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Sample records for superior fiber quality

  1. Estimation of best parents parents and superior cross combinations for yield and fiber quality related traits in upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaukat, S.; Khan, T.M.; Ijaz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Combining ability was studied for identification of potential cultivars and hybrids in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in a 6x6 set of diallel crosses among six genotypes of cotton, i.e., VH-232, CRS-2007, SB-149, GR-156, FH-207, and MARVI carried out on fiber length, fiber fineness, fiber elongation, fiber strength, ginning out tern (GOT) and seed cotton yield. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p < 0.01) differences among the genotypes for all traits. Combining ability studies showed that the mean squares, due to general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal effects were highly significant in F1 generation. Genetic components, due to GCA and SCA, revealed that traits, such as, fiber length, strength and fineness, showed high proportion of additive type of gene action in F1 generation because of greater GCA variances were greater than SCA variance. GR-156 was the best combiner for lint percentage and fiber length. FH-207 was the best combiner for fiber fineness. FH-207, MARVI and SB-149 were the best general combiners for fiber character and were suggested to be used in future breeding programme to improve fiber quality traits. CRS-2007 x GR-156, CRS-2007 x MARVI, SB-149 x MARVI and VH-232 x SB-149 had higher specific combining ability and reciprocal effects and they can be used for future breeding programme to improve fiber quality. (author)

  2. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus

  3. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, M; Pandya, D N

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  4. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  5. Harvesting to optimize fiber quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production conditions typical to the Texas High Plains region can produce cotton crops with high short fiber and nep content, both of which have a detrimental impact on ring spinning performance. Since Texas now produces over 50% of the U.S. cotton crop annually, it is critical that production and p...

  6. Enhancing forest value productivity through fiber quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Briggs

    2010-01-01

    Developing markets for carbon storage and bioenergy, shifting of the pulp and paper industry to biorefineries, and the potential of new technologies present the forest sector with exciting transformative opportunities and challenges. One of these challenges will be to understand the implications for fiber (wood) quality. This article provides a definitional context for...

  7. Lignin-based carbon fibers: Carbon nanotube decoration and superior thermal stability

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu

    2014-08-23

    Lignin-based carbon fibers (CFs) decorated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized and their structure, thermal stability and wettability were systematically studied. The carbon fiber precursors were produced by electrospinning lignin/polyacrylonitrile solutions. CFs were obtained by pyrolyzing the precursors and CNTs were subsequently grown on the CFs to eventually achieve a CF–CNT hybrid structure. The processes of pyrolysis and CNT growth were conducted in a tube furnace using different conditions and the properties of the resultant products were studied and compared. The CF–CNT hybrid structure produced at 850 °C using a palladium catalyst showed the highest thermal stability, i.e., 98.3% residual weight at 950 °C. A mechanism for such superior thermal stability was postulated based on the results from X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy analyses. The dense CNT decoration was found to increase the hydrophobicity of the CFs.

  8. Frontal Fibers Connecting the Superior Frontal Gyrus to Broca Area: A Corticocortical Evoked Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ookawa, Satoshi; Enatsu, Rei; Kanno, Aya; Ochi, Satoko; Akiyama, Yukinori; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Yamao, Yukihiro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Riki; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2017-11-01

    The frontal aslant tract is a deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) to Broca area. This fiber is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. The aim of this study was to electrophysiologically investigate this network using corticocortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). This study enrolled 8 patients with brain tumors or medically intractable focal epilepsies who underwent frontal craniotomy over the language-dominant side. All patients underwent CCEP recordings during tumor resection or during invasive evaluation for epilepsy surgery. Alternating 1-Hz electrical stimuli were delivered to pars opercularis (pO) and pars triangularis (pT), corresponding to Broca area, and SFG via the subdural grid electrodes with intensity of 10 mA. Electrocorticograms from SFG and pO/pT time-locked to 50 stimuli were averaged in each trial to obtain CCEP responses. In all patients, stimulation of pO/pT induced CCEP responses in SFG. CCEP responses were recorded in lateral SFG in 5 patients and in supplementary motor areas in 4 patients. Reciprocality was observed in 7 patients in the stimulation of SFG. CCEP responses were significantly faster at SFG from pO/pT than at pO/pT from SFG (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.028). The present study demonstrated a corticocortical network connecting Broca areas and SFG in a reciprocal manner. Our findings might provide new insight into language and motor integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface Acoustic Waves Grant Superior Spatial Control of Cells Embedded in Hydrogel Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, James P; Guo, Feng; Guo, Jinshan; Huang, Po-Hsun; Yang, Jian; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-10-01

    By exploiting surface acoustic waves and a coupling layer technique, cells are patterned within a photosensitive hydrogel fiber to mimic physiological cell arrangement in tissues. The aligned cell-polymer matrix is polymerized with short exposure to UV light and the fiber is extracted. These patterned cell fibers are manipulated into simple and complex architectures, demonstrating feasibility for tissue-engineering applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Influence of mode competition on beam quality of fiber amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Qi-Rong; Yan Ping; Sun Jun-Yi; Chen Xiao; Ren Hai-Cui; Gong Ma-Li

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of the mode competition on the output beam quality of fiber amplifiers are presented. Rate equations and modal decomposition method are used in the theoretical model. In the experiment, the output beam-quality factor of a fiber amplifier, which is based on a Yb-doped double-clad large mode area fiber as a function of the seed beam quality and the pump power of the amplifier, is measured. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  11. Effect of different fibers on dough properties and biscuit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Canalis, María S; Steffolani, María E; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2017-03-01

    This study forms part of a broader project aimed at understanding the role of fibers from different sources in high-fat, high-sugar biscuits and at selecting the best fibers for biscuit quality. The main purpose of this work was to understand the rheological and structural properties involved in fiber-enriched biscuit dough. High-amylose corn starch (RSII), chemically modified starch (RSIV), oat fiber (OF) and inulin (IN) were used at two different levels of incorporation (6 and 12 g) in dough formulation. The influence of fiber on the properties of biscuit dough was studied via dynamic rheological tests, confocal microscopy and spreading behavior. Biscuit quality was assessed by width/thickness factor, texture and surface characteristics, total dietary fiber and sensory evaluation. Main results indicated that IN incorporation increased the capacity of dough spreading during baking and thus improved biscuit quality. OF reduced dough spreading during baking and strongly increased its resistance to deformation. RSII and RSIV slightly affected the quality of the biscuits. Sensory evaluation revealed that the panel liked IN-incorporated biscuits as much as control biscuits. The increase in total dietary fiber modified dough behavior and biscuit properties, and the extent of these effects depended on the type of fiber incorporated. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Association mapping and favorable QTL alleles for fiber quality traits ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A total of 201 markers were polymorphic and generated 394 ... identified favorable QTL alleles and typical accessions for fiber quality are excellent genetic resources for future cotton .... Field management followed respective local practices.

  13. Lowering virus attack with improved yield and fiber quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... genotypes on seed cotton yield, fiber quality and virus attack was conducted at the Cotton Research ... even more vital than sowing time in any cropping system for cotton ... theless, minimum information is available regarding.

  14. Linkage Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Agronomic and Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Gore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The superior fiber properties of L. serve as a source of novel variation for improving fiber quality in Upland cotton ( L., but introgression from has been largely unsuccessful due to hybrid breakdown and a lack of genetic and genomic resources. In an effort to overcome these limitations, we constructed a linkage map and conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of 10 agronomic and fiber quality traits in a recombinant inbred mapping population derived from a cross between TM-1, an Upland cotton line, and NM24016, an elite line with stabilized introgression from . The linkage map consisted of 429 simple-sequence repeat (SSR and 412 genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker loci that covered half of the tetraploid cotton genome. Notably, the 841 marker loci were unevenly distributed among the 26 chromosomes of tetraploid cotton. The 10 traits evaluated on the TM-1 × NM24016 population in a multienvironment trial were highly heritable, and most of the fiber traits showed considerable transgressive variation. Through the QTL analysis, we identified a total of 28 QTLs associated with the 10 traits. Our study provides a novel resource that can be used by breeders and geneticists for the genetic improvement of agronomic and fiber quality traits in Upland cotton.

  15. Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin Water Quality Study. Supplement. Technical Report No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisnant, David M., Ed.

    During the period extending from May 1972 through April 1973, an investigation of the overall water quality conditions of streams flowing into Lake Superior from the entire state of Wisconsin was conducted. The goal of this publication was to provide much needed regional information on water quality, drainage basins, pollution sources and loads,…

  16. Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calingacion, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice

    Mariafe N. Calingacion

    Most rice breeding programs have focused on improving agronomic traits such as yield, while enhancing grain quality traits

  17. Measuring Beam Quality of Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shephard, J.D.; Roberts, John; Jones, J.D.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors measure the quality of the delivered beam from hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCFs). The$M^2$parameter is determined, and the near- to far-field transition is examined. The influence on these properties due to the presence of a core surround mode is evaluated.......17 for the same output beam. This highlights the need for careful consideration when measuring and describing the beam quality delivered by these novel photonic fibers....

  18. Cotton fiber quality determined by fruit position, temperature and management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X.; Evers, J.B.; Zhang, L.; Mao, L.; Pan, X.; Li, Z.

    2013-01-01

    CottonXL is a tool to explore cotton fiber quality in relation to fruit position, to improve cotton quality by optimizing cotton plant structure, as well as to help farmers understand how the structure of the cotton plant determines crop growth and quality.

  19. Similarity and Dissimilarity between Superiors and Subordinates and Their Implications for Dyadic Relationship Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereida Salette Paulo da Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature advocates the advantages of work force diversification, studies based on the Similarity- Attraction Paradigm indicate that people are more disposed to feel attraction to those who are similar to them. A field study with the comparative data of 89 dyads investigated the effect of the actual and perceived similarity in the quality of the relationship between superiors and subordinates within the Leader-Member Exchange [LMX] perspective. The investigated characteristics were: gender, age and work-family conflict. The data indicate the influence only of perceived similarity in the quality of the relationship between superiors and subordinates. This effect broadens when the subordinate feels satisfied with the quality and frequency of contact with his/her superior. The methodological procedures included factorial analysis and validation of two scales (EIFT and LMX-7, the correlations analysis and hierarchic regressions. Finally, the implications of some results and directions for future research in diversity are discussed.

  20. Lignin-based carbon fibers: Carbon nanotube decoration and superior thermal stability

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Long; Lubineau, Gilles; Payne, Scott A.; Gutschmidt, David

    2014-01-01

    and the properties of the resultant products were studied and compared. The CF–CNT hybrid structure produced at 850 °C using a palladium catalyst showed the highest thermal stability, i.e., 98.3% residual weight at 950 °C. A mechanism for such superior thermal

  1. Ni Nanobuffer Layer Provides Light-Weight CNT/Cu Fibers with Superior Robustness, Conductivity, and Ampacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jingyun; Liu, Dandan; Zhao, Jingna; Hou, Ligan; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian T; Li, Qingwen

    2018-03-07

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber has not shown its advantage as next-generation light-weight conductor due to the large contact resistance between CNTs, as reflected by its low conductivity and ampacity. Coating CNT fiber with a metal layer like Cu has become an effective solution to this problem. However, the weak CNT-Cu interfacial bonding significantly limits the mechanical and electrical performances. Here, we report that a strong CNT-Cu interface can be formed by introducing a Ni nanobuffer layer before depositing the Cu layer. The Ni nanobuffer layer remarkably promotes the load and heat transfer efficiencies between the CNT fiber and Cu layer and improves the quality of the deposited Cu layer. As a result, the new composite fiber with a 2 μm thick Cu layer can exhibit a superhigh effective strength >800 MPa, electrical conductivity >2 × 10 7 S/m, and ampacity >1 × 10 5 A/cm 2 . The composite fiber can also sustain 10 000 times of bending and continuously work for 100 h at 90% ampacity.

  2. Human middle longitudinal fascicle: segregation and behavioral-clinical implications of two distinct fiber connections linking temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus with the angular gyrus or superior parietal lobule using multi-tensor tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, N; Preti, M G; Wassermann, D; Rathi, Y; Papadimitriou, G M; Yergatian, C; Dickerson, B C; Shenton, M E; Kubicki, M

    2013-09-01

    The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a major fiber connection running principally between the superior temporal gyrus and the parietal lobe, neocortical regions of great biological and clinical interest. Although one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts, it has only recently been discovered in humans. In this high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delineated the two major fiber connections of the human MdLF, by examining morphology, topography, cortical connections, biophysical measures, volume and length in seventy-four brains. These two fiber connections course together through the dorsal temporal pole and the superior temporal gyrus maintaining a characteristic topographic relationship in the mediolateral and ventrodorsal dimensions. As these pathways course towards the parietal lobe, they split to form separate fiber pathways, one following a ventrolateral trajectory and connecting with the angular gyrus and the other following a dorsomedial route and connecting with the superior parietal lobule. Based on the functions of their cortical affiliations, we suggest that the superior temporal-angular connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)AG plays a role in language and attention, whereas the superior temporal-superior parietal connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)SPL is involved in visuospatial and integrative audiovisual functions. Furthermore, the MdLF may have clinical implications in neurodegenerative disorders such as primary progressive aphasia, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy, corticobulbar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease as well as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia.

  3. Fiber quality challenges facing the cotton industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton industry is in the midst of an exciting time with increased domestic consumption, but also facing pressure from other crops and the global marketplace. In order to ensure the US cotton crop remains the fiber of choice for the world it is important to keep an eye on the challenges to fibe...

  4. Association fibers connecting the Broca center and the lateral superior frontal gyrus: a microsurgical and tractographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Masashi; Shinohara, Harumichi; Hori, Osamu; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Ueda, Fumiaki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro; Hayashi, Yutaka

    2012-02-01

    Recently, intraoperative mapping has disclosed that, in addition to the classic language centers (that is, the Broca and Wernicke centers), other cortical regions may also play an important role in language organization. In the prefrontal cortex, although the lateral superior frontal gyrus (LSFG) could have language-related functions, there are no detailed reports that demonstrate the anatomical connection between the LSFG and other well-known language cortices, such as the Broca center. To show the existence of the structural connection, white matter association fibers between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the LSFG were examined using fiber dissection (FD) and diffusion tensor (DT) imaging-based tractography. Eight cadaveric cerebral hemispheres were dissected to reveal the association fibers between the IFG and LSFG. The DT imaging-based tractography studies targeting the prefrontal cortex were obtained in 53 right-handed patients who had no organic cerebral lesions. The association fiber tract between Brodmann area 44/45 (the Broca center in the dominant hemisphere) and LSFG were detected in all specimens by FD. In the DT imaging-based tractography studies, the tract was identified in all patients bilaterally, except for the 4 in whom the tract was detected only in the left hemisphere. This tract was spread significantly wider in the left than in the right hemisphere, and left lateralization was evident in male patients. Based on its character, this tract was named the Broca-LSFG pathway. These findings suggest a close relationship between this pathway and language organization. The structural anatomy of the Broca-LSFG pathway may explain speech disturbances induced by LSFG stimulation that are sometimes observed during intraoperative language mapping.

  5. Fabrication Quality Analysis of a Fiber Optic Refractive Index Sensor Created by CO2 Laser Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Te Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the CO2 laser-stripped partial cladding of silica-based optic fibers with a core diameter of 400 μm, which enables them to sense the refractive index of the surrounding environment. However, inappropriate treatments during the machining process can generate a number of defects in the optic fiber sensors. Therefore, the quality of optic fiber sensors fabricated using CO2 laser machining must be analyzed. The results show that analysis of the fiber core size after machining can provide preliminary defect detection, and qualitative analysis of the optical transmission defects can be used to identify imperfections that are difficult to observe through size analysis. To more precisely and quantitatively detect fabrication defects, we included a tensile test and numerical aperture measurements in this study. After a series of quality inspections, we proposed improvements to the existing CO2 laser machining parameters, namely, a vertical scanning pathway, 4 W of power, and a feed rate of 9.45 cm/s. Using these improved parameters, we created optical fiber sensors with a core diameter of approximately 400 μm, no obvious optical transmission defects, a numerical aperture of 0.52 ± 0.019, a 0.886 Weibull modulus, and a 1.186 Weibull-shaped parameter. Finally, we used the optical fiber sensor fabricated using the improved parameters to measure the refractive indices of various solutions. The results show that a refractive-index resolution of 1.8 × 10−4 RIU (linear fitting R2 = 0.954 was achieved for sucrose solutions with refractive indices ranging between 1.333 and 1.383. We also adopted the particle plasmon resonance sensing scheme using the fabricated optical fibers. The results provided additional information, specifically, a superior sensor resolution of 5.73 × 10−5 RIU, and greater linearity at R2 = 0.999.

  6. Lowering virus attack with improved yield and fiber quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three year study with the objective of exploring the possible role of different sowing dates and cotton genotypes on seed cotton yield, fiber quality and virus attack was conducted at the Cotton Research Station (CRS), Multan, Pakistan during three consecutive years (2006, 2007 and 2008). Two cotton genotypes namely: ...

  7. Characterization and Effects of Fiber Pull-Outs in Hole Quality of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Ashrafi, Sina; Miller, Peter W; Wandro, Kevin M; Kim, Dave

    2016-10-13

    Hole quality plays a crucial role in the production of close-tolerance holes utilized in aircraft assembly. Through drilling experiments of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic composites (CFRP), this study investigates the impact of varying drilling feed and speed conditions on fiber pull-out geometries and resulting hole quality parameters. For this study, hole quality parameters include hole size variance, hole roundness, and surface roughness. Fiber pull-out geometries are quantified by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the mechanically-sectioned CFRP-machined holes, to measure pull-out length and depth. Fiber pull-out geometries and the hole quality parameter results are dependent on the drilling feed and spindle speed condition, which determines the forces and undeformed chip thickness during the process. Fiber pull-out geometries influence surface roughness parameters from a surface profilometer, while their effect on other hole quality parameters obtained from a coordinate measuring machine is minimal.

  8. Aircraft and satellite monitoring of water quality in Lake Superior near Duluth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherz, J. P.; Sydor, M.; Vandomelen, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Satellite images and low altitude aerial photographs often show vivid discolorations in water bodies. Extensive laboratory analysis shows that water reflectance, which causes brightness on aerial images, positively correlates to the water quality parameter of turbidity, which on a particular day correlates to suspended solids. Work with low altitude photography on three overcast days and with ERTS images on five clear days provides positive correlation of image brightness to the high turbidity and solids which are present in Lake Superior near Duluth over 50% of the time. Proper use of aerial images would have shown that an $8,000,000 drinking water intake constructed in the midst of this unpotable, turbid water should have been located 6 miles north in clear, usable water. Noise effects such as skylight reflection, atmospheric effects, and depth penetration also must be understood for operational use of remote sensing for water quality monitoring and are considered in the paper.

  9. [Ecological regionalization of national cotton fiber quality in China using GGE biplot analysis method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nai Yin; Jin, Shi Qiao; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The distinctive regional characteristics of cotton fiber quality in the major cotton-producing areas in China enhance the textile use efficiency of raw cotton yarn by improving fiber quality through ecological regionalization. The "environment vs. trait" GGE biplot analysis method was adopted to explore the interaction between conventional cotton sub-regions and cotton fiber quality traits based on the datasets collected from the national cotton regional trials from 2011 to 2015. The results showed that the major cotton-producing area in China were divided into four fiber quality ecological regions, namely, the "high fiber quality ecological region", the "low micronaire ecological region", the "high fiber strength and micronaire ecological region", and the "moderate fiber quality ecological region". The high fiber quality ecological region was characterized by harmonious development of cotton fiber length, strength, micronaire value and the highest spinning consistency index, and located in the conventional cotton regions in the upper and lower reaches of Yangtze River Valley. The low micronaire value ecological region composed of the northern and south Xinjiang cotton regions was characterized by low micronaire value, relatively lower fiber strength, and relatively high spinning consistency index performance. The high fiber strength and micronaire value ecological region covered the middle reaches of Yangtze River Valley, Nanxiang Basin and Huaibei Plain, and was prominently characterized by high strength and micronaire value, and moderate performance of other traits. The moderate fiber quality ecological region included North China Plain and Loess Plateau cotton growing regions in the Yellow River Valley, and was characterized by moderate or lower performances of all fiber quality traits. This study effectively applied "environment vs. trait" GGE biplot to regionalize cotton fiber quality, which provided a helpful reference for the regiona-lized cotton growing

  10. High-quality fiber fabrication in buffered hydrofluoric acid solution with ultrasonic agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nianbing; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Wang, Yongzhong; Chen, Rong

    2013-03-01

    An etching method for preparing high-quality fiber-optic sensors using a buffered etchant with ultrasonic agitation is proposed. The effects of etching conditions on the etch rate and surface morphology of the etched fibers are investigated. The effect of surface roughness is discussed on the fibers' optical properties. Linear etching behavior and a smooth fiber surface can be repeatedly obtained by adjusting the ultrasonic power and etchant pH. The fibers' spectral quality is improved as the ratio of the pit depth to size decreases, and the fibers with smooth surfaces are more sensitive to a bacterial suspension than those with rough surfaces.

  11. Superior quality diamond heel inserts improve cutting structure and seal life in abrasive and directional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Tyler; Scott, Dan; Nelms, Derek [Society of Petroleum Engineers (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil and gas industry, continuous improvements over the last century have led to the development of increasingly efficient drilling equipment. Among the new technologies is the polycrystalline diamond compact bit which has become more efficient than roller cone bits for several applications; the utilization of roller cone bits is now restricted to tough applications such as directional drilling and drilling through hard and abrasive formations. The aim of this paper is to present the development of improved roller cone bits using new designs and diamond inserts of superior quality. Two case studies on the use of improved roller cone bits are presented herein. Results showed that the novel diamond inserts combined with the design improvements provide better wear resistance. This paper demonstrated that roller cone bits have achieved greater reliability and longevity thanks to the new generation of diamond inserts and to design improvements.

  12. Developmental and hormonal regulation of fiber quality in two natural-colored cotton cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang; HU Da-peng; LI Yuan; CHEN Yuan; Eltayib H.M.A.Abidallha; DONG Zhao-di; CHEN De-hua; ZHANG Lei

    2017-01-01

    Cotton cultivars with brown (Xiangcaimian 2),green (Wanmian 39) and white (Sumian 9) fiber were investigated to study fiber developmental characteristics of natural-colored cotton and the effect of hormones on fiber quality at different stages after anthesis.Fiber lengths of both natural-colored cottons were lower than the white-fibered control,with brown-flbered cotton longer than green.Fiber strength,micronaire and maturation of natural-colored cotton were also lower than the control.The shorter fiber of the green cultivar was due to slower growth during 10 to 30 days post-anthesis (DPA).Likewise,the lower fiber strength,micronaire and maturation of natured-colored cotton were also due to slower growth during this pivotal stage.Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content at 10 DPA,and abscisic acid (ABA) content at 30 to 40 DPA were lower in the fibers of the natural-colored than that of the white-flbered cotton.After applying 20 mg L-1 gibberellic acid (GA3),the IAA content at 20 DPA in the brown and green-fibered cottons increased by 51.07 and 64.33%,fiber ABA content increased by 38.96 and 24.40%,and fiber length increased by 8.13 and 13.96%,respectively.Fiber strength,micronaire and maturation were also enhanced at boll opening stage.Those results suggest that the level of endogenous hormones affect fiber quality.Application of external hormones can increase hormone content in natural-colored cotton fiber,improving its quality.

  13. Subjective qualities of memories associated with the picture superiority effect in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huron, Caroline; Danion, Jean-Marie; Rizzo, Lydia; Killofer, Valérie; Damiens, Annabelle

    2003-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (n = 24) matched with 24 normal subjects were presented with both words and pictures. On a recognition memory task, they were asked to give remember, know, or guess responses to items that were recognized on the basis of conscious recollection, familiarity, or guessing, respectively. Compared with normal subjects, patients exhibited a lower picture superiority effect selectively related to remember responses. Unlike normal subjects, they did not exhibit any word superiority effect in relation to guess responses; this explains why the overall picture superiority effect appeared to be intact. These results emphasize the need to take into account the subjective states of awareness when analyzing memory impairments in schizophrenia.

  14. Effects of addition of different fibers on rheological characteristics of cake batter and quality of cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Ayca; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of addition of dietary fibers on rheological properties of batter and cake quality. Wheat flour was replaced by 5 and 10% (wt%) oat, pea, apple and lemon fibers. All cake batters showed shear thinning behavior. Incorporation of fibers increased consistency index (k), storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″). As quality parameters, specific volume, hardness, weight loss, color and microstructure of cakes were investigated. Cakes containing oat and pea fibers (5%) had similar specific volume and texture with control cakes which contained no fiber. As fiber concentration increased, specific volume decreased but hardness increased. No significant difference was found between weight loss of control cake and cakes with oat, pea and apple fibers. Lemon fiber enriched cakes had the lowest specific volume, weight loss and color difference. When microstructural images were examined, it was seen that control cake had more porous structure than fiber enriched cakes. In addition, lemon and apple fiber containing cakes had less porous crumb structure as compared to oat and pea containing ones. Oat and pea fiber (5%) enriched cakes had similar physical properties (volume, texture and color) with control cakes.

  15. Effect of Chicory Fiber and Smoking on Quality Characteristics of Restructured Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Su; Choi, Hyung-Gyu; Choi, Yeong-Seok; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Ju-Ho; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Choi, Yang-Il

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chicory fiber for the replacement of fat and smoking on quality characteristics of restructured sausages. Treatments were as follows; Control: Pork backfat 20%, T1: Pork backfat 10% + Chicory fiber 10%, T2: Control + Smoking, T3: T1 + Smoking. The addition of chicory fiber significantly reduced the moisture, fat, hardness and pH values, whereas the smoking treatment increased the fat, redness and pH values of restructured sausages (psausages. As a result, although the addition of chicory fiber decreased the quality characteristics of sausage, smoking treatment improved the reduced quality. Therefore, the chicory fiber and smoking treatment is helpful to develop restructured sausage products with reduced fat and compensated quality. PMID:27499674

  16. Asymmetry of Peak Thicknesses between the Superior and Inferior Retinal Nerve Fiber Layers for Early Glaucoma Detection: A Simple Screening Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyoung Won; Lee, Sang Yeop; Kim, Sangah; Park, Chan Keum; Lee, Kwanghyun; Kim, Chan Yun; Seong, Gong Je

    2018-01-01

    To assess whether the asymmetry in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness between superior and inferior hemispheres on optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful for early detection of glaucoma. The patient population consisted of Training set (a total of 60 subjects with early glaucoma and 59 normal subjects) and Validation set (30 subjects with early glaucoma and 30 normal subjects). Two kinds of ratios were employed to measure the asymmetry between the superior and inferior pRNFL thickness using OCT. One was the ratio of the superior to inferior peak thicknesses (peak pRNFL thickness ratio; PTR), and the other was the ratio of the superior to inferior average thickness (average pRNFL thickness ratio; ATR). The diagnostic abilities of the PTR and ATR were compared to the color code classification in OCT. Using the optimal cut-off values of the PTR and ATR obtained from the Training set, the two ratios were independently validated for diagnostic capability. For the Training set, the sensitivities/specificities of the PTR, ATR, quadrants color code classification, and clock-hour color code classification were 81.7%/93.2%, 71.7%/74.6%, 75.0%/93.2%, and 75.0%/79.7%, respectively. The PTR showed a better diagnostic performance for early glaucoma detection than the ATR and the clock-hour color code classification in terms of areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) (0.898, 0.765, and 0.773, respectively). For the Validation set, the PTR also showed the best sensitivity and AUC. The PTR is a simple method with considerable diagnostic ability for early glaucoma detection. It can, therefore, be widely used as a new screening method for early glaucoma. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018

  17. Batako Quality Optimization with Addition of Palm Oil Stem Fiber from Kampar District and Dumai City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuri; Yanti, Gusneli; Wahyuni Megasari, Shanti

    2017-12-01

    The waste of dry palm oil produced by 148 trees per hectare is 3,108 ton/month or 37,296 ton/year as calculated. Riau province has oil palm plantations covering an area of 2.399.172 hectares (BPS Riau Province, 2014). It can be estimated the amount of waste generated. Palm stem waste can be utilized, one of which is the utilization of midrib fiber as an added material in the manufacture of batako. Batako- fiber that is made still must be examined feasibility as building materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimization of the quality of batako works by the addition of palm stem fiber originated from the districts of Kampar and Dumai. This research used experimental method with laboratory research. Batako-fiber with the addition of palm fiber stem 1% of the weight of cement can increase the value of compressive strength above the normal batako and a batako with first quality according to SNI 03-0349-1989 standard. The use of palm stem fiber originating from the Kampar district resulted in better batakos with higher average compressive strength values than the dumai-derived fibers, especially in the addition of 1% fiber by weight of cement. The finding of this research is that the batakos originating from Kampar district are better than those from Dumai city. The most optimal addition of palm fiber burrs to batako-fiber products is 1% of the weight of cement.

  18. Development of a biotechnological process for the production of high quality linen fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Juárez, Ana Gabriela; Rost, Gernot; Heitmann, Uwe; Heger, Egon; Müller, Rudolf

    2011-10-01

    A novel biotechnological process for the production of high-quality flax fibers was developed. In this process, decorticated fibers from green flax were washed with 0.5% soda solution and treated with the pectinolytic strain Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius PB94A. Before drying the fibers, they were treated with the textile softener Adulcinol BUN. If the fibers contained contaminant shives, a bleaching step with hydrogen peroxide was performed before the softener treatment. In experiments where fibers were treated by the new process, and in which the bacterial solutions were reused seven times, the fiber quality was similar in all batches. The resolution of the treated fibers was 2.7 ± 0.4 and the fineness was 11.1 ± 1.1 dtex, while the starting material had a resolution of 7.3 and a fineness of 37 dtex. The new biotechnological treatment eliminates the weather-associated risks of the traditional fiber retting completely and produces consistently high-quality fibers that can be used to produce fine linen yarns.

  19. Quality and performance of laser cutting with a high power SM fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Morten; Selchau, Jacob; Olsen, F. O.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of high power single mode fiber lasers allows for a beam of high power and a good beam quality factor (M2 ” 1.2), compared to the multimode fiber lasers often utilised in macro laser metal cutting. This paper describes fundamental studies of macro laser metal cutting with a singl...

  20. Boll sampling protocols and their impact on measurements of cotton fiber quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within plant fiber variability has long contributed to product inconsistency in the cotton industry. Fiber quality uniformity is a primary plant breeding objective related to cotton commodity economic value. The physiological impact of source and sink relationships renders stress on the upper bran...

  1. Cleaving of TOPAS and PMMA microstructured polymer optical fibers: Core-shift and statistical quality optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2012-01-01

    We fabricated an electronically controlled polymer optical fiber cleaver, which uses a razor-blade guillotine and provides independent control of fiber temperature, blade temperature, and cleaving speed. To determine the optimum cleaving conditions of microstructured polymer optical fibers (m......POFs) with hexagonal hole structures we developed a program for cleaving quality optimization, which reads in a microscope image of the fiber end-facet and determines the core-shift and the statistics of the hole diameter, hole-to-hole pitch, hole ellipticity, and direction of major ellipse axis. For 125μm in diameter...

  2. Comparative proteome analysis of glutenin synthesis and accumulation in developing grains between superior and poor quality bread wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan; Zhang, Yanzhen; Gao, Xuan; Wang, Ke; Wang, Shunli; Zhang, Yong; He, Zhonghu; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Yueming

    2012-01-15

    Wheat glutenins are the major determinants of wheat quality. In this study, grains at the development stage from three wheat cultivars (Jimai 20, Jin 411 and Zhoumai 16) with different bread-making quality were harvested based on thermal times from 150 °C(d) to 750 °C(d) , and were used to investigate glutenin accumulation patterns and their relationships with wheat quality. High and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs) were synthesised concurrently. No obvious correlations between HMW/LMW glutenin ratios and dough property were observed. Accumulation levels of HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs as well as 1Bx13 + 1By16 and 1Dx4 + 1Dy12 subunits were higher in superior gluten quality cultivar Jimain 20 than in poor quality cultivar Jing 411 and Zhoumai 16. According to the results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, six types of accumulation patterns in LMW-GSs were identified and classified. The possible relationships between individual LMW-GSs and gluten quality were established. The high accumulation level of HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs as well as 1Bx13 + 1By16 and 1Dx4 + 1Dy12 subunits contributed to the superior gluten quality of Jimai 20. Two highly expressed and 16 specifically expressed LMW glutenin subunits in Jimain 20 had positive effects on dough quality, while 17 specifically expressed subunits in Zhoumai 16 and Jing 411 appeared to have negative effects on gluten quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of potassium fertilizer on the physiological mechanisms of cotton fiber quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.; Chai, Z.; Sheng, J.; Jiang, P.

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous hormones are a key factor in cotton fiber quality. Studying the relationship among endogenous hormone contents and fiber quality can provide a theoretical basis for exploring physiological measurements to improve fiber quality. The relationships among endogenous hormone contents and fiber quality for different boll positions and potassium (K) conditions were investigated for the main cultivar 'Xinluzao' 24. We used eight application rates of K fertilizer (K/sub 2/O 0, 37.5, 75, 112.5, 150, 37.5 and sprayed 1% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 75 and sprayed 1% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and 150 and sprayed 1% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ kg ha/sup -1/ under field conditions). We then measured the contents of indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellin (GA3), zeatin (Z), and abscisic acid (ABA) in relation to changes in fiber quality indices. Results showed that application of K fertilizer significantly increased the contents of IAA, GA3, and Z in the upper and middle boll, and decreased the contents of ABA in the upper, middle, and the lower boll. Compared with the control, applying K fertilizer between 37.5 kg K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ and 112.5 kg K2O ha/sup -1/ can significantly increase the length, uniformity, strength, micronaire, and maturity of fiber in three parts of the plant. However, excessive application of K fertilizer can reduce fiber uniformity, strength, and micronaire in these locations. Through comprehensive comparison, we determined that the optimal application of K fertilizer for regulating endogenous hormones and improving fiber quality was a basal application of 75 kg K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ and a spray application of 1% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The endogenous hormones IAA, GA/sub 3/, and Z can improve cotton fiber quality, but ABA can inhibit cotton fiber quality. Results indicate that reasonable applications of potassium fertilizer could regulate endogenous hormones and improve fiber quality.

  4. Response of cotton varieties to different environments: flowering behavior and fiber quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawdat, D.; Ayyoub, Z.; Elias, R.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering behavior and fiber quality traits were analyzed of six Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties and one G. barbadense variety that were cultivated in two environmentally different locations. Records of days after planting (DAP) at first floral bud emergence, DAP at first floral opening, plant height at first flower and nodes above white flower (NAWF) were analyzed statistically to study flowering behavior in both locations. Fiber traits were tested and records of micronaire, fiber length, strength, cohesion, elongation, ginning percentage, and weight of seed cotton were statistically analyzed to look for significant differences and correlations. Earliness and a decline in fiber strength, and fiber cohesion were obtained in varieties cultivated in Soujeh accompanied with an increase in ginning percentages. Uniquely, fiber elongation showed no significant differences in varieties between the two environments in both seasons. Our results indicated that stability in some fiber traits such as, micronaire, fiber length, strength and cohesion was a variety specific. Evidently, fiber elongation in our work was not affected by cultivation managements and environmental conditions which suggest the solid genetic bases that control this trait. (author)

  5. Response of cotton varieties to different environments flowering behavior and fiber quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawdat, D.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Al-Safadi, B.

    2015-01-01

    The flowering behavior and fiber quality traits were analyzed of six Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties and one G. barbadense variety that were cultivated in two environmentally different locations. Records of days after planting (DAP) at first floral bud emergence, DAP at first floral opening, plant height at first flower and nodes above white flower (NAWF) were analyzed statistically to study flowering behavior in both locations. Fiber traits were tested and records of micronaire, fiber length, strength, cohesion, elongation, ginning percentage, and weight of seed cotton were statistically analyzed to look for significant differences and correlations. Earliness and a decline in fiber strength, and fiber cohesion were obtained in varieties cultivated in Soujeh accompanied with an increase in ginning percentages. Uniquely, fiber elongation showed no significant differences in varieties between the two environments in both seasons. Our results indicated that stability in some fiber traits such as, micronaire, fiber length, strength and cohesion was a variety specific. Evidently, fiber elongation in our work was not affected by cultivation managements and environmental conditions which suggest the solid genetic bases that control this trait.(author)

  6. Surface Quality of Staggered PCD End Mill in Milling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Machined surface quality determines the reliability, wear resistance and service life of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP workpieces. In this work, the formation mechanism of the surface topography and the machining defects of CFRPs are proposed, and the influence of milling parameters and fiber cutting angles on the surface quality of CFRPs is obtained, which can provide a reference for extended tool life and good surface quality. Trimming and slot milling tests of unidirectional CFRP laminates are performed. The surface roughness of the machined surface is measured, and the influence of milling parameters on the surface roughness is analyzed. A regression model for the surface roughness of CFRP milling is established. A significance test of the regression model is conducted. The machined surface topography of milling CFRP unidirectional laminates with different fiber orientations is analyzed, and the effect of fiber cutting angle on the surface topography of the machined surface is presented by using a digital super depth-of-field microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. To study the influence of fiber cutting angle on machining defects, the machined topography under different fiber orientations is analyzed. The slot milling defects and their formation mechanism under different fiber cutting angles are investigated.

  7. Harvest timing and techniques to optimize fiber quality - Initial findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production conditions typical to the Texas High Plains region can produce cotton crops with high short fiber and nep content, both of which have a detrimental impact on ring spinning performance. Since Texas now produces nearly 50% of the US cotton crop annually, it is critical that research focuses...

  8. Evaluating the beam quality of double-cladding fiber lasers in applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ping; Wang, Xuejiao; Gong, Mali; Xiao, Qirong

    2016-08-10

    We put forward a new βFL factor, which is used exclusively in fiber lasers and is suitable to assess beam quality and choose the LP01 mode as the new suitable ideal beam. We present a new simple measurement method and verify the reasonability of the βFL factor in experiment in a 20/400 μm fiber laser. Furthermore, we use the βFL factor to evaluate the beam quality of a 3-kW-level fiber laser. It can be concluded that βFL is a key factor not only for assessing the performance of the high-power fiber laser that is our main focus, but also for the simple measurement.

  9. The effect of pineapple core fiber on dough rheology and the quality of mantou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy-Yu Shiau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of dietary fiber offers the health benefit of lowering the risk of many chronic diseases. Pineapple core fiber (PCF in this study was extracted and incorporated into dough and mantou (i.e., steamed bread. The effects of PCF substitution and fiber size on textural and rheological properties of dough and mantou were evaluated by a texture analyzer. The substitution of wheat flour by PCF resulted in a stiffer and less extensible dough with or without fermentation. The hardness and gumminess of mantou significantly increased as the PCF substitution increased from 0% to 15%, but the cohesiveness, specific volume, and elasticity significantly decreased with the fiber substitution. Ten percent PCF-enriched dough and mantou with various fiber sizes had similar rheological and textural properties, except for the k1 and k2 values. By sensory evaluation, 5% PCF-enriched mantou and the control bread had better acceptability in texture, color, odor, and overall acceptability, compared to mantous enriched with 10% or 15% PCF. Significant correlations existed between the rheological properties of dough and textural parameters of mantou and between the sensory quality and textural parameters of mantou. Therefore, we suggest that fiber-enriched mantou can be prepared with 5% PCF substitution to increase the intake of dietary fiber and maintain the quality of mantou.

  10. Development and evaluation of optical fiber NH3 sensors for application in air quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Wieck, Lucas; Tao, Shiquan

    2013-02-01

    Ammonia is a major air pollutant emitted from agricultural practices. Sources of ammonia include manure from animal feeding operations and fertilizer from cropping systems. Sensor technologies with capability of continuous real time monitoring of ammonia concentration in air are needed to qualify ammonia emissions from agricultural activities and further evaluate human and animal health effects, study ammonia environmental chemistry, and provide baseline data for air quality standard. We have developed fiber optic ammonia sensors using different sensing reagents and different polymers for immobilizing sensing reagents. The reversible fiber optic sensors have detection limits down to low ppbv levels. The response time of these sensors ranges from seconds to tens minutes depending on transducer design. In this paper, we report our results in the development and evaluation of fiber optic sensor technologies for air quality monitoring. The effect of change of temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide concentration on fiber optic ammonia sensors has been investigated. Carbon dioxide in air was found not interfere the fiber optic sensors for monitoring NH3. However, the change of humidity can cause interferences to some fiber optic NH3 sensors depending on the sensor's transducer design. The sensitivity of fiber optic NH3 sensors was found depends on temperature. Methods and techniques for eliminating these interferences have been proposed.

  11. Exp2 polymorphisms associated with variation for fiber quality properties in cotton (Gossypium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daohua He

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant expansins are a group of extracellular proteins thought to affect the quality of cotton fibers. Previous expression profile analysis revealed that six Expansin A genes are present in cotton, of which two (GhExp1 and GhExp2 produce transcripts that are specific to the developing cotton fiber. To identify the phenotypic function of Exp2, and to determine whether nucleotide variation among alleles of Exp2 affects fiber quality, candidate gene association mapping was conducted. Gene-specific primers were designed to amplify the Exp2 gene. By amplicon sequencing, the nucleotide diversity of Exp2 was investigated across 92 accessions (including 7 Gossypium arboreum, 74 Gossypium hirsutum, and 11 Gossypium barbadense accessions with different fiber qualities. Twenty-six SNPs and seven InDels including 14 from the coding region of Exp2 were detected, forming twelve distinct haplotypes in the cotton collection. Among the 14 SNPs in the coding region, five were missense mutations and nine were synonymous nucleotide changes. The average SNP/InDel per nucleotide ratio was 2.61% (one SNP per 39 bp, with 1.81 and 3.87% occurring in coding and non-coding regions, respectively. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity across the entire Exp2 region was 0.00603 (π and 0.844, respectively, and diversity in non-coding regions was higher than that in coding regions. For linkage disequilibrium (LD, the mean r2 value for all polymorphism loci pairs was 0.48, and LD did not decay over 748 bp. Based on 132 simple sequence repeat (SSR loci evenly covering 26 chromosomes, the population structure was estimated, and the accessions were divided into seven groups that agreed well with their genomic origin and evolutionary history. A general linear model was used to calculate the Exp2-wide diversity–trait associations of 5 fiber quality traits, considering population structure (Q. Four SNPs in Exp2 were associated with at least one of the fiber quality traits, but not with

  12. QTLs Analysis and Validation for Fiber Quality Traits Using Maternal Backcross Population in Upland Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fiber is renewable natural fiber source for textile. Improving fiber quality is an essential goal for cotton breeding project. In present study, F14 recombinant inbred line (RIL population was backcrossed by the maternal parent to obtain a backcross (BC population, derived from one Upland cotton hybrid. Three repetitive field trials were performed by randomized complete block design with two replicates in three locations in 2015, together with the BC population, common male parent and the RIL population. Totally, 26 QTLs in BC population explained 5.00–14.17% of phenotype variation (PV and 37 quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected in RIL population explaining 5.13–34.00% of PV. Seven common QTLs detected simultaneously in two populations explained PV from 7.69 to 23.05%. A total of 20 QTLs in present study verified the previous results across three environments in 2012. Particularly, qFL-Chr5-2 controlling fiber length on chromosome 5 explained 34.00% of PV, while qFL-Chr5-3 only within a 0.8 cM interval explained 13.93% of PV on average in multiple environments. These stable QTLs explaining great variation offered essential information for marker-assisted selection (MAS to improve fiber quality traits. Lots of epistasis being detected in both populations acted as one of important genetic compositions of fiber quality traits.

  13. QTLs Analysis and Validation for Fiber Quality Traits Using Maternal Backcross Population in Upland Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Yanpeng; Wang, Yumei; Shang, Lianguang; Hua, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Cotton fiber is renewable natural fiber source for textile. Improving fiber quality is an essential goal for cotton breeding project. In present study, F 14 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was backcrossed by the maternal parent to obtain a backcross (BC) population, derived from one Upland cotton hybrid. Three repetitive field trials were performed by randomized complete block design with two replicates in three locations in 2015, together with the BC population, common male parent and the RIL population. Totally, 26 QTLs in BC population explained 5.00-14.17% of phenotype variation (PV) and 37 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected in RIL population explaining 5.13-34.00% of PV. Seven common QTLs detected simultaneously in two populations explained PV from 7.69 to 23.05%. A total of 20 QTLs in present study verified the previous results across three environments in 2012. Particularly, qFL-Chr5-2 controlling fiber length on chromosome 5 explained 34.00% of PV, while qFL-Chr5-3 only within a 0.8 cM interval explained 13.93% of PV on average in multiple environments. These stable QTLs explaining great variation offered essential information for marker-assisted selection (MAS) to improve fiber quality traits. Lots of epistasis being detected in both populations acted as one of important genetic compositions of fiber quality traits.

  14. Bowel function and quality of life after superior mesenteric nerve plexus transection in right colectomy with D3 extended mesenterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Y; Stimec, B; Andersen, S N; Lindstrom, J C; Pfeffer, F; Oresland, T; Ignjatovic, D

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the impact of injury to the superior mesenteric nerve plexus caused by right colectomy with D3 extended mesenterectomy as performed in the prospective multicenter trial: "Safe Radical D3 Right Hemicolectomy for Cancer through Preoperative Biphasic Multi-detector Computed Tomography" in which all soft tissue surrounding the superior mesenteric vessels from the level of the middle colic artery to that of the ileocolic artery was removed. Bowel function and gastrointestinal quality of life in two consecutive cohorts that underwent right colectomy with and without D3 extended mesenterectomy were compared. Main outcome measures were the Diarrhea Assessment Scale (DAS) and Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). The data were collected prospectively through telephone interviews. Forty-nine patients per group, comparable for age, sex, length of bowel resected but with significantly shorter follow-up time in the experimental group, were included. There was no difference in total DAS scores, subscores or additional questions except for higher bowel frequency scores in the D3 group (p = 0.02). Comparison of total GIQLI scores and subscales showed no difference between groups. Regression analysis with correction for confounding factors showed 0.48 lower bowel frequency scores in the D2 group (p = 0.022). Within the D3 group presence of jejunal arteries cranial to the D3 dissection area showed 1.78 lower DAS scores and 0.7 lower bowel frequency scores. Small bowel denervation after right colectomy with D3 extended mesenterectomy leads to increased bowel frequency but does not impact gastrointestinal quality of life. Individual anatomical variants can affect postoperative bowel function differently despite standardized surgery.

  15. Architectures for radio over fiber transmission of high-quality video and data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedev, Alexander

    with a constraint on complexity. For wireless personal area networks distribution, we explore the notion of joint optimization of physical layer parameters of a fiber-wireless link (optical power levels, wireless transmission distance) and the codec parameters (quantization, error-resilience tools) based...... on the peak signal-to-noise ratio as an objective video quality metric for compressed video transmission. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate uncompressed 1080i highdefinition video distribution in V-band (50–75 GHz) and W-band (75–110 GHz) fiber-wireless links achieving 3 m of wireless transmission...... efficient wired/wireless backhaul of picocell networks. Gigabit signal transmission is realized in combined fiber-wireless-fiber link enabling simultaneous backhaul of dense metropolitan and suburban areas. In this Thesis, we propose a technique to combat periodic chromatic dispersion-induced radio...

  16. Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meals instead of white rice. Add beans (kidney, black, navy, and pinto) to rice dishes for even more fiber. Spice up salads with berries and almonds, chickpeas, cooked artichokes, and beans (kidney, black, navy, or pinto). Use whole-grain (corn or ...

  17. Single-crystal SrTiO3 fiber grown by laser heated pedestal growth method: influence of ceramic feed rod preparation in fiber quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Reyes Ardila

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly spreading use of optical fiber as a transmission medium has created an interest in fiber-compatible optical devices and methods for growing them, such as the Laser Heated Pedestal Growth (LHPG. This paper reports on the influence of the ceramic feed rod treatment on fiber quality and optimization of ceramic pedestal processing that allows improvements to be made on the final quality in a simple manner. Using the LHPG technique, transparent crack-free colorless single crystal fibers of SrTiO3 (0.50 mm in diameter and 30-40 mm in length were grown directly from green-body feed rods, without using external oxygen atmosphere.

  18. Quality Evaluation of Chicken Nugget Formulated with Various Contents of Chicken Skin and Wheat Fiber Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of various mixtures of the chicken skin and wheat fiber on the properties of chicken nuggets. Two skin and fiber mixtures (SFM) were prepared using the following formulations; SFM-1: chicken skin (50%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (30%); and SFM-2: chicken skin (30%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (50%). Chicken nugget samples were prepared by adding the following amounts of either SFM-1 or SFM-2: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The water content for samples formulated with SFM-1 or SFM-2 was higher than in the control (pchicken nuggets was higher than that of cooked chicken nuggets for all the samples tested. Chicken nuggets formulated with SFM-1 and SFM-2 displayed higher cooking yields than the control sample. The hardness of the control sample was also lower than the samples containing SFM-1 and SFM-2. The sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control and the samples containing SFM. Therefore, the incorporation of a chicken skin and wheat fiber mixture improved the quality of chicken nuggets. PMID:26761796

  19. Quality characteristics and consumer acceptance of yogurt fortified with date fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; Khalil, A H; Afifi, H S

    2009-11-01

    Yogurt is considered a healthy food and incorporating dietary fiber will make it even healthier. Date fiber (DF), a by-product of date syrup production, is a good source of dietary fiber. The effect of fortification with DF on fresh yogurt quality was investigated. Acidity, pH, color [L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) values], texture profile, sensory properties, and consumer acceptance were studied. Control yogurt (without fiber), yogurt fortified with 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% DF, and yogurt with 1.5% wheat bran (WB) were prepared. Fortification with DF did not cause significant changes in yogurt acidity, although pH was increased. Yogurts fortified with DF had firmer texture (higher hardness values) and darker color (lower L* and higher a*) compared with control or WB yogurts. Consumer test results indicated that the appearance, color, and flavor ratings were significantly affected by fiber fortification. Yogurt fortified with up to 3% DF had similar sourness, sweetness, firmness, smoothness, and overall acceptance ratings as the control yogurt. Sensory ratings and acceptability of yogurt decreased significantly when increasing DF to 4.5% or using 1.5% WB. Flavoring yogurt fortified with 4.5% DF with vanilla did not improve flavor or overall acceptance ratings. Thus, fortifying yogurt with 3% DF produced acceptable yogurt with beneficial health effects.

