local.

  10. Altered intrinsic regional spontaneous brain activity in patients with optic neuritis: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Y

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yi Shao,1,* Feng-Qin Cai,2,* Yu-Lin Zhong,1 Xin Huang,1,3 Ying Zhang,1 Pei-Hong Hu,1 Chong-Gang Pei,1 Fu-Qing Zhou,2 Xian-Jun Zeng2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 3Department of Ophthalmology, First People’s Hospital of Jiujiang, Jiujiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To investigate the underlying regional homogeneity (ReHo in brain-activity deficit in patients with optic neuritis (ON and its relationship with behavioral performance.Materials and methods: In total, twelve patients with ON (four males and eight females and twelve (four males and eight females age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The ReHo method was used to assess the local features of spontaneous brain activity. Correlation analysis was used to explore the relationship between the observed mean ReHo values of the different brain areas and the visual evoked potential (VEP in patients with ON.Results: Compared with the healthy controls, patients with ON showed lower ReHo in the left cerebellum, posterior lobe, left middle temporal gyrus, right insula, right superior temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, left superior frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus, and higher ReHo in the cluster of the left fusiform gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule. Meanwhile, we found that the VEP amplitude of the right eye in patients with ON showed a positive correlation with the ReHo signal value of the left cerebellum posterior lobe (r=0.701, P=0.011, the right superior frontal gyrus (r=0.731, P=0.007, and the left fusiform gyrus (r=0.644, P=0.024. We also found that the VEP latency of the right eye in ON showed a positive correlation with the ReHo signal value of the right insula (r=0.595, P=0

  11. Lower trait frontal theta activity in mindfulness meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guaraci Ken Tanaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute and long-term effects of mindfulness meditation on theta-band activity are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal theta differences between long- and short-term mindfulness practitioners before, during, and after mindfulness meditation. Twenty participants were recruited, of which 10 were experienced Buddhist meditators. Despite an acute increase in the theta activity during meditation in both the groups, the meditators showed lower trait frontal theta activity. Therefore, we suggested that this finding is a neural correlate of the expert practitioners’ ability to limit the processing of unnecessary information (e.g., discursive thought and increase the awareness of the essential content of the present experience. In conclusion, acute changes in the theta band throughout meditation did not appear to be a specific correlate of mindfulness but were rather related to the concentration properties of the meditation. Notwithstanding, lower frontal theta activity appeared to be a trait of mindfulness practices.

  12. Subtemporal transtentorial approach for excision of tumors in mid-superior petroclival region: a report of 43 cases%颞下经小脑幕入路手术切除中上岩斜区肿瘤(附43例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢学民; 杨文涛; 夏勋; 马原; 赵凯; 张修忠; 林龙; 曾凡俊; 顾建文; 孔滨; 匡永勤; 贺伟旗; 程敬民; 杨涛; 程林; 黄海东

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨颢下经小脑幕入路切除中上岩斜区肿瘤的手术技巧.方法 回顾性分析2003年6月- 2010年4月收治的43例中上岩斜区肿瘤,其中男19例,女24例,年龄23~64岁,平均42岁,病程2个月-3年,平均14个月,均采用颞下经小脑幕入路,对肿瘤与中上岩斜区毗邻结构关系进行评估,分离肿瘤与天幕及岩斜部脑膜的近端粘连,由近及远分块切除肿瘤,逐渐分离扩大脑干、下视丘、海绵窦与肿瘤之间的间隙,避免直接接触上述重要结构,彻底切除肿瘤.观察术后疗效和并发症.结果 43例患者中肿瘤完全切除31例(72.1%),次全切除7例(16.3%),大部切除5例(11.6%),死亡1例(2.3%).23例术后出现部分神经功能障碍.术后随访3~48个月,神经功能障碍均得到不同程度恢复.结论 颞下经小脑幕入路切除中上岩斜区肿瘤具有手术路径短、容易暴露的优点.缩小肿瘤体积、扩大操作空间是此类手术的关键.%Objective To explore the surgical technique for excision of mid-superior petroclival region tumor through subtemporal transtentorial approach. Methods Forty-three patients with tumor at superior-middle petroclival region hospitalized from Jun. 20003 to Apr. 2010 were involved in present study, and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 43 patients, 19 were male and 24 were female, age ranged from 23 to 64 vears (with mean of 42 vears) , disease duration ranged from 2 months to 3 years (with average of 14 months). All the patients underwent tumor resection via subtemporal transtentorial approach. The relationship between tumors and adjacent superior-middle petroclival structures was evaluated, and then the adhesion between tumor and tentorium cerebelli or petroclival memnges was separated, the tumor was resected piecemeal from closest area to distant part. The arachnoidal planes between tumor and brain stem, hypothalamus, or cavernous was dissected to enlarge the gap between the

  13. Functional Connectivity Between Superior Parietal Lobule and Primary Visual Cortex "at Rest" Predicts Visual Search Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueichekú, Elisenda; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Miró-Padilla, Anna; Parcet, María-Antonia; Ávila, César

    2015-10-01

    Spatiotemporal activity that emerges spontaneously "at rest" has been proposed to reflect individual a priori biases in cognitive processing. This research focused on testing neurocognitive models of visual attention by studying the functional connectivity (FC) of the superior parietal lobule (SPL), given its central role in establishing priority maps during visual search tasks. Twenty-three human participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session that featured a resting-state scan, followed by a visual search task based on the alphanumeric category effect. As expected, the behavioral results showed longer reaction times and more errors for the within-category (i.e., searching a target letter among letters) than the between-category search (i.e., searching a target letter among numbers). The within-category condition was related to greater activation of the superior and inferior parietal lobules, occipital cortex, inferior frontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the superior colliculus than the between-category search. The resting-state FC analysis of the SPL revealed a broad network that included connections with the inferotemporal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and dorsal frontal areas like the supplementary motor area and frontal eye field. Noteworthy, the regression analysis revealed that the more efficient participants in the visual search showed stronger FC between the SPL and areas of primary visual cortex (V1) related to the search task. We shed some light on how the SPL establishes a priority map of the environment during visual attention tasks and how FC is a valuable tool for assessing individual differences while performing cognitive tasks.

  14. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity: Associated with structural network topology alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior-anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior-anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal-thalamic-striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated with

  15. [Frontal osteoma with orbital extension. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constans, J P; Meder, J F; Justiniano, P; Michalski, M; Fredy, D

    1984-01-01

    Fronto ethmoidal osteoma are rare slow growth benign tumors. Exceptional ophthalmological and neurological complications can occur. The authors report a case of 32 years old man with eye compression by a giant frontal sinus osteoma. This lesion was responsible for a vertical diplopia and moderate proptosis. Plain skull X-Ray show a well defined opacity filling the whole left frontal sinus and C.T. scan delimited precisely orbital extension. Neurosurgical exposure enabled a complete extraction of the tumor and satisfying recovery. The authors have compared this case to those described in literature and insist on the importance of the pre-operative C.T. scan.

  16. Action word Related to Walk Heard by the Ears Activates Visual Cortex and Superior Temporal Gyrus: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Osaka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience of language of action processing is one of the interesting issues on the cortical “seat” of word meaning and related action (Pulvermueller, 1999 Behavioral Brain Sciences 22 253–336. For example, generation of action verbs referring to various arm or leg actions (e.g., pick or kick differentially activate areas along the motor strip that overlap with those areas activated by actual movement of the fingers or feet (Hauk et al., 2004 Neuron 41 301–307. Meanwhile, mimic words like onomatopoeia have the other potential to selectively and strongly stimulate specific brain regions having a specified “seat” of action meaning. In fact, mimic words highly suggestive of laughter and gaze significantly activated the extrastriate visual /premotor cortices and the frontal eye field, respectively (Osaka et al., 2003 Neuroscience Letters 340 127–130; 2009 Neuroscience Letters 461 65–68. However, the role of a mimic word related to walk on specific brain regions has not yet been investigated. The present study showed that a mimic word highly suggestive of human walking, heard by the ears with eyes closed, significantly activated the visual cortex located in extrastriate cortex and superior temporal gyrus while hearing non-sense words that did not imply walk under the same task did not activate these areas. These areas would be a critical region for generating visual images of walking and related action.

  17. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  18. Lateral frontal cortex volume reduction in Tourette syndrome revealed by VBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittfoth Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural changes have been found predominantly in the frontal cortex and in the striatum in children and adolescents with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS. The influence of comorbid symptomatology is unclear. Here we sought to address the question of gray matter abnormalities in GTS patients with co-morbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM in twenty-nine adult actually unmedicated GTS patients and twenty-five healthy control subjects. Results In GTS we detected a cluster of decreased gray matter volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, but no regions demonstrating volume increases. By comparing subgroups of GTS with comorbid ADHD to the subgroup with comorbid OCD, we found a left-sided amygdalar volume increase. Conclusions From our results it is suggested that the left IFG may constitute a common underlying structural correlate of GTS with co-morbid OCD/ADHD. A volume reduction in this brain region that has been previously identified as a key region in OCD and was associated with the active inhibition of attentional processes may reflect the failure to control behavior. Amygdala volume increase is discussed on the background of a linkage of this structure with ADHD symptomatology. Correlations with clinical data revealed gray matter volume changes in specific brain areas that have been described in these conditions each.

  19. Reasoning by analogy requires the left frontal pole: lesion-deficit mapping and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Marika; Bréchemier, Marie-Laure; Garcin, Béatrice; Bendetowicz, David; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Foulon, Chris; Rosso, Charlotte; Clarençon, Frédéric; Dupont, Sophie; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Labeyrie, Marc-Antoine; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    SEE BURGESS DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW092 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE  : Analogical reasoning is at the core of the generalization and abstraction processes that enable concept formation and creativity. The impact of neurological diseases on analogical reasoning is poorly known, despite its importance in everyday life and in society. Neuroimaging studies of healthy subjects and the few studies that have been performed on patients have highlighted the importance of the prefrontal cortex in analogical reasoning. However, the critical cerebral bases for analogical reasoning deficits remain elusive. In the current study, we examined analogical reasoning abilities in 27 patients with focal damage in the frontal lobes and performed voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping and tractography analyses to investigate the structures critical for analogical reasoning. The findings revealed that damage to the left rostrolateral prefrontal region (or some of its long-range connections) specifically impaired the ability to reason by analogies. A short version of the analogy task predicted the existence of a left rostrolateral prefrontal lesion with good accuracy. Experimental manipulations of the analogy tasks suggested that this region plays a role in relational matching or integration. The current lesion approach demonstrated that the left rostrolateral prefrontal region is a critical node in the analogy network. Our results also suggested that analogy tasks should be translated to clinical practice to refine the neuropsychological assessment of patients with frontal lobe lesions.

  20. 5-羟色胺2A受体基因与抑郁症患者额叶亚区关系的影像学研究%A preliminary fMRI study on serotonin 2A ( HT2A ) receptor gene polymorphism and subregions of frontal lobes in depressed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐勇; 张婧; 卢青; 刘海燕; 姚志剑

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To explore the influence of a polymorphism (T102C) of 5-HT2A receptor gene on subregions of frontal lobe in patients with major depressive disorser. Method;58 depressed patients and 40 healthy controls underwent structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, while genotyping being performed. WFU PickAtlas was used to extract bilateral frontal lobe (bilateral superior frontal lobe,middle frontal lobe and inferior frontal lobe) as regions of interest (ROIs). Concentration of gray matter as well as activation in recognition of happy and sad facial expression in frontal lobe were compared among patients and controls with different genotypes. Results; Compared with patients with TT genotype and controls with TT,TC genotype, patients with CC genotype had reduced CMC in right middle frontal lobe. In recognition of happy facial expression,patients with CC showed reduced activation of right middle frontal gyrus than patients with TT,TC genotype and controls with TT,TC genotype. In recognition of sad facial expression, patients with CC genotype showed increased activation of right middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus than patients with TT,TC genotypes and controls with TT genotype; healthy controls with CC genotype showed increased activation in left superior frontal lobe than controls with TT genotype. Besides, patients with CC genotype showed reduced GMC of right middle frontal gyrus than patients with TT. Conclusion ;5-HT2A receptor gene C allele is likely to be correlated with the lethal changes in subregions of right frontal lobes in patients with depressive disorder.%目的:探讨5-羟色胺2A( 5-HT2A)受体基因T102C多态性对抑郁症患者额叶亚区的影响.方法:对58例抑郁症患者及40例性别、年龄、受教育年限匹配的健康对照进行结构、任务态功能核磁共振扫描及基因分型,以双侧额叶上、中、下回为感兴趣脑区,比较不同基因型患者组、对照组额叶亚区灰质

  1. Resección del tabique intersinusal frontal para el manejo de sinusitis frontal crónica unilateral

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar S,Rodolfo; Sedano M,Cecilia; Naser G,Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    La sinusitis frontal crónica es un problema complejo, de difícil manejo quirúrgico debido a la anatomía del seno frontal y el alto índice de recidiva posquirúrgica. La resección del tabique intersinusal ha sido descrita escasamente en la literatura, pero es una técnica sencilla que aprovecha el drenaje del seno contralateral sano, evitando intervenir directamente el ostium comprometido, en especial en casos de estenosis u obliteración que probablemente se reproducirán después de permeabilizar...