  20. Radiation resistivity of quartz core fiber, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozen, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Toshiya; Hayashi, Tokuji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Shinichi.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation resistance characteristics were evaluated for a multi-mode quartz core fiber in low temperature region together with photobleaching effect depending on the incident light power and dependency on the wavelength of measuring rays. This report describes the results of the abovementioned items and the next step study of trial manufacturing of a pure-quartz single-mode fiber for the employment of longer wavelength rays and greater capacity in light transmission communication system. Quartz core fiber specimens were irradiated by 60 Co γ-ray source at -55 deg C to 80 deg C in a constant temperature bath and light transmission loss was determined under irradiation conditions. Low temperature characteristics were superior in an MRT (modified rod-in tube) pure quartz fiber prepared by the plasma method as compared to VAD quartz and Ge-GI fibers. The MRT fiber showed better quality than the Ge-GI fiber also in the photobleaching effect examination. As for the wavelength dependency, light transmission loss of the MRT fiber was less than that of the Ge-GI fiber. The MRT fiber also showed a superior quality in the wide range of irradiation temperatures. Based on the above-mentioned understandings, a pure-quartz single-mode fiber of both BF 3 -doped and F-doped cladding types were developed for longer wavelengths uses. The fibers could attain low light transmission loss of less than 1.0 dB/km at 1.30 μm of wavelength. At the standpoint of radiation resistivity, the BF 3 -doped fiber was found superior. (Takagi, S.)

  1. Genetic diversity in upland cotton for cotton leaf curl virus disease, earliness and fiber quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, F.; Farooq, J.; Mahmood, A.; Hussain, T.

    2014-01-01

    In Pakistan during last two decades the major factor limiting cotton production is cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD). For estimation of genetic diversity regarding CLCuD tolerance, fiber quality and some yield contributing traits, 101 cotton genotypes imported from USA were evaluated. Different statistical procedures like cluster, principle components (PC) and correlation analysis were employed to identify the suitable genotypes that can be further exploited in breeding programme. Significant associations were found between yield contributing trait, boll weight and fiber related trait, staple length. Earliness related traits, like days taken to 1 square and days taken to 1 flower had positive correlation with each other and both these traits also showed their positive association with ginning out turn. The negative significant correlation of CLCuD was obtained with monopodial branches, sympodial branches and plant height. Principal component (PC) analysis showed first five PCs having eigen value >1 explaining 67.8% of the total variation with days to st 1 square and flowering along with plant height and sympodia plant which were being the most important characters in PC1. Cluster analysis classified 101 accessions into five divergent groups. The genotypes in st cluster 1 only showed reasonable values for days to 1 square and flower, sympodia per plant, ginning out turn, staple length and fiber fineness and the genotypes in cluster 5 showed promising values for the traits like cotton leaf curl virus, ginning out turn and fiber fineness. The genotypes in cluster 1 and 5 may be combined to obtain desirable traits related to earliness and better disease tolerance. Scatter plot and tree diagrams demonstrated sufficient diversity among the cotton accessions for various traits and some extent of association between various clusters. It is concluded that diversity among the genotypes could be utilized for the development of CLCuD resistant lines with increased seed

  2. Effects of the addition of mechanically deboned poultry meat and collagen fibers on quality characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Anirene Galvão Tavares; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Teixeira, Jacyara Thaís; Cardoso, Giselle Pereira; Ramos, Alcinéia de Lemos Souza; Fontes, Paulo Rogério

    2011-12-01

    The effects of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) and levels of collagen fibers on comminuted, cooked sausage quality characteristics were investigated using the central composite rotatable design of response surface methodology (RSM). Use of collagen fiber as an additive affected the sausage characteristics, but the effect depended on the amount of the MDPM used. While MDPM additions resulted in higher cooking loss and darker and redder frankfurters, the addition of collagen fibers improved cooking yields and contributed to the lightness of the final product. Higher collagen fiber content was also accompanied by a significant increase in frankfurter hardness regardless of the MDPM content. Use of collagen fibers countered the negative effects of MDPM on sausage quality attributes, especially on cooking yields and final product color. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of cellulose fiber with different fiber length on rheological properties of wheat dough and quality of baked rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, Michaela; Kohajdová, Zlatica; Karovičová, Jolana; Kuchtová, Veronika; Minarovičová, Lucia; Tomášiková, Lenka

    2017-09-01

    Powdered cellulose is often used in cereal processing industry. The effects of partial replacement (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5%) of wheat flour by cellulose fiber with different fiber length (80, 120 and 220 µm) on rheological properties of wheat dough and qualitative parameters of baked rolls were studied. Sensory evaluation of baked products was also performed. Mixing and pasting properties of dough were determined by Mixolab. Generally, cellulose-enriched dough was characterized with higher water absorption, dough stability and parameters C2 and C3. Moreover, it was found that parameters C4 and C5 increased with increasing cellulose fiber length. From the results, it was also concluded that the physical parameters of baked rolls containing cellulose were reduced. It was also observed that the incorporation of cellulose fiber with shorter fiber length concluded in lower rolls volume compared to cellulose fiber with long fiber length. Texture analyses showed that the firmness of rolls containing cellulose at the substitution level 5% was significantly higher than those of the control, whereas the springiness of wheat rolls was not significantly affected. It was also recorded that the firmness and cohesiveness of baked rolls were higher after the addition of cellulose fiber with shorter fiber length. Sensory evaluation indicated that baked rolls with cellulose addition up to 1% were comparable with control rolls. Results also showed that higher levels of cellulose significantly decreased crust, taste, color and porosity of rolls.

  4. Light-leaking region segmentation of FOG fiber based on quality evaluation of infrared image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoting; Wang, Wei; Gao, Feng; Shan, Lianjie; Ma, Yuzhou; Ge, Wenqian

    2014-07-01

    To improve the assembly reliability of Fiber Optic Gyroscope (FOG), a light leakage detection system and method is developed. First, an agile movement control platform is designed to implement the pose control of FOG optical path component in 6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF). Second, an infrared camera is employed to capture the working state images of corresponding fibers in optical path component after the manual assembly of FOG; therefore the entire light transmission process of key sections in light-path can be recorded. Third, an image quality evaluation based region segmentation method is developed for the light leakage images. In contrast to the traditional methods, the image quality metrics, including the region contrast, the edge blur, and the image noise level, are firstly considered to distinguish the image characters of infrared image; then the robust segmentation algorithms, including graph cut and flood fill, are all developed for region segmentation according to the specific image quality. Finally, after the image segmentation of light leakage region, the typical light-leaking type, such as the point defect, the wedge defect, and the surface defect can be identified. By using the image quality based method, the applicability of our proposed system can be improved dramatically. Many experiment results have proved the validity and effectiveness of this method.

  5. An Assessment of Omani Native Sheep Fiber Production and Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Mahgoub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wool production and quality measurements were carried out on 100 Omani native female sheep (body weight 38.6 ± 5.5 kg; age 993 ± 488 d. Sheep were kept in partially shaded pens and fed ad libitum Rhodes grass hay (crude protein 8.83% plus a daily amount of 200 g general ruminant concentrate (crude protein 16.5% DM. Animals were shorn once a year and samples were taken from the left mid-side site to determine fleece and fiber characteristics. The scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to study the fine appearance of the wool fibers. A skin sample was used to study the histological arrangement and number of secondary and primary follicles. The greasy fleece weight (GFW in Omani sheep ranged between 0.50- 2.65 kg (mean 1.12 ± 0.43 kg and the GFW expressed as a percentage of BW ranged between 1.0-7.6 with a mean of 2.9 ± 1.16. Clean wool yield in Omani sheep fleece ranged between 57.1 and 88.4% with a mean of 76.4 ± 7.6. Omani sheep fleece contained various staple shapes and had a mean staple length of 22.9 ± 1.16 cm, 4.3 ± 0.8 crimps per staple; and a mean fiber diameter of 46 ± 12 µm. Electron microscopy revealed three types of fibers; wrap-around, angled type and polygonal and elongated scales. This study indicated a wide variation in the wool characteristics of Omani native sheep fleece, which suggested that selection may be employed to improve wool production and quality in these sheep.

  6. Recycled fiber quality from a laboratory-scale blade separator/blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei-Hong Liang; Stephen M. Shaler; Laurence Mott; Leslie Groom

    1994-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive fiber separator/blender was developed to generate useful secondary fibers from hydropulped waste paper. Processing wet hydropulped fiber resulted in a furnish with no change in average fiber length in three out of four types of recycled fibers tested. In all cases, the canadian standard freeness increased after processing compared to...

  7. Recycled fiber quality from a laboratory-scale blade separator/blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei-Hong Liang; Stephen M. Shaler; Laurence Mott; Leslie Groom

    1994-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive fiber separator/blender was developed to generate useful secondary fibers from hydropulped waste paper. Processing wet hydropulped fiber resulted in a furnish with no change in average fiber length in three out of four types of recycled fibers tested. In all cases, the Canadian Standard freeness increased after processing compared to...

  8. The optimal monochromatic spectral computed tomographic imaging plus adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm can improve the superior mesenteric vessel image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Xiao-Ping; Zuo, Zi-Wei; Xu, Ying-Jin; Wang, Jia-Ning [CT/MRI room, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, 071000 (China); Liu, Huai-Jun, E-mail: hebeiliu@outlook.com [Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050000 (China); Liang, Guang-Lu [CT/MRI room, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, 071000 (China); Gao, Bu-Lang, E-mail: browngao@163.com [Department of Medical Research, Shijiazhuang First Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050011 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the optimal monochromatic spectral computed tomography (CT) plus adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on the improvement of the image quality of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. Materials and methods: The gemstone spectral CT angiographic data of 25 patients were reconstructed in the following three groups: 70 KeV, the optimal monochromatic imaging, and the optimal monochromatic plus 40%iterative reconstruction mode. The CT value, image noises (IN), background CT value and noises, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and image scores of the vessels and surrounding tissues were analyzed. Results: In the 70 KeV, the optimal monochromatic and the optimal monochromatic images plus 40% iterative reconstruction group, the mean scores of image quality were 3.86, 4.24 and 4.25 for the superior mesenteric artery and 3.46, 3.78 and 3.81 for the superior mesenteric vein, respectively. The image quality scores for the optimal monochromatic and the optimal monochromatic plus 40% iterative reconstruction groups were significantly greater than for the 70 KeV group (P < 0.05). The vascular CT value, image noise, background noise, CNR and SNR were significantly (P < 0.001) greater in the optimal monochromatic and the optimal monochromatic images plus 40% iterative reconstruction group than in the 70 KeV group. The optimal monochromatic plus 40% iterative reconstruction group had significantly (P < 0.05) lower image and background noise but higher CNR and SNR than the other two groups. Conclusion: The optimal monochromatic imaging combined with 40% iterative reconstruction using low-contrast agent dosage and low injection rate can significantly improve the image quality of the superior mesenteric artery and vein.

  9. Characterization of indigenous gossypium arboreum L. genotypes for various fiber quality traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M. A.; Abbas, A.; Zafar, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Diploid cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) being an Old World cultivated cotton species, evolved in Indo-Pak subcontinent, has been known for conferring resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. To the extent of our knowledge, there is no comprehensive report available on the characterization of G. arboreum germplasm. Hence, the present study was conducted to characterize 26 G. arboreum genotypes by deploying univariate and multivariate analysis in 2010 at NIBGE, Faisalabad. All these genotypes were characterized for boll weight, GOT percentage, micronaire value, staple length, fiber bundle strength and uniformity index. Genotypic variation was significant (p<0.01) for all the analyzed traits except boll weight. Maximum boll weight (2.47g) was observed for genotype 23718. GOT ranged from 18.75% (Haroonabad) to 36.94 percentage (DC-116).The finest fiber was obtained from synthetic (4.37 micro g/inch) and this genotype also exhibited the higher values for staple length (23.81 mm) and fiber bundle strength (27.37 g/tex). Range for uniformity index was observed from 76.19 percentage (Garohill) to 77.98 percentage (212). Principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited that first five components accounted for >63 percentage of the total variability. Cluster analysis identified four groups based on their agronomic properties. Significant relationships among different traits can be useful to select best genotypes having good fiber quality traits. These genotypes may prove a valuable resource to fuel the breeding efforts for not only broadening the genetic base of the newly developed material but can also add synergy to various cotton genomic projects. (author)

  10. Transmission of laser pulses with high output beam quality using step-index fibers having large cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer P; Joshi, Sachin

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus and method for transmission of laser pulses with high output beam quality using large core step-index silica optical fibers having thick cladding, are described. The thick cladding suppresses diffusion of modal power to higher order modes at the core-cladding interface, thereby enabling higher beam quality, M.sup.2, than are observed for large core, thin cladding optical fibers. For a given NA and core size, the thicker the cladding, the better the output beam quality. Mode coupling coefficients, D, has been found to scale approximately as the inverse square of the cladding dimension and the inverse square root of the wavelength. Output from a 2 m long silica optical fiber having a 100 .mu.m core and a 660 .mu.m cladding was found to be close to single mode, with an M.sup.2=1.6. Another thick cladding fiber (400 .mu.m core and 720 .mu.m clad) was used to transmit 1064 nm pulses of nanosecond duration with high beam quality to form gas sparks at the focused output (focused intensity of >100 GW/cm.sup.2), wherein the energy in the core was laser pulses was about 6 ns. Extending the pulse duration provided the ability to increase the delivered pulse energy (>20 mJ delivered for 50 ns pulses) without damaging the silica fiber.

  11. Variations and Transmission of QTL Alleles for Yield and Fiber Qualities in Upland Cotton Cultivars Developed in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianzhen; Qian, Neng; Zhu, Xiefei; Chen, Hong; Wang, Sen; Mei, Hongxian; Zhang, Yuanming

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is the world’s leading cash crop, and genetic improvement of fiber yield and quality is the primary objective of cotton breeding program. In this study, we used various approaches to identify QTLs related to fiber yield and quality. Firstly, we constructed a four-way cross (4WC) mapping population with four base core cultivars, Stoneville 2B, Foster 6, Deltapine 15 and Zhongmiansuo No.7 (CRI 7), as parents in Chinese cotton breeding history and identified 83 QTLs for 11 agronomic and fiber quality traits. Secondly, association mapping of agronomical and fiber quality traits was based on 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using a general linear model (GLM). For this, 81 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions including the four core parents and their derived cultivars were grown in seven diverse environments. Using these approaches, we successfully identified 180 QTLs significantly associated with agronomic and fiber quality traits. Among them were 66 QTLs that were identified via linkage disequilibrium (LD) and 4WC family-based linkage (FBL) mapping and by previously published family-based linkage (FBL) mapping in modern Chinese cotton cultivars. Twenty eight and 44 consistent QTLs were identified by 4WC and LD mapping, and by FBL and LD mapping methods, respectively. Furthermore, transmission and variation of QTL-alleles mapped by LD association in the three breeding periods revealed that some could be detected in almost all Chinese cotton cultivars, suggesting their stable transmission and some identified only in the four base cultivars and not in the modern cultivars, suggesting they were missed in conventional breeding. These results will be useful to conduct genomics-assisted breeding effectively using these existing and novel QTL alleles to improve yield and fiber qualities in cotton. PMID:23468939

  12. Meta-analysis of cotton fiber quality QTLs across diverse environments in a Gossypium hirsutum x G. barbadense RIL population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giband Marc

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton fibers (produced by Gossypium species are the premier natural fibers for textile production. The two tetraploid species, G. barbadense (Gb and G. hirsutum (Gh, differ significantly in their fiber properties, the former having much longer, finer and stronger fibers that are highly prized. A better understanding of the genetics and underlying biological causes of these differences will aid further improvement of cotton quality through breeding and biotechnology. We evaluated an inter-specific Gh × Gb recombinant inbred line (RIL population for fiber characteristics in 11 independent experiments under field and glasshouse conditions. Sites were located on 4 continents and 5 countries and some locations were analyzed over multiple years. Results The RIL population displayed a large variability for all major fiber traits. QTL analyses were performed on a per-site basis by composite interval mapping. Among the 651 putative QTLs (LOD > 2, 167 had a LOD exceeding permutation based thresholds. Coincidence in QTL location across data sets was assessed for the fiber trait categories strength, elongation, length, length uniformity, fineness/maturity, and color. A meta-analysis of more than a thousand putative QTLs was conducted with MetaQTL software to integrate QTL data from the RIL and 3 backcross populations (from the same parents and to compare them with the literature. Although the global level of congruence across experiments and populations was generally moderate, the QTL clustering was possible for 30 trait x chromosome combinations (5 traits in 19 different chromosomes where an effective co-localization of unidirectional (similar sign of additivity QTLs from at least 5 different data sets was observed. Most consistent meta-clusters were identified for fiber color on chromosomes c6, c8 and c25, fineness on c15, and fiber length on c3. Conclusions Meta-analysis provided a reliable means of integrating phenotypic and

  13. Meta-analysis of cotton fiber quality QTLs across diverse environments in a Gossypium hirsutum x G. barbadense RIL population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacape, Jean-Marc; Llewellyn, Danny; Jacobs, John; Arioli, Tony; Becker, David; Calhoun, Steve; Al-Ghazi, Yves; Liu, Shiming; Palaï, Oumarou; Georges, Sophie; Giband, Marc; de Assunção, Henrique; Barroso, Paulo Augusto Vianna; Claverie, Michel; Gawryziak, Gérard; Jean, Janine; Vialle, Michèle; Viot, Christopher

    2010-06-28

    Cotton fibers (produced by Gossypium species) are the premier natural fibers for textile production. The two tetraploid species, G. barbadense (Gb) and G. hirsutum (Gh), differ significantly in their fiber properties, the former having much longer, finer and stronger fibers that are highly prized. A better understanding of the genetics and underlying biological causes of these differences will aid further improvement of cotton quality through breeding and biotechnology. We evaluated an inter-specific Gh x Gb recombinant inbred line (RIL) population for fiber characteristics in 11 independent experiments under field and glasshouse conditions. Sites were located on 4 continents and 5 countries and some locations were analyzed over multiple years. The RIL population displayed a large variability for all major fiber traits. QTL analyses were performed on a per-site basis by composite interval mapping. Among the 651 putative QTLs (LOD > 2), 167 had a LOD exceeding permutation based thresholds. Coincidence in QTL location across data sets was assessed for the fiber trait categories strength, elongation, length, length uniformity, fineness/maturity, and color. A meta-analysis of more than a thousand putative QTLs was conducted with MetaQTL software to integrate QTL data from the RIL and 3 backcross populations (from the same parents) and to compare them with the literature. Although the global level of congruence across experiments and populations was generally moderate, the QTL clustering was possible for 30 trait x chromosome combinations (5 traits in 19 different chromosomes) where an effective co-localization of unidirectional (similar sign of additivity) QTLs from at least 5 different data sets was observed. Most consistent meta-clusters were identified for fiber color on chromosomes c6, c8 and c25, fineness on c15, and fiber length on c3. Meta-analysis provided a reliable means of integrating phenotypic and genetic mapping data across multiple populations and

  14. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER QUALITY OF FIVE POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL WOOD SPECIES FROM CIANJUR, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Damayanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of wood anatomy is essential for assessing the use of a wood species for processing , and also beneficial for the identification of wood samples. Computerized keys are available that allow the identification of wood samples until the genus level; however, it is not easy to use these keys to identif y unknown species. Therefore, a database of anatomical characteristics and the computerized keys need to be completed up to species level. As the relevance, this study has examined the wood anatomical properties of the five corresponding tree species originated from Cianjur, West Java, which are commercially potential for their exploitation, i.e Castanopsis acuminatissima ADC. (Fagaceae; Castanopsistungurrut ADC. (Fagaceae; Cinnamomum inners Reinw. ex Blume (Lauraceae; Ficus nervosa Heyne (Moraceae and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. (Myristicaceae. Expectedly the results would be beneficial for wood identification purposes and evaluation for other possible uses. Obser vations on anatomical structures covered macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were carried out through the sectioned and macerated wood samples. The obser ved characteristics of the anatomical features were defined conforming to the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood  Identification.  Based on the scrutiny on those obser ved characteristics and linked to the fiber quality, it was judged that the fiber in all the five wood species could be classified as class I for pulp and paper processing.

  15. Quality of Context Enhancements and Cost Effective Radio over Fiber Network Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed Sherif Mahmoud

    In Communication networks today there is an endless quest for increased capacity and improved quality. With wireless systems being now popular worldwide for allowing users and devices to communicate and share information with each other irrespective of their location, the development of sustainable...... into dynamic context information reliability by developing models and online algorithms that ensure increased reliability for context information exchange. Eventually, the PhD looks into improving network planning by implementing an automated network planning model that takes advantage of both Radio over Fiber...... services. The increased number of mobile users puts a demand on today's networks in terms of application sensitivity, mobility and reliability. Mobile operators are offering various context-aware services and applications to the user. Today, mobile users are demanding access to dynamic context information...

  16. Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from the 1U genome of Aegilops umbellulata confer superior dough rheological properties and improve breadmaking quality of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Chang; Zhen, Shoumin; Li, Xiaohui; Yan, Yueming

    2018-04-01

    Wheat-related genomes may carry new glutenin genes with the potential for quality improvement of breadmaking. In this study, we estimated the gluten quality properties of the wheat line CNU609 derived from crossing between Chinese Spring (CS, Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) and the wheat Aegilops umbellulata (2n = 2x = 14, UU) 1U(1B) substitution line, and investigated the function of 1U-encoded low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). The main quality parameters of CNU609 were significantly improved due to introgression of the 1U genome, including dough development time, stability time, farinograph quality number, gluten index, loaf size and inner structure. Glutenin analysis showed that CNU609 and CS had the same high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) composition, but CNU609 carried eight specific 1U genome-encoded LMW-GS. The introgression of the 1U-encoded LMW-GS led to more and larger protein body formation in the CNU609 endosperm. Two new LMW-m type genes from the 1U genome, designated Glu-U3a and Glu-U3b, were cloned and characterized. Secondary structure prediction implied that both Glu-U3a and Glu-U3b encode subunits with high α-helix and β-strand content that could benefit the formation of superior gluten structure. Our results indicate that the 1U genome has superior LMW-GS that can be used as new gene resources for wheat gluten quality improvement. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. High-Quality Fe-doped TiO2 films with Superior Visible-Light Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ren; Bechstein, Ralf; Kibsgaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We report on high-quality polycrystalline Fe-doped TiO2 (Fe–TiO2) porous films synthesized via one-step electrochemical oxidation. We demonstrate that delicate properties such as the impurity concentration and the microstructure that strongly influence the performance of the material for photovol...

  18. Beer Clarification by Novel Ceramic Hollow-Fiber Membranes: Effect of Pore Size on Product Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Alessio; Moresi, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the crossflow microfiltration performance of rough beer samples was assessed using ceramic hollow-fiber (HF) membrane modules with a nominal pore size ranging from 0.2 to 1.4 μm. Under constant operating conditions (that is, transmembrane pressure difference, TMP = 2.35 bar; feed superficial velocity, v S = 2.5 m/s; temperature, T = 10 °C), quite small steady-state permeation fluxes (J * ) of 32 or 37 L/m 2 /h were achieved using the 0.2- or 0.5-μm symmetric membrane modules. Both permeates exhibited turbidity beer quality parameters. Moreover, it exhibited J * values of the same order of magnitude of those claimed for the polyethersulfone HF membrane modules currently commercialized. The 1.4-μm asymmetric membrane module yielded quite a high steady-state permeation flux (196 ± 38 L/m 2 /h), and a minimum decline in permeate quality parameters, except for the high levels of turbidity at room temperature and chill haze. In the circumstances, such a membrane module might be regarded as a real valid alternative to conventional powder filters on condition that the resulting permeate were submitted to a final finishing step using 0.45- or 0.65-μm microbially rated membrane cartridges prior to aseptic bottling. A novel combined beer clarification process was thus outlined. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Gasohol Quality Control for Real Time Applications by Means of a Multimode Interference Fiber Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Adolfo J.; Baldovino-Pantaleón, Oscar; Domínguez Cruz, Rene F.; Zamarreño, Carlos R.; Matías, Ignacio R.; May-Arrioja, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate efficient quality control of a variety of gasoline and ethanol (gasohol) blends using a multimode interference (MMI) fiber sensor. The operational principle relies on the fact that the addition of ethanol to the gasohol blend reduces the refractive index (RI) of the gasoline. Since MMI sensors are capable of detecting small RI changes, the ethanol content of the gasohol blend is easily determined by tracking the MMI peak wavelength response. Gasohol blends with ethanol contents ranging from 0% to 50% has been clearly identified using this device, which provides a linear response with a maximum sensitivity of 0.270 nm/% EtOH. The sensor can also distinguish when water incorporated in the blend has exceeded the maximum volume tolerated by the gasohol blend, which is responsible for phase separation of the ethanol and gasoline and could cause serious engine failures. Since the MMI sensor is straightforward to fabricate and does not require any special coating it is a cost effective solution for real time and in-situ monitoring of the quality of gasohol blends. PMID:25256111

  20. Quality of Recovery Evaluation of the Protection Schemes for Fiber-Wireless Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Minglei; Chai, Zhicheng; Le, Zichun

    2016-03-01

    With the rapid development of fiber-wireless (FiWi) access network, the protection schemes have got more and more attention due to the risk of huge data loss when failures occur. However, there are few studies on the performance evaluation of the FiWi protection schemes by the unified evaluation criterion. In this paper, quality of recovery (QoR) method was adopted to evaluate the performance of three typical protection schemes (MPMC scheme, OBOF scheme and RPMF scheme) against the segment-level failure in FiWi access network. The QoR models of the three schemes were derived in terms of availability, quality of backup path, recovery time and redundancy. To compare the performance of the three protection schemes comprehensively, five different classes of network services such as emergency service, prioritized elastic service, conversational service, etc. were utilized by means of assigning different QoR weights. Simulation results showed that, for the most service cases, RPMF scheme was proved to be the best solution to enhance the survivability when planning the FiWi access network.

  1. Simplified optical fiber RGB system in evaluating intrinsic quality of Sala mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Ommi Kalsom Mardziah; Jafri, Mohd. Zubir Mat; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz

    2015-06-01

    This study presents an alternative approach for the nondestructive assessment of fruit quality parameters with the use of a simplified optical fiber red-green-blue system (OF-RGB). The optical sensor system presented in this work is designed to rapidly measure the firmness, acidity, and soluble solid content of an intact Sala mango on the basis of color properties. The system consists of three light-emitting diodes with peak emission at 635 (red), 525 (green), and 470 nm (blue), as well as a single photodetector capable of sensing visible light. The measurements were conducted using the reflectance technique. The analyses were conducted by comparing the results obtained through the proposed system with those measured using two commercial spectrometers, namely, QE65000 and FieldSpec 3. The developed RGB system showed satisfactory accuracy in the measurement of acidity (R2=0.795) and firmness (R2=0.761), but a relatively lower accuracy in the measurement of soluble solid content (R2=0.593) of intact mangoes. The results obtained through OF-RGB are comparable with those measured by QE65000 and FieldSpec 3. This system is a promising new technology with rapid response, easy operation, and low cost with potential applications in the nondestructive assessment of quality attributes.

  2. Gasohol Quality Control for Real Time Applications by Means of a Multimode Interference Fiber Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo J. Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we demonstrate efficient quality control of a variety of gasoline and ethanol (gasohol blends using a multimode interference (MMI fiber sensor. The operational principle relies on the fact that the addition of ethanol to the gasohol blend reduces the refractive index (RI of the gasoline. Since MMI sensors are capable of detecting small RI changes, the ethanol content of the gasohol blend is easily determined by tracking the MMI peak wavelength response. Gasohol blends with ethanol contents ranging from 0% to 50% has been clearly identified using this device, which provides a linear response with a maximum sensitivity of 0.270 nm/% EtOH. The sensor can also distinguish when water incorporated in the blend has exceeded the maximum volume tolerated by the gasohol blend, which is responsible for phase separation of the ethanol and gasoline and could cause serious engine failures. Since the MMI sensor is straightforward to fabricate and does not require any special coating it is a cost effective solution for real time and in-situ monitoring of the quality of gasohol blends.

  3. Commercial breakfast cereals available in Mexican markets and their contribution in dietary fiber, β-glucans and protein quality by rat bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Villa, María R; Barrón-Hoyos, Jesús M; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J

    2014-09-01

    The beneficial effect of dietary fiber (DF) consumption has long been recognized. The global economy and open market trade policies have increased the availability of food products in Mexican markets, resulting in a wide variety of ready-to-eat commercial breakfast cereals classified as 'high fiber'. This research was aimed to evaluate the total dietary fiber contents, its fractions (soluble and insoluble) and β-glucan in 13 commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals, as well as to evaluate their protein quality by rat bioassays. Commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals had 7.42-39.82% insoluble dietary fiber, 2.53-12.85% soluble dietary fiber, and 0.45-4.96% β-glucan. These ready-to-eat commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals differed significantly in their total dietary fiber, their soluble and insoluble DF fractions, and also in their β-glucan contents. When supplied as experimental diets, in 14-day rat feeding trials, the 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals showed an adverse effect on the % N digestibility but protein utilization, as measured as net protein ratio (NPR), was not significantly affected. The consumption of these commercial breakfast cereals, especially those made of oats as the basic ingredient, is highly recommended, since these products, being a concentrated source of dietary fiber, do not affect their protein quality.

  4. Direct diode lasers with comparable beam quality to fiber, CO2, and solid state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Kaiman, Michael; Overman, Robert; Glenn, John D.; Tayebati, Parviz

    2012-03-01

    TeraDiode has produced kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 2,040 W from a 50 μm core diameter, 0.15 numerical aperture (NA) output fiber at a single center wavelength was demonstrated. This was achieved with a novel beam combining and shaping technique using COTS diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.75 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 2-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers.

  5. Qualitative-feed-restricted heavy swine: meat quality and morpho-histochemical characteristics of muscle fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Thomaz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different levels of qualitative feed restriction (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% on pork quality and muscle morpho-histochemical characteristics, 60 castrated male swines were used. Ten animals were slaughtered at 89 kg BW. Other 50 pigs were fed experimental diets and slaughtered at 128 kg BW. Qualitative restriction increased pH45, and water holding capacity, and reduced the redness, yellowness and cholesterol concentrations of Longissimus lumborum. Quadratic tendency for oleic acid contents of loin and fiber cross-section area of Multifidus dorsi (P=0.08 were observed, with maximum point at 11-12% of restriction. No effect (P>0.1 on percentage of M. dorsi fibers SO, FG and FOG was found. The meat from 128-kg-BW pig showed numerically higher values for colorness, water losses, and lipid content and lower shear force than 89-kg-BW pigs. Qualitative feed restriction for finishing swines neither affected negatively pork quality nor modified the muscle fiber profile.Para avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de restrição alimentar qualitative (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% sobre a qualidade da carne e características morfohistoquímicas musculares, sessenta suínos machos castrados foram utilizados. Dez suínos formaram o grupo abatido inicialmente (89 kg PV e outros 50 suínos foram alimentados com as dietas experimentais e foram abatidos aos 128 kg PV. A restrição qualitativa aumentou o pH45, e a capacidade de retenção de água, bem como reduziu a coloração vermelha e amarela, e o teor de colesterol do músculo Longissimus lumborum. Tendência quadrática para conteúdo de ácido oléico do lombo e da área de seção transversal do músculo Multifidus dorsi (P=0.08 foram observada, com ponto de máxima em11-12% de restrição. Não foi encontrado efeito (P>0.1 na porcentagem de fibras SO, FG e FOG no músculo Multifidus. A carne dos animais abatidos aos 128 kg PV apresentou valores numericamente maiores para coloração, perda de

  6. Effect of laser incidence angle on cut quality of 4 mm thick stainless steel sheet using fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullick, Suvradip; Agrawal, Arpit Kumar; Nath, Ashish Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Fiber laser has potential to outperform the more traditionally used CO2 lasers in sheet metal cutting applications due to its higher efficiency, better beam quality, reliability and ease of beam delivery through optical fiber. It has been however, reported that the higher focusability and shorter wavelength are advantageous for cutting thin metal sheets up to about 2 mm only. Better focasability results in narrower kerf-width, which leads to an earlier flow separation in the flow of assist gas within the kerf, resulting in uncontrolled material removal and poor cut quality. However, the advarse effect of tight focusability can be taken care by shifting the focal point position towards the bottom surface of work-piece, which results in a wider kerf size. This results in a more stable flow within the kerf for a longer depth, which improves the cut quality. It has also been reported that fiber laser has an unfavourable angle of incidence during cutting of thick sections, resulting in poor absorption at the metal surface. Therefore, the effect of laser incidence angle, along with other process parameters, viz. cutting speed and assist gas pressure on the cut quality of 4 mm thick steel sheet has been investigated. The change in laser incidence angle has been incorporated by inclining the beam towards and away from the cut front, and the quality factors are taken as the ratio of kerf width and the striation depth. Besides the absorption of laser radiation, beam inclination is also expected to influence the gas flow characteristics inside the kerf, shear force phenomena on the molten pool, laser beam coupling and laser power distribution at the inclined cut surface. Design of experiment has been used by implementing response surface methodology (RSM) to study the parametric dependence of cut quality, as well as to find out the optimum cut quality. An improvement in quality has been observed for both the inclination due to the combined effect of multiple phenomena.

  7. Comprehensive Analysis of the COBRA-Like (COBL) Gene Family in Gossypium Identifies Two COBLs Potentially Associated with Fiber Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Erli; Shang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Chaoze; Bao, Jianghao; Zeng, Yanda; Cai, Caiping; Du, Xiongming; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    COBRA-Like (COBL) genes, which encode a plant-specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein, have been proven to be key regulators in the orientation of cell expansion and cellulose crystallinity status. Genome-wide analysis has been performed in A. thaliana, O. sativa, Z. mays and S. lycopersicum, but little in Gossypium. Here we identified 19, 18 and 33 candidate COBL genes from three sequenced cotton species, diploid cotton G. raimondii, G. arboreum and tetraploid cotton G. hirsutum acc. TM-1, respectively. These COBL members were anchored onto 10 chromosomes in G. raimondii and could be divided into two subgroups. Expression patterns of COBL genes showed highly developmental and spatial regulation in G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. Of them, GhCOBL9 and GhCOBL13 were preferentially expressed at the secondary cell wall stage of fiber development and had significantly co-upregulated expression with cellulose synthase genes GhCESA4, GhCESA7 and GhCESA8. Besides, GhCOBL9 Dt and GhCOBL13 Dt were co-localized with previously reported cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the favorable allele types of GhCOBL9 Dt had significantly positive correlations with fiber quality traits, indicating that these two genes might play an important role in fiber development. PMID:26710066

  8. Educação a distância no ensino superior: expansão com qualidade?/Distance learning in higher education: expansion and quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Paulo do Nascimento

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou investigar e analisar a necessidade de expansão da educação a distância no ensino superior, bem como a possibilidade de esse novo paradigma oferecer educação com a qualidade necessária para enfrentamento dos desafios de socialização do conhecimento. Foi elaborado por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica que alcançou contribuições teóricas sobre a relevância do conhecimento para o desenvolvimento mundial e de pessoas, educação, pesquisas sobre demanda e oferta de vagas no ensino superior, estudo comparativo entre ensino tradicional e ensino a distância, referenciais para educação a distância de qualidade, entrevistas em reportagens com professores e autoridades educacionais e relatos sobre experiências em aulas não presenciais. O trabalho indica que há demanda reprimida e crescente por vagas no ensino superior, que a infra-estrutura do País não é capaz de gerar a quantidade de vagas demandadas, e que o ensino a distância é capaz de ensejar educação de qualidade. The objective of this study was to examine and analyze the need to expanding distance learning in higher education, as well as the possibility of this new paradigm offering education with the necessary quality to face up the challenges of knowledge socialization. The study was developed through bibliographic research which reached theoretical contributions on the relevance of knowledge to world and people development, education, research on supply and demand of openings in higher education, comparative study between traditional and distance education, standards of distance education, interviews with professors and educational authorities and reports on docent experiences in non-presential classes. This study indicates that there is an unfulfilled and growing demand for openings in higher education, that our country’s infrastructure is not able to generate the urged amount of vacancies and that distance learning figures to be capable of

  9. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  10. Patient-reported vision-related quality of life differences between superior and inferior hemifield visual field defects in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui-Chen; Guo, Chao-Yu; Chen, Mei-Ju; Ko, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Nicole; Liu, Catherine Jui-ling

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have found that glaucoma is associated with impaired patient-reported vision-related quality of life (pVRQOL) but few, to our knowledge, have assessed how the visual field (VF) defect location impacts the pVRQOL. To investigate the associations of VF defects in the superior vs inferior hemifields with pVRQOL outcomes in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Prospective cross-sectional study at a tertiary referral center from March 1, 2012, to January 1, 2013, including patients with primary open-angle glaucoma who had a best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye equal to or better than 20/60 and reliable VF tests. The pVRQOL was assessed by a validated Taiwanese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire. Reliable VF tests obtained within 3 months of enrollment were transformed to binocular integrated VF (IVF). The IVF was further stratified by VF location (superior vs inferior hemifield). The association between each domain of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire and superior or inferior hemifield IVF was determined using multivariable linear regression analysis. The analysis included 186 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with a mean age of 59.1 years (range, 19-86 years) and IVF mean deviation (MD) of -4.84 dB (range, -27.56 to 2.17 dB). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the MD of the full-field IVF showed positive associations with near activities (β = 0.05; R2 = 0.20; P < .001), vision-specific role difficulties (β = 0.04; R2 = 0.19; P = .01), vision-specific dependency (β = 0.04; R2 = 0.20; P < .001), driving (β = 0.05; R2 = 0.24; P < .001), peripheral vision (β = 0.03; R2 = 0.18; P = .02), and composite scores (β = 0.04; R2 = 0.27; P = .005). Subsequent analysis showed that the MD of the superior hemifield IVF was associated only with near activities (β = 0.04; R2

  11. Dual-energy CT and ceramic or titanium prostheses material reduce CT artifacts and provide superior image quality of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparek, Maximilian F; Töpker, Michael; Lazar, Mathias; Weber, Michael; Kasparek, Michael; Mang, Thomas; Apfaltrer, Paul; Kubista, Bernd; Windhager, Reinhard; Ringl, Helmut

    2018-06-07

    To evaluate the influence of different scan parameters for single-energy CT and dual-energy CT, as well as the impact of different material used in a TKA prosthesis on image quality and the extent of metal artifacts. Eight pairs of TKA prostheses from different vendors were examined in a phantom set-up. Each pair consisted of a conventional CoCr prosthesis and the corresponding anti-allergic prosthesis (full titanium, ceramic, or ceramic-coated) from the same vendor. Nine different (seven dual-energy CT and two single-energy CT) scan protocols with different characteristics were used to determine the most suitable CT protocol for TKA imaging. Quantitative image analysis included assessment of blooming artifacts (metal implants appear thicker on CT than they are, given as virtual growth in mm in this paper) and streak artifacts (thick dark lines around metal). Qualitative image analysis was used to investigate the bone-prosthesis interface. The full titanium prosthesis and full ceramic knee showed significantly fewer blooming artifacts compared to the standard CoCr prosthesis (mean virtual growth 0.6-2.2 mm compared to 2.9-4.6 mm, p energy CT protocols showed less blooming (range 3.3-3.8 mm) compared to single-energy protocols (4.6-5.5 mm). The full titanium and full ceramic prostheses showed significantly fewer streak artifacts (mean standard deviation 77-86 Hounsfield unit (HU)) compared to the standard CoCr prosthesis (277-334 HU, p energy CT protocols had fewer metal streak artifacts (215-296 HU compared to single-energy CT protocols (392-497 HU)). Full titanium and ceramic prostheses were ranked superior with regard to the image quality at the bone/prosthesis interface compared to a standard CoCr prosthesis, and all dual-energy CT protocols were ranked better than single-energy protocols. Dual-energy CT and ceramic or titanium prostheses reduce CT artifacts and provide superior image quality of total knee arthroplasty at the bone/prosthesis interface

  12. The addition effect of Tunisian date seed fibers on the quality of chocolate spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Mohamed Ali; Abbes, Fatma; Mokni, Abir; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi; Besbes, Souhail

    2017-04-01

    Novel chocolate spreads were enriched by soluble and insoluble dietary fibers from Tunisian Deglet Nour date seeds at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% levels in the conventional chocolate spread. Defatted Deglet Nour date seeds, date seed soluble fiber concentrate (DSSFC) and date seed insoluble fiber concentrate (DSIFC) were characterized by high levels of dietary fibers (80-90%). Chocolate spread enriched with 5% of DSSFC presented the highest oil binding capacity (304.62%) compared to the control (102%). Whatever the DSIFC and DSSFC incorporation levels, no significant difference was recorded between the firmness, chewiness, and adhesiveness of prepared chocolate spreads compared to the control (p chocolate spreads enriched by DSIFC and DSSFC were accepted by panelists. These results indicated the value of date seeds as new source of dietary fibers to develop chocolate spread and could also improve health benefits and functional properties. Tunisia is considered to be one of the dates-producing countries. The mean annual yield of date fruits is about 200,000 tons. From this, around 20,000 tons of date seeds could be collected. This by-product of date processing industries could be regarded as an excellent source of dietary fiber with interesting technological functionality and many beneficial effects on human health. Then, date seeds could present a value addition by extraction and use of date seed fiber concentrate in chocolate spread formulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. INFLUENCE OF BLEACHING WITH OZONE AND PEROXIDO OF HYDROGEN IN THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF SECONDARY FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ventorim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Total Chlorine Free (TCF bleaching processes were evaluated for bleaching a secondary fiber of different origens. The samples were bleached to a target brightness of 78 % ISO. The results were interpreted on the basis of chemical cost to reach the target brightness, bleaching yield and bleached pulp quality as measured by viscosity, fluorescence and b* color coordinate. The ozone stage was responsible for improve TCF bleaching performance. The pulp bleached by sequences contained a ozone stage followed by chelation, without interstage washing (ZQ, and a final hydrogen peroxide stage unpressurized (P or pressurized with oxygen (PO, designed as (ZQ(PO showed good results. These sequences decreased pulp b* coordinate significantly and fluorescence slightly. For  all three bleaching processes, it was determined that process yield is negatively affected by hot alkaline stages such as oxygen, O, peroxide, P, and peroxide pressurized with oxygen, (PO and also for the origin of the pulps of secondary fibers.

  14. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Influence of the addition of soy product and wheat fiber on rheological, textural, and other quality characteristics of pizza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicerina, Virginia; Balestra, Federica; Capozzi, Francesco; Dalla Rosa, Marco; Romani, Santina

    2017-11-17

    The effect of partial replacement of wheat flour with soy paste and wheat fiber on rheological, textural, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics of an enriched pizza base (E) was investigated in comparison with those of a control pizza base (C). New ingredients (e.g., enriched cooked ham, whey cheese, and tomato sauce realized using food industry by-products) were also used in E pizza topping to further increase its nutritional properties. Enriched dough was developed first at a laboratory level. Large and small deformation, moisture, leavening activity, and metabolic heat were tested. On the final product, produced at the industrial level, textural, color, sensory, and nutritional analyses were performed. Preliminary rheological analysis was essential to evaluate the suitability of the new pizza to be processed at industrial level. Both pizza dough samples showed a solid elastic-like behavior; however, the addition of soy and fiber increased moisture content of E pizza, due to the water binding ability of soy protein and to the effect of fibers that also decreased E dough elasticity. No differences in extensibility between the two samples were observed, whereas significantly lower values of resistance to extension and dough force were shown in sample E. These differences were likely due to the presence of soy that interfere with gluten formation and to the dietary fibers that interact with water. Ingredients used in E pizza improved its nutritional quality increasing dietary fibers and protein, and decreasing saturated fatty acids and cholesterol content, which contributed to decrease energy value, in terms of kilocalorie reduction. In this work, the effects of using new ingredients (e.g., soy paste, wheat fiber) on the rheological, textural, physicochemical, nutritional, and organoleptic characteristics of an enriched pizza type were investigated both at laboratory and industrial levels. The new pizza provides a product that combines solid

  16. "allometry" Deterministic Approaches in Cell Size, Cell Number and Crude Fiber Content Related to the Physical Quality of Kangkong (Ipomoea reptans) Grown Under Different Plant Density Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, A.; Atiman, S. A.; Puteh, A.; Abdullah, N. A. P.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Zulkeefli, A. A.; Othman, S.

    Kangkong, especially the upland type (Ipomoea reptans) is popularly consumed as a vegetable dish in the South East Asian countries for its quality related to Vitamins (A and C) and crude fiber contents. Higher fiber contents would prevent from the occurrence of colon cancer and diverticular disease. With young stem edible portion, its cell number and size contribute to the stem crude fiber content. The mathematical approach of allometry of cell size, number, and fiber content of stem could be used in determining the 'best' plant density pressure in producing the quality young stem to be consumed. Basically, allometry is the ratio of relative increment (growth or change) rates of two parameters, or the change rate associated to the log of measured variables relationship. Kangkog grown equal or lower than 55 plants m-2 produced bigger individual plant and good quality (physical) kangkong leafy vegetable, but with lower total yield per unit area as compared to those grown at higher densities.

  17. Growth of rare-earth doped single crystal yttrium aluminum garnet fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Subhabrata; Nie, Craig D.; Harrington, James A.; Cheng, Long; Rand, Stephen C.; Li, Yuan; Johnson, Eric G.

    2018-02-01

    Rare-earth doped single crystal (SC) yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) fibers have great potential as high-power laser gain media. SC fibers combine the superior material properties of crystals with the advantages of a fiber geometry. Improving processing techniques, growth of low-loss YAG SC fibers have been reported. A low-cost technique that allows for the growth of optical quality Ho:YAG single crystal (SC) fibers with different dopant concentrations have been developed and discussed. This technique is a low-cost sol-gel based method which offers greater flexibility in terms of dopant concentration. Self-segregation of Nd ions in YAG SC fibers have been observed. Such a phenomenon can be utilized to fabricate monolithic SC fibers with graded index.

  18. Influence of polysaccharide-based edible coatings as carriers of prebiotic fibers on quality attributes of ready-to-eat fresh blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María V; Ponce, Alejandra G; Moreira, María R

    2018-05-01

    Little information is available regarding the effect of dietary fibers added into edible coatings on quality attributes of ready-to-eat fruits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium alginate (AL) and chitosan (CH) edible coatings enriched with four different dietary fibers (apple fiber, orange fiber, inulin and oligofructose) on microbiological, nutritional, physico-chemical and sensorial properties of ready-to-eat fresh blueberries stored for 18 days at 5 °C. The most encouraging results were found for CH coatings (with and without fibers) which significantly inhibited the growth of mesophilic bacteria and yeasts/molds (reductions up to 1.9 log CFU g -1 ), reduced decay rate by more than 50%, enhanced antioxidant properties, retained fruit firmness, delayed off-odor development and improved overall visual quality of blueberries. Oligofructose and orange fiber added to CH coatings enhanced antioxidant properties of fruits and allowed higher reductions in yeast/mold counts compared to the use of CH alone. CH-based coatings enriched with inulin, oligofructose and apple fiber extended sensory shelf life of blueberries by 6 days. AL coatings (with and without fiber) allowed delaying fungal decay and also retaining antioxidant properties but did not improve the microbiological and sensory quality of fruits. The results proved that fiber-enriched CH treatments allowed the maintenance of freshness and the improvement of the quality of ready-to-eat blueberries. It might be an interesting option to offer consumers a healthy product with prebiotic potential and an extended shelf life. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effect of Dietary Fiber Enrichment and Different Cooking Methods on Quality of Chicken Nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathera, Ashok K; Riar, C S; Yadav, Sanjay; Sharma, D P

    2017-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber enrichment (wheat bran) and cooking methods (oven, steam and microwave) on functional and physico-chemical properties of raw nuggets formulation as well as nutritional, color and textural properties of chicken nuggets were analyzed in this study. Among different cooking methods used for nuggets preparation, steam cooked nuggets had significantly ( p cooking yield (97.16%) and total dietary fiber content (4.32%) in comparison to oven and microwave cooked nuggets. The effect of cooking methods and wheat bran incorporation was also noticed on textural properties of the nuggets. Hardness, firmness and toughness values of oven and steam cooked nuggets were significantly ( p cooked nuggets. Among nuggets prepared by different cooking methods, cohesiveness of microwave cooked nuggets was found to be significantly ( p cooked nuggets had significantly ( p cooked nuggets were found to be better among all nuggets due to their higher cooking yield and dietary fiber content.

  20. Large deflection angle, high-power adaptive fiber optics collimator with preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Chen, Zilun; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2016-05-15

    We report on the development of a monolithic adaptive fiber optics collimator, with a large deflection angle and preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality, that has been tested at a maximal output power at the 300 W level. Additionally, a new measurement method of beam quality (M2 factor) is developed. Experimental results show that the deflection angle of the collimated beam is in the range of 0-0.27 mrad in the X direction and 0-0.19 mrad in the Y direction. The effective working frequency of the device is about 710 Hz. By employing the new measurement method of the M2 factor, we calculate that the beam quality is Mx2=1.35 and My2=1.24, which is in agreement with the result from the beam propagation analyzer and is preserved well with the increasing output power.

  1. Optical spectral signatures of liquids by means of fiber optic technology for product and quality parameter identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Diaz-Herrera, N.; Garcia-Allende, P. B.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.; Francalanci, S.; Paccagnini, A.; Pavone, F. S.

    2009-01-01

    Absorption spectroscopy in the wide 200-1700 nm spectral range is carried out by means of optical fiber instrumentation to achieve a digital mapping of liquids for the prediction of important quality parameters. Extra virgin olive oils from Italy and lubricant oils from turbines with different degrees of degradation were considered as "case studies". The spectral data were processed by means of multivariate analysis so as to obtain a correlation to quality parameters. In practice, the wide range absorption spectra were considered as an optical signature of the liquids from which to extract product quality information. The optical signatures of extra virgin olive oils were used to predict the content of the most important fatty acids. The optical signatures of lubricant oils were used to predict the concentration of the most important parameters for indicating the oil's degree of degradation, such as TAN, JOAP anti-wear index, and water content.

  2. Ultra Stable, Industrial Green Tailored Pulse Fiber Laser with Diffraction-limited Beam Quality for Advanced Micromachining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deladurantaye, P; Roy, V; Desbiens, L; Drolet, M; Taillon, Y; Galarneau, P

    2011-01-01

    We report on a novel pulsed fiber laser platform providing pulse shaping agility at high repetition rates and at a wavelength of 532 nm. The oscillator is based on the direct modulation of a seed laser diode followed by a chain of fiber amplifiers. Advanced Large Mode Area (LMA) fiber designs as well as proprietary techniques to mitigate non-linear effects enable output energy per pulse up to 100 μJ at 1064 nm with diffraction-limited beam quality and narrow line widths suitable for efficient frequency conversion. Ultra stable pulses with tailored pulse shapes were demonstrated in the green region of the spectrum at repetition rates higher than 200 kHz. Pulse durations between 2.5 ns and 640 ns are available, as well as pulse to pulse dynamic shape selection at repetition rates up to 1 MHz. The pulse energy stability at 532 nm is better than ± 1.5%, 3σ, over 10 000 pulses. Excellent beam characteristics were obtained. The M 2 parameter is lower than 1.05, the beam waist astigmatism and beam waist asymmetry are below 10% and below 8% respectively, with high stability over time. We foresee that the small spot size, high repetition rate and pulse tailoring capability of this platform will provide advantages to practitioners who are developing novel, advanced processes in many industrially important applications.