  2. The early argument for prefrontal leucotomy: the collision of frontal lobe theory and psychosurgery at the 1935 International Neurological Congress in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Lillian B; Menacho, Sarah T

    2017-09-01

    The pathophysiology of mental illness and its relationship to the frontal lobe were subjects of immense interest in the latter half of the 19th century. Numerous studies emerged during this time on cortical localization and frontal lobe theory, drawing upon various ideas from neurology and psychiatry. Reflecting the intense interest in this region of the brain, the 1935 International Neurological Congress in London hosted a special session on the frontal lobe. Among other presentations, Yale physiologists John Fulton and Carlyle Jacobsen presented a study on frontal lobectomy in primates, and neurologist Richard Brickner presented a case of frontal ablation for olfactory meningioma performed by the Johns Hopkins neurosurgeon Walter Dandy. Both occurrences are said to have influenced Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz (1874-1955) to commence performing leucotomies on patients beginning in late 1935. Here the authors review the relevant events related to frontal lobe theory leading up to the 1935 Neurological Congress as well as the extent of this meeting's role in the genesis of the modern era of psychosurgery.

  3. Clinical NOE 13C MRS for neuropsychiatric disorders of the frontal lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailasuta, Napapon; Robertson, Larry W.; Harris, Kent C.; Gropman, Andrea L.; Allen, Peter S.; Ross, Brian D.

    2008-12-01

    In this communication, a scheme is described whereby in vivo 13C MRS can safely be performed in the frontal lobe, a human brain region hitherto precluded on grounds of SAR, but important in being the seat of impaired cognitive function in many neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders. By combining two well known features of 13C NMR—the use of low power NOE and the focus on 13C carbon atoms which are only minimally coupled to protons, we are able to overcome the obstacle of SAR and develop means of monitoring the 13C fluxes of critically important metabolic pathways in frontal brain structures of normal volunteers and patients. Using a combination of low-power WALTZ decoupling, variants of random noise for nuclear overhauser effect enhancement it was possible to reduce power deposition to 20% of the advised maximum specific absorption rate (SAR). In model solutions 13C signal enhancement achieved with this scheme were comparable to that obtained with WALTZ-4. In human brain, the low power procedure effectively determined glutamine, glutamate and bicarbonate in the posterior parietal brain after [1- 13C] glucose infusion. The same 13C enriched metabolites were defined in frontal brain of human volunteers after administration of [1- 13C] acetate, a recognized probe of glial metabolism. Time courses of incorporation of 13C into cerebral glutamate, glutamine and bicarbonate were constructed. The results suggest efficacy for measurement of in vivo cerebral metabolic rates of the glutamate-glutamine and tricarboxylic acid cycles in 20 min MR scans in previously inaccessible brain regions in humans at 1.5T. We predict these will be clinically useful biomarkers in many human neuropsychiatric and genetic conditions.

  4. Altered local spontaneous activity in frontal lobe epilepsy: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Li, Hechun; He, Zhongqiong; Jiang, Sisi; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Chen, Lin; Wang, Pu; Tan, Song; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the local spatiotemporal consistency of spontaneous brain activity in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Eyes closed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 19 FLE patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A novel measure, named FOur-dimensional (spatiotemporal) Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA) was used to assess the spatiotemporal consistency of local spontaneous activity (emphasizing both local temporal homogeneity and regional stability of brain activity states). Then, two-sample t test was performed to detect the FOCA differences between two groups. Partial correlations between the FOCA values and durations of epilepsy were further analyzed. Compared with controls, FLE patients demonstrated increased FOCA in distant brain regions including the frontal and parietal cortices, as well as the basal ganglia. The decreased FOCA was located in the temporal cortex, posterior default model regions, and cerebellum. In addition, the FOCA measure was linked to the duration of epilepsy in basal ganglia. Our study suggested that alterations of local spontaneous activity in frontoparietal cortex and basal ganglia was associated with the pathophysiology of FLE; and the abnormality in frontal and default model regions might account for the potential cognitive impairment in FLE. We also presumed that the FOCA measure had potential to provide important insights into understanding epilepsy such as FLE.

  5. What's the fuss over human frontal lobe evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Chet C; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2013-09-01

    Evolutionary neuroscientists seek to understand what makes the human neocortex special aside from its extraordinary expansion. New analyses find that the frontal lobes of humans are not relatively enlarged given our species' brain size. But are statistical cut-offs masking biologically meaningful changes in the size of the human prefrontal cortex? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Confabulation and Delusional Denial: Frontal Lobe and Lateralized Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various forms of confabulation, and conditions that often give rise to these disorders. Asserts that confabulatory states frequently are associated with cerebral damage that involves the right hemisphere, notably, the frontal (often bilaterally) and parietal lobes - areas intimately involved in arousal, attention, information regulation,…

  7. Flexibility, inhibition, and planning : Frontal dysfunctioning in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cools, R; Brouwer, WH; de Jong, R; Slooff, C

    2000-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests known to reveal abnormalities in patients with frontal lobe damage were used to explore cognitive function in 20 chronic schizophrenic patients. Eleven control subjects, matched on age and NLV-IQ (NLV is the Dutch version of the NART) were also tested. No impairements of pla

  8. Proactive and Reactive Control by the Medial Frontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit eStuphorn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior requires the ability to flexibly control actions. This can occur either proactively to anticipate task requirements, or reactively in response to sudden changes. In this article, we describe the behavioral and physiological evidence for dual mechanisms of control in response inhibition in the medial frontal cortex in the context of the stop signal or countermanding task.

  9. Research and Application of Dynamic Equation for Full Frontal Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Tian∗

    2015-01-01

    Full frontal impact theory needs researching and exploring to satisfy the primary safety design of occupant restraint system, avoiding the increasingly “engineering” trend in order to develop and design safety vehicle. After occupant restraint system is simulated by using linear elastic stiffness k, the occupant⁃vehicle frontal rigid barrier impact model is established. Dynamic equation of dummy chest coupling vehicle is built for full frontal impact based on ordinary vehicle deceleration by Hooke law, and the equation is solved by comparing coefficient and satisfying boundary qualifications. While relative vehicle characteristic parameters are kept unchanging, the actual vehicle deceleration is fitted to the simplified equivalent square wave ( ESW ) , tipped equivalent square wave (TESW) and equivalent dual trapezoids wave (EDTW). Phase angle ϕ and amplitude A of dynamic equations based on ESW, TESW and EDTW are calculated and deduced. The results show that:the dynamic equation of dummy chest coupling vehicle can be well utilized to instruct the primary safety design of full frontal impact for objective vehicle to satisfy chest deceleration demands and the equation based on TESW is best for this design.

  10. The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; Meyer, T.; Peeters, F.P.M.L.; Merckelbach, H.L.G.J.; Smeets, T.

    2016-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillations is assumed to be associated with psychopathology and individual differences in emotional responding. Brain-activity-based feedback is a promising tool for the modulation of cortical activity. Here, we validated a neurofeedback protocol designed to change relat

  11. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest that early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present…

  12. Frontal theta activity reflects distinct aspects of mental fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Edmund; Rasch, Björn; Sänger, Jessica; Hoffmann, Sven; Schneider, Daniel; Rinkenauer, Gerhard; Heuer, Herbert; Gutberlet, Ingmar

    2014-02-01

    Longer lasting performance in cognitively demanding tasks leads to an exhaustion of cognitive resources and to a state commonly described as mental fatigue. More specifically, the allocation and focusing of attention become less efficient with time on task. Additionally, the selection of even simple responses becomes more error prone. With respect to the recorded EEG, mental fatigue has been reported to be associated with an increase in frontal theta and frontal and occipital alpha activity. The present study focused on the time course of changes in behavior and in the EEG to characterize fatigue-related processes. Participants performed a spatial stimulus-response-compatibility task in eight blocks for an overall duration of 4h. Error rates increased continuously with time on task. Total alpha power was larger at the end compared to the beginning of the experiment. However, alpha power increased rapidly and reached its maximal amplitude already after 1h, whereas frontal theta showed a continuous increase with time on task, possibly related to increased effort to keep the performance level high. Time frequency analyses revealed power changes in the theta band induced by task relevant information that might be assigned to a drain of executive control capacities. Thus, frontal theta turned out to be a reliable marker of distinct changes in cognitive processing with increasing fatigue.

  13. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  14. Frontal dermoid cyst coexisting with suprasellar craniopharyngioma: a spectrum of ectodermally derived epithelial-lined cystic lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Al-Shaar, Hussam; Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M; Zaidi, Hasan A; Russell-Goldman, Eleanor; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Laws, Edward R; Antonio Chiocca, E

    2016-12-01

    There is a wide group of lesions that may exist in the sellar and suprasellar regions. Embryologically, there is varying evidence that many of these entities may in fact represent a continuum of pathology deriving from a common ectodermal origin. The authors report a case of a concomitant suprasellar craniopharyngioma invading the third ventricle with a concurrent frontal lobe cystic dermoid tumor. A 21-year-old man presented to the authors' service with a 3-day history of worsening headache, nausea, vomiting, and blurry vision. Magnetic resonance imaging depicted a right frontal lobe lesion associated with a separate suprasellar cystic lesion invading the third ventricle. The patient underwent a right pterional craniotomy for resection of both lesions. Gross-total resection of the right frontal lesion was achieved, and subtotal resection of the suprasellar lesion was accomplished with some residual tumor adherent to the walls of the third ventricle. Histopathological examination of the resected right frontal lesion documented a diagnosis of dermoid cyst and, for the suprasellar lesion, a diagnosis of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. The occurrence of craniopharyngioma with dermoid cyst has not been reported in the literature before. Such an association might indeed suggest the previously reported hypothesis that these lesions represent a spectrum of ectodermally derived epithelial-lined cystic lesions.

  15. White matter hyperintensities among older adults are associated with futile increase in frontal activation and functional connectivity during spatial search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N Lockhart

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which aging and other processes can affect the structure and function of brain networks are important to understanding normal age-related cognitive decline. Advancing age is known to be associated with various disease processes, including clinically asymptomatic vascular and inflammation processes that contribute to white matter structural alteration and potential injury. The effects of these processes on the function of distributed cognitive networks, however, are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the extent of magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities would be associated with visual attentional control in healthy aging, measured using a functional magnetic resonance imaging search task. We assessed cognitively healthy older adults with search tasks indexing processing speed and attentional control. Expanding upon previous research, older adults demonstrate activation across a frontal-parietal attentional control network. Further, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with increased activation of a frontal network node independent of chronological age. Also consistent with previous research, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with anatomically specific reductions in functional magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity during search among attentional control regions. White matter hyperintensities may lead to subtle attentional network dysfunction, potentially through impaired frontal-parietal and frontal interhemispheric connectivity, suggesting that clinically silent white matter biomarkers of vascular and inflammatory injury can contribute to differences in search performance and brain function in aging, and likely contribute to advanced age-related impairments in cognitive control.

  16. White Matter Hyperintensities among Older Adults Are Associated with Futile Increase in Frontal Activation and Functional Connectivity during Spatial Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Samuel N.; Luck, Steven J.; Geng, Joy; Beckett, Laurel; Disbrow, Elizabeth A.; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which aging and other processes can affect the structure and function of brain networks are important to understanding normal age-related cognitive decline. Advancing age is known to be associated with various disease processes, including clinically asymptomatic vascular and inflammation processes that contribute to white matter structural alteration and potential injury. The effects of these processes on the function of distributed cognitive networks, however, are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the extent of magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities would be associated with visual attentional control in healthy aging, measured using a functional magnetic resonance imaging search task. We assessed cognitively healthy older adults with search tasks indexing processing speed and attentional control. Expanding upon previous research, older adults demonstrate activation across a frontal-parietal attentional control network. Further, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with increased activation of a frontal network node independent of chronological age. Also consistent with previous research, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with anatomically specific reductions in functional magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity during search among attentional control regions. White matter hyperintensities may lead to subtle attentional network dysfunction, potentially through impaired frontal-parietal and frontal interhemispheric connectivity, suggesting that clinically silent white matter biomarkers of vascular and inflammatory injury can contribute to differences in search performance and brain function in aging, and likely contribute to advanced age-related impairments in cognitive control. PMID:25793922

  17. Morphological variation of siscowet lake trout in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, C.R.; Moore, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, Lake Superior has contained many morphologically distinct forms of the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that have occupied specific depths and locations and spawned at specific times of the year. Today, as was probably the case historically, the siscowet morphotype is the most abundant. Recent interest in harvesting siscowets to extract oil containing omega-3 fatty acids will require additional knowledge of the biology and stock structure of these lightly exploited populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether shape differences exist among siscowet populations across Lake Superior and whether these shape differences can be used to infer stock structure. Morphometric analysis (truss protocol) was used to differentiate among siscowets sampled from 23 locations in Lake Superior. We analyzed 31 distance measurements among 14 anatomical landmarks taken from digital images of fish recorded in the field. Cluster analysis of size-corrected data separated fish into three geographic groups: The Isle Royale, eastern (Michigan), and western regions (Michigan). Finer scales of stock structure were also suggested. Discriminant function analysis demonstrated that head measurements contributed to most of the observed variation. Cross-validation classification rates indicated that 67–71% of individual fish were correctly classified to their region of capture. This is the first study to present shape differences associated with location within a lake trout morphotype in Lake Superior.

  18. A novel Region of Interest (ROI) imaging technique for biplane imaging in interventional suites: high-resolution small field-of-view imaging in the frontal plane and dose-reduced, large field-of-view standard-resolution imaging in the lateral plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetadri Vasan, Setlur Nagesh; Ionita, C.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Endovascular-Image-Guided-Interventional (EIGI) treatment of neuro-vascular conditions such as aneurysms, stenosed arteries, and vessel thrombosis make use of treatment devices such as stents, coils, and balloons which have very small feature sizes, 10's of microns to a few 100's of microns, and hence demand a high resolution imaging system. The current state-of-the-art flat panel detector (FPD) has about a 200-um pixel size with the Nyquist of 2.5 lp/mm. For higher-resolution imaging a charge-coupled device (CCD) based Micro-Angio - Fluoroscope (MAF-CCD) with a pixel size of 35um (Nyquist of 11 lp/mm) was developed and previously reported. Although the detector addresses the high resolution needs, the Field-Of-View (FOV) is limited to 3.5 cm x 3.5 cm, which is much smaller than current FPDs. During the use of the MAF-CCD for delicate parts of the intervention, it may be desirable to have real-time monitoring outside the MAF FOV with a low dose, and lower, but acceptable, quality image. To address this need, a novel imaging technique for biplane imaging systems has been developed, using an MAFCCD in the frontal plane and a dose-reduced standard large FOV imager in the lateral plane. The dose reduction is achieved by using a combination of ROI fluoroscopy and spatially different temporal filtering, a technique that has been previously presented. In order to evaluate this technique, a simulation using images acquired during an actual EIGI treatment on a patient, followed by an actual implementation on phantoms is presented.

  19. Patterns of social-experience-related c-fos and Arc expression in the frontal cortices of rats exposed to saccharin or moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T; Akers, Katherine G; Rice, James P; Maes, Levi I; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C Fernando; Savage, Daniel D

    2010-12-01

    Recent findings from our laboratory indicate that alterations in frontal cortex function, structural plasticity, and related social behaviors are persistent consequences of exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development [24]. Fetal-ethanol-related reductions in the expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) c-fos and Arc and alterations in dendritic spine density in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex suggest a dissociation reminiscent of that described by Kolb et al. [38] in which these aspects of frontal cortex undergo reciprocal experience-dependent changes. In addition to providing a brief review of the available data on social behavior and frontal cortex function in fetal-ethanol-exposed rats, the present paper presents novel data on social-experience-related IEG expression in four regions of frontal cortex (Zilles LO, VLO, Fr1, Fr2) that are evaluated alongside our prior data from AID and Cg3. Social experience in normal rats was related to a distinct pattern of IEG expression in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex, with generally greater expression observed in ventrolateral frontal cortex. In contrast, weaker expression was observed in all aspects of frontal cortex in ethanol-exposed rats, with the exception of an experience-related increase in the medial agranular cortex. Behaviors related to social investigation and wrestling/boxing were differentially correlated with patterns of activity-related IEG expression in the regions under investigation for saccharin- and ethanol-exposed rats. These observations suggest that recruitment and expression of IEGs in frontal cortex following social experience are potentially important for understanding the long-term consequences of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure on frontal cortex function, synaptic plasticity, and related behaviors.

  20. MERCURY IN METAL ORE DEPOSITS: AN UNRECOGNIZED, WIDESPREAD SOURCE TO LAKE SUPERIOR SEDIMENTS, CONTRIBUTION #1072

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining operations have worked the rich mineral resources of the Lake Superior Basin for over 150 years, leaving industrially impacted regions with tailing piles and smelters. In Lake Superior sediments, mercury and copper inventories increase towards shorelines and are highly cor...

  1. Superior Temporal Activation as a Function of Linguistic Knowledge: Insights from Deaf Native Signers Who Speechread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Cheryl M.; Woll, Bencie; MacSweeney, Mairead; Waters, Dafydd; McGuire, Philip K.; David, Anthony S.; Brammer, Michael J.; Campbell, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Studies of spoken and signed language processing reliably show involvement of the posterior superior temporal cortex. This region is also reliably activated by observation of meaningless oral and manual actions. In this study we directly compared the extent to which activation in posterior superior temporal cortex is modulated by linguistic…

  2. MERCURY IN METAL ORE DEPOSITS: AN UNRECOGNIZED, WIDESPREAD SOURCE TO LAKE SUPERIOR SEDIMENTS, CONTRIBUTION #1072

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining operations have worked the rich mineral resources of the Lake Superior Basin for over 150 years, leaving industrially impacted regions with tailing piles and smelters. In Lake Superior sediments, mercury and copper inventories increase towards shorelines and are highly cor...

  3. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Meintjes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6–11.0 years and controls (n = 16, 9.5–11.0 years. Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1 the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2 the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3 the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4 the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  4. The frontal aslant tract underlies speech fluency in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Civier, Oren; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The frontal aslant tract (FAT) is a pathway that connects the inferior frontal gyrus with the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-SMA. The FAT was recently identified and introduced as part of a "motor stream" that plays an important role in speech production. In this study, we use diffusion imaging to examine the hypothesis that the FAT underlies speech fluency, by studying its properties in individuals with persistent developmental stuttering, a speech disorder that disrupts the production of fluent speech. We use tractography to quantify the volume and diffusion properties of the FAT in a group of adults who stutter (AWS) and fluent controls. Additionally, we use tractography to extract these measures from the corticospinal tract (CST), a well-known component of the motor system. We compute diffusion measures in multiple points along the tracts, and examine the correlation between these diffusion measures and behavioral measures of speech fluency. Our data show increased mean diffusivity in bilateral FAT of AWS compared with controls. In addition, the results show regions within the left FAT and the left CST where diffusivity values are increased in AWS compared with controls. Last, we report that in AWS, diffusivity values measured within sub-regions of the left FAT negatively correlate with speech fluency. Our findings are the first to relate the FAT with fluent speech production in stuttering, thus adding to the current knowledge of the functional role that this tract plays in speech production and to the literature of the etiology of persistent developmental stuttering.

  5. Graptolitos ordovícicos en el Sur de la Cordillera frontal de Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Tickyj

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En el flanco sudoriental de la Cordillera Frontal mendocina aflora un conjunto plegado de metasedimentitas conocido como Formación Las Lagunitas, cuyos afloramientos se extienden entre los ríos Diamante por el sur y Tunuyán por el norte, alcanzando un ancho máximo de 15 km a la latitud del volcán Maipo. El perfil estudiado en el arroyo Cortaderas (34º23'S está compuesto por una secuencia silicoclástica marina integrada por tres conjuntos litológicos, que de este a oeste son: a areniscas gruesas a medias, bien seleccionadas, y areniscas conglomerádicas, b vaques de grano grueso a fino y c areniscas finas a medias, con intercalaciones de pelitas negras laminadas. En la última unidad fueron colectados graptolitos en regular estado de preservación. Su estudio sistemático permitió definir una asociación correspondiente a la Biozona de Climacograptus bicornis, por lo que la Formación Las Lagunitas es asignada al Ordovícico Superior (Sandbiano o Caradociano. La completa extensión cronoestratigráfica de la Formación Las Lagunitas no ha sido establecida, debido a que en el perfil estudiado no es clara la relación entre la unidad portadora de graptolitos y el resto de la secuencia. Este registro de graptolitos en el sur de la Cordillera Frontal mendocina constituye un aspecto novedoso para el análisis del Ordovícico, con implicancias en el contexto de la evolución tectónica de las cuencas sedimentarias ordovícicas del oeste argentino.

  6. Frontal white matter volume is associated with brain enlargement and higher structural connectivity in anthropoid primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Bert Smaers

    Full Text Available Previous research has indicated the importance of the frontal lobe and its 'executive' connections to other brain structures as crucial in explaining primate neocortical adaptations. However, a representative sample of volumetric measurements of frontal connective tissue (white matter has not been available. In this study, we present new volumetric measurements of white and grey matter in the frontal and non-frontal neocortical lobes from 18 anthropoid species. We analyze this data in the context of existing theories of neocortex, frontal lobe and white versus grey matter hyperscaling. Results indicate that the 'universal scaling law' of neocortical white to grey matter applies separately for frontal and non-frontal lobes; that hyperscaling of both neocortex and frontal lobe to rest of brain is mainly due to frontal white matter; and that changes in frontal (but not non-frontal white matter volume are associated with changes in rest of brain and basal ganglia, a group of subcortical nuclei functionally linked to 'executive control'. Results suggest a central role for frontal white matter in explaining neocortex and frontal lobe hyperscaling, brain size variation and higher neural structural connectivity in anthropoids.

  7. The Neuroanatomical Basis for Posterior Superior Parietal Lobule Control Lateralization of Visuospatial Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Wang, Jiaojian; Zhang, Yun; Zheng, Dingchen; Zhang, Jinfeng; Rong, Menglin; Wu, Huawang; Wang, Yinyan; Zhou, Ke; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    The right hemispheric dominance in visuospatial attention in human brain has been well established. Converging evidence has documented that ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays an important role in visuospatial attention. The role of dorsal PPC subregions, especially the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in visuospatial attention is still controversial. In the current study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to test the role of posterior SPL in visuospatial attention and to investigate the potential neuroanatomical basis for right hemisphere dominance in visuospatial function. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) results unraveled that the right SPL predominantly mediated visuospatial attention compared to left SPL. Anatomical connections analyses between the posterior SPL and the intrahemispheric frontal subregions and the contralateral PPC revealed that right posterior SPL has stronger anatomical connections with the ipsilateral middle frontal gyrus (MFG), with the ipsilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and with contralateral PPC than that of the left posterior SPL. Furthermore, these asymmetric anatomical connections were closely related to behavioral performances. Our findings indicate that SPL plays a crucial role in regulating visuospatial attention, and dominance of visuospatial attention results from unbalanced interactions between the bilateral fronto-parietal networks and the interhemispheric parietal network.

  8. Exploring the patterns of acupuncture on mild cognitive impairment patients using regional homogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Liu

    Full Text Available To investigate the different responses to acupuncture in MCI patients and age-matched healthy subjects reflected by the Regional Homogeneity (ReHo indices.The experiment was performed at the acupoint KI3 in 12 MCI patients and 12 healthy controls, respectively. A novel non-repeated event-related (NRER fMRI design paradigm was applied to separately detect neural activities related to different stages of acupuncture (pre-acupuncture resting state, needling manipulation and post-acupuncture resting state. ReHo values were calculated for MCI patients and healthy controls in pre- and post-acupuncture resting state. Then, a two-way ANCOVA with repeated measures with post-hoc two sample t-tests was performed to explore the different responses to acupuncture in the two groups.The ANCOVA revealed a significant main effect of group, but no significant main effect of acupuncture and interactions between group and acupuncture. During the pre-acupuncture resting state, ReHo values increased in the precentral gyrus (PCG, superior frontal gyrus (SFG, and insula (INS and decreased mainly in middle temporal gyrus (MTG, parahippocampal (PHIP and cingulate cortex in MCI patients compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, we found that the regions including precuneus (PCUN, and cingulate cortex showed increased ReHo values for MCI patients following acupuncture. For healthy controls, the medial frontal gyrus, PCG, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and INS showed enhanced ReHo values following acupuncture. During the post-acupuncture resting state, MCI patients showed increased ReHo values mainly in the MTG, superior parietal lobule (SPL, middle frontal gyrus (MFG, supramarginal (SMG, and PCG, and decreased ReHo values mainly in the frontal regions, PHIP, and posterior cingulated cortex (PCC compared to healthy controls.Though we found some ReHo changes between MCI patients and healthy controls, the two-way ANCOVA results showed no significant effects after multiple

  9. Absolute Theta Power in the Frontal Cortex During a Visuomotor Task: The Effect of Bromazepam on Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Mariana; Peressuti, Caroline; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Cagy, Mauricio; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Bromazepam is a benzodiazepine, which has been widely employed in the treatment of anxiety. We investigated the electrophysiological changes in absolute theta power within the frontal cortex when individuals performed a visuomotor task under bromazepam. The sample of 17 healthy individuals was randomized into 2 experimental conditions, under which bromazepam 6 mg and placebo were administered on different days. All subjects were right -handed, with no mental or physical illness and were not using any psychoactive or psychotropic substance during the entire period of the study. We found an increase in reaction time under bromazepam compared with placebo . With regard to the electrophysiological variable, we found a lower theta power value in the prefrontal cortex prior to task execution, compared with after. We therefore suggested that this could be an increase of neural activity in this region, because of the subjects' readiness to perform the task, that is, because of their higher alertness. The right lateral frontal region showed lower theta power under bromazepam for pre- and post-finger movement. This could have occurred because of more effort to execute the task. In the left frontal region: premovement did not demonstrate any difference between conditions, possibly because the proposed task was simple to execute. In conclusion, theta power plays an important role in the analysis of visuomotor performance, assuming that bromazepam causes impairment on sustained attention and sensory perception. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  10. Smaller superior temporal gyrus volume specificity in schizotypal personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Kim E.; Hazlett, Erin A.; New, Antonia S.; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Newmark, Randall E.; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Passarelli, Vincent; Weinstein, Shauna R.; Canfield, Emily L.; Meyerson, David A.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.; Siever, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22) volume is reduced in schizophrenia and to a milder degree in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), representing a less severe disorder in the schizophrenia-spectrum. SPD and Borderline personality disorder (BPD) are severe personality disorders characterized by social and cognitive dysfunction. However, while SPD is characterized by social withdrawal/anhedonia, BPD is marked by hyper-reactivity to interpersonal stimuli and hyper-emotionality. This is the first morphometric study to directly compare SPD and BPD patients in temporal volume. Methods We compared three age-gender- and education-matched groups: 27 unmedicated SPD individuals with no BPD traits, 52 unmedicated BPD individuals with no SPD traits, and 45 healthy controls. We examined gray matter volume of frontal and temporal lobe Brodmann areas (BAs), and dorsal/ventral amygdala from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Results In the STG, an auditory association area reported to be dysfunctional in SPD and BPD, the SPD patients had significantly smaller volume than healthy controls and BPD patients. No group differences were found between BPD patients and controls. Smaller BA22 volume was associated with greater symptom severity in SPD patients. Reduced STG volume may be an important endophenotype for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. SPD is distinct from BPD in terms of STG volume abnormalities which may reflect different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and could help discriminate between them. PMID:19473820