  3. Fabrication of high quality, ultra-long fiber Bragg gratings: up to 2 million periods in phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Mathieu; Loranger, Sébastien; Lapointe, Jerome; Kashyap, Raman

    2014-01-13

    The fabrication and characterization of high quality ultra-long (up to 1m) fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is reported. A moving phase mask and an electro-optic phase-modulation (EOPM) based interferometer are used with a high precision 1-meter long translation stage and compared. A novel interferometer position feedback scheme to simplify the fabrication process is proposed and analyzed. The ultra-long uniform FBGs show near perfect characteristics of a few picometers bandwidth, symmetrical, near theory-matching group-delay and transmission spectra. Grating characterization using optical backscattering reflectometry and chirped FBGs are also demonstrated. Limitations of the schemes are discussed.

  4. Harvest timing and techniques to optimize fiber quality in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production conditions typical to the Texas High Plains region can produce cotton crops with high short fiber and nep content, both of which have a detrimental impact on ring spinning performance. Since Texas now produces nearly 50% of the US cotton crop annually, it is critical that research focuses...

  5. Overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana gibberellic acid 20 oxidase (AtGA20ox) gene enhance the vegetative growth and fiber quality in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withanage, Samanthi Priyanka; Hossain, Md Aktar; Kumar M., Sures; Roslan, Hairul Azman B; Abdullah, Mohammad Puad; Napis, Suhaimi B.; Shukor, Nor Aini Ab.

    2015-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.; Family: Malvaceae), is multipurpose crop, one of the potential alternatives of natural fiber for biocomposite materials. Longer fiber and higher cellulose contents are required for good quality biocomposite materials. However, average length of kenaf fiber (2.6 mm in bast and 1.28 mm in whole plant) is below the critical length (4 mm) for biocomposite production. Present study describes whether fiber length and cellulose content of kenaf plants could be enhanced by increasing GA biosynthesis in plants by overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana Gibberellic Acid 20 oxidase (AtGA20ox) gene. AtGA20ox gene with intron was overexpressed in kenaf plants under the control of double CaMV 35S promoter, followed by in planta transformation into V36 and G4 varieties of kenaf. The lines with higher levels of bioactive GA (0.3–1.52 ng g−1 fresh weight) were further characterized for their morphological and biochemical traits including vegetative and reproductive growth, fiber dimension and chemical composition. Positive impact of increased gibberellins on biochemical composition, fiber dimension and their derivative values were demonstrated in some lines of transgenic kenaf including increased cellulose content (91%), fiber length and quality but it still requires further study to confirm the critical level of this particular bioactive GA in transgenic plants. PMID:26175614

  6. Effect of fiber fractions of prickly pear cactus (nopal) on quality and sensory properties of wheat bread rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Arauza, Juan Carlos; Bárcenas, Diego Guadalupe; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Martínez, Jaime David Pérez; Hernández, Jaime Reyes; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, José

    2015-05-01

    In this study the addition of total fiber (TF), insoluble fiber (IF), and soluble fiber (SF) from nopal to wheat flour used to make bread rolls was assessed. The rheological properties of dough as well as quality, texture, sensorial and physical characteristics of the crumb rolls produced were evaluated. The storage (23.50 MPa) and loss modulus (11.95 MPa) for SF-dough were the lowest indicating that a less visco-elastic behavior was obtained. Polarized light microscopy showed that a more homogeneous size and a better distribution of starch granules were developed into SF-dough. Crumb hardness (3.25-4.78 N) and chewiness (0.31-0.81 N) of SF-rolls were lower than the control experiment (3.99-5.81 N and 0.35-1.01 N respectively). Springiness for all treatments was constant (1.0) compared with the control (1.02-0.87) for 2 days of storage. The lowest cohesiveness values (0.24-014) were computed by IF treatment for a similar storage time. The specific crumb volume increased by 12.46, 9.03 and 1.10 % by the addition of SF, TF and IF respectively. The lowest rate of staling was shown by SF-rolls (0.199) and it was followed by TF (0.296), IF (0.381) and control (0.458) treatments. As a result, the highest scores on quality (9.3 out of 10) and sensorial attributes (from 8.9 up to 9.7) were assigned to SF-rolls.

  7. Avaliação da qualidade nos serviços educacionais das instituições de ensino superior em joinville, sc Evaluación de la calidad en los servicios educacionales de las instituciones de enseñanza superior en joinville, sc Quality evaluation of education in institutions of higher learning in joinville, sc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Wagner Mainardes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Em mercados competitivos, a qualidade pode fazer a diferença. Nos últimos anos, esta tem sido a realidade do mercado de ensino superior. Para tornar eficaz a busca por qualidade, devem-se investigar os atributos que determinam a qualidade de um curso e de uma instituição de ensino superior. Este estudo procurou determinar os atributos-chave para a construção de uma imagem de qualidade nos serviços educacionais das instituições que oferecem educação superior. Testando-se 63 atributos diferentes, identificou-se que os cursos de graduação em Administração em Joinville são considerados de alta qualidade. Encontrou-se também que a imagem de qualidade de uma instituição universitária baseia-se no conjunto: administração e estruturas da instituição, valor do curso para o mercado de trabalho e corpo de professores. O fator-chave que determina a qualidade de uma instituição de ensino superior é a imagem da instituição na comunidade.En mercados competitivos, la calidad puede hacer la diferencia. En los últimos años, esta es la realidad del mercado de enseñanza superior. Para hacer eficaz la búsqueda por calidad, debemos investigar los atributos que determinan la calidad de un curso y de una institución de enseñanza superior. Este estudio ha buscado determinar los atributos clave para la construcción de una imagen de calidad en los servicios educacionales de las instituciones que ofrecen educación superior. Probándose 63 atributos diferentes, identificamos que los cursos de graduación en Administración en Joinville son considerados de alta calidad. Encontramos también que la imagen de calidad de una institución universitaria se basa en el conjunto: administración y estructuras de la institución, valor del curso para el mercado de trabajo y personal docente. El hecho clave que determina la calidad de una institución de enseñanza superior remite a la imagen de la institución para la comunidad.Quality can make a

  8. Anelamento e reguladores de crescimento: efeitos sobre as medidas biométricas e qualidade de cachos da videira 'Superior Seedless' Girdling and growth regulators: effects on the biometric measurements and quality of bunches of vine 'Superior Sedless'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se obter maior tamanho de baga, peso médio de cacho e produtividade, os cachos da variedade Superior Seedless foram pulverizados com ácido giberélico (1 + 20 mg.L-1, bioestimulante Crop Set® nas doses de 0,1 e 0,2% e com ou sem anelamento no caule. Esses tratamentos foram aplicados de forma isolada ou combinados entre si. O trabalho foi conduzido durante o período 2001-2002 (dois ciclos de produção, no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro da Embrapa Semi-Árido em Petrolina-PE. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e três repetições, sendo duas plantas por parcela. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos nos dois ciclos de produção. Entretanto, quando o ácido giberélico foi associado ao Crop Set® 0,1% e anelamento, observou-se uma tendência de aumento no peso de cachos, bem como no peso e tamanho de bagas na safra de 2001. Os cachos tratados com ácido giberélico apresentaram engaços mais grossos e pesados, embora não se observem diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Algumas plantas submetidas ao anelamento apresentaram problemas de cicatrização, o que provocou a morte das mesmas, recomendando-se evitar a realização desta prática nas condições em que se realizou este trabalho.Aiming to increase the berry size, weight of bunches and yield, the bunches of the cv. Superior Seedless was powdered with gibberelic acid (1 + 20 mg.L-1, bio-stimulant Crop Set® in the dosis of 0.1 and 0.2%. In adition was used the treatment known as girdling. Those treatments were applied in an isolated way or combined to each other. The work was carried out during 2001-2002 (two harvest seasons, in the Experimental Station of Bebedouro, Semi-arid Embrapa in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design were in randomized blocks with 12 treatments and three replications. The differences among the treatments were not statistical significant in the two

  9. Consumption of whole-grain cereals during weight loss: effects on dietary quality, dietary fiber, magnesium, vitamin B-6, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Kathleen J; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Nguyen, Von T; Martini, Margaret; Zukley, Linda; Lowndes, Joshua; Dube, Thomas J; Fiutem, Justin J; Yount, Byron W; Rippe, James M

    2006-09-01

    While various weight-management approaches produce weight loss, they may differ in dietary quality. We monitored changes in nutrient intakes in overweight and obese subjects on three different weight-management programs. Randomized clinical trial (pilot study) with two 12-week phases: phase 1, weekly counseling; phase 2, monitoring only. One hundred eighty nonsmoking, sedentary overweight and obese adults began this outpatient study; 134 (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)]=30.9+/-2.4; age=42.3+/-1.2 years) were used in analyses. Twenty-four weeks of exercise only (control group), hypocaloric diet plus exercise, or hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise. At weeks 0, 12, and 24, diet quality was assessed by 3-day food records and body weight was measured. Three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. The hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise decreased energy intake more than exercise only (P=0.032). By week 12, the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise and the hypocaloric diet plus exercise decreased total fat more than exercise only, which was sustained in the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise at 24 weeks (Pcereals plus exercise reduced saturated fat intake more than exercise only. The hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise increased total fiber, insoluble fiber (both Pcereals plus exercise and the hypocaloric diet plus exercise. Weight-reduction strategies may be associated with reduced intake of micronutrients, such as calcium and vitamin E. However, a hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereal is effective for improving or maintaining other aspects of dietary quality during weight loss.

  10. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  11. Optical fiber detectors as in-vivo dosimetry method of quality assurance in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazas, M.C.; Justus, B.L.; Falkenstein, P.; Huston, A.L.; Ning, H.; Miller, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new in-vivo dosimetry system has been under development for some time using radio luminescent phosphors. These phosphors are activated, metal ion doped glasses (Ex: Cu 1± doped quartz fiber), have excellent optical transparency and offer several potential advantages for radiation dosimetry; including: small size, high sensitivity, linearity of dose response insensitivity to electromagnetic interference. The utility of these phosphors as a detection modality has been limited in real-time dosimetry applications due to the production of Cerenkov radiation in the carrier fiber, which produces a contaminant signal proportional to dose rate as well as the size of the radiation field. One possible method for eliminating this signal is using an electronic gating signal from the accelerator to delay data acquisition during the actual beam pulse, when Cerenkov radiation is produced. Due to the intrinsic properties of our particular scintillator, this method offers the best mechanism for eliminating Cerenkov noise, while retaining the ability to detect individual beam pulses. The dosimeter was tested using an external beam radiotherapy machine that provided pulses of 6 MeV x-rays. Gated detection was used to discriminate the signal collected during the radiation pulses, which included contributions from Cerenkov radiation and native fiber fluorescence, from the signal collected between the radiation pulses, which contained only the long-lived phosphorescence from the Cu 1± doped fused quartz detector. Gated detection of the phosphorescence provided accurate, real-time dose measurements that were linear with absorbed dose, independent of dose rate and that were accurate for all field sizes studied. (author)

  12. Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falate, Rosane; Nike, Karen; Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos da; Cacao Junior, Eduardo; Muller, Marcia; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jose; Fabris, Jose Luis

    2007-01-01

    We report the use of an optical fiber sensor to measure the soybean oil concentration in samples obtained from the mixture of pure biodiesel and commercial soybean oil. The operation of the device is based on the long-period grating sensitivity to the surrounding medium refractive index, which leads to measurable modifications in the grating transmission spectrum. The proposed analysis method results in errors in the oil concentration of 0.4% and 2.6% for pure biodiesel and commercial soybean oil, respectively. Techniques of total glycerol, dynamic viscosity, density, and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were also employed to validate the proposed method. (author)

  13. LHCb Scintillating Fiber detector front end electronics design and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, W. E. W.; Pellegrino, A.; Ietswaard, G. C. M.; Verkooijen, J. C.; Carneiro, U.; Massefferi, A.

    2017-03-01

    The on-detector electronics of the LHCb Scintillating Fiber Detector consists of multiple PCBs assembled in a unit called Read Out Box, capable of reading out 2048 channels with an output rate of 70 Gbps. There are three types of boards: PACIFIC, Clusterization and Master Board. The Pacific Boards host PACIFIC ASICs, with pre-amplifier and comparator stages producing two bits of data per channel. A cluster-finding algorithm is then run in an FPGA on the Clusterization Board. The Master Board distributes fast and slow control, and power. We describe the design, production and test of prototype PCBs.

  14. Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falate, Rosane [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica; Nike, Karen; Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos da [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Cacao Junior, Eduardo; Muller, Marcia; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jose; Fabris, Jose Luis [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: fabris@utfpr.edu.br

    2007-07-01

    We report the use of an optical fiber sensor to measure the soybean oil concentration in samples obtained from the mixture of pure biodiesel and commercial soybean oil. The operation of the device is based on the long-period grating sensitivity to the surrounding medium refractive index, which leads to measurable modifications in the grating transmission spectrum. The proposed analysis method results in errors in the oil concentration of 0.4% and 2.6% for pure biodiesel and commercial soybean oil, respectively. Techniques of total glycerol, dynamic viscosity, density, and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were also employed to validate the proposed method. (author)

  15. Fiber-Optic Chemiluminescent Biosensors for Monitoring Aqueous Alcohols and Other Water Quality Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor); Akse, James R. (Inventor); DeHart, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Wheeler, Richard R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A "reagentless" chemiluminescent biosensor and method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide, ethanol and D-glucose in water is disclosed. An aqueous stream is basified by passing it through a solid phase base bed. Luminol is then dissolved in the basified effluent at a controlled rate. Oxidation of the luminol is catalyzed by the target chemical to produce emitted light. The intensity of the emitted light is detected as a measure of the target chemical concentration in the aqueous stream. The emitted light can be transmitted by a fiber optic bundle to a remote location from the aqueous stream for a remote reading of the target chemical concentration.

  16. Resonant filtered fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our recent result on utilizing resonant/bandgap fiber designs to achieve high performance ytterbium doped fiber amplifers for achieving diffraction limited beam quality in large mode area fibers, robust bending performance and gain shaping for long wavelength operation...

  17. Pulsed 1.55μm all-fiber laser combining high energy, ultranarrow linewidth and optimal spatial beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Flavien; Hernandez, Yves; Kinet, Damien; Giannone, Domenico; Robin, Thierry; Cadier, Benoît

    2008-11-01

    In this letter, we report on the study of a new all-fiber laser source suitable for coherent Doppler LIDAR use in the eyesafe domain. The laser consists on a MOPA configuration where the Master Oscillator is a modulated ultranarrow (< 8 kHz) fiber laser. The optical amplifiers are also all-fibered and make use of a new Large Mode Area (LMA) index pedestal fiber that is very effective in limiting the non-linear effects without quality degradation of the laser beam. The amplified pulses have a maximum energy of 0.15 mJ for a duration of 340 ns at a repetition rate of 15 kHz. The average output power of the laser is 2.5 W, free of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering and with a measured M2 = 1.3.

  18. Sensory qualities of pastry products enriched with dietary fiber and polyphenolic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolka, Patrycja; Górecka, Danuta; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; Jędrusek-Golińska, Anna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Waszkowiak, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Growing consumer demand for products with pro-health properties is forcing food manufacturers to introduce new food items onto the market, which will not only possess such health-enhancing properties but will also compete on the grounds of sensory attributes - taste, flavour, texture etc. The aim was to evaluate these sensory attributes of pastry products enhanced with biologically active compounds, such as inulin, buckwheat hull and buckwheat flour. For decreasing the energy value of the products tested (crispy cookies, muesli cookies, waffles and pancakes) some ingredients were replaced: vegetable butter or oil by inulin and wheat flour by roasted buckwheat flour and thermally processed buckwheat hull. The substances mentioned are rich sources of soluble and insoluble buckwheat fiber, and also polyphenolic substances. Dry chokeberry and mulberry leaf extract were added as a rich source of flavonoids and 1-deoxynorijimycin, respectively. These substances are recommended for people with obesity. The processing was carried out at 175°C for 15 minutes using a convection oven (Rational Combi-Steamer CCC). Pastry products with buckwheat flour, buckwheat hulls, mulberry extract, chokeberry and inulin had a lower food energy, a higher dietary fiber content and scored high on customer desirability. Pastry products which contain ingredients carrying biologically active substances are not only attractive from the sensory point of view, but also low in calories, and are thus recommendable for obesity people.

  19. Eat-by-light fiber-optic and micro-optic devices for food quality and safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Cucci, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cimato, A.; Attilio, C.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Paolesse, R.; Mastroianni, M.; Monti, D.; Buonocore, G.; Del Nobile, A.; Mentana, A.; Grimaldi, M. F.; Dall'Asta, C.; Faccini, A.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.

    2007-06-01

    A selection is presented of fiber-optic and micro-optic devices that have been designed and tested for guaranteeing the quality and safety of typical foods, such as extra virgin olive oil, beer, and milk. Scattered colorimetry is used to authenticate various types of extra virgin olive oil and beer, while a fiber-optic-based device for UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is exploited in order to obtain the hyperspectral optical signature of olive oil. This is done not only for authentication purposes, but also so as to correlate the spectral data with the content of fatty acids, which are important nutritional factors. A micro-optic sensor for the detection of olive oil aroma that is capable of distinguishing different ageing levels of extra virgin olive oil is also presented. It shows effective potential for acting as a smart cap of bottled olive oil in order to achieve a non-destructive olfactory perception of oil ageing. Lastly, a compact portable fluorometer for the rapid monitoring of the carcinogenic M1 aflatoxin in milk, is experimented.

  20. Eat-by-light: fiber-optic and micro-optic devices for food safety and quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Cucci, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cimato, A.; Attilio, C.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Paolesse, R.; Mastroianni, M.; Monti, D.; Buonocore, G.; Del Nobile, A.; Mentana, A.; Dall'Asta, C.; Faccini, A.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.

    2007-07-01

    A selection of fiber-optic and micro-optic devices is presented designed and tested for monitoring the quality and safety of typical foods, namely the extra virgin olive oil, the beer, and the milk. Scattered colorimetry is used for the authentication of various types of extra virgin olive oil and beer, while a fiber-optic-based device for UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is exploited in order to obtain the hyperspectral optical signature of olive oil. This is done not only for authentication purposes, but also so as to correlate the spectral data with the content of fatty acids that are important nutritional factors. A micro-optic sensor for the detection of olive oil aroma is presented. It is capable of distinguishing different ageing levels of extra virgin olive oil. It shows effective potential for acting as a smart cap of bottled olive oil in order to achieve a non-destructive olfactory perception of oil ageing. Lastly, a compact portable fluorometer is experimented for the rapid monitoring of the carcinogenic M1 aflatoxin in milk.

  1. Assessment of quality parameters in grapes during ripening using a miniature fiber-optic near-infrared spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Novales, Juan; López, María-Isabel; Sánchez, María-Teresa; García-Mesa, José-Antonio; González-Caballero, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the chemical properties of wine grapes during ripening were studied using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. A miniature fiber-optic NIR spectrometer system working in transmission mode in the spectral region (700 - 1,060 nm) was evaluated for this purpose. Spectra and analytical data were used to develop partial least square calibration models to quantify changes in the major parameters used to chart ripening in this fruit. NIR spectroscopy provided excellent precision for soluble solid content and for reducing sugars, and good precision for maturity index, while for pH and titratable acidity the miniature NIR spectroscopy instrument proved less accurate. The performance of the instrument in classifying wine grapes by grape type and by irrigation regime was also studied. Percentages of correctly classified samples ranged from 82.7% to 96.2%. The results show that the monitoring of soluble solid content and reducing sugars' changes in wine grape quality parameters during ripening, as well as the classification of grapes, can be performed non-destructively using a miniature fiber-optic NIR spectrometer.

  2. Effects of variation in porcine MYOD1 gene on muscle fiber characteristics, lean meat production, and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C

    2012-09-01

    Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of variable-row-spacing harvesting picker platform scraping plates on cotton fiber quality and quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Michele de Campos Baraviera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been increasing demands for high-quality cotton fibers that meet the textile industry quality standards. Concurrently, there have been efforts to reduce contaminants during harvesting to reduce harvesting costs. The goal of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of the picker platform with Variable-Row-Spacing (VRS for harvesting cotton in narrow rows, over two harvest seasons in two regions within the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. In this study, how the presence vs. absence of scraping plates and variations in travel speed was related to quantifiable levels of impurities the harvested fibers was examined. The research was divided into three experiments (Exp. I, II, and III, using cotton varieties FM 975 WS, IMA 5672 B2 RF, and IMA 5675 B2 RF, with row spacing of 0.45 m. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 2 ? 3 factorial design, using the presence/absence of the plate and three speeds (0.61, 1.0, and 1.42 m·s-¹, with seven repetitions, totaling 42 experimental plots. The plot size was 108 m² (3.6 ? 30 m. The data were analyzed using the F test in ANOVA and the post-hoc Tukey test (p < 0.05. The results showed that scraping plates increased the number of stems and cones, and reduced the harvest efficiency of cotton planted in narrow rows in the region of Sorriso-MT during the 2013/2014 harvest. For the 2014/2015 harvest, the highest speed and the presence of the scraping plates increased the number of cones in the cotton samples. In the experiment conducted in Serra da Petrovina, the removal of the scraping plates decreased the amount of cones in the harvested cotton.

  4. Preslaughter Transport Effect on Broiler Meat Quality and Post-mortem Glycolysis Metabolism of Muscles with Different Fiber Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Jiaolong; Cong, Jiahui; Chen, Xiangxing; Zhu, Xudong; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-11-29

    Preslaughter transport has been reported to decrease the quality of breast meat but not thigh meat of broilers. However, tissue-specific difference in glycogen metabolism between breast and thigh muscles of transported broilers has not been well studied. We thus investigated the differences in meat quality, adenosine phosphates, glycolysis, and bound key enzymes associated with glycolysis metabolism in skeletal muscles with different fiber types of preslaughter transported broilers during summer. Compared to a 0.5 h transport, a 3 h transport during summer decreased ATP content, increased AMP content and AMP/ATP ratio, and accelerated glycolysis metabolism via the upregulation of glycogen phosphorylase expression accompanied by increased activities of bound glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) in pectoralis major muscle, which subsequently increased the likelihood of pale, soft, and exudative-like breast meat. On the other hand, a 3 h transport induced only a moderate glycolysis metabolism in tibialis anterior muscle, which did not cause any noticeable changes in the quality traits of the thigh meat.

  5. CUSTOMER PERCEIVED QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF SYNTHETIC FIBER USING FUZZY QFD: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Kabir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the ready-made garment (RMG industry has been one of the most notable success stories of the Bangladesh economy over two decades. To meet the growing demand of synthetic yarns, Bangladesh has to import it from foreign countries which cost a substantial amount of foreign currency for the country. It is a pressing need for local manufacturers to come forward, produce quality synthetic yarn and fulfill the demand of the local market. The purpose of this paper is to present a Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment (FQFD model to indentify customer requirements and also demonstrate how these requirements can be used to prioritize the design requirements for manufacturing of synthetic yarns. In this system, Fuzzy set theory is integrated into house of quality (HOQ to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional QFD and to capture the inherent impreciseness and vagueness of customer requirements and facilitate to prioritize QFD information. Improving high priority design requirements will ultimately increase customer satisfaction and as a result customer perceived quality will soar.

  6. FIBER QUALITIES OF PRETREATED BETUNG BAMBOO (Dendrocalamusasper BY MIXED CULTURE OF WHITE-ROT FUNGI WITH RESPECT TO ITS USE FOR PULP/PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anatomical structures of pretreated large (betung bamboo (Dendrocalamusasper using single culture of white-rot fungi has been investigated, which revealed that the pretreatment caused the decrease in the Runkel ratioas well as the coefficient rigidity and the increase in the flexibility ratio of their corresponding bamboo fibers. However, there is no study reported on the anatomical structure changes of them caused by pretreatment using mixed culture of white-rot fungi. This paper reports the results of the research on paper/pulp quality after different treatments. Pretreatment that used Trametes versicolor fungi and lasted for 45 days inflicted intensive fiber damages compared with those of untreated bamboo (control. Fresh and barkless large (betung bamboo chips of 2 year's old, and 1.6 cm in length, were inoculated by 10% of mixed culture of white-rot fungi inoculums stock for 30 and 45 days in room temperature. There were four treatment groups of mixed culture, i.e T. versi color and P. ostreatus (TVPO; P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium (POPC; P. chrysosporium and T.versi color (PCTV; and P.chrysosporium,  T.versicolorand  P.ostreatus  (TVPCPO.After  the  inoculation  period,  the  chips  weremacerated into separate fibers using Scultze method to analyze the fiber dimension and its derived values. The fibers were then observed regarding their macro and microscopic structures by optical microscope. Mixed culture pretreatment of white-rot fungi accelerated improvement of fiber morphology and fiber derived value characteristics, except for Muhlsteph ratio. The fiber derived values oftreated bamboo tended to improve compared to those of untreated bamboo, there by requiring milder pulping conditions. Accordingly, the treated bamboo would indicatively produce a good quality pulp (grade I based on FAO and LPHH (Forest Product Research Report requirements. Co-culture treatment using P. chrysosporium and P. ostreatus for

  7. FACTORES PARA LA NO NEUTRALIDAD DE LA EVALUACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD DE LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR (FACTORS FOR NON-NEUTRALITY OF THE EVALUATION OF THE HIGHER EDUCATION QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizcarra Herles Nina Eleonor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En el presente ensayo, los autores con base en la revisión de fuentes bibliográficas, abordan el tema de la no neutralidad de la evaluación de la calidad de la educación superior, se identifican factores de la no neutralidad en la evaluación y en la calidad relacionados con: el referente (modelo de referencia utilizado para la evaluación, las dimensiones explicativo-relacionales de la calidad y las demandas de calidad formuladas por actores sociales; estos factores expresan el propósito del evaluador, componente ideológico que determina la no neutralidad de la evaluación de la calidad. Se infiere que para los sistemas nacionales de evaluación la definición y la mejora de la calidad de la educación superior compromete la participación multisectorial.Abstract: In this essay, the authors based on a review of literature sources, address the issue of non-neutrality of the evaluation of the quality of higher education, identify factors of non-neutrality in the evaluation and quality related to: the reference model used for evaluation, the explanatory-relational dimensions of quality and quality demands made by social actors; these factors express the purpose of evaluator, ideological component that determines the non-neutrality of quality assessment. It is inferred that for the national assessment systems; the definition and the improving of the quality of higher education undertake multi-stakeholder participation.

  8. CUSTOMER PERCEIVED QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF SYNTHETIC FIBER USING FUZZY QFD: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Golam Kabir; M. Ahsan Akhtar Hasin

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the ready-made garment (RMG) industry has been one of the most notable success stories of the Bangladesh economy over two decades. To meet the growing demand of synthetic yarns, Bangladesh has to import it from foreign countries which cost a substantial amount of foreign currency for the country. It is a pressing need for local manufacturers to come forward, produce quality synthetic yarn and fulfill the demand of the local market. The purpose of this paper is to present a ...

  9. Analysis on the grinding quality of palm oil fibers by using combined grinding equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, H. L.; Gan, L. M.; Law, H. C.

    2015-12-01

    As known, Malaysia is the second largest palm oil producer worldwide after Indonesia, therefore indicating the abundance of its wastes within the country. The plantation would be seen to increase to at least 5.2 million ha by 2020, and the waste generation would be 50-70 times the plantation. However, the efficiency of bulk density is reduced. This is one of the main reasons of the initiation of this size reduction/ grinding research. With appropriate parameters, grinding will be seen to be helping in enhancing the inter-particle bindings, subsequently increasing the quality of final products. This paper focuses on the grinding quality involving palm oil wastes by using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The samples would first be ground to powder at varying grinding speed and finally got the randomly chosen particles measured to obtain the size range. The grinding speed was manipulated from 15 Hz to 40 Hz. From the data obtained, it was found the particles fineness increased with increasing grinding speed. In general, the size ranged from 45 μm to about 600 μm, where the finest was recorded at the speed of 40 Hz. It was also found that the binding was not so encouraging at very low speeds. Therefore, the optimum grinding speed for oil palm residues lied in the range of 25 Hz to 30 Hz. However, there were still limitations to be overcome if the accuracy of the image clarity is to be enhanced.

  10. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  11. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  12. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  13. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  14. Improved image quality of cone beam CT scans for radiotherapy image guidance using fiber-interspaced antiscatter grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, Uros; van Herk, Marcel; Ploeger, Lennert S; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-06-01

    Medical linear accelerator mounted cone beam CT (CBCT) scanner provides useful soft tissue contrast for purposes of image guidance in radiotherapy. The presence of extensive scattered radiation has a negative effect on soft tissue visibility and uniformity of CBCT scans. Antiscatter grids (ASG) are used in the field of diagnostic radiography to mitigate the scatter. They usually do increase the contrast of the scan, but simultaneously increase the noise. Therefore, and considering other scatter mitigation mechanisms present in a CBCT scanner, the applicability of ASGs with aluminum interspacing for a wide range of imaging conditions has been inconclusive in previous studies. In recent years, grids using fiber interspacers have appeared, providing grids with higher scatter rejection while maintaining reasonable transmission of primary radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of one such grid on CBCT image quality. The grid used (Philips Medical Systems) had ratio of 21:1, frequency 36 lp/cm, and nominal selectivity of 11.9. It was mounted on the kV flat panel detector of an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator and tested in a phantom and a clinical study. Due to the flex of the linac and presence of gridline artifacts an angle dependent gain correction algorithm was devised to mitigate resulting artifacts. Scan reconstruction was performed using XVI4.5 augmented with inhouse developed image lag correction and Hounsfield unit calibration. To determine the necessary parameters for Hounsfield unit calibration and software scatter correction parameters, the Catphan 600 (The Phantom Laboratory) phantom was used. Image quality parameters were evaluated using CIRS CBCT Image Quality and Electron Density Phantom (CIRS) in two different geometries: one modeling head and neck and other pelvic region. Phantoms were acquired with and without the grid and reconstructed with and without software correction which was adapted for the different acquisition

  15. Improved image quality of cone beam CT scans for radiotherapy image guidance using fiber-interspaced antiscatter grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, Uros; Herk, Marcel van; Ploeger, Lennert S.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Medical linear accelerator mounted cone beam CT (CBCT) scanner provides useful soft tissue contrast for purposes of image guidance in radiotherapy. The presence of extensive scattered radiation has a negative effect on soft tissue visibility and uniformity of CBCT scans. Antiscatter grids (ASG) are used in the field of diagnostic radiography to mitigate the scatter. They usually do increase the contrast of the scan, but simultaneously increase the noise. Therefore, and considering other scatter mitigation mechanisms present in a CBCT scanner, the applicability of ASGs with aluminum interspacing for a wide range of imaging conditions has been inconclusive in previous studies. In recent years, grids using fiber interspacers have appeared, providing grids with higher scatter rejection while maintaining reasonable transmission of primary radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of one such grid on CBCT image quality. Methods: The grid used (Philips Medical Systems) had ratio of 21:1, frequency 36 lp/cm, and nominal selectivity of 11.9. It was mounted on the kV flat panel detector of an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator and tested in a phantom and a clinical study. Due to the flex of the linac and presence of gridline artifacts an angle dependent gain correction algorithm was devised to mitigate resulting artifacts. Scan reconstruction was performed using XVI4.5 augmented with inhouse developed image lag correction and Hounsfield unit calibration. To determine the necessary parameters for Hounsfield unit calibration and software scatter correction parameters, the Catphan 600 (The Phantom Laboratory) phantom was used. Image quality parameters were evaluated using CIRS CBCT Image Quality and Electron Density Phantom (CIRS) in two different geometries: one modeling head and neck and other pelvic region. Phantoms were acquired with and without the grid and reconstructed with and without software correction which was adapted for the different

  16. Low-Fiber Diet in Limited Bowel Preparation for CT Colonography: Influence on Image Quality and Patient Acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedenbaum, Marjolein H.; Denters, Maaike J.; de Vries, Ayso H.; van Ravesteijn, Vincent F.; Bipat, Shandra; Vos, Frans M.; Dekker, Evelien; Stoker, Jaap

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a low-fiber diet is necessary for optimal tagging-only bowel preparation for CT colonography. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Fifty consecutively enrolled patients received an iodine bowel preparation: 25 patients used a low-fiber diet and 25 used

  17. Airclad fiber laser technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes

    2011-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last 5 years. Many of the traditional manufacturers of gas and solid-state lasers are now pursuing the fiber-based systems, which are displacing the conventional technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems...... require reliable fibers with large cores, stable mode quality, and good power handling capabilities-requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 100 m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to megawatt power levels. Furthermore, we describe the novel airclad-based pump combiners and their use in a completely...

  18. Fiber webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; James S. Han; Von L. Byrd

    2005-01-01

    Wood fibers can be used to produce a wide variety of low-density three-dimensional webs, mats, and fiber-molded products. Short wood fibers blended with long fibers can be formed into flexible fiber mats, which can be made by physical entanglement, nonwoven needling, or thermoplastic fiber melt matrix technologies. The most common types of flexible mats are carded, air...

  19. Osmotic distillation and quality evaluation of sucrose, apple and orange juices in hollow fiber membrane contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Waheed Ur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose solution, apple and orange juices were concentrated through osmotic distillation (OD process using a mini-module Liqui-CelTM hollow fibre membrane contactor. Mass transport characteristics of water molecules from feed to stripping solution were studied. Process parameters such as feed temperature, feed flow rate and concentration of stripping solution (CaCl2 were varied. Sucrose solution was concentrated from 135 to 510 g TSS kg-1 in 340 min using feed-in- -lumen flow configuration at a start-up water flux of 0.250 L m-2 h-1 and a temperature of 30°C. Similarly, it was concentrated up to 510 g TSS kg-1 in 200 min using feed-in-shell flow configuration at a start-up water flux of 0.505 L m-2 hr1 and a temperature of 30°C. In a total recycle time of 340 min, clarified apple and orange juices were concentrated up to 500 g TSS kg-1 using feed-in-lumen flow configuration at a start-up water flux of 0.204 and 0.294 L m-2 hr1, respectively. It was found that quality parameters of fruit juices were well improved after the osmotic distillation process. The process therefore has good potential for application in the fruit processing industry for concentration of fruit juices.

  20. Design of workshops in air quality management for senior managers in Mexico (Taller de la calidad del aire para mandos superiores)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auberle, W.M.; Alvarez, V.M.; Leary, J.; Paramo, V.H.

    1999-07-01

    A collaborative program among agencies and professionals in Mexico and the US is designing, developing and delivering specialized workshops for Mexican officials responsible for air quality management. The initial project is development and pilot delivery (Spring 1999) of a workshop for senior officials of SEMARNAP plus selected state and municipal officials. This paper describes the process for design of professional development programs in air quality management for Mexican officials. Key issues include optimum learning styles and delivery techniques; available time of senior managers for education; need for new materials versus adaptation of existing air quality management information; and utilization of the Internet and asynchronous methods to supplement the traditional workshop format. The paper describes the results of this analysis and design features and content of the initial workshop.

  1. Dietary energy source affecting fat deposition mechanism, muscle fiber metabolic and overall meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Hijazeen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effect of two dietary energy sources, soy bean oil, and sucrose on regulatory mechanisms of meat preservation. Twenty one day-old Hubbard commercial broilers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatment groups with six replicates per treatment, and four broilers per replicate. All birds were coded for the influence of energy source: fat based diet (FD, and sugar based diet (SD. Formulated grower diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The chickens were slaughtered and then boneless, skinless ground chicken tight meat was prepared. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, and sensory panel evaluation. In addition, meat from the small muscles of the raw thigh was used to evaluate other meat quality characteristics. Proximate analyses showed no significant differences between both dietary treatments on protein, ash and moisture percentage values. Meat samples of the group that was fed FD showed higher significant values of both TBARS and total carbonyl at day 7 of storage time. However, samples of the second group (Fed SD showed lower values of both ultimate pH and water separation % using raw thigh meat. The effect of FD treatment on the meat composition appeared clearly especially on fat percentage content. In addition, meat samples obtained from chickens fed SD showed better significant values of the overall acceptability attribute. According to the current findings, sucrose could be an excellent alternative to oil in dietary broilers which improved the meat preservation bio-system, and post-mortem storage stability.

  2. Improved terbium-doped, lithium-loaded glass scintillator fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, G.B.; McCollum, T.; Spowart, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    An improved terbium-doped, 6 Li-loaded glass scintillator has been drawn into fibers. Tests indicate that the neutron detection response of the fibers is superior to the response with fibers drawn from the original terbium-doped glass. The new fibers offer less attenuation (1/e length of ∝40 cm) and improved gamma ray/neutron discrimination. The improved fibers will be incorporated in a scintillator fiber optic long counter for neutron detection. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of quality parameters of sausages made with rabbit meat, lamb and pork, added with wheat fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Cobos-Velazsco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The difference among animal species with which chorizo is made, resulting in changes in the techno-functional properties that affect the process and acceptance of product. Sausages made with meat from rabbit, pork and lamb sources were added with wheat fiber and dried at water activity of 0.94. The moisture content was not affected by the source, but it was reduced when fiber was added. The sausages without fiber showed a lower fat content than those samples with fiber. They can be considered stable at room temperature due to their acidity and drying degree. Regarding to the weight loss and diameter of the sausage parameters, there were no differences between source types, however, a reduction of diameter was observed with the addition of fiber. Sausages with lamb meat and fiber showed an increase in oxidation. Higher values of luminosity were obtained in pork sausages. The most preferred samples were the pork meat sausages with the presence of fiber.

  4. The Interventional Arm of the Flexibility In Duty-Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees Trial: First-Year Data Show Superior Quality In-Training Initiative Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmehdi, Issa; O'Neal, Cindy-Marie; Moon, Davis; MacNew, Heather; Senkowski, Christopher

    With the implementation of strict 80-hour work week in general surgery training, serious questions have been raised concerning the quality of surgical education and the ability of newly trained general surgeons to independently operate. Programs that were randomized to the interventional arm of the Flexibility In duty-hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial were able to decrease transitions and allow for better continuity by virtue of less constraints on duty-hour rules. Using National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Quality In-Training Initiative data along with duty-hour violations compared with old rules, it was hypothesized that quality of care would be improved and outcomes would be equivalent or better than the traditional duty-hour rules. It was also hypothesized that resident perception of compliance with duty hour would not change with implementation of new regulations based on FIRST trial. Flexible work hours were implemented on July 1, 2014. National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Quality In-Training Initiative information was reviewed from July 2014 to January 2015. Patient risk factors and outcomes were compared between institutional resident cases and the national cohort for comparison. Residents' duty-hour logs and violations during this period were compared to the 6-month period before the implementation of the FIRST trial. The annual Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education resident survey was used to assess the residents' perception of compliance with duty hours. With respect to the postoperative complications, the only statistically significant measures were higher prevalence of pneumonia (3.4% vs. 1.5%, p flexible duty hours. All other measures of postoperative surgical complications showed no difference. The total number of duty-hour violations decreased from 54 to 16. Had the institution not been part of the interventional arm of the FIRST trial, this number would have increased to 238. The residents

  5. Profiling application potential for alkali treated sisal fiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATHARVA

    research and development efforts in the composites fields as they offer properties superior in ... advantages of both the fiber and matrix (Carvallo et al, 2010). ..... et al., 2008, who indicated spiral fractures in coir fibers following decortication.

  6. Flax fibers as a raw material: How to bleach efficiently a non-woody plant to obtain high-quality pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillat, Ursula; Pepio, Montserrat; Vidal, Teresa; Roncero, M. Blanca

    2010-01-01

    Fiber crops constitute a good alternative to wood fiber for manufacturing pulp and paper. In fact, fiber plants like flax surpass wood fiber in some technical respects and also in the environmental benignity of their processing. In this work, flax fiber was subjected to environmentally friendly bleaching sequences in order to obtain a high-quality pulp. The totally chlorine-free sequences (TCF) used for this purpose (LE and LRE) included an enzyme treatment with laccase in the presence of HBT as mediator (L stage), an alkaline extraction (E stage) and a reductive treatment with NaBH 4 (R stage). The operating conditions for the L stage (laccase and HBT doses, reaction time and oxygen pressure) were optimised by using a sequential statistical plan to assess their influence on pulp properties after the E stage. Mathematical models accurately predicting brightness and kappa number in terms of the previous four variables were developed based on which the most influential factors were the laccase and HBT rates, and treatment time. By contrast, oxygen pressures of 0.2-0.6 MPa in the reactor had no effect on brightness or kappa number. The flax pulp obtained contained some oxidized cellulose that was partially degraded in the alkaline extraction step and reduced viscosity as a result. The viscosity loss associated with the presence of oxidized cellulose in the control and enzyme-treated pulp samples was efficiently recovered by using a reductive stage with sodium borohydride. Effluent was also analysed in order to assess the environmental impact of the process.

  7. Nutritional and sensory quality evaluation of sponge cake prepared by incorporation of high dietary fiber containing mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) pulp and peel flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziah, A A Noor; Min, W Lee; Bhat, Rajeev

    2011-09-01

    Sponge cake prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with mango pulp and mango peel flours (MPuF and MPeF, respectively) at different concentrations (control, 5%, 10%, 20% or 30%) were investigated for the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. Results showed sponge cake incorporated with MPuF and MPeF to have high dietary fiber with low fat, calorie, hydrolysis and predicted glycemic index compared with the control. Increasing the levels of MPuF and MPeF in sponge cake had significant impact on the volume, firmness and color. Sensory evaluation showed sponge cake formulated with 10% MPuF and 10% MPeF to be the most acceptable. MPeF and MPuF have high potential as fiber-rich ingredients and can be utilized in the preparation of cake and other bakery products to improve the nutritional qualities.

  8. Produção e qualidade da videira 'Superior Seedless' sob restrição hídrica na fase de maturação Production and quality of 'Superior Seedless' grapes under irrigation restrictions during berry maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Borges Marinho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das condições de deficit hídrico, na fase de maturação da uva, sobre a produção e qualidade da uva 'Superior Seedless' entre julho e novembro de 2007. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial (3x3 + 1: três épocas de alteração da aplicação das lâminas de irrigação (21, 13 e 5 dias antes da colheita; três lâminas de irrigação (100, 50 e 0% da evapotranspiração da cultura; e um tratamento controle (manejo de irrigação adotado pelo produtor. As épocas de irrigação e as lâminas de irrigação utilizadas influenciaram a firmeza das bagas e a acidez titulável. A interrupção da irrigação, aos 13 ou 21 dias antes da colheita, resultou em produtividade, qualidade de frutos e eficiência do uso da água semelhante às obtidas pelo produtor, assim, pode ser adotada para economia da água de irrigação na Região do Submédio do Vale do São Francisco.The objective this work was to evaluate the effect of water deficit conditions, during the maturation phase of grapes, on the production and quality of the 'Superior Seedless', between July and November of 2007. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design, with four replicates, in a (3x 3 + 1 factorial arrangement: three times of alteration of the irrigation depths (21, 13 e 5 days before harvest; three irrigation depths (100, 50 e 0% of crop evapotranspiration; and a control treatment, which was the producer's irrigation management scheme. Irrigation timing and depth influenced berry firmness and titrable acidity. The management with cut-off irrigation depths at 13 or 21 days before harvesting and the control had the same yield, grape quality and water use efficiency, and may be adopted to save water for irrigation in the São Francisco Valley region.

  9. Self and Superior Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    model of the self-evaluation process as it differs from the evaluation process used by superiors. Symbolic Interactionism One view of self assessment is...supplied by the symbolic interactionists (Cooley, 1902; Head, 1934), who state that self perceptions are generated largely from individuals...disagreements remained even immediately after an appraisal interview in which a great deal of feedback was given. Research on the symbolic interactionist

  10. Photorefractive Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuzyk, Mark G

    2003-01-01

    ... scope of the project. In addition to our work in optical limiting fibers, spillover results included making fiber-based light-sources, writing holograms in fibers, and developing the theory of the limits of the nonlinear...

  11. Superiority of Interferon-Free Regimens for Chronic Hepatitis C: The Effect on Health-Related Quality of Life and Work Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younossi, Zobair M; Stepanova, Maria; Esteban, Rafael; Jacobson, Ira; Zeuzem, Stefan; Sulkowski, Mark; Henry, Linda; Nader, Fatema; Cable, Rebecca; Afendy, Mariam; Hunt, Sharon

    2017-02-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) such as quality of life and work productivity are important for measuring patient's experience. We assessed PROs during and after treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients.Data were obtained from a phase 3 open label study of sofosbuvir and ribavirin (SOF + RBV) with and without interferon (IFN). Patients completed 4 PRO assessment instruments (SF-36, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue, Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire- HCV, Work Productivity and Activity-Specific Health Problem) before, during, and after treatment.A total of 533 patients with chronic HCV were enrolled; 28.9% treatment-naïve, 23.1% cirrhotic, 219 received IFN + SOF + RBV and 314 received IFN-free SOF + RBV. At baseline, there were no differences in PROs between the IFN-free and IFN-containing treatment arms (all P > 0.05). During treatment, patients receiving IFN + SOF + RBV had a substantial impairment in their PROs (up to -24.4% by treatment week 12, up to -8.3% at week 4 post-treatment). The PRO decrements seen in the SOF + RBV arm were smaller in magnitude (up to -7.1% by treatment week 12), and all returned to baseline or improved by post-treatment week 4. By 12 weeks after treatment cessation, patients who achieved sustained viral response-12 showed some improvement of PRO scores regardless of the regimen (up to +7.1%, P < 0.0001) or previous treatment experience. In multivariate analysis, the use of IFN was independently associated with lower PROs.IFN-based regimens have a profoundly negative impact to PROs. By contrast, the impact of RBV on these PROs is relatively modest. Achieving HCV cure is associated with improvement of most of the PRO scores.

  12. Effect of different fibers on mechanical properties and ductility of alkali-activated slag cementitious material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Zheng, W. Z.; Qin, C. Z.; Xu, Z. Z.; Wu, Y. Q.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of different fibers on mechanical properties and ductility of alkali-activated slag cementitious material (AASCM) is studied. The research contents include: fiber type (plant fiber, polypropylene fiber), fiber content, mechanical property index, tensile stress-strain relationship curve, treating time. The test results showed that the compressive strength of two fibers reinforced AASCM was about 90 ~ 110MPa, and the tensile strength was about 3 ~ 5MPa. The reinforcement effect of polypropylene fiber is superior to that of plant fiber, and the mechanical properties of polypropylene fiber reinforced AASCM are superior to those of plant fiber, According to the comparison of SEM pictures, the plant fiber and polypropylene fiber are both closely bound with the matrix, and the transition zones are complete and close. Thus, it is proved that plant fiber and polypropylene fiber delay the crack extension and enhance the ductility of AASCM.

  13. The meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics and fatty acid profile in Jinjiang and F1 Simmental×Jinjiang yellow cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study compared the meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics, and fatty acids between Jinjiang yellow cattle (JJ and F1 Simmental×Jinjiang yellow cattle (SJ which were offered the same diet. Methods Six JJ and six SJ individuals were reared and fattened from 10 to 26 months of age. After feeding, the highrib (HR, ribeye (RB, and tenderloin (TL samples were taken from the carcass for meat quality evaluations. Results The results showed that growth performance of SJ was higher than that of JJ (higher live weight and average daily gain, and the hot carcass weight of SJ was higher than that of JJ (p<0.05. pH of JJ was higher than that of SJ in TL (p<0.05; the color of a* of SJ was higher than that of JJ in TL and RB (p<0.05; the cooking loss of SJ was significantly lower than that of JJ in TL and RB (p<0.05; the shear force value was significantly lower in SJ compared to JJ (p<0.05; the muscle fiber diameter was higher and the fiber density was lower in SJ compared to JJ in HR and TL (p<0.05; compared to SJ, the muscles of JJ had higher saturated fatty acid (SFA composition; the sum of monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA were lower in the muscle of JJ; the mRNA expressions of myosin heavy chain-I (MyHC-I and MyHC-IIa were higher in SJ compared to JJ in muscle of HR and RB; the mRNA expressions of MyHC-IIx and MyHC-IIb were lower in SJ compared to JJ in HR and RB (p<0.05. Conclusion Meat quality and fatty acid profile differed between SJ and JJ; the muscle of SJ had higher a* and SFA; SJ had lower cooking loss, shear force and PUFA compared to the muscle of JJ. In addition, the type and development characteristics of the muscle fiber had some difference between SJ and JJ; these might be factors which caused the differences in meat quality and fatty acid profile between SJ and JJ.

  14. Superior facet syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-01-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L 5 or/and S 1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively, Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L 5 roots and 11 S 1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L 5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome. (author)

  15. High-quality phase-shifted Bragg grating sensor inscribed with only one laser pulse in a polymer optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Pereira, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first phase-shifted polymer optical fiber Bragg grating sensor inscribed with only one KrF laser pulse. The phase shift defect was created directly during the grating inscription process by placing a very narrow blocking aperture, in the center of the UV beam. One laser pulse...

  16. Effect of Endodontic Retreatment on Push-out Bond Strength and Quality of Fiber Postbonding Interface of Resin Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrine, Rina Andréa; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Kato, Augusto Shoji; Fontana, Carlos Eduardo; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; De Martin, Alexandre Sigrist; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of endodontic retreatment on push-out bond strength and dentin interface of two resin cements used for fiber postcementation during endodontic retreatment. The root canals of 40 extracted human canines were prepared, obturated and divided into four groups (n = 10). Gutta-percha was partially removed and fiber posts were immediately cemented in groups 1 and 2 using Panavia F with ED Primer and RelyX™ U200, respectively. In groups 3 and 4, the root canal access was sealed with temporary restorative cement, specimens were stored for 30 days, endodontically retreated, and fiber posts were cemented using the resin cements applied to groups 1 and 2, respectively. Push-out tests and scanning electron microscopy analyses of different areas were performed. Data from push-out bond strengths were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests. Higher bond strength values were detected in the apical third for group 1 than group 3 (p 0.05). Comparisons between different thirds in the same group revealed a higher bond strength in the apical third for group 1. Scanning electron microscopy showed formation of hybrid layer and extensive resin tags in group 1. No hybrid layer was observed in groups 2 and 4. Endodontic retreatment had adverse effects on the push-out bond strength and dentinal interface of Panavia F with ED Primer when used for fiber postcementation specifically in the apical third, but not on RelyX™ U200. A significant interaction was detected between endodontic retreatment and resin cement, which indicated that endodontic retreatment might adversely affect the push-out bond strength and dentinal interface of Panavia F with ED Primer when used for fiber postcementation specifically in the apical third.