  11. Regional gray matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia determined with optimized voxel-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, XiaoJuan; Yao, Li; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei

    2006-03-01

    This study examined regional gray matter abnormalities across the whole brain in 19 patients with schizophrenia (12 males and 7 females), comparing with 11 normal volunteers (7 males and 4 females). The customized brain templates were created in order to improve spatial normalization and segmentation. Then automated preprocessing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was conducted using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The statistical voxel based analysis was implemented in terms of two-sample t-test model. Compared with normal controls, regional gray matter concentration in patients with schizophrenia was significantly reduced in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus, right insula, precentral and parahippocampal areas, left thalamus and hypothalamus as well as, however, significant increases in gray matter concentration were not observed across the whole brain in the patients. This study confirms and extends some earlier findings on gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenic patients. Previous behavior and fMRI researches on schizophrenia have suggested that cognitive capacity decreased and self-conscious weakened in schizophrenic patients. These regional gray matter abnormalities determined through structural MRI with optimized VBM may be potential anatomic underpinnings of schizophrenia.

  12. Global NOAA CoastWatch Chlorophyll Frontal Product from MODIS/Aqua (NCEI Accession 0110333)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS/Aqua chlorophyll frontal products: the NOAA Okeanos operational production system produces near real-time chlorophyll frontal products (magnitude and...

  13. Paso superior en una ladera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, O.

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available The Redwood highway, through the Californian forest, runs on a viaduct, as it crosses a mountain slope of about 45° inclination. The firm ground is fairly deep, and as an additional constructional difficulty, it was necessary to respect the natural beauty of the countryside. A structure of portal frames were built, forming a number of short spans. These spans were bridged with metal girders, on which a 19 m wide deck was placed. The columns are hollow and have a transversal cross beam, to join each pair. There was difficulty in excavating the foundations for the columns, as it was necessary to dig through the soft top soil, and also prevent this soil from hurting the trunks of the forest trees. Another significant difficulty in the construction of this viaduct was the access to the working site, since there were no suitable platforms from which to operate the appropriate machinery. This made it necessary to do a lot of the work by manual operation. As one of the edges of the deck is very close to the mountain side, a supporting beam was erected on this side. It was made of concrete, on metal piles. The formwork for the deck structure was placed on the concrete stems of the supporting piles.La autopista denominada Redwood (California salva, con un paso superior, la ladera de un bosque cuya pendiente es del 1/1. El terreno firme se halla a bastante profundidad, añadiéndose, a los naturales problemas de la construcción, el imperativo de respetar la belleza agreste del paraje. La solución adoptada consiste en una estructura porticada, con varios tramos de pequeñas luces, salvados con vigas metálicas, sobre los que se coloca la losa del tablero, de 19 m de anchura total. Los soportes están constituidos por pórticos de dos montantes huecos (con bases de hormigón en masa por debajo del suelo, hasta el firme coronados por un cabezal. La perforación de pozos para el hormigonado de los montantes presentaba la dificultad de atravesar el terreno

  14. A Rare Complication of Acute Appendicitis: Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Koncoro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric vein (SMV thrombosis caused by acute appendicitis is quite rare nowadays. These conditions occurs secondary to infection in the region drained by the portal venous system. In this case, we report a successfully treated case of SMV thrombosis and liver abscess associated with appendicitis with antibiotics and anticoagulant.Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are basic to a favorable clinical course.

  15. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBecchetti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE is a focal epilepsy with attacks typically arising in the frontal lobe during non rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. It is characterized by clusters of complex and stereotyped hypermotor seizures, frequently accompanied by sudden arousals. Cognitive and psychiatric symptoms may be also observed. Approximately 12% of the ADNFLE families carry mutations on genes coding for subunits of the heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs. This is consistent with the widespread expression of these receptors, particularly the α4β2* subtype, in the neocortex and thalamus. However, understanding how mutant nAChRs lead to partial frontal epilepsy is far from being straightforward because of the complexity of the cholinergic regulation in both developing and mature brains. The relation with the sleep-waking cycle must be also explained. We discuss some possible pathogenetic mechanisms in the light of recent advances about the nAChR role in prefrontal regions as well as the studies carried out in murine models of ADNFLE. Functional evidence points to alterations in prefrontal GABA release, and the synaptic unbalance probably arises during the cortical circuit maturation. Although most of the available functional evidence concerns mutations on nAChR subunit genes, other genes have been recently implicated in the disease, such as KCNT1 (coding for a Na+-dependent K+ channel, DEPD5 (Dishevelled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin Domain-containing protein 5, and CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Overall, the uncertainties about both the etiology and the pathogenesis of ADNFLE point to the current gaps in our knowledge the regulation of neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex.

  16. Responses in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus show a feature-based response to facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Tessa R; Andrews, Timothy J; Hymers, Mark; Al-Mosaiwi, Mohammed; Marsden, Samuel P; Strachan, James W A; Trakulpipat, Chayanit; Wang, Liang; Wu, Tian; Young, Andrew W

    2015-08-01

    The face-selective region of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) plays an important role in analysing facial expressions. However, it is less clear how facial expressions are represented in this region. In this study, we used the face composite effect to explore whether the pSTS contains a holistic or feature-based representation of facial expression. Aligned and misaligned composite images were created from the top and bottom halves of faces posing different expressions. In Experiment 1, participants performed a behavioural matching task in which they judged whether the top half of two images was the same or different. The ability to discriminate the top half of the face was affected by changes in the bottom half of the face when the images were aligned, but not when they were misaligned. This shows a holistic behavioural response to expression. In Experiment 2, we used fMR-adaptation to ask whether the pSTS has a corresponding holistic neural representation of expression. Aligned or misaligned images were presented in blocks that involved repeating the same image or in which the top or bottom half of the images changed. Increased neural responses were found in the right pSTS regardless of whether the change occurred in the top or bottom of the image, showing that changes in expression were detected across all parts of the face. However, in contrast to the behavioural data, the pattern did not differ between aligned and misaligned stimuli. This suggests that the pSTS does not encode facial expressions holistically. In contrast to the pSTS, a holistic pattern of response to facial expression was found in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Together, these results suggest that pSTS reflects an early stage in the processing of facial expression in which facial features are represented independently.

  17. Spatial and seasonal distributions of frontal activity over the French continental shelf in the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelekçi, Özge; Charria, Guillaume; Capet, Xavier; Reverdin, Gilles; Sudre, Joël; Yahia, Hussein

    2017-07-01

    The frontal activity in coastal regions remains a research field where a large number of open questions needs to be addressed to quantify the potential impact of these processes on dependent systems (e.g. biogeochemical activity). Spatial and seasonal distributions of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) fronts (∼1-100 km) in the vicinity of main French rivers, Gironde and Loire, are explored over the continental shelf North of 45°N in the Bay of Biscay. A high resolution (1 km spatial and daily temporal resolutions) dataset of 11 years' (2003-2013) remotely sensed SST by MODIS sensor onboard Aqua and Terra satellites has been investigated and compared with coastal numerical model experiments. The detection and characterization fronts with fluctuating amplitudes is achieved through the Singularity Analysis (i.e. the process of calculating the degree of regularity or irregularity of a function at each point in a domain). Seasonality of frontal activity in the Bay of Biscay is then described based on the long-term satellite SST archive and coastal operational model simulations. The identified hot spots of higher frontal occurrences correspond on one hand to previously observed features (e.g. tidal fronts) but also reveal new features. These are investigated to identify fine-scale dynamical drivers. In winter, density fronts are prominent in a coastal strip where freshwater influence is important. In spring, this strip diminishes as plumes detach from the coast, while tidal fronts become apparent in other regions. In summer, tidal fronts in Ushant region and internal wave activity along the shelf break dominate. In autumn, coastal density fronts due to freshwater inputs reappear as these inputs increase, and reduced stratification causes a weakening of the Ushant and shelf break fronts. Additional information and an effort to dynamically interpret these fronts, based on a systematic investigation of the whole seasonal cycle and including modeling insights from coastal

  18. Daily rhythms of benzodiazepine receptor numbers in frontal lobe and cerebellum of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, M.J.W.; Volicer, L.; Moore-Ede, M.C.; Borsook, D.

    1985-06-17

    Behavioral, biochemical and neurophysiological evidence suggests that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) may play an important role in the neural control of circadian rhythms. Central receptors for benzodiazepines are functionally coupled to GABA receptors and appear to mediate behavioral effects of exogenous benzodiazepines. The binding of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam to synaptic plasma membranes prepared from various regions of rat brain was examined at 6-hour intervals over a 36-hour period. Prominent daily rhythms in receptor number (Bmax) were observed in the frontal lobe and the cerebellum but not in the temporoparietal regions, hypothalamus or medulla/pons. Binding was highest during periods of sleep/low activity with a significant decrease occurring just prior to waking. These results suggest that daily fluctuations in benzodiazepine receptor numbers may be related to the temporal control of sleep/wake and muscle activity cycles. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  19. Frontal tDCS modulates orbitofrontal reality filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, A L; David, A W; Bikson, M; Schnider, A

    2014-04-18

    Orbitofrontal reality filtering denotes a memory control mechanism necessary to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality. Its failure induces reality confusion as evident in confabulation and disorientation. In the present study, we explored the influence of orbitofrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on reality filtering. Twenty healthy human subjects made a reality filtering task, while receiving cathodal, anodal, or sham stimulation over the frontal pole in three sessions separated by at least 1week. Computational models predicted that this montage can produce polarity-specific current flow across the posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In agreement with our hypothesis, we found that cathodal tDCS over the frontal pole specifically impaired reality filtering in comparison to anodal and sham stimulation. This study shows that reality filtering, an orbitofrontal function, can be modulated with tDCS.

  20. Frontal and oblique tectonics in the Brazilian Shield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GinaldoA.daC.Campanha; BenjamimBleydeBritoNeves

    2004-01-01

    The Brazilian shield was assembled from a few Archean and Paleoproterozoic cratonic nuclei surrounded by Pan-African-Brasiliano mobile belts of Neoproterozoic age. While some of these mobile belts display a typical frontal collision tectonic style, others are dominated by transcurrent regimes, clearly indicating oblique collisional systems. This paper is an attempt to determine the mean orientation of the principal horizontal compressive stresses for each mobile belt, considering either the frontal or oblique convergence character. From these general observations a scheme with WNW - ESE to NWSE trends of the main compressive stress is proposed. We suggest that this trend represents the mean displacement vectors, according to a coherent kinematic picture for the amalgamation of the West Gondwana during the final stages of convergence of the Brasiliano belts, where WNW-ESE to NW-SE are the main directions of final closure.

  1. Changes in social emotion recognition following traumatic frontal lobe injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Teresa Martins; Luis Faísca; Francisco Esteves; Cláudia Sim(a)o; Mariline Gomes Justo; Angélica Muresan; Alexandra Reis

    2012-01-01

    Changes in social and emotional behaviour have been consistently observed in patients with traumatic brain injury. These changes are associated with emotion recognition deficits which represent one of the major barriers to a successful familiar and social reintegration. In the present study, 32 patients with traumatic brain injury, involving the frontal lobe, and 41 age- and education-matched healthy controls were analyzed. A Go/No-Go task was designed, where each participant had to recognize faces representing three social emotions (arrogance, guilt and jealousy). Results suggested that ability to recognize two social emotions (arrogance and jealousy) was significantly reduced in patients with traumatic brain injury, indicating frontal lesion can reduce emotion recognition ability. In addition, the analysis of the results for hemispheric lesion location (right, left or bilateral) suggested the bilateral lesion sub-group showed a lower accuracy on all social emotions.

  2. Neuronal correlates of metacognition in primate frontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Humans are metacognitive: they monitor and control their cognition. Our hypothesis was that neuronal correlates of metacognition reside in the same brain areas responsible for cognition, including frontal cortex. Recent work demonstrated that non-human primates are capable of metacognition, so we recorded from single neurons in the frontal eye field, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and supplementary eye field of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that performed a metacognitive visual-oculomotor task. The animals made a decision and reported it with a saccade, but received no immediate reward or feedback. Instead, they had to monitor their decision and bet whether it was correct. Activity was correlated with decisions and bets in all three brain areas, but putative metacognitive activity that linked decisions to appropriate bets occurred exclusively in the SEF. Our results offer a survey of neuronal correlates of metacognition and implicate the SEF in linking cognitive functions over short periods of time. PMID:22884334

  3. Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia: Role of Dermoscopy in Differential Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rubegni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA is more common in postmenopausal women, but it can occur in younger women. Some authors consider FFA to be a distinct frontal variant of lichen planopilaris. From a clinical point of view, this relatively uncommon condition is characterized by progressive frontotemporal recession due to inflammatory destruction of hair follicles. Dermoscopy can be very useful, as the differential diagnosis between traction alopecia, alopecia areata, FFA and cicatricial marginal alopecia may be difficult. It is not clear whether or not treatment alters the natural history of the disease – the disease stabilized with time in most of the patients with or without continuing treatment. Here we report a case of a 50-year-old woman with FFA and discuss the relevance of dermoscopy in the differential diagnosis of this disease.

  4. Downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex prevents social conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucharev, Vasily; Munneke, Moniek A M; Smidts, Ale; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-08-17

    We often change our behavior to conform to real or imagined group pressure. Social influence on our behavior has been extensively studied in social psychology, but its neural mechanisms have remained largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the transient downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex by theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces conformity, as indicated by reduced conformal adjustments in line with group opinion. Both the extent and probability of conformal behavioral adjustments decreased significantly relative to a sham and a control stimulation over another brain area. The posterior part of the medial frontal cortex has previously been implicated in behavioral and attitudinal adjustments. Here, we provide the first interventional evidence of its critical role in social influence on human behavior.

  5. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present much conflicting evidence, little is known about its effects on children's frontal lobe development. Using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), the findings suggest that Spanish-English bilingual children (n=13, ages 7-13) had greater activation in left prefrontal cortex during a non-verbal attentional control task relative to age-matched English monolinguals. In contrast, monolinguals (n=14) showed greater right prefrontal activation than bilinguals. The present findings suggest early bilingualism yields significant changes to the functional organization of children's prefrontal cortex for attentional control and carry implications for understanding how early life experiences impact cognition and brain development. PMID:26743118

  6. Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia: Role of Dermoscopy in Differential Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubegni, P.; Mandato, F.; Fimiani, M.

    2010-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is more common in postmenopausal women, but it can occur in younger women. Some authors consider FFA to be a distinct frontal variant of lichen planopilaris. From a clinical point of view, this relatively uncommon condition is characterized by progressive frontotemporal recession due to inflammatory destruction of hair follicles. Dermoscopy can be very useful, as the differential diagnosis between traction alopecia, alopecia areata, FFA and cicatricial marginal alopecia may be difficult. It is not clear whether or not treatment alters the natural history of the disease - the disease stabilized with time in most of the patients with or without continuing treatment. Here we report a case of a 50-year-old woman with FFA and discuss the relevance of dermoscopy in the differential diagnosis of this disease. PMID:21173926

  7. Pseudodisplacements of superior vena cava catheter in the persistent left superior vena cava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantsch, H.; Draxler, V.; Muhar, U.; Schlemmer, M.; Waneck, R.

    1983-01-01

    Pseudodisplacement of a left sided superior vena cava catheter in a persistent superior vena cava may be expected in adults in 0,37% and in a group of children with congenital heart disease in 2,5%. Embryology, anatomy and clinical implications is discussed on the basis of our own cases. The vena cava superior sinistra persitents is depending on a sufficient calibre a suitable vessel for a superior cava catheter.

  8. Analysis of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Hui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To analyze the injuries of motorcyclists involved in fatal motorcycle frontal crashes. Methods: A survey group involving multi-discipline experts was built to randomly collect data on fatal motor-cycle frontal collision accidents that occurred in Chongqing during 2006-2010. The sampled information included medi-cal or autopsy reports, blood alcohol concentration (BAC level, helmet use, accident witness, field sketch as well as field photos. The motorcyclist injuries were scored accord-ing to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS 2005. The involved riders with a BAC level≥20 mg/ml were attributed to alco-hol use. Data were processed statistically with nonparamet-ric test via software SPSS 11.0. Results: A total of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes were sampled and further analyzed. The age of motorcy-clists enrolled in this investigation showed nominal distri-bution and the middle-aged (30-39 years occupied the high-est percentage of fatalities. There were only 14 motorcyclists (16.3% wearing helmets at the moment of collision. And 12.8% of these motorcyclist crashes were attributable to alcohol use. Impact injury was the main fatal cause, accounting for 72% of motorcyclist deaths, followed by tumbling injury (26% and run-over (2%. Respectively 84%, 22% and 19% of motorcyclists who sustained head, chest and abdominal trauma died. Extremity injury was the most frequently ob-served injury type. Conclusions: This investigation is helpful to build accident prevention programs and develop protection de-vices which may effectively mitigate injuries and prevent deaths following motorcycle frontal collision accidents. Further investigations on motorcycle collision accidents are still needed. Key words: Motorcycles; Mortality; Accidents, traffic; Wounds and injuries

  9. Frontal Lobe Lipoma Associated with Cortical Dysplasia and Abnormal Vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskan, Ozdil; Geyik, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Summary Intracranial lipomas (ICLs) are rare lesions, the vast majority encountered as incidental findings on imaging studies. ICLs are generally pericallosal midline lesions and thought to be asymptomatic and can be accompanied by additional intracranial congenital malformations. We describe a 17-year old male with an unusual case of ICL on the frontal lobe associated with cortical dysplasia and abnormal vasculature mimicking arteriovenous malformation on magnetic resonance images. PMID:25489889

  10. Analysis of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes in Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui; HUANG Wei; YANG Guang-yu; CHEN Rong; LIU Sheng-xiong; YU Yong-min; YIN Zhi-yong; WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the injuries of motorcyclists involved in fatal motorcycle frontal crashes.Methods: A survey group involving multi-discipline experts was built to randomly collect data on fatal motorcycle frontal collision accidents that occurred in Chongqing during 2006-2010.The sampled information included medical or autopsy reports,blood alcohol concentration (BAC)level,helmet use,accident witness,field sketch as well as field photos.The motorcyclist injuries were scored according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2005.The involved riders with a BAC level≥20 mg/ml were attributed to alcohol use.Data were processed statistically with nonparametric test via software SPSS 11.0.Results:A total of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes were sampled and further analyzed.The age of motorcyclists enrolled in this investigation showed nominal distribution and the middle-aged (30-39 years) occupied the highest percentage of fatalities.There were only 14 motorcyclists (16.3%) wearing helmets at the moment ofcollision.And 12.8% of these motorcyclist crashes were attributable to alcohol use.Impact injury was the main fatal cause,accounting for 72% of motorcyclist deaths,followed by tumbling injury (26%) and run-over (2%).Respectively 84%,22% and 19%of motorcyclists who sustained head,chest and abdominal trauma died.Extremity injury was the most frequently observed injury type.Conclusions: This investigation is helpful to build accident prevention programs and develop protection devices which may effectively mitigate injuries and prevent deaths following motorcycle frontal collision accidents.Further investigations on motorcycle collision accidents are still needed.

  11. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the frontal bone in a teenager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Washington, DC (United States); Rushing, Elisabeth J. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Yaun, Amanda [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Washington, DC (United States); Santi, Mariarita [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Neuropathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-01-15

    We report a skull chondromyxoid fibroma with symptomatic intracranial extension causing initial misdiagnosis as a psychiatric disorder in a 14-year-old child. CT performed for work-up of the patient's ''stuffy nose'' revealed a large calcified frontal bone mass with extensive intracranial growth. We present this child with the diagnosis of intracranial chondromyxoid fibroma with detailed neuroimaging and neuropathology correlations. (orig.)

  12. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 TFs and others Neural Frontal cortex SRX968951,...SRX968949 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 All antigens Neural Frontal cortex SRX081811,SR...X081810,SRX081813,SRX081812,SRX081823,SRX081822,SRX968951,SRX968949,SRX968952,SRX968950 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 Input control Neural Frontal cortex SRX081823,S...RX081822,SRX968952,SRX968950 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 Input control Neural Frontal cortex SRX081823,S...RX081822,SRX968952,SRX968950 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 Input control Neural Frontal cortex SRX081822,S...RX081823,SRX968952,SRX968950 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 Input control Neural Frontal cortex SRX081823,S...RX081822,SRX968952,SRX968950 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 TFs and others Neural Frontal cortex SRX968951,...SRX968949 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 TFs and others Neural Frontal cortex SRX968951,...SRX968949 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 Histone Neural Frontal cortex SRX081812,SRX0818...11,SRX081810,SRX081813 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  1. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 Histone Neural Frontal cortex SRX081811,SRX0818...10,SRX081813,SRX081812 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 All antigens Neural Frontal cortex SRX081822,SR...X081823,SRX081812,SRX081811,SRX081810,SRX081813,SRX968951,SRX968952,SRX968950,SRX968949 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 TFs and others Neural Frontal cortex SRX968951,...SRX968949 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  4. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 Histone Neural Frontal cortex SRX081811,SRX0818...10,SRX081812,SRX081813 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 All antigens Neural Frontal cortex SRX081823,SR...X081822,SRX081811,SRX081810,SRX081812,SRX081813,SRX968952,SRX968950,SRX968951,SRX968949 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Frontal_cortex [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Frontal_cortex mm9 All antigens Neural Frontal cortex SRX081811,SR...X081810,SRX081813,SRX081812,SRX081823,SRX081822,SRX968951,SRX968952,SRX968950,SRX968949 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Frontal_cortex.bed ...

  7. Relationships between foot type and dynamic rearfoot frontal plane motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuter Vivienne H

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI provides an easily applicable, validated method for quantifying static foot posture. However there is limited evidence relating to the ability of the FPI to predict dynamic foot function. This study aimed to assess the relationship between dynamic rearfoot motion and FPI scores in pronated and normal foot types. Methods 40 participants were recruited with equal numbers of pronated and normal foot types as classified by their FPI score. Three dimensional rearfoot motion was collected for each of the participants. Dynamic maximum rearfoot eversion was correlated with the total FPI score across all participants and within the normal and pronated foot types. Linear correlations were performed between components of the total FPI scores measuring frontal plane rearfoot position and maximum rearfoot eversion. The capacity of the total FPI score to predict maximum frontal plane motion of the rearfoot was investigated using linear regression analysis. Results The correlation between the total FPI score and maximum rearfoot eversion was strongly positive (r = 0.92, p 2 = 0.85, p Conclusions The results of this study suggest the FPI has strong predictive ability for dynamic rearfoot function. This will assist in clinical screening and research by allowing easy classification by functional foot type. Positive correlations between frontal plane rearfoot measurements and maximum rearfoot eversion suggest the FPI may identify dominant planar components of dynamic rearfoot motion and warrants further investigation.

  8. Music increases frontal EEG coherence during verbal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David A; Thaut, Michael H

    2007-02-02

    Anecdotal and some empirical evidence suggests that music can enhance learning and memory. However, the mechanisms by which music modulates the neural activity associated with learning and memory remain largely unexplored. We evaluated coherent frontal oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) while subjects were engaged in a modified version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Subjects heard either a spoken version of the AVLT or the conventional AVLT word list sung. Learning-related changes in coherence (LRCC) were measured by comparing the EEG during word encoding on correctly recalled trials to the immediately preceding trial on which the same word was not recalled. There were no significant changes in coherence associated with conventional verbal learning. However, musical verbal learning was associated with increased coherence within and between left and right frontal areas in theta, alpha, and gamma frequency bands. It is unlikely that the different patterns of LRCC reflect general performance differences; the groups exhibited similar learning performance. The results suggest that verbal learning with a musical template strengthens coherent oscillations in frontal cortical networks involved in verbal encoding.

  9. Alcoholism, Korsakoff’s Syndrome and the Frontal Lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Jacobson

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A subset of the diffuse cerebral changes and psychometric deficits found in chronic alcoholics is similar to that seen in the frontal lobe syndrome. Certain features of alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome (AKS also point to cortical involvement, and this may have a basis in alcohol neurotoxicity. Twenty-five patients with AKS and 24 non-Korsakoff alcoholic controls were compared using an automated CT brain scan program. In addition to evidence of their diencephalic lesions (wide third ventricles, AKS patients revealed widespread cerebral damage with greater Sylvian and interhemispheric fissure (IHF size than alcoholics. Korsakoffs were also inferior to alcoholics in performance on a category sorting test, in which non-perseverative error scores correlated significantly with IHF size. The principle of distinguishing between selective memory decline and global intellectual decline (GID was applied to 38 patients with AKS. Indices were developed for each type of deficit and much variation found in their distributions. The degree of GID correlated significantly with IHF size, showing similar trends with other cortical measures. These results suggest a cortical substrate for the degree of GID and a frontal substrate for category sorting deficits; with a probable basis in alcohol neurotoxicity rather than thiamine deficiency, which is not known to impair cortical structure. A new model is proposed of the pathophysiology of alcoholic brain damage and AKS which includes recent work on neurotransmitter sources and thalamo-frontal connections.