  17. Fiber dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipowicz, P.J.; Yeh, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis is the motion of uncharged particles in nonuniform electric fields. We find that the theoretical dielectrophoretic velocity of a conducting fiber in an insulating medium is proportional to the square of the fiber length, and is virtually independent of fiber diameter. This prediction has been verified experimentally. The results point to the development of a fiber length classifier based on dielectrophoresis. (author)

  18. Gossypium barbadense genome sequence provides insight into the evolution of extra-long staple fiber and specialized metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Bo; Zheng, Hua-Jun; Hu, Yan; Lu, Gang; Yang, Chang-Qing; Chen, Jie-Dan; Chen, Jun-Jian; Chen, Dian-Yang; Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Yan; Wang, Ling-Jian; Guo, Wang-Zhen; Bai, Yu-Lin; Ruan, Ju-Xin; Shangguan, Xiao-Xia; Mao, Ying-Bo; Shan, Chun-Min; Jiang, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Yong-Qiang; Jin, Lei; Kang, Hui; Chen, Shu-Ting; He, Xu-Lin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Yue-Zhu; Chen, Jie; Wang, Li-Jun; Yu, Shu-Ting; Wang, Bi-Yun; Wei, Jia; Song, Si-Chao; Lu, Xin-Yan; Gao, Zheng-Chao; Gu, Wen-Yi; Deng, Xiao; Ma, Dan; Wang, Sen; Liang, Wen-Hua; Fang, Lei; Cai, Cai-Ping; Zhu, Xie-Fei; Zhou, Bao-Liang; Jeffrey Chen, Z; Xu, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Gao; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2015-09-30

    Of the two cultivated species of allopolyploid cotton, Gossypium barbadense produces extra-long fibers for the production of superior textiles. We sequenced its genome (AD)2 and performed a comparative analysis. We identified three bursts of retrotransposons from 20 million years ago (Mya) and a genome-wide uneven pseudogenization peak at 11-20 Mya, which likely contributed to genomic divergences. Among the 2,483 genes preferentially expressed in fiber, a cell elongation regulator, PRE1, is strikingly At biased and fiber specific, echoing the A-genome origin of spinnable fiber. The expansion of the PRE members implies a genetic factor that underlies fiber elongation. Mature cotton fiber consists of nearly pure cellulose. G. barbadense and G. hirsutum contain 29 and 30 cellulose synthase (CesA) genes, respectively; whereas most of these genes (>25) are expressed in fiber, genes for secondary cell wall biosynthesis exhibited a delayed and higher degree of up-regulation in G. barbadense compared with G. hirsutum, conferring an extended elongation stage and highly active secondary wall deposition during extra-long fiber development. The rapid diversification of sesquiterpene synthase genes in the gossypol pathway exemplifies the chemical diversity of lineage-specific secondary metabolites. The G. barbadense genome advances our understanding of allopolyploidy, which will help improve cotton fiber quality.

  19. Information Superiority through Data Warehousing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warner, Neil

    2001-01-01

    .... A precursor to a knowledge edge is Information Superiority. Within most current Command Support Systems minimal integration and fusion of data is undertaken to provide the basis of information superiority...

  20. Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including...... the basic physics and relevant in-depth theoretical modeling, amplifiers characteristics and performance data as a function of specific operation parameters. Typical applications in fiber optic communication systems and the improvement achievable through the use of fiber amplifiers are illustrated....

  1. Enriching an intraspecific genetic map and identifying QTL for fiber quality and yield component traits across multiple environments in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueying; Teng, Zhonghua; Wang, Jinxia; Wu, Tiantian; Zhang, Zhiqin; Deng, Xianping; Fang, Xiaomei; Tan, Zhaoyun; Ali, Iftikhar; Liu, Dexin; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Dajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Zhengsheng

    2017-12-01

    Cotton is a significant commercial crop that plays an indispensable role in many domains. Constructing high-density genetic maps and identifying stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling agronomic traits are necessary prerequisites for marker-assisted selection (MAS). A total of 14,899 SSR primer pairs designed from the genome sequence of G. raimondii were screened for polymorphic markers between mapping parents CCRI 35 and Yumian 1, and 712 SSR markers showing polymorphism were used to genotype 180 lines from a (CCRI 35 × Yumian 1) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Genetic linkage analysis was conducted on 726 loci obtained from the 712 polymorphic SSR markers, along with 1379 SSR loci obtained in our previous study, and a high-density genetic map with 2051 loci was constructed, which spanned 3508.29 cM with an average distance of 1.71 cM between adjacent markers. Marker orders on the linkage map are highly consistent with the corresponding physical orders on a G. hirsutum genome sequence. Based on fiber quality and yield component trait data collected from six environments, 113 QTLs were identified through two analytical methods. Among these 113 QTLs, 50 were considered stable (detected in multiple environments or for which phenotypic variance explained by additive effect was greater than environment effect), and 18 of these 50 were identified with stability by both methods. These 18 QTLs, including eleven for fiber quality and seven for yield component traits, could be priorities for MAS.

  2. A novel thermoset polymer optical fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, T.A C; Steendam, R; Pennings, A.J; Hadziioannou, G

    Polymer optical fibers are being investigated with a view to overcoming some of the disadvantages of glass optical fibers in communications applications. Dense cross-linked polymers, such as the polyisocyanurate discussed here (see figure), have been found to be superior in some respects to the

  3. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia involving the superior rectus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Hellman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We present the first reported case of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia in the right superior rectus causing diplopia. Observations: A 72-year-old man with a 6-month history of untreated asymptomatic Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia presented with 2 years of diagonal binocular diplopia that was previously thought to be due to ocular myasthenia gravis. Examination showed mild right proptosis and right hypotropia, and MRI revealed a focal lesion of the right superior rectus muscle. Orbital biopsy was performed, and histopathology showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration among the skeletal muscle fibers of the rectus muscle. Immunostaining confirmed a B-cell preponderance, along with more extensive staining for IgM than IgG, and in situ hybridization confirmed lambda restriction. These findings corresponded with those of his previous bone marrow biopsy, confirming Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia as the etiology for the extraocular muscle mass. Conclusions and Importance: Lymphoma of an extraocular muscle is a rare manifestation of orbital lymphoma, and the tumors are usually mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas (i.e. extranodal marginal zone lymphomas. There are 4 previous reports of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma of an extraocular muscle; however this is the first reported case of such a lesion in a patient with concurrent Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia at the time of diagnosis. Keywords: Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, Lymphoma, Superior rectus, Diplopia

  4. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  5. The meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics and fatty acid profile in Jinjiang and F1 Simmental×Jinjiang yellow cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue; Wang, Shizhi; Yan, Peishi

    2018-02-01

    This study compared the meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics, and fatty acids between Jinjiang yellow cattle (JJ) and F1 Simmental×Jinjiang yellow cattle (SJ) which were offered the same diet. Six JJ and six SJ individuals were reared and fattened from 10 to 26 months of age. After feeding, the highrib (HR), ribeye (RB), and tenderloin (TL) samples were taken from the carcass for meat quality evaluations. The results showed that growth performance of SJ was higher than that of JJ (higher live weight and average daily gain), and the hot carcass weight of SJ was higher than that of JJ (pJJ was higher than that of SJ in TL (pJJ in TL and RB (pJJ in TL and RB (pJJ (pJJ in HR and TL (pJJ had higher saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition; the sum of monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) were lower in the muscle of JJ; the mRNA expressions of myosin heavy chain-I (MyHC-I) and MyHC-IIa were higher in SJ compared to JJ in muscle of HR and RB; the mRNA expressions of MyHC-IIx and MyHC-IIb were lower in SJ compared to JJ in HR and RB (pJJ; the muscle of SJ had higher a* and SFA; SJ had lower cooking loss, shear force and PUFA compared to the muscle of JJ. In addition, the type and development characteristics of the muscle fiber had some difference between SJ and JJ; these might be factors which caused the differences in meat quality and fatty acid profile between SJ and JJ.

  6. Historical Datasets Support Genomic Selection Models for the Prediction of Cotton Fiber Quality Phenotypes Across Multiple Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapare, Washington; Liu, Shiming; Conaty, Warren; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Gillespie, Vanessa; Llewellyn, Danny; Stiller, Warwick; Wilson, Iain

    2018-03-20

    Genomic selection (GS) has successfully been used in plant breeding to improve selection efficiency and reduce breeding time and cost. However, there has not been a study to evaluate GS prediction models that may be used for predicting cotton breeding lines across multiple environments. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Bayes Ridge Regression, BayesA, BayesB, BayesC and Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces regression models. We then extended the single-site GS model to accommodate genotype × environment interaction (G×E) in order to assess the merits of multi- over single-environment models in a practical breeding and selection context in cotton, a crop for which this has not previously been evaluated. Our study was based on a population of 215 upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) breeding lines which were evaluated for fiber length and strength at multiple locations in Australia and genotyped with 13,330 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers. BayesB, which assumes unique variance for each marker and a proportion of markers to have large effects, while most other markers have zero effect, was the preferred model. GS accuracy for fiber length based on a single-site model varied across sites, ranging from 0.27 to 0.77 (mean = 0.38), while that of fiber strength ranged from 0.19 to 0.58 (mean = 0.35) using randomly selected sub-populations as the training population. Prediction accuracies from the M×E model were higher than those for single-site and across-site models, with an average accuracy of 0.71 and 0.59 for fiber length and strength, respectively. The use of the M×E model could therefore identify which breeding lines have effects that are stable across environments and which ones are responsible for G×E and so reduce the amount of phenotypic screening required in cotton breeding programs to identify adaptable genotypes. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  7. Arc-welding quality assurance by means of embedded fiber sensor and spectral processing combining feature selection and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirapeix, J.; García-Allende, P. B.; Cobo, A.; Conde, O.; López-Higuera, J. M.

    2007-07-01

    A new spectral processing technique designed for its application in the on-line detection and classification of arc-welding defects is presented in this paper. A non-invasive fiber sensor embedded within a TIG torch collects the plasma radiation originated during the welding process. The spectral information is then processed by means of two consecutive stages. A compression algorithm is first applied to the data allowing real-time analysis. The selected spectral bands are then used to feed a classification algorithm, which will be demonstrated to provide an efficient weld defect detection and classification. The results obtained with the proposed technique are compared to a similar processing scheme presented in a previous paper, giving rise to an improvement in the performance of the monitoring system.

  8. Mechanism of the superior mechanical strength of nanometer-sized metal single crystals revealed

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, N. D.; Salem, H. G.; Yavari, A.; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2013-01-01

    Clear understanding of the superior mechanical strength of nanometer-sized metal single crystals is required to derive advanced mechanical components retaining such superiority. Although high quality studies have been reported on nano

  9. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber......-laser cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  10. Strength and conductivity of unidirectional copper composites reinforced by continuous SiC fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmig, S.; Allen, I.; You, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    A SiC long fiber-reinforced copper composite offers a beneficial combination of high strength and high thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. Both properties make the composite a promising material for the heat sink of high-heat-flux components. In this work, we developed a novel Cu/SiC f composite using the Sigma fiber. Based on HIP technique, a metallurgical process was established for fabricating high quality specimens using a TiC interface coating. Extensive tensile tests were conducted on the unidirectionally reinforced composite at 20 °C and 300 °C for a wide range of fiber volume fraction (V f ). In this paper, a large amount of test data is presented. The transversal thermal conductivity varies from 260 to 130 W/mK at 500 °C as V f is increased from 13% to 37%. The tensile strength reached up to 1246 MPa at 20 °C for V f = 37.6%, where the fracture strain was limited to 0.8%. The data of both elastic modulus and ultimate strength exhibited a good agreement with the rule-of-mixture predictions indicating a high quality of the materials. The strength of the composite with the Sigma fibers turned out to be superior to those of the SCS6 fibers at 300 °C, although the SCS6 fiber actually has a higher strength than the Sigma fiber. The fractographic pictures of tension test and fiber push-out test manifested a sufficient interfacial bonding

  11. Development in high speed and high quality laser cutting process in fiber reinforced plastics; FRP no laser ni yoru kosoku, kohinshitsu setsudan gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishide, T.; Shirota, H.; Matsumoto, O. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    Trimming was performed and studied by cutting KFRP, an epoxy matrix with Kevlar fiber woven thereinto, using various laser beams. The CO2 laser is capable of high-speed cutting but the product is low in quality. The surface of a cut by the YAG laser is not high in quality even with its peak output elevated. The thermally affected area is smaller under the excimer laser but it is low in cutting speed. The ablation properties of the excimer laser were investigated and the beam was shaped into a linear beam for another experiment, but it failed to attain the target speed of cutting. Next, a combination of excimer laser and CO2 laser was used for cutting. It was so designed that the preceding CO2 laser cuts the KFRP at a high speed to leave behind a carbonized layer, which is followed by a linear beam which vaporizes the carbonized layer for removal. An optical system is adopted for reshaping the excimer oscillated beam into a tube-like beam. Optical conditions were determined for a fluence value required for the removal of the carbonized layer. When the CO2 laser was set at 160W and the excimer laser at 20W, a 1mm-thick sheet was successfully cut at a speed of 16.7mm/sec. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Eutrophication monitoring for Lake Superior's Chequamegon ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A priority for the Lake Superior CSMI was to identify susceptible nearshore eutrophication areas. We developed an integrated sampling design to collect baseline data for Lake Superior’s Chequamegon Bay to understand how nearshore physical processes and tributary loading relate to observed chlorophyll concentrations. Sampling included ship-based water samples combined with vertical CTD casts, continuous in situ towing and data collected from an autonomous underwater glider. Sampling was conducted during June, July and September. The glider collected regional data as part of three extended missions in Lake Superior over the same periods. During the study, two significant storm events impacted the western end of Lake Superior; the first occurred during July 11-12, with 8-10 inches of rain in 24hrs, and the second on July 21 with winds in excess of 161 km/h. Using GIS software, we organized these diverse temporal data sets along a continuous time line with temporally coincident Modis Satellite data to visualize surface sediment plumes in relation to water quality measurements. Preliminary results suggest that both events impacted regional water quality, and that nearshore physical forces (upwelling and currents) influenced the spatial variability. Results comparing in situ measures with remotely sensed images will be discussed. not applicable

  13. Preslaughter handling effects on pork quality and glycolytic potential in two muscles differing in fiber type composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hambrecht, E.; Eissen, J.J.; Newman, D.J.; Smits, C.H.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of transportation, lairage, and preslaughter stressor treatment on glycolytic potential and pork quality of the glycolytic longissimus and the oxidative supraspinatus (SSP) or serratus ventralis (SV) muscles. In a 2 x 2 x 2

  14. CALIDAD PROFESIONAL DEL TÉCNICO SUPERIOR UNIVERSITARIO EN ADMINISTRACIÓN. UNA VISIÓN DE GRADUADOS Y DE EMPLEADORES (PROFESSIONAL QUALITY OF THE HIGHER TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY IN ADMINISTRATION. A VISION FOR GRADUATES AND EMPLOYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Simón Javier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Se presentan los resultados del trabajo de investigación de un estudio de caso “Calidad profesional del Técnico Superior Universitario en Administración. Una visión de graduados y de empleadores”. El objetivo fue evaluar el grado de cumplimiento en las funciones y tareas del ejercicio profesional de los TSUA, así como las habilidades y actitudes de los mismos en respuesta al perfil profesional solicitado por el empleador e, identificar las exigencias profesionales a las que se enfrentan dichos graduados. Se trabajó con una muestra de 60 graduados de las primeras cuatro generaciones y se entrevistó a dieciocho empleadores que a la fecha han contratado a una gran cantidad de graduados. Los resultados obtenidos al contrastar las opiniones de los graduados y las de los empleadores muestran un alto grado de concordancia, existe satisfacción de los empleadores en cuanto al nivel de cumplimiento de las funciones, habilidades y actitudes de los TSUA; no obstante, los graduados presentan un bajo grado de satisfacción en el nivel salarial que obtienen, el escaso reconocimiento profesional alcanzado, el tipo de puesto que ocupan y la posición jerárquica alcanzada.Abstract:We present the results of the research named "Professional quality of the higher technical university in administration. A view of graduates and employers”. The goal was t o assess the degree of compliance on the functions and duties of the profession of TSUA, as well as the skills and attitudes of those in response to theprofile requested by the employer. Identify the professional demands faced by these graduates. We worke d with a sample of 60 graduates of the first four generations and interviewed eighteen employers whose have recruited a large number of graduates. Until now the results contrast the views of graduates and employers show a high degree of consistency, there is a satisfaction of employers in the level of accomplishment of the tasks, skills and

  15. Bluebonnet Fiber Collages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Joan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a lesson that uses stitching and applique techniques to create a fiber collage in which every child is successful with high-quality work. This lesson was inspired by Tomie dePaola's "The Legend of the Bluebonnet." The back cover had a lovely illustration of the bluebonnet flower the author thought would translate easily to a…

  16. FIBER OPTIC LIGHTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir BATUR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there have been many important and valuable developments in the communication industry. The huge increase in the sound, data and visual communications has caused a parallel increase in the demand for systems with wider capacity, higher speed and higher quality. Communication systems that use light to transfer data are immensely increased. There have recently many systems in which glass or plastic fiber cables were developed for light wave to be transmitted from a source to a target place. Fiber optic systems, are nowadays widely used in energy transmission control systems, medicine, industry and lighting. The basics of the system is, movement of light from one point to another point in fiber cable with reflections. Fiber optic lighting systems are quite secure than other lighting systems and have flexibility for realizing many different designs. This situation makes fiber optics an alternative for other lighting systems. Fiber optic lighting systems usage is increasing day-by-day in our life. In this article, these systems are discussed in detail.

  17. Electrospun amplified fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-03-11

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  18. Preparation and Mechanical Properties of Aligned Discontinuous Carbon Fiber Composites

    OpenAIRE

    DENG Hua; GAO Junpeng; BAO Jianwen

    2018-01-01

    Aligned discontinuous carbon fiber composites were fabricated from aligned discontinuous carbon fiber prepreg, which was prepared from continuous carbon fiber prepreg via mechanical high-frequency cutting. The internal quality and mechanical properties were characterized and compared with continuous carbon fiber composites. The results show that the internal quality of the aligned discontinuous carbon fiber composites is fine and the mechanical properties have high retention rate after the fi...

  19. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  20. Liquid crystal polyester-carbon fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, T. S.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid crystal polymers (LCP) have been developed as a thermoplastic matrix for high performance composites. A successful melt impregnation method has been developed which results in the production of continuous carbon fiber (CF) reinforced LCP prepreg tape. Subsequent layup and molding of prepreg into laminates has yielded composites of good quality. Tensile and flexural properties of LCP/CF composites are comparable to those of epoxy/CF composites. The LCP/CF composites have better impact resistance than the latter, although epoxy/CF composites possess superior compression and shear strength. The LCP/CF composites have good property retention until 200 F (67 % of room temperature value). Above 200 F, mechanical properties decrease significantly. Experimental results indicate that the poor compression and shear strength may be due to the poor interfacial adhesion between the matrix and carbon fiber as adequate toughness of the LCP matrix. Low mechanical property retention at high temperatures may be attributable to the low beta-transition temperature (around 80 C) of the LCP matrix material.

  1. High-beam quality, high-efficiency laser based on fiber with heavily Yb(3+)-doped phosphate core and silica cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, O N; Semjonov, S L; Medvedkov, O I; Astapovich, M S; Okhrimchuk, A G; Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Sverchkov, S E; Dianov, E M

    2015-08-15

    We have fabricated and tested a composite fiber with an Yb(3+)-doped phosphate glass core and silica cladding. Oscillation with a slope efficiency of 74% was achieved using core pumping at 976 nm with fiber lengths of 48-90 mm in a simple laser configuration, where the cavity was formed by a high-reflectivity Bragg grating and the cleaved fiber end. The measured M(2) factors were as low as 1.05-1.22 even though the fiber was multimode at the lasing wavelength.

  2. The Immature Fiber Mutant Phenotype of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Is Linked to a 22-bp Frame-Shift Deletion in a Mitochondria Targeted Pentatricopeptide Repeat Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Thyssen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cotton seed trichomes are the most important source of natural fibers globally. The major fiber thickness properties influence the price of the raw material, and the quality of the finished product. The recessive immature fiber (im gene reduces the degree of fiber cell wall thickening by a process that was previously shown to involve mitochondrial function in allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum. Here, we present the fine genetic mapping of the im locus, gene expression analysis of annotated proteins near the locus, and association analysis of the linked markers. Mapping-by-sequencing identified a 22-bp deletion in a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR gene that is completely linked to the immature fiber phenotype in 2837 F2 plants, and is absent from all 163 cultivated varieties tested, although other closely linked marker polymorphisms are prevalent in the diversity panel. This frame-shift mutation results in a transcript with two long open reading frames: one containing the N-terminal transit peptide that targets mitochondria, the other containing only the RNA-binding PPR domains, suggesting that a functional PPR protein cannot be targeted to mitochondria in the im mutant. Taken together, these results suggest that PPR gene Gh_A03G0489 is involved in the cotton fiber wall thickening process, and is a promising candidate gene at the im locus. Our findings expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that modulate cotton fiber fineness and maturity, and may facilitate the development of cotton varieties with superior fiber attributes.

  3. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  4. Potassium sources in covering fertilization on cotton I – Yield, fiber quality and economic analisys. / Fontes de potássio na adubação de cobertura do algodoeiro I – Produtividade, qualidade de fibras e análise econômica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Creste

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in Sapezal, Mato Grosso state, Brazil, in 2007/2008, with the purpose of determining the effect of potassium sources on yield components, yield, fiber quality and economical aspects of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.. A randomized complete block experimental design was used, with five replications. The treatments consisted of application in covering, via soil, at rate of 100 kg ha-1 of K2O, in two split applications, of the sources KCl, K2SO4, KNO3 and K2SO4.2MgSO4. The number of nodes, height, number of bolls in the superior third and the weight of boll in the medium third was higher with K2SO4.2MgSO4 than with KNO3 source. The potassium fertilizers did not influence the fiber revenue, but the fertilizing with K2SO4.2MgSO4 source had higher cotton seed yield and lint yield, although the uniformity ratio of fibber and profitability were smaller in relation to K2SO4. The fibber agio index was higher with KNO3 source. The production cost was higher with K2SO4.2MgSO4 source and in function of the smallest production cost, KCl source presented superior liquid revenue than other treatments. Conduziu-se um experimento de campo, em Sapezal – MT, no ano agrícola de 2007/2008, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito das fontes de potássio sobre os componentes de produção, a produtividade, a qualidade da fibra e os aspectos econômicos do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivar FMT 701. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos constaram da aplicação em cobertura via solo na dose de 100 kg ha-1 de K2O, parcelada em duas aplicações, nas fontes KCl, K2SO4, KNO3 e K2SO4.2MgSO4. O número de nós, a altura da planta, o número de capulhos no terço superior e o peso do capulho no terço médio foram maiores no tratamento com K2SO4.2MgSO4, em relação ao KNO3. Os adubos potássicos não influenciaram o rendimento de fibra, mas a adubação potássica de cobertura na

  5. High-Protein and High-Dietary Fiber Breakfasts Result in Equal Feelings of Fullness and Better Diet Quality in Low-Income Preschoolers Compared with Their Usual Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Campbell, Wayne W; Mattes, Rickard D; Schwichtenberg, Amy J

    2017-03-01

    Background: In the United States, 17% of children are currently obese. Increasing feelings of fullness may prevent excessive energy intake, lead to better diet quality, and promote long-term maintenance of healthy weight. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a fullness-rating tool (aim 1) and to determine whether a high-protein (HP), high-fiber (HF), and combined HP and HF (HPHF) breakfast increases preschoolers' feelings of fullness before (pre) and after (post) breakfast and pre-lunch, as well as their diet quality, as measured by using a composite diet quality assessment tool, the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (aim 2). Methods: Children aged 4 and 5 y ( n = 41; 22 girls and 19 boys) from local Head Start centers participated in this randomized intervention trial. Sixteen percent of boys and 32% of girls were overweight or obese. After the baseline week, children rotated through four 1-wk periods of consuming ad libitum HP (19-20 g protein), HF (10-11 g fiber), HPHF (19-21 g protein, 10-12 g fiber), or usual (control) breakfasts. Food intake at breakfast was estimated daily, and for breakfast, lunch, and snack on day 3 of each study week Student's t tests and ANOVA were used to determine statistical differences. Results: Children's post-breakfast and pre-lunch fullness ratings were ≥1 point higher than those of pre-breakfast (aim 1). Although children consumed, on average, 65 kcal less energy during the intervention breakfasts ( P diet quality (12%) was calculated for the HP and HF breakfasts ( P diet quality. Serving HP or HF breakfasts may be valuable in improving diet quality without lowering feelings of satiation or satiety. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02122224. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Optical fiber-applied radiation detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Ryuichi; Uranaka, Yasuo; Izumi, Nobuyuki

    2001-01-01

    A technique to measure radiation by using plastic scintillation fibers doped radiation fluorescent (scintillator) to plastic optical fiber for a radiation sensor, was developed. The technique contains some superiority such as high flexibility due to using fibers, relatively easy large area due to detecting portion of whole of fibers, and no electromagnetic noise effect due to optical radiation detection and signal transmission. Measurable to wide range of and continuous radiation distribution along optical fiber cable at a testing portion using scintillation fiber and flight time method, the optical fiber-applied radiation sensing system can effectively monitor space radiation dose or apparatus operation condition monitoring. And, a portable type scintillation optical fiber body surface pollution monitor can measure pollution concentration of radioactive materials attached onto body surface by arranging scintillation fiber processed to a plate with small size and flexibility around a man to be tested. Here were described on outline and fundamental properties of various application products using these plastic scintillation fiber. (G.K.)

  7. Equidade e qualidade na educação superior no Brasil: o acesso por meio da educação a distância = Equity and quality in higher education in Brazil: access through distance education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netto, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos a Educação a Distância vem adquirindo reconhecimento como uma modalidade de educação apropriada para o alcance de metas de políticas públicas. Através da Universidade Aberta do Brasil (UAB, o Ministério da Educação (MEC, desde 2005, vem ofertando milhares de vagas em cursos de nível superior gratuitos, através de instituições públicas de Ensino Superior, apoiadas em polos presenciais municipais. Este artigo tem como objetivo propor uma discussão sobre a formação qualificada na educação superior. Aborda que o conceito de qualidade de ensino deve estar presente nos debates, fóruns e seminários, não somente de representantes da educação, mas também com a participação da sociedade civil organizada, para que sejam definidas políticas públicas que avancem no desenvolvimento e privilegiem o bem estar humano. O entendimento é de que a qualidade da educação superior dar-se-á a partir de processos acadêmicos equitativos e que o papel da universidade é promover o acesso e o conhecimento para a melhoria do desenvolvimento humano, social, econômico e ambiental. Fez parte da investigação estudos sobre qualidade e equidade, que são termos balizadores para a constituição de uma educação superior responsável e comprometida com o desenvolvimento humano e social. A interpretação dos resultados da pesquisa indica que essas iniciativas do governo federal buscam melhorar a qualidade da Educação Básica no Brasil e promover a igualdade de oportunidades, tendo como aliada a Educação a Distância, levando o ensino a regiões pouco acessíveis, abrangendo uma camada da população que tem dificuldade de acesso à formação universitária

  8. Neighborhood resolved fiber orientation distributions (NRFOD) in automatic labeling of white matter fiber pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Devran; Firat, Zeynep; Türe, Uğur; Unal, Gozde

    2018-05-01

    Accurate digital representation of major white matter bundles in the brain is an important goal in neuroscience image computing since the representations can be used for surgical planning, intra-patient longitudinal analysis and inter-subject population connectivity studies. Reconstructing desired fiber bundles generally involves manual selection of regions of interest by an expert, which is subject to user bias and fatigue, hence an automation is desirable. To that end, we first present a novel anatomical representation based on Neighborhood Resolved Fiber Orientation Distributions (NRFOD) along the fibers. The resolved fiber orientations are obtained by generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI) and a subsequent diffusion decomposition method. A fiber-to-fiber distance measure between the proposed fiber representations is then used in a density-based clustering framework to select the clusters corresponding to the major pathways of interest. In addition, neuroanatomical priors are utilized to constrain the set of candidate fibers before density-based clustering. The proposed fiber clustering approach is exemplified on automation of the reconstruction of the major fiber pathways in the brainstem: corticospinal tract (CST); medial lemniscus (ML); middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP); inferior cerebellar peduncle (ICP); superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP). Experimental results on Human Connectome Project (HCP)'s publicly available "WU-Minn 500 Subjects + MEG2 dataset" and expert evaluations demonstrate the potential of the proposed fiber clustering method in brainstem white matter structure analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. All-optical fiber compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Luben M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple all-optical fiber compressor, based on an idea of dispersion management using a fiber of positive dispersion in the first part and of negative dispersion in the second one at the working wavelength, is investigated. The method allows a combination of the advantages of the classic fiber-grating and of the multisoliton compression. It is possible to improve substantially the quality of the compressed pulse compared to the multisoliton compression. The compression factor could be increased up to 2-2.5 times when the fraction of the input pulse energy appearing within the compressed pulse enhances more than 2 times. Thus, the peak power of the compressed pulse is able to increase about 5 times and the quality of the obtained pulses should be comparable with those obtained by the fiber-grating compressor

  10. Fracture detection in concrete by glass fiber cloth reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soon-Gi; Lee, Sung-Riong

    2006-04-01

    Two types of carbon (carbon fiber and carbon powder) and a glass cloth were used as conductive phases and a reinforcing fiber, respectively, in polymer rods. The carbon powder was used for fabricating electrically conductive carbon powder-glass fiber reinforced plastic (CP-GFRP) rods. The carbon fiber tows and the CP-GFRP rods were adhered to mortar specimens using epoxy resin and glass fiber cloth. On bending, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber tow attached to the mortar specimen increased greatly after crack generation, and that of the CP-GFRP rod increased after the early stages of deflection in the mortar. Therefore, the CP-GFRP rod is superior to the carbon fiber tow in detecting fractures. Also, by reinforcing with a glass fiber cloth reinforced plastic, the strength of the mortar specimens became more than twice as strong as that of the unreinforced mortar.

  11. Lo que Piensan los Estudiantes y Profesores Sobre la Calidad de la Educacion Superior. Estudio Comparativo en 5 Instituciones de Educacion Superior--dos publicas y tres privadas--en Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico (What Students and Faculties Think about the Quality of Higher Education. Comparative Study of 5 Higher Education Institutions--Two Public and Three Private--in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, Maria Lorena Hernandez

    This study, written in Spanish, compared attitudes of students (N=302) and faculty (N=28) at five institutions of higher education (two public and three private) in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. The study explored first, whether respondents believed there are significant quality differences between private and public universities and, second, what…

  12. Writing superiority in cued recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eFueller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001. In other memory retrieval paradigms, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005. In a series of four experiments using a paired associate (PA learning paradigm we tested (a whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b whether a possible superiority for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c whether the performance in PA word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory task. We found better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a PA learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written versus spoken recall cannot be (solely explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory

  13. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  14. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue; Low-fiber diet; Fiber restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; ... them if they do not contain seeds or pulp: Yellow squash (without seeds) Spinach Pumpkin Eggplant Potatoes, ...

  15. Double elevator weakening for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy with ipsilateral superior rectus contracture and lax superior oblique tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif O

    2012-06-01

    In unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy, a large hypertropia is sometimes associated with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle and apparent overaction of the contralateral superior oblique. Ipsilateral double elevator weakening is one surgical approach; however, this procedure could compromise supraduction. We report a series of three consecutive patients who underwent ipsilateral superior rectus and inferior oblique recessions for unilateral superior oblique palsy. Intraoperatively, all three patients were found to have a lax ipsilateral superior oblique tendon. Postoperatively, all three patients had satisfactory correction of the hypertropia and abnormal head position with minimal supraduction defect. This procedure seems to be an acceptable initial surgical option for treating congenital superior oblique muscle palsy with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle, even when the ipsilateral superior oblique tendon is lax. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Photovoltaic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  17. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  18. Synergistic stiffening in double-fiber networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombouts, W.H.; Giesbers, M.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Wolf, de F.A.; Gucht, van der J.

    2014-01-01

    Many biological materials are composite structures, interpenetrating networks of different types of fibers. The composite nature of such networks leads to superior mechanical properties, but the origin of this mechanical synergism is still poorly understood. Here we study soft composite networks,

  19. Benefits of glass fibers in solar fiber optic lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotinen, Tarja T; Lingfors, David H S

    2013-09-20

    The transmission properties and coupling of solar light have been studied for glass core multimode fibers in order to verify their benefits for a solar fiber optic lighting system. The light transportation distance can be extended from 20 m with plastic fibers to over 100 m with the kind of glass fibers studied here. A high luminous flux, full visible spectrum, as well as an outstanding color rendering index (98) and correlated color temperature similar to the direct sun light outside have been obtained. Thus the outstanding quality of solar light transmitted through these fibers would improve the visibility of all kinds of objects compared to fluorescent and other artificial lighting. Annual relative lighting energy savings of 36% in Uppsala, Sweden, and 76% in Dubai were estimated in an office environment. The absolute savings can be doubled by using glass optical fibers, and are estimated to be in the order of 550 kWh/year in Sweden and 1160 kWh/year in Dubai for one system of only 0.159 m(2) total light collecting area. The savings are dependent on the fiber length, the daily usage time of the interior, the type of artificial lighting substituted, the system light output flux, and the available time of sunny weather at the geographic location.

  20. High-power picosecond pulse delivery through hollow core photonic band gap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Johansen, Mette Marie; Lyngsø, Jens Kristian

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated robust and bend insensitive fiber delivery of high power pulsed laser with diffraction limited beam quality for two different kind of hollow core photonic band gap fibers......We demonstrated robust and bend insensitive fiber delivery of high power pulsed laser with diffraction limited beam quality for two different kind of hollow core photonic band gap fibers...

  1. Radiotherapy of superior vena cava syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanami, Shoko; Imada, Hajime; Terashima, Hiromi; Nakata, Hajime

    1996-01-01

    The records of 38 patients with superior vena cava syndrome (SVC syndrome) due to malignancy and who received radiation therapy were retrospectively reviewed. The majority were lung cancers, constituting 28 of the 38 cases (73.7%). All patients were treated with conventional radiation doses ranging from 20 to 70 Gy and good symptomatic response was observed in 31 cases (81.6% ). The response appeared within 1.7±0.9 weeks on average (3 days-4 weeks;, and performance status also improved in 50% of the patients. The median survival was 6.6 months. Long term survivors were seen mostly in patients with thymoma, and only one patient ever showed a recurrence of SVC syndrome. We conclude that radiotherapy can be an effective therapeutic modality for SVC syndrome and that it improves the quality of life in most patients. (author)

  2. A Fermat's spiral multifilament-core fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartara, L.; Codemard, C.

    2013-02-01

    A multifilament-core optical fiber where the microstructure is arranged in a Fermat's spiral is presented. The properties of such a fiber to be exploited for laser light amplification are numerically investigated by means of a full-vectorial finite-element method. Thanks to this peculiar microstructure, the fiber is shown to have an increased Brillouin threshold power and very low bending losses, while preserving a very good beam spatial quality.

  3. The Comparative Effect of Carrot and Lemon Fiber as a Fat Replacer on Physico-chemical, Textural, and Organoleptic Quality of Low-fat Beef Hamburger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncu, Eda Demirok; Kolsarıcı, Nuray; Çiçek, Neslihan; Öztürk, Görsen Salman; Akoğlu, Ilker T; Arıcı, Yeliz Kaşko

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the usability of lemon fiber (LF-2%, 4%, 6%) and carrot fiber (CF-2%, 4%, 6%) to produce low-fat beef hamburgers. To that end, a certain amount of fat was replaced with each fiber. The proximate composition, pH value, cholesterol content, cooking characteristics, color, texture profile, and sensory properties of low-fat beef hamburgers were investigated. LF increased moisture content and cooking yield due to its better water binding properties, while CF caused higher fat and cholesterol contents owing to its higher fat absorption capacity (pretention, and fat retention. However it is suggested that CF produces better low-fat hamburgers since up to 2% CF presented sensory and textural properties similar to those of regular hamburgers.

  4. Application Specific Optical Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Bishnu P.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we have attempted to provide a unified summary description of the most important propagation characteristics of an optical fiber followed by discussion on several variety of special fibers for realizing fiber amplifiers, dispersion compensating fibers, microstructured optical fibers, and so on. Even though huge progress has been made on development of optical fibers for telecom application, a need for developing special fibers, not necessarily for telecom alone, has arisen. Th...

  5. Widely tunable single-/dual-wavelength fiber lasers with ultra-narrow linewidth and high OSNR using high quality passive subring cavity and novel tuning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ting; Ding, Dongliang; Yan, Fengping; Zhao, Ziwei; Su, Hongxin; Yao, X Steve

    2016-08-22

    High stability single- and dual-wavelength compound cavity erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs) with ultra-narrow linewidth, high optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) and widely tunable range are demonstrated. Different from using traditional cascaded Type-1/Type-2 fiber rings as secondary cavities, we nest a Type-1 ring inside a Type-2 ring to form a passive subring cavity to achieve single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) lasing with ultra-narrow linewidth for the first time. We also show that the SLM lasing stability can be further improved by inserting a length of polarization maintaining fiber in the Type-2 ring. Using a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and two superimposed FBGs as mode restricting elements, respectively, we obtain a single-wavelength EDFL with a linewidth as narrow as 715 Hz and an OSNR as high as 73 dB, and a dual-wavelength EDFL with linewidths less than 1 kHz and OSNRs higher than 68 dB for both lasing wavelengths. Finally, by employing a novel self-designed strain adjustment device capable of applying both the compression and tension forces to the FBGs for wavelength tuning, we achieve the tuning range larger than 10 nm for both of the EDFLs.

  6. Improving the quality of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) for dairy cows by selecting for fast clearing and/or degradable neutral detergent fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2005-01-01

    Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) fractional clearance rate (Kcl) and fractional degradation rate (kd) of six varieties of perennial ryegrass were measured to examine the possibility of selecting for varieties with fast degradable NDF. The experiment was conducted in 2000 and repeated in 2001. In each

  7. Advanced ultrafast fiber laser sources enabled by fiber nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei

    2017-05-15

    Development of high power/energy ultrafast fiber lasers for scientific research and industrial applications is one of the most exciting fields in ultrafast optics. This thesis demonstrated new means to improve two essential properties - which are indispensable for novel applications such as high-harmonic generation (HHG) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) - of an ultrafast fiber laser system: energy scaling capability and wavelength tunability. High photon-flux extreme ultraviolet sources enabled by HHG desire high power (>100 W), high repetition-rate (>1 MHz) ultrafast driving laser sources. We have constructed from scratch a high-power Yb-fiber laser system using the well-known chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) technique. Such a CPA system capable of producing ∝200-W average power consists of a monolithic Yb-fiber oscillator, an all-fiber stretcher, a pre-amplifier chain, a main amplifier constructed from rode-type large pitch fiber, and a diffraction-grating based compressor. To increase the HHG efficiency, ultrafast pulses with duration <60 fs are highly desired. We proposed and demonstrated a novel amplification technique, named as pre-chirp managed amplification (PCMA). We successfully constructed an Yb-fiber based PCMA system that outputs 75-MHz spectrally broadened pulses with >130-W average power. The amplified pulses are compressed to 60-fs pulses with 100-W average power, constituting a suitable HHG driving source. MPM is a powerful biomedical imaging tool, featuring larger penetration depth while providing the capability of optical sectioning. Although femtosecond solid-state lasers have been widely accepted as the standard option as MPM driving sources, fiber-based sources have received growing research efforts due to their superior performance. In the second part of this thesis, we both theoretically and experimentally demonstrated a new method of producing wavelength widely tunable femtosecond pulses for driving MPM. We employed self-phase modulation

  8. Natural Fiber Filament Wound Composites: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ansari Suriyati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent development, natural fibers have attracted the interest of engineers, researchers, professionals and scientists all over the world as an alternative reinforcement for fiber reinforced polymer composites. This is due to its superior properties such as high specific strength, low weight, low cost, fairly good mechanical properties, non-abrasive, eco-friendly and bio-degradable characteristics. In this point of view, natural fiber-polymer composites (NFPCs are becoming increasingly utilized in a wide variety of applications because they represent an ecological and inexpensive alternative to conventional petroleum-derived materials. On the other hand, considerable amounts of organic waste and residue from the industrial and agricultural processes are still underutilized as low-value energy sources. This is a comprehensive review discussing about natural fiber reinforced composite produced by filament winding technique.

  9. Smelling in chemically complex environments: an optofluidic Bragg fiber array for differentiation of methanol adulterated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Adem; Ozturk, Fahri Emre; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2013-07-02

    A novel optoelectronic nose for analysis of alcohols (ethanol and methanol) in chemically complex environments is reported. The cross-responsive sensing unit of the optoelectronic nose is an array of three distinct hollow-core infrared transmitting photonic band gap fibers, which transmit a specific band of IR light depending on their Bragg mirror structures. The presence of alcohol molecules in the optofluidic core quenches the fiber transmissions if there is an absorption band of the analyte overlapping with the transmission band of the fiber; otherwise they remain unchanged. The cumulative response data of the fiber array enables rapid, reversible, and accurate discrimination of alcohols in chemically complex backgrounds such as beer and fruit juice. In addition, we observed that humidity of the environment has no effect on the response matrix of the optoelectronic nose, which is rarely achieved in gas-sensing applications. Consequently, it can be reliably used in virtually any environment without precalibration for humidity or drying the analytes. Besides the discussed application in counterfeit alcoholic beverages, with its superior sensor parameters, this novel concept proves to be a promising contender for many other applications including food quality control, environmental monitoring, and breath analysis for disease diagnostics.

  10. Statistical characteristics of surface integrity by fiber laser cutting of Nitinol vascular stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C.H.; Liu, J.F.; Guo, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Precision kerf with tight tolerance of Nitinol stents can be cut by fiber laser. • No HAZ in the subsurface was detected due to large grain size. • Recast layer has lower hardness than the bulk. • Laser cutting speed has a higher influence on surface integrity than laser power. - Abstract: Nitinol alloys have been widely used in manufacturing of vascular stents due to the outstanding properties such as superelasticity, shape memory, and superior biocompatibility. Laser cutting is the dominant process for manufacturing Nitinol stents. Conventional laser cutting usually produces unsatisfactory surface integrity which has a significant detrimental impact on stent performance. Emerging as a competitive process, fiber laser with high beam quality is expected to produce much less thermal damage such as striation, dross, heat affected zone (HAZ), and recast layer. To understand the process capability of fiber laser cutting of Nitinol alloy, a design-of-experiment based laser cutting experiment was performed. The kerf geometry, roughness, topography, microstructure, and hardness were studied to better understand the nature of the HAZ and recast layer in fiber laser cutting. Moreover, effect size analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between surface integrity and process parameters.

  11. Statistical characteristics of surface integrity by fiber laser cutting of Nitinol vascular stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C.H., E-mail: cfu5@crimson.ua.edu [Dept of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Liu, J.F. [Dept of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Guo, Andrew [Dept of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); College of Arts and Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Precision kerf with tight tolerance of Nitinol stents can be cut by fiber laser. • No HAZ in the subsurface was detected due to large grain size. • Recast layer has lower hardness than the bulk. • Laser cutting speed has a higher influence on surface integrity than laser power. - Abstract: Nitinol alloys have been widely used in manufacturing of vascular stents due to the outstanding properties such as superelasticity, shape memory, and superior biocompatibility. Laser cutting is the dominant process for manufacturing Nitinol stents. Conventional laser cutting usually produces unsatisfactory surface integrity which has a significant detrimental impact on stent performance. Emerging as a competitive process, fiber laser with high beam quality is expected to produce much less thermal damage such as striation, dross, heat affected zone (HAZ), and recast layer. To understand the process capability of fiber laser cutting of Nitinol alloy, a design-of-experiment based laser cutting experiment was performed. The kerf geometry, roughness, topography, microstructure, and hardness were studied to better understand the nature of the HAZ and recast layer in fiber laser cutting. Moreover, effect size analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between surface integrity and process parameters.

  12. Multi-kW single fiber laser based on an extra large mode area fiber design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Andreas; Such, Mario; Schötz, Gerhard; Just, Florian; Leich, Martin; Schwuchow, Anka; Grimm, Stephan; Zimer, Hagen; Kozak, Marcin; Wedel, Björn; Rehmann, Georg; Bachert, Charley; Krause, Volker

    2012-02-01

    The quality of Yb-doped fused bulk silica produced by sintering of Yb-doped fused silica granulates has improved greatly in the past five years [1 - 4]. In particular, the refractive index and doping level homogeneity of such materials are excellent and we achieved excellent background fiber attenuation of the active core material down to about 20 dB/km at 1200 nm. The improvement of the Yb-doped fused bulk silica has enabled the development of multi-kW fiber laser systems based on a single extra large multimode laser fiber (XLMA fiber). When a single active fiber is used in combination with the XLMA multimode fiber of 1200 μm diameter simple and robust high power fiber laser setups without complex fiber coupling and fiber combiner systems become possible. In this papper, we will discuss in detail the development of the core material based on Yb-doped bulk silica and the characterization of Yb-doped fibers with different core compositions. We will also report on the excellent performance of a 4 kW fiber laser based on a single XLMA-fiber and show the first experimental welding results of steel sheets achieved with such a laser.

  13. Photonic crystal fiber technology for compact fiber-delivered high-power ultrafast fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triches, Marco; Michieletto, Mattia; Johansen, Mette M.; Jakobsen, Christian; Olesen, Anders S.; Papior, Sidsel R.; Kristensen, Torben; Bondue, Magalie; Weirich, Johannes; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.

    2018-02-01

    Photonic crystal fiber (PCF) technology has radically impacted the scientific and industrial ultrafast laser market. Reducing platform dimensions are important to decrease cost and footprint while maintaining high optical efficiency. We present our recent work on short 85 μm core ROD-type fiber amplifiers that maintain single-mode performance and excellent beam quality. Robust long-term performance at 100 W average power and 250 kW peak power in 20 ps pulses at 1030 nm wavelength is presented, exceeding 500 h with stable performance in terms of both polarization and power. In addition, we present our recent results on hollow-core ultrafast fiber delivery maintaining high beam quality and polarization purity.

  14. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  15. Qualidade e teores de nutrientes de palmeira-rápis em substrato com fibra de coco Quality and nutrient content of lady palm in coconut fiber substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia dos S Alves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As avaliações foram realizadas em quatro substratos compostos de mistura de fibra de coco triturada (FC e substrato comercial Plantmax HT® (SC, nas proporções de 0, 25, 50 e 75% de FC, em vasos com capacidade para 35 L, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e três vasos por parcela, com uma planta por vaso. A adubação das plantas foi feita alternando-se, a cada três meses, 25 g de 4-14-8 com 10 g de uréia por vaso, a partir do plantio e durante os 24 meses do período experimental. O crescimento foi avaliado medindo-se a altura da haste inicial (da base do caule à inserção da última folha completamente expandida, número de folhas da haste inicial, número de perfilhos, número de folhas dos perfilhos, altura dos perfilhos e teores de nutrientes da última folha completamente expandida da haste inicial. A qualidade foi avaliada através de análise sensorial visual, baseado nos critérios "gostei"(muito ou pouco e "compraria"(sim ou não. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos sobre as características de crescimento, exceto para o número de folhas da haste inicial. As plantas com melhor aceitação foram aquelas cultivadas na mistura com 50% FC e 50% SC. Nenhuma das plantas apresentou sintoma visual de deficiência de nutrientes, sendo os teores foliares encontrados em plantas sadias com padrão de qualidade para comercialização de: 17,80 - 18,29 g kg-1 de N; 0,66 - 0,81 g kg-1 de NO-3; 2,02 - 2,34 g kg-1 de P; 18,11 - 20,40 g kg-1 de K; 11,63 - 13,84 g kg-1 de Cl; 2,69 - 4,04 g kg-1 de Ca; 1,61 - 2,07 g kg-1 de S; 1,98 - 2,64 g kg-1 de Mg.It was evaluated the quality and nutrient content of lady palm in four substrates made up of a mixture of shredded coconut fiber (FC and commercial substrate Plantmax HT® (SC, in proportions of 0, 25, 50 and 75% of FC, in 35 liters containers, in a randomized block experiment with four replicates and three pots per plot, with one plant per pot. The plants were

  16. Ensino Superior em Administração e Percepção da Qualidade de Serviços: uma aplicação da escala SERVQUALEducation in Business Administration High and Services Quality Perception: a SERVQUAL scale applicationEducación Superior en Administración y Percepción de la Calidad de los Servicios: una aplicación de la escala SERVQUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOURENÇO, Cléria Donizete da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO estabelecimento de instrumentos de avaliação institucional, aptos a reconhecer a percepção discente, são de fundamental importância para a adequada prestação de serviços educacionais. Partindo desse princípio, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo verificar, por meio da escala SERVQUAL, a percepção de qualidade dos estudantes de Administração em uma IES particular do Sul de Minas Gerais. Para tanto, foi feita uma pesquisa de natureza descritiva. Os dados foram coletados por meio do questionário SERVQUAL adaptado à avaliação educacional. O universo de pesquisa correspondeu aos alunos do último período do curso de Administração. Estes foram selecionados devido à longevidade de seu contato com o curso e com a instituição. A análise de dados envolveu técnicas descritivas (distribuição de frequências e multivariadas (análise de conglomerados e discriminante. Em seus resultados o trabalho pôde identificar variáveis bem avaliadas e, também, estruturas, processos e condutas que devem ser aperfeiçoadas. O emprego de técnicas estatísticas permitiu a identificação de dois grupos (denominados de “mais exigentes” e “menos exigentes” e os atributos responsáveis pelos dissensos, que servirão de parâmetro para a priorização de processos de melhoria. Toda organização possui clientes com diferentes expectativas de qualidade. As instituições de ensino superior não fogem a essa regra. Assim, somente a identificação de atributos-chave para a percepção da qualidade e sua criteriosa análise é que podem dar início a processos efetivos de melhoria.ABSTRACTThe institutional evaluation instruments establishment, able to recognize the student perception, has its role of fundamental importance for the adequate educational services offer. From this principle, this paper aims to verify, through the SERVQUAL, the perceived quality of the administration students in a private school in the South of Minas

  17. Advanced ultrafast fiber laser sources enabled by fiber nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Development of high power/energy ultrafast fiber lasers for scientific research and industrial applications is one of the most exciting fields in ultrafast optics. This thesis demonstrated new means to improve two essential properties - which are indispensable for novel applications such as high-harmonic generation (HHG) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) - of an ultrafast fiber laser system: energy scaling capability and wavelength tunability. High photon-flux extreme ultraviolet sources enabled by HHG desire high power (>100 W), high repetition-rate (>1 MHz) ultrafast driving laser sources. We have constructed from scratch a high-power Yb-fiber laser system using the well-known chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) technique. Such a CPA system capable of producing ∝200-W average power consists of a monolithic Yb-fiber oscillator, an all-fiber stretcher, a pre-amplifier chain, a main amplifier constructed from rode-type large pitch fiber, and a diffraction-grating based compressor. To increase the HHG efficiency, ultrafast pulses with duration 130-W average power. The amplified pulses are compressed to 60-fs pulses with 100-W average power, constituting a suitable HHG driving source. MPM is a powerful biomedical imaging tool, featuring larger penetration depth while providing the capability of optical sectioning. Although femtosecond solid-state lasers have been widely accepted as the standard option as MPM driving sources, fiber-based sources have received growing research efforts due to their superior performance. In the second part of this thesis, we both theoretically and experimentally demonstrated a new method of producing wavelength widely tunable femtosecond pulses for driving MPM. We employed self-phase modulation to broaden a narrowband spectrum followed by bandpass filters to select the rightmost/leftmost spectral lobes. Widely tunable in 820-1225 nm, the resulting sources generated nearly transform-limited, ∝100 fs pulses. Using short fibers with large

  18. Fast processing of foreign fiber images by image blocking

    OpenAIRE

    Yutao Wu; Daoliang Li; Zhenbo Li; Wenzhu Yang

    2014-01-01

    In the textile industry, it is always the case that cotton products are constitutive of many types of foreign fibers which affect the overall quality of cotton products. As the foundation of the foreign fiber automated inspection, image process exerts a critical impact on the process of foreign fiber identification. This paper presents a new approach for the fast processing of foreign fiber images. This approach includes five main steps, image block, image pre-decision, image background extra...