  10. Frontal theta reflects uncertainty and unexpectedness during exploration and exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, James F; Figueroa, Christina M; Cohen, Michael X; Frank, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand the exploitation/exploration trade-off in reinforcement learning, previous theoretical and empirical accounts have suggested that increased uncertainty may precede the decision to explore an alternative option. To date, the neural mechanisms that support the strategic application of uncertainty-driven exploration remain underspecified. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to assess trial-to-trial dynamics relevant to exploration and exploitation. Theta-band activities over middle and lateral frontal areas have previously been implicated in EEG studies of reinforcement learning and strategic control. It was hypothesized that these areas may interact during top-down strategic behavioral control involved in exploratory choices. Here, we used a dynamic reward-learning task and an associated mathematical model that predicted individual response times. This reinforcement-learning model generated value-based prediction errors and trial-by-trial estimates of exploration as a function of uncertainty. Mid-frontal theta power correlated with unsigned prediction error, although negative prediction errors had greater power overall. Trial-to-trial variations in response-locked frontal theta were linearly related to relative uncertainty and were larger in individuals who used uncertainty to guide exploration. This finding suggests that theta-band activities reflect prefrontal-directed strategic control during exploratory choices.

  11. Regional fluorodeoxyglucose metabolism and instrumental activities of daily living across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kamolika; Pepin, Lesley C.; Philiossaint, Marlie; Lorius, Natacha; Becker, J. Alex; Locascio, Joseph J.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) begins as individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) transition to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. IADL impairment in AD dementia has been associated with inferior parietal, inferior temporal, and superior occipital hypometabolism using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Objective To investigate the relationship between regional FDG metabolism and IADL in clinically normal (CN) elderly, MCI, and mild AD dementia subjects cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Methods One hundred and four CN, 203 MCI, and 95 AD dementia subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative underwent clinical assessments every 6 to 12 months for up to three years and baseline FDG PET. The subjective, informant-based Functional Activities Questionnaire was used to assess IADL. General linear models and mixed effects models were used, covarying for demographics, cogniton, and behavior. Results The cross-sectional analysis revealed middle frontal and orbitofrontal hypometabolism were significantly associated with greater IADL impairment. Additionally, the interaction of diagnosis with posterior cingulate and with parahippocampal hypometabolism showed a greater decline in IADL performance as metabolism decreased for the AD dementia relative to the MCI group, and the MCI group relative to the CN group. The longitudinal analysis showed that baseline middle frontal and posterior cingulate hypometabolism were significantly associated with greater rate of increase in IADL impairment over time. Conclusion These results suggest that regional synaptic dysfunction, including the Alzheimer-typical medial parietal and less typical frontal regions, relates to daily functioning decline at baseline and over time across the early AD spectrum. PMID:24898635

  12. Development of an MRI rating scale for multiple brain regions: comparison with volumetrics and with voxel-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, R.R.; Williams, Guy B. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Scahill, Victoria L.; Graham, Kim S. [Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Graham, Andrew [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Hodges, John R. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Cognitive Neurology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot studies, 15 regions produced good intra- and inter-rater reliability. We then validated the ratings against manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared ratings across the subject groups. Validation against both manual volumetry (for both frontal and temporal lobes), and against whole brain VBM, showed good correlation with visual ratings for the majority of the brain regions. Comparison of rating scores across disease groups showed involvement of the anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior hippocampus and temporal pole in semantic dementia, while anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal regions were involved in behavioural variant FTD. This simple visual rating can be used as an alternative to highly technical methods of quantification, and may be superior when dealing with single cases or small groups. (orig.)

  13. Real-World Rib Fracture Patterns in Frontal Crashes in Different Restraint Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ellen L; Craig, Matthew; Scarboro, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the detailed medical injury information in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) to evaluate patterns of rib fractures in real-world crash occupants in both belted and unbelted restraint conditions. Fracture patterns binned into rib regional levels were examined to determine normative trends associated with belt use and other possible contributing factors. Front row adult occupants with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3+ rib fractures, in frontal crashes with a deployed frontal airbag, were selected from the CIREN database. The circumferential location of each rib fracture (with respect to the sternum) was documented using a previously published method (Ritchie et al. 2006) and digital computed tomography scans. Fracture patterns for different crash and occupant parameters (restraint use, involved physical component, occupant kinematics, crash principal direction of force, and occupant age) were compared qualitatively and quantitatively. There were 158 belted and 44 unbelted occupants included in this study. For belted occupants, fractures were mainly located near the path of the shoulder belt, with the majority of fractures occurring on the inboard (with respect to the vehicle) side of the thorax. For unbelted occupants, fractures were approximately symmetric and distributed across both sides of the thorax. There were negligible differences in fracture patterns between occupants with frontal (0°) and near side (330° to 350° for drivers; 10° to 30° for passengers) crash principal directions of force but substantial differences between groups when occupant kinematics (and contacts within the vehicle) were considered. Age also affected fracture pattern, with fractures tending to occur more anteriorly in older occupants and more laterally in younger occupants (both belted and unbelted). Results of this study confirmed with real-world data that rib fracture patterns in unbelted occupants were more distributed

  14. [Affective disorders and dementia of the frontal lobe type. Hypothesis of a pathogenic relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, J P; Favel, P; Rémy, C; Sanabria, E; Bidault, E

    1994-01-01

    patients examined. DISCUSSION. Although our patients do not probably form, with regard to a etiology a homogeneous group, they share common characteristics which are very similar to those which differentiates DFT from AD. We postulate that some dysthymic disorders of the presenium might represent the initial stage of this type of dementia. This hypothesis relies on the evidence for frontal dysregulation in mood disorders as demonstrated, for example, by PET studies. In these cases the cortical abnormalities usually disappear as the dysthymia improves and are considered functional phenomena. They may correspond to the mechanism of deafferentation (or diaschisis). This implies a primary lesion, presumably located at a subcortical level (for instance a white matter lesion) producing a disruption of function in a distant (initially) intact brain region. As a supplementary hypothesis we propose that with time, and for as yet unknown reasons, the frontal hypoperfusion in our patients lost its reversibility and that, as a result, a particular type of dementia became manifest. In some cases this diaschisis protractiva may lead to secondary cortical atrophy. CONCLUSIONS. A DFT was found in 10 patients who had become dysthymic in their fifties. A pathogenic hypothesis i.e. diaschisis protractiva, is proposed, based on the evidence of neuroimaging studies.

  15. Morning nutrition and executive function processes in preadolescents: modulation of frontal event-related theta, beta and gamma EEG oscillations during a go/ no-go task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive functions (i.e., goal-directed behavior such as inhibition and flexibility of action) have been linked to frontal brain regions and to covariations in oscillatory brain activity, e.g., theta and gamma activity. We studied the effects of morning nutritional status on executive function rel...

  16. When elephants fly: differential sensitivity of right and left inferior frontal gyri to discourse and world knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menenti, Laura; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Scheeringa, René; Hagoort, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Both local discourse and world knowledge are known to influence sentence processing. We investigated how these two sources of information conspire in language comprehension. Two types of critical sentences, correct and world knowledge anomalies, were preceded by either a neutral or a local context. The latter made the world knowledge anomalies more acceptable or plausible. We predicted that the effect of world knowledge anomalies would be weaker for the local context. World knowledge effects have previously been observed in the left inferior frontal region (Brodmann's area 45/47). In the current study, an effect of world knowledge was present in this region in the neutral context. We also observed an effect in the right inferior frontal gyrus, which was more sensitive to the discourse manipulation than the left inferior frontal gyrus. In addition, the left angular gyrus reacted strongly to the degree of discourse coherence between the context and critical sentence. Overall, both world knowledge and the discourse context affect the process of meaning unification, but do so by recruiting partly different sets of brain areas.

  17. Small female rib cage fracture in frontal sled tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Greg; Lessley, David; Ash, Joseph; Poplin, Jerry; McMurry, Tim; Sochor, Mark; Crandall, Jeff

    2017-01-02

    The 2 objectives of this study are to (1) examine the rib and sternal fractures sustained by small stature elderly females in simulated frontal crashes and (2) determine how the findings are characterized by prior knowledge and field data. A test series was conducted to evaluate the response of 5 elderly (average age 76 years) female postmortem human subjects (PMHS), similar in mass and size to a 5th percentile female, in 30 km/h frontal sled tests. The subjects were restrained on a rigid planar seat by bilateral rigid knee bolsters, pelvic blocks, and a custom force-limited 3-point shoulder and lap belt. Posttest subject injury assessment included identifying rib cage fractures by means of a radiologist read of a posttest computed tomography (CT) and an autopsy. The data from a motion capture camera system were processed to provide chest deflection, defined as the movement of the sternum relative to the spine at the level of T8.  A complementary field data investigation involved querying the NASS-CDS database over the years 1997-2012. The targeted cases involved belted front seat small female passenger vehicle occupants over 40 years old who were injured in 25 to 35 km/h delta-V frontal crashes (11 to 1 o'clock). Peak upper shoulder belt tension averaged 1,970 N (SD = 140 N) in the sled tests. For all subjects, the peak x-axis deflection was recorded at the sternum with an average of -44.5 mm or 25% of chest depth. The thoracic injury severity based on the number and distribution of rib fractures yielded 4 subjects coded as Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3 (serious) and one as AIS 5 (critical). The NASS-CDS field data investigation of small females identified 205 occupants who met the search criteria. Rib fractures were reported for 2.7% of the female occupants. The small elderly test subjects sustained a higher number of rib cage fractures than expected in what was intended to be a minimally injurious frontal crash test condition. Neither field studies nor

  18. Antioxidant activity of Bacopa monniera in rat frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S K; Bhattacharya, A; Kumar, A; Ghosal, S

    2000-05-01

    The effect of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. was assessed on rat brain frontal cortical, striatal and hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities, following administration for 7, 14 or 21 days. The effects induced by this extract (bacoside A content 82% +/- 0.5%), administered in doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, orally, were compared with the effects induced by (-) deprenyl (2 mg/kg, p. o.) administered for the same time periods. Bacopa monniera (BM) induced a dose-related increase in SOD, CAT and GPX activities, in all the brain regions investigated, after 14 and 21 days of drug administration. On the contrary, deprenyl induced an increase in SOD, CAT and GPX activities in the frontal cortex and striatum, but not in the hippocampus, after treatment for 14 or 21 days. The results suggest that BM, like deprenyl, exhibits a significant antioxidant effect after subchronic administration which, unlike the latter, extends to the hippocampus as well. The results suggest that the increase in oxidative free radical scavenging activity by BM may explain, at least in part, the cognition- facilitating action of BM, recorded in Ayurvedic texts, and demonstrated experimentally and clinically.

  19. Upregulation of Neurotrophic Factors Selectively in Frontal Cortex in Response to Olfactory Discrimination Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Naimark

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that olfactory discrimination learning is accompanied by several forms of long-term enhancement in synaptic connections between layer II pyramidal neurons selectively in the piriform cortex. This study sought to examine whether the previously demonstrated olfactory-learning-task-induced modifications are preceded by suitable changes in the expression of mRNA for neurotrophic factors and in which brain areas this occurs. Rats were trained to discriminate positive cues in pair of odors for a water reward. The relationship between the learning task and local levels of mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine kinase B, nerve growth factor, and neurotrophin-3 in the frontal cortex, hippocampal subregions, and other regions were assessed 24 hours post olfactory learning. The olfactory discrimination learning activated production of endogenous neurotrophic factors and induced their signal transduction in the frontal cortex, but not in other brain areas. These findings suggest that different brain areas may be preferentially involved in different learning/memory tasks.

  20. Abnormalities in personal space and parietal–frontal function in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne J. Holt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with subtle abnormalities in day-to-day social behaviors, including a tendency in some patients to “keep their distance” from others in physical space. The neural basis of this abnormality, and related changes in social functioning, is unknown. Here we examined, in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects, the functioning of a parietal–frontal network involved in monitoring the space immediately surrounding the body (“personal space”. Using fMRI, we found that one region of this network, the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (DIPS, was hyper-responsive in schizophrenic patients to face stimuli appearing to move towards the subjects, intruding into personal space. This hyper-responsivity was predicted both by the size of personal space (which was abnormally elevated in the schizophrenia group and the severity of negative symptoms. In contrast, in a second study, the activity of two lower-level visual areas that send information to DIPS (the fusiform face area and middle temporal area was normal in schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest that changes in parietal–frontal networks that support the sensory-guided initiation of behavior, including actions occurring in the space surrounding the body, contribute to social dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

  1. Inferior frontal sensitivity to common speech sounds is amplified by increasing word intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaden, Kenneth I; Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Keren, Noam I; Harris, Kelly C; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

    2011-11-01

    The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) exhibits increased responsiveness when people listen to words composed of speech sounds that frequently co-occur in the English language (Vaden, Piquado, & Hickok, 2011), termed high phonotactic frequency (Vitevitch & Luce, 1998). The current experiment aimed to further characterize the relation of phonotactic frequency to LIFG activity by manipulating word intelligibility in participants of varying age. Thirty six native English speakers, 19-79 years old (mean=50.5, sd=21.0) indicated with a button press whether they recognized 120 binaurally presented consonant-vowel-consonant words during a sparse sampling fMRI experiment (TR=8 s). Word intelligibility was manipulated by low-pass filtering (cutoff frequencies of 400 Hz, 1000 Hz, 1600 Hz, and 3150 Hz). Group analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between phonotactic frequency and LIFG activity, which was unaffected by age and hearing thresholds. A region of interest analysis revealed that the relation between phonotactic frequency and LIFG activity was significantly strengthened for the most intelligible words (low-pass cutoff at 3150 Hz). These results suggest that the responsiveness of the left inferior frontal cortex to phonotactic frequency reflects the downstream impact of word recognition rather than support of word recognition, at least when there are no speech production demands. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Motivationally significant self-control: enhanced action withholding involves the right inferior frontal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, David A; Upton, Daniel J; Moore, Jennifer; Hester, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life, people use self-control to withhold actions. This ability is particularly important when the consequences of action withholding have an impact on the individual's well-being. Despite its importance, it is unclear as to how the neural nodes implicated in action withholding contribute to this real-world type of self-control. By modifying an action withholding paradigm, the go/no-go task, we examined how the brain exerts self-control during a scenario in which the implications of withholding an action are meaningful and motivationally significant. A successfully withheld response contributed to long-term monetary rewards, whereas failure to withhold a response incurred an immediate monetary punishment. Compared with neutral action withholding, participants significantly improved their performance when these contingencies were applied. Crucially, although the right IFG and pre-SMA were found to promote overall action withholding, the enhancement in behavioral performance relative to a neutral condition was only reflected by a physiological change in a region encompassing the right inferior frontal junction and precentral gyrus. We speculate that the ability to flexibly modulate attention to goal-relevant stimuli is crucial to enhanced, motivationally driven action withholding and that this ability is subserved by the right inferior frontal junction. These findings suggest that control-modulating factors, rather than action withholding processes per se, can be critical to improving motivationally significant action withholding outcomes.