  19. Single-mode annular chirally-coupled core fibers for fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haitao; Hao, He; He, Linlu; Gong, Mali

    2018-03-01

    Chirally-coupled core (CCC) fiber can transmit single fundamental mode and effectively suppresses higher-order mode (HOM) propagation, thus improve the beam quality. However, the manufacture of CCC fiber is complicated due to its small side core. To decrease the manufacture difficulty in China, a novel fiber structure is presented, defined as annular chirally-coupled core (ACCC) fiber, replacing the small side core by a larger side annulus. In this paper, we designed the fiber parameters of this new structure, and demonstrated that the new structure has a similar property of single mode with traditional CCC fiber. Helical coordinate system was introduced into the finite element method (FEM) to analyze the mode field in the fiber, and the beam propagation method (BPM) was employed to analyze the influence of the fiber parameters on the mode loss. Based on the result above, the fiber structure was optimized for efficient single-mode transmission, in which the core diameter is 35 μm with beam quality M2 value of 1.04 and an optical to optical conversion efficiency of 84%. In this fiber, fundamental mode propagates in an acceptable loss, while the HOMs decay rapidly.

  20. Non-contact inline monitoring of thermoplastic CFRP tape quality using air-coupled ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, W.; Fey, P.; Meiler, S.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2017-02-01

    Beginning with the aerospace industry, fiber reinforced plastics have spread towards many applications such as automotive, civil engineering as well as sports and leisure articles. Their superior strength and stiffness to mass ratio made them the number one material for achieving high performance. Especially continuous fiber reinforced plastics allow for the construction of structures which are custom tailored to their mechanical loads by adjusting the paths of the fibers to the loading direction. The two main constituents of CFRP are carbon fibers and matrix. Two possibilities for matrix material exist: thermosetting and thermoplastic matrix. While thermosetting matrix may yield better properties with respect to thermal loads, thermoplasticity opens a wide range of applications due to weldability, shapeability, and compatibility to e.g. injection molded thermoplastic materials. Thin (0.1 mm) thermoplastic continuous fiber CFRP tapes with a width of 100 mm were examined using air-coupled ultrasound. Transducers were arranged in reflection as well as transmission setup. By slanted incidence of the ultrasound on the tape surface, guided waves were excited in the material in fiber direction and perpendicular to the fiber direction. Artificial defects - fiber cuts, matrix cuts, circular holes, low velocity impacts from tool drop, and sharp bends - were produced. Experiments on a stationary tape showed good detectability of all artificial defects by guided waves. Also the effects of variation in material properties, fiber volume content and fiber matrix adhesion being the most relevant, on guided wave propagation were examined, to allow for quality assessment. Guided wave measurements were supported by destructive analysis. Also an apparatus containing one endless loop of CFRP tape was constructed and built to simulate inline testing of CFRP tapes, as it would be employed in a CFRP tape production environment or at a CFRP tape processing facility. The influences of tape

  1. Influence of cellulose fibers on structure and properties of fiber reinforced foam concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov Valeriy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the promising means of foamed concrete quality improvement is micro-reinforcement by adding synthetic and mineral fibers to the base mix. This research is the first to investigate peculiarities of using recycled cellulose fiber extracted from waste paper for obtaining fiber reinforced foam concrete. The paper presents results of experimental research on the influence of cellulose fibers on structure and properties of fiber reinforced foam concrete by using methods of chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The research determines peculiarities of new formations appearance and densification of binder hydration products in the contact zone between fiber and cement matrix, which boost mechanical strength of fiber reinforced foam concrete. Physico-mechanical properties of fiber reinforced foam concrete were defined depending on the amount of recycled cellulose fiber added to the base mix. It was found that the use of recycled cellulose fibers allows obtaining structural thermal insulating fiber reinforced foam concretes of non-autoclaved hardening of brand D600 with regard to mean density with the following improved properties: compressive strength increased by 35% compared to basic samples, higher stability of foamed concrete mix and decreased shrinkage deformation.

  2. Multilayered structures of (RE = rare earth)Ba2Cu3Ox films: an approach for the growth of superior quality large-area superconducting films on sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Develos-Bagarinao, K; Yamasaki, H; Ohki, K; Nakagawa, Y

    2007-01-01

    Relatively thick REBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (RE = rare earth) films (thickness ∼400-600 nm) with significantly improved surface morphology and critical current properties using a multilayered structure which alternates main layers of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) with intermediate DyBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (DyBCO) layers on CeO 2 -buffered sapphire substrates were investigated. The DyBCO layer, which has a close lattice matching with YBCO, functions as a good starting template for the growth of high-quality YBCO layers. Critical current density (J c ) drastically increased up to a factor of 2 for YBCO/DyBCO multilayer films, compared to YBCO monolayer films in both the self-field and applied magnetic field. The significant improvement in J c is attributed to the improvement of surface smoothness and enhanced flux pinning properties as revealed by the magnetic-field angular dependence of J c . (rapid communication)

  3. An integrated fiber and stone basket device for use in Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher R.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Hardy, Luke A.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2014-03-01

    The Thulium fiber laser (TFL) is being explored as an alternative laser lithotripter to the Holmium:YAG laser. The TFL's superior near-single mode beam profile enables higher power transmission through smaller fibers with reduced proximal fiber tip damage. Recent studies have also reported that attaching hollow steel tubing to the distal fiber tip decreases fiber degradation and burn-back without compromising stone ablation rates. However, significant stone retropulsion was observed, which increased with pulse rate. In this study, the hollow steel tip fiber design was integrated with a stone basket to minimize stone retropulsion during ablation. A device was constructed consisting of a 100-μm-core, 140-μm-OD silica fiber outfitted with 5-mm-long stainless steel tubing at the distal tip, and integrated with a 1.3-Fr (0.433-mm-OD) disposable nitinol wire basket, to form an overall 1.9-Fr (0.633-mm- OD) integrated device. This compact design may provide several potential advantages including increased flexibility, higher saline irrigation rates through the ureteroscope working channel, and reduced fiber tip degradation compared to separate fiber and stone basket manipulation. TFL pulse energy of 31.5 mJ with 500 μs pulse duration and pulse rate of 500 Hz was delivered through the integrated fiber/basket device in contact with human uric acid stones, ex vivo. TFL stone ablation rates measured 1.5 +/- 0.2 mg/s, comparable to 1.7 +/- 0.3 mg/s (P > 0.05) using standard bare fiber tips separately with a stone basket. With further development, this device may be useful for minimizing stone retropulsion, thus enabling more efficient TFL lithotripsy at higher pulse rates.

  4. Avaliação da Qualidade de Atributos Específicos de Instituições de Ensino Superior em Cursos Privados de Administração em Joinville, SC [Evaluation of Quality of Specific Attributes of Higher Education Institutions in Private Courses in Management in Joinville, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Wagner Mainardes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Em um mercado de ensino superior competitivo, como é o caso do Brasil, possuir uma imagem de qualidade tem sido fundamental para atrair e reter alunos em uma instituição de ensino superior (IES. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a qualidade de atributos específicos das IES que oferecem cursos de graduação em administração em Joinville, SC. Para a realização desta pesquisa, buscaram-se estudos que tratam da qualidade de atributos específicos das organizações educacionais, encontrando-se 13 atributos que medem a qualidade de uma IES, no que se refere especificamente à instituição. Em seguida, realizou-se uma pesquisa quantitativa-descritiva junto aos alunos formandos em duas das cinco IES que oferecem a graduação em administração em Joinville, SC. Aplicou-se um questionário estruturado não disfarçado, com perguntas fechadas, junto a 292 formandos destas duas IES. Com os dados coletados, caracterizaram-se os formandos e identificaram-se os atributos com desempenhos mais e menos satisfatórios quanto à qualidade destas IES. Encontrou-se, também, os atributos que mais contribuem para a percepção de qualidade da instituição na visão dos alunos. As IES foram bem avaliadas em termos de qualidade, sendo que a imagem da IES para a comunidade, a qualidade da IES com relação à inovação e com relação ao desenvolvimento de novos cursos, são os atributos de melhor desempenho segundo os alunos. --- Evaluation of Quality of Specific Attributes of Higher Education Institutions in Private Courses in Management in Joinville, SC --- Abstract --- In the market of competitive higher education, as is the case in Brazil, possessing a quality image is fundamental to attracting and to keeping students at Higher Education Institutions (HEI. This study evaluates the specific quality attributes of HEIs that offer degree courses in administration in Joinville, SC. In order to do this, studies that deal with the specific attributes of quality

  5. THE BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT FIBERS AT BREAD DOUGH FREEZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Filipović

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Three different types of commercial fibers (inulin originated from artichoke with long and short molecule chains and Fibrex - originated from sugar beet were incorporated into the dough formula as flour supplements at the level of 5 %. The influence of fiber characteristics on yeast dough (proving time and stability and bread quality (volume and crumb quality during 60 days freezing is presented. Data show that the addition of fibers in frozen yeast dough is positively contributing to preserving the quality of the final product and their influence depends on the characteristics of fibers.

  6. Natural cellulose fiber as substrate for supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Zhe; Zhu, Hongli; Gillette, Eleanor; Han, Xiaogang; Rubloff, Gary W; Hu, Liangbing; Lee, Sang Bok

    2013-07-23

    Cellulose fibers with porous structure and electrolyte absorption properties are considered to be a good potential substrate for the deposition of energy material for energy storage devices. Unlike traditional substrates, such as gold or stainless steel, paper prepared from cellulose fibers in this study not only functions as a substrate with large surface area but also acts as an interior electrolyte reservoir, where electrolyte can be absorbed much in the cellulose fibers and is ready to diffuse into an energy storage material. We demonstrated the value of this internal electrolyte reservoir by comparing a series of hierarchical hybrid supercapacitor electrodes based on homemade cellulose paper or polyester textile integrated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by simple solution dip and electrodeposited with MnO2. Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 onto the fiber surface was used to limit electrolyte absorption into the fibers for comparison. Configurations designed with different numbers of ion diffusion pathways were compared to show that cellulose fibers in paper can act as a good interior electrolyte reservoir and provide an effective pathway for ion transport facilitation. Further optimization using an additional CNT coating resulted in an electrode of paper/CNTs/MnO2/CNTs, which has dual ion diffusion and electron transfer pathways and demonstrated superior supercapacitive performance. This paper highlights the merits of the mesoporous cellulose fibers as substrates for supercapacitor electrodes, in which the water-swelling effect of the cellulose fibers can absorb electrolyte, and the mesoporous internal structure of the fibers can provide channels for ions to diffuse to the electrochemical energy storage materials.

  7. Total variation superiorized conjugate gradient method for image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibetti, Marcelo V. W.; Lin, Chuan; Herman, Gabor T.

    2018-03-01

    The conjugate gradient (CG) method is commonly used for the relatively-rapid solution of least squares problems. In image reconstruction, the problem can be ill-posed and also contaminated by noise; due to this, approaches such as regularization should be utilized. Total variation (TV) is a useful regularization penalty, frequently utilized in image reconstruction for generating images with sharp edges. When a non-quadratic norm is selected for regularization, as is the case for TV, then it is no longer possible to use CG. Non-linear CG is an alternative, but it does not share the efficiency that CG shows with least squares and methods such as fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithms (FISTA) are preferred for problems with TV norm. A different approach to including prior information is superiorization. In this paper it is shown that the conjugate gradient method can be superiorized. Five different CG variants are proposed, including preconditioned CG. The CG methods superiorized by the total variation norm are presented and their performance in image reconstruction is demonstrated. It is illustrated that some of the proposed variants of the superiorized CG method can produce reconstructions of superior quality to those produced by FISTA and in less computational time, due to the speed of the original CG for least squares problems. In the Appendix we examine the behavior of one of the superiorized CG methods (we call it S-CG); one of its input parameters is a positive number ɛ. It is proved that, for any given ɛ that is greater than the half-squared-residual for the least squares solution, S-CG terminates in a finite number of steps with an output for which the half-squared-residual is less than or equal to ɛ. Importantly, it is also the case that the output will have a lower value of TV than what would be provided by unsuperiorized CG for the same value ɛ of the half-squared residual.

  8. Compression of realistic laser pulses in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Roberts, John

    2009-01-01

    Dispersive compression of chirped few-picosecond pulses at the microjoule level in a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber is studied numerically. The performance of ideal parabolic input pulses is compared to pulses from a narrowband picosecond oscillator broadened by self-phase modulation during...... amplification. It is shown that the parabolic pulses are superior for compression of high-quality femtosecond pulses up to the few-megawatts level. With peak powers of 5-10 MW or higher, there is no significant difference in power scaling and pulse quality between the two pulse types for comparable values...... of power, duration, and bandwidth. The same conclusion is found for the peak power and energy of solitons formed beyond the point of maximal compression. Long-pass filtering of these solitons is shown to be a promising route to clean solitonlike output pulses with peak powers of several MW....

  9. Quality characteristics of pork burger added with albedo-fiber powder obtained from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vargas, Jairo H; Fernández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work determined the technological, nutritional and sensory characteristics of pork burgers, added with different concentrations (2.5 and 5%) of passion fruit albedo (PFA) co-product, obtained from passion fruit juice processing. The addition of PFA on pork burgers improves their nutritional value (higher fiber content). In raw and cooked burger, all textural parameters, except springiness and cohesiveness, were affected by the incorporation of PFA. PFA addition was found to be effective improving the cooking yield, moisture retention and fat retention. The raw and cooked pork burgers added with PFA had lower TBA values and lower counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and enterobacteria than the control samples. No Escherichia coli and molds were found in the samples. The overall acceptability scores showed that the most appreciated sample was the one containing 2.5% PFA. According to the results obtained, 2.5 and 5% of PFA addition can be recommended in pork burger production as a new dietary fiber source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cure Cycle Design Methodology for Fabricating Reactive Resin Matrix Fiber Reinforced Composites: A Protocol for Producing Void-free Quality Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tan-Hung

    2014-01-01

    For the fabrication of resin matrix fiber reinforced composite laminates, a workable cure cycle (i.e., temperature and pressure profiles as a function of processing time) is needed and is critical for achieving void-free laminate consolidation. Design of such a cure cycle is not trivial, especially when dealing with reactive matrix resins. An empirical "trial and error" approach has been used as common practice in the composite industry. Such an approach is not only costly, but also ineffective at establishing the optimal processing conditions for a specific resin/fiber composite system. In this report, a rational "processing science" based approach is established, and a universal cure cycle design protocol is proposed. Following this protocol, a workable and optimal cure cycle can be readily and rationally designed for most reactive resin systems in a cost effective way. This design protocol has been validated through experimental studies of several reactive polyimide composites for a wide spectrum of usage that has been documented in the previous publications.

  11. Fibered F-Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Kleyn, Aleks

    2007-01-01

    The concept of F-algebra and its representation can be extended to an arbitrary bundle. We define operations of fibered F-algebra in fiber. The paper presents the representation theory of of fibered F-algebra as well as a comparison of representation of F-algebra and of representation of fibered F-algebra.

  12. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  13. Photonic crystal fibers -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2002-01-01

    . Such micro-structured fibers are the ones most often trated in literature concerning micro-structured fibers. These micro-structured fibers offer a whole range of novel wave guiding characteristics, including the possibility of fibers that guide only one mode irrespective of the frequency of light...

  14. Paso superior en una ladera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, O.

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available The Redwood highway, through the Californian forest, runs on a viaduct, as it crosses a mountain slope of about 45° inclination. The firm ground is fairly deep, and as an additional constructional difficulty, it was necessary to respect the natural beauty of the countryside. A structure of portal frames were built, forming a number of short spans. These spans were bridged with metal girders, on which a 19 m wide deck was placed. The columns are hollow and have a transversal cross beam, to join each pair. There was difficulty in excavating the foundations for the columns, as it was necessary to dig through the soft top soil, and also prevent this soil from hurting the trunks of the forest trees. Another significant difficulty in the construction of this viaduct was the access to the working site, since there were no suitable platforms from which to operate the appropriate machinery. This made it necessary to do a lot of the work by manual operation. As one of the edges of the deck is very close to the mountain side, a supporting beam was erected on this side. It was made of concrete, on metal piles. The formwork for the deck structure was placed on the concrete stems of the supporting piles.La autopista denominada Redwood (California salva, con un paso superior, la ladera de un bosque cuya pendiente es del 1/1. El terreno firme se halla a bastante profundidad, añadiéndose, a los naturales problemas de la construcción, el imperativo de respetar la belleza agreste del paraje. La solución adoptada consiste en una estructura porticada, con varios tramos de pequeñas luces, salvados con vigas metálicas, sobre los que se coloca la losa del tablero, de 19 m de anchura total. Los soportes están constituidos por pórticos de dos montantes huecos (con bases de hormigón en masa por debajo del suelo, hasta el firme coronados por un cabezal. La perforación de pozos para el hormigonado de los montantes presentaba la dificultad de atravesar el terreno

  15. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Self-Determination Act (Pub. L. 110-343) and in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The purpose of the meeting is to orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles... following business will be conducted: Overview of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource...

  16. Fiber optic connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Slobodan; Muhs, Jeffrey D.

    1996-01-01

    A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled.

  17. Fiber optic evanescent wave biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duveneck, Gert L.; Ehrat, Markus; Widmer, H. M.

    1991-09-01

    The role of modern analytical chemistry is not restricted to quality control and environmental surveillance, but has been extended to process control using on-line analytical techniques. Besides industrial applications, highly specific, ultra-sensitive biochemical analysis becomes increasingly important as a diagnostic tool, both in central clinical laboratories and in the doctor's office. Fiber optic sensor technology can fulfill many of the requirements for both types of applications. As an example, the experimental arrangement of a fiber optic sensor for biochemical affinity assays is presented. The evanescent electromagnetic field, associated with a light ray guided in an optical fiber, is used for the excitation of luminescence labels attached to the biomolecules in solution to be analyzed. Due to the small penetration depth of the evanescent field into the medium, the generation of luminescence is restricted to the close proximity of the fiber, where, e.g., the luminescent analyte molecules combine with their affinity partners, which are immobilized on the fiber. Both cw- and pulsed light excitation can be used in evanescent wave sensor technology, enabling the on-line observation of an affinity assay on a macroscopic time scale (seconds and minutes), as well as on a microscopic, molecular time scale (nanoseconds or microseconds).

  18. Design Method and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Hybrid Fiber Used in Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber, as an additive, can improve the performance of asphalt concrete and be widely studied, but only a few works have been done for hybrid fiber. This paper presents a new and convenient method to design hybrid fiber and verifies hybrid fiber’s superiority in asphalt pavement engineering. Firstly, this paper expounds the design method used as its applied example with the hybrid fiber composed of lignin, polyester, and polypropylene fibers. In this method, a direct shear device (DSD is used to measure the shear damage energy density (SDED of hybrid fiber modified asphalts, and range and variance statistical analysis are applied to determine the composition proportion of hybrid fiber. Then, the engineering property of hybrid fiber reinforced asphalt concrete (AC-13 is investigated. Finally, a cost-benefit model is developed to analyze the advantage of hybrid fiber compared to single fibers. The results show that the design method employed in this paper can offer a beneficial reference. A combination of 1.8% of lignin fiber and 2.4% of polyester fiber plus 3.0% polypropylene fiber presented the best reinforcement of the hybrid fiber. The cost-benefit model verifies that the hybrid fiber can bring about comprehensive pavement performance and good economy.

  19. PERCEPCIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE MECANISMOS DE ASEGURAMIENTO DE LA CALIDAD EN LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR EN COSTA RICA: PROYECTO ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA (PERCEIVED IMPACT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE MECHANISMS ON COSTA-RICAN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD-DE-COSTA-RICA PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Guido, Elsiana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo se presentan las acciones realizadas dentro del Proyecto Alfa Nro. DCl-ALA 2008/42: Aseguramiento de la calidad: políticas públicas y gestión universitaria financiado con fondos de la Unión Europea y coordinado, de manera general, por el Centro Interuniversitario de Desarrollo, CINDA. Participan 16 universidades latinoamericanas y 7 universidades europeas, y el objetivo general del proyecto es mejorar la gestión de la calidad de la Educación Superior, tanto a nivel de los sistemas nacionales como de las instituciones de Educación Superior, y contribuir con la generación de conocimiento y confianzas mutuas acerca de la calidad de la Educación Superior entre los países latinoamericanos y europeos. Como parte de las actividades desarrolladas se llevaron a cabo estudios en 7 países (5 de Latinoamérica y 2 de Europa para evaluar el impacto de los procesos de aseguramiento de la calidad implementados en las universidades. En Costa Rica, el proyecto ha sido coordinado y ejecutado por la Universidad de Costa Rica desde el año 2009 hasta la fecha. El estudio se realizó en dos universidades estatales y dos privadas, durante el período comprendido entre octubre de 2010 y mayo de 2011, se realizaron 26 entrevistas presenciales y 8 sesiones de grupo a las diferentes poblaciones definidas en el estudio, además, se realizaron un total de 652 encuestas a estudiantes activos y a personas egresadas. Los principales resultados obtenidos en Costa Rica se resumen en este artículo, de acuerdo con los niveles y dimensiones de calidad que fueron definidos en el marco referencial del proyecto.Abstract: The article presents actions carried out in Costa Rica, in the frame of the project Alfa Nro. DCl-ALA 2008/42: Quality assurance: public policies and management in universities. This project is funded by the European Commission and its general coordination is in charge of the Inter-university Center for Development (CINDA, in

  20. High pumping-power fiber combiner for double-cladding fiber lasers and amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinkun; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Baoyin; Li, Zhe; Chang, Chang; Li, Gang; Gao, Qi; Ju, Pei; Gao, Wei; She, Shengfei; Wu, Peng; Hou, Chaoqi; Li, Weinan

    2018-03-01

    A high pumping-power fiber combiner for backward pumping configurations is fabricated and demonstrated by manufacturing process refinement. The pump power handling capability of every pump fiber can extend to 600 W, corresponding to the average pump coupling efficiency of 94.83%. Totally, 2.67-kW output power with the beam quality factor M2 of 1.41 was obtained, using this combiner in the fiber amplifier experimental setup. In addition, the temperature of the splicing region was less than 50.0°C in the designed combiner under the action of circulating cooling water. The experimental results prove that the designed combiner is a promising integrated all-fiber device for multikilowatt continuous-wave fiber laser with excellent beam quality.

  1. Exotic Optical Fibers and Glasses: Innovative Material Processing Opportunities in Earth's Orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozmuta, Ioana; Rasky, Daniel J

    2017-09-01

    Exotic optical fibers and glasses are the platform material for photonics applications, primarily due to their superior signal transmission (speed, low attenuation), with extending bandwidth deep into the infrared, exceeding that of silica fibers. Gravitational effects (convection sedimentation) have a direct impact on the phase diagram of these materials and influence melting properties, crystallization temperatures, and viscosity of the elemental mix during the manufacturing process. Such factors constitute limits to the yield, transmission quality, and strength and value of these fibers; they also constrain the range of applications. Manufacturing in a gravity-free environment such as the Earth's Orbit also helps with other aspects of the fabrication process (i.e., improved form factor of the manufacturing unit, sustainability). In this article, revolutionary developments in the field of photonics over the past decade merge with the paradigm shift in the privatization of government-owned capabilities supporting a more diverse infrastructure (parabolic, suborbital, orbital), reduced price, and increased frequency to access space and the microgravity environment. With the increased dependence on data (demand, bandwidth, efficiency), space and the microgravity environment provide opportunities for optimized performance of these exotic optical fibers and glasses underlying the development of enabling technologies to meet future data demand. Existing terrestrial markets (Internet, telecommunications, market transactions) and emerging space markets (on-orbit satellite servicing, space manufacturing, space resources, space communications, etc.) seem to converge, and this innovative material processing opportunity of exotic optical fibers and glasses might just be that "killer app": technologically competitive, economically viable, and with the ability to close the business case.

  2. Fabrication of Microscale Carbon Nanotube Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengzhi Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have excellent mechanical, chemical, and electronic properties, but realizing these excellences in practical applications needs to assemble individual CNTs into larger-scale products. Recently, CNT fibers demonstrate the potential of retaining CNT's superior properties at macroscale level. High-performance CNT fibers have been widely obtained by several fabrication approaches. Here in this paper, we review several key spinning techniques including surfactant-based coagulation spinning, liquid-crystal-based solution spinning, spinning from vertical-aligned CNT arrays, and spinning from CNT aerogel. The method, principle, limitations, and recent progress of each technique have been addressed, and the fiber properties and their dependences on spinning parameters are also discussed.

  3. Advanced specialty fiber designs for high power fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guancheng

    The output power of fiber lasers has increased rapidly over the last decade. There are two major limiting factors, namely nonlinear effects and transverse mode instability, prohibiting the power scaling capability of fiber lasers. The nonlinear effects, originating from high optical intensity, primarily limit the peak power scaling. The mode instability, on the other hand, arises from quantum-defect driven heating, causing undesired mode coupling once the power exceeds the threshold and degradation of beam quality. The mode instability has now become the bottleneck for average output power scaling of fiber lasers. Mode area scaling is the most effective way to mitigate nonlinear effects. However, the use of large mode area may increase the tendency to support multiple modes in the core, resulting in lower mode instability threshold. Therefore, it is critical to maintain single mode operation in a large mode area fiber. Sufficient higher order mode suppression can lead to effective single-transverse-mode propagation. In this dissertation, we explore the feasibility of using specialty fiber to construct high power fiber lasers with robust single-mode output. The first type of fiber discussed is the resonantly-enhanced leakage channel fiber. Coherent reflection at the fiber outer boundary can lead to additional confinement especially for highly leaky HOM, leading to lower HOM losses than what are predicted by conventional finite element mothod mode solver considering infinite cladding. In this work, we conducted careful measurements of HOM losses in two leakage channel fibers (LCF) with circular and rounded hexagonal boundary shapes respectively. Impact on HOM losses from coiling, fiber boundary shapes and coating indexes were studied in comparison to simulations. This work demonstrates the limit of the simulation method commonly used in the large-mode-area fiber designs and the need for an improved approach. More importantly, this work also demonstrates that a

  4. Ultrastrong Bioinspired Graphene-Based Fibers via Synergistic Toughening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yuchen; Ming, Peng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Tianxi; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-04-13

    Ultrastrong bioinspired graphene-based fibers are designed and prepared via synergistic toughening of ionic and covalent bonding. The tensile strength reaches up to 842.6 MPa and is superior to all other reported graphene-based fibers. In addition, its electrical conductivity is as high as 292.4 S cm(-1). This bioinspired synergistic toughening strategy supplies new insight toward the construction of integrated high-performance graphene-based fibers in the near future. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Superiority in value and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    superiority does not amount to a radical value difference at all. I then spell out the consequences of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest.......James Griffin has considered a weak form of superiority in value a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this paper, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into a stronger form of superiority. And in a context where value is non-additive, weak...

  6. Applications of photonic crystal fibers in optical communications - What is in the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Lin, Chinlon

    2005-01-01

    Superior control of guiding properties in photonic-crystal fibers led to several interesting applications in optical communications ranging from nonlinear optical signal processing to high-power fiber amplifiers. This paper will review recent developments and discuss the future possibilities....

  7. Ceramic fiber-reinforced monoclinic celsian phase glass-ceramic matrix composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor); Dicarlo, James A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A hyridopolysilazane-derived ceramic fiber reinforced monoclinic celsian phase barium aluminum silicate glass-ceramic matrix composite material is prepared by ball-milling an aqueous slurry of BAS glass powder and fine monoclinic celsian seeds. The fibers improve the mechanical strength and fracture toughness and with the matrix provide superior dielectric properties.

  8. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead....... The freedom to design the dispersion profile of the fibers is much larger and it is possible to create fibers, which support only a single spatial mode, regardless of wavelength. In comparison, the standard dispersion-shifted fibers are limited by a much lower index-contrast between the core and the cladding...... in 1996, and are today on their way to become the dominating technology within the specialty fiber field. Whether they will replace the standard fiber in the more traditional areas like telecommunication transmission, is not yet clear, but the nonlinear photonic crystal fibers are here to stay....

  9. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  10. The effect of fiber laser parameters on microhardness and microstructure of duplex stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ghusoon R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was implement to study the influence of laser power, and speed of the welding on hardness, microstructure, and penetration of laser welding bead on plate duplex stainless steel, which is not exhibited so far. A fiber laser was selected for welding duplex stainless steel sheet with 2 mm thickness. Then, optical microscope (OM was used in the morphologic observation of cross section, penetration depth, and bead width. Microhardness of the welded sheet was measured using Vickers hardness. Profiles of hardness and microstructure were utilized to discriminate welding line and to propose superior welding parameters. The experimental results displayed that, a good quality of duplex steel welds can be acquired when a suitable fiber laser welding parameters were selected. It was found that microhardness profiles showed a rise in the hardness of the weld and heat-affected zones as the solidification process proceeds rapidly. Additionally, the crystal solidification process induced by the fiber laser welding was schematically clarified and systematically exposed.

  11. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  12. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome causing growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and lifethreateningclinical condition caused by the compressionof the third portion of the duodenum between the aortaand the superior mesenteric artery’s proximal part. Thiscompression may lead to chronic intermittent, acute totalor partial obstruction. Sudden weight-loss and the relateddecrease in the fat tissue are considered to be the etiologicalreason of acute stenosis. Weight-loss accompaniedby nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, andbloating are the leading complaints. Barium radiographs,computerized tomography, conventional angiography,tomographic and magnetic resonance angiography areused in the diagnosis. There are medical and surgical approachesto treatment. We hereby present the case ofa patient with superior mesenteric artery syndrome withdelayed diagnosis.Key words: superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nausea-vomiting, anorexia

  13. Nano-yarn carbon nanotube fiber based enzymatic glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhigang; Burugapalli, Krishna; Moussy, Francis; Song, Wenhui; Li Yali; Zhong Xiaohua

    2010-01-01

    A novel brush-like electrode based on carbon nanotube (CNT) nano-yarn fiber has been designed for electrochemical biosensor applications and its efficacy as an enzymatic glucose biosensor demonstrated. The CNT nano-yarn fiber was spun directly from a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) gas flow reaction using a mixture of ethanol and acetone as the carbon source and an iron nano-catalyst. The fiber, 28 μm in diameter, was made of bundles of double walled CNTs (DWNTs) concentrically compacted into multiple layers forming a nano-porous network structure. Cyclic voltammetry study revealed a superior electrocatalytic activity for CNT fiber compared to the traditional Pt-Ir coil electrode. The electrode end tip of the CNT fiber was freeze-fractured to obtain a unique brush-like nano-structure resembling a scale-down electrical 'flex', where glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was immobilized using glutaraldehyde crosslinking in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). An outer epoxy-polyurethane (EPU) layer was used as semi-permeable membrane. The sensor function was tested against a standard reference electrode. The sensitivities, linear detection range and linearity for detecting glucose for the miniature CNT fiber electrode were better than that reported for a Pt-Ir coil electrode. Thermal annealing of the CNT fiber at 250 deg. C for 30 min prior to fabrication of the sensor resulted in a 7.5 fold increase in glucose sensitivity. The as-spun CNT fiber based glucose biosensor was shown to be stable for up to 70 days. In addition, gold coating of the electrode connecting end of the CNT fiber resulted in extending the glucose detection limit to 25 μM. To conclude, superior efficiency of CNT fiber for glucose biosensing was demonstrated compared to a traditional Pt-Ir sensor.

  14. Nano-yarn carbon nanotube fiber based enzymatic glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Song, Wenhui; Burugapalli, Krishna; Moussy, Francis; Li, Ya-Li; Zhong, Xiao-Hua

    2010-04-01

    A novel brush-like electrode based on carbon nanotube (CNT) nano-yarn fiber has been designed for electrochemical biosensor applications and its efficacy as an enzymatic glucose biosensor demonstrated. The CNT nano-yarn fiber was spun directly from a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) gas flow reaction using a mixture of ethanol and acetone as the carbon source and an iron nano-catalyst. The fiber, 28 µm in diameter, was made of bundles of double walled CNTs (DWNTs) concentrically compacted into multiple layers forming a nano-porous network structure. Cyclic voltammetry study revealed a superior electrocatalytic activity for CNT fiber compared to the traditional Pt-Ir coil electrode. The electrode end tip of the CNT fiber was freeze-fractured to obtain a unique brush-like nano-structure resembling a scale-down electrical 'flex', where glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was immobilized using glutaraldehyde crosslinking in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). An outer epoxy-polyurethane (EPU) layer was used as semi-permeable membrane. The sensor function was tested against a standard reference electrode. The sensitivities, linear detection range and linearity for detecting glucose for the miniature CNT fiber electrode were better than that reported for a Pt-Ir coil electrode. Thermal annealing of the CNT fiber at 250 °C for 30 min prior to fabrication of the sensor resulted in a 7.5 fold increase in glucose sensitivity. The as-spun CNT fiber based glucose biosensor was shown to be stable for up to 70 days. In addition, gold coating of the electrode connecting end of the CNT fiber resulted in extending the glucose detection limit to 25 µM. To conclude, superior efficiency of CNT fiber for glucose biosensing was demonstrated compared to a traditional Pt-Ir sensor.

  15. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  16. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.U.

    2005-01-01

    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  17. Fiber optics in adverse environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyous, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations

  18. Simulative Global Warming Negatively Affects Cotton Fiber Length through Shortening Fiber Rapid Elongation Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-23

    Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, T day /T night ) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, T night had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means T n could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.

  19. Research status of large mode area single polarization active fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chun; Zhang, Ge; Yang, Bin-hua; Cheng, Wei-feng; Gu, Shao-yi

    2018-03-01

    As high power fiber laser used more and more widely, to increase the output power of fiber laser and beam quality improvement have become an important goal for the development of high power fiber lasers. The use of large mode fiber is the most direct and effective way to solve the nonlinear effect and fiber damage in the fiber laser power lifting process. In order to reduce the effect of polarization of the fiber laser system, the study found that when introduces a birefringence in the single-mode fiber, the polarization state changes caused by the birefringence is far greater than the random polarization state changes, then the external disturbance is completely submerged, finally the polarization can be controlled and stabilized. Through the fine design of the fiber structure, if the birefringence is high enough to achieve the separation of the two polarization states, the fiber will have a different cut-off mechanism to eliminate polarization which is not need, which will realize single mode single polarization transmission in a band. In this paper, different types of single polarization fiber design are presented and the application of these fibers are also discussed.

  20. The effect of wildfire and clear-cutting on above-ground biomass, foliar C to N ratios and fiber content throughout succession: Implications for forage quality in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, E. E.; Turetsky, M.; Thompson, I.; Noland, T. L.; Wiebe, P.

    2013-12-01

    Disturbance is known to play an important role in maintaining the productivity and biodiversity of boreal forest ecosystems. Moderate to low frequency disturbance is responsible for regeneration opportunities creating a mosaic of habitats and successional trajectories. However, large-scale deforestation and increasing wildfire frequencies exacerbate habitat loss and influence biogeochemical cycles. This has raised concern about the quality of the under-story vegetation post-disturbance and whether this may impact herbivores, especially those vulnerable to change. Forest-dwelling caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are declining in several regions of Canada and are currently listed as a species at risk by COSEWIC. Predation and landscape alteration are viewed as the two main threats to woodland caribou. This has resulted in caribou utilizing low productivity peatlands as refuge and the impact of this habitat selection on their diet quality is not well understood. Therefore there are two themes in the study, 1) Forage quantity: above-ground biomass and productivity and 2) Forage quality: foliar N and C to N ratios and % fiber. The themes are addressed in three questions: 1) How does forage quantity and quality vary between upland forests and peatlands? 2) How does wildfire affect the availability and nutritional quality of forage items? 3) How does forage quality vary between sites recovering from wildfire versus timber harvest? Research sites were located in the Auden region north of Geraldton, ON. This landscape was chosen because it is known woodland caribou habitat and has thorough wildfire and silviculture data from the past 7 decades. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass, vascular green area and seasonal foliar fiber and C to N ratios were collected across a matrix of sites representing a chronosequence of time since disturbance in upland forests and peatlands. Preliminary findings revealed productivity peaked in early age stands (0-30 yrs) and biomass peaked

  1. Superior versus inferior Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, Mohammad; Yazdani, Shahin; Shahabi, Camelia; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2009-02-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) (New World Medical Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) implantation in the superior versus inferior quadrants. Prospective parallel cohort study. A total of 106 eyes of 106 patients with refractory glaucoma. Consecutive patients with refractory glaucoma underwent AGV implantation in the superior or inferior quadrants. Main outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP) and rate of complications. Other outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of glaucoma medications, and success rate (defined as at least 30% IOP reduction and 5glaucoma surgery, phthisis bulbi, or loss of light perception. Of a total of 106 eyes, 58 and 48 eyes underwent AGV implantation in the superior and inferior quadrants, respectively. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the study groups, except for preoperative IOP, which was higher in the superior group (P = 0.01). Patients were followed for a mean period of 10.6+/-8.49 months and 10.58+/-6.75 months in the superior and inferior groups, respectively (P = 0.477). BCVA was comparable between the groups at all postoperative visits (P>0.122). After 1 year, statistically significant but comparable IOP reduction from baseline (Pglaucoma medications was comparable after 1 year (1.3+/-1.2 vs. 1.9+/-0.8 for superior and inferior implants, respectively, P = 0.256). Success rates were also similar at 1 year: 27 eyes (81.8%) versus 20 eyes (95.2%) for superior and inferior implants, respectively (P = 0.227). However, the overall rate of complications, such as implant exposure necessitating removal, cosmetically unappealing appearance, and endophthalmitis, was higher in the inferior group: 12 eyes (25%) versus 3 eyes (5.2%) for superior and inferior groups, respectively, (P = 0.004). Superior and inferior AGV implants have similar intermediate efficacy in terms of IOP reduction, decrease in number of glaucoma medications, and preservation of vision. However

  2. Fiber Optics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  3. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  4. Shaped fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnan, Mark K.; Roach, Dennis P.

    2017-12-05

    A composite article is disclosed that has non-circular fibers embedded in a polymer matrix. The composite article has improved damage tolerance, toughness, bending, and impact resistance compared to composites having traditional round fibers.

  5. Advances in Fiber Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, T

    1999-01-01

    Most of the time of this contract has been devoted toward improvements in optical fiber lasers and toward gathering experience to improve our program in high power, cladding pumped optical fiber lasers...

  6. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    in the natural lotus and silver ragwort leaves. Figure 4. Examples of electrospun bio-mimics of natural hierarchical structures. (A) Lotus leaf...B) pillared poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrospun fiber mimic; (C) silver ragwort leaf; (D) electrospun fiber mimic made from nylon 6 and...domains containing the protein in the surrounding EVA fibers [115]. A wide variety of core-shell fibers have been generated, including PCL/ gelatin

  7. Superlattice Microstructured Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Liu, Zhengyong; Cho, Lok-Hin; Lu, Chao; Wai, Ping-Kong Alex; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2014-01-01

    A generic three-stage stack-and-draw method is demonstrated for the fabrication of complex-microstructured optical fibers. We report the fabrication and characterization of a silica superlattice microstructured fiber with more than 800 rhomboidally arranged air-holes. A polarization-maintaining fiber with a birefringence of 8.5 × 10−4 is demonstrated. The birefringent property of the fiber is found to be highly insensitive to external environmental effects, such as pressure. PMID:28788693

  8. High-fiber foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000193.htm High-fiber foods To use the sharing features on this page, ... Read food labels carefully to see how much fiber they have. Choose foods that have higher amounts of fiber, such as ...

  9. Fiber Singular Optics

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Volyar

    2002-01-01

    The present review is devoted to the optical vortex behavior both in free space and optical fibers. The processes of the vortex transformations in perturbed optical fibers are analyzed on the base of the operator of the spin – orbit interaction in order to forecast the possible ways of manufacturing the vortex preserving fibers and their applications in supersensitive optical devices.

  10. Expression analysis of fiber related genes in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) through real time pcr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, N.; Khatoon, A.; Asif, M.; Bashir, A.

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fibers are unicellular seed trichomes and the largest known plant cells. Fiber morphogenesis in cotton is a complex process involving a large number of genes expressed throughout fiber development process. The expression profiling of five gene families in various cotton tissues was carried out through real time PCR. Expression analysis revealed that transcripts of expansin, tubulin and E6 were elevated from 5 to 20 days post anthesis (DPA) fibers. Three Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) including LTP1, LTP3, LTP7 exhibited highest expression in 10 - 20 DPA fibers. Transcripts of LTP3 were detected in fibers and non fiber tissues that of LTP7 were almost negligible in non fiber tissues. Sucrose phosphate synthase gene showed highest expression in 10 DPA fibers while sucrose synthse (susy) expressed at higher rate in 5-20 DPA fibers as well as roots. The results reveal that most of fiber related genes showed high expression in 5-20 DPA fibers. Comprehensive expression study may help to determine tissue and stage specificity of genes under study. The study may also help to explore complex process of fiber development and understand the role of these genes in fiber development process. Highly expressed genes in fibers may be transformed in cotton for improvement of fiber quality traits. Genes that were expressed specifically in fibers or other tissues could be used for isolation of upstream regulatory sequences. (author)

  11. Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava: image findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Junior, Cyrillo Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Fraguas Filho, Sergio Roberto; Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Jacob, Beatriz Mahmud; Machado, Marcio Martins; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos; Ximenes, Carlos Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava absent right superior vena cava is a rare anomaly, with less than 150 cases reported in the literature. Congenitally persistent left superior vena cava is the most common variant of systemic venous return to the heart, resulting embryologically from failure of the left anterior cardinal vein to become obliterated. Its incidence varies from 0.3% in patients with otherwise normal heart to 4.3% in patients with congenital heart disease. In the majority of the patients, a right superior vena cava is present as well, but rarely the right anterior cardinal vein degenerates resulting in the absence of the normal right superior vena cava. The blood from the right side is carried by the persistent left superior vena cava to the right atrium through the coronary sinus. We report the case of a patient with a persistent left superior vena cava and absence of right superior vena cava identified by chance during a chest radiograph and computed tomography examination for investigation of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease. The patient had no congenital heart disease and the blood from the right side was drained by the persistent left superior vena cava into the right atrium through the coronary sinus. (author)

  12. Ultrasonic NDE and mechanical testing of fiber placement composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanjie; Fei, Dong; Hsu, David K.; Dayal, Vinay; Hale, Richard D.

    2002-05-01

    A fiber placed composite, especially with fiber steering, has considerably more complex internal structure than a laminate laid up from unidirectional prepreg tapes. In this work, we performed ultrasonic imaging of ply interfaces of fiber placed composite laminates, with an eye toward developing a tool for evaluating their quality. Mechanical short-beam shear tests were also conducted on both nonsteered and steered specimens to examine their failure behavior and its relationship to the structural defects indicated by ultrasonic imaging.

  13. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  14. The picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, William E

    2008-10-01

    The picture superiority effect has been well documented in tests of item recognition and recall. The present study shows that the picture superiority effect extends to associative recognition. In three experiments, students studied lists consisting of random pairs of concrete words and pairs of line drawings; then they discriminated between intact (old) and rearranged (new) pairs of words and pictures at test. The discrimination advantage for pictures over words was seen in a greater hit rate for intact picture pairs, but there was no difference in the false alarm rates for the two types of stimuli. That is, there was no mirror effect. The same pattern of results was found when the test pairs consisted of the verbal labels of the pictures shown at study (Experiment 4), indicating that the hit rate advantage for picture pairs represents an encoding benefit. The results have implications for theories of the picture superiority effect and models of associative recognition.

  15. Investigation of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Machining Using 355 nm Picosecond Pulsed Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Zhu, Dezhi

    2018-06-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been widely used in the aircraft industry and automobile industry owing to its superior properties. In this paper, a Nd:YVO4 picosecond pulsed system emitting at 355 nm has been used for CFRP machining experiments to determine optimum milling conditions. Milling parameters including laser power, milling speed and hatch distance were optimized by using box-behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM). Material removal rate was influenced by laser beam overlap ratio which affects mechanical denudation. The results in heat affected zones (HAZ) and milling quality were discussed through the machined surface observed with scanning electron microscope. A re-focusing technique based on the experiment with different focal planes was proposed and milling mechanism was also analyzed in details.

  16. Investigation of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Machining Using 355 nm Picosecond Pulsed Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Zhu, Dezhi

    2017-08-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been widely used in the aircraft industry and automobile industry owing to its superior properties. In this paper, a Nd:YVO4 picosecond pulsed system emitting at 355 nm has been used for CFRP machining experiments to determine optimum milling conditions. Milling parameters including laser power, milling speed and hatch distance were optimized by using box-behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM). Material removal rate was influenced by laser beam overlap ratio which affects mechanical denudation. The results in heat affected zones (HAZ) and milling quality were discussed through the machined surface observed with scanning electron microscope. A re-focusing technique based on the experiment with different focal planes was proposed and milling mechanism was also analyzed in details.

  17. Novel scaffold design with multi-grooved PLA fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sangwon; King, Martin W; Gamcsik, Mike P

    2011-01-01

    A novel prototype nonwoven textile structure containing polylactide (PLA) multigrooved fibers has been proposed as a possible scaffold material for superior cell attachment and proliferation. Grooved cross-sectional fibers with larger surface area were obtained by a bi-component spinning system and the complete removal of the sacrificial component was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. These PLA nonwoven scaffolds containing the grooved fibers exhibited enhanced wettability, greater flexibility and tensile properties, and a larger surface area compared to a traditional PLA nonwoven fabric containing round fibers. To evaluate cellular attachment on the two types of PLA nonwoven scaffolds, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were cultured for up to 12 days. It was evident that the initial cellular attachment was superior on the scaffold with grooved fibers, which was confirmed by MTT viability assay (p < 0.01) and SEM analysis. In the future, by modulating the size of the grooves on the fibers, such a scaffold material with a large surface area could serve as an alternative matrix for culturing different types of cells.

  18. Development of collagen fibers and vasculature of the fetal TMJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Wang, H; Wang, M; Ohta, Y; Suwa, F

    1992-10-01

    Using 12 human fetuses, histological development and changes in connective fiber structure and fine vascular patterns have been investigated in various fetal gestational stages by light and scanning electron microscopy. The main arterial supply of the articular disc was from the bilaminar region and pterygoideus lateralis muscle. The vascular network on the disc surface was related with fluid secretion. When the bilaminar region was compressed, it caused ischemia and fibrosis as the main pathological changes in TMJ derangement. A decrease in fluid from blood vessels might occur in TMJ degeneration. Collagen fibers in the disc passed mainly anteroposteriorly. In the anterior and posterior bands, muscular tendon fibers came from the pterygoideus lateralis muscle and superior stratum of the bilaminar region. In the posterior band three-dimensional structures of collagen fibers suitable for load bearing were observed. The compass network and process on the disc showed the normal structure that is formed gradually and has functions including dispersion, pressure bearing, friction-proofing and storage of the synovial fluid. Attachments of the disc were suitable for disc function. Large elastic fibers in the posterolateral part of the superior stratum of the bilaminar region may be antagonistic to the upper head of the pterygoideus lateralis muscle fibers passing medioanteriorly, indicating that this antagonism is available for disc function.

  19. Airclad fiber laser technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes

    2008-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser...... systems require specially designed fibers with large cores and good power handling capabilities - requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 μm single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350...

  20. Vena cava superior syndrome associated with sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, K.; Walz, M.; Reidemeister, J.C.; Donhuijsen, K.

    1988-01-01

    We report the first observation of clinical manifestations of vena cava superior syndrome (VCSS) associated with sarcoidosis. Twenty-four years after the first signs of the disease had been noted, mediastinal lymphomas penetrating the wall of the vena cava superior caused complete obstruction. It is most unusual for the vessel wall to be destroyed in this way, which explains why VCSS is often missed in sarcoidosis. The obstructed vessel was resected and successfully replaced by a Gore-Tex prosthesis. The importance of VCSS for the differential diagnosis is pointed out. Two further peculiarities are the simultaneous occurrence of elevated intraocular pressure and VCSS, and the familial incidence. (orig.) [de

  1. Fiber reinforced concrete as a material for nuclear reactor containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallikarjuna; Banthia, N.; Mindess, S.

    1991-01-01

    The fiber reinforced concrete as a constructional material for nuclear reactor containment buildings calls for an examination of its individual characteristics and potentialities due to its inherent superiority over normal plain and reinforced concrete. In the present investigation, first, to study the static behavior of straight, hooked-end and crimped fibers, recently developed nonlinear three-dimensional interface (contact) element has been used in conjunction with the eight nodded hexahedron and two nodded bar elements for concrete and steel fiber respectively. Then impact tests were carried out on fiber reinforced concrete beams with an instrumented drop weight impact machine. Two different concrete mixes were tested: normal strength and high strength concrete specimens. Fibers in the concrete mix found to significantly increase the ductility and the impact resistance of the composite. Deformed fibers increase peak pull-out load and pull-out distance, and perform better in the steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) structures. (author)

  2. Superior oblique luxation and trochlear luxation as new concepts in superior oblique muscle weakening surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombaerts, I.; Koornneef, L.; Everhard-Halm, Y. S.; Hughes, D. S.; Maillette de Buy Wenniger-Prick, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    We used superior oblique luxation and trochlear luxation as new surgical procedures to treat acquired Brown's syndrome and superior oblique muscle overaction. We studied nine patients (11 eyes) who underwent trochlear surgery between 1988 and 1993. Four patients had acquired Brown's syndrome and

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of meniscoid superior labrum: normal variant or superior labral tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Novelino Simão

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of a "meniscoid" superior labrum. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 582 magnetic resonance imaging examinations of shoulders. Of those 582 examinations, 110 were excluded, for a variety of reasons, and the final analysis therefore included 472 cases. Consensus readings were performed by three musculoskeletal radiologists using specific criteria to diagnose meniscoid labra. Results: A meniscoid superior labrum was identified in 48 (10.2% of the 472 cases evaluated. Arthroscopic proof was available in 21 cases (43.8%. In 10 (47.6% of those 21 cases, the operative report did not include the mention a superior labral tear, thus suggesting the presence of a meniscoid labrum. In only one of those cases were there specific comments about a mobile superior labrum (i.e., meniscoid labrum. In the remaining 11 (52.4%, surgical correlation demonstrated superior labral tears. Conclusion: A meniscoid superior labrum is not an infrequent finding. Depending upon assumptions and the requirement of surgical proof, the prevalence of a meniscoid superior labrum in this study was between 2.1% (surgically proven and 4.8% (projected. However, superior labral tears are just as common and are often confused with meniscoid labra.

  4. Fiber Effects on Minicomposite Mechanical Properties for Several Silicon Carbide Fiber: Chemically Vapor-Infiltrated Silicon Carbide Matrix Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Martinez-Fernandez, Julian

    1999-01-01

    Several different types of SiC fiber tows were coated with BN and composited using chemically vapor-infiltrated SiC to form single-tow minicomposites. The types of SiC fiber included Nicalon(sup TM), Hi-Nicalon(sup TM), and the new Sylramic(sup TM) polycrystalline SiC fiber. The interfacial shear stresses were determined from unload-reload tensile hysteresis-loop tests. The ultimate stress and strain properties also were determined for the minicomposites. The ultimate strengths of the newer Hi-Nicalon and Sylramic fibers were superior to that of Nicalon minicomposites with similar fiber volume fractions. The Sylramic minicomposites had the lowest strain to failure and highest interfacial shear strength, respectively, because of the high modulus of the fiber and the rough surface of this fiber type. The apparent interfacial shear strength increased as the stress increased for the Sylramic minicomposites, which also was attributed to the surface roughness of this fiber.

  5. Superior intellectual ability in schizophrenia: neuropsychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCabe, James H; Brébion, Gildas; Reichenberg, Abraham; Ganguly, Taposhri; McKenna, Peter J; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that neurocognitive impairment is a core deficit in schizophrenia. However, it appears that some patients with schizophrenia have intelligence quotients (IQs) in the superior range. In this study, we sought out schizophrenia patients with an estimated premorbid Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of at least 115 and studied their neuropsychological profile. Thirty-four patients meeting diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV), with mean estimated premorbid IQ of 120, were recruited and divided into two subgroups, according to whether or not their IQ had declined by at least 10 points from their premorbid estimate. Their performance on an extensive neuropsychological battery was compared with that of 19 IQ-matched healthy controls and a group of 16 "typical" schizophrenia patients with estimated premorbid IQ Schizophrenia patients whose estimated premorbid and current IQ both lay in the superior range were statistically indistinguishable from IQ-matched healthy controls on all neurocognitive tests. However, their profile of relative performance in subtests was similar to that of typical schizophrenia patients. Patients with superior premorbid IQ and evidence of intellectual deterioration had intermediate scores. Our results confirm the existence of patients meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia who have markedly superior premorbid intellectual level and appear to be free of gross neuropsychological deficits. We discuss the implications of these findings for the primacy of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  6. The Picture Superiority Effect and Biological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…

  7. Mammographic varicosities indicative of a superior mediastinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, an abnormal calibre of the superficial veins can reflect not only underrying breast pathology, but a collateral venous return resulting from an upper mediastinal obstruction. A case mammographically demonstrating mammary varicosities resulting from a superior mediastinal syndrome is described. S. Afr. Med.

  8. COSEE Superior Creates Passion for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    COSEE was a transformative educational experience that has changed the way I teach. In July, I participated in the COSEE Lake Superior Shipboard and Shoreline Science program. I spent a week on the US EPA’s R/V Lake Guardian with 14 other teachers and a crew of sailors and scient...

  9. Perturbation resilience and superiorization of iterative algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Censor, Y; Davidi, R; Herman, G T

    2010-01-01

    Iterative algorithms aimed at solving some problems are discussed. For certain problems, such as finding a common point in the intersection of a finite number of convex sets, there often exist iterative algorithms that impose very little demand on computer resources. For other problems, such as finding that point in the intersection at which the value of a given function is optimal, algorithms tend to need more computer memory and longer execution time. A methodology is presented whose aim is to produce automatically for an iterative algorithm of the first kind a 'superiorized version' of it that retains its computational efficiency but nevertheless goes a long way toward solving an optimization problem. This is possible to do if the original algorithm is 'perturbation resilient', which is shown to be the case for various projection algorithms for solving the consistent convex feasibility problem. The superiorized versions of such algorithms use perturbations that steer the process in the direction of a superior feasible point, which is not necessarily optimal, with respect to the given function. After presenting these intuitive ideas in a precise mathematical form, they are illustrated in image reconstruction from projections for two different projection algorithms superiorized for the function whose value is the total variation of the image

  10. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  11. Análise exploratória da utilização do programa de qualidade GESPÚBLICA nas instituições federais de ensino superior Exploratory analysis on the use of GESPÚBLICA quality program in public institutions of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane D'Martin Fowler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available atualmente tem-se dado importância à qualidade dos serviços públicos prestados ao cidadão. Propostas de gestão têm surgido para as organizações privadas, públicas, inclusive para Instituições de Ensino, como um diferencial para a melhoria dos serviços oferecidos. Programas da Qualidade, como o GESPÚBLICA, tornam-se uma opção para Instituições interessadas na melhoria da qualidade. O objetivo desse trabalho é averiguar quais Instituições Federais de Educação Superior possuem um programa da qualidade como o GESPÚBLICA implementado e, a partir de tal informação, conhecer as motivações e as restrições (inibidores, por parte dos gestores, para adesão ao programa. Dentre os fatores motivadores destacam-se melhoria do atendimento e a conquista do cidadão; melhoria contínua na gestão dos processos institucionais; redução da cultura burocrática; gestão baseada em fatos e maior valorização, capacitação dos servidores; gerenciamento eficaz da informação. Dentre os inibidores, citam-se a estrutura/recursos insuficientes para implantação do programa; custos envolvidos no programa; baixa capacitação, quadro reduzido e idade média avançada dos servidores; inexperiência institucional com programas da qualidade; excesso de burocracia e escassez de exemplos consolidados da implementação do programa nas Instituições de Ensino.Currently, great importance has been given to the quality of the public services offered to citizens. Proposals of management have emerged in private and public organizations, including educational institutions, as a differential for the improvement of services offered. Quality programs such as GESPÚBLICA have become an option for institutions interested in improving quality. The aim of this study is to determine which public Institutions of higher education have a quality program such as GESPÚBLICA implemented. The motivations and constraints (inhibitors to join the program were also

  12. Quantification of dislocations in hemp fibers using acid hydrolysis and fiber segment length distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2008-01-01

    Natural fibers such as flax or hemp may be used in composite materials. However, their use for this purpose is hampered by the large natural variation in tensile strength and other quality parameters. The first step in managing these variations is to develop methods for fast and reliable determin......Natural fibers such as flax or hemp may be used in composite materials. However, their use for this purpose is hampered by the large natural variation in tensile strength and other quality parameters. The first step in managing these variations is to develop methods for fast and reliable...... determination of relevant parameters. One quality parameter of the fibers is the amount of structural distortions known as dislocations or kink bands. Here, a method developed for the quantification of dislocations in pulp fibers was adapted and tested successfully for hemp yarn segments. The method is based...... was correct, and furthermore results showed that fibers broke more often in large dislocations than in small ones. However, it was also found that the hemp fiber segments did not break in all dislocations, and strict standardization of the procedure for acid hydrolysis is therefore necessary if results from...

  13. Bi-based superconducting fibers with high critical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Yujing; He Yusheng; Liu Menglin; Mao Sining; Cai Liying; Wang Ying; Zhang Jincang; He Aisheng; Wang Jinsong

    1991-01-01

    Superconducting fibers of Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O high Tc superconducting materials have been prepared by means of the laser-heated pedestal growth (LHPG) method. The highest zero resistance temperature T c0 reaches is 114K, and the highest critical current density J c (77K, O T) is greater than 5000 A/cm 2 . As-grown superconducting fibers were successfully fabricated without post growth heat treatment. Amorphous materials were used for the first time to make high quality fibers. The influence of growth conditions, thermal treatment and the composition of the fibers were discussed. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Surface structure and adsorption properties of ultrafine porous carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xiaofeng; Wang Ce; Zhang Dejiang

    2009-01-01

    Ultrafine porous carbon fibers (UPCFs) were successfully synthesized by chemical activation of electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers. In the current approach, potassium hydroxide was adopted as activation reagent. UPCFs were systematically evaluated by scanning electron microscope and nitrogen adsorption. The mass ratio of potassium hydroxide to preoxidized fibers, activation temperature and activation time are crucial for producing high quality UPCFs. The relationships between porous structure and process parameters are explored. UPCFs were applied as adsorbent for nitrogen monoxide to be compared with commercial porous carbon fibers.

  15. Spectrophotometry with optical fibers applied to nuclear product processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisde, G.; Perez, J.J.; Velluet, M.T.; Jeunhomme, L.B.

    1988-01-01

    Absorption spectrophotometry is widely used in laboratories for composition analysis and quality control of chemical processes. Using optical fibers for transmitting the light between the instrument and the process line allows to improve the safety and productivity of chemical processes, thanks to real time measurements. Such applications have been developed since 1975 in CEA for the monitoring of nuclear products. This has led to the development of fibers, measurement cells, and optical feedthrough sustaining high radiation doses, of fiber/spectrophotometer couplers, and finally of a photodiode array spectrophotometer optimized for being used together with optical fibers [fr

  16. 国内外玻璃纤维用高岭土的质量差距及提高我国高岭土质量的对策%Differences of Kaolin Quality for Glass Fibers Made in China and Abroad and Improving Measures of Kaolin Quality Made in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩利雄; 姚远; 刘国斌

    2011-01-01

    Kaolins are one of important materials for E-glass fibers, which accounts for about 1/3 of blend mass. But the high-end market of kaolin for glass fibers was dominated by imports in China. Three kinds of kaolin samplespro-duced by ITC.Yichang and Yunnan for glass fibers were studied in this paper. The differences in chemical composition, phase,microstructure and granulometric composition were compared in detail by XRS,XRD,SEM and LPS. The research found that products of ITC had obvious advantages in product purity, particle size control and quality stability. In fact,the quality of domestic Kaolins is not bad,but because it is lack of specific quality standard and limited by the processing level of domestic non-metallic mineral, high-quality products cannot be obtained. In the future, kaolin industry should become bigger and stronger by integration as soon as possible, and try hard to improve the processing level of kaolin such as ore dressing,homogenization,etc,to fill the gap in the high-grade kaolin products for glass fibers.%高岭土是E-玻璃纤维的重要原料之一,其用量可占配合料的三分之一,但国内玻纤用高岭土高端市场一直被进口产品所占据.选取了美国ITC进口高岭土、宜昌硬质高岭土和云南水洗高岭土这三种有代表性的玻纤用高岭土,通过荧光光谱分析、X射线衍射分析、扫描电镜分析和激光粒度分析详细对比了它们在化学成分、物相组成、微观形貌和粒度分布四方面的差异.研究发现,美国玻纤用高岭土在产品纯度、粒度控制和质量稳定性方面有明显优势;国内玻纤用高岭土矿源品质并不差,只是由于缺乏专门的质量标准,同时受限于国内非金属矿产加工水平,而无法生产出高质量的产品.未来我国高岭土行业应尽快通过整合做大做强,努力提高高岭土选矿、均化等加工工艺水平,填补国内高档玻纤用高岭土产品空白.

  17. Graphene-based fibers for supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lianlian; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Energy conversion and storage devices play an important role in industry and society with the rapid growth of energy consumption. Supercapacitors are very attractive due to their superior power density, fast charge/discharge rates and long cycle lifetime. Graphene fiber (GF), a fascinating material, has drawn considerable attention and shown great potential as an active material in the field of supercapacitors owing to its unique and tunable nanostructure, high electrical conductivity, excellent mechanical flexibility, light weight, and ease of functionalization. This review focuses on the recent significant advances in the fabrication and application of graphene-based fiber as electrode material in supercapacitors. The synthetic strategies and application in the supercapacitor are presented, accompanied with the summary and outlook for the future development of GFs. (topical review)

  18. History of cotton fiber bioscience research at USDA-ARS Southern Regional Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving fiber quality has been an important breeding goal for cotton breeders. Better understanding of fiber development helps cotton scientists to devise a strategy for crop improvement either through marker-assisted selection or via manipulation of fiber genes. USDA-ARS Southern Regional Researc...

  19. High-power picosecond pulse delivery through hollow core photonic band gap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Johansen, Mette Marie; Lyngsø, Jens Kristian

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated robust and bend insensitive fiber delivery of high power laser with diffraction limited beam quality for two different kinds of hollow core band gap fibers. The light source for this experiment consists of ytterbium-doped double clad fiber aeroGAIN-ROD-PM85 in a high power amplifier...

  20. Fiber optics in SHIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severyn, J.; Parker, J.

    1978-01-01

    SHIVA is a twenty arm laser which is controlled with a network of fifty computers, interconnected with digital fiber optic links. Three different fiber optic systems employed on the Shiva laser will be described. Two of the systems are for digital communications, one at 9600 baud and the other at 1 megabaud. The third system uses fiber optics to distribute diagnostic triggers with subnanosecond jitter

  1. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fareed, Ali [Honeywell Advanced Composites Inc. (HACI), Newark, DE (United States); Craig, Phillip A. [Honeywell Advanced Composites Inc. (HACI), Newark, DE (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  2. Desenvolvimento e qualidade nutricional de mudas de mangabeiras cultivadas em substratos contendo fibra de coco e adubação fosfatada Development and nutritional quality of hancornia speciosa seedlings cultivated in mixture containing coconut fiber and fertilized with phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Jardelino Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Para a produção de mudas de qualidade, é necessária a utilização de substratos com propriedades físicas, químicas e biológicas que condicionem a germinação adequada das sementes e o estabelecimento das mudas. Neste sentido, foi realizado um experimento no Centro de Ciências Agrárias, da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a composição mineral de mudas de mangabeiras (Hancornia speciosa em substratos compostos por diferentes proporções de fibra de coco (0% a 40%, esterco bovino (0% a 25%, terra vegetal (25% a 70% e 15% de areia, fertilizados com superfosfato triplo (0; 5,5 e 11 g dm-3. A terra vegetal e a fibra de coco exerceram efeitos benéficos às mudas com o aumento de suas proporções no substrato. A adição do esterco e do superfosfato triplo inibiu a produção de matéria seca e a área foliar das mudas. Houve aumento dos teores de nutrientes nas mudas com o aumento da concentração de esterco nos substratos. Pela estimativa dos resultados, o substrato que proporciona maior crescimento e composição mineral mais equilibrada nas mudas de mangabeira deve ser constituído por 14% de esterco, 56% de terra vegetal, 15% de fibra de coco, 15% de areia e 4 g dm-3 de superfosfato triplo.In order to produce good quality seedlings it is necessary to use a mixture that presents appropriate physical, chemical and biological properties, which supplies the necessary conditions for the germination and the seedling's establishment. This experiment was carried out at the Agricultural Sciences Center, Paraíba Federal University (Brazil, whose objective was to evaluate the growth and the mineral composition of Hancornia speciosa seedlings in substrata composed by concentrations of coconut fiber from 0% to 40%, manure bovine from 0% to 25%, soil from 25% to 70%, sand 15% and triple superphosphate between 0 and 11 g dm-3. The soil and coconut fiber had beneficial effects on the H. speciosa

  3. Histological evaluation of levator palpebralis superior muscle in patients with congenital blepharoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Söker

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine levator palpebralis superior muscle histologically in patients with congenital blepharoptosis and to investigate the relationship between these findings and age, sex and degree of blefaroptosis in this patient group.Materials and methods: Levator muscle of 13 patients with congenital ptosis, who had applied to Dicle University Medical Faculty Ophthalmology Clinic and had undergone levator palpebralis superior muscle resection between january 2009-january 2010, has been examined histopathologically in Histology and Embriology Deparment. During preoperative period, ptosis amount, levator function (LF, tear functions, Bell’s phenomenon and jaw-winking phenomenon were evaluated. All patients underwent resection of levator palpebralis superior muscle. Received postoperative levator muscle was examined by light microscopy.Results: The average age of 9 (69.2% male and 4 (30.8% female cases were 10.61 ± 4.77 (4- 19 years. In histological examination, the quality and quantity of the levator muscle fibrils have been assessed. There was no relationship detected between histological features of levator palpebralis superior muscle and patient’s age and gender (p>0.05. Patients with weak levator palpebralis superior muscle were detected to have fatty degeneration histologically. The higher the levator palpebralis superior muscle function revealed decreased fatty degeneration and increased skeletal muscle fibrils.Conclusion: More ultrastructural studies in larger populations are needed to support the relationship between structure and function of levator palpebralis superior muscle in patients with congenital blepharoptosis.

  4. Visualization of Fiber Structure in the Left and Right Ventricle of a Human Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmer, Damien; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2006-01-01

    The human heart is composed of a helical network of muscle fibers. Anisotropic least squares filtering followed by fiber tracking techniques were applied to Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging(DTMRI) data of the excised human heart. The fiber configuration was visualized by using thin tubes to increase 3-dimensional visual perception of the complex structure. All visualizations were performed using the high-quality ray-tracing software POV-Ray. The fibers are shown within the left and right ventricles. Both ventricles exhibit similar fiber architecture and some bundles of fibers are shown linking right and left ventricles on the posterior region of the heart

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Physical and Structural Properties of Water Retted and Non-retted Flax Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Raghavan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Flax stems of Modran variety were subjected to water retting under laboratory conditions and its physical properties were compared with non-retted fibers. Physical properties including percentage of impurities, weighted average length, linear density, tenacity and elongation were analyzed and the results were compared. The analysis of retted and non-retted flax fibers showed that retting is the most important step in the processing of flax fibers and it directly affects quality attributes like strength, fineness, and homogeneity. Scanning Electron microscope images of fibers were also analyzed and the retted fibers showed much cleaner surface when compared to decorticated non-retted fibers.

  6. Radiographic testing of glass fiber reinforced plastic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babylas, E.

    1976-01-01

    The microradiography of glass fiber reinforced polymers allowed to obtain informations on the growth of defects during molding. A relation was established between microstructure and routine radiography. The conditions needed for obtaining good quality radiograms are analyzed [fr

  7. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Hulle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

  8. Hollow-core fibers for high power pulse delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Jakobsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We investigate hollow-core fibers for fiber delivery of high power ultrashort laser pulses. We use numerical techniques to design an anti-resonant hollow-core fiber having one layer of non-touching tubes to determine which structures offer the best optical properties for the delivery of high power...... picosecond pulses. A novel fiber with 7 tubes and a core of 30 mu m was fabricated and it is here described and characterized, showing remarkable low loss, low bend loss, and good mode quality. Its optical properties are compared to both a 10 mu m and a 18 mu m core diameter photonic band gap hollow......-core fiber. The three fibers are characterized experimentally for the delivery of 22 picosecond pulses at 1032nm. We demonstrate flexible, diffraction limited beam delivery with output average powers in excess of 70W. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3021 - Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiber. 29.3021 Section 29.3021 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... importance, except where a fine distinction must be made between several lots of high quality or between...

  10. Aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, A

    1984-11-01

    This is a report about 4 patients with aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery of arteriosclerotic, mycotic and probably congenital etiology together with a review of the literature as to the etiology, diagnostic possibilities and therapy. Arteriography is the method of choice even though a diagnosis may be possible by sonography or CT in special cases. Even though an aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery is rare, it has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of persisting abdominal problems of unknown origin. This is especially true for patients with a predisposing history such as previous or existing endocarditis, sepsis, arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Because of the possibility of rupture followed by life threating bleeding an adequate diagnostic step such as arteriography has to be considered finally.

  11. Aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebauer, A.

    1984-01-01

    This is a report about 4 patients with aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery of arteriosclerotic, mycotic and probably congenital etiology together with a review of the literature as to the etiology, diagnostic possibilities and therapy. Arteriography is the method of choice even though a diagnosis may be possible by sonography or CT in special cases. Even though an aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery is rare, it has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of persisting abdominal problems of unknown origin. This is especially true for patients with a predisposing history such as previous or existing endocarditis, sepsis, arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Because of the possibility of rupture followed by life threating bleeding an adequate diagnostic step such as arteriography has to be considered finally. (orig.) [de

  12. White Matter Microstructure in Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Associated with Spatial Working Memory Performance in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baaré, William F C

    2011-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, ongoing white matter maturation in the fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts is measurable with diffusion-weighted imaging. Important questions remain, however, about the links between these changes and developing cognitive functions. Spatial working...... memory (SWM) performance improves significantly throughout the childhood years, and several lines of evidence implicate the left fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts in SWM processing. Here we report results from a study of 76 typically developing children, 7 to 13 years of age. We...... hypothesized that better SWM performance would be associated with increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in a left fronto-parietal network composed of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), the regional white matter underlying the dorsolateral pFC, and the posterior parietal cortex. As hypothesized, we...

  13. Mechanism of the superior mechanical strength of nanometer-sized metal single crystals revealed

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, N. D.

    2013-10-01

    Clear understanding of the superior mechanical strength of nanometer-sized metal single crystals is required to derive advanced mechanical components retaining such superiority. Although high quality studies have been reported on nano-crystalline metals, the superiority of small single crystals has neither been fundamentally explained nor quantified to this date. Here we present a molecular dynamics study of aluminum single crystals in the size range from 4.1 nm to 40.5 nm. We show that the ultimate mechanical strength deteriorates exponentially as the single crystal size increases. The small crystals superiority is explained by their ability to continuously form vacancies and to recover them. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Superior cold recycling : The score project

    OpenAIRE

    LESUEUR, D; POTTI, JJ; SOUTHWELL, C; WALTER, J; CRUZ, M; DELFOSSE, F; ECKMANN, B; FIEDLER, J; RACEK, I; SIMONSSON, B; PLACIN, F; SERRANO, J; RUIZ, A; KALAAJI, A; ATTANE, P

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop Environmentally Friendly Construction Technologies (EFCT) and as part of the 5th Framework Program of Research and Development, the European Community has decided to finance a research project on cold recycling, entitled SCORE "Superior COld REcycling based on benefits of bituminous microemulsions and foamed bitumen. A EFCT system for the rehabilitation and the maintenance of roads". This research project gathers organizations from all over Europe, from industrial partners...

  15. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  16. [Neuromolecular mechanism of the superiority illusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    The majority of individuals evaluate themselves as above average. This is a cognitive bias called "the superiority illusion". This illusory self-evaluation helps us to have hopes for the future, and has been central to the process of human evolution. Possessing this illusion is also important for mental health, as depressed people appear to have a more realistic perception of themselves, dubbed "depressive realism". Our recent study revealed the spontaneous brain activity and central dopaminergic neurotransmission that generate this illusion, using resting-state fMRI and PET. A functional connectivity between the frontal cortex and striatum, regulated by inhibitory dopaminergic neurotransmission, determines individual levels of the superiority illusion. We further revealed that blocking the dopamine transporter, which enhanced the level of dopamine, increased the degree of the superiority illusion. These findings suggest that dopamine acts on striatal dopamine receptors to suppress fronto-striatal functional connectivity, leading to disinhibited, heuristic, approaches to positive self-evaluation. These findings help us to understand how this key aspect of the human mind is biologically determined, and will suggest treatments for depressive symptoms by targeting specific molecules and neural circuits.

  17. Los académicos frente a la gestión de la calidad en las instituciones de educación superior: percepción y valoración Os acadêmicos frente à gestão da qualidade nas instituições de educação superior: percepção e valoração Faculty facing quality management in higher education institutions: Perception and assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Olaskoaga Larrauri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reúne y ordena la evidencia empírica existente sobre las opiniones y actitudes de los académicos universitarios frente a la introducción, en sus instituciones, de la lógica, los principios y las herramientas de la gestión de la calidad. El enfoque adoptado es el de la meta-investigación, que supone la recopilación de la literatura relevante y la sistematización de sus contenidos. Éstos se han expuesto ordenados en tres líneas temáticas: las nociones de calidad aceptadas por los académicos, su percepción de los logros de la gestión de la calidad, y su valoración de los diferentes métodos de evaluación asociados a los sistemas de garantía de la calidad.Este artigo reúne e ordena a evidência empírica existente sobre as opiniões e atitudes dos acadêmicos universitários diante da introdução, em suas instituições, da lógica, princípios e ferramentas da gestão da qualidade. O enfoque adotado é o da metainvestigação, que supõe a recopilação da literatura relevante e a sistematização de seus conteúdos. Estes foram expostos em três linhas temáticas: as noções de qualidade aceitas pelos acadêmicos, sua percepção dos sucessos da gestão da qualidade e sua valoração dos diferentes métodos de avaliação associados aos sistemas de garantia da qualidade.This paper puts together and arranges the existing empirical evidence on opinions and attitudes of faculty members about the introduction in their institutions of the logic, principles and tools of quality management. The approach used was the meta-research, which involves compilation of the relevant literature and systematization of its topics. These have been exposed into three thematic lines: the notions of quality accepted by faculty members, their perception of the achievements of quality management, and their assessment of the different evaluation methods associated with systems of quality assurance.

  18. Influence of feeding regime and finishing system on lamb muscle fiber and meat quality Influência do regime alimentar e do sistema de terminação sobre as fibras musculares e a qualidade da carne de cordeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Bonagurio Gallo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study verified the influence of different nutritional levels of the dams, before parturition, the weaning age of the lambs and the finishing system on lamb muscle fiber morphology and meat quality. Ile-de-France × Bergamacia crossbred dams grazing on natural grassland were divided into two groups: 1 nutritional supplement 30 days before the parturition (SUPL, and 2 no nutritional supplement (NS. These groups were further subdivided by weaning age of the lambs, which corresponded to either 45 or 60 days. The weaned lambs from each of the previous groups were also divided into different finishing systems: confined and fed a complete diet (CD, confined and fed hay (H and kept on grassland (P. The lambs were slaughtered at 30 kg live weight (CD and P, or at 150 days of age (H. The carcasses were cooled at 4ºC/24h. The analyzed variables were: longissimus dorsi muscle fiber morphophysiology, post mortem myofibrillar fragmentation (at 0, 3 and 7 days post mortem, meat pH and temperature. There was no effect of supplementation of dams or weaning age of the lambs for the evaluated variables. The frequency of slow-oxidative (SO, fast-oxidative-glycolytic (FOG and fast-glycolytic (FG muscle fiber types was not altered by the treatments, but the fiber cross-sectional area was smaller for the lambs finished only on hay, and the meat pH values and temperature were lower and the myofibrill fragment dimensions were smaller. As time maturation increased from 0 to 3 and 7 days post mortem, there was a decrease in the length of the myofibrill fragments. The diet of the lambs which were maintained confined and fed only with hay was nutritionally inferior when compared with all the others, and this changed the quality of the meat compared to the finishing systems on grassland or confined and fed complete diet.Avaliou-se a influência dos níveis nutricionais da ovelha antes do parto, da idade à desmama e do sistema de terminação sobre as fibras musculares

  19. Burlington Northern Taconite Transshipment Facility, Duluth-Superior Harbor, Superior Wisconsin. Environmental Assessment Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    the Federal Government declared the Duluth- Superior area to be economically depressed . The reason given was the "consistant and chronic unemployment...include dogwood, sumac, arrowwood, blueberry, highbush cranberry , elderberry, wild grape, buttonbrush, snowberry and partridgeberry. Aquatic and...water for the proposed greenbelt areas and as dust sup- pression spray. 10.003 The depressed economy of the Duluth-Superior area would benefit by the

  20. USDA Flax fiber utilization research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States is pursuing natural fibers as sustainable, environmentally friendly sources for a variety of industrial applications. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fiber offers many possibilities towards this goal. Research on flax fiber production, processing, and standards development is urgen...

  1. Ultrafine PBI fibers and yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J. R.; Tan, M.

    1979-01-01

    Gentle precisely controlled process is used to draw polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers to denier as low as 0.17 per fiber. Yarns of lightweight fibers could be useful in applications where lightweight textiles must withstand high temperatures, corrosion, or radiation.

  2. Superior mesenteric artery compression syndrome - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rocha França Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is an entity generally caused by the loss of the intervening mesenteric fat pad, resulting in compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery. This article reports the case of a patient with irremovable metastatic adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon, that evolved with intense vomiting. Intestinal transit was carried out, which showed important gastric dilation extended until the third portion of the duodenum, compatible with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Considering the patient's nutritional condition, the medical team opted for the conservative treatment. Four months after the surgery and conservative measures, the patient did not present vomiting after eating, maintaining previous weight. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is uncommon and can have unspecific symptoms. Thus, high suspicion is required for the appropriate clinical adjustment. A barium examination is required to make the diagnosis. The treatment can initially require gastric decompression and hydration, besides reversal of weight loss through adequate nutrition. Surgery should be adopted only in case of clinical treatment failure.A síndrome da artéria mesentérica superior é uma entidade clínica causada geralmente pela perda do tecido adiposo mesentérico, resultando na compressão da terceira porção do duodeno pela artéria mesentérica superior. Esse artigo relata o caso clínico de uma paciente portadora de adenocarcinoma de cólon sigmoide metastático irressecável, que evoluiu com vômitos incoercíveis. Realizou-se, então, trânsito intestinal que evidenciou dilatação gástrica importante, que se prolongava até a terceira porção duodenal, quadro radiológico compatível com pinçamento da artéria mesentérica superior. Diante da condição nutricional da paciente, foi optado por iniciar medidas conservadoras (porções alimentares pequenas e mais frequentes, além de dec

  3. Applications of nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2008-01-01

    * The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

  4. Multimode optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

    2014-11-04

    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  5. Fiber Lasers V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes

    2008-01-01

    laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 μm single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350...

  6. Fiber Sensor Technology Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotate, Kazuo

    2006-08-01

    Fiber sensor technologies are overviewed. Since the early 1970s, this field has been developed, on the basis of the same devices and photonic principles as fiber communication technologies. Besides simple configurations, in which the fiber acts only as a data transmission line, sophisticated configurations have also been developed, in which the fiber is used as a device to realize unique sensing mechanisms. The fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) is a good example, and has been developed as an absolute rotation sensor used, for example, for navigation and/or attitude control applications. Compared with traditional spinning-mass gyroscopes, the FOG has advantages, such as a short warming-up time, a light weight, and easy handling. A Japanese satellite, which was launched in August 2005 with a mission to observe the aurora, is controlled with a FOG. The FOG has also been used in consumer applications, such as the camera stabilizer, radio-controlled (RC) helicopter navigation, and the control of humanoid robots. Recently, distributed and multiplexed sensing schemes, in particular, have been studied and developed, in which a long fiber acts like a “nerve” for feeling the strain and/or the temperature distribution along the fiber. Performances of artificial nerve systems have markedly improved within the last couple of years, in spatial resolution and measurement speed. By embedding the “fiber-optic nerve system” in aircraft wings, bridges and tall buildings, these materials and structures can sense damage to prevent disasters.

  7. Ways to Boost Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help to lower cholesterol. Third, it helps prevent constipation and diverticulosis. And fourth, adequate fiber from food ... is similar to a new sponge; it needs water to plump up pass smoothly. If you ... or constipation. Before you reach for the fiber supplements, consider ...

  8. Quartz fiber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, N.; Doulas, S.; Ganel, O.; Gershtein, Y.; Gavrilov, V.; Kolosov, V.; Kuleshov, S.; Litvinsev, D.; Merlo, J.-P.; Onel, Y.; Osborne, D.; Rosowsky, A.; Stolin, V.; Sulak, L.; Sullivan, J.; Ulyanov, A.; Wigmans, R.; Winn, D.

    1996-01-01

    A calorimeter with optical quartz fibers embedded into an absorber matrix was proposed for the small angle region of the CMS detector at LHC (CERN). This type of calorimeter is expected to be radiation hard and to produce extremely fast signal. Some results from beam tests of the quartz fiber calorimeter prototype are presented. (orig.)

  9. High-density multicore fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takenaga, K.; Matsuo, S.; Saitoh, K.

    2016-01-01

    High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber.......High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber....

  10. Green insulation: hemp fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2011-09-15

    Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.

  11. Raman fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book serves as a comprehensive, up-to-date reference about this cutting-edge laser technology and its many new and interesting developments. Various aspects and trends of Raman fiber lasers are described in detail by experts in their fields. Raman fiber lasers have progressed quickly in the past decade, and have emerged as a versatile laser technology for generating high power light sources covering a spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. The technology is already being applied in the fields of telecommunication, astronomy, cold atom physics, laser spectroscopy, environmental sensing, and laser medicine. This book covers various topics relating to Raman fiber laser research, including power scaling, cladding and diode pumping, cascade Raman shifting, single frequency operation and power amplification, mid-infrared laser generation, specialty optical fibers, and random distributed feedback Raman fiber lasers. The book will appeal to scientists, students, and technicians seeking to understand the re...

  12. Birefringent hollow core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2007-01-01

    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... applications, and places emphasis on the development of polarization maintaining (PM) HC-PCF. The polarization cross-coupling characteristics of PM HC-PCF are very different from those of conventional PM fibers. The former fibers have the advantage of suffering far less from stress-field fluctuations...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...

  13. Fiber optic hydrophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Davis, Donald T.

    1994-01-01

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

  14. Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, and carbon fibers made thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit Kumar; Hunt, Marcus Andrew; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-08-04

    Methods for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, wherein the polyolefin fiber precursor is partially sulfonated and then carbonized to produce carbon fiber. Methods for producing hollow carbon fibers, wherein the hollow core is circular- or complex-shaped, are also described. Methods for producing carbon fibers possessing a circular- or complex-shaped outer surface, which may be solid or hollow, are also described.

  15. Superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Jonathan C; Omid, Reza

    2012-12-01

    The patient was a 25-year-old male college student with a chief complaint of right shoulder pain. The patient was initially diagnosed with bicipital tendinitis by his physician and had been treated for 4 weeks by a physical therapist. However, his symptoms did not improve and he was unable to return to his preinjury activity levels, so he sought the services of another physical therapist for a second opinion. Due to concern for a labrum tear, the physical therapist referred the patient to an orthopaedic surgeon. Magnetic resonance arthrography revealed findings consistent with a superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

  16. Ultrasound Detection of Superior Vena Cava Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Birch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Superior vena cava (SVC syndrome is most commonly the insidious result of decreased vascular flow through the SVC due to malignancy, spontaneous thrombus, infections, and iatrogenic etiologies. Clinical suspicion usually leads to computed tomography to confirm the diagnosis. However, when a patient in respiratory distress requires emergent airway management, travel outside the emergency department is not ideal. With the growing implementation of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS, clinicians may make critical diagnoses rapidly and safely. We present a case of SVC syndrome due to extensive thrombosis of the deep venous system cephalad to the SVC diagnosed by POCUS. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6:715-718

  17. Superior Venacava Thrombus-A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay Sah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior venacava (SVC thrombus is a condition requiring immediate diagnosis and treatment. SVC thrombus causes obstruction of blood flow through the SVC resulting in severe decrease in venous return from the head, neck and upper extremity to the heart. The presenting symptoms of SVC obstruction include headache, hoarseness of voice, dyspnea, and laryngeal edema, dizziness, swelling of face, neck, and upper extremity. We hereby present a case of SVC thrombus who presented to the casualty department of COMS-TH with features of SVC syndrome which was diagnosed and managed promptly.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(1:33-5.

  18. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  19. Superior radiation tolerance of thin epitaxial silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kramberger, G; Fretwurst, E; Honniger, F; Lindström, G; Pintilie, I; Röder, R; Schramm, A; Stahl, J

    2003-01-01

    For the LHC upgrade (fluences up to 10**1**6 p/cm**2) epi-Si devices are shown to be a viable solution. No type inversion was measured up to 1.3 multiplied by 10**1**524 GeV/c protons/cm**2 and the charge collection efficiency (CCE) remained close to 100%. For reactor neutrons CCE was measured to be 60% at 8 multiplied by 10**1**5 n/cm **2. Annealing measurements have shown that only moderate cooling during beam off periods would be necessary. As a tentative explanation for the superior quality of these devices, we assume that radiation-induced donor generation leads to compensation effects of deep acceptors. In the future, we will extend the experiments to fluences up to 10**1**6 p/cm**2 and use also different variants of the epi-Si material and device geometry.

  20. Superior thermal conductivity in suspended bilayer hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengru; Guo, Jie; Dong, Lan; Aiyiti, Adili; Xu, Xiangfan; Li, Baowen

    2016-01-01

    We reported the basal-plane thermal conductivity in exfoliated bilayer hexagonal boron nitride h-BN that was measured using suspended prepatterned microstructures. The h-BN sample suitable for thermal measurements was fabricated by dry-transfer method, whose sample quality, due to less polymer residues on surfaces, is believed to be superior to that of PMMA-mediated samples. The measured room temperature thermal conductivity is around 484 Wm−1K−1(+141 Wm−1K−1/ −24 Wm−1K−1) which exceeds that in bulk h-BN, providing experimental observation of the thickness-dependent thermal conductivity in suspended few-layer h-BN. PMID:27142571

  1. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  2. Fiber Pulling Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Sue; Adcock, Leonard

    1998-01-01

    The fiber optics industry has grown into a multi-billion marketplace that will continue to grow into the 21st century. Optical fiber communications is currently dominated by silica glass technology. Successful efforts to improve upon the low loss transmission characteristics of silica fibers have propelled the technology into the forefront of the communications industry. However, reaching the theoretical transmission capability of silica fiber through improved processing has still left a few application areas in which other fiber systems can provide an influential role due to specific characteristics of high theoretical transmission in the 2 - 3 micron wavelength region. One of the other major materials used for optical fibers is the systems based upon Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass (HMFG). Commercial interest is driven primarily by the potential for low loss repeaterless infrared fibers. An example of the major communications marketplace which would benefit from the long distance repeaterless capability of infrared fibers is the submarine cables which link the continents. When considering commercial interests, optical fiber systems provide a healthy industrial position which continues to expand. Major investments in the systems used for optical fiber communications have continued to increase each year and are predicted to continue well into the next century. Estimates of 8.5% compounded annually are predicted through 1999 for the North American market and 1 1 % worldwide. The growth for the optical fiber cable itself is expected to continue between 44 and 50 per cent of the optical fiber communications budget through 1999. The total budget in 1999 world-wide is expected to be in the neighborhood of $9 billion. Another survey predicts that long haul telecommunications represents 15% of a world-wide fiber optics market in 1998. The actual amount allotted to cable was not specified. However, another market research had predicted that the cable costs alone represents more

  3. Inferencias para la reflexión sobre la calidad de la educación superior nocturna en ingeniería en Colombia Inferências para a reflexão sobre a qualidade da educação superior noturna em engenharia na Colômbia Inferences for Reflection on the Quality of University Night School in Engineering in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Yecid Buitrago-Suescún

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analiza el grado de conocimiento del concepto de crédito académico por parte de los estudiantes de ingeniería en las jornadas diurna y nocturna, la forma en que este se utiliza para planear el manejo del tiempo, y su incidencia en la calidad de la formación. Se realizaron encuestas a estudiantes de Ingeniería Industrial de diferentes universidades de Bogotá en las jornadas diurna y nocturna. Se propusieron las correspondientes pruebas de hipótesis estadísticas sobre los parámetros poblacionales de interés en cada una de las jornadas, y se decidió con una significancia del 10%. Los resultados muestran que para los estudiantes de las jornadas nocturnas no es posible cumplir con el tiempo de estudio extraclase determinado por el número de créditos que matriculan. Se proponen alternativas de solución, sin detrimento de la calidad de la educación.Neste estudo, analisa-se o grau de conhecimento do conceito de crédito acadêmico por parte dos estudantes de engenharia nos períodos diurno e noturno, a forma na qual este se utiliza para planejar o manejo do tempo e sua incidência na qualidade da formação. Realizaram-se pesquisas com estudantes de Engenharia Industrial de diferentes universidades de Bogotá nos períodos diurno e noturno. Propuseram-se as correspondentes provas de hipótese estatística sobre os parâmetros populacionais de interesse em cada um dos períodos e decidiu-se com uma significância de 10%. Os resultados mostram que, para os estudantes do período noturno, não é possível cumprir com o tempo de estudo extra-aula determinado pelo número de créditos que matriculam. Propõem-se alternativas de solução, sem detrimento da qualidade da educação.The extent of what engineering students in daytime and evening classes know about the concept of academic credit, the way it is used in time management planning, and its influence on the quality of education are analyzed in this study. Industrial

  4. Fibromyalgia Is Correlated with Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Elena; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Puebla-Guedea, Marta; Ascaso, Francisco J; Roca, Miguel; Gutierrez-Ruiz, Fernando; Vilades, Elisa; Polo, Vicente; Larrosa, Jose M; Pablo, Luis E; Satue, Maria

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether fibromyalgia induces axonal damage in the optic nerve that can be detected using optical coherence tomography (OCT), as the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) is atrophied in patients with fibromyalgia compared with controls. Fibromyalgia patients (n = 116) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 144) were included in this observational and prospective cohort study. All subjects underwent visual acuity measurement and structural analysis of the RNFL using two OCT devices (Cirrus and Spectralis). Fibromyalgia patients were evaluated according to Giesecke's fibromyalgia subgroups, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), and the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ5D) scale. We compared the differences between fibromyalgia patients and controls, and analyzed the correlations between OCT measurements, disease duration, fibromyalgia subgroups, severity, and quality of life. The impact on quality of life in fibromyalgia subgroups and in patients with different disease severity was also analyzed. A significant decrease in the RNFL was detected in fibromyalgia patients compared with controls using the two OCT devices: Cirrus OCT ganglion cell layer analysis registered a significant decrease in the minimum thickness of the inner plexiform layer (74.99±16.63 vs 79.36±3.38 μm, respectively; p = 0.023), nasal inferior, temporal inferior and temporal superior sectors (p = 0.040; 0.011 and 0.046 respectively). The Glaucoma application of the Spectralis OCT revealed thinning in the nasal, temporal inferior and temporal superior sectors (p = 0.009, 0.006, and 0.002 respectively) of fibromyalgia patients and the Axonal application in all sectors, except the nasal superior and temporal sectors. The odds ratio (OR) to estimate the size effect of FM in RNFL thickness was 1.39. RNFL atrophy was detected in patients with FIQ scores fibromyalgia (FIQ≥60) compared with patients with mild fibromyalgia (FIQfibromyalgia exhibited significant thinning in the

  5. Production process of a new cellulosic fiber with antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikeli, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The Lyocell process (system: cellulose-water-N-methylmorpholine oxide) of Zimmer AG offers special advantages for the production of cellulose fibers. The process excels by dissolving the most diverse cellulose types as these are optimally adjusted to the process by applying different pretreatment methods. Based on this stable process, Zimmer AG's objective is to impart to the Lyocell fiber additional value to improve quality of life and thus to tap new markets for the product. Thanks to the specific incorporation of seaweed, the process allows to produce cellulose Lyocell fibers with additional and new features. They are activated in a further step - by specific charging with metal ions - in order to obtain antibacterial properties. The favorable textile properties of fibers produced by the Lyocell process are not adversely affected by the incorporation of seaweed material or by activation to obtain an antibacterial fiber so that current textile products can be made from the fibers thus produced. The antibacterial effect is achieved by metal ion activation of the Lyocell fibers with incorporated seaweed, which contrasts with the antibacterial fibers known so far. Antibacterial fibers produced by conventional methods are in part only surface finished with antibacterially active chemicals or else they are produced by incorporating organic substances with antibacterial and fungicidal effects. Being made from cellulose, the antibacterial Lyocell fiber Sea Cell Active as the basis for quality textiles exhibits a special wear comfort compared to synthetic fibers with antibacterial properties and effects. This justifies the conclusion that the Zimmer Lyocell process provides genuine value added and that it is a springboard for further applications.

  6. Fiber Optic Microphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. C.; George, Thomas; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Research into advanced pressure sensors using fiber-optic technology is aimed at developing compact size microphones. Fiber optic sensors are inherently immune to electromagnetic noise, and are very sensitive, light weight, and highly flexible. In FY 98, NASA researchers successfully designed and assembled a prototype fiber-optic microphone. The sensing technique employed was fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometry. The sensing head is composed of an optical fiber terminated in a miniature ferrule with a thin, silicon-microfabricated diaphragm mounted on it. The optical fiber is a single mode fiber with a core diameter of 8 micron, with the cleaved end positioned 50 micron from the diaphragm surface. The diaphragm is made up of a 0.2 micron thick silicon nitride membrane whose inner surface is metallized with layers of 30 nm titanium, 30 nm platinum, and 0.2 micron gold for efficient reflection. The active sensing area is approximately 1.5 mm in diameter. The measured differential pressure tolerance of this diaphragm is more than 1 bar, yielding a dynamic range of more than 100 dB.

  7. Acute Bilateral Superior Branch Vestibular Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Yacovino

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid onset of a bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH is often attributed to vestibular ototoxicity. However, without any prior exposure to ototoxins, the idiopathic form of BVH is most common. Although sequential bilateral vestibular neuritis (VN is described as a cause of BVH, clinical evidence for simultaneous and acute onset bilateral VN is unknown. We describe a patient with an acute onset of severe gait ataxia and oscillopsia with features compatible with acute BVH putatively due to a bilateral VN, which we serially evaluated with clinical and laboratory vestibular function testing over the course of 1 year. Initially, bilateral superior and horizontal semicircular canals and bilateral utricles were impaired, consistent with damage to both superior branches of each vestibular nerve. Hearing was spared. Only modest results were obtained following 6 months of vestibular rehabilitation. At a 1-year follow-up, only the utricular function of one side recovered. This case is the first evidence supporting an acute presentation of bilateral VN as a cause for BVH, which would not have been observed without critical assessment of each of the 10 vestibular end organs.

  8. Premissas para o Ensino Superior do Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Marques da Silveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a temática da Educação Superior e objetivo identificar premissas para o Ensino em Design no Brasil. Para tanto, efetua um estudo dos conteúdos das comunicações da área em periódicos e livros quanto ao assunto. O método de investigação utilizado foi a análise de conteúdo e observou as seguintes etapas de investigação: registro de dados, interpretação inferencial e categorização. Num primeiro momento, identifica a frequência do aparecimento de índices lexicais quanto ao relato de problemas no processo de Ensino-aprendizagem do Design e as proposições para o seu enfrentamento. Procede uma interpretação inferencial destes dados e, por fim, propõe como resultado, um conjunto de doze premissas que devem ser observadas quanto ao Ensino Superior em Design, a saber: 1 Incentivar o empreendedorismo; 2 Nivelar a Formação; 3 Desenvolver estrategistas; 4 Pensar a ética na atuação profissional; 5 Educar para o social; 6 Valorizar os ideias humanistas; 7 Repensar as estruturas acadêmicas; 8 Focar na aprendizagem baseada em problemas; 9 Aceitar os novos paradigmas; 10 Fomentar o pensamento crítico reflexivo; 11 Estimular a transdisciplinaridade; 12 Focar nas economias emergentes.

  9. Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Facility Siting and Policy Considerations: International Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-21

    Carbon fiber is increasingly used in a wide variety of applications due largely to its superior material properties such as high strength-to-weight ratio. The current global carbon fiber manufacturing industry is predominately located in China, Europe, Japan, and the United States. The carbon fiber market is expected to expand significantly through 2024 and to require additional manufacturing capacity to meet demand. Carbon fiber manufacturing facilities can offer significant economic development and employment opportunities as exemplified by the $1 billion investment and 500 jobs expected at a new Toray plant in Moore, South Carolina. Though the market is expected to expand, it is unclear where new manufacturing facilities will locate to meet demand. This uncertainty stems from the lack of research evaluating how different nations with significant carbon fiber manufacturing capacity compare as it relates to certain manufacturing facility siting factors such as costs of labor and energy as well as policy directed at supporting carbon fiber development, domestic deployment, and exports. This report fills these gaps by evaluating the top carbon fiber manufacturing countries, including China, European Union countries, Japan, Mexico, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. The report documents how the United States compares to these countries based on a range of manufacturing siting considerations and existing policies related to carbon fiber. It concludes with a discussion of various policy options the United States could adopt to both (1) increase the competitiveness of the United States as it relates to attracting new carbon fiber manufacturing and (2) foster broader end-use markets for deployment.

  10. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement scheme based on optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan

    2016-10-01

    Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.