  3. Superiority in value and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    James Griffin has considered a weak form of superiority in value a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this paper, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into a stronger form of superiority. And in a context where value is non-additive, weak...... superiority does not amount to a radical value difference at all. I then spell out the consequences of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest....

  4. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation is associated with memory improvement in patients with left frontal low-grade glioma resection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C Miotto

    Full Text Available Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR, related-non-structured (RNS, and related-structured words (RS, allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and middle frontal gyrus (MFG during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing.

  5. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation is associated with memory improvement in patients with left frontal low-grade glioma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Eliane C; Balardin, Joana B; Vieira, Gilson; Sato, Joao R; Martin, Maria da Graça M; Scaff, Milberto; Teixeira, Manoel J; Junior, Edson Amaro

    2014-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL) LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR), related-non-structured (RNS), and related-structured words (RS), allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing.

  6. Morphine increases hippocampal viral load and suppresses frontal lobe CCL5 expression in the LP-BM5 AIDS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Virginia D; Cao, Ling; Willis, Colin L

    2014-04-15

    Chronic opiate abuse accelerates the development of cognitive deficits in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 patients. To investigate morphine's effects on viral infection of the central nervous system, we applied chronic morphine treatment to the LP-BM5 murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS) model. LP-BM5 infection induces proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, correlating to increased blood-brain barrier permeability. Morphine treatment significantly increased LP-BM5 viral load in the hippocampus, but not in the frontal lobe. Morphine reduced the chemokine CCL5 to non-infected levels in the frontal lobe, but not in the hippocampus. These data indicate a region-specific mechanism for morphine's effects on virally-induced neurocognitive deficits.

  7. Brain volumes and regional cortical thickness in young females with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglset, Tone Seim; Endestad, Tor; Hilland, Eva; Bang, Lasse; Tamnes, Christian Krog; Landrø, Nils Inge; Rø, Øyvind

    2016-11-16

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental illness, with an unknown etiology. Magnetic resonance imaging studies show reduced brain volumes and cortical thickness in patients compared to healthy controls. However, findings are inconsistent, especially concerning the anatomical location and extent of the differences. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare brain volumes and regional cortical thickness in young females with AN and healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging data was acquired from young females with anorexia nervosa (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 28). Two different scanner sites were used. BMI varied from 13.5 to 20.7 within the patient group, and 11 patients had a BMI > 17.5. FreeSurfer was used to estimate brain volumes and regional cortical thickness. There were no differences between groups in total cerebral cortex volume, white matter volume, or lateral ventricle volume. There were also no volume differences in subcortical grey matter structures. However the results showed reduced cortical thickness bilaterally in the superior parietal gyrus, and in the right inferior parietal and superior frontal gyri. The functional significance of the findings is undetermined as the majority of the included patients was already partially weight-restored. We discuss whether these regions could be related to predisposing factors of the illness, or whether they are regions that are more vulnerable to starvation, malnutrition or associated processes in AN.

  8. Millian superiorities and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2008-01-01

    James Griffin has considered a form of superiority in value that is weaker than lexical priority as a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this article, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into the stronger form of superiority. And in a ......James Griffin has considered a form of superiority in value that is weaker than lexical priority as a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this article, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into the stronger form of superiority...... of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest....

  9. Measuring Financial Gains from Genetically Superior Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Dutrow; Clark Row

    1976-01-01

    Planting genetically superior loblolly pines will probably yield high profits.Forest economists have made computer simulations that predict financial gains expected from a tree improvement program under actual field conditions.

  10. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome causing growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and lifethreateningclinical condition caused by the compressionof the third portion of the duodenum between the aortaand the superior mesenteric artery’s proximal part. Thiscompression may lead to chronic intermittent, acute totalor partial obstruction. Sudden weight-loss and the relateddecrease in the fat tissue are considered to be the etiologicalreason of acute stenosis. Weight-loss accompaniedby nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, andbloating are the leading complaints. Barium radiographs,computerized tomography, conventional angiography,tomographic and magnetic resonance angiography areused in the diagnosis. There are medical and surgical approachesto treatment. We hereby present the case ofa patient with superior mesenteric artery syndrome withdelayed diagnosis.Key words: superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nausea-vomiting, anorexia

  11. Role of Osteoplastic Frontal Sinus Obliteration in the Era of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Silverman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determining the indications for osteoplastic frontal sinus obliteration (OFSO for the treatment of inflammatory frontal sinus disease. Study Design. Retrospective case series from a single tertiary care facility. Methods. Thirty-four patients who underwent OFSO for chronic frontal sinusitis ( and frontal sinus mucocele ( comprised our study group. Data reviewed included demographics, history of prior frontal sinus operation(s, imaging, diagnosis, and operative complications. Results. The age range was 19 to 76 years. Seventy percent of patients with chronic frontal sinusitis underwent OFSO as a salvage surgery after previous frontal sinus surgery failures, while 30% underwent OFSO as a primary surgery. For those in whom OFSO was a salvage procedure, the failed surgeries were endoscopic approaches to the frontal sinus (69%, Lynch procedure (12%, and OFSO outside this study period (19%. For patients with frontal sinus mucocele, 72% had OFSO as a first-line surgery. Within the total study population, 15% of patients presented for OFSO with history of prior obliteration, with a range of 3 to 30 years between representations. Conclusions. Osteoplastic frontal sinus obliteration remains a key surgical treatment for chronic inflammatory frontal sinus disease both as a salvage procedure and first-line surgical therapy.

  12. Graptolitos ordovícicos en el Sur de la Cordillera frontal de Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Tickyj

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En el flanco sudoriental de la Cordillera Frontal mendocina aflora un conjunto plegado de metasedimentitas conocido como Formación Las Lagunitas, cuyos afloramientos se extienden entre los ríos Diamante por el sur y Tunuyán por el norte, alcanzando un ancho máximo de 15 km a la latitud del volcán Maipo. El perfil estudiado en el arroyo Cortaderas (34º23'S está compuesto por una secuencia silicoclástica marina integrada por tres conjuntos litológicos, que de este a oeste son: a areniscas gruesas a medias, bien seleccionadas, y areniscas conglomerádicas, b vaques de grano grueso a fino y c areniscas finas a medias, con intercalaciones de pelitas negras laminadas. En la última unidad fueron colectados graptolitos en regular estado de preservación. Su estudio sistemático permitió definir una asociación correspondiente a la Biozona de Climacograptus bicornis, por lo que la Formación Las Lagunitas es asignada al Ordovícico Superior (Sandbiano o Caradociano. La completa extensión cronoestratigráfica de la Formación Las Lagunitas no ha sido establecida, debido a que en el perfil estudiado no es clara la relación entre la unidad portadora de graptolitos y el resto de la secuencia. Este registro de graptolitos en el sur de la Cordillera Frontal mendocina constituye un aspecto novedoso para el análisis del Ordovícico, con implicancias en el contexto de la evolución tectónica de las cuencas sedimentarias ordovícicas del oeste argentino.Outcrops of a folded sedimentary unit known as the Las Lagunitas Formation lie along the southeastern part of the Frontal Cordillera of Mendoza Province. The main exposures of the unit lie between the Diamante River in the south and Tunuyán in the north, reaching 15 km wide at the latitude of the Maipo volcano. At the Cortaderas Creek (34º23'S the studied section is a marine siliciclastic sequence comprising three lithological units: a well-sorted, coarse- to medium-grained sandstones and

  13. Chronic restraint stress promotes learning and memory impairment due to enhanced neuronal endoplasmic reticulum stress in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong-Rong; Hu, Wen; Yin, Yan-Yan; Wang, Yu-Chan; Li, Wei-Ping; Li, Wei-Zu

    2015-02-01

    Chronic stress has been implicated in many types of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In our previous study, we demonstrated that chronic restraint stress (CRS) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and oxidative damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in mice. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CRS (over a period of 8 weeks) on learning and memory impairment and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in male mice. The Morris water maze was used to investigate the effects of CRS on learning and memory impairment. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis were also used to determine the expression levels of protein kinase C α (PKCα), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF). The results revealed that CRS significantly accelerated learning and memory impairment, and induced neuronal damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus CA1 region. Moreover, CRS significantly increased the expression of PKCα, CHOP and MANF, and decreased that of GRP78 in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Our data suggest that exposure to CRS (for 8 weeks) significantly accelerates learning and memory impairment, and the mechanisms involved may be related to ER stress in the frontal cortex and hippocampus.

  14. Frontal lobe nonconvulsive status epilepticus: a case of epileptic stuttering, aphemia, and aphasia--not a sign of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Peter W; Stagg, Ryan

    2011-06-01

    Stuttering is a repetitive, iterative disfluency of speech, and is usually seen as a developmental problem in childhood. Acquired causes in adults include strokes and medications. When stuttering occurs with seizure-like events, it is usually attributed to psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. We describe an elderly man who experienced personality change and bouts of stuttering, followed by anarthria with preserved writing and then aphasia affecting written and uttered language, and ending with confusion. EEG recordings showed nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) with focality in the left frontal region followed by bifrontal NCSE. This case enlarges our understanding of the behavioral correlates of focal frontal seizures to include simple partial seizures with speech and then language output disturbances (aphemia, then aphasia), progressing to complex partial phenomenology in the setting of frontal NCSE.

  15. [Statistical data on head trauma with frontal sinus involvement at the Emergency Hospital Clinic "Prof. Dr. Nicolae Oblu", Iaşi, Romania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrin, Irina; Dobrin, N; Poeata, I; Ianovici, N

    2011-01-01

    We present here some interesting points of view concerning head and brain injury with frontal sinus involvement. In general neurosurgical practice the frontal sinus traumatic involvement is about 3-5 per cent from all head trauma; we proposed to realise a extensive 5 years study to finnaly sumarise the characteristical elements for our geographical area. The amount of patients hospitalized in our clinic was about 80 000 in five years. Concerning our statistical data, there are 677 patients with frontal sinus injury, 490 from this were complicated with brain pathology. We concluded there are differences between our series and the other studies from developed countries, in our region the domestical (agricultural works) causes are about 10% higher.

  16. Incomplete suppression of distractor-related activity in the frontal eye field results in curved saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, Robert M

    2006-11-01

    Saccades in the presence of distractors show significant trajectory curvature. Based on previous work in the superior colliculus (SC), we speculated that curvature arises when a movement is initiated before competition between the target and distractor goals has been fully resolved. To test this hypothesis, we recorded frontal eye field (FEF) activity for curved and straight saccades in search. In contrast to the SC, activity in FEF is normally poorly correlated with saccade dynamics. However, the FEF, like the SC, is involved in target selection. Thus if curvature is caused by incomplete target selection, we expect to see its neural correlates in the FEF. We found that saccades that curve toward a distractor are accompanied by an increase in perisaccadic activity of FEF neurons coding the distractor location, and saccades that curve away are accompanied by a decrease in activity. In contrast, for FEF neurons coding the target location, there is no significant difference in activity between curved and straight saccades. To establish that the distractor-related activity is causally related to saccade curvature, we applied microstimulation to sites in the FEF before saccades to targets presented without distractors. The stimulation was subthreshold for evoking saccades and the temporal structure of the stimulation train resembled the activity recorded for curved saccades. The resulting movements curved toward the location coded by the stimulation site. These results support the idea that saccade curvature results from incomplete suppression of distractor-related activity during target selection.

  17. Leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaumont, Arthus; Pierret, Charles; de Kerangal, Xavier; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Laborde, François

    2014-08-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava is a very rare tumor and only a few cases have been reported, with various techniques of vascular reconstruction. We describe a new case of leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava in a 61-year-old woman with extension to the brachiocephalic arterial trunk. Resection and vascular reconstruction were performed using, respectively, polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene terephtalate vascular grafts.

  18. Superior mesenteric artery compression syndrome - case report

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Rocha França Neto; Rodrigo de Almeida Paiva; Antônio Lacerda Filho; Fábio Lopes de Queiroz; Teon Noronha

    2011-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is an entity generally caused by the loss of the intervening mesenteric fat pad, resulting in compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery. This article reports the case of a patient with irremovable metastatic adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon, that evolved with intense vomiting. Intestinal transit was carried out, which showed important gastric dilation extended until the third portion of the duodenum, compatible wi...