  11. Tratamento da síndrome da veia cava superior Treatment of superior vena cava syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Inaco Cirino

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A veia cava superior é formada pela união das duas veias inominadas, direita e esquerda, e localiza-se no mediastino médio, à direita da artéria aorta e anteriormente à traquéia. A síndrome da veia cava superior representa um conjunto de sinais (dilatação das veias do pescoço, pletora facial, edema de membros superiores, cianose e sintomas (cefaléia, dispnéia, tosse, edema de membro superior, ortopnéia e disfagia decorrentes da obstrução do fluxo sanguíneo através da veia cava superior em direção ao átrio direito. A obstrução pode ser causada por compressão extrínseca, invasão tumoral, trombose ou por dificuldade do retorno venoso ao coração secundária a doenças intra-atriais ou intraluminais. Aproximadamente 73% a 97% dos casos de síndrome da veia cava superior ocorrem durante a evolução de processos malignos intratorácicos. A maioria dos pacientes com a síndrome secundária a neoplasias malignas é tratada sem necessidade de cirurgia, através de radioterapia ou quimioterapia, ou através da colocação de stents endoluminais. Quando a síndrome é de etiologia benigna, o tratamento é feito através de medidas clínicas (anticoagulação, elevação da cabeça, etc. ou, em casos refratários, através de angioplastia, colocação de stents endoluminais e cirurgia.The superior vena cava is formed by the union of the right and left brachiocephalic veins. It is located in the middle mediastinum, to the right of the aorta and anterior to the trachea. Superior vena cava syndrome consists of a group of signs (dilation of the veins in the neck, facial swelling, edema of the upper limbs, and cyanosis and symptoms (headache, dyspnea, cough, orthopnea and dysphagia caused by the obstruction of blood flow through the superior vena cava to the right atrium. This obstruction can be caused by extrinsic compression, tumor invasion or thrombosis. Such obstruction may also occur as a result of insufficient venous return

  12. Optical fiber spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Weixin; Tian Guocheng; Ye Guoan; Zhou Zhihong; Cheng Weiwei; Huang Lifeng; Liu Suying; Tang Yanji; Hu Jingxin; Zhao Yonggang

    1998-12-01

    A method called 'Two Arm's Photo out and Electricity Send-back' is introduced. UV-365 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer has been reequipped by this way with 5 meters long optical fiber. Another method called 'One Arm's Photo out and Photo Send-back' is also introduced. λ 19 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer has been reequipped by this way with 10 meters long optical fiber. Optical fiber spectrophotometer can work as its main set. So it is particularly applicable to radio activity work

  13. Carbon fiber content measurement in composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiushi

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been widely used in various structural applications in industries such as aerospace and automotive because of their high specific stiffness and specific strength. Their mechanical properties are strongly influenced by the carbon fiber content in the composites. Measurement of the carbon fiber content in CFRPs is essential for product quality control and process optimization. In this work, a novel carbonization-in-nitrogen method (CIN) is developed to characterize the fiber content in carbon fiber reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic composites. In this method, a carbon fiber composite sample is carbonized in a nitrogen environment at elevated temperatures, alongside a neat resin sample. The carbon fibers are protected from oxidization while the resin (the neat resin and the resin matrix in the composite sample) is carbonized under the nitrogen environment. The residue of the carbonized neat resin sample is used to calibrate the resin carbonization rate and calculate the amount of the resin matrix in the composite sample. The new method has been validated on several thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems and found to yield an accurate measurement of fiber content in carbon fiber polymer composites. In order to further understand the thermal degradation behavior of the high temperature thermoplastic polymer during the carbonization process, the mechanism and the kinetic model of thermal degradation behavior of carbon fiber reinforced poly (phenylene sulfide) (CPPS) are studied using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The CPPS is subjected to TGA in an air and nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates from 5 to 40°C min--1. The TGA curves obtained in air are different from those in nitrogen. This demonstrates that weight loss occurs in a single stage in nitrogen but in two stages in air. To elucidate this difference, thermal decomposition kinetics is analyzed by applying the Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Coat-Redfern and

  14. Chemistry Research of Optical Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-27

    BROADENING IN OPTICAL FIBERS Herbert B. Rosenstock* Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375 ABSTRACT A light pulse transmitted through a fiber...Marcatili, Marcuse , and Personick, "Dispersion Properties of Fibers" (Ch. 4 in "Optical Fiber Telecommunications," S. E. Miller and A. C. Chynoweth, eds

  15. Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Mortars Incorporating Nano-Silica

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Ghazy; Mohamed T. Bassuoni; Eugene Maguire; Mark O’Loan

    2016-01-01

    Repair and rehabilitation of deteriorating concrete elements are of significant concern in many infrastructural facilities and remain a challenging task. Concerted research efforts are needed to develop repair materials that are sustainable, durable, and cost-effective. Research data show that fiber-reinforced mortars/concretes have superior performance in terms of volume stability and toughness. In addition, it has been recently reported that nano-silica particles can generally improve the m...

  16. Robust fiber clustering of cerebral fiber bundles in white matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xufeng; Wang, Yongxiong; Zhuang, Songlin

    2014-11-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking (DTI-FT) has been widely accepted in the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases. During the rendering pipeline of specific fiber tracts, the image noise and low resolution of DTI would lead to false propagations. In this paper, we propose a robust fiber clustering (FC) approach to diminish false fibers from one fiber tract. Our algorithm consists of three steps. Firstly, the optimized fiber assignment continuous tracking (FACT) is implemented to reconstruct one fiber tract; and then each curved fiber in the fiber tract is mapped to a point by kernel principal component analysis (KPCA); finally, the point clouds of fiber tract are clustered by hierarchical clustering which could distinguish false fibers from true fibers in one tract. In our experiment, the corticospinal tract (CST) in one case of human data in vivo was used to validate our method. Our method showed reliable capability in decreasing the false fibers in one tract. In conclusion, our method could effectively optimize the visualization of fiber bundles and would help a lot in the field of fiber evaluation.

  17. Air Power's First Among Equals: Why Air Superiority Still Matters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slawson, Andrew T

    2008-01-01

    .... History is replete with examples of successful or failed air superiority campaigns. This paper details air superiority's role in both the Battle of Britain, and the 1967 Six Day War's Operation MOKED...

  18. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome Affecting 3 Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Katherine D; Kileny, Paul R; Ahmed, Sameer; El-Kashlan, Hussam K; Melendez, Tori L; Basura, Gregory J; Lesperance, Marci M

    2017-07-01

    Superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is an increasingly recognized cause of hearing loss and vestibular symptoms, but the etiology of this condition remains unknown. To describe 7 cases of SCDS across 3 families. This retrospective case series included 7 patients from 3 different families treated at a neurotology clinic at a tertiary academic medical center from 2010 to 2014. Patients were referred by other otolaryngologists or were self-referred. Each patient demonstrated unilateral or bilateral SCDS or near dehiscence. Clinical evaluation involved body mass index calculation, audiometry, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing, electrocochleography, and multiplanar computed tomographic (CT) scan of the temporal bones. Zygosity testing was performed on twin siblings. The diagnosis of SCDS was made if bone was absent over the superior semicircular canal on 2 consecutive CT images, in addition to 1 physiologic sign consistent with labyrinthine dehiscence. Near dehiscence was defined as absent bone on only 1 CT image but with symptoms and at least 1 physiologic sign of labyrinthine dehiscence. A total of 7 patients (5 female and 2 male; age range, 8-49 years) from 3 families underwent evaluation. Family A consisted of 3 adult first-degree relatives, of whom 2 were diagnosed with SCDS and 1 with near dehiscence. Family B included a mother and her child, both of whom were diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. Family C consisted of adult monozygotic twins, each of whom was diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. For all cases, dehiscence was located at the arcuate eminence. Obesity alone did not explain the occurrence of SCDS because 5 of the 7 cases had a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) less than 30.0. Superior canal dehiscence syndrome is a rare, often unrecognized condition. This report of 3 multiplex families with SCDS provides evidence in support of a potential genetic contribution to the etiology

  19. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  20. Fiber Optics: No Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A campus computer center at Hofstra University (New York) that holds 70 terminals for student use was first a gymnasium, then a language laboratory. Strands of fiber optics are used for the necessary wiring. (MLF)

  1. Fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  2. Photonic Crystal Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristiansen, Rene E

    2005-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Crystal Fibre A/S as follows: Crystal Fibre will conduct research and development of large mode area, dual clad multi-core Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber...

  3. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  4. Robust Fiber Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goettler, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The highly desired ceramic matrix composite is the one in which the high strength and strain-to-failure is achieved through judicious selection of a fiber coating that can survive the high-temperature...

  5. Fiber Optic Bragg Gratings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Battiato, James

    1998-01-01

    Coupled mode theory was used to model reflection fiber gratings. The effects of experimental parameters on grating characteristics were modeled for both uniform and non-uniform grating profiles using this approach...

  6. Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrington, K.; Kefford, D.; Kennedy, J.; Pisani, R.; Sanzeni, C.; Segall, K.; Wall, D.; Winn, D.R.; Carey, R.; Dye, S.; Miller, J.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Savin, A.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E.

    1994-01-01

    Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb (electromagnetic) and Cu (hadron) absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters, for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles (1 degree--7 degree). The 7 λ deep hadron tower contained 2.8% by volume 1.5 mm diameter core clear plastic fibers. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.8% and 7.2% of 1 mm diameter core quartz fibers as the active Cerenkov sampling medium. The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response, pulse shapes and angular studies are presented

  7. High Power Spark Delivery System Using Hollow Core Kagome Lattice Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Dumitrache

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the use of the recently developed hollow core kagome lattice fibers for delivery of high power laser pulses. Compared to other photonic crystal fibers (PCFs, the hollow core kagome fibers have larger core diameter (~50 µm, which allows for higher energy coupling in the fiber while also maintaining high beam quality at the output (M2 = 1.25. We have conducted a study of the maximum deliverable energy versus laser pulse duration using a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm. Pulse energies as high as 30 mJ were transmitted for 30 ns pulse durations. This represents, to our knowledge; the highest laser pulse energy delivered using PCFs. Two fiber damage mechanisms were identified as damage at the fiber input and damage within the bulk of the fiber. Finally, we have demonstrated fiber delivered laser ignition on a single-cylinder gasoline direct injection engine.

  8. Fiber optics welder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

    A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  9. CT findings of superior vena cava syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jun; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Since early 1980's high resolution CT has been used for detection of intrathoracic pathologic condition such as superior vena cava syndrome. Authors retrospectively analysed CT findings of 18 cases of proven SVC syndrome. The results were as follows: 1. The mean age was 50-year-old, and 14 cases were male. 2. Of 18 cases of SVC syndrome, 8 cases had confirmed to be lung cancers, malignant thymoma and teratoma were respectively each 2 cases, and malignant lymphoma, mediastinal abscess, thyroid adenoma and metastatic tumor were 1 case. 3. CT findings were A. Abnormal SVC consisted of compression with displacement (44.4%), intraluminal thrombus (27.8%), and encasement (27.8%). B. The collateral pathways were the azygos-homozygous (88.8%), vertebral (50%), internal mammary (44.4%), and lateral thoracic route (33.3%)

  10. CT findings of superior vena cava syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jun; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    Since early 1980's high resolution CT has been used for detection of intrathoracic pathologic condition such as superior vena cava syndrome. Authors retrospectively analysed CT findings of 18 cases of proven SVC syndrome. The results were as follows: 1. The mean age was 50-year-old, and 14 cases were male. 2. Of 18 cases of SVC syndrome, 8 cases had confirmed to be lung cancers, malignant thymoma and teratoma were respectively each 2 cases, and malignant lymphoma, mediastinal abscess, thyroid adenoma and metastatic tumor were 1 case. 3. CT findings were A. Abnormal SVC consisted of compression with displacement (44.4%), intraluminal thrombus (27.8%), and encasement (27.8%). B. The collateral pathways were the azygos-homozygous (88.8%), vertebral (50%), internal mammary (44.4%), and lateral thoracic route (33.3%).

  11. Have the Guests Perceived Superior Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levyda Levyda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe guests’ perceived value by using a multidimensional approach. From previous research, guests’ perceived value consisted of some functional value, emotional value, and social value. Based on guest experience, and functional value consisted of physical evidence, guest room, food and beverage, hotel staff, and price. This research was conducted in four-star hotels in Jakarta. The respondents were the guests who had stayed in four-star hotels. The number of the respondent was 405. The data were obtained by using self-administered questionnaires. This research shows that guests have not perceived superior value. Some of the values and the necessary efforts need to be improved.

  12. Superiority: China Mobile in the competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The market share between China Mobile and China Unicom has stabilized since 2002.It is found that China Mobile has the superiority in the competition, for example, the scissors movement between its revenue and cost indicates that it has a strong profit generating ability and there is enough room for it to reduce the price.The ratio between its price (marginal income) and marginal cost indicates that there is a very distant limit for it to reduce the price.Its demand is obviously flexible with the price, but it does not use the price weapon abundantly.The reason for the stabilization of the market is that China Mobile withdrew from the competition.

  13. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome or Wilkie Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano Llano, Rodrigo; Chams Anturi, Abraham; Arango Vargas, Paula

    2009-01-01

    We described three cases of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome, also known as Wilkie's syndrome, chronic duodenal ileus, or cast syndrome. This syndrome occurs when the third portion of the duodenum is compressed between the SMA and the aorta. The major risk factors for development of SMA syndrome are rapid weight loss and surgical correction of spinal deformities. The clinical presentation of SMA syndrome is variable and nonspecific, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and weight loss. The diagnosis is based on endoscopic, radiographic and tomographic findings of duodenal compression by the SMA. The treatment of SMA syndrome is aimed at the precipitating factor, which usually is related to weight loss. Therefore, conservative therapy with nutritional supplementation is the initial approach, and surgery is reserved for those who do not respond to nutritional therapy.

  14. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold for perc...... simultaneously we find a different pattern: In a whole report experiment with six stimuli (letters or words), letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity....... for perception of words, or a higher speed of processing for words than letters. We have investigated the WSE using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention. In an experiment using single stimuli (words or letters) presented centrally, we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual...

  15. Superior vena thrombosis with peripartum dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, R.; Hussain, S.; Kayani, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A 30 years multiparous female with history of emergency caesarean section 10 days back was referred to us with cough, severe breathlessness at rest, orthopnea with pain in neck and arms. Clinical examination revealed signs of heart failure. Echocardiography showed ejection fraction of 15%, with no right ventricular strain. A diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy was made. Doppler ultrasound of neck veins showed bilateral internal jugular vein thrombosis. Subsequent multislice CT examination showed thrombosis of superior vena cava and both internal jugular veins (with collateral formation) and pulmonary embolism. There were no mediastinal abnormalities on the CT scan. Her thrombophilia screen and CT scan brain was normal. She was managed in collaboration with cardiologist. Following treatment with subcutaneous enoxaparin therapy and warfarin her symptoms of upper limb pain improved. She responded very well to medical therapy for heart failure with marked improvement of NYHA functional class. (author)

  16. Superior vena cava syndrome in hemodialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeb Molhem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstruction of blood flow in the superior vena cava (SVC results in symptoms and signs of SVC syndrome. SVC obstruction can be caused either by invasion or external compression of the SVC by contagious pathologic processes involving the right lung, lymph nodes, and other mediastinal structures, or by thrombosis of blood within the SVC. Occasionally, both mechanisms co-exist. We hereby report a case of a 28-year-old male, Saudi patient who was diagnosed with end-stage renal disease and was maintained on regular hemodiaysis via right jugular vein dual lumen catheter for ten months. Three years later, the patient presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of SVC obstruction that was successfully managed with SVC stenting.

  17. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  18. Superiority of Bessel function over Zernicke polynomial as base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Here we describe the superiority of Bessel function as base function for radial expan- sion over Zernicke polynomial in the tomographic reconstruction technique. The causes for the superiority have been described in detail. The superiority has been shown both with simulated data for Kadomtsev's model for ...

  19. Superior glenoid inclination and rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Peter N; Beck, Lindsay; Granger, Erin; Henninger, Heath; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2018-03-23

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether glenoid inclination (1) could be measured accurately on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using computed tomography (CT) as a gold standard, (2) could be measured reliably on MRI, and (3) whether it differed between patients with rotator cuff tears and age-matched controls without evidence of rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral osteoarthritis. In this comparative retrospective radiographic study, we measured glenoid inclination on T1 coronal MRI corrected into the plane of the scapula. We determined accuracy by comparison with CT and inter-rater reliability. We compared glenoid inclination between patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears and patients aged >50 years without evidence of a rotator cuff tear or glenohumeral arthritis. An a priori power analysis determined adequate power to detect a 2° difference in glenoid inclination. (1) In a validation cohort of 37 patients with MRI and CT, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.877, with a mean difference of 0° (95% confidence interval, -1° to 1°). (2) For MRI inclination, the inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.911. (3) Superior glenoid inclination was 2° higher (range, 1°-4°, P rotator cuff tear group of 192 patients than in the control cohort of 107 patients. Glenoid inclination can be accurately and reliably measured on MRI. Although superior glenoid inclination is statistically greater in those with rotator cuff tears than in patients of similar age without rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral arthritis, the difference is likely below clinical significance. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Kompetisi Stasiun Televisi Swasta Nasional Berdasarkan Superiority Direction dan Superiority Magnitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Winanti Riesardhy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Uses and gratification theory is employed particularly as the teoritical frame of the research to examine the extent to which ten national television stations compete to satisfy Indonesian audiences. In particular, two main concepts of that theory namely audiences “gratification sought and gratifications obtained, are broken down and counted based on superiority direction and superiority magnitude. In general, the findings show that those televisions have satisfied their audiences, although in terms of gratifications to dispersal motives, they haven’t satisfied as much as it was expected. Significant competition occurs between TRANSTV and TRANS7, RCTI and SCTV, and TVONE and METROTV. TVONE become the most satisfiyng television station. Abstrak: Teori Uses & Gratification menjadi dasar penelitian ini untuk mengukur bagaimana kompetisi yang terjadi di antara sepuluh stasiun televisi yang bersiaran secara nasional di Indonesia. Aplikasi dari teori tersebut dimunculkan dalam konsep kepuasan yang diharapkan dan kepuasan yang diperoleh ketika menonton acara televisi dan didasarkan pada penghitungan superiority direction dan superiority magnitude. Sepuluh stasiun televisi yang diteliti telah dapat memuaskan audiensnya, meskipun untuk kepuasan atas motif pengalihan masih belum dapat melampaui kepuasan yang diharapkan. Kompetisi yang signifikan terjadi antara TRANSTV dengan TRANS7, RCTI dengan SCTV serta TVONE dengan METROTV. TVONE menjadi stasiun televisi yang menduduki peringkat pertama dalam memberikan kepuasan tertinggi kepada audiens.

  1. Single-mode operation of a coiled multimode fiber amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Goldberg, Lew

    2000-01-01

    We report a new approach to obtaining single-transverse-mode operation of a multimode fiber amplifier in which the gain fiber is coiled to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode. We demonstrated this method by constructing a coiled amplifier using Yb-doped, double-clad fiber with a core diameter of 25 μm and a numerical aperture of ∼0.1 (V≅7.4) . When the amplifier was operated as an amplified-spontaneous-emission source, the output beam had an M 2 value of 1.09±0.09 ; when seeded at 1064 nm, the slope efficiency was similar to that of an uncoiled amplifier. This technique will permit scaling of pulsed fiber lasers and amplifiers to significantly higher pulse energies and peak powers and cw fiber sources to higher average powers while maintaining excellent beam quality. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America

  2. Maximum-performance fiber-optic irradiation with nonimaging designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y; Feuermann, D; Gordon, J M

    1997-10-01

    A range of practical nonimaging designs for optical fiber applications is presented. Rays emerging from a fiber over a restricted angular range (small numerical aperture) are needed to illuminate a small near-field detector at maximum radiative efficiency. These designs range from pure reflector (all-mirror), to pure dielectric (refractive and based on total internal reflection) to lens-mirror combinations. Sample designs are shown for a specific infrared fiber-optic irradiation problem of practical interest. Optical performance is checked with computer three-dimensional ray tracing. Compared with conventional imaging solutions, nonimaging units offer considerable practical advantages in compactness and ease of alignment as well as noticeably superior radiative efficiency.

  3. Continuous Natural Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites by Fiber Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharat Wongsriraksa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic materials are expected to replace inorganic fiber reinforced thermosetting materials. However, in the process of fabricating the composite, it is difficult to impregnate the thermoplastic resin into reinforcement fiber because of the high melt viscosity. Therefore, intermediate material, which allows high impregnation during molding, has been investigated for fabricating continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite by aligning resin fiber alongside reinforcing fiber with braiding technique. This intermediate material has been called “microbraid yarn (MBY.” Moreover, it is well known that the interfacial properties between natural fiber and resin are low; therefore, surface treatment on continuous natural fiber was performed by using polyurethane (PU and flexible epoxy (FLEX to improve the interfacial properties. The effect of surface treatment on the mechanical properties of continuous natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites was examined. From these results, it was suggested that surface treatment by PU with low content could produce composites with better mechanical properties.

  4. Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using a muzzle brake fiber tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Thomas C.; Gonzalez, David A.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2017-02-01

    The Thulium fiber laser (TFL) is being explored as an alternative to Holmium:YAG laser for lithotripsy. TFL beam profile allows coupling of higher power into smaller fibers than multimode Holmium laser beam, without proximal fiber tip degradation. A smaller fiber provides more space in ureteroscope working channel for increased saline irrigation and allows maximum ureteroscope flexion. However, distal fiber tip burnback increases as fiber diameter decreases. Previous studies utilizing hollow steel sheaths around recessed distal fiber tips reduced fiber burnback, but increased retropulsion. In this study, a "fiber muzzle brake" was tested for reducing fiber burnback and stone retropulsion. TFL lithotripsy studies were performed at 1908 nm, 35 mJ, 500 μs, and 300 Hz using a 100-μm-core fiber. The optimal stainless steel muzzle brake tip tested consisted of a 1-cm-long, 560-μm-OD, 360-μm-ID tube with 275-μm thru hole located 250-μm from the distal end. The fiber tip was recessed a distance of 500 μm. Stone phantom retropulsion, fiber tip burnback, and calcium oxalate stone ablation studies were performed, ex vivo. Small stones with a mass of 40 +/- 4 mg and 4-mm-diameter were ablated over a 1.5-mm sieve in 25 +/- 4 s (n=10), without distal fiber tip burnback. Reduction in stone phantom retropulsion distance by 50% and 85% was observed when using muzzle brake tips versus 100-μm-core bare fibers and hollow steel tip fibers. The muzzle brake fiber tip provided efficient stone ablation, reduced stone retropulsion, and minimal fiber degradation during TFL lithotripsy.

  5. Characterization of expressed sequence tags from developing fibers of Gossypium barbadense and evaluation of insertion-deletion variation in tetraploid cultivated cotton species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yuanda; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Xiaoyang; Wang, Lei; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2013-03-13

    Cotton is the leading fiber crop worldwide. Gossypium barbadense is an important species of cotton because of its extra-long staple fibers with superior luster and silkiness. However, a systematic analysis and utilization of cDNA sequences from G. barbadense fiber development remains understudied. A total of 21,079 high quality sequences were generated from two non-normalized cDNA libraries prepared by using a mixture of G. barbadense Hai7124 fibers and ovules. After assembly processing, a set of 8,653 unigenes were obtained. Of those, 7,786 were matched to known proteins and 7,316 were assigned to functional categories. The molecular functions of these unigenes were mostly related to binding and catalytic activity, and carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolisms were major contributors among the subsets of metabolism. Sequences comparison between G. barbadense and G. hirsutum revealed that 8,245 unigenes from G. barbadense were detected the similarity with those released publicly in G. hirsutum, however, the remaining 408 sequences had no hits against G. hirsutum unigenes database. Furthermore, 13,275 putative ESTs InDels loci involved in the orthologous and/or homoeologous differences between/within G. barbadense and G. hirsutum were discovered by in silico analyses, and 2,160 InDel markers were developed by ESTs with more than five insertions or deletions. By gel electrophoresis combined with sequencing verification, 71.11% candidate InDel loci were reconfirmed orthologous and/or homoeologous loci polymorphisms using G. hirsutum acc TM-1 and G. barbadense cv Hai7124. Blastx result showed among 2,160 InDel loci, 81 with significant function similarity with known genes associated with secondary wall synthesis process, indicating the important roles in fiber quality in tetraploid cultivated cotton species. Sequence comparisons and InDel markers development will lay the groundwork for promoting the identification of genes related to superior agronomic traits

  6. Autologous chondrocyte implantation: superior biologic properties of hyaline cartilage repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Ian; Lavigne, Patrick; Valenzuela, Herminio; Oakes, Barry

    2007-02-01

    Information regarding the quality of autologous chondrocyte implantation repair is needed to determine whether the current autologous chondrocyte implantation surgical technology and the subsequent biologic repair processes are capable of reliably forming durable hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage in vivo. We report and analyze the properties and qualities of autologous chondrocyte implantation repairs. We evaluated 66 autologous chondrocyte implantation repairs in 57 patients, 55 of whom had histology, indentometry, and International Cartilage Repair Society repair scoring at reoperation for mechanical symptoms or pain. International Knee Documentation Committee scores were used to address clinical outcome. Maximum stiffness, normalized stiffness, and International Cartilage Repair Society repair scoring were higher for hyaline articular cartilage repairs compared with fibrocartilage, with no difference in clinical outcome. Reoperations revealed 32 macroscopically abnormal repairs (Group B) and 23 knees with normal-looking repairs in which symptoms leading to arthroscopy were accounted for by other joint disorders (Group A). In Group A, 65% of repairs were either hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage compared with 28% in Group B. Autologous chondrocyte repairs composed of fibrocartilage showed more morphologic abnormalities and became symptomatic earlier than hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage repairs. The hyaline articular cartilage repairs had biomechanical properties comparable to surrounding cartilage and superior to those associated with fibrocartilage repairs.

  7. Fiber to the serving area: telephone-like star architecture for CATV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, David M.

    1992-02-01

    CATV systems traditionally use a tree and branch architecture to bring up to 550 MHz of analog bandwidth to every home in a franchise area. This changed slightly with the advent of AM fiber optic equipment, as fiber optics were used in an overlay fashion to reduce coaxial amplifier cascades and improve subscriber quality and reliability. Within the last year, fiber has economically replaced coaxial trunking. The resulting fiber to the serving area architecture combines fiber and coaxial stars for a network that looks much like the carrier serving area architectures used by telephone companies.

  8. Cellulosic Fibers: Effect of Processing on Fiber Bundle Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Madsen, Bo; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding, and cotto......A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding...

  9. Study on basalt fiber parameters affecting fiber-reinforced mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, A. A.; Chernykh, T. N.; Sashina, A. V.; Bogusevich, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the effect of different dosages and diameters of basalt fibers on tensile strength increase during bending of fiberboard-reinforced mortar samples. The optimal dosages of fiber, providing maximum strength in bending are revealed. The durability of basalt fiber in an environment of cement, by means of microscopic analysis of samples of fibers and fiberboard-reinforced mortar long-term tests is examined. The article also compares the behavior of basalt fiber in the cement stone environment to a glass one and reveals that the basalt fiber is not subject to destruction.

  10. Embedded calibration system for the DIII-D Langmuir probe analog fiber optic links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J. G.; Rajpal, R.; Mandaliya, H.; Watkins, M.; Boivin, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a generally applicable technique for simultaneously measuring offset and gain of 64 analog fiber optic data links used for the DIII-D fixed Langmuir probes by embedding a reference voltage waveform in the optical transmitted signal before every tokamak shot. The calibrated data channels allow calibration of the power supply control fiber optic links as well. The array of fiber optic links and the embedded calibration system described here makes possible the use of superior modern data acquisition electronics in the control room.

  11. Nanowire modified carbon fibers for enhanced electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaque; (Bill) Tseng, Tzu-Liang; Ashiqur Rahaman Khan, Md.; Karim, Hasanul; Morton, Philip; Delfin, Diego; Lin, Yirong

    2013-09-01

    The study of electrochemical super-capacitors has become one of the most attractive topics in both academia and industry as energy storage devices because of their high power density, long life cycles, and high charge/discharge efficiency. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the development of multifunctional structural energy storage devices such as structural super-capacitors for applications in aerospace, automobiles, and portable electronics. These multifunctional structural super-capacitors provide structures combining energy storage and load bearing functionalities, leading to material systems with reduced volume and/or weight. Due to their superior materials properties, carbon fiber composites have been widely used in structural applications for aerospace and automotive industries. Besides, carbon fiber has good electrical conductivity which will provide lower equivalent series resistance; therefore, it can be an excellent candidate for structural energy storage applications. Hence, this paper is focused on performing a pilot study for using nanowire/carbon fiber hybrids as building materials for structural energy storage materials; aiming at enhancing the charge/discharge rate and energy density. This hybrid material combines the high specific surface area of carbon fiber and pseudo-capacitive effect of metal oxide nanowires, which were grown hydrothermally in an aligned fashion on carbon fibers. The aligned nanowire array could provide a higher specific surface area that leads to high electrode-electrolyte contact area thus fast ion diffusion rates. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction measurements are used for the initial characterization of this nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid material system. Electrochemical testing is performed using a potentio-galvanostat. The results show that gold sputtered nanowire carbon fiber hybrid provides 65.9% higher energy density than bare carbon fiber cloth as super-capacitor.

  12. Carbon Fiber Composite Materials for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Jr., Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mainka, Hendrik [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Volkswagen (VW) is internationally recognized for quantity and quality of world-wide vehicle production and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is internationally recognized in materials research and development. With automotive production ramping up in the recently constructed VW Group of America facility in Chattanooga, Tennessee, ORNL and VW initiated discussions in 2012 concerning opportunities for collaboration around ORNL’s carbon fiber and composites programs. ORNL is conducting an internationally recognized program to develop and implement lower cost carbon fibers and composites for automotive and other “energy missions” for the US Department of Energy. Significant effort is ongoing in selecting, developing, and evaluating alternative precursors, developing and demonstrating advanced conversion techniques, and developing and tailoring surface treatment, sizings, and formatting fiber for specific composite matrices and end-use applications. ORNL already had North America’s most comprehensive suite of tools for carbon fiber research and development and established a semiproduction demonstration line referred to as the Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF) to facilitate implementation of low cost carbon fiber (LCCF) approaches in early 2013. ORNL and VW agreed to collaborate in a formal Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (NFE-12-03992) specifically focused on evaluating applicability of low cost carbon fiber products for potential vehicle components. The goal of the work outlined in this report was to develop and qualify uses for carbon fiber-reinforced structures in connection with civilian ground transportation. Significant progress was achieved in evaluating and understanding lignin-based precursor materials; however, availability of carbon fiber converted from lignin precursor combined with logistical issues associated with the Visa limitations for the VW participant resulted in significantly shortening of the collaboration

  13. Examination of cotton fibers and common contaminants using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical imaging of cotton fibers and common contaminants in fibers is presented. Chemical imaging was performed with an infrared microscope equipped with a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In a...

  14. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  15. Characteristics of continuous unidirectional kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahjoub, Reza; Yatim, Jamaludin Mohamad; Mohd Sam, Abdul Rahman; Raftari, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To show the potential of continuous kenaf fiber to use in bio-composite. • To introduce new method of hand lay-up for fabricating bio-fiber composite. • To characterize the properties of kenaf fiber epoxy composite. • Morphology of the fracture area by using of SEM. • To use analytical method to predict the bio-composite properties. - Abstract: Kenaf fibers generally has some advantages such as eco-friendly, biodegradability, renewable nature and lighter than synthetic fibers. The aims of the study are to characterize and evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of continuous unidirectional kenaf fiber epoxy composites with various fiber volume fractions. The composites materials and sampling were prepared in the laboratory by using the hand lay-up method with a proper fabricating procedure and quality control. Samples were prepared based on ASTM: D3039-08 for tensile test and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed for microstructure analysis to observe the failure mechanisms in the fracture planes. A total of 40 samples were tested for the study. Results from the study showed that the rule of mixture (ROM) analytical model has a close agreement to predict the physical and tensile properties of unidirectional kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites. It was also observed that the tensile strength, tensile modulus, ultimate strain and Poisson’s ratio of 40% fiber volume content of unidirectional kenaf fiber epoxy composite were 164 MPa, 18150 MPa, 0.9% and 0.32, respectively. Due to the test results, increasing the fiber volume fraction in the composite caused the increment in the tensile modulus and reduction in the ultimate tensile strain of composite

  16. ANÁLISE DAS FORMAS DE AVALIAÇÃO DO ENSINO SUPERIOR NO BRASIL E NA UNIÃO EUROPEIA

    OpenAIRE

    Magro, Ricardo João

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho versará sobre a avaliação do ensino superior e, mais especificamente, a forma como ela é aplicada no Brasil e nos países da União Europeia. Procuraremos primeiramente conceituar o assunto e, posteriormente, trataremos do Sistema Nacional de Avaliação do Ensino Superior no Brasil (SINAES) e do Sistema Europeu de garantia de qualidade no ensino superior (Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area).

  17. Semiconductor and ceramic microstructure made by single mode fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlak, R; Tomczyk, M; Walczak, M; Domagalski, P

    2014-01-01

    In the paper the results of micromachining of 3D microstructures of microsystems made from silicon and alumina ceramic using a single mode fiber laser (1064 nm) are presented. The quality of obtained structures and its smallest dimensions with acceptable maintained quality were examined. The influence of variable parameters of laser processing with changing of mapping scale on geometrical features of structures was identified.

  18. Flavonoid biosynthesis controls fiber color in naturally colored cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The existence of only natural brown and green cotton fibers (BCF and GCF, respectively, as well as poor fiber quality, limits the use of naturally colored cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.. A better understanding of fiber pigment regulation is needed to surmount these obstacles. In this work, transcriptome analysis and quantitative reverse transcription PCR revealed that 13 and 9 phenylpropanoid (metabolic pathway genes were enriched during pigment synthesis, while the differential expression of phenylpropanoid (metabolic and flavonoid metabolic pathway genes occurred among BCF, GCF, and white cotton fibers (WCF. Silencing the chalcone flavanone isomerase gene in a BCF line resulted in three fiber phenotypes among offspring of the RNAi lines: BCF, almost WCF, and GCF. The lines with almost WCF suppressed chalcone flavanone isomerase, while the lines with GCF highly expressed the glucosyl transferase (3GT gene. Overexpression of the Gh3GT or Arabidopsis thaliana 3GT gene in BCF lines resulted in GCF. Additionally, the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid metabolites of BCF and GCF were significantly higher than those of WCF as assessed by a metabolomics analysis. Thus, the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway controls both brown and green pigmentation processes. Like natural colored fibers, the transgenic colored fibers were weaker and shorter than WCF. This study shows the potential of flavonoid pathway modifications to alter cotton fibers’ color and quality.

  19. Compact Design of an Electrically Tunable and Rotatable Polarizer Based on a Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, a compact electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal (LC) photonic bandgap fiber polarizer is designed and fabricated. A good fiber coupling quality between two single-mode fibers and one 10-mm-long LC-filled photonic crystal fiber is obtained and protected by using SU-8 fiber...... fixing structures during the device assembly. The total insertion loss of this all-in-fiber device is 2.7 dB. An electrically tunable polarization extinction ratio of 21.3 dB is achieved with 45$^{circ}$ rotatable transmission axis as well as switched on and off in the wavelength range of 1300–1600 nm....

  20. Introduction to fiber optics: Sensors for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R Y; Agrawal, Y K

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on the introduction of fiber optics, a fusion of science and engineering and describes the materials generally used for its construction along with the procedure used to design the fibers. It gives an idea of the materials used for the construction along with the pros and cons associated with them and various factors governing the emission of ultraviolet, infrared or visible radiations. The central core revolves around the applications of optical fibers in the medical and biomedical field and extending the use of the same in pharmaceutical industry as probes in quality control and dosage form analysis.

  1. Using Nonuniform Fiber to Generate Slow Light via SBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhai Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The data pulse delay based on slow light induced by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS in a nonuniform dispersion decreasing fiber (DDF is demonstrated experimentally, and the distortions of data pulses at different beat frequencies are studied. We found that a delay exceeding a pulse width can be achieved at particular beat frequency, and the DDF has larger delay versus gain slope coefficient with much better output pulse quality than single-mode fiber.

  2. Characterization of a Material Based on Short Natural Fique Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Navacerrada Saturio, Maria Angeles; Diaz Sanchidrian, Cesar; Fernández, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Fique is a biodegradable natural fiber derived from the Colombian Agavaceae family, originating in tropical America and traditionally used for the manufacture of packaging and cordages. Today, however, new uses are being developed. To meet the need for new good-quality, sustainable, low-cost construction materials for social housing, construction materials have been produced that combine different kinds of natural fibers, including fique, to improve their strength and physical properties. To ...

  3. Wet spinning of PVA composite fibers with a large fraction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengpan Lai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available PVA composites fibers with a large fraction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified by both covalent and non-covalent functionalization were produced by a wet-spinning process. Model XQ-1 tensile tester, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and wide-angle X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the properties of PVA/MWNT composite fibers. The TGA results suggested that MWNTs content in composite fibers were ranged from 5.3 wt% to 27.6 wt%. The mechanical properties of PVA/MWNT composite fibers were obviously superior to pure PVA fiber. The Young׳s modulus of composite fibers enhanced with increasing the content of MWNTs, and it rised gradually from 6.7 GPa for the pure PVA fiber to 12.8 GPa for the composite fibers with 27.6 wt% MWNTs. Meanwhile, the tensile strength increased gradually from 0.39 GPa for the pure PVA fiber to 0.74 GPa for the composite fibers with 14.4 wt% MWNTs. Nevertheless, the tensile strength of the composite fibers decreased as the MWNTs content up to 27.6 wt%. SEM results indicated that the MWNTs homogeneously dispersed in the composite fibers, however some agglomerates also existed when the content of MWNTs reached 27.6 wt%. DSC results proved strong interfacial interaction between MWNTs and PVA chain, which benefited composite fibers in the efficient stress-transfer. WXAD characterization showed that the orientation of PVA molecules declined from 94.1% to 90.9% with the increasing of MWNTs content. The good dispersibility of MWNTs throughout PVA matrix and efficient stress-transfer between MWNTs and PVA matrix may contributed to significant enhancement in the mechanical properties.

  4. Natural Fiber Composites: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Matthew P.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Laddha, Sachin; Kafentzis, Tyler A.

    2010-03-07

    The need for renewable fiber reinforced composites has never been as prevalent as it currently is. Natural fibers offer both cost savings and a reduction in density when compared to glass fibers. Though the strength of natural fibers is not as great as glass, the specific properties are comparable. Currently natural fiber composites have two issues that need to be addressed: resin compatibility and water absorption. The following preliminary research has investigated the use of Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus, as a possible glass replacement in fiber reinforced composites.

  5. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures

  6. Fiber-optic technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    A history of fiber technology is presented. The advantages of fiber optics are discussed (bandwidth, cost, weight and size, nonmetallic construction and isolation). Some aspects of the disadvantages of fiber systems briefly discussed are fiber and cable availability, fiber components, radiation effects, receivers and transmitters, and material dispersion. Particular emphasis over the next several years will involve development of fibers and systems optimized for use at wavelengths near 1.3 μm and development of wavelengths multiplexers for simultaneous system operation at several wavelengths

  7. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  8. Spectrally efficient polymer optical fiber transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, Sebastian; Bunge, Christian-Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF) is an attractive transmission medium for high speed communication links in automotive infotainment networks, in industrial automation, and in home networks. Growing demands for quality of service, e.g., for IPTV distribution in homes and for Ethernet based industrial control networks will necessitate Gigabit speeds in the near future. We present an overview on recent advances in the design of spectrally efficient and robust Gigabit-over-SI-POF transmission systems.

  9. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK). Interventional case series. In this clinical practice case series, the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on SLK were observed. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was performed using a Brymill E tip spray (0.013-inch aperture) with a double freeze-thaw technique. All subjects were outpatients who had local anesthesia with a single drop of topical proparacaine. The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Four female patients (average age, 64 +/- 13 years) and seven eyes with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Resolution of signs and symptoms occurred within two weeks. Disease recurred in two patients and three of seven eyes, although repeat cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. The repeat cryotherapy was performed at three months postoperatively. There were no adverse ocular events. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy appears to be an effective alternative treatment for SLK as all subjects studied achieved long-term cures. Repeat cryotherapy may be necessary in some instances and may be performed three months after the first treatment.

  10. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  11. Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soon Ahm

    1991-05-01

    The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.

  12. Effects of glass fibers on the properties of micro molded plastic parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Glass fibers are used to reinforce plastics and to improve their mechanical properties. But plastic filled with glass fibers is a concern for molding of micro scale plastic parts. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of glass fiber on the replication quality and mechanical properties...... of polymeric thin ribs. It investigates the effect of feature size and gate location on distribution of glass fibers inside the molded parts. The results from this work indicate that glass filled plastic materials have poor replication quality and nonhomogeneous mechanical properties due to the nonuniform...

  13. Fiber Generators in Needleless Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional electrospinning often uses a needle-like nozzle to produce nanofibers with a very low production rate. Despite the enormous application potential, needle electrospun nanofibers meet difficulties in broad applications in practice, due to the lack of an economic and efficient way to scale up the electrospinning process. Recently, needleless electrospinning has emerged as a new electrospinning mode and shown ability to produce nanofibers on large-scales. It has been established that the fiber generator, also referred to as “spinneret” in this paper, in needleless electrospinning plays a key role in scaling up the nanofiber production. This paper summarizes the recent advances in the development of needleless spinnerets and their influences on electrospinning process, nanofiber quality, and productivity.

  14. The phosphatidylinositol synthase gene (GhPIS) contributes to longer, stronger, and finer fibers in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Qin; Yue, Fang; Liu, Ruochen; Song, Shuiqing; Li, Xianbi; Ding, Bo; Yan, Xingying; Pei, Yan

    2018-05-11

    Cotton fibers are the most important natural raw material used in textile industries world-wide. Fiber length, strength, and fineness are the three major traits which determine the quality and economic value of cotton. It is known that exogenous application of phosphatidylinositols (PtdIns), important structural phospholipids, can promote cotton fiber elongation. Here, we sought to increase the in planta production of PtdIns to improve fiber traits. Transgenic cotton plants were generated in which the expression of a cotton phosphatidylinositol synthase gene (i.e., GhPIS) was controlled by the fiber-specific SCFP promoter element, resulting in the specific up-regulation of GhPIS during cotton fiber development. We demonstrate that PtdIns content was significantly enhanced in transgenic cotton fibers and the elevated level of PtdIns stimulated the expression of genes involved in PtdIns phosphorylation as well as promoting lignin/lignin-like phenolic biosynthesis. Fiber length, strength and fineness were also improved in the transgenic plants as compared to the wild-type cotton, with no loss in overall fiber yield. Our data indicate that fiber-specific up-regulation of PtdIns synthesis is a promising strategy for cotton fiber quality improvement.

  15. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... (Quality of Product). Schedule. Cost Control. Management Responsiveness. Management of Key Personnel... unit can only be rated in either the goods or services category. In the event a contractor is within... will provide contractors with the greatest motivation to achieve SSS? 3. What contract terms and...

  16. Fibromyalgia Is Correlated with Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Garcia-Martin

    Full Text Available To investigate whether fibromyalgia induces axonal damage in the optic nerve that can be detected using optical coherence tomography (OCT, as the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL is atrophied in patients with fibromyalgia compared with controls.Fibromyalgia patients (n = 116 and age-matched healthy controls (n = 144 were included in this observational and prospective cohort study. All subjects underwent visual acuity measurement and structural analysis of the RNFL using two OCT devices (Cirrus and Spectralis. Fibromyalgia patients were evaluated according to Giesecke's fibromyalgia subgroups, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, and the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ5D scale. We compared the differences between fibromyalgia patients and controls, and analyzed the correlations between OCT measurements, disease duration, fibromyalgia subgroups, severity, and quality of life. The impact on quality of life in fibromyalgia subgroups and in patients with different disease severity was also analyzed.A significant decrease in the RNFL was detected in fibromyalgia patients compared with controls using the two OCT devices: Cirrus OCT ganglion cell layer analysis registered a significant decrease in the minimum thickness of the inner plexiform layer (74.99±16.63 vs 79.36±3.38 μm, respectively; p = 0.023, nasal inferior, temporal inferior and temporal superior sectors (p = 0.040; 0.011 and 0.046 respectively. The Glaucoma application of the Spectralis OCT revealed thinning in the nasal, temporal inferior and temporal superior sectors (p = 0.009, 0.006, and 0.002 respectively of fibromyalgia patients and the Axonal application in all sectors, except the nasal superior and temporal sectors. The odds ratio (OR to estimate the size effect of FM in RNFL thickness was 1.39. RNFL atrophy was detected in patients with FIQ scores <60 (patients in early disease stages compared with controls in the temporal inferior sector (78.74±17.75 vs 81.65±3

  17. Hybrid Fiber Layup and Fiber-Reinforced Polymeric Composites Produced Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnell, Thomas J. (Inventor); Garrigan, Sean P. (Inventor); Rauscher, Michael D. (Inventor); Dietsch, Benjamin A. (Inventor); Cupp, Gary N. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Embodiments of a hybrid fiber layup used to form a fiber-reinforced polymeric composite, and a fiber-reinforced polymeric composite produced therefrom are disclosed. The hybrid fiber layup comprises one or more dry fiber strips and one or more prepreg fiber strips arranged side by side within each layer, wherein the prepreg fiber strips comprise fiber material impregnated with polymer resin and the dry fiber strips comprise fiber material without impregnated polymer resin.

  18. Graphene fiber: a new trend in carbon fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Xu; Chao Gao

    2015-01-01

    New fibers with increased strength and rich functionalities have been untiringly pursued by materials researchers. In recent years, graphene fiber has arisen as a new carbonaceous fiber with high expectations in terms of mechanical and functional performance. In this review, we elucidated the concept of sprouted graphene fibers, including strategies for their fabrication and their basic structural attributes. We examine the rapid advances in the promotion of mechanical/functional properties o...

  19. Optical fiber switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  20. Fiber Optic Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, C.; Bayliss, S.; Bracken, D.; Bush, J.; Davis, P.

    1997-01-01

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using optical fibers for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processes to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian (microrad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240 Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  1. Femtosecond Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Katherine J.

    This thesis focuses on research I have done on ytterbium-doped femtosecond fiber lasers. These lasers operate in the near infrared region, lasing at 1030 nm. This wavelength is particularly important in biomedical applications, which includes but is not limited to confocal microscopy and ablation for surgical incisions. Furthermore, fiber lasers are advantageous compared to solid state lasers in terms of their cost, form factor, and ease of use. Solid state lasers still dominate the market due to their comparatively high energy pulses. High energy pulse generation in fiber lasers is hindered by either optical wave breaking or by multipulsing. One of the main challenges for fiber lasers is to overcome these limitations to achieve high energy pulses. The motivation for the work done in this thesis is increasing the output pulse peak power and energy. The main idea of the work is that decreasing the nonlinearity that acts on the pulse inside the cavity will prevent optical wave breaking, and thus will generate higher energy pulses. By increasing the output energy, ytterbium-doped femtosecond fiber lasers can be competitive with solid state lasers which are used commonly in research. Although fiber lasers tend to lack the wavelength tuning ability of solid state lasers, many biomedical applications take advantage of the 1030 microm central wavelength of ytterbium-doped fiber lasers, so the major limiting factor of fiber lasers in this field is simply the output power. By increasing the output energy without resorting to external amplification, the cavity is optimized and cost can remain low and economical. During verification of the main idea, the cavity was examined for possible back-reflections and for components with narrow spectral bandwidths which may have contributed to the presence of multipulsing. Distinct cases of multipulsing, bound pulse and harmonic mode-locking, were observed and recorded as they may be of more interest in the future. The third

  2. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  3. Fiber optic calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, C.R.; Bayliss, S.C.; Bracken, D.S.; Bush, I.J.; Davis, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using optical fibers for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microrad to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 rad of phase shift per mW of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240 Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  4. Fiber optic calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, C.; Bayliss, S.; Bracken, D.; Bush, J.; Davis, P.

    1998-01-01

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using fiber for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian (μrad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240 Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  5. Monolithic Yb-fiber femtosecond laser using photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate, both experimentally and theoretically, an environmentally stable monolithic all-PM modelocked femtosecond Yb-fiber laser, with laser output pulse compressed in a spliced-on low-loss hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Our laser provides direct fiber-end delivery of 4 nJ pulses...

  6. K3-fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds II, singular fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    In part I of this paper we constructed certain fibered Calabi-Yaus by a quotient construction in the context of weighted hypersurfaces. In this paper look at the case of K3 fibrations more closely and study the singular fibers which occur. This differs from previous work since the fibrations we discuss have constant modulus, and the singular fibers have torsion monodromy.

  7. Single fiber pullout from hybrid fiber reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovich, I.; Van Mier, J.G.M.; Walraven, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid fiber reinforcement can be very efficient for improving the tensile response of the composite. In such materials, fibers of different geometries can act as bridging mechanisms over cracks of different widths. The fiber bridging efficiency depends on the interface properties, which makes

  8. Monolithic all-PM femtosecond Yb-fiber laser stabilized with a narrow-band fiber Bragg grating and pulse-compressed in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    . The laser output is compressed in a spliced-on hollow-core PM photonic crystal fiber, thus providing direct end-of-the-fiber delivery of pulses of around 370 fs duration and 4 nJ energy with high mode quality. Tuning the pump power of the end amplifier of the laser allows for the control of output pulse......We report on an environmentally stable self-starting monolithic (i.e. without any free-space coupling) all-polarization-maintaining (PM) femtosecond Yb-fiber laser, stabilized against Q-switching by a narrow-band fiber Bragg grating and modelocked using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror...

  9. Preliminary Study of Linear Density, Tenacity, and Crystallinity of Cotton Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the relationships among fiber linear density, tenacity, and structure is important to help cotton breeders modify varieties for enhanced fiber end-use qualities. This study employed the Stelometer instrument, which is the traditional fiber tenacity reference method and might still be an option as a rapid screening tool because of its low cost and portable attributes. In addition to flat bundle break force and weight variables from a routine Stelometer test, the number of fibers in the bundle were counted manually and the fiber crystallinity (CIIR was characterized by the previously proposed attenuated total reflection-sampling device based Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR protocol. Based on the plots of either tenacity vs. linear density or fiber count vs. mass, the fibers were subjectively divided into fine or coarse sets, respectively. Relative to the distinctive increase in fiber tenacity with linear density, there was an unclear trend between the linear density and CIIR for these fibers. Samples with similar linear density were found to increase in tenacity with fiber CIIR. In general, Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS fineness increases with fiber linear density.

  10. Advances in high power linearly polarized fiber laser and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pu; Huang, Long; Ma, Pengfei; Xu, Jiangming; Su, Rongtao; Wang, Xiaolin

    2017-10-01

    Fiber lasers are now attracting more and more research interest due to their advantages in efficiency, beam quality and flexible operation. Up to now, most of the high power fiber lasers have random distributed polarization state. Linearlypolarized (LP) fiber lasers, which could find wide application potential in coherent detection, coherent/spectral beam combining, nonlinear frequency conversion, have been a research focus in recent years. In this paper, we will present a general review on the achievements of various kinds of high power linear-polarized fiber laser and its application. The recent progress in our group, including power scaling by using power amplifier with different mechanism, high power linearly polarized fiber laser with diversified properties, and various applications of high power linear-polarized fiber laser, are summarized. We have achieved 100 Watt level random distributed feedback fiber laser, kilowatt level continuous-wave (CW) all-fiber polarization-maintained fiber amplifier, 600 watt level average power picosecond polarization-maintained fiber amplifier and 300 watt level average power femtosecond polarization-maintained fiber amplifier. In addition, high power linearly polarized fiber lasers have been successfully applied in 5 kilowatt level coherent beam combining, structured light field and ultrasonic generation.

  11. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  12. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2012-01-01

    Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o

  13. Ensino superior, para quê? Higher education, what for?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Giroux

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O texto propõe retomar a universidade democrática como referência ética, em face dos desafios do mundo globalizado. Discute a situação atual das universidades, caracterizada como uma crise mundial no Ensino Superior, tendo como referência as IES dos Estados Unidos da América e do Canadá. São destacados três aspectos nessa questão-problema: 1- as consequências do movimento de globalização, que atinge todas as esferas da vida humana, entre elas a educação, e demandam do Ensino Superior o exercício da função de educar as gerações futuras para enfrentar os desafios de uma democracia global, evitando adotar a prática da indução dos professores e alunos à instrumentalização e ao imediatismo, subvalorizando o conhecimento crítico. 2- a retomada pelas universidades de seus objetivos de conhecimento e autonomia, posicionando-se contra a instrumentalização, a mercantilização e a militarização, essa última, como monitoramento de diferentes sujeitos sociais, e do Estado, exercidos sobre as IES. Para isso, propõe a colaboração inclusiva como uma das principais formas de divulgação da universidade e da importância da liberdade e da autonomia da Instituição Superior em suas decisões e ações. 3- a universidade acessível a todos que, além de possibilitar o desenvolvimento de uma educação crítica e de uma cultura intelectual verdadeira, adota metodologias prazerosas, estimulantes e capacitadoras, e valoriza os professores extinguindo os "contratos alternativos de trabalho" que têm contribuído para o empobrecimento da qualidade do Ensino Superior.The text proposes to reinstitute the democratic university as an ethic reference, given the challenges of the globalized world. It discusses the universities' current situation, which is characterized as a global crisis in higher education, taking as reference American and Canadian higher education institutions. Three aspects of such characterization are highlighted: 1

  14. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William

    2015-08-04

    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  15. Physiological models of the lateral superior olive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Ashida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In computational biology, modeling is a fundamental tool for formulating, analyzing and predicting complex phenomena. Most neuron models, however, are designed to reproduce certain small sets of empirical data. Hence their outcome is usually not compatible or comparable with other models or datasets, making it unclear how widely applicable such models are. In this study, we investigate these aspects of modeling, namely credibility and generalizability, with a specific focus on auditory neurons involved in the localization of sound sources. The primary cues for binaural sound localization are comprised of interaural time and level differences (ITD/ILD, which are the timing and intensity differences of the sound waves arriving at the two ears. The lateral superior olive (LSO in the auditory brainstem is one of the locations where such acoustic information is first computed. An LSO neuron receives temporally structured excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs that are driven by ipsi- and contralateral sound stimuli, respectively, and changes its spike rate according to binaural acoustic differences. Here we examine seven contemporary models of LSO neurons with different levels of biophysical complexity, from predominantly functional ones ('shot-noise' models to those with more detailed physiological components (variations of integrate-and-fire and Hodgkin-Huxley-type. These models, calibrated to reproduce known monaural and binaural characteristics of LSO, generate largely similar results to each other in simulating ITD and ILD coding. Our comparisons of physiological detail, computational efficiency, predictive performances, and further expandability of the models demonstrate (1 that the simplistic, functional LSO models are suitable for applications where low computational costs and mathematical transparency are needed, (2 that more complex models with detailed membrane potential dynamics are necessary for simulation studies where sub

  16. On Embedding N2R Structures in Optical Fiber OMS-SP Ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose methods for embedding N2R structures in optical fiber OMS-SP rings. The OMS-SP ring supports full mesh structure and restoration on the optical level. The N2R structures have been proven to be superior to other degree 3 network structures. Two main mapping...

  17. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Fahey, Jr.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential

  18. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-06

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  19. The Superior Fronto-Occipital Fasciculus in the Human Brain Revealed by Diffusion Spectrum Imaging Tractography: An Anatomical Reality or a Methodological Artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yue; Wang, Yong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yibao

    2017-01-01

    The existence of the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (SFOF) in the human brain remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to clarify the existence, course, and terminations of the SFOF. High angular diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) analysis was performed on six healthy adults and on a template of 842 subjects from the Human Connectome Project. To verify tractography results, we performed fiber microdissections of four post-mortem human brains. Based on DSI tractography, we reconstructed the SFOF in the subjects and the template from the Human Connectome Project that originated from the rostral and medial parts of the superior and middle frontal gyri. By tractography, we found that the fibers formed a compact fascicle at the level of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle coursing above the head of caudate nucleus, medial to the corona radiate and under the corpus callosum (CC), and terminated at the parietal region via the lower part of the caudate nucleus. We consider that this fiber bundle observed by tractography is the SFOF, although it terminates mainly at the parietal region, rather than occipital lobe. By contrast, we were unable to identify a fiber bundle corresponding to the SFOF in our fiber dissection study. Although we did not provide definite evidence of the SFOF in the human brain, these findings may be useful for future studies in this field. PMID:29321729

  20. The Superior Fronto-Occipital Fasciculus in the Human Brain Revealed by Diffusion Spectrum Imaging Tractography: An Anatomical Reality or a Methodological Artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Bao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (SFOF in the human brain remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to clarify the existence, course, and terminations of the SFOF. High angular diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI analysis was performed on six healthy adults and on a template of 842 subjects from the Human Connectome Project. To verify tractography results, we performed fiber microdissections of four post-mortem human brains. Based on DSI tractography, we reconstructed the SFOF in the subjects and the template from the Human Connectome Project that originated from the rostral and medial parts of the superior and middle frontal gyri. By tractography, we found that the fibers formed a compact fascicle at the level of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle coursing above the head of caudate nucleus, medial to the corona radiate and under the corpus callosum (CC, and terminated at the parietal region via the lower part of the caudate nucleus. We consider that this fiber bundle observed by tractography is the SFOF, although it terminates mainly at the parietal region, rather than occipital lobe. By contrast, we were unable to identify a fiber bundle corresponding to the SFOF in our fiber dissection study. Although we did not provide definite evidence of the SFOF in the human brain, these findings may be useful for future studies in this field.

  1. Silicon photonics for multicore fiber communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Kamchevska, Valerija; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    We review our recent work on silicon photonics for multicore fiber communication, including multicore fiber fan-in/fan-out, multicore fiber switches towards reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers. We also present multicore fiber based quantum communication using silicon devices.......We review our recent work on silicon photonics for multicore fiber communication, including multicore fiber fan-in/fan-out, multicore fiber switches towards reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers. We also present multicore fiber based quantum communication using silicon devices....

  2. Absent right superior caval vein in situs solitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Sundberg, Karin; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In up to 0.07% of the general population, the right anterior cardinal vein obliterates and the left remains open, creating an absent right superior caval vein and a persistent left superior caval vein. Absent right superior caval vein is associated with additional congenital heart...... disease in about half the patients. We wished to study the consequences of absent right superior caval vein as an incidental finding on prenatal ultrasonic malformation screening. Material and methods This is a retrospective case series study of all foetuses diagnosed with absent right superior caval vein...... no postnatal complications. All children were found to have healthy hearts at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In all cases, the findings proved to be a benign condition with no clinical manifestations or complications. Although isolated absent right superior caval vein does not seem to affect the outcome, associated...

  3. Design and fabrication of advanced fiber alignment structures for field-installable fiber connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Sánchez Martínez, Alberto; Beri, Stefano; Debaes, Christof; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-06-01

    Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) networks have been adopted as a potential replacement of traditional electrical connections for the 'last mile' transmission of information at bandwidths over 1Gb/s. However, the success and adoption of optical access networks critically depend on the quality and reliability of connections between optical fibers. In particular a further reduction of insertion loss of field-installable connectors must be achieved without a significant increase in component cost. This requires precise alignment of fibers that can differ in terms of ellipticity, eccentricity or diameter and seems hardly achievable using today's widespread ferrule-based alignment systems. Novel low-cost structures for bare fiber alignment with outstanding positioning accuracies are strongly desired as they would allow reducing loss beyond the level achievable with ferrule-bore systems. However, the realization of such alignment system is challenging as it should provide sufficient force to position the fiber with sub-micron accuracy required in positioning the fiber. In this contribution we propose, design and prototype a bare-fiber alignment system which makes use of deflectable/compressible micro-cantilevers. Such cantilevers behave as springs and provide self-centering functionality to the structure. Simulations of the mechanical properties of the cantilevers are carried out in order to get an analytical approximation and a mathematical model of the spring constant and stress in the structure. Elastic constants of the order of 104 to 105N/m are found out to be compatible with a proof stress of 70 MPa. Finally a first self-centering structure is prototyped in PMMA using our Deep Proton Writing technology. The spring constants of the fabricated cantilevers are in the range of 4 to 6 × 104N/m and the stress is in the range 10 to 20 MPa. These self-centering structures have the potential to become the basic building blocks for a new generation of field-installable connectors.

  4. Fiber-optic seismic sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G. W.; Udd, E.

    1985-01-01

    A vibration sensor is constructed by providing two preferably matched coils of fiber-optic material. When the sensor experiences vibration, a differential pressure is exerted on the two fiber coils. The differential pressure results in a variation in the relative optical path lengths between the two fibers so that light beams transmitted through the two fibers are differently delayed, the phase difference therebetween being a detectable indication of the vibration applied to the sensor

  5. Tunable femtosecond Cherenkov fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate electrically-tunable femtosecond Cherenkov fiber laser output at the visible range. Using an all-fiber, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and nonlinear photonic crystal fiber link as the wave-conversion medium, ultrafast, milliwatt-level, tunable...... and spectral isolated Cherenkov radiation at visible wavelengths are reported. Such a femtosecond Cherenkov laser source is promising for practical biophotonics applications....

  6. Optic Fibers as a Broadcasting Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf QARKAXHIJA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fast brodcasting of an information is always a challange from our daily activities. Through fast broadcasting of the information always created pre-eminence in military activities, business, researching, etc. From ancient times we know that information was orally and hand in hand broadcasted which in most of the times casused in loss of information and due to this also in loss of activities which are mentioned above. Due to information technology notably computer networks and internet overtime information started broadcasting faster. Information started broadcasting through copper wires and through wireless. Big applications started to develop with the increased use of Internet, high quality broadcasting (HD, video on demand broadcasting (VoD, triple pay broadcasting (three services on a medium, etc., then these two mediums couldn’t complete all these requests. Therfore after these problems, optic fiber began to be used as a broadcasting medium which eleminated all the defects of other mediums. Importance of this paper work is telling developing stages of optic fiber, it’s characteristics and it’s losses. Then it is shown that which devises enforce the signal of fibers and in the end all three mediums that we mentioned are compared on the basis of attributes. Findings form the paper will only enforce that knowledge we had before about optic fiber, the best broadcasting medium.

  7. Visible high power fiber coupled diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Bernd; Drovs, Simon; Stoiber, Michael; Dürsch, Sascha; Kissel, Heiko; Könning, Tobias; Biesenbach, Jens; König, Harald; Lell, Alfred; Stojetz, Bernhard; Löffler, Andreas; Strauß, Uwe

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we report on further development of fiber coupled high-power diode lasers in the visible spectral range. New visible laser modules presented in this paper include the use of multi single emitter arrays @ 450 nm leading to a 120 W fiber coupled unit with a beam quality of 44 mm x mrad, as well as very compact modules with multi-W output power from 405 nm to 640 nm. However, as these lasers are based on single emitters, power scaling quickly leads to bulky laser units with a lot of optical components to be aligned. We also report on a new approach based on 450 nm diode laser bars, which dramatically reduces size and alignment effort. These activities were performed within the German government-funded project "BlauLas": a maximum output power of 80 W per bar has been demonstrated @ 450 nm. We show results of a 200 μm NA0.22 fiber coupled 35 W source @ 450 nm, which has been reduced in size by a factor of 25 compared to standard single emitter approach. In addition, we will present a 200 μm NA0.22 fiber coupled laser unit with an output power of 135 W.

  8. The CT appearance of the superior intercostal veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, G.

    1982-01-01

    The CT appearance of the superior intercostal veins is described. The veins are more frequently seen on the right side. The right superior intercostal vein should not be misinterpreted as a paraspinal mass when it is large or bulges into the contour of the right lung. A case of stenosis of the left brachiocephalic vein is shown, where the left superior intercostal vein serves as a collateral. (orig.)

  9. Mid-infrared performance of single mode chalcogenide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Justin; Sincore, Alex; Tan, Felix; El Halawany, Ahmed; Riggins, Anthony; Shah, Lawrence; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Richardson, Martin C.; Schepler, Kenneth L.

    2018-02-01

    Due to the intrinsic absorption edge in silica near 2.4 μm, more exotic materials are required to transmit laser power in the IR such as fluoride or chalcogenide glasses (ChGs). In particular, ChG fibers offer broad IR transmission with low losses fibers at four different infrared wavelengths: 2053 nm, 2520 nm and 4550 nm. Polymer clad ChG fibers were drawn with 12.3 μm and 25 μm core diameters. Testing at 2053 nm was accomplished using a > 15 W, CW Tm:fiber laser. Power handling up to 10.2 W with single mode beam quality has been demonstrated, limited only by the available Tm:fiber output power. Anti-reflective coatings were successfully deposited on the ChG fiber facets, allowing up to 90.6% transmission with 12.2 MW/cm2 intensity on the facet. Single mode guidance at 4550 nm was also demonstrated using a quantum cascade laser (QCL). A custom optical system was constructed to efficiently couple the 0.8 NA QCL radiation into the 0.2 NA ChG fiber, allowing for a maximum of 78% overlap between the QCL radiation and fundamental mode of the fiber. With an AR-coated, 25 μm core diameter fiber, >50 mW transmission was demonstrated with > 87% transmission. Finally, we present results on fiber coupling from a free space Cr:ZnSe resonator at 2520 nm.

  10. In-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Libo; Yang, Jun; Liu, Zhihai; Sun, Jiaxing

    2006-09-15

    A novel fiber-optic in-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer has been proposed and demonstrated. It consists of a segment of two-core fiber with a mirrored fiber end. The sensing characteristics based on the two-core fiber bending, corresponding to the shift of the phase of the two-core in-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer, are investigated.

  11. The Orbital Angular Momentum Modes Supporting Fibers Based on the Photonic Crystal Fiber Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The orbital angular momentum (OAM of light can be another physical dimension that we exploit to make multiplexing in the spatial domain. The design of the OAM mode supporting fiber attracts many attentions in the field of the space division multiplexing (SDM system. This paper reviews the recent progresses in photonic crystal fiber (PCF supporting OAM modes, and summarizes why a PCF structure can be used to support stable OAM transmission modes. The emphasis is on the circular PCFs, which possess many excellent features of transmission performance, such as good-quality OAM modes, enough separation of the effective indices, low confinement loss, flat dispersion, a large effective area, and a low nonlinear coefficient. We also compare the transmission properties between the circular PCF and the ring core fiber, as well as the properties between the OAM EDFA based on circular PCF and the OAM EDFA based on the ring core fiber. At last, the challenges and prospects of OAM fibers based on the PCF structure are also discussed.

  12. Transient attenuation in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.A.; Kelly, R.E.; Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Low and high energy pulsed electron beams were used to generate radiation-induced transient attenuation in high-OH, Suprasil core, PCS fibers, demonstrating the energy dependence of the radiation damage and recovery mechanisms. A radiation resistant low-OH fiber was studied and its performance contrasted to that of high-OH materials. Several fibers with differing core compositions were also studied

  13. Fiber Optics and Library Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Michael

    1984-01-01

    This article examines fiber optic technology, explains some of the key terminology, and speculates about the way fiber optics will change our world. Applications of fiber optics to library systems in three major areas--linkage of a number of mainframe computers, local area networks, and main trunk communications--are highlighted. (EJS)

  14. Water-core Fresnel fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martelli, C.; Canning, J.; Lyytikainen, K.; Groothoff, N.

    2005-01-01

    A water core photonic crystal Fresnel fiber exploiting a hole distribution on zone plates of a cylindrical waveguide was developed and characterized. This fiber has similar guiding properties as the pristine air-hole guiding fiber although a large loss edge ~900nm is observed indicating that the

  15. Optical fibers for FTTH application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzowski, Bartlomiej; Tosik, Grzegorz; Lisik, Zbigniew; Bedyk, Michal; Kubiak, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the specifics of FTTH (Fiber To The Home) networks in terms of requirements for optical fibers has been presented. Optical fiber samples used in FTTH applications acquired from the worldwide leading manufacturers were subjected to small diameter mandrel wraps tests. The detailed procedures of performed tests and the measurement results has been presented.

  16. Photonic-crystal fibers gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muse Haider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed to use of a photonic crystal fiber with an inner hollow defect. The use of such fibers is not affected by a material medium on the propagation of optical radiation. Photonic crystal fibers present special properties and capabilities that lead to an outstanding potential for sensing applications

  17. Thermal properties of Fiber ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Nielsen, Ole Wennerberg; Oland, Espen

    There is a trend within the oil and gas market to shift from steel wire ropes to fiber ropes for lifting, hoisting and mooring applications. The cost of fiber ropes is about 2-3 times that of steel wire ropes, but the natural buoyancy of fiber ropes reduces the overall weight resulting in smaller...

  18. Shedding Light on Fiber Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the principles of fiber optics as a medium for light-wave communication. Current uses of fiber systems on college campuses include voice, video, and local area network applications. A group of seven school districts in Minnesota are linked via fiber-optic cables. Other uses are discussed. (MLF)

  19. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Miguel V.

    In this paper we present the main research activities of the Laboratorio de Fibras Opticas del Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales de la Universidad de Valencia. We show some of the main results obtained for devices based on tapered fibers, fiber Bragg gratings, acousto-optic effects and photonic crystal fibers.

  20. Microstructured Fibers: Design and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes

    2006-01-01

    Holey fibers, in which airholes are introduced in the cladding region and extended in the axial direction of the fiber, have been known since the early days of silica waveguide research. Early work demonstrated the first low-loss fibers, which featured very small silica cores held in air by thin...

  1. Illustrative white matter fiber bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.J.G.; Vilanova, A.; Wetering, van de H.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has made feasible the visualization of the fibrous structure of the brain whitematter. In the last decades, several fiber-tracking methods have been developed to reconstruct the fiber tracts fromDTI data. Usually these fiber tracts are shown individually based on some

  2. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: An Infrequent Complication of Scoliosis Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Keskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare condition that causes a proximal small intestinal obstruction due to contraction of the angle between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta. Scoliosis surgery is one of the 15 reasons for superior mesenteric artery syndrome, which can present with acute or chronic manifestations. Although conservative treatment is usually possible, surgical treatment is required in certain cases that cannot be treated using conservative methods. In this paper, we describe a patient who developed superior mesenteric artery syndrome after scoliosis surgery and was treated with duodenojejunostomy due to failure and complications of conservative treatment.

  3. Information Superiority: Outsourcing an Air Force Core Competency?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McTerman, Hugh

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis explores the perceived relationship between the core competency requirements for information superiority and the tasks defined for the Air Force communication, computer, and information career field...

  4. Mechanical and thermal properties of basalt fiber reinforced poly(butylene succinate) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yihe; Yu Chunxiao; Chu, Paul K.; Lv Fengzhu; Zhang Changan; Ji Junhui; Zhang Rui; Wang Heli

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel basalt fiber-reinforced biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) composites have been successfully fabricated with various fiber loadings. ► The tensile and flexural properties of the PBS matrix resin are improved significantly by increasing the fiber loading in the composites. ► The impact strength of the BF/PBS composite decreases with the addition fibers primarily and increases with increasing fiber loading due to energy dissipation when the fibers are pulled out. ► Heat deflection temperature tests clearly show that the HDT of the basalt fiber reinforced PBS composites is significantly higher than the HDT of the PBS resin. - Abstract: Basalt fiber (BF) reinforced poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) composites have been fabricated with different fiber contents by a injection molding method and their tensile, flexural and impact properties, as well as thermal stability have been investigated. The tensile and flexural properties of the PBS matrix resin are improved markedly by increasing the fiber contents in the composites. The values are relatively higher than the natural fiber/PP systems reported earlier by other research groups. The heat deflection temperature (HDT) and Vicat softening temperature (VST) of the composites are significantly higher than those of the neat PBS resin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) conducted on the fracture surfaces of the composites reveals superior interfacial linkage between the basalt fibers and PBS matrix. The results suggest that the BF/PBS composites may be a potential candidate of PP or PP composites to manufacturing some daily commodities to solve the “white pollution” in environmental management.

  5. Polymeric hollow fiber heat exchanger as an automotive radiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krásný, Ivo; Astrouski, Ilya; Raudenský, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Polymeric hollow fiber heat exchanger as an automotive radiator is proposed. • The mechanism of heat transfer (HT) relies on diameter of polymeric hollow fiber. • Grimson equation is sufficient for approximate prediction of the heat transfers. - Abstract: Nowadays, different automotive parts (tubing, covers, manifolds, etc.) are made of plastics because of their superior characteristics, low weight, chemical resistance, reasonable price and several other aspects. Manufacturing technologies are already well-established and the application of plastics is proven. Following this trend, the production of compact and light all-plastic radiators seems reasonable. Two plastic heat exchangers were manufactured based on polypropylene tubes of diameter 0.6 and 0.8 mm (so-called fibers) and tested. The heat transfer performance and pressure drops were studied with hot (60 °C) ethyleneglycol-water brine flowing inside the fibers and air (20 °C) outside because these conditions are conventional for car radiator operation. It was observed that heat transfer rates (up to 10.2 kW), overall heat transfer coefficients (up to 335 W/m"2 K), and pressure drops are competitive to conventional aluminium finned-tube radiators. Moreover, influence of fiber diameter was studied. It was observed that air-side convective coefficients rise with a decrease of fiber diameter. Air-side pressure drops of plastic prototypes were slightly higher than of aluminium radiator but it is expected that additional optimization will eliminate this drawback. Experimentally obtained air-side heat transfer coefficients were compared with the theoretical prediction using the Grimson equation and the Churchill and Bernstein approach. It was found that the Grimson equation is sufficient for approximate prediction of the outer HTCs and can be used for engineering calculations. Further work will concentrate on optimizing and developing a polymeric hollow fiber heat exchanger with reduced size

  6. Fast and Exact Fiber Surfaces for Tetrahedral Meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klacansky, Pavol; Tierny, Julien; Carr, Hamish; Zhao Geng

    2017-07-01

    Isosurfaces are fundamental geometrical objects for the analysis and visualization of volumetric scalar fields. Recent work has generalized them to bivariate volumetric fields with fiber surfaces, the pre-image of polygons in range space. However, the existing algorithm for their computation is approximate, and is limited to closed polygons. Moreover, its runtime performance does not allow instantaneous updates of the fiber surfaces upon user edits of the polygons. Overall, these limitations prevent a reliable and interactive exploration of the space of fiber surfaces. This paper introduces the first algorithm for the exact computation of fiber surfaces in tetrahedral meshes. It assumes no restriction on the topology of the input polygon, handles degenerate cases and better captures sharp features induced by polygon bends. The algorithm also allows visualization of individual fibers on the output surface, better illustrating their relationship with data features in range space. To enable truly interactive exploration sessions, we further improve the runtime performance of this algorithm. In particular, we show that it is trivially parallelizable and that it scales nearly linearly with the number of cores. Further, we study acceleration data-structures both in geometrical domain and range space and we show how to generalize interval trees used in isosurface extraction to fiber surface extraction. Experiments demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm over previous work, both in terms of accuracy and running time, with up to two orders of magnitude speedups. This improvement enables interactive edits of range polygons with instantaneous updates of the fiber surface for exploration purpose. A VTK-based reference implementation is provided as additional material to reproduce our results.

  7. The dentate mossy fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Morten; Zimmer, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Hippocampal mossy fibers are the axons of the dentate granule cells and project to hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and mossy cells of the dentate hilus (CA4) as well as a number of interneurons in the two areas. Besides their role in hippocampal function, studies of which are still evolving...

  8. Optical Fiber Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    F&S Inc. developed and commercialized fiber optic and microelectromechanical systems- (MEMS) based instrumentation for harsh environments encountered in the aerospace industry. The NASA SBIR programs have provided F&S the funds and the technology to develop ruggedized coatings and coating techniques that are applied during the optical fiber draw process. The F&S optical fiber fabrication facility and developed coating methods enable F&S to manufacture specialty optical fiber with custom designed refractive index profiles and protective or active coatings. F&S has demonstrated sputtered coatings using metals and ceramics and combinations of each, and has also developed techniques to apply thin coatings of specialized polyimides formulated at NASA Langley Research Center. With these capabilities, F&S has produced cost-effective, reliable instrumentation and sensors capable of withstanding temperatures up to 800? C and continues building commercial sales with corporate partners and private funding. More recently, F&S has adapted the same sensing platforms to provide the rapid detection and identification of chemical and biological agents

  9. Optical Fiber Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of work done on NASA Grant NAG-1-443. The work covers the period from July 1, 1992 to December 1, 1998. During this period several distinct but related research studies and work tasks were undertaken. These different subjects are enumerated below with a description of the work done on each of them. The focus of the research was the development of optical fibers for use as distributed temperature and stress sensors. The initial concept was to utilize the utilize the temperature and stress dependence of emission from rare earth and transition metal ions substitutionally doped into crystalline or glass fibers. During the course of investigating this it became clear that fiber Bragg gratings provided a alternative for making the desired measurements and there was a shift of research focus on to include the photo-refractive properties of germano-silicate glasses used for most gratings and to the possibility of developing fiber laser sources for an integrated optical sensor in the research effort. During the course of this work several students from Christopher Newport University and other universities participated in this effort. Their names are listed below. Their participation was an important part of their education.

  10. Fiber and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meals instead of white rice. Add beans (kidney, black, navy, and pinto) to rice dishes for even more fiber. Spice up salads with berries and almonds, chickpeas, artichoke hearts, and beans (kidney, black, navy, or pinto). Use whole-grain (corn or ...

  11. Quality assessment of noodles made from blends of rice flour and canna starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandee, Yuree; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Puncha-arnon, Santhanee; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Rungsardthong, Vilai; Wetprasit, Nuanchawee

    2015-07-15

    Canna starch and its derivatives (retrograded, retrograded debranched, and cross-linked) were evaluated for their suitability to be used as prebiotic sources in a rice noodle product. Twenty percent of the rice flour was replaced with these tested starches, and the noodles obtained were analyzed for morphology, cooking qualities, textural properties, and capability of producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Cross-linked canna starch could increase tensile strength and elongation of rice noodles. Total dietary fiber (TDF) content of noodles made from rice flour was 3.0% and increased to 5.1% and 7.3% when rice flour was replaced with retrograded and retrograded debranched starches, respectively. Cooking qualities and textural properties of noodles containing 20% retrograded debranched starch were mostly comparable, while the capability of producing SCFAs and butyric acid was superior to the control rice noodles; the cooked noodle strips also showed fewer tendencies to stick together. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Polymer-Derived Ceramic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    SiC-based ceramic fibers are derived from polycarbosilane or polymetallocarbosilane precursors and are classified into three groups according to their chemical composition, oxygen content, and C/Si atomic ratio. The first-generation fibers are Si-C-O (Nicalon) fibers and Si-Ti-C-O (Tyranno Lox M) fibers. Both fibers contain more than 10-wt% oxygen owing to oxidation during curing and lead to degradation in strength at temperatures exceeding 1,300°C. The maximum use temperature is 1,100°C. The second-generation fibers are SiC (Hi-Nicalon) fibers and Si-Zr-C-O (Tyranno ZMI) fibers. The oxygen content of these fibers is reduced to less than 1 wt% by electron beam irradiation curing in He. The thermal stability of these fibers is improved (they are stable up to 1,500°C), but their creep resistance is limited to a maximum of 1,150°C because their C/Si atomic ratio results in excess carbon. The third-generation fibers are stoichiometric SiC fibers, i.e., Hi-Nicalon Type S (hereafter Type S), Tyranno SA, and Sylramic™ fibers. They exhibit improved thermal stability and creep resistance up to 1,400°C. Stoichiometric SiC fibers meet many of the requirements for the use of ceramic matrix composites for high-temperature structural application. SiBN3C fibers derived from polyborosilazane also show promise for structural applications, remain in the amorphous state up to 1,800°C, and have good high-temperature creep resistance.

  13. Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Lin, Kan; Zheng, Wei; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-06-23

    This study aims to assess the clinical utility of a rapid fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy technique developed for enhancing in vivo diagnosis of gastric precancer during endoscopic examination. We have developed a real-time fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy system capable of simultaneously acquiring both fingerprint (FP) (i.e., 800-1800 cm(-1)) and high-wavenumber (HW) (i.e., 2800-3600 cm(-1)) Raman spectra from gastric tissue in vivo at endoscopy. A total of 5792 high-quality in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra (normal (n = 5160); dysplasia (n = 155), and adenocarcinoma (n = 477)) were acquired in real-time from 441 tissue sites (normal (n = 396); dysplasia (n = 11), and adenocarcinoma (n = 34)) of 191 gastric patients (normal (n = 172); dysplasia (n = 6), and adenocarcinoma (n = 13)) undergoing routine endoscopic examinations. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) together with leave-one-patient-out cross validation (LOPCV) were implemented to develop robust spectral diagnostic models. The FP/HW Raman spectra differ significantly between normal, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma of the stomach, which can be attributed to changes in proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and the bound water content. PLS-DA and LOPCV show that the fiber-optic FP/HW Raman spectroscopy provides diagnostic sensitivities of 96.0%, 81.8% and 88.2%, and specificities of 86.7%, 95.3% and 95.6%, respectively, for the classification of normal, dysplastic and cancerous gastric tissue, superior to either the FP or HW Raman techniques alone. Further dichotomous PLS-DA analysis yields a sensitivity of 90.9% (10/11) and specificity of 95.9% (380/396) for the detection of gastric dysplasia using FP/HW Raman spectroscopy, substantiating its clinical advantages over white light reflectance endoscopy (sensitivity: 90.9% (10/11), and specificity: 51.0% (202/396)). This work demonstrates that the fiber-optic FP/HW Raman spectroscopy technique has great promise for enhancing in vivo diagnosis of gastric

  14. Improved Optical Fiber Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Calculations, based on exact theory of optical fiber, have shown how to increase optical efficiency sensitivity of active-core, step-index-profile optical-fiber fluorosensor. Calculations result of efforts to improve efficiency of optical-fiber chemical sensor of previous concept described in "Making Optical-Fiber Chemical Sensors More Sensitive" (LAR-14525). Optical fiber chemical detector of enhanced sensitivity made in several configurations. Portion of fluorescence or chemiluminescence generated in core, and launched directly into bound electromagnetic modes that propagate along core to photodetector.

  15. Solid fiber Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1989-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic computations have been performed to study the behavior of solid deuterium fiber Z-pinch experiments performed at Los Alamos and the Naval Research Laboratory. The computations use a tabulated atomic data base and ''cold-start'' initial conditions. The computations predict that the solid fiber persists longer in existing experiments than previously expected and that the discharge actually consists of a relatively low-density, hot plasma which has been ablated from the fiber. The computations exhibit m = 0 behavior in the hot, exterior plasma prior to complete ablation of the solid fiber. The m = 0 behavior enhances the fiber ablation rate. 10 refs., 5 figs

  16. Introduction to optical fiber sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moukdad, S.

    1991-01-01

    Optical fiber sensors have many advantages over other types of sensors, for example: Low weight, immunity from EMI, electrical isolation, chemical passivity, and high sensitivity. In this seminar, a brief explanation of the optical fiber sensors, their use, and their advantages will be given. After, a description of the main optical fiber sensor components will be presented. Principles of some kinds of optical fiber sensors will be presented, and the principle of the fiber-optic rotation sensor and its realization will be discussed in some details, as well as its main applications. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Mechanical properties of self-compacted fiber concrete mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir M. Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased productivity and improved working environment have had high priority in the development of concrete construction over the last decade. The major impact of the introduction of self-compacting concrete (SCC is connected to the production process. The productivity is drastically improved through the elimination of vibration compaction and process reorganization. The working environment is significantly enhanced through avoidance of vibration induced damages, reduced noise and improved safety. Additionally, SCC technology has improved the performance in terms of hardened concrete properties like surface quality, strength and durability. The main objective of this research was to determine the optimum content of fibers (steel and polypropylene fibers used in SCC. The effect of different fibers on the fresh and hardened properties was studied. An experimental investigation on the mechanical properties, including compressive strength, flexural strength and impact strength of fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete was performed. The results of the investigation showed that: the optimum dosage of steel and polypropylene fiber was 0.75% and 1.0% of the cement content, respectively. The impact performance was also improved due to the use of fibers. The control mix specimen failed suddenly in flexure and impact, the counterpart specimens contain fibers failed in a ductile manner, and failure was accompanied by several cracks.

  18. Carbon nano tubes embedded in polymer nano fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dror, Y.; Kedem, S.; Khalfin, R.L.; Paz, Y.; Cohenl, Y.; Salalha, Y.; Yarin, A.L.; Zussman, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text: The electro spinning process was used successfully to embed Multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) and single-walled carbon nano tubes (SWCNTs) in a matrix of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) forming composite nano fibers. Initial dispersion of SWCNTs in water was achieved by the use of an amphphilic alternating copolymer of styrene and sodium maleate. MWNT dispersion was achieved by ionic and nonionic surfactants. The distribution and conformation of the nano tubes in the nano fibers were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Oxygen plasma etching was used to expose the nano tubes within the nano fibers to facilitate direct observation. Nano tube alignment within the nano fibers was shown to depend strongly on the quality of the initial dispersions. Well-dispersed and separated nano tubes were embedded in a straight and aligned form while entangled non-separated nano tubes were incorporated as dense aggregates. X-ray diffraction demonstrated a high degree of orientation of the PEO crystals in the electro spun nano fibers with embedded SWCNTs, whereas incorporation of MVCNTs had a detrimental effect on the polymer orientation. Composite polymer nano fibers containing dispersed phases of nanometric TiO 2 particles and MWCNTs were also prepared electro spinning. In this case, the polymer matrix was poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN). The morphology and possible applications of these composite nano fibers will be discussed

  19. Fast processing of foreign fiber images by image blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the textile industry, it is always the case that cotton products are constitutive of many types of foreign fibers which affect the overall quality of cotton products. As the foundation of the foreign fiber automated inspection, image process exerts a critical impact on the process of foreign fiber identification. This paper presents a new approach for the fast processing of foreign fiber images. This approach includes five main steps, image block, image pre-decision, image background extraction, image enhancement and segmentation, and image connection. At first, the captured color images were transformed into gray-scale images; followed by the inversion of gray-scale of the transformed images ; then the whole image was divided into several blocks. Thereafter, the subsequent step is to judge which image block contains the target foreign fiber image through image pre-decision. Then we segment the image block via OSTU which possibly contains target images after background eradication and image strengthening. Finally, we connect those relevant segmented image blocks to get an intact and clear foreign fiber target image. The experimental result shows that this method of segmentation has the advantage of accuracy and speed over the other segmentation methods. On the other hand, this method also connects the target image that produce fractures therefore getting an intact and clear foreign fiber target image.

  20. Connections of the superior paraolivary nucleus of the rat: II. Reciprocal connections with the tectal longitudinal column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eViñuela

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON, a prominent GABAergic center of the mammalian auditory brainstem, projects to the ipsilateral inferior colliculus (IC and sends axons through the commissure of the IC (CoIC. Herein we demonstrate that the SPON is reciprocally connected with the recently discovered tectal longitudinal column (TLC. The TLC is a long and narrow structure that spans nearly the entire midbrain tectum longitudinally, immediately above the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG and very close to the midline.Unilateral injections of biotinylated dextran into the SPON of the rat label abundant terminal fibers in the TLC of both sides, with an ipsilateral predominance. The SPON provides a dense innervation of the entire rostrocaudal extent of the ipsilateral TLC, and a relatively sparser innervation of the caudal and rostral portions of the contralateral TLC. SPON fibers reach the TLC by two routes: as collaterals of axons of the CoIC, and as axons that circumvent the ipsilateral IC before traveling in the deep layers of the superior colliculus.The density of these projections identifies SPON as a significant source of input to the TLC. Other targets of the SPON discovered in this study include the deep layers of the superior colliculus and the PAG. The same experiments reveal numerous labeled cell bodies in the TLC, interspersed among the labeled SPON fibers. This observation suggests that the SPON is a significant target of TLC projections.The discovery of novel reciprocal connections between the SPON and the TLC opens unexpected avenues for investigation of sound processing in mammalian brainstem circuits.

  1. Bonding Properties of Basalt Fiber and Strength Reduction According to Fiber Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jeong-Il; Lee, Bang

    2015-01-01

    The basalt fiber is a promising reinforcing fiber because it has a relatively higher tensile strength and a density similar to that of a concrete matrix as well as no corrosion possibility. This study investigated experimentally the bonding properties of basalt fiber with cementitious material as well as the effect of fiber orientation on the tensile strength of basalt fiber for evaluating basalt fiber?s suitability as a reinforcing fiber. Single fiber pullout tests were performed and then th...

  2. Fiber optics: A brief introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruchalla, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    A basic introduction into the principles of fiber optics is presented. A review of both the underlying physical principles and the individual elements of typical fiber-optic systems are presented. The optical phenomenon of total internal reflection is reviewed. The basic construction of the optical fiber is presented. Both step-index and graded-index fiber designs are reviewed. Multimode and single-mode fiber constructions are considered and typical performance parameters given. Typical optical-fiber bandwidth and loss characteristics are compared to various common coaxial cables, waveguides, and air transmission. The constructions of optical-fiber cables are reviewed. Both loose-tube and tightly-buffered designs are considered. Several optical connection approaches are presented. Photographs of several representative optical connectors are included. Light Emitting Diode and Laser Diode emitters for fiber-optic applications are reviewed, and some advantages and shortcomings of each are considered. The phenomenon of modal noise is briefly explained. Both PIN and Avalanche photodetectors are reviewed and their performance parameters compared. Methods of data transmission over optical fiber are introduced. Principles of Wavelength, Frequency, and Time Division Multiplexing are briefly presented. The technology of fiber-optic sensors is briefly reviewed with basic principles introduced. The performance of a fiber-optic strain sensor is included as a practical example. 7 refs., 10 figs

  3. All-Fiber Raman Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara

    by means of fiber components. Assuming the possibility to use a fiber laser with a fundamental radiation at 1064nm, in-fiber efficient second harmonic generation is achieved by optically poling the core of the waveguide delivering the excitation light to the sample. In this way, Raman spectroscopy...... in the visible range can be performed. The simultaneous delivery of the excitation light and collection of the Raman signal from the sample are achieved by means of a doubleclad fiber, whose core and inner cladding act as \\independent" transmission channels. A double-clad fiber coupler allows for the recovery...... of the collected Raman scattering from the inner-cladding region of the double-clad fiber, thus replacing the bulk dichroic component normally used to demultiplex the pump and Raman signal. A tunable Rayleigh-rejection filter based on a liquid filled-photonic bandgap fiber is also demonstrated in this work...

  4. Fiber-Reinforced Origamic Robotic Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Juan; Chen, Xiaojiao; Song, Chaoyang; Wang, Zheng

    2018-02-01

    A novel pneumatic soft linear actuator Fiber-reinforced Origamic Robotic Actuator (FORA) is proposed with significant improvements on the popular McKibben-type actuators, offering nearly doubled motion range, substantially improved force profile, and significantly lower actuation pressure. The desirable feature set is made possible by a novel soft origamic chamber that expands radially while contracts axially when pressurized. Combining this new origamic chamber with a reinforcing fiber mesh, FORA generates very high traction force (over 150N) and very large contractile motion (over 50%) at very low input pressure (100 kPa). We developed quasi-static analytical models both to characterize the motion and forces and as guidelines for actuator design. Fabrication of FORA mostly involves consumer-grade three-dimensional (3D) printing. We provide a detailed list of materials and dimensions. Fabricated FORAs were tested on a dedicated platform against commercially available pneumatic artificial muscles from Shadow and Festo to showcase its superior performances and validate the analytical models with very good agreements. Finally, a robotic joint was developed driven by two antagonistic FORAs, to showcase the benefits of the performance improvements. With its simple structure, fully characterized mechanism, easy fabrication procedure, and highly desirable performance, FORA could be easily customized to application requirements and fabricated by anyone with access to a 3D printer. This will pave the way to the wider adaptation and application of soft robotic systems.

  5. Nano-Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmes, Edmund B.; Frances, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Closed cell polyurethane and, particularly, polyisocyanurate foams are a large family of flexible and rigid products the result of a reactive two part process wherein a urethane based polyol is combined with a foaming or "blowing" agent to create a cellular solid at room temperature. The ratio of reactive components, the constituency of the base materials, temperature, humidity, molding, pouring, spraying and many other processing techniques vary greatly. However, there is no known process for incorporating reinforcing fibers small enough to be integrally dispersed within the cell walls resulting in superior final products. The key differentiating aspect from the current state of art resides in the many processing technologies to be fully developed from the novel concept of milled nano pulp aramid fibers and their enabling entanglement capability fully enclosed within the cell walls of these closed cell urethane foams. The authors present the results of research and development of reinforced foam processing, equipment development, strength characteristics and the evolution of its many applications.

  6. Value-added products from chicken feather fiber and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiuling

    Worldwide poultry consumption has generated a huge amount of feather "waste" annually. Currently, the feather has a low value-being used for animal feed in the world. The quality of fibrous air filters depend on their main component, fibers. The main physical structure of chicken feathers is barbs which can be used directly as fibers. They have small diameter, which makes them a good choice for air filtration. The main chemical structure of chicken feathers is structural fibrous protein, keratin. Therefore, chicken feathers could potentially be used for protein fiber production. To obtain chicken feather fibers, barbs were stripped from the quills by a stripping device and separated with a blender. Some feather fibers were entangled with polyester staple fibers, and needlepunched to form a nonwoven fabric. Some feather fibers were blended with CelBond(TM) bi-component polyester as binder fibers, and pressed between two hot plates to produce thermobonded nonwovens. Whole chicken feathers were ground into powder and their keratin was reduced in water. The reduced keratin was salt precipitated, dried and dissolved in ionic liquid with/without bleach cotton. The reduced chicken feather keratin ionic liquid solutions were spun into regenerated fibers through dry-jet wet spinning. The needlepunched and thermobonded nonwovens were tested for filtration and other properties. With an increase of areal density and feather fiber composition, the air permeability of the needlepunched nonwovens decreased, and their filtration efficiency and pressure drop both increased. The case can be made that feather fibers gave fabrics better filtration at the same fabric weight, but at the expense of air permeability and pressure drop. The scrim and needlepunching process improved the filtration efficiency. Their strength depended on scrim. The hot-press process was very simple. The thermobonded nonwovens had very high air permeability. In them, there was also an inverse relation between

  7. Survey of Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Anisometropic and Strabismic Amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Soltani Moghaddam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available . To investigate the effect of anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia on the nerve fiber layer thickness. This cross-sectional study was done on 54 amblyopic subjects, equally in both strabismic and anisometropic groups. The thickness otonerve fiber layer measured in superior, inferior, nasal, temporal quadrants and as a whole in both eyes of both groups. The means of thickness were compared in amblyopic and sound eyes. In strabismus group, the average nerve fiber layer thickness of the sound eye , in superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants and as a whole were 113.23±14, 117.37±25, 68.96±6, 69.55±14 and 93.40±8 microns respectively. In amblyopic eyes of the same group, these measurements were 103.11±18, 67.74±11, and 69.59±16 and 89.59±12 microns in superior, inferior, nasal, temporal quadrants and as whole respectively. In anisometropic groups, the sound eye measurements were as 130.96±22, 129.07±29, 80.62±12, and 83.88±20 and 107.7±13 microns in superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants and as a whole orderly. In amblyopic eyes of this group the mean thicknesses were 115.63±29, 133.15±25, 78.8±15, 80.2±16 and 109.17±21 microns in superior, inferior, nasal, temporal quadrants and as a whole respectively. Statistically, there were no significant differences between amblyopic and sound eyes (P>0.5. Our study did not support any significant change in a nerve fiber layer thickness of amblyopic patients; however, decreased thickness in superior and nasal quadrants of strabismic amblyopia and except inferior quadrant and as a whole. These measurements may be a clue for management and prognosis of amblyopia in old age.

  8. Effect of dietary fibers on physico-chemical, sensory and textural properties of Misti Dahi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P Narender; Pal, Dharam

    2014-11-01

    Misti dahi, a popular ethnic delicacy of eastern India analogous to caramel coloured set style sweetened yoghurt, besides several therapeutic virtues, contains high fat and sugar. Alike people elsewhere in the world, people in India too are now becoming health conscious and are aware of the relation between diet and health. Hence, high fat and sugar contents are causes of concern for the successful marketing of misti dahi in India. With a view to enhance the health attributes of misti dahi and improve marketability, three commercial dietary fiber preparations (inulin, soy fiber and oat fiber) were incorporated and their effect on the product's quality in terms of physicochemical, sensory and textural quality was assessed. Standard method was followed for the preparation of fiber fortified misti dahi (FFMD). Among the three dietary fibers, inulin significantly decreased viscosity and instrumental firmness and increased lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), syneresis and work of shear values of FFMD. Oat fiber settled at the bottom and gave a poor appearance. Soy fiber did not affect the flavor of FFMD. Although overall acceptability scores of inulin and soy fiber containing FFMD were significantly lower than control, they were still above the minimum acceptable score. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it was concluded that acceptable quality FFMD could be prepared using inulin and soy fiber at 1.5 % level of fortification.

  9. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: a rare complication of nephrotic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullu M

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A two and half year-old-male child, known case of steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome presented with fever and vomiting of acute onset. He was diagnosed to have superior sagittal sinus thrombosis on a contrast computerised tomographic scan of brain. Recovery was complete without anticoagulant therapy. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is an extremely rare complication of nephrotic syndrome.

  10. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome: case report | Jani | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome (SMAS) is caused by trapping of the third part of the duodenum between Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) and aorta as result of narrowing of the angle between the two vessels due to acute loss of mesenteric fat which is secondary to rapid weight loss. A fifteen year old caucasian ...

  11. Aging and the Picture Superiority Effect in Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Eugene; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect. One experiment found an interaction between age and type of material. In other experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. Performing a semantic-orienting task had no effect on recall. (Author/RC)

  12. Superior dislocation hip with anterior column acetabular fracture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Superior variety of anterior dislocation of the hip is a rare injury. Its occurrence with acetabular fractures has been documented infrequently. We report a case of superior dislocation of the hip with anterior column acetabular fracture. Open reduction of the hip and internal fixation of the fracture was carried out using a twin ...

  13. The Development of the Picture-Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    When pictures and words are presented serially in an explicit memory task, recall of the pictures is superior. While this effect is well established in the adult population, little is known of the development of this picture-superiority effect in typical development. This task was administered to 80 participants from middle childhood to…

  14. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ORGANIZATION STAFF ASSIGNMENTS AND REVIEW OF ACTION UNDER ASSIGNMENTS General Provisions § 385.7 Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... be made, severally, to each such staff member's respective superiors. In accordance with the...

  15. Fatal pericardial tamponade after superior vena cava stenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegmakers, M.J.M.; Rutten, M.J.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a fatal complication of percutaneous superior vena cava (SVC) self-expandable stent placement in a patient with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). The SVCS was caused by a malignant mediastinal mass with total occlusion of the SVC. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, the patient died

  16. Superior vena cava obstruction caused by radiation induced venous fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putten, JWG; Schlosser, NJJ; Vujaskovic, Z; Van der Leest, AHD; Groen, HJM

    Superior vena cava syndrome is most often caused by lung carcinoma. Two cases are described in whom venous obstruction in the superior mediastinum was caused by local vascular fibrosis due to radiotherapy five and seven years earlier. The development of radiation injury to greater vessels is

  17. Two novel plasma diagnostic tools: fiber sensors and phase conjugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoda, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    A rapidly developing technology (single-mode optical fiber sensors) and recent fundamental research in nonlinear optics (phase conjugation) both offer opportunities for novel plasma diagnostics. Single-mode fiber sensors can replace electrical wire probes for current and magnetic field measurements with advantages in voltage insulation requirements, electromagnetic noise immunity, much greater bandwidth, and some configuration flexibility. Faraday rotation measurements through fibers wound on the ZT-40M RFP have demonstrated quantitative results, but competing linear birefringence effects still hinder independent interpretation. Twisted fiber may solve this problem. Optical phase conjugation (in which a phase reversed copy of a laser beam is generated) allows real time distortion corrections in laser diagnostics. Self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO 3 improves the quality of phase conjugation imagery and greatly simplifies experimentation directed toward plasma diagnostics. Our initial applications are a) time-differential refractometry with high spatial resolution and b) intracavity absorption Zeeman spectroscopy

  18. Effect of Hybrid Fibers on the Mechanical Properties of High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid H. Hussein, Saeed K. Rejeb Hayder T. Abd

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high strength concrete of 75 MPa compressive strength was investigated. The experimental program was designed to study the effect of fibers and hybrid fibers (steel and polypropylene fibers on the fresh (workability and wet density and hardened properties (compressive strength, splitting strength, flexural strength and dry density of high strength concrete. Results show that decreases in slump flow of all concrete mixtures containing steel, polypropylene and hybrid fibers compared with control mix (0% fiber. Hybrid high strength concrete with steel and polypropylene fibers showed superior compressive, splitting, flexural strengths over the others concrete without or with single fibers content. The test results indicate that the maximum increase in compressive and flexural strengths are obtains with the hybridization ratio (70%steel + 30% polypropylene and were equal to 14.54% and 23.34% respectively, compared with the control mix. While, the maximum increase in splitting tensile strength with (100% steel fiber + 0 polypropylene is 21.19%. 

  19. Mechanical Properties of Domestic T700 Grade Carbon Fibers/QY9611 BMI Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Guoli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The morphologies,surface energies and surface chemical properties of the domestic T700 grade carbon fiber and the T700S carbon fiber were characterized by using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, inverse gas chromatography(IGC and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPSrespectively.The mechanical properties of the two carbon fibers/QY9611 composites were also discussed. The results indicate that the surface properties of carbon fibers have an important influence on the interfacial properties of composites. The interfacial properties of domestic T700 grade carbon fibers/QY9611 composite at room temperature/dry conditions are superior to T700S/QY9611 composite. The toughness of domestic T700 grade carbon fibers/QY9611composite is outstanding as well. The value of CAI has reached the level of foreign advanced composite IM7/5250-4. After hydrothermal treatment,the interfacial strength of domestic T700 grade carbon fibers/QY9611 composite is equal to that of T700S/QY9611 composite. It shows that domestic T700 grade carbon fibers/QY9611 composite has good hydrothermal-resistant properties.

  20. Tracing of single fibers of the nervus terminalis in the goldfish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bartheld, C S; Meyer, D L

    1986-01-01

    Central projections of the nervus terminalis (n.t.) in the goldfish were investigated using cobalt- and horseradish peroxidase-tracing techniques. Single n.t. fibers were identified after unilateral application of cobalt chloride-lysine to the rostral olfactory bulb. The central course and branching patterns of individual n.t. fibers were studied in serial sections. Eight types of n.t. fibers are differentiated according to pathways and projection patterns. Projection areas of the n.t. include the contralateral olfactory bulb, the ipsilateral periventricular preoptic nucleus, both retinae, the caudal zone of the periventricular hypothalamus bilaterally, and the rostral optic tectum bilaterally. N.t. fibers cross to contralateral targets in the anterior commissure, the optic chiasma, the horizontal commissure, the posterior commissure, and possibly the habenular commissure. We propose criteria that differentiate central n.t. fibers from those of the classical secondary olfactory projections. Branching patterns of eight n.t. fiber types are described. Mesencephalic projections of the n.t. and of secondary olfactory fibers are compared and discussed with regard to prior reports on the olfactory system of teleosts. Further fiber types for which the association with the n.t. could not be established with certainty were traced to the torus longitudinalis, the torus semicircularis, and to the superior reticular nucleus on the ipsilateral side.