  19. Regional gray matter reduction correlates with subjective quality of life in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, Shiho; Miyata, Jun; Yoshizumi, Miho; Uwatoko, Teruhisa; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Murai, Toshiya

    2013-04-01

    Subjective quality of life (QOL) has been recognized as an important consideration in schizophrenia. Several symptoms and neurocognitive functions were shown to be correlated with subjective QOL; however its determinants are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the association between brain structural abnormalities and subjective QOL in patients with schizophrenia. Forty-five schizophrenia patients and 48 age, sex, and education-matched healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS) was used to rate subjective QOL. We performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate regional brain alterations. Relative to normal controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited gray matter reductions mainly in the frontal and temporal regions. Worse psychosocial subscale of SQLS was associated with gray matter (GM) reduction in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and worse motivation/energy subscale was associated with gray matter reduction in the left superior frontal sulcus, left parahippocampal gyrus, and the left inferior temporal gyrus. The correlation between DLPFC GM volume and psychosocial subscale of SQLS disappeared after controlling for severity of psychopathology, while the other correlations remained significant when controlled by demographic and clinical variables. Combining imaging techniques with psychosocial methods would help to elucidate those factors that are associated with QOL.

  20. Different regional gray matter loss in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gray matter loss in the limbic structures was found in recent onset post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients. In the present study, we measured regional gray matter volume in trauma survivors to verify the hypothesis that stress may cause different regional gray matter loss in trauma survivors with and without recent onset PTSD. METHOD: High resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were obtained from coal mine flood disaster survivors with (n = 10 and without (n = 10 recent onset PTSD and 20 no trauma exposed normal controls. The voxel-based morphometry (VBM method was used to measure the regional gray matter volume in three groups, the correlations of PTSD symptom severities with the gray matter volume in trauma survivors were also analyzed by multiple regression. RESULTS: Compared with normal controls, recent onset PTSD patients had smaller gray matter volume in left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and non PTSD subjects had smaller gray matter volume in the right pulvinar and left pallidum. The gray matter volume of the trauma survivors correlated negatively with CAPS scores in the right frontal lobe, left anterior and middle cingulate cortex, bilateral cuneus cortex, right middle occipital lobe, while in the recent onset PTSD, the gray matter volume correlated negatively with CAPS scores in bilateral superior medial frontal lobe and right ACC. CONCLUSION: The present study identified gray matter loss in different regions in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure. The gray matter volume of left dorsal ACC associated with the development of PTSD, while the gray matter volume of right pulvinar and left pallidum associated with the response to the severe stress. The atrophy of the frontal and limbic cortices predicts the symptom severities of the PTSD.

  1. Surgical approach to the superior mid-orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn-Hansen, Dag; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Meling, Torstein R; Haaskjold, Erling

    2013-09-01

    Access to the superior mid-orbit is required for procedures on the levator muscle in the correction of upper eyelid ptosis and in surgery aimed at local lesions in this region. The purpose with this human cadaver study was to clarify the anatomical substrate for a surgical approach to the levator muscle and the upper mid-orbit structures, in which the orbital septum and the retroseptal fat pad is not harmed during surgery. Macro-anatomical dissections and histological examinations were performed on five human orbits from three formalin embalmed cadaver heads. It was found that the orbital septum extends posteriorly from its junction with the levator aponeurosis. This posterior continuation of the orbital septum encloses the superior orbital fat pad and separates this from the anterior surface of the levator muscle. In between the orbital septum and the levator, there is a dissection space that provides a minimal invasive access corridor to the structures in the upper mid-orbit.

  2. Immunohistochemical localization of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in frontal cortex and related limbic areas in obese Zucker rats: effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, J; Churruca, I; Echevarría, E; Casis, L; López de Jesús, M; Saenz del Burgo, L; Sallés, J

    2008-10-21

    In the present study, we report on the application of two specific polyclonal antibodies to different intracellular domains of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor to define the expression of the neural CB1 cannabinoid receptor at the histochemical level in frontal cortex and related limbic areas of the obese Zucker rats. Higher levels of CB1 receptor expression in frontal, cingulated and piriform cortex, without differences in temporal, parietal and occipital cortex, were observed in obese Zucker rats, with respect to their lean littermates. CB1 phosphorylated receptor (CB1-P) levels were also higher in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortex in obese rats with respect to lean controls. Potential involvement of brain cortical CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the long-term effects of fluoxetine was studied. Experimental animals were administered with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 3 weeks, whereas the control group was given 0.9% NaCl solution. In obese Zucker rats, a significant decrease in CB1 receptor levels, measured by western blot, was observed in brain cortex after fluoxetine treatment. Immunostaining for CB1 receptor expression was also carried out, showing a significant decrease in the density of neural cells positive for CB1 receptor in frontal, cingulate and piriform cortex, without changes in parietal, temporal and occipital regions. Regional prosencephalic immunostaining for CB1-P receptor level showed a significant decrease in the density of stained neural cells in frontal, temporal and parietal cortex, without changes in cingulated, piriform and occipital cortex. These results suggest the involvement of endocannabinoid system in the chronic effects of fluoxetine, especially in the frontal cortex.

  3. Improved quantification of brain perfusion using FAIR with active suppression of superior tagging (FAIR ASST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiufeng; Sarkar, Subhendra N; Purdy, David E; Haley, Robert W; Briggs, Richard W

    2011-11-01

    To address two problems for perfusion studies in the middle or inferior brain regions: (1) to reduce venous artifacts due to the intrinsic superior labeling of FAIR; (2) to alleviate the discrepancy of the existence of both superior and inferior boluses, but with only the inferior bolus having a temporally defined bolus width with Q2TIPs or QUIPSS. Superior tagging suppression methods for FAIR with different combinations of pre- and postinversion superior saturation pulses were evaluated and compared with FAIR with Q2TIPS for producing perfusion maps of superior, middle, and inferior brain regions. One preinversion plus two postinversion superior saturation radio frequency pulses effectively suppressed the superior tagging of FAIR and sufficiently eliminated venous artifacts without negative effects, avoiding the overestimations of cerebral blood flow that can occur in FAIR. FAIR ASST improves FAIR with Q2TIPS and provides more reliable and accurate blood flow estimations for perfusion studies of middle and lower brain regions. FAIR ASST confers the advantages of asymmetric PASL techniques, such as PICORE, in which only the inferiorly labeled blood is used for perfusion quantification, to the symmetric PASL technique FAIR, while preserving the robustness of FAIR against MT effects. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 用FA和ECM方法测定吸附等温线的比较%Comparison of Frontal Analysis and Elution-Curve Method for Determining Adsorption Isotherms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption isotherm is the most fundamental information related to chromatography. To calculate the parameters of Langmuir adsorption isotherm of thymidine, frontal analysis (FA) and elution-curve method (ECM) were adopted in reversed-phase high performance liguid chromatography (RP-HPLC). In FA, the concentration of stationary phase was measured from the elution curves and the isotherm was determined by regression analysis, while the parameters by ECM were obtained by parameter optimization. The adsorption isotherms of thymidine from the two methods were very similar. The superiority of ECM over FA was that the consumption of sample was less and only one or two injections of sample were required.

  5. Motor Functions of the Broca's Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Broca's region in the dominant cerebral hemisphere is known to mediate the production of language but also contributes to comprehension. This region evolved only in humans and is constituted of Brodmann's areas 44 and 45 in the inferior frontal gyrus. There is, however, evidence that Broca's region overlaps, at least in part, with the ventral…

  6. Superior oblique surgery: when and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Şekeroğlu H

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hande Taylan Şekeroğlu,1 Ali Sefik Sanac,1 Umut Arslan,2 Emin Cumhur Sener11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Biostatistics, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyBackground: The purpose of this paper is to review different types of superior oblique muscle surgeries, to describe the main areas in clinical practice where superior oblique surgery is required or preferred, and to discuss the preferred types of superior oblique surgery with respect to their clinical outcomes.Methods: A consecutive nonrandomized retrospective series of patients who had undergone superior oblique muscle surgery as a single procedure were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis, clinical features, preoperative and postoperative vertical deviations in primary position, type of surgery, complications, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. The primary outcome measures were the type of strabismus and the type of superior oblique muscle surgery. The secondary outcome measure was the results of the surgeries.Results: The review identified 40 (20 male, 20 female patients with a median age of 6 (2–45 years. Nineteen patients (47.5% had Brown syndrome, eleven (27.5% had fourth nerve palsy, and ten (25.0% had horizontal deviations with A pattern. The most commonly performed surgery was superior oblique tenotomy in 29 (72.5% patients followed by superior oblique tuck in eleven (27.5% patients. The amount of vertical deviation in the fourth nerve palsy and Brown syndrome groups (P = 0.01 for both and the amount of A pattern in the A pattern group were significantly reduced postoperatively (P = 0.02.Conclusion: Surgery for the superior oblique muscle requires experience and appropriate preoperative evaluation in view of its challenging nature. The main indications are Brown syndrome, fourth nerve palsy, and A pattern deviations. Superior oblique surgery may be effective in terms of pattern collapse and correction of vertical deviations in primary

  7. Functional role of frontal alpha oscillations in creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R; Foulser, A Alban; Mellin, Juliann M; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-06-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent electroencephalography (EEG) data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a functional role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10 Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40 Hz-tACS was used instead of 10 Hz-tACS to rule out a general "electrical stimulation" effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal 40 Hz stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of splenic superior region dissection first in laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilus lymphadenec-tomy for gastric cancer%脾上优先暴露在腹腔镜胃癌保脾脾门淋巴结清扫的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谋成; 方雷; 张志平; 杨斌; 俞秀冲; 邱江锋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of splenic superior region dissection first in laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymphadenectomy for advanced proximal gastric cancer. Methods A total of 19 patients with ad-vanced proximal gastric cancer underwent laparoscopic total gastrectomy with spleen-preserving splenic hilar lym-phadenectomy by splenic superior region dissection first at the Ningbo First Hospital from Oct 2012 to Aug 2014. The clinical data including perioperative index and postoperative complications were retrospectively analyzed. Results All la-paroscopie spleen-preserving lymphadenectomies were performed successfully. Total operation time was (234 ±30) min with blood loss(161±82) mL. The operation time and blood loss for No.10 lymph node dissection was (36±8) min and (33±18) mL respectively. The mean number of total lymph node dissection and No.10 lymph node dissection in 19 patients was (32±9) and (2.8±0.9) respectively. There were 4 of No.10 lymph node metastases detected in 2 cases with metastasis rate of 10.5%(2/19). Anal exhaust time was (3.2±1.1) d and liquid diet (4.0±0.8) d later and postoperative hospital stay (16.5± 5.4) d. No major complications such as anastomotic leak, abdominal hemorrhage and no mortality were observed. Conclu-sions Splenic superior region dissection first is feasible in clinic and make laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilus lymphadenectomy easy to some extent for advanced proximal gastric cancer with better short-time outcomes.%目的:探讨脾上优先暴露法在腹腔镜进展期胃上部癌保脾脾门淋巴结清扫术中的应用。方法:回顾性分析2012年10月至2014年8月宁波市第一人民医院采用脾上优先暴露法对19例进展期胃上部癌行腹腔镜根治性全胃切除并保脾脾门淋巴结清扫术病人的临床资料和术中、术后及并发症等情况。结果:19例均成功行腹腔镜保脾脾门淋巴结清扫术。总手术时间(234±30

  9. Functional Neuroanatomical Correlates of The Frontal Assessment Battery Performance in Alzheimer Disease: A FDG-PET Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Byun, Min Soo; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Choe, Young Min; Yi, Dahyun; Han, Ji Young; Choi, Hyo Jung; Baek, Hyewon; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Young

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to elucidate the functional neuroanatomical correlates of Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) performances by applying [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to a large population of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). The FAB was administered to 177 patients with AD, and regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMglc) was measured by FDG-PET scan. Correlations between FAB scores and rCMglc were explored using both region-of-interest-based (ROI-based) and voxel-based approaches. The ROI-based analysis showed that FAB scores correlated with the rCMglc of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Voxel-based approach revealed significant positive correlations between FAB scores and rCMglc which were in various cortical regions including the temporal and parietal cortices as well as frontal regions, independent of age, gender, and education. After controlling the effect of global disease severity with Mini-Mental State Examination score, significant positive correlation was found only in the bilateral prefrontal regions. Although FAB scores are influenced by temporoparietal dysfunction due to the overall progression of AD, it likely reflects prefrontal dysfunction specifically regardless of global cognitive state or disease severity in patients with AD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Evidence of mirror neurons in human inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, James M; Neal, Alice; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Friston, Karl J; Frith, Chris D

    2009-08-12

    There is much current debate about the existence of mirror neurons in humans. To identify mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of humans, we used a repetition suppression paradigm while measuring neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either executed or observed a series of actions. Here we show that in the IFG, responses were suppressed both when an executed action was followed by the same rather than a different observed action and when an observed action was followed by the same rather than a different executed action. This pattern of responses is consistent with that predicted by mirror neurons and is evidence of mirror neurons in the human IFG.

  11. Clinical insights into pragmatic